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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One) 
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 28, 2023
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
Commission File Number 1-6049
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TARGET CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Minnesota
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
1000 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, Minnesota
(Address of principal executive offices)

41-0215170
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
55403
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (612) 304-6073
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.0833 per shareTGTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
  Accelerated filer
o
 Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
o
Emerging growth company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No  
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of July 29, 2022, was $75,322,105,637 based on the closing price of $163.38 per share of common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
Total shares of common stock, par value $0.0833, outstanding as of March 2, 2023, were 460,363,991.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Target's Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on June 14, 2023, are incorporated into Part III.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
1

BUSINESS
PART I
Item 1.    Business

General

Target Corporation (Target, the Corporation, or the Company) was incorporated in Minnesota in 1902. Our corporate purpose is to help all families discover the joy of everyday life. We offer to our customers, referred to as "guests," everyday essentials and fashionable, differentiated merchandise at discounted prices. We operate as a single segment designed to enable guests to purchase products seamlessly in stores or through our digital channels. Since 1946, we have given 5 percent of our profit to communities.

Strategy

Our team, technology, and operations enable us to serve guests, fulfill our purpose, and drive business results through a durable, growth-focused enterprise strategy that differentiates Target in the marketplace. The six pillars of our strategy are:

Differentiating from our competition with our assortment of unique owned brands and curated leading national brands;
Investing to create an engaging, convenient, safe, and differentiated shopping experience for our guests;
Leveraging our stores as fulfillment hubs to efficiently meet our guests' needs, whether they purchase online or in-store;
Engaging with our guests through programs like Target Circle and RedCard to maintain and enhance our relevancy;
Delivering affordability to our guests; and
Leveraging our size and scale to benefit people, the planet, and our business, primarily through Target Forward, our enterprise sustainability strategy.

Our recent growth in sales demonstrates the strength and relevance of Target’s strategy. Our strategy places stores at the center of our flexible fulfillment approach, with stores fulfilling more than 96 percent of total sales, which provides convenience for our guests at a reduced fulfillment cost.

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TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
2

BUSINESS
Sales by Fulfillment Channel
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Financial Highlights

For information on key financial highlights, see Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A).

Seasonality

A larger share of annual revenues traditionally occurs in the fourth quarter because it includes the November and December holiday sales period.

Merchandise

The majority of our stores offer a wide assortment of general merchandise and food. Nearly all of our stores larger than 170,000 square feet offer a variety of general merchandise and a full line of food items comparable to traditional supermarkets. Our digital channels include a wide merchandise and food assortment, including many items found in our stores, along with a complementary assortment sold by Target and third parties. We manage our business across the five core merchandise categories shown below. Within categories, gross margins vary depending on the type of merchandise.

Sales by Merchandise Category
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TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
3

BUSINESS


A significant portion of our sales is from national brand merchandise. Approximately one-third of our sales come from our owned and exclusive brands, including, but not limited to, the brands listed below.

Owned Brands 
A New Day™Goodfellow & Co™Room Essentials™
All in Motion™Hearth & Hand™ with MagnoliaShade & Shore™
Art Class™Heyday™Smartly™
Auden™Hyde & EEK! Boutique™Smith & Hawken™
Ava & Viv™JoyLab™Sonia Kashuk™
Boots & Barkley™Kindfull™Spritz™
Brightroom™Knox Rose™Stars Above™
Bullseye's Playground™Kona Sol™Sun Squad™
Casaluna™Made By Design™Threshold™
Cat & Jack™Market Pantry™Universal Thread™
Cloud Island™Mondo Llama™up & up™
Colsie™More Than Magic™Wild Fable™
Embark™Opalhouse™Wondershop™
Everspring™Open Story™Xhilaration™
Favorite Day™Original Use™
Future Collective™Pillowfort™
Good & Gather™Project 62™
Exclusive Adult Beverage Brands  
California Roots™Jingle & Mingle™SunPop™
Casa Cantina™Photograph™The Collection™
Headliner™Rosé Bae™Wine Cube™

We also sell merchandise through periodic exclusive design and creative partnerships, and shop-in-shop experiences, with partners such as Apple, Disney, Levi's, and Ulta Beauty, and generate revenue from in-store amenities such as Starbucks, Target Café, and Target Optical. CVS Pharmacy, Inc. (CVS) operates pharmacies and clinics in our stores under a perpetual operating agreement from which we generate annual occupancy income.

Customer Loyalty Programs

Our guests receive a 5 percent discount on nearly all purchases and receive free shipping at Target.com when they use their Target Debit Card, RedCard Reloadable Account, Target Credit Card, or Target MasterCard® (collectively, RedCards™). We also seek to drive customer loyalty and trip frequency through our Target Circle program, where members earn 1 percent rewards on nearly all non-RedCard purchases, among other benefits.

Distribution

The vast majority of merchandise is distributed to our stores through our network of distribution centers. Common carriers ship merchandise to and from our distribution centers. Vendors or third-party distributors ship certain food items and other merchandise directly to our stores. Merchandise sold through our digital channels is distributed to our guests through guest pick-up at our stores, via common carriers (from stores, distribution centers, vendors, and third-party distributors), and delivery via our wholly owned subsidiary, Shipt, Inc. (Shipt). Our stores fulfill the majority of the digitally originated sales, which allows improved product availability, faster fulfillment times, reduced shipping costs, and allows us to offer guests a suite of same-day fulfillment options such as Order Pickup, Drive Up, and Shipt.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
4

BUSINESS
Human Capital Management

In support of our purpose—to help all families discover the joy of everyday life—we invest in our team, our most important asset, by giving them opportunities to grow professionally, take care of themselves, each other, and their families, and to make a difference for our guests and our communities. We are among the largest private employers in the United States (U.S.), and our workforce has varying goals and expectations of their employment relationship, from team members looking to build a career to students, retirees, and others who are seeking to supplement their income in an enjoyable atmosphere. We seek to be an employer of choice to attract and retain top talent no matter their objectives in seeking employment. To that end, we strive to foster an engaged, diverse, inclusive, safe, purpose-driven culture where employees, referred to as "team members," have equitable opportunities for success.

As of January 28, 2023, we employed approximately 440,000 full-time, part-time, and seasonal team members. Because of the seasonal nature of the retail business, employment levels peak in the holiday season. We also engage independent contractors, most notably in our Shipt subsidiary.

Our Board of Directors, through the Compensation and Human Capital Management Committee, oversees human capital management matters.

Talent Development and Engagement

We offer a compelling work environment with meaningful experiences and abundant growth and career-development opportunities. This starts with the opportunity to do challenging work and learn on the job and is supplemented by programs and continuous learning that help our team build skills at all levels, including programs focused on specialized skill development, leadership opportunities, coaching, and mentoring. Our talent and succession planning process supports the development of a diverse talent pipeline for leadership and other critical roles. We monitor our team members’ perceptions of these commitments through a number of surveys and take steps to address areas needing improvement.

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DE&I)

We embrace diversity and strive to give our team members equitable access to opportunities. We champion workplace diversity and an inclusive work environment with a focus on attracting, engaging, developing, and advancing team members equitably in order to reflect the guests and communities we serve. We monitor the representation of women and racially or ethnically diverse team members at different levels throughout the company and disclose the composition of our team in our annual Workforce Diversity Report and EEO-1 report. We set company-wide DE&I goals to drive progress in these areas. Developing environments where all team members feel seen, heard, and welcome to belong is part of Target's core value of inclusivity and is fundamental to creating an inclusive guest experience.

Compensation and Benefits

Our compensation and benefits are designed to support the financial, mental, and physical well-being of our team members and their families. We believe in paying team members equitably, regardless of gender, race, or ethnicity, and we regularly review the pay data of U.S. team members to confirm that we are doing so. Our compensation packages include a starting wage range of $15 to $24 per hour for U.S. hourly team members in our stores and supply chain facilities (who comprise the vast majority of our team), a 401(k) plan with dollar-for-dollar matching contributions up to five percent of eligible earnings, paid vacation and holidays, family leave, merchandise and other discounts, disability insurance, life insurance, healthcare and dependent care flexible spending accounts, debt-free education assistance and tuition reimbursement, free mental health services, an annual short-term incentive program, long-term equity awards, and health insurance benefits, including free virtual health care visits. Eligibility for, and the level of, benefits vary depending on team members’ full-time or part-time status, work location, compensation level, and tenure.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
5

BUSINESS
Workplace Health and Safety

We strive to maintain a safe and secure work environment and have specific safety programs. This includes administering a comprehensive occupational injury- and illness-prevention program and training for team members.

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, we continued to invest in the well-being, health, and safety of our team members with a variety of mental, emotional, and physical wellness resources. We also enacted dozens of safety, social distancing, and cleaning measures designed to protect our team and guests during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Working Capital

Effective inventory management is key to our ongoing success, and we use various techniques including demand forecasting and planning and various forms of replenishment management. We achieve effective inventory management by staying in-stock in core product offerings, maintaining positive vendor relationships, and carefully planning inventory levels for seasonal and apparel items to minimize markdowns. During 2022, rapid changes in consumer preferences and supply chain volatility resulted in increased working capital needs.

The Business Environment and Liquidity and Capital Resources sections in MD&A provide additional details.

Competition

We compete with traditional and internet retailers, including department stores, off-price general merchandise retailers, wholesale clubs, category-specific retailers, drug stores, supermarkets, direct-to-consumer brands, and other forms of retail commerce. Our ability to positively differentiate ourselves from other retailers and provide compelling value to our guests largely determines our competitive position within the retail industry.

Intellectual Property

Our brand image is a critical element of our business strategy. Our principal trademarks, including Target, our "Expect More. Pay Less." brand promise, and our "Bullseye Design," have been registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. We also seek to obtain and preserve intellectual property protection for our brands.

Geographic Information

Nearly all of our revenues are generated within the U.S. The vast majority of our property and equipment is located within the U.S.

Available Information

Our internet website is corporate.target.com. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and amendments to those documents filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), are available free of charge on the Investors section of our website (corporate.target.com/investors) as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material with, or furnish it to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). In addition, the SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Investors should note that we currently announce material information to our investors and others using filings with the SEC, press releases, public conference calls, webcasts, or our corporate website (corporate.target.com). Information that we post on our corporate website could be deemed material to investors. We encourage investors, the media, and others interested in us to review the information we post on these channels. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part hereof or incorporated into this or any of our other filings with the SEC.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
6

BUSINESS & RISK FACTORS
Information About Our Executive Officers

Executive officers are elected by, and serve at the pleasure of, the Board of Directors. There are no family relationships between any of the officers named and any other executive officer or member of the Board of Directors, or any arrangement or understanding pursuant to which any person was selected as an officer.

NameTitle and Recent Business ExperienceAge
Katie M. Boylan
Executive Vice President and Chief Communications Officer since February 2021. Senior Vice President and Chief Communications Officer from January 2019 to February 2021. Senior Vice President, Communications from June 2017 to January 2019.
46 
Brian C. CornellChair of the Board and Chief Executive Officer since August 2014.64 
Michael J. FiddelkeExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since November 2019. Senior Vice President, Operations from August 2018 to October 2019. Senior Vice President, Merchandising Capabilities from March 2017 to August 2018. 46 
A. Christina Hennington
Executive Vice President and Chief Growth Officer since February 2021. Executive Vice President and Chief Merchandising Officer, Hardlines, Essentials and Capabilities from January 2020 to February 2021. Senior Vice President, Group Merchandise Manager, Essentials, Beauty, Hardlines and Services from January 2019 to January 2020. Senior Vice President, Merchandising Essentials, Beauty and Wellness from April 2017 to January 2019. 48 
Melissa K. KremerExecutive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since January 2019. Senior Vice President, Talent and Organizational Effectiveness from October 2017 to January 2019. 45 
Don H. LiuExecutive Vice President, Chief Legal & Risk Officer and Corporate Secretary since October 2017. 61 
John J. MulliganExecutive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer since September 2015.57 
Cara A. Sylvester
Executive Vice President and Chief Guest Experience Officer since May 2022. Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing & Digital Officer from February 2021 to May 2022. Senior Vice President, Home from March 2019 to February 2021. Vice President, Beauty & Dermstore from June 2017 to March 2019.
45 
Laysha L. WardExecutive Vice President and Chief External Engagement Officer since January 2017. 55 

Item 1A.    Risk Factors

Our business is subject to many risks. Set forth below are the material risks we face. Risks are listed in the categories where they primarily apply, but other categories may also apply.

Competitive and Reputational Risks

If we are unable to positively differentiate ourselves from other retailers, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We attempt to differentiate our guest experience through a careful combination of price, merchandise assortment, store environment, convenience, guest service, loyalty programs, and marketing. Our ability to successfully differentiate ourselves depends on many competitive factors, including guest perceptions regarding the safety and cleanliness of our stores, the value and exclusivity of our offerings, our in-stock levels, the effectiveness of our digital channels and fulfillment options, our ability to responsibly source merchandise, and our ability to create a personalized guest experience. If we fail to differentiate our guest experience from our competitors, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
7

RISK FACTORS
The retail industry's continuing migration to digital channels and multiple fulfillment options for consumers has affected the ways we differentiate from other retailers. Since consumers can quickly comparison shop using digital tools, they may make decisions based solely on price or convenience, which could limit our ability to differentiate from our competitors. In addition, providing multiple fulfillment options and implementing new technology is complex, costly, and may not meet our guests’ expectations. If we are unable to offset the increased costs of new technology and expanded fulfillment options with improved performance or efficiencies, our results of operations could be adversely affected. To remain competitive, we must anticipate and adapt to developments and offerings by other retailers. Consumers may also use third-party channels or devices to initiate shopping searches and place orders, which could make us dependent on the capabilities and search algorithms of those third parties to reach those consumers. Any difficulties in executing our differentiation efforts could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

If we do not anticipate and respond quickly to changing consumer preferences, our results of operations and financial condition could suffer.

A large part of our business is dependent on our ability to make trend-right decisions in a broad range of merchandise categories. If we do not predict and quickly respond to changing consumer preferences and spending patterns, we may experience lower sales, spoilage, and increased inventory markdowns, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Our ability to predict and adapt to changing consumer preferences depends on many factors, including obtaining accurate and relevant data on guest preferences, emphasizing relevant merchandise categories, effectively managing our inventory levels, and implementing competitive and effective pricing and promotion strategies. We have not always been able to predict rapid changes in consumer preferences and spending patterns, including those that were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has previously resulted in insufficient or excess inventory, increased costs, and adverse impacts on our results of operations. If we are unable to effectively adapt to future changes in consumer preferences and spending patterns, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our continued success is dependent on positive perceptions of Target which, if eroded, could adversely affect our business and our relationships with our guests and team members.

We believe that one of the reasons our shareholders, guests, team members, and vendors choose Target is the positive reputation we have built over many years for serving those constituencies and the communities in which we operate. To be successful in the future, we must continue to preserve Target's reputation. Our reputation is largely based on perceptions. It may be difficult to address negative publicity across media channels, regardless of whether it is accurate. Negative incidents involving us, our workforce, or others with whom we do business could quickly erode trust and confidence and result in consumer boycotts, workforce unrest or walkouts, government investigations, and litigation. Negative reputational incidents or negative perceptions of us could adversely affect our business and results of operations, including through lower sales, the termination of business relationships, loss of new store and development opportunities, and team member retention and recruiting difficulties.

In addition, stakeholder expectations regarding environmental, social, and governance matters continue to evolve and are not uniform. We have established, and may continue to establish, various goals and initiatives on these matters, including with respect to diversity, equity, and inclusion topics. We cannot guarantee that we will achieve these goals and initiatives. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to achieve these goals and initiatives or to otherwise meet evolving and varied stakeholder expectations could adversely affect our reputation and result in legal and regulatory proceedings against us. Any of these outcomes could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Reputational harm can also occur indirectly through companies with whom we do business. We have relationships with a variety of other companies, including Apple, CVS, Disney, Levi’s, Starbucks, and Ulta Beauty. If our guests have negative experiences with or view unfavorably any of the companies with whom we have relationships, it could cause them to stop shopping with us.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
8

RISK FACTORS
If we are unable to successfully develop, source, and market our owned and exclusive brand products, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our owned and exclusive brand products represent approximately one third of our overall sales and generally carry higher margins than equivalent national brand products. If we are unable to successfully develop, source, and market our owned and exclusive brands, or if we are unable to successfully protect our related intellectual property rights, our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, our reliance on owned and exclusive brand products may also amplify other risks discussed in this Item 1A, Risk Factors, because many of these products are imported and we are more involved in the development and sourcing of those products. For example, owned brand products involve greater responsible sourcing risk in the selection of vendors, which can exacerbate reputational risk. In addition, owned brand products generally require longer lead times between order placement and product delivery and require us to take ownership of those products earlier in the supply chain. This exposes us to enhanced risks of supply chain disruptions and changing consumer preferences, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

If we are unable to protect against inventory shrink, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to effectively manage our inventory. We have historically experienced loss of inventory (also called shrink) due to damage, theft (including from organized retail crime), and other causes. We continue to experience elevated levels of inventory shrink relative to historical levels, which have adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, our results of operations and financial condition. To protect against rising inventory shrink, we have taken, and may continue to take, certain operational and strategic actions that could adversely affect our reputation, guest experience, and results of operations. In addition, sustained high rates of inventory shrink at certain stores could impact the profitability of those stores and result in the impairment of long-term assets.

Investments and Infrastructure Risks

If our capital investments do not achieve appropriate returns, our competitive position, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our business depends, in part, on our ability to remodel existing stores and build new stores in a manner that achieves appropriate returns on our capital investment. When building new stores, we compete with other retailers and businesses for suitable locations for our stores. Pursuing the wrong remodel or new store opportunities and any delays, cost increases, or other difficulties related to those projects could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We are making, and expect to continue to make, significant investments in technology and supply chain infrastructure. The effectiveness of these investments can be less predictable than remodeling or building new stores, and might not provide the anticipated benefits, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. For example, our stores-as-hubs strategy depends on adequate replenishment facilities to receive, store, and move inventory to stores on a timely basis. Underestimating our replenishment capacity needs could result in lower in-stock levels or increased costs for temporary storage. Conversely, overestimating replenishment capacity needs could result in inefficient deployment of capital. Any of these outcomes could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
9

RISK FACTORS
A significant disruption in our computing and information systems and our inability to adequately maintain and update those systems could adversely affect our operations and negatively affect our guests.

We rely extensively on computing and information systems throughout our business. We also rely on continued and unimpeded access to the Internet to use our systems. Our systems are subject to possible damage or interruption from many events, including power outages, telecommunications failures, malicious attacks, security breaches, and implementation errors. If our systems are damaged or disrupted, we may incur substantial costs, experience data loss or theft, and be unable to manage inventories or process guest transactions, which could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, and financial condition. For example, in the past, we have experienced disruptions in our point-of-sale system that prevented our ability to process debit or credit transactions, which negatively impacted some guests’ experiences and generated negative publicity. We continually invest to maintain and update our systems, but implementing significant changes increases the risk of system disruption. Problems and interruptions associated with implementing technology initiatives could adversely affect our operational efficiency and negatively impact our guests and their confidence in us.

Information Security, Cybersecurity, and Data Privacy Risks

If our efforts to maintain information security, cybersecurity, and data privacy are unsuccessful or if we are unable to meet increasingly demanding regulatory requirements, our reputation, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We regularly receive and store information about our guests, team members, vendors, and other third parties. We have programs in place to detect, contain, and respond to data security incidents. However, we may be unable to anticipate security incidents or implement adequate preventive measures. In addition, hardware or software that we develop or obtain from third parties may contain defects that could compromise information security, cybersecurity, or data privacy. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through fraud, deception, or other bad acts. Although we conduct regular training as part of our information security, cybersecurity, and data privacy efforts, that training may not be completely effective in preventing successful attacks.

Our only significant data security incident was a data breach that occurred in 2013 and went undetected for several weeks. The 2013 data breach adversely affected our reputation and results of operations. Both we and our vendors have experienced data security incidents since that data breach; however, to date, these other incidents have not been material to our results of operations. Based on the prominence and notoriety of our prior significant data breach, additional data security incidents could draw greater scrutiny. If we, our vendors, or other third parties with whom we do business experience additional significant data security incidents or fail to detect and appropriately respond to significant incidents, we could be exposed to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation. In addition, our guests could lose confidence in our ability to protect their information, stop using our RedCards or loyalty programs, or stop shopping with us altogether, which could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, and financial condition.

The legal and regulatory environment regarding information security, cybersecurity, and data privacy is dynamic and has strict requirements for using and treating personal data. Complying with current or contemplated data protection laws and regulations, or any failure to comply, could cause us to incur substantial costs, require changes to our business practices, and expose us to litigation and regulatory risks, each of which could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, and financial condition.

Supply Chain and Third-Party Risks

Changes in our relationships with our vendors, changes in tax or trade policy, interruptions in our operations or supply chain, and increased commodity or supply chain costs could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.

We are dependent on our vendors, including common carriers, to supply merchandise to our distribution centers, stores, and guests. If our replenishment and fulfillment network does not operate properly, if a vendor fails to deliver on its commitments, or if common carriers have difficulty providing capacity to meet demands for their services like they experienced in recent years, we could experience merchandise out-of-stocks, delays in shipping and receiving merchandise, and increased costs, which could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
10

RISK FACTORS

A large portion of the merchandise that we offer is sourced, directly or indirectly, from outside the U.S., with China as our single largest source. Any major changes in tax or trade policy between the U.S. and countries from which we source merchandise, such as the imposition of additional tariffs or duties on imported products, could require us to take certain actions, including raising prices on products we sell and seeking alternative sources of supply from vendors in other countries. Any of these actions could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.

Political or financial instability, currency fluctuations, the outbreak of pandemics or other illnesses, labor shortages, labor unrest or strikes, transport capacity and costs, inflation, port security, weather conditions, natural disasters, armed conflicts, or other events that could affect foreign trade are beyond our control and could disrupt our supply of merchandise, increase our costs, and adversely affect our results of operations. For example, there have been periodic closings and ship diversions, labor disputes, and congestion disrupting U.S. ports, including in California where we receive a significant portion of the products we source from outside the U.S. We have from time to time made alternative arrangements to continue the flow of inventory as a result of supply chain disruptions in the U.S. and other countries. If these types of events recur, it could increase our costs and adversely affect our supply of inventory. In addition, prices of fuel and other commodities that our supply chain depends on are historically volatile and subject to fluctuations based on a variety of international and domestic factors. Rapid and significant changes in commodity prices, as has occurred in recent years, could further increase our costs and adversely affect our results of operations.

If services we obtain from third parties are unavailable or fail to meet our standards, our reputation and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We rely on third parties to support our business operations, including portions of our technology infrastructure, digital platforms, replenishment and fulfillment operations, store and supply chain infrastructure, delivery services, guest contact centers, payment processing, and extensions of credit for our RedCard program. If we are unable to contract with third parties having the specialized skills needed to support our operations or if they fail to meet our performance standards, then our reputation and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Legal, Regulatory, Global, and Other External Risks

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other similar public health crises, may continue to amplify the risks and uncertainties facing our business.

The long-term impacts of the social, economic, and financial disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the government responses to such disruptions are unknown. In addition, the impact on our business of the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other similar public health crises, will depend on numerous factors that we cannot accurately predict.

The long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other similar public health crises, may also continue to amplify other risks discussed in this Item 1A, Risk Factors, including risks related to macroeconomic conditions and consumer confidence and spending, supply chain, information security, cybersecurity, and data privacy, and our workforce, any of which could have a material effect on us. For example, the rise in remote working arrangements by our team members, vendors, and other third parties that began during the COVID-19 pandemic increases the risk of a data security compromise and has amplified our already extensive reliance on computing and information systems and unimpeded Internet access.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
11

RISK FACTORS
Our earnings depend on the state of macroeconomic conditions and consumer confidence and spending in the U.S.

Nearly all of our sales are in the U.S., making our results highly dependent on the health of the U.S. economy and U.S. consumer confidence and spending, which can be affected by a variety of factors, including inflation, interest rates, housing prices, unemployment rates, household debt and wage levels, and credit usage. In addition, the interconnected nature of the global economy means that international events such as armed conflicts, geopolitical conflicts, public health crises, energy availability, and market volatility can all affect macroeconomic conditions in the U.S. A deterioration in U.S. macroeconomic conditions or consumer confidence or spending could adversely affect our business in many ways, including slowing sales growth, reducing overall sales, reducing gross margins, and lowering our credit card profit-sharing revenue, each of which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Uncharacteristic or significant weather conditions or natural disasters and the impacts of climate change could adversely affect our results of operations.

Uncharacteristic or significant weather conditions, including the physical impacts of climate change, can affect consumer shopping patterns, particularly in apparel and seasonal items, which could lead to lower sales or greater than expected markdowns and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, we have significant operations in certain states where natural disasters are more prevalent. Natural disasters in those states or in other areas where we operate could result in significant physical damage to or closure of one or more of our stores, distribution centers, facilities, or key vendors. In addition, weather conditions, natural disasters, and other catastrophic events in areas where we or our vendors operate, or depend upon for continued operations, could adversely affect the availability and cost of certain products within our supply chain, affect consumer purchasing power, and reduce consumer demand. Any of these events could adversely affect our results of operations.

The long-term effects of global climate change are expected to be widespread and unpredictable. The potential impacts of climate change present a variety of risks. The physical effects of climate change, such as extreme weather conditions, drought, and rising sea levels, could adversely affect our results of operations, including by increasing our energy costs, disrupting our supply chain, negatively impacting our workforce, damaging our stores, distribution centers, and inventory, and threatening the habitability of the locations in which we operate. In addition to physical risks, the potential impacts of climate change also present transition risks, including regulatory and reputational risks. For example, we use commodities and energy inputs in our operations that may face increased regulation due to climate change or other environmental concerns, which could increase our costs. Furthermore, any failure to achieve our goals with respect to reducing our impact on the environment, or perception of a failure to act responsibly with respect to the environment, could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations.

We rely on a large, global, and changing workforce of team members, contractors, and temporary staffing. If we do not effectively manage our workforce, our labor costs and results of operations could be adversely affected.

With over 400,000 team members, our workforce costs represent our largest operating expense, and our business is dependent on our ability to attract, train, and retain the appropriate mix of qualified team members, contractors, and temporary staffing. Many team members are in entry-level or part-time positions with high turnover rates historically. Our ability to meet our changing labor needs while controlling our costs is subject to external factors such as labor laws and regulations, unemployment levels, prevailing wage rates, benefit costs, changing demographics, and our reputation within the labor market. If we are unable to attract and retain a workforce meeting our needs, our operations, guest service levels, support functions, and competitiveness could suffer and our results of operations could be adversely affected. We are periodically subject to labor organizing efforts and activism, which could negatively impact how we are perceived by team members and our overall reputation. If we become subject to one or more collective bargaining agreements in the future, it could adversely affect our labor costs, how we operate our business, and our results of operations. In addition to our United States operations, we have support offices in India and China, and any extended disruption of our operations in our different locations, whether due to labor difficulties or otherwise, could adversely affect our results of operations.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
12

RISK FACTORS
Failure to address product safety and sourcing concerns could adversely affect our results of operations.

If any of our merchandise offerings do not meet applicable safety standards or Target's or our guests’ expectations regarding safety, supply chain transparency, and responsible sourcing, we could be exposed to legal and reputational risks and our results of operations could be adversely affected. Our vendors must comply with applicable product safety laws, and we are dependent on them to ensure that the products we buy comply with all safety standards. Events that give rise to actual or perceived product safety concerns, including food or drug contamination and product defects, could expose us to government enforcement actions and private litigation and result in costly product recalls and other liabilities. Our sourcing vendors, including any third parties selling through our digital channels, must also meet our expectations across multiple areas of social compliance, including supply chain transparency and responsible sourcing. We have a social compliance audit process that performs audits regularly, but we cannot continuously monitor every vendor, so we are also dependent on our vendors to ensure that the products we buy comply with applicable standards. If we need to seek alternative sources of supply from vendors with whom we have less familiarity, the risk of our standards not being met may increase. Negative guest perceptions regarding the safety and sourcing of the products we sell could harm our reputation and adversely affect our results of operations.

Our failure to comply with applicable laws, or changes in these laws, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our business is subject to a wide variety of complex laws and regulations.

Our expenses could increase and our operations could be adversely affected by changes in law or adverse judicial developments involving our workforce, including an employer’s obligation to recognize collective bargaining units, minimum wage requirements, advance scheduling notice requirements, health care or other mandates, the classification of exempt and non-exempt employees, and the classification of workers as either employees or independent contractors. Our Shipt subsidiary is a technology company that connects Shipt members through its online marketplace with a network of independent contractors who select, purchase, and deliver groceries and household essentials ordered from Target and other retailers. The classification of workers as employees or independent contractors, in particular, is an area that is experiencing legal challenges and legislative changes. Our Shipt subsidiary has faced, and continues to face, legal challenges to its worker classification. If, as a result of judicial decisions or legislation, Shipt is required to treat its network of independent contractors as employees, we may experience higher digital fulfillment costs, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in the legal or regulatory environment affecting any other area of our business, including information security, cybersecurity, and data privacy, product safety, or payment methods could cause our expenses to increase and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, if we fail to comply with other applicable laws and regulations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery laws, we could be subject to legal and reputational risks, including government enforcement actions and class action civil litigation, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Financial Risks

Increases in our effective income tax rate could adversely affect our results of operations.

Several factors influence our effective income tax rate, including tax laws and regulations, the related interpretations, and our ability to sustain our reporting positions on examination. Changes in any of those factors could change our effective tax rate, which could adversely affect our net income. In addition, changes in our operations both in and outside of the U.S. may cause greater volatility in our effective tax rate.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
13

RISK FACTORS & UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
If we are unable to access the capital markets or obtain bank credit, our financial condition and results of operations could suffer.

We are dependent on a stable, liquid, and well-functioning financial system to fund our operations and capital investments. Our continued access to financial markets depends on multiple factors including the condition of debt capital markets, our operating performance, and our credit ratings. If rating agencies lower our credit ratings, it could adversely affect our ability to access the debt markets, our cost of funds, and other terms for new debt issuances. Each of the credit rating agencies reviews its rating periodically, and there is no guarantee that our current credit ratings will remain the same. In addition, we use a variety of derivative products to manage our exposure to market risk, principally interest rate fluctuations. Disruptions or turmoil in the financial markets could reduce our ability to fund our operations and capital investments and lead to losses on derivative positions from counterparty failures, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
14

PROPERTIES
Item 2.    Properties

Stores as of
January 28, 2023
StoresRetail Square Feet
(in thousands)
Stores as of
January 28, 2023
Stores Retail Square Feet
(in thousands)
Alabama22 3,132 Montana777 
Alaska504 Nebraska14 2,005 
Arizona46 6,081 Nevada18 2,262 
Arkansas1,165 New Hampshire10 1,236 
California314 37,304 New Jersey49 6,189 
Colorado45 6,361 New Mexico10 1,185 
Connecticut21 2,732 New York100 10,820 
Delaware551 North Carolina52 6,653 
District of Columbia342 North Dakota554 
Florida127 17,225 Ohio65 7,863 
Georgia51 6,826 Oklahoma15 2,167 
Hawaii1,234 Oregon22 2,353 
Idaho725 Pennsylvania78 9,260 
Illinois100 12,171 Rhode Island517 
Indiana32 4,186 South Carolina20 2,389 
Iowa21 2,859 South Dakota580 
Kansas17 2,385 Tennessee30 3,815 
Kentucky14 1,575 Texas154 21,176 
Louisiana16 2,195 Utah15 1,981 
Maine741 Vermont60 
Maryland41 5,070 Virginia61 7,789 
Massachusetts50 5,546 Washington40 4,424 
Michigan54 6,300 West Virginia755 
Minnesota73 10,332 Wisconsin38 4,614 
Mississippi743 Wyoming257 
Missouri35 4,618    
  Total1,948 244,584 

Stores and Supply Chain Facilities as of January 28, 2023Stores
Supply Chain Facilities (a)
Owned1,530 37 
Leased261 18 
Owned buildings on leased land157 — 
Total1,948 55 
(a)Supply Chain Facilities includes distribution centers and sortation centers with a total of 59.2 million square feet.

We own our corporate headquarters buildings located in and around Minneapolis, Minnesota, and we lease and own additional office space elsewhere in Minneapolis and the U.S. We also lease office space in other countries. Our properties are in good condition, well maintained, and suitable to carry on our business.

For additional information on our properties, see the Capital Expenditures section in MD&A and Notes 11 and 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
15

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS & MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

No response is required under Item 103 of Regulation S-K.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
16

OTHER INFORMATION
PART II

Item 5.    Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "TGT." We are authorized to issue up to 6,000,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0833, and up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01. As of March 2, 2023, there were 13,187 shareholders of record. Dividends declared per share for 2022, 2021, and 2020, are disclosed in our Consolidated Statements of Shareholders' Investment.

On August 11, 2021, our Board of Directors authorized a $15 billion share repurchase program with no stated expiration. Under the program, we have repurchased 23.8 million shares of common at an average price of $223.52, for a total investment of $5.3 billion. As of January 28, 2023, the dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the program is $9.7 billion. There were no Target common stock purchases made during the three months ended January 28, 2023 by Target or any "affiliated purchaser" of Target, as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Exchange Act.
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
17

OTHER INFORMATION

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 Fiscal Years Ended
 February 3, 2018February 2, 2019February 1, 2020January 30, 2021January 29, 2022January 28, 2023
Target$100.00 $100.82 $161.87 $270.17 $329.06 $260.13 
S&P 500 Index100.00 99.94 121.49 142.45 172.36 160.94 
Peer Group100.00 104.28 126.36 175.31 183.63 156.02 

The graph above compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock for the last five fiscal years with (i) the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Index and (ii) the peer group consisting of 19 online, general merchandise, department stores, food, and specialty retailers (Albertsons Companies, Inc., Amazon.com, Inc., Best Buy Co., Inc., Costco Wholesale Corporation, CVS Health Corporation, Dollar General Corporation, Dollar Tree, Inc., The Gap, Inc., The Home Depot, Inc., Kohl's Corporation, The Kroger Co., Lowe's Companies, Inc., Macy's, Inc., Nordstrom, Inc., Rite Aid Corporation, Ross Stores, Inc., The TJX Companies, Inc., Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc., and Walmart Inc.) (Peer Group). The Peer Group is consistent with the retail peer group described in our definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on June 14, 2023, excluding Publix Super Markets, Inc., which is not quoted on a public stock exchange.

The peer group is weighted by the market capitalization of each component company. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in Target common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the Peer Group on February 3, 2018, and reinvestment of all dividends.

Item 6.    [Reserved]
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
18

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW & FINANCIAL SUMMARY
Item 7.   Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Executive Overview

We continue to make strategic investments to support our durable operating and financial model that further differentiates Target and is designed to drive sustainable sales and profit growth. During 2022, in support of our enterprise strategy described in Item 1 on page 2 of this Form 10-K, we

Expanded our supply chain capacity and digital fulfillment capabilities, including adding one new distribution center and six new sortation centers to support our growth and commitment to fast delivery times, while helping our teams work more efficiently and managing our shipping costs;
Fulfilled over 50 percent of our digital sales through our same-day fulfillment options: Order Pickup, Drive Up, and delivery via Shipt;
Continued the steady stream of newness across our assortment and continued to introduce new owned and exclusive brands, including fashion forward brands Future CollectiveTM and Houston White x Target;
Completed 140 full store remodels and invested in hundreds of other stores through projects to increase efficiency of our Same-Day Services, build-out and open Ulta Beauty shop-in-shops, and expand Apple and Disney experiences;
Opened 23 new stores, including a new larger-footprint store with reimagined design elements and additional stores in key urban markets and on college campuses;
Invested in our team through our updated starting wage range, expanded access to health care benefits, and our debt-free education assistance program;
Offered compelling promotions, attractive every day price points on key items, and free and easy payment and fulfillment options, including our new RedCard Reloadable Account, which provides all the benefits of our RedCard program without the need for a credit check or an existing bank account; and
Launched Target Zero, a collection of products designed to reduce waste and make it easier to shop sustainably, and completed retrofitting our first store designed to be net zero energy, located in Vista, California.

Financial Summary

2022 included the following notable items:

GAAP diluted earnings per share were $5.98.
Adjusted diluted earnings per share were $6.02.
Total revenue increased 2.9 percent, reflecting total sales growth of 2.8 percent and a 9.8 percent increase in other revenue.
Comparable sales increased 2.2 percent, driven by a 2.1 percent increase in traffic.
Comparable store originated sales grew 2.4 percent.
Comparable digitally originated sales increased 1.5 percent.
Operating income of $3.8 billion was 57.0 percent lower than the comparable prior-year period. See Business Environment below for additional information.

Sales were $107.6 billion for 2022, an increase of $3.0 billion, or 2.8 percent, from the prior year. Operating cash flow was $4.0 billion for 2022, a decrease of $(4.6) billion, or (53.4) percent, from $8.6 billion for 2021. The drivers of the operating cash flow decrease are described on page 27.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
19

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
FINANCIAL SUMMARY & ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS
Earnings Per Share
   Percent Change
2022202120202022/20212021/2020
GAAP diluted earnings per share $5.98 $14.10 $8.64 (57.6)%63.1 %
Adjustments0.03 (0.53)0.78   
Adjusted diluted earnings per share $6.02 $13.56 $9.42 (55.7)%44.0 %
Note: Amounts may not foot due to rounding. Adjusted diluted earnings per share (Adjusted EPS), a non-GAAP metric, excludes the impact of certain items. Management believes that Adjusted EPS is useful in providing period-to-period comparisons of the results of our operations. A reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to GAAP measures is provided on page 24.

We report after-tax return on invested capital (ROIC) because we believe ROIC provides a meaningful measure of our capital-allocation effectiveness over time. For the trailing twelve months ended January 28, 2023, after-tax ROIC was 12.6 percent, compared with 33.1 percent for the trailing twelve months ended January 29, 2022. The calculation of ROIC is provided on page 26.

Business Environment

Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, we experienced strong comparable sales growth and significant volatility in our category and channel mix, which continued through 2021, along with increasing supply chain disruptions. In addition to country of origin production delays, trucker and dockworker shortages, a broad-based surge in consumer demand, and other factors led to industry-wide U.S. port and ground transportation delays. In response to the rising guest demand and supply chain constraints, we took various actions, including ordering merchandise earlier, securing ocean freight routes, adding incremental holding capacity near U.S. ports, and increasing use of air transport for certain merchandise. Some of these supply chain disruptions and resulting actions resulted in increased costs.

In 2022, our comparable sales growth slowed significantly, reflecting sales decreases in our Discretionary categories (Apparel & Accessories, Hardlines, and Home Furnishings & Decor) that substantially offset growth in our Frequency categories (Beauty & Household Essentials and Food & Beverage). In response to this shift in demand, we took several actions to address our inventory position and create additional flexibility in a rapidly changing environment, including increasing promotional and clearance markdowns, removing excess inventory, and cancelling purchase orders. In addition, during the second half of 2022, port congestion, shipping container availability, and other supply chain pressures improved. This resulted in some inventory arriving earlier than anticipated, which resulted in increased costs of managing elevated inventory levels and an increased working capital investment. These factors, net of the impact of retail price increases taken to address merchandise and freight cost inflation, resulted in decreased profitability compared to the prior year. The Gross Margin Rate analysis on page 23 and Inventory section on page 27 provide additional information.

Sale of Dermstore

In February 2021, we sold Dermstore LLC (Dermstore) for $356 million in cash and recognized a $335 million pretax gain, which is included in Net Other (Income) / Expense. Dermstore represented less than 1 percent of our consolidated revenues, operating income and net assets.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
20

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS
Analysis of Results of Operations

Summary of Operating Income   Percent Change
(dollars in millions)2022202120202022/20212021/2020
Sales $107,588 $104,611 $92,400 2.8 %13.2 %
Other revenue1,532 1,394 1,161 9.8 20.2 
Total revenue109,120 106,005 93,561 2.9 13.3 
Cost of sales82,229 74,963 66,177 9.7 13.3 
SG&A expenses20,658 19,752 18,615 4.6 6.1 
Depreciation and amortization (exclusive of depreciation included in cost of sales)
2,385 2,344 2,230 1.8 5.1 
Operating income$3,848 $8,946 $6,539 (57.0)%36.8 %

Rate Analysis202220212020
Gross margin rate23.6 %28.3 %28.4 %
SG&A expense rate18.9 18.6 19.9 
Depreciation and amortization (exclusive of depreciation included in cost of sales) expense rate
2.2 2.2 2.4 
Operating income margin rate3.5 8.4 7.0 
Note: Gross margin rate is calculated as gross margin (sales less cost of sales) divided by sales. All other rates are calculated by dividing the applicable amount by total revenue.

A discussion regarding Analysis of Results of Operations and Analysis of Financial Condition for 2021, as compared to 2020, is included in Part II, Item 7, MD&A to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 29, 2022.


Sales

Sales include all merchandise sales, net of expected returns, and our estimate of gift card breakage. Note 3 to the Financial Statements defines gift card "breakage." We use comparable sales to evaluate the performance of our stores and digital channel sales by measuring the change in sales for a period over the comparable, prior-year period of equivalent length. Comparable sales include all sales, except sales from stores open less than 13 months, digital acquisitions we have owned less than 13 months, stores that have been closed, and digital acquisitions that we no longer operate. Comparable sales measures vary across the retail industry. As a result, our comparable sales calculation is not necessarily comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Digitally originated sales include all sales initiated through mobile applications and our websites. Our stores fulfill the majority of digitally originated sales, including shipment from stores to guests, store Order Pickup or Drive Up, and delivery via Shipt. Digitally originated sales may also be fulfilled through our distribution centers, our vendors, or other third parties.

Sales growth – from both comparable sales and new stores – represents an important driver of our long-term profitability. We expect that comparable sales growth will drive the majority of our total sales growth. We believe that our ability to successfully differentiate our guests’ shopping experience through a careful combination of merchandise assortment, price, convenience, guest experience, and other factors will over the long-term drive both increasing shopping frequency (number of transactions, or "traffic") and the amount spent each visit (average transaction amount).

Comparable Sales202220212020
Comparable sales change2.2 %12.7 %19.3 %
Drivers of change in comparable sales   
Number of transactions (traffic)2.1 12.3 3.7 
Average transaction amount0.1 0.4 15.0 
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
21

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS

Comparable Sales by Channel202220212020
Stores originated comparable sales change2.4 %11.0 %7.2 %
Digitally originated comparable sales change1.5 20.8 144.7 

Sales by Channel202220212020
Stores originated81.4 %81.1 %82.1 %
Digitally originated18.6 18.9 17.9 
Total100 %100 %100 %

Sales by Fulfillment Channel202220212020
Stores96.7 %96.4 %96.0 %
Other3.3 3.6 4.0 
Total100 %100 %100 %
Note: Sales fulfilled by stores include in-store purchases and digitally originated sales fulfilled by shipping merchandise from stores to guests, Order Pickup, Drive Up, and Shipt.

Part I, Item 1, Business of this Form 10-K and Note 3 to the Financial Statements provides additional product category sales information. The collective interaction of a broad array of macroeconomic, competitive, and consumer behavioral factors, as well as sales mix, and transfer of sales to new stores makes further analysis of sales metrics infeasible.

TD Bank Group offers credit to qualified guests through Target-branded credit cards: the Target Credit Card and the Target MasterCard Credit Card (Target Credit Cards). Additionally, we offer a branded proprietary Target Debit Card and RedCard Reloadable Account. Collectively, we refer to these products as RedCards™. Guests receive a 5 percent discount on virtually all purchases when they use a RedCard at Target. We monitor the percentage of purchases that are paid for using RedCards (RedCard Penetration) because our internal analysis has indicated that a meaningful portion of incremental purchases on our RedCards are also incremental sales for Target. For the years ended January 28, 2023, January 29, 2022, and January 30, 2021, total RedCard Penetration was 19.8 percent, 20.5 percent, and 21.5 percent, respectively.


TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
22

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS
Gross Margin Rate

tgt-20230128_g13.jpg
Our gross margin rate was 23.6 percent in 2022 and 28.3 percent in 2021. This decrease reflected the net impact of
merchandising pressure, including
higher clearance and promotional markdown rates, including the impact of inventory impairments and other actions taken in our Discretionary categories; and
higher merchandise and freight costs, partially offset by the benefit of retail price increases;
supply chain pressure related to increased compensation and headcount in our distribution centers, investments in new facilities, and costs of managing excess inventory;
higher inventory shrink; and
favorable mix in the relative growth rates of higher and lower margin categories.

Selling, General and Administrative (SG&A) Expense Rate

Our SG&A expense rate was 18.9 percent in 2022, compared with 18.6 percent in 2021, reflecting the net impact of cost increases across our business, including investments in hourly team member wages, partially offset by lower incentive compensation in 2022 compared to the prior year.


Store Data

Change in Number of Stores20222021
Beginning store count1,926 1,897 
Opened23 32 
Closed(1)(3)
Ending store count1,948 1,926 

Number of Stores and
Retail Square Feet
Number of Stores
Retail Square Feet (a)
January 28, 2023January 29, 2022January 28, 2023January 29, 2022
170,000 or more sq. ft.274 274 48,985 49,071 
50,000 to 169,999 sq. ft.1,527 1,516 191,241 190,205 
49,999 or less sq. ft.147 136 4,358 4,008 
Total1,948 1,926 244,584 243,284 
(a)In thousands; reflects total square feet less office, distribution center, and vacant space.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
23

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS
Other Performance Factors

Net Interest Expense

Net interest expense was $478 million for 2022, compared with $421 million for 2021. The increase in net interest expense was primarily due to higher average debt and commercial paper levels in 2022 compared with 2021.

Net Other (Income) / Expense

Net Other (Income) / Expense was $(48) million and $(382) million for 2022 and 2021, respectively. 2021 included the $335 million gain on the February 2021 sale of Dermstore.

Provision for Income Taxes

Our 2022 effective income tax rate was 18.7 percent compared with 22.0 percent in 2021. The decrease reflects lower pretax earnings in the current year and the impacts of discrete tax benefits. Our effective tax rate is generally more volatile at lower amounts of pretax income because the impact of discrete, deductible and nondeductible tax items and credits is greater.

Note 18 to the Financial Statements provides additional information.

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures to GAAP Measures

To provide additional transparency, we have disclosed non-GAAP adjusted diluted earnings per share (Adjusted EPS). This metric excludes certain items presented below. We believe this information is useful in providing period-to-period comparisons of the results of our operations. This measure is not in accordance with, or an alternative to, generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. (GAAP). The most comparable GAAP measure is diluted earnings per share. Adjusted EPS should not be considered in isolation or as a substitution for analysis of our results as reported in accordance with GAAP. Other companies may calculate Adjusted EPS differently than we do, limiting the usefulness of the measure for comparisons with other companies.

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP
Adjusted EPS
202220212020
(millions, except per share data)PretaxNet of TaxPer Share AmountsPretaxNet of TaxPer Share AmountsPretaxNet of TaxPer Share Amounts
GAAP diluted earnings per share
$5.98 $14.10 $8.64 
Adjustments
Gain on Dermstore Sale$— $— $— $(335)$(269)$(0.55)$— $— $— 
Loss on debt extinguishment— — — — — — 512 379 0.75 
Loss on investment (a)
— — — — — — 19 14 0.03 
Other (b)
20 15 0.03 0.01 28 20 0.04 
Income tax matters (c)
— — — — — — — (21)(0.04)
Adjusted diluted earnings per share
$6.02 $13.56 $9.42 
Note: Amounts may not foot due to rounding.
(a)Represents a loss on our investment in Casper Sleep Inc., which is not core to our operations.
(b)Other items unrelated to current period operations, none of which were individually significant.
(c)Represents benefits from the resolution of certain income tax matters unrelated to current period operations.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
24

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
RECONCILIATION OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
Earnings before interest expense and income taxes (EBIT) and earnings before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) are non-GAAP financial measures. We believe these measures provide meaningful information about our operational efficiency compared with our competitors by excluding the impact of differences in tax jurisdictions and structures, debt levels, and for EBITDA, capital investment. These measures are not in accordance with, or an alternative to, GAAP. The most comparable GAAP measure is net earnings. EBIT and EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitution for analysis of our results as reported in accordance with GAAP. Other companies may calculate EBIT and EBITDA differently, limiting the usefulness of the measures for comparisons with other companies.

EBIT and EBITDA  Percent Change
(dollars in millions)2022202120202022/20212021/2020
Net earnings$2,780 $6,946 $4,368 (60.0)%59.0 %
 + Provision for income taxes638 1,961 1,178 (67.5)66.5 
 + Net interest expense478 421 977 13.4 (56.9)
EBIT
$3,896 $9,328 $6,523 (58.2)%43.0 %
 + Total depreciation and amortization (a)
2,700 2,642 2,485 2.2 6.3 
EBITDA
$6,596 $11,970 $9,008 (44.9)%32.9 %
(a)Represents total depreciation and amortization, including amounts classified within Depreciation and Amortization and within Cost of Sales.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
25

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
RECONCILIATION OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
We have also disclosed after-tax ROIC, which is a ratio based on GAAP information, with the exception of the add-back of operating lease interest to operating income. We believe this metric is useful in assessing the effectiveness of our capital allocation over time. Other companies may calculate ROIC differently, limiting the usefulness of the measure for comparisons with other companies.

After-Tax Return on Invested Capital
(dollars in millions)
Trailing Twelve Months
Numerator
January 28, 2023January 29, 2022
Operating income
$3,848 $8,946 
 + Net other income / (expense)48 382 
EBIT3,896 9,328 
 + Operating lease interest (a)
93 87 
 - Income taxes (b)
744 2,073 
Net operating profit after taxes$3,245 $7,342 
Denominator
January 28, 2023January 29, 2022January 30, 2021
Current portion of long-term debt and other borrowings$130 $171 $1,144 
 + Noncurrent portion of long-term debt16,009 13,549 11,536 
 + Shareholders' investment11,232 12,827 14,440 
 + Operating lease liabilities (c)
2,934 2,747 2,429 
 - Cash and cash equivalents2,229 5,911 8,511 
Invested capital$28,076 $23,383 $21,038 
Average invested capital (d)
$25,729 $22,210 
After-tax return on invested capital12.6 %33.1 %
(a)Represents the add-back to operating income driven by the hypothetical interest expense we would incur if the property under our operating leases were owned or accounted for as finance leases. Calculated using the discount rate for each lease and recorded as a component of rent expense within SG&A Expenses. Operating lease interest is added back to operating income in the ROIC calculation to control for differences in capital structure between us and our competitors.
(b)Calculated using the effective tax rates, which were 18.7 percent and 22.0 percent for the trailing twelve months ended January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, respectively. For the trailing twelve months ended January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, includes tax effect of $0.7 billion and $2.1 billion, respectively, related to EBIT, and $17 million and $19 million, respectively, related to operating lease interest.
(c)Total short-term and long-term operating lease liabilities included within Accrued and Other Current Liabilities and Noncurrent Operating Lease Liabilities, respectively.
(d)Average based on the invested capital at the end of the current period and the invested capital at the end of the comparable prior period.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
26

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
Analysis of Financial Condition

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Capital Allocation

We follow a disciplined and balanced approach to capital allocation based on the following priorities, ranked in order of importance: first, we fully invest in opportunities to profitably grow our business, create sustainable long-term value, and maintain our current operations and assets; second, we maintain a competitive quarterly dividend and seek to grow it annually; and finally, we return any excess cash to shareholders by repurchasing shares within the limits of our credit rating goals.

Our year-end cash and cash equivalents balance decreased to $2.2 billion from $5.9 billion in 2021. Our cash and cash equivalents balance includes short-term investments of $1.3 billion and $5.0 billion as of January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, respectively. Our investment policy is designed to preserve principal and liquidity of our short-term investments. This policy allows investments in large money market funds or in highly rated direct short-term instruments that mature in 60 days or less. We also place dollar limits on our investments in individual funds or instruments.

Operating Cash Flows

Cash flows provided by operating activities were $4.0 billion in 2022 compared with $8.6 billion in 2021. For 2022, operating cash flows decreased as a result of lower earnings and lower accounts payable leverage, partially offset by decreased inventory investment, compared with 2021.

Inventory

Year-end inventory was $13.5 billion, compared with $13.9 billion in 2021. The decrease in inventory levels primarily reflects the following:
decreased in-transit and late-arriving inventory as lead times improved,
investments in our inventory position in our Frequency categories, offsetting reductions in our Discretionary categories, and
increases in unit costs across all of our categories.

The Business Environment section on page 20 provides additional information.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
27

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
Capital Expenditures

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Note: Amounts may not foot due to rounding.

Capital expenditures increased in 2022 from the prior year as we invested in our strategic initiatives, including an increase in investments in both stores and in our supply chain. The increase also reflects the impact of inflation on these projects. Beyond full-store remodels, we invested in optimizing front-end space in high-volume locations to increase the efficiency of our Same-Day Services, and built-out and opened approximately 250 Ulta Beauty shop-in-shops. We have completed over 1,000 full-store remodels since the launch of the current program in 2017, including 140 in 2022.

In addition to these cash investments, we entered into leases related to new stores in 2022, 2021, and 2020 with total future minimum lease payments of $319 million, $401 million, and $764 million, respectively, and new leases related to our supply chain with total future minimum lease payments of $1.6 billion, $226 million, and $442 million, respectively.

We expect capital expenditures in 2023 of approximately $4.0 billion to $5.0 billion to support full-store remodels and other existing store investments, new stores, and supply chain projects. Supply chain projects will add replenishment capacity and modernize our network, including the use of sortation centers to enhance our last-mile delivery capabilities. We expect to complete approximately 70 full-store remodels, open about 20 new stores, and add additional Ulta Beauty shop-in-shops during 2023. Additionally, we will continue to invest in optimizing front-end space. We also expect to continue to invest in new store and supply chain leases.

Dividends

We paid dividends totaling $1.8 billion ($3.96 per share) in 2022 and $1.5 billion ($3.16 per share) in 2021, a per share increase of 25.3 percent. We declared dividends totaling $1.9 billion ($4.14 per share) in 2022 and $1.7 billion ($3.38 per share) in 2021, a per share increase of 22.5 percent. We have paid dividends every quarter since our 1967 initial public offering and it is our intent to continue to do so in the future.

Share Repurchases

During 2022 and 2021 we returned $2.6 billion and $7.2 billion, respectively, to shareholders through share repurchase. See Part II, Item 5, Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 20 to the Financial Statements for more information.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
28

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
Financing

Our financing strategy is to ensure liquidity and access to capital markets, to maintain a balanced spectrum of debt maturities, and to manage our net exposure to floating interest rate volatility. Within these parameters, we seek to minimize our borrowing costs. Our ability to access the long-term debt and commercial paper markets has provided us with ample sources of liquidity. Our continued access to these markets depends on multiple factors, including the condition of debt capital markets, our operating performance, and maintaining strong credit ratings. As of January 28, 2023, our credit ratings were as follows:

Credit RatingsMoody'sStandard and Poor'sFitch
Long-term debtA2AA
Commercial paperP-1A-1F1

If our credit ratings were lowered, our ability to access the debt markets, our cost of funds, and other terms for new debt issuances could be adversely impacted. Each of the credit rating agencies reviews its rating periodically and there is no guarantee our current credit ratings will remain the same as described above.

In 2022, we issued $2.7 billion of debt, and we repaid $62 million of debt at maturity.

In 2022, we obtained a new committed $1.0 billion 364-day unsecured revolving credit facility that will expire in October 2023. We also extended our existing committed $3.0 billion unsecured revolving credit facility, which now expires in October 2027. No balances were outstanding under either credit facility at any time during 2022 or 2021.

Most of our long-term debt obligations contain covenants related to secured debt levels. In addition to a secured debt level covenant, our credit facilities also contain a debt leverage covenant. We are, and expect to remain, in compliance with these covenants. Additionally, as of January 28, 2023, no notes or debentures contained provisions requiring acceleration of payment upon a credit rating downgrade, except that certain outstanding notes allow the note holders to put the notes to us if within a matter of months of each other we experience both (i) a change in control and (ii) our long-term credit ratings are either reduced and the resulting rating is non-investment grade, or our long-term credit ratings are placed on watch for possible reduction and those ratings are subsequently reduced and the resulting rating is non-investment grade.

Note 15 to the Financial Statements provides additional information.

Future Cash Requirements

We enter into contractual obligations in the ordinary course of business that may require future cash payments. Such obligations include, but are not limited to, purchase commitments, debt service, leasing arrangements, and liabilities related to deferred compensation and pensions. The Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information.

We believe our sources of liquidity, namely operating cash flows, credit facility capacity, and access to capital markets, will continue to be adequate to meet our contractual obligations, working capital and capital expenditure requirements, finance anticipated expansion and strategic initiatives, fund debt maturities, pay dividends, and execute purchases under our share repurchase program for the foreseeable future.

Critical Accounting Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and apply judgments that affect the reported amounts. In the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, we describe the significant accounting policies used in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Our management has discussed the development, selection, and disclosure of our critical accounting estimates with the Audit & Risk Committee of our Board of Directors. The following items require significant estimation or judgment:

TARGET CORPORATION
tgt-20230128_g2.jpg
2022 Form 10-K
29

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
Inventory and cost of sales:    The vast majority of our inventory is accounted for under the retail inventory accounting method using the last-in, first-out method (LIFO). Our inventory is valued at the lower of LIFO cost or market. We reduce inventory for estimated losses related to shrink and markdowns. Our shrink estimate is based on historical losses verified by physical inventory counts. Historically, our actual physical inventory count results have shown our estimates to be reliable. Market adjustments for markdowns are recorded when the salability of the merchandise has diminished. Salability can be impacted by consumer preferences and seasonality, among other factors. We believe the risk of inventory obsolescence is largely mitigated because our inventory typically turns in less than three months. Inventory was $13.5 billion and $13.9 billion as of January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, respectively, and is further described in Note 9 to the Financial Statements.

Vendor income:    We receive various forms of consideration from our vendors (vendor income), principally earned as a result of volume rebates, markdown allowances, promotions, and advertising allowances. Substantially all vendor income is recorded as a reduction of cost of sales. Vendor income earned can vary based on a number of factors, including purchase volumes, sales volumes, and our pricing and promotion strategies.

We establish a receivable for vendor income that is earned but not yet received. Based on historical trending and data, this receivable is computed by forecasting vendor income collections and estimating the amount earned. The majority of the year-end vendor income receivables are collected within the following fiscal quarter, and we do not believe there is a reasonable likelihood that the assumptions used in our estimate will change significantly. Historically, adjustments to our vendor income receivable have not been material. Vendor income receivable was $526 million and $518 million as of January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, respectively. Vendor income is described further in Note 5 to the Financial Statements.

Long-lived assets:    Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The evaluation is performed primarily at the store level. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated undiscounted future cash flows from the operation and/or eventual disposition of the asset or asset group is less than its carrying amount, and is measured as the excess of its carrying amount over fair value. We estimate fair value by obtaining market appraisals, obtaining valuations from third-party brokers, or using other valuation techniques. We recorded impairments of $66 million, $87 million, and $62 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively, which are described further in Note 11 to the Financial Statements.

Insurance/self-insurance:    We retain a substantial portion of the risk related to certain general liability, workers' compensation, property loss, and team member medical and dental claims. However, we maintain stop-loss coverage to limit the exposure related to certain risks. Liabilities associated with these losses include estimates of both claims filed and losses incurred but not yet reported. We use actuarial methods which consider a number of factors to estimate our ultimate cost of losses. General liability and workers' compensation liabilities are recorded based on our estimate of their net present value; other liabilities referred to above are not discounted. Our workers' compensation and general liability accrual was $560 million and $519 million as of January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, respectively. We believe that the amounts accrued are appropriate; however, our liabilities could be significantly affected if future occurrences or loss developments differ from our assumptions. For example, a 5 percent increase or decrease in average claim costs would have impacted our self-insurance expense by $28 million in 2022. Historically, adjustments to our estimates have not been material. Refer to Part II, Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, for further disclosure of the market risks associated with these exposures. We maintain insurance coverage to limit our exposure to certain events, including network security matters.

Income taxes:    We pay income taxes based on the tax statutes, regulations, and case law of the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Significant judgment is required in determining the timing and amounts of deductible and taxable items, and in evaluating the ultimate resolution of tax matters in dispute with tax authorities. The benefits of uncertain tax positions are recorded in our financial statements only after determining it is likely the uncertain tax positions would withstand challenge by taxing authorities. We periodically reassess these probabilities and record any changes in the financial statements as appropriate. Gross uncertain tax positions, including interest and penalties, were $241 million and $138 million as of January 28, 2023, and January 29, 2022, respectively. We believe the resolution of these matters will not materially affect our consolidated financial statements. Income taxes are described further in Note 18 to the Financial Statements.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
30

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION & NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Pension accounting:    We maintain a funded qualified defined benefit pension plan, as well as nonqualified and international pension plans that are generally unfunded, for certain current and retired team members. The costs for these plans are determined based on actuarial calculations using the assumptions described in the following paragraphs. Eligibility and the level of benefits vary depending on each team member's full-time or part-time status, date of hire, age, length of service, and/or compensation. The benefit obligation and related expense for these plans are determined based on actuarial calculations using assumptions about the expected long-term rate of return, the discount rate, compensation growth rates, mortality, and retirement age. These assumptions, with adjustments made for any significant plan or participant changes, are used to determine the period-end benefit obligation and establish expense for the next year.

Our 2022 expected long-term rate of return on plan assets of 5.60 percent was determined by the portfolio composition, historical long-term investment performance, and current market conditions. A 1 percentage point decrease in our expected long-term rate of return would increase annual expense by $42 million.

The discount rate used to determine benefit obligations is adjusted annually based on the interest rate for long-term high-quality corporate bonds, using yields for maturities that are in line with the duration of our pension liabilities. Our benefit obligation and related expense will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. A 1 percentage point decrease in the weighted average discount rate would increase annual expense by $59 million.

Based on our experience, we use a graduated compensation growth schedule that assumes higher compensation growth for younger, shorter-service pension-eligible team members than it does for older, longer-service pension-eligible team members.

Pension benefits are further described in Note 23 to the Financial Statements.

Legal and other contingencies:    We believe the accruals recorded in our consolidated financial statements properly reflect loss exposures that are both probable and reasonably estimable. We do not believe any of the currently identified claims or litigation will materially affect our results of operations, cash flows, or financial condition. However, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable rulings could occur. If an unfavorable ruling were to occur, it may cause a material adverse impact on the results of operations, cash flows, or financial condition for the period in which the ruling occurs, or future periods. Refer to Note 14 to the Financial Statements for further information on contingencies.

New Accounting Pronouncements

We do not expect that any recently issued accounting pronouncements will have a material effect on our financial statements.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
31

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS & QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES
Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains forward-looking statements, which are based on our current assumptions and expectations. These statements are typically accompanied by the words "expect," "may," "could," "believe," "would," "might," "anticipates," or similar words. The principal forward-looking statements in this report include: our financial performance, statements regarding the adequacy of and costs associated with our sources of liquidity, the funding of debt maturities, the execution of our share repurchase program, our expected capital expenditures and new lease commitments, the expected compliance with debt covenants, the expected impact of new accounting pronouncements, our intentions regarding future dividends, the expected contributions and payments related to our pension plan, the expected return on plan assets, the expected timing and recognition of compensation expenses, the adequacy of our reserves for general liability, workers' compensation, and property loss, the expected outcome of, and adequacy of our reserves for claims, litigation, and the resolution of tax matters, our expectations regarding our contractual obligations, liabilities, and vendor income, the expected ability to recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities and the timing of such recognition, our expectations regarding arrangements with our partners, and changes in our assumptions and expectations.

All such forward-looking statements are intended to enjoy the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. Although we believe there is a reasonable basis for the forward-looking statements, our actual results could be materially different. The most important factors which could cause our actual results to differ from our forward-looking statements are set forth in our description of risk factors included in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors to this Form 10-K, which should be read in conjunction with the forward-looking statements in this report. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statement.

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

As of January 28, 2023, our exposure to market risk was primarily from interest rate changes on our debt obligations and short-term investments, some of which are at a London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). Our interest rate exposure is primarily due to differences between our floating rate debt obligations compared to our floating rate short-term investments. As of January 28, 2023, our floating rate debt exceeded our floating rate short-term investments by approximately $1.2 billion. Based on our balance sheet position as of January 28, 2023, the annualized effect of a 0.1 percentage point increase in floating interest rates on our floating rate debt obligations, net of our floating rate short-term investments, would decrease our earnings before income taxes by $1 million. In general, we expect our floating rate debt to exceed our floating rate short-term investments over time, but that may vary in different interest rate and economic environments. See further description of our debt and derivative instruments in Notes 15 and 16 to the Financial Statements.

The United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority has announced the intent to phase out LIBOR by June 2023. We do not expect the phase out to materially impact our financial statements, liquidity, or access to capital markets.

We record our general liability and workers' compensation liabilities at net present value; therefore, these liabilities fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Based on our balance sheet position as of January 28, 2023, the annualized effect of a 0.5 percentage point increase/(decrease) in interest rates would increase/(decrease) earnings before income taxes by $7 million.

In addition, we are exposed to market return fluctuations on our qualified defined benefit pension plan. The value of our pension liabilities is inversely related to changes in interest rates. A 1 percentage point decrease in the weighted average discount rate would increase annual expense by $59 million. To protect against declines in interest rates, we hold high-quality, long-duration bonds and derivative instruments in our pension plan trust. As of January 28, 2023, we had hedged 70 percent of the interest rate exposure of our plan liabilities.

As more fully described in Note 22 to the Financial Statements, we are exposed to market returns on accumulated team member balances in our nonqualified, unfunded deferred compensation plans. We control the risk of offering the nonqualified plans by making investments in life insurance contracts and prepaid forward contracts on our own common stock that substantially offset our economic exposure to the returns on these plans.

There have been no other material changes in our primary risk exposures or management of market risks since the prior year.
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
32

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
INDEX
Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

TARGET CORPORATION
tgt-20230128_g2.jpg
2022 Form 10-K
33

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
REPORTS

Report of Management on the Consolidated Financial Statements

Management is responsible for the consistency, integrity, and presentation of the information in the Annual Report. The consolidated financial statements and other information presented in this Annual Report have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and include necessary judgments and estimates by management.
To fulfill our responsibility, we maintain comprehensive systems of internal control designed to provide reasonable assurance that assets are safeguarded and transactions are executed in accordance with established procedures. The concept of reasonable assurance is based upon recognition that the cost of the controls should not exceed the benefit derived. We believe our systems of internal control provide this reasonable assurance.
The Board of Directors exercised its oversight role with respect to the Corporation's systems of internal control primarily through its Audit & Risk Committee, which is comprised of independent directors. The Committee oversees the Corporation's systems of internal control, accounting practices, financial reporting and audits to assess whether their quality, integrity, and objectivity are sufficient to protect shareholders' investments.
In addition, our consolidated financial statements have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, whose report also appears on this page.
/s/ Brian C. Cornell 
/s/ Michael J. Fiddelke
Brian C. Cornell
Chair of the Board and Chief Executive Officer


March 8, 2023
 Michael J. Fiddelke
Executive Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of
Target Corporation
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Target Corporation (the Corporation) as of January 28, 2023 and January 29, 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, cash flows and shareholders' investment for each of the three years in the period ended January 28, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Corporation at January 28, 2023 and January 29, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 28, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Corporation's internal control over financial reporting as of January 28, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated March 8, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Corporation's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Corporation’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Corporation in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
34

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
REPORTS

Valuation of Inventory and related Cost of Sales
Description of the Matter
At January 28, 2023, the Corporation’s inventory was $13,499 million. As described in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the Corporation accounts for the vast majority of its inventory under the retail inventory accounting method (RIM) using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method. RIM is an averaging method that has been widely used in the retail industry due to its practicality. Under RIM, inventory cost and the resulting gross margins are calculated by applying a cost-to-retail ratio to the inventory retail value.
Auditing inventory requires extensive audit effort including significant involvement of more experienced audit team members, including the involvement of our information technology (IT) professionals, given the relatively higher level of automation impacting the inventory process including the involvement of multiple information systems used to capture the high volume of transactions processed by the Corporation. Further, the inventory process is supported by a number of automated and IT dependent controls that elevate the importance of the IT general controls that support the underlying information systems utilized to process transactions.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Corporation’s inventory process, including the underlying IT general controls. For example, we tested automated controls performed by the Corporation’s information systems and controls over the completeness of data transfers between information systems used in performing the Corporation’s RIM calculation. Our audit procedures included, among others, testing the processing scenarios of the automated controls by evaluating configuration settings and performing a transaction walkthrough for each scenario.
Our audit procedures also included, among others, testing the key inputs into the RIM calculation, including purchases, sales, shortage, and price changes (markdowns) by comparing the key inputs back to source information such as third-party vendor invoices, third-party inventory count information and cash receipts. We also performed analytical procedures. For example, we performed predictive markdown analytics based on inquiries held with members of the merchant organization to assess the level of price changes within each category. In addition, we tested the existence of inventories by observing physical inventory counts for a sample of stores and distribution centers.
Valuation of Vendor Income Receivable
Description of the Matter
At January 28, 2023, the Corporation’s vendor income receivable totaled $526 million. As discussed in Note 5 of the consolidated financial statements, the Corporation receives consideration for a variety of vendor-sponsored programs, which are primarily recorded as a reduction of cost of sales when earned. The Corporation records a receivable for amounts earned but not yet received.
Auditing the Corporation's vendor income receivable was complex due to the estimation required in measuring the receivable. The estimate was sensitive to significant assumptions, such as forecasted vendor income collections, and estimating the time period over which the collections have been earned, which is primarily based on historical trending and data.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Corporation’s vendor income receivable process, including controls over management’s review of the significant assumptions described above.
To test the estimated vendor income receivable, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, assessing the estimation methodology used by management and evaluating the forecasted vendor income collections and the time period over which collections have been earned as used in the receivable estimation model. For a sample of the vendor rebates and concessions, we evaluated the nature and source of the inputs used and the terms of the contractual agreements. We recalculated the amount of the vendor income earned based on the inputs and the terms of the agreements. In addition, we recalculated the time period over which the vendor income collection had been earned to assess the accuracy of management’s estimates. We also performed sensitivity analyses of significant assumptions to evaluate the significance of changes in the receivable that would result from changes in assumptions.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Corporation's auditor since 1931.
Minneapolis, Minnesota
March 8, 2023
TARGET CORPORATION
tgt-20230128_g2.jpg
2022 Form 10-K
35

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
REPORTS

Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f). Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, we assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 28, 2023, based on the framework in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013), issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework). Based on our assessment, we conclude that the Corporation's internal control over financial reporting is effective based on those criteria.
Our internal control over financial reporting as of January 28, 2023, has been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm who has also audited our consolidated financial statements, as stated in their report which appears on this page.
/s/ Brian C. Cornell 
/s/ Michael J. Fiddelke
Brian C. Cornell
Chair of the Board and Chief Executive Officer


March 8, 2023
 Michael J. Fiddelke
Executive Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of
Target Corporation
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Target Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 28, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Target Corporation (the Corporation) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 28, 2023, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated statements of financial position of the Corporation as of January 28, 2023 and January 29, 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, cash flows and shareholders' investment for each of the three years in the period ended January 28, 2023, and the related notes and our report dated March 8, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
The Corporation’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Corporation in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
Minneapolis, Minnesota
March 8, 2023
TARGET CORPORATION
tgt-20230128_g2.jpg
2022 Form 10-K
36

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Consolidated Statements of Operations

(millions, except per share data)202220212020
Sales$107,588 $104,611 $92,400 
Other revenue1,532 1,394 1,161 
Total revenue109,120 106,005 93,561 
Cost of sales82,229 74,963 66,177 
Selling, general and administrative expenses20,658 19,752 18,615 
Depreciation and amortization (exclusive of depreciation included in cost of sales)
2,385 2,344 2,230 
Operating income
3,848 8,946 6,539 
Net interest expense478 421 977 
Net other (income) / expense(48)(382)16 
Earnings before income taxes3,418 8,907 5,546 
Provision for income taxes638 1,961 1,178 
Net earnings$2,780 $6,946 $4,368 
Basic earnings per share$6.02 $14.23 $8.72 
Diluted earnings per share$5.98 $14.10 $8.64 
Weighted average common shares outstanding   
Basic462.1 488.1 500.6 
Diluted464.7 492.7 505.4 
Antidilutive shares1.1   
Note: Per share amounts may not foot due to rounding.

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
37

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

(millions) 202220212020
Net earnings$2,780 $6,946 $4,368 
Other comprehensive income / (loss), net of tax
   
Pension benefit liabilities
(113)152 102 
Currency translation adjustment and cash flow hedges
247 51 10 
Other comprehensive income
134 203 112 
Comprehensive income
$2,914 $7,149 $4,480 

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
38

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position

(millions, except footnotes)January 28, 2023January 29, 2022
Assets  
Cash and cash equivalents$2,229 $5,911 
Inventory13,499 13,902 
Other current assets2,118 1,760 
Total current assets17,846 21,573 
Property and equipment  
Land6,231 6,164 
Buildings and improvements34,746 32,985 
Fixtures and equipment7,439 6,407 
Computer hardware and software3,039 2,505 
Construction-in-progress2,688 1,257 
Accumulated depreciation(22,631)(21,137)
Property and equipment, net31,512 28,181 
Operating lease assets2,657 2,556 
Other noncurrent assets1,320 1,501 
Total assets$53,335 $53,811 
Liabilities and shareholders' investment  
Accounts payable$13,487 $15,478 
Accrued and other current liabilities5,883 6,098 
Current portion of long-term debt and other borrowings130 171 
Total current liabilities
19,500 21,747 
Long-term debt and other borrowings16,009 13,549 
Noncurrent operating lease liabilities2,638 2,493 
Deferred income taxes2,196 1,566 
Other noncurrent liabilities1,760 1,629 
Total noncurrent liabilities22,603 19,237 
Shareholders' investment  
Common stock38 39 
Additional paid-in capital6,608 6,421 
Retained earnings5,005 6,920 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(419)(553)
Total shareholders' investment11,232 12,827 
Total liabilities and shareholders' investment$53,335 $53,811 
Common Stock Authorized 6,000,000,000 shares, $0.0833 par value; 460,346,947 shares issued and outstanding as of January 28, 2023; 471,274,073 shares issued and outstanding as of January 29, 2022.

Preferred Stock Authorized 5,000,000 shares, $0.01 par value; no shares were issued or outstanding during any period presented.

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

TARGET CORPORATION
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2022 Form 10-K
39

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(millions)202220212020
Operating activities   
Net earnings
$2,780 $6,946 $4,368 
Adjustments to reconcile net earnings to cash provided by operations:   
Depreciation and amortization2,700 2,642 2,485 
Share-based compensation expense220 228 200 
Deferred income taxes582 522 (184)
Gain on Dermstore sale (335) 
Loss on debt extinguishment  512 
Noncash losses / (gains) and other, net
172 67 86 
Changes in operating accounts:   
Inventory403 (3,249)(1,661)
Other assets22 (78)(137)
Accounts payable(2,237)2,628 2,925 
Accrued and other liabilities(624)(746)1,931 
Cash provided by operating activities4,018 8,625 10,525 
Investing activities   
Expenditures for property and equipment(5,528)(3,544)(2,649)
Proceeds from disposal of property and equipment8 27 42 
Proceeds from Dermstore sale 356  
Other investments16 7 16 
Cash required for investing activities