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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from   to  .
Commission File Number 1-5480
Textron Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware05-0315468
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
40 Westminster Street, Providence, RI
02903
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (401421-2800
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock — par value $0.125TXTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
______________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. xYes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act . ¨ Yes x No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. x Yes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). x Yes   ¨No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ◻
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  Yes   ¨ No
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b)  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  No
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates at July 1, 2023 was approximately $13.3 billion based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date. The registrant has no non-voting common equity.
At February 3, 2024, 192,853,981 shares of Common Stock were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Part III of this Report incorporates information from certain portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 24, 2024.



Table of Contents
Textron Inc.
Index to Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 30, 2023
Page
2


Table of Contents
PART I
Item 1. Business
Textron Inc. is a multi-industry company that leverages its global network of aircraft, defense, industrial and finance businesses to provide customers with innovative products and services around the world. References to “Textron Inc.,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise indicated, refer to Textron Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
We conduct our business through six operating segments: Textron Aviation, Bell, Textron Systems, Industrial and Textron eAviation, which represent our manufacturing businesses, and Finance, which represents our captive finance business. Our segments include numerous separately incorporated subsidiaries. Total revenues for 2023 were $13.7 billion and are presented below by segment and customer type.
866867
The following description of our business and operating segments should be read in conjunction with Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Textron Aviation Segment
Textron Aviation is a leader in general aviation. Textron Aviation manufactures, sells and services Cessna and Beechcraft aircraft, and services the Hawker brand of business jets. The segment has two principal product lines: aircraft and aftermarket parts and services. Aircraft includes sales of business jets, turboprop aircraft, military trainer and defense aircraft and piston engine aircraft. Aftermarket parts and services includes commercial parts sales and maintenance, inspection and repair services.
Textron Aviation's business jets include the Cessna Citation M2 Gen2, Citation CJ3 Gen2, Citation CJ4 Gen2, Citation XLS Gen2, Citation Latitude and the Citation Longitude. Textron Aviation’s turboprop aircraft include the Beechcraft King Air 260, King Air 360ER and King Air 360, and the Cessna Caravan, Grand Caravan EX and SkyCourier. In addition, Textron Aviation’s military trainer and defense aircraft include the Beechcraft T-6 trainer, which has been used to train pilots from more than 40 countries, and the AT-6 light attack military aircraft, which has achieved military type certification from the U.S. Air Force. Textron Aviation also offers piston engine aircraft including the Beechcraft Baron G58 and Bonanza G36, and the Cessna Skyhawk, Skylane, Turbo Skylane, and Turbo Stationair HD.
Textron Aviation markets its products worldwide through its own sales force, as well as through a network of authorized independent sales representatives. With a product lineup ranging from introductory training aircraft through super mid-size business jets, Textron Aviation’s diverse customer base includes fractional aircraft businesses, charter and fleet operators, corporate aviation, individual buyers, training schools, airlines, and special mission, military and government operators.
In support of its family of aircraft, Textron Aviation operates a global network of more than 20 service centers, two of which are co-located with Bell. In addition, more than 300 authorized independent service centers are located throughout the world. Textron Aviation-owned service centers provide customers with 24-hour service and maintenance. Textron Aviation also provides its customers with around-the-clock parts support and offers a mobile support program with over 80 mobile service units.
Textron Aviation is developing the Citation Ascend, a high-performance midsize business jet, which is expected to enter into service in 2025. The Beechcraft Denali, a high-performance single engine turboprop aircraft also under development, achieved its first flight in November 2021 and is in the certification process with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The Denali will be powered by an engine expected to be up to 20% more efficient than similarly sized engines.
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Table of Contents
Bell Segment
Bell is one of the leading suppliers of military and commercial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, and related spare parts and services in the world. Tiltrotor aircraft are designed to provide the benefits of both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.
Bell supplies advanced military helicopters and provides parts and support services to the U.S. Government and to military customers outside the United States. Bell’s major U.S. Government programs are for the production and support of V-22 tiltrotor aircraft, primarily for the U.S. Department of Defense; the development of the V-280 Valor, a next generation tiltrotor aircraft for the U.S. Army’s Future Long Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA) program; and production and support of H-1 helicopters for the U.S. Marine Corps. Under the U.S. Government-sponsored foreign military sales program, Bell offers the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft and H-1 helicopter products for sale to other countries.
The FLRAA development contract was awarded to Bell in December 2022 as part of the U.S. Army’s Future Vertical Lift (FVL) initiative. Bell is developing a tiltrotor aircraft, based on the V-280 Valor, to meet U.S. Army weapon system requirements. The V-280 Valor first flew in December 2017 and has conducted over 200 hours of flight testing.
Bell is also developing a new rotorcraft, the Bell 360 Invictus, for the U.S. Army's Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) Competitive Prototype Program, which is part of the U.S. government's FVL initiative. In March 2020, the U.S. Army selected the 360 Invictus to move to the second phase of the Competitive Prototype Program. Bell continues to progress on its development of the 360 Invictus Prototype under this phase of the cost-share program. On February 8, 2024, as part of plans to rebalance its aviation modernization investments, the U.S. Army announced plans to discontinue development of the FARA at the conclusion of FY24 prototyping activities.
Through its commercial business, Bell is a leading supplier of commercially certified helicopters and support to corporate, private, law enforcement, utility, public safety and emergency medical helicopter operators, and U.S. and foreign governments. Bell produces a variety of commercial aircraft types, including light single- and twin-engine helicopters and medium twin-engine helicopters, along with other related products. The commercial helicopters currently offered by Bell include the 429, 407GXi, 412EPX and 505 Jet Ranger X. Bell’s first super medium commercial helicopter, the 525 Relentless, is currently in the certification process with the FAA.
For both its military programs and its commercial products, Bell provides post-sale support and service for an installed base of approximately 13,000 helicopters. Bell operates a global network of eight Company-operated service centers, two of which are co-located with Textron Aviation, and four global parts distribution centers. In addition, approximately 85 independent service centers are located in about 35 countries. Collectively, these service sites offer a complete range of logistics support, including parts, support equipment, technical data, training devices, pilot and maintenance training, component repair and overhaul, engine repair and overhaul, aircraft modifications, aircraft customizing, accessory manufacturing, contractor maintenance, field service and product support engineering.
Textron Systems Segment
The businesses in our Textron Systems segment develop, manufacture and integrate a variety of products and services for U.S. and international military, government and commercial customers to support defense, homeland security, aerospace, infrastructure protection and other customer missions. Product and service offerings of this segment include electronic systems and solutions, advanced marine craft, piston aircraft engines, live military air-to-air and air-to-ship training, weapons and related components, unmanned aircraft systems and both manned and unmanned armored and specialty vehicles.
Notable products developed and produced by the Textron Systems segment include the Ship-to-Shore Connector, the U.S. Navy's next generation of Landing Craft Air Cushion vehicles; a family of test and simulation products; Shadow, the U.S. Army's premier tactical unmanned aircraft system; the Aerosonde Small Unmanned Aircraft System, a multi-mission capable unmanned aircraft system for commercial and military operations; and piston aircraft engines under the Lycoming brand. Notable service offerings of the segment include fee-for-service programs, using unmanned aircraft systems, and live military air-to-air and air-to-ship training and support services for U.S. Navy, Marine and Air Force personnel provided by Airborne Tactical Advantage Company.
Industrial Segment
Our Industrial segment designs and manufactures a variety of products within the Kautex and Specialized Vehicles product lines.
Kautex is a leader in designing and manufacturing plastic fuel systems for automobiles and light trucks, including blow-molded solutions for conventional plastic fuel tanks and pressurized plastic fuel tanks for hybrid vehicle applications.  Kautex also develops and manufactures clear-vision systems for automotive safety and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS).  Our cleaning systems are comprised of nozzles, reservoirs, inlets and pumps to support onboard cleaning for windscreens, headlamps and ADAS cameras and sensors. In addition, Kautex produces plastic tanks for selective catalytic reduction systems used to
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reduce emissions from diesel engines, and other fuel system components. Kautex has also developed and begun to offer lightweight, composite Pentatonic battery systems, which include enclosures, underbody protection and thermal management systems, for use in electric vehicles, from hybrid to full battery-powered.
Kautex’s business model is focused on developing and maintaining long-term customer relationships with leading global original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Kautex, which is headquartered in Bonn, Germany, operates over 30 plants in 13 countries in close proximity to its customers, along with 9 engineering/research and development locations around the world.
Our Specialized Vehicles product line includes products sold by the Textron Specialized Vehicles businesses under our E-Z-GO, Arctic Cat, TUG Technologies, Douglas Equipment, Premier, Safeaero, Ransomes, Jacobsen and Cushman brands. These businesses design, manufacture and sell golf cars; off-road utility vehicles; powersports products; light transportation vehicles; aviation ground support equipment; professional turf-maintenance equipment; and specialized turf-care vehicles. A significant portion of the products sold by these businesses are powered with lithium batteries, greatly reducing the products’ impact on the environment.
The diversified customer base for the Specialized Vehicles product line includes golf courses and resorts, government agencies and municipalities, consumers, outdoor enthusiasts, and commercial and industrial users such as factories, warehouses, airlines, planned communities, hunting preserves, educational and corporate campuses, sporting venues and landscaping professionals. Sales are made through a network of independent distributors and dealers worldwide and the Bass Pro Shops and Cabela's retail outlets, which sell our products under the Tracker Off Road brand, as well as factory direct resources. In addition, we also manufacture products for OEMs for resale to customers under the OEM’s branding.
Textron eAviation Segment
Our Textron eAviation segment includes Pipistrel, a manufacturer of light aircraft, along with other research and development initiatives related to sustainable aviation solutions. Pipistrel offers a family of light aircraft and gliders with both electric and combustion engines. Pipistrel’s Velis Electro is the world’s first, and currently only, electric aircraft to receive full type certification from the European Union Aviation Safety Agency and from the UK Civil Aviation Authority.
Finance Segment
Our Finance segment, or the Finance group, is a commercial finance business that consists of Textron Financial Corporation (TFC) and its consolidated subsidiaries. The Finance segment provides financing primarily to purchasers of new and pre-owned Textron Aviation aircraft and Bell helicopters. A substantial number of the originations in our finance receivable portfolio are cross-border transactions for aircraft sold outside of the U.S. In 2023 and 2022, our Finance group made payments of $160 million and $92 million, respectively, to finance the Manufacturing group's sale of Textron-manufactured products to third parties.  
Backlog
Backlog represents amounts allocated to contracts that we expect to recognize as revenue in future periods when we perform under the contracts. Backlog excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts, such as Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity contracts.
Our backlog at the end of 2023 and 2022 is summarized below:
(In millions)December 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Textron Aviation$7,169 $6,387 
Bell4,780 4,781 
Textron Systems1,950 2,098 
Total backlog$13,899 $13,266 
U.S. Government Contracts and Other Governmental Regulation
Our operations, products and services are subject to various government regulations, including regulations related to U.S. government business, international regulation of aviation products and services, and environmental regulations.
Contracts with the U.S. Government, including contracts under the U.S. Government-sponsored foreign military sales program, generated approximately 21% of our consolidated revenues in 2023, primarily in our Bell and Textron Systems segments. We must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. These laws and regulations, among other things, require certification and disclosure of all cost and pricing data in connection with contract negotiation; define allowable and unallowable costs and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based U.S. Government contracts; and safeguard and restrict the use and dissemination of
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classified and covered defense information and the export of certain products and technical data. New laws, regulations or procurement requirements, or changes to current ones, can significantly increase our costs, reducing our profitability.
Our contracts with the U.S. Government generally may be terminated by the U.S. Government for convenience or if we default in whole or in part by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. If the U.S. Government terminates a contract for convenience, we normally will be entitled to payment for the cost of contract work performed before the effective date of termination, including, if applicable, reasonable profit on such work, as well as reasonable termination costs. If, however, the U.S. Government terminates a contract for default, generally: (a) we will be paid the contract price for completed supplies delivered and accepted and services rendered, an agreed-upon amount for manufacturing materials delivered and accepted and for the protection and preservation of property, and an amount for partially completed products accepted by the U.S. Government; (b) the U.S. Government may not be liable for our costs with respect to unaccepted items and may be entitled to repayment of advance payments and progress payments related to the terminated portions of the contract; (c) the U.S. Government may not be liable for assets we own and utilize to provide services under the “fee-for-service” contracts; and (d) we may be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. Government in procuring undelivered items from another source. See Aerospace and Defense Industry section in Item 1A. Risk Factors for additional information related to regulation of U.S. Government business.
Our commercial aircraft manufacturing businesses are regulated by the FAA in the U.S. and by similar aviation regulatory governing authorities internationally, including, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Maintenance facilities and aftermarket services must also comply with FAA and international regulations. These regulations address production and quality systems, airworthiness and installation approvals, repair procedures and continuing operational safety. For an aircraft to be manufactured and sold, the model must receive a type certificate from the appropriate aviation authority, and each aircraft must receive a certificate of airworthiness. Aircraft outfitting and completions also require approval by the appropriate aviation authority. See Strategic Risks section in Item 1A. Risk Factors for additional information with respect to risks related to obtaining certification of new aircraft products.
Our operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations designed to protect the environment. For additional information regarding environmental matters, see Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and Business and Operational Risks and Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Other Matters sections in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Based on current information and the applicable laws and regulations currently in effect, compliance with government regulations, including environmental regulations, has not had, and we do not expect it to have, a material effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. However, laws and regulations may be changed or adopted that impose additional compliance requirements which could necessitate capital expenditures or otherwise increase our costs of doing business, reducing our profitability and negatively impacting our operating results.
Human Capital Resources
At December 30, 2023, we employed approximately 35,000 employees worldwide, with approximately 80% located in the U.S. and the remainder located outside of the U.S. Approximately 7,400, or 27%, of our U.S. employees, most of whom work for our Bell and Textron Aviation segments, are represented by unions under collective bargaining agreements, and certain of our non-U.S. employees are represented by organized works councils. From time to time our collective bargaining agreements expire. Historically, we have been successful in negotiating renewals to expiring agreements without any material disruption of operating activities, and management considers employee relations to be good.
Our success is highly dependent upon our ability to hire and retain a workforce with the skills necessary for our businesses to develop and manufacture the products desired by our customers. We need highly skilled personnel in multiple areas including, among others, engineering, manufacturing, information technology, cybersecurity, flight operations, business development and strategy and management. In order to attract and retain highly skilled employees, we offer comprehensive compensation and benefit programs, career opportunities and an engaging, inclusive environment where all employees are treated with dignity and respect.
Health and Safety
The health and safety of our employees, contractors and communities is a priority, and we strive to provide our employees with healthy working conditions and safe facilities. To maintain and enhance the safety of our employees, we promote a workplace safety culture of continuous improvement, shared responsibility, and individual accountability We use an annual goal setting process to drive injury rate improvements, and the injury rate reduction goal is a performance metric that is tracked and reported to senior leadership and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.
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Talent and Career Development
Our talent development programs are designed to prepare our employees at all levels to take on new career and growth opportunities at Textron. Leadership, professional and functional training courses are tailored for employees at each stage of their careers and include a mix of enterprise-wide and business unit-specific programs. Textron University, an internal corporate function, provides (i) facilitated face-to-face professional and leadership development programs, (ii) web-based general and specialized functional and technical courses and (iii) an online portal to access advanced skills technical training, manage recertification of existing qualifications and other career planning tools and resources.
The current and future talent needs of each of our businesses are assessed annually through a formal talent review process which enables us to develop leadership succession plans and provide our employees with potential new career opportunities. In addition, leaders from functional areas within each business belong to enterprise-wide councils which conduct annual talent reviews. These processes enable us to fill talent needs by matching employees who are ready to assume significant leadership roles with opportunities that best fit their career path, which may be in other businesses within the enterprise.
Textron is committed to having a diverse workforce and inclusive workplaces throughout our global operations. We believe by employing highly talented employees, who feel valued, respected and are able to contribute fully, we will improve performance, innovation, collaboration and talent retention, all of which contributes to stronger business results and reinforces our reputation as leaders in our industries and communities.
For discussion of certain risks relating to human capital management, see Risks Related to Human Capital section in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Patents and Trademarks
We own, or are licensed under, numerous patents throughout the world relating to products, services and methods of manufacturing. Patents developed while under contract with the U.S. Government may be subject to use by the U.S. Government. We also own or license active trademark registrations and pending trademark applications in the U.S. and in various foreign countries or regions, as well as trade names and service marks. While our intellectual property rights in the aggregate are important to the operation of our business, we do not believe that any existing patent, license, trademark or other intellectual property right is of such importance that its loss or termination would have a material adverse effect on our business taken as a whole.
Information about our Executive Officers
The following table sets forth certain information concerning our executive officers as of February 12, 2024.
NameAgeCurrent Position with Textron Inc.
Scott C. Donnelly62Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
Frank T. Connor64Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Julie G. Duffy58Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
E. Robert Lupone64Executive Vice President, General Counsel, Secretary and Chief Compliance Officer
Mr. Donnelly joined Textron in June 2008 as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer and was promoted to President and Chief Operating Officer in January 2009. He was appointed to the Board of Directors in October 2009 and became Chief Executive Officer of Textron in December 2009. In July 2010, Mr. Donnelly was appointed Chairman of the Board of Directors effective September 1, 2010. Previously, Mr. Donnelly was the President and CEO of General Electric Company’s Aviation business unit, a position he had held since July 2005. GE’s Aviation business unit is a leading maker of commercial and military jet engines and components, as well as integrated digital, electric power and mechanical systems for aircraft. Prior to July 2005, Mr. Donnelly served as Senior Vice President of GE Global Research, one of the world’s largest and most diversified industrial research organizations with facilities in the U.S., India, China and Germany and held various other management positions since joining General Electric in 1989.
Mr. Connor joined Textron in August 2009 as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Previously, Mr. Connor was head of Telecom Investment Banking at Goldman, Sachs & Co. from 2003 to 2008. Prior to that position, he served as Chief Operating Officer of Telecom, Technology and Media Investment Banking at Goldman, Sachs & Co. from 1998 to 2003. Mr. Connor joined the Corporate Finance Department of Goldman, Sachs & Co. in 1986 and became a Vice President in 1990 and a Managing Director in 1996.
Ms. Duffy was named Executive Vice President, Human Resources in July 2017 and Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer in April 2022. Ms. Duffy joined Textron in 1997 as a member of the corporate legal team and has since held positions of increasing responsibility within the Company’s legal function, previously serving as Vice President and Deputy General Counsel-Litigation, a position she had held since 2011. In that role she was responsible for managing the corporate
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litigation staff with primary oversight of litigation throughout Textron. She has also played an active role in developing, implementing and standardizing human resources policies across the Company and served as the senior legal advisor on employment and benefits issues.
Mr. Lupone joined Textron in February 2012 as Executive Vice President, General Counsel, Secretary and Chief Compliance Officer. Previously, he was senior vice president and general counsel of Siemens Corporation (U.S.) since 1999 and general counsel of Siemens AG for the Americas since 2008. Prior to joining Siemens in 1992, Mr. Lupone was vice president and general counsel of Price Communications Corporation.
Available Information
We make available free of charge on our Internet Web site (www.textron.com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Forward-Looking Information
Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other oral and written statements made by us from time to time are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements, which may describe strategies, goals, outlook or other non-historical matters, or project revenues, income, returns or other financial measures, often include words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “guidance,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “likely” or “may” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements. In addition to those factors described herein under “Risk Factors,” among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from past and projected future results are the following:
Interruptions in the U.S. Government’s ability to fund its activities and/or pay its obligations;
Changing priorities or reductions in the U.S. Government defense budget, including those related to military operations in foreign countries;
Our ability to perform as anticipated and to control costs under contracts with the U.S. Government;
The U.S. Government’s ability to unilaterally modify or terminate its contracts with us for the U.S. Government’s convenience or for our failure to perform, to change applicable procurement and accounting policies, or, under certain circumstances, to withhold payment or suspend or debar us as a contractor eligible to receive future contract awards;
Changes in foreign military funding priorities or budget constraints and determinations, or changes in government regulations or policies on the export and import of military and commercial products;
Volatility in the global economy or changes in worldwide political conditions that adversely impact demand for our products;
Volatility in interest rates or foreign exchange rates and inflationary pressures;
Risks related to our international business, including establishing and maintaining facilities in locations around the world and relying on joint venture partners, subcontractors, suppliers, representatives, consultants and other business partners in connection with international business, including in emerging market countries;
Our Finance segment’s ability to maintain portfolio credit quality or to realize full value of receivables;
Performance issues with key suppliers or subcontractors;
Legislative or regulatory actions, both domestic and foreign, impacting our operations or demand for our products;
Our ability to control costs and successfully implement various cost-reduction activities;
The efficacy of research and development investments to develop new products or unanticipated expenses in connection with the launching of significant new products or programs;
The timing of our new product launches or certifications of our new aircraft products;
Our ability to keep pace with our competitors in the introduction of new products and upgrades with features and technologies desired by our customers;
Pension plan assumptions and future contributions;
Demand softness or volatility in the markets in which we do business;
Cybersecurity threats, including the potential misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, corruption of data or operational disruption;
Difficulty or unanticipated expenses in connection with integrating acquired businesses;
The risk that acquisitions do not perform as planned, including, for example, the risk that acquired businesses will not achieve revenue and profit projections;
The impact of changes in tax legislation;
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The risk of disruptions to our business and the business of our suppliers, customers and other business partners due to unexpected events, such as pandemics, natural disasters, acts of war, strikes, terrorism, social unrest or other societal or political conditions; and
The ability of our businesses to hire and retain the highly skilled personnel necessary for our businesses to succeed.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business, financial condition and results of operations are subject to various risks, including those discussed below, which may affect the value of our securities. The risks discussed below are those that we believe currently are the most significant to our business.
Aerospace and Defense Industry Risks
Demand for our aircraft products is cyclical and lower demand adversely affects our financial results.
Demand for business jets, turbo props and commercial helicopters has been cyclical and difficult to forecast. The demand for our aircraft products has been adversely impacted by unexpected events and may be impacted by such events in the future. Therefore, future demand for these products could be significantly and unexpectedly less than anticipated and/or less than previous period deliveries. Similarly, there is uncertainty as to when or whether our existing commercial backlog for aircraft products will convert to revenues as the conversion depends on production capacity, customer needs and credit availability, among other factors. Changes in economic conditions have in the past caused, and in the future may cause, customers to request that firm orders be rescheduled, deferred or cancelled. Reduced demand for our aircraft products or delays or cancellations of orders previously has had and, in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.
We have customer concentration with the U.S. Government; reduction in U.S. Government defense spending can adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
During 2023, we derived approximately 21% of our revenues from sales to a variety of U.S. Government entities.  Our revenues from the U.S. Government largely result from contracts awarded to us under various U.S. Government defense-related programs. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding how future budget and program decisions will develop. We cannot predict the impact on existing, follow-on or future programs from changes in the threat environment, defense spending levels, government priorities, political leadership, procurement practices, inflation and other macroeconomic trends, military strategy, or broader societal changes. Significant changes in national and international priorities for defense spending could affect the funding, or the timing of funding, of our programs, which could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

The funding of U.S. Government defense programs is subject to congressional appropriation decisions and the U.S. Government budget process which includes enacting relevant legislation, such as appropriations bills and accords on the debt ceiling. Although multiple-year contracts may be planned in connection with major procurements, Congress generally appropriates funds on a fiscal year basis even though a program may continue for several years. Consequently, programs often are only partially funded initially, and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. Further uncertainty with respect to ongoing programs could also result in the event that the U.S. Government finances its operations through temporary funding measures such as “continuing resolutions” rather than full-year appropriations or if a government shutdown were to occur and were to continue for an extended period of time. If we incur costs in advance or in excess of funds committed on a contract, we are at risk for non-reimbursement of those costs until additional funds are appropriated.  The reduction, termination or delay in the timing of funding for U.S. Government programs for which we currently provide or propose to provide products or services from time to time has resulted and, in the future, may result in a loss of anticipated revenues. A loss of such revenues could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, because our U.S. Government contracts generally require us to continue to perform even if the U.S. Government is unable to make timely payments, we may need to finance our continued performance for the impacted contracts from our other resources on an interim basis.  An extended delay in the timely payment by the U.S. Government could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.

U.S. Government contracts can be terminated at any time and may contain other unfavorable provisions.
The U.S. Government typically can terminate or modify any of its contracts with us either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. In the event of termination for the U.S. Government’s convenience, contractors are generally protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contracts and profit on those costs but not the anticipated profit that would have been earned had the contract been completed. A termination arising out of our default for failure to perform could expose us to liability, including but not limited to, all costs incurred under the contract plus potential liability for re-procurement costs in excess of the total original contract amount, less the value of work performed and accepted by the customer under the contract. Such an event could also have an adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. If any of our contracts are terminated by the U.S. Government whether for convenience or default, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the remaining work under such contracts. We also enter into “fee for service” contracts with the U.S. Government where we retain ownership of, and consequently the risk of loss on, aircraft and equipment
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supplied to perform under these contracts. Termination of these contracts could materially and adversely impact our results of operations. On contracts for which we are teamed with others and are not the prime contractor, the U.S. Government could terminate a prime contract under which we are a subcontractor, irrespective of the quality of our products and services as a subcontractor. In addition, in the event that the U.S. Government is unable to make timely payments, failure to continue contract performance places the contractor at risk of termination for default. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.
As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to procurement rules and regulations; our failure to comply with these rules and regulations could adversely affect our business.
We must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. These laws and regulations, among other things, require certification and disclosure of all cost and pricing data in connection with contract negotiation, define allowable and unallowable costs and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based U.S. Government contracts, and safeguard and restrict the use and dissemination of classified information, covered defense information, and the exportation of certain products and technical data. New laws, regulations or procurement requirements or changes to current ones (including, for example, regulations related to cybersecurity) can significantly increase our costs, reducing our profitability. Our failure to comply with procurement regulations and requirements could allow the U.S. Government to suspend or debar us from receiving new contracts for a period of time, reduce the value of existing contracts, issue modifications to a contract, withhold cash on contract payments, and control and potentially prohibit the export of our products, services and associated materials, any of which could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. A number of our U.S. Government contracts contain provisions that require us to make disclosure to the Inspector General of the agency that is our customer if we have credible evidence that we have violated U.S. criminal laws involving fraud, conflict of interest, or bribery; the U.S. civil False Claims Act; or received a significant overpayment under a U.S. Government contract. Failure to properly and timely make disclosures under these provisions may result in a termination for default or cause, suspension and/or debarment, and potential fines.
As a U.S. Government contractor, our businesses and systems are subject to audit and review by the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) and the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA).
We operate in a highly regulated environment and are routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. Government and its agencies such as the DCAA and DCMA. These agencies review our performance under contracts, our cost structure and our compliance with laws and regulations applicable to U.S. Government contractors. The systems that are subject to review include, but are not limited to, our accounting, estimating, material management and accounting, earned value management, purchasing and government property systems. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions that may include the termination of our contracts, forfeiture or reduction of profits, suspension or reduction of payments, fines, and, under certain circumstances, suspension or debarment from future contracts for a period of time. Whether or not illegal activities are alleged, the U.S. Government also has the ability to decrease or withhold certain payments when it deems systems subject to its review to be inadequate.  These laws and regulations affect how we conduct business with our government customers and, in some instances, impose added costs on our business.
Our profitability and cash flow varies depending on the mix of our government contracts and our ability to control costs.
Under fixed-price contracts, generally we receive a fixed price irrespective of the actual costs we incur, and, consequently, we absorb any costs in excess of the fixed price. Changes in underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates used in developing the pricing for such contracts can adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, fixed-price contracts generally require progress payments rather than performance-based payments which can delay our ability to recover a significant amount of costs incurred on a contract and thus affect the timing of our cash flows. Under fixed-price incentive contracts, we share with the U.S. Government cost underrun savings, which are derived from total cost being less than target costs; we also share in cost overruns, which occur when total costs exceed target costs up to a negotiated cost ceiling; however, we are solely responsible for costs above the ceiling. Under time and materials contracts, we are paid for labor at negotiated hourly billing rates and for certain expenses. Under cost-reimbursement contracts that are subject to a contract-ceiling amount, we are reimbursed for allowable costs and paid a fee, which may be fixed or performance-based; however, if our costs exceed the contract ceiling or are not allowable under the provisions of the contract or applicable regulations, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement for all such costs.  Due to the nature of our work under government contracts, we sometimes experience unforeseen technological or schedule difficulties and cost overruns due to inflation, labor shortages, supply chain challenges and/or other factors. Under each type of contract, if we are unable to control costs or if our initial cost estimates are incorrect, our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. Cost overruns also may adversely affect our ability to sustain existing programs and obtain future contract awards.
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The market for U.S. Government defense business is highly competitive, and the competitive bidding process increases pricing pressure and cost which may affect our ability to win new contracts for major government programs.
Our defense businesses operate in highly competitive markets in which they participate in rigorous, increasingly competitive bidding processes against other defense companies for U.S. government business. The U.S. Government relies upon competitive contract award types, including indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity, other transaction agreements and multi-award contracts, which often create increased pricing pressure and increase our cost by requiring that we submit multiple bids or share in costs. In addition, multi-award contracts increase our cost as they require that we make sustained efforts to compete for task orders and delivery orders under the contract. Further, the competitive bidding process is costly, in some instances requires significant research and development and/or engineering efforts to participate and demands employee and managerial time to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that may not be awarded to us or may be split among competitors.

Despite our best efforts, the U.S. Government customer sometimes chooses competitor's offerings over our offerings and there can be no assurance that our businesses will be selected for government programs with significant long-term revenues. Even if we are successful in obtaining an award, we have in the past and may in the future encounter bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards. Bid protests could result in significant expenses associated with justifying the selection or due to potential program delays and could result in contract modifications that alter schedule or scope or even cause the loss of the contract award. Even when a bid protest does not result in the loss of a contract award, the resolution could postpone commencement of contract activity, resulting in additional cost and delay in the recognition of revenue and profit. If we are unable to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors, do not win government programs with significant long-term revenues or do not prevail in bid protests, we may experience declines in future revenues and profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Strategic Risks
Developing new products and technologies entails significant risks and uncertainties.
To continue to grow our revenues and segment profit, we must successfully develop new products and technologies or modify our existing products and technologies for our current and future markets. Our future performance depends, in part, on our ability to identify emerging technological trends and customer requirements and to develop and maintain competitive products and services. Delays or cost overruns in the development and acceptance of new products or certification of new aircraft and other products occur from time to time and could adversely affect our results of operations. These delays or cost overruns could be caused by unanticipated technological hurdles, production changes to meet customer demands, unanticipated difficulties in obtaining required regulatory certifications of new aircraft or other products, or failure on the part of our suppliers to deliver components as agreed. We also could be adversely affected if our research and development efforts are less successful than expected or if these efforts require significantly more funding to achieve our goals than anticipated. In particular, the success of Textron eAviation depends in large part, on our ability to develop and certify new electric and hybrid electric aircraft products in order to achieve our long-term strategy of offering a family of sustainable aircraft for urban air mobility, general aviation, cargo and special mission roles. In addition, new products and technologies could generate unanticipated safety or other concerns resulting in expanded product liability risks, potential product recalls and other regulatory issues that could have an adverse impact on us. Furthermore, because of the lengthy research and development cycle involved in bringing certain of our products to market, we cannot predict the economic conditions that will exist when any new product is complete, and the market for our product offerings does not always develop or continue to expand as we anticipate.
A reduction in capital spending in the aerospace or defense industries could have a significant effect on the demand for new products and technologies under development, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our investments in equipment or technology that we believe will enable us to obtain future contracts for our U.S. Government or other customers may not result in contracts or revenues sufficient to offset such investment. We cannot be sure that our competitors will not develop competing technologies which gain superior market acceptance compared to our products.  A significant failure in our new product development efforts, a substantial change to schedule, a material change in an anticipated market or the failure of our products or services to achieve customer acceptance relative to our competitors’ products or services, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We have made and may continue to make acquisitions that increase the risks of our business.
We enter into acquisitions with the intention of expanding our business and enhancing shareholder value. Acquisitions involve risks and uncertainties that, in some cases, have resulted, and, in the future, could result in our not achieving expected benefits.  Such risks include difficulties in integrating newly acquired businesses and operations in an efficient and cost-effective manner; challenges in achieving expected strategic objectives, cost savings and other benefits; the risk that the acquired businesses’ markets do not evolve as anticipated and that the acquired businesses’ products and technologies do not prove to be those needed to be successful in those markets; the risk that our due diligence reviews of the acquired business do not identify or adequately assess all of the material issues which impact valuation of the business or result in costs or liabilities in excess of what we anticipated; the risk that we pay a purchase price that exceeds what the future results of operations would have merited; the risk
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that the acquired business may have significant internal control deficiencies or exposure to regulatory sanctions; and the potential loss of key customers, suppliers and employees of the acquired businesses.
Business and Operational Risks
Risks arising from uncertainty in global macroeconomic conditions may harm our business.
We are sensitive to global macroeconomic conditions. Negative macroeconomic factors may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as on our distributors, customers and suppliers, and on activity in many of the industries and markets we serve. We cannot predict changes in worldwide or regional economic or political conditions and government policies as such factors are highly volatile and beyond our control. If current macroeconomic pressures, including from inflation and labor and supply chain challenges, continue or if global macroeconomic conditions deteriorate and remain at depressed levels for extended periods, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Our business could be negatively impacted by cybersecurity threats and other disruptions.
Our information technology (IT) and related systems are critical to the efficient operation of our business and essential to our ability to perform day to day processes. As a U.S. defense contractor, we face persistent security threats, including threats to our IT infrastructure and unlawful attempts to gain access to our information via phishing/malware campaigns and other cyberattack methods, as well as threats to the physical security of our facilities and employees, as do our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and joint venture partners. Attempts to gain unauthorized access to our confidential, classified or otherwise proprietary information or that of our employees or customers, as well as other security breaches, are persistent, continue to evolve and require highly skilled IT resources.
While we have experienced cybersecurity attacks, such attacks have not resulted in a material information security breach and we have not suffered any material losses relating to such attacks. Due to the evolving nature of security threats, the possibility of future material incidents cannot be completely mitigated, and we may not always be successful in timely detecting, reporting or responding to cyber incidents. Future attacks or breaches of data security, whether of our systems or the systems of our service providers or other third parties who may have access to our data for business purposes, could disrupt our operations, cause the loss of business information or compromise confidential information, exposing us to liability or regulatory action. Such an incident also could require significant management attention and resources, increase costs that may not be covered by insurance, and result in reputational damage, potentially adversely affecting our competitiveness and our results of operations. Products and services that we provide to our customers may themselves be subject to cyberthreats which may not be detected or effectively mitigated, resulting in potential losses that could adversely affect us and our customers. In addition, our customers, including the U.S. Government, are increasingly requiring cybersecurity protections and mandating cybersecurity standards in our products, and we may incur additional costs to comply with such demands.
Challenges faced by our subcontractors or suppliers could materially and adversely affect our performance.
We rely on other companies to provide raw materials, major components and subsystems for our products. Subcontractors also perform services that we provide to our customers in certain circumstances. We depend on these suppliers and subcontractors to meet our contractual obligations to our customers and conduct our operations. Our ability to meet our obligations to our customers could be adversely affected if suppliers or subcontractors do not provide the agreed-upon supplies or perform the agreed-upon services in compliance with customer requirements and in a timely and cost-effective manner. Likewise, the quality of our products could be adversely impacted if companies to whom we delegate manufacture of major components or subsystems for our products, or from whom we acquire such items, do not provide components or subsystems which meet required specifications and perform to our and our customers’ expectations. Our businesses are experiencing and may continue to experience manufacturing inefficiencies and production delays as a result of shortages and delays of critical components for our products and other issues related to our direct or indirect suppliers. Suppliers may be unable to quickly recover from natural disasters, acts of war, and other events beyond their control and may be subject to additional risks such as material or labor shortages, inflationary conditions or other financial problems that limit their ability to conduct their operations, resulting in their inability to perform as anticipated. As a result, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, cost increases for certain materials and components which, along with increased energy and shipping costs and other inflationary pressures, have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, our profitability. The risk of these adverse effects would likely be greater in circumstances where we rely on only one or two subcontractors or suppliers for a particular raw material, product or service. In particular, in the aircraft industry, most vendor parts are certified by the regulatory agencies as part of the overall Type Certificate for the aircraft being produced by the manufacturer. If a vendor does not or cannot supply its parts, then the manufacturer’s production line may be stopped until the manufacturer can design, manufacture and certify a similar part itself or identify and certify another similar vendor’s part, resulting in significant delays in the completion of aircraft. Such events may adversely affect our financial results, damage our reputation and relationships with our customers, and result in regulatory actions and/or litigation.
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We are subject to the risks of doing business in foreign countries that could adversely impact our business.
During 2023, we derived approximately 32% of our revenues from international business, including U.S. exports. Conducting business internationally exposes us to additional risks than if we conducted our business solely within the U.S. We maintain manufacturing facilities, service centers, supply centers and other facilities worldwide, including in various emerging market countries. Risks related to international operations include import, export, economic sanctions and other trade restrictions; changing U.S. and foreign procurement policies and practices; changes in international trade policies, including higher tariffs on imported goods and materials and renegotiation of free trade agreements; potential retaliatory tariffs imposed by foreign countries against U.S. goods; impacts on our non-U.S. suppliers and customers due to acts of war or terrorism occurring internationally; restrictions on technology transfer; difficulties in protecting intellectual property; increasing complexity of employment and environmental, health and safety regulations; foreign investment laws; exchange controls; repatriation of earnings or cash settlement challenges; compliance with increasingly rigorous data privacy and protection laws; competition from foreign and multinational firms with home country advantages; economic and government instability; acts of industrial espionage, acts of war and terrorism and related safety concerns. The impact of any one or more of these or other factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.
Additionally, some international government customers require contractors to agree to specific in-country purchases, technology transfers, manufacturing agreements or financial support arrangements, known as offsets, as a condition for a contract award. These contracts generally extend over several years and may include penalties if we fail to perform in accordance with the offset requirements which are often subjective. We also are exposed to risks associated with using foreign representatives and consultants for international sales and operations and teaming with international subcontractors and suppliers in connection with international programs. In many foreign countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it is common to engage in business practices that are prohibited by laws and regulations applicable to us, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Although we maintain policies and procedures designed to facilitate compliance with these laws, a violation of such laws by any of our international representatives, consultants, joint ventures, business partners, subcontractors or suppliers, even if prohibited by our policies, could have an adverse effect on our business and reputation.
Natural disasters or other events outside of our control have disrupted and may in the future disrupt our operations, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, and may not be fully covered by insurance.
Natural disasters, including hurricanes, fires, tornados, floods and other forms of severe weather, the intensity and frequency of which are being exacerbated by climate change, along with other impacts of climate change, such as rising sea waters, as well as other events outside of our control including public health crises, pandemics, power outages and industrial accidents, have in the past and could in the future disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business. Any of these events could result in physical damage to and/or complete or partial closure of one or more of our facilities and temporary or long-term disruption of our operations or the operations of our suppliers by causing business interruptions or by impacting the availability and cost of materials needed for manufacturing or otherwise impacting our ability to deliver products and services to our customers. Existing insurance arrangements may not provide full protection for the costs that may arise from such events. The occurrence of any of these events could materially increase our costs and expenses and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Financial Risks
If our Finance segment has difficulty collecting on its finance receivables, our financial performance could be adversely affected.
The financial performance of our Finance segment depends on the quality of loans, leases and other assets in its portfolio. Portfolio quality can be adversely affected by several factors, including finance receivable underwriting procedures, collateral value, geographic or industry concentrations, and the effect of general economic conditions. In addition, a substantial number of the originations in our finance receivable portfolio are cross-border transactions for aircraft sold outside of the U.S. Cross-border transactions present additional challenges and risks in the event of borrower default, which can result in difficulty or delay in collecting on the related finance receivables. If our Finance segment has difficulty successfully collecting on its finance receivable portfolio, our cash flow, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We periodically need to obtain financing and such financing may not be available to us on satisfactory terms, if at all.
We periodically need to obtain financing in order to meet our debt obligations as they come due, to support our operations and/or to make acquisitions. Our access to the debt capital markets and the cost of borrowings are affected by a number of factors including market conditions and the strength of our credit ratings. If we cannot obtain adequate sources of credit on favorable terms, or at all, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
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Unanticipated changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our profitability.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and various non-U.S. jurisdictions, and our domestic and international tax liabilities are subject to the location of income among these different jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in the amount of earnings indefinitely reinvested offshore, changes to unrecognized tax benefits or changes in tax laws, which could affect our profitability. In particular, the carrying value of deferred tax assets is dependent on our ability to generate future taxable income, as well as changes to applicable statutory tax rates. In addition, the amount of income taxes we pay is subject to audits in various jurisdictions, and a material assessment by a tax authority could affect our profitability.
Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Other Matters
We are subject to increasing compliance risks that could adversely affect our operating results.
As a global business, we are subject to laws and regulations in the U.S. and other countries in which we operate. International sales and global operations require importing and exporting goods, software and technology, some of which have military applications subjecting them to more stringent import-export controls across international borders on a regular basis. For example, we sometimes initially must obtain licenses and authorizations from various U.S. Government agencies before we are permitted to sell certain of our aerospace and defense products outside the U.S., and we are not always successful in obtaining these licenses or authorizations in a timely manner. Both U.S. and foreign laws and regulations applicable to us have been increasing in scope and complexity. For example, both U.S. and foreign governments and government agencies regulate the aviation industry, and they have previously and may in the future impose new regulations for additional aircraft security or other requirements or restrictions. New or changing laws and regulations or related interpretation and policies could increase our costs of doing business, affect how we conduct our operations, adversely impact demand for our products, and/or limit our ability to sell our products and services. Compliance with laws and regulations of increasing scope and complexity is even more challenging in our business environment in which reducing our operating costs is often necessary to remain competitive. In addition, a violation of U.S. and/or foreign laws by one of our employees or business partners could subject us or our employees to civil or criminal penalties, including material monetary fines, or other adverse actions, such as denial of import or export privileges and/or debarment as a government contractor which could damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business.
Certain of our products are subject to laws regulating consumer products and could be subject to repurchase or recall as a result of safety issues.
As a distributor of consumer products in the U.S., certain of our products are subject to the Consumer Product Safety Act, which empowers the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to exclude from the market products that are found to be unsafe or hazardous. Under certain circumstances, the CPSC has in the past and could require in the future us to repair, replace or refund the purchase price of one or more of our products, or potentially even discontinue entire product lines. We also may voluntarily take such action and, from time to time, have done so, but within strictures recommended by the CPSC. The CPSC also can impose fines or penalties on a manufacturer for non-compliance with its requirements. Furthermore, failure to timely notify the CPSC of a potential safety hazard can result in significant fines being assessed against us. Any repurchases or recalls of our products or an imposition of fines or penalties could be costly to us and could damage the reputation or the value of our brands. Additionally, laws regulating certain consumer products exist in some states, as well as in other countries in which we sell our products, and more restrictive laws and regulations could be adopted in the future.
Increased regulation and stakeholder expectations related to global climate change could negatively affect our operating results.
Increased worldwide public awareness and concern regarding global climate change has resulted and is likely to continue to result in more legislative and regulatory efforts to address the negative impacts of climate change. Such laws and regulations are likely to include more prescriptive reporting on environmental metrics, climate change related risks and associated financial impacts, as well as increased oversight of and reporting on our supply chain and other compliance requirements. Stricter limits on greenhouse gas emissions generated by our facilities or by our products that produce carbon emissions could also be imposed. We expect that compliance with such laws and regulations will require additional internal resources and may necessitate larger investment in product development and manufacturing equipment and/or facilities, as well as sourcing from new suppliers and/or higher costs from existing suppliers, all of which would increase our direct and indirect costs and negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and competitive position. Our failure to adequately comply with such laws and regulations could jeopardize our ability to receive contract awards from the U.S. government and other customers.
Moreover, our investors, customers, employees and other stakeholders increasingly expect us to reduce greenhouse gas emissions generated by our operations by implementing more efficient manufacturing technologies and increasing the amount of renewable energy used within our facilities. While we are engaged in efforts to transition to a lower carbon economy by reducing the emissions generated by our operations and increasing our use of renewable energy, these efforts take time and resources and may increase our energy acquisition and other costs and require capital investment. In addition, our stakeholders expect us to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of our products, including by developing and incorporating sustainable technologies into
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our products. We expect that most of our businesses will require significant research and development investment to succeed in developing the new technologies and products that will enable us to significantly reduce such emissions from the use of our products and successfully compete in a lower carbon economy. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of our investments and actions for a variety of reasons, including technological challenges, evolving government and customer requirements and our ability to anticipate them and develop the desired technologies and products on a timely basis. Our competitors may develop these technologies and products before we do and they may be deemed by our customers to be superior to technologies and products we may develop, and they may otherwise gain industry acceptance in advance of, or instead of, our products. In addition, as we and our competitors develop increasingly sustainable technologies, demand for our existing offerings may decrease or become nonexistent.
We are subject to legal proceedings and other claims.
We are subject to legal proceedings and other claims arising out of the conduct of our business, including proceedings and claims relating to commercial and financial transactions; government contracts; alleged lack of compliance with applicable laws and regulations; disputes with suppliers, production partners or other third parties; product liability; patent and trademark infringement; employment disputes; and environmental, safety and health matters. Due to the nature of our manufacturing business, we are regularly subject to liability claims arising from accidents involving our products, including claims for serious personal injuries or death caused by weather or by pilot, driver or user error. In the case of litigation matters for which reserves have not been established because the loss is not deemed probable, it is reasonably possible that such claims could be decided against us and could require us to pay damages or make other expenditures in amounts that are not presently estimable. In addition, we cannot be certain that our reserves are adequate and that our insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover one or more substantial claims. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain insurance coverage at acceptable levels and costs in the future. Litigation is inherently unpredictable, and we could incur judgments, receive adverse arbitration awards or enter into settlements for current or future claims that could adversely affect our results of operations in any particular period.
Intellectual property infringement claims of others and the inability to protect our intellectual property rights could harm our business and our customers.
Intellectual property infringement claims are, from time to time, asserted by third parties against us or our customers. Any related indemnification payments or legal costs we are obliged to pay on behalf of our businesses, our customers or other third parties can be costly. Infringement claims also have resulted in legal restrictions on our businesses engaging in sales of allegedly infringing products. If such a restriction were imposed upon a material product line, our business and results of operations could be adversely impacted. In addition, we own the rights to many patents, trademarks, brand names, trade names and trade secrets that are important to our business. Our inability to enforce these intellectual property rights could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Additionally, our intellectual property could be at risk due to cybersecurity threats.
Risks Related to Human Capital
Our success is highly dependent on our ability to hire and retain a qualified workforce.
Our success is highly dependent upon our ability to hire and retain a workforce with the skills necessary for our businesses to develop and manufacture the products desired by our customers. We need highly skilled personnel in multiple areas including, among others, engineering, manufacturing, information technology, cybersecurity, flight operations, business development and strategy and management. Because many of our businesses experience cyclical market demand, they face challenges in maintaining their workforce at levels aligned with market demand which in the past has necessitated workforce reductions at some of our businesses as demand decreased. Conversely, our businesses sometimes need to increase the size of their workforce in order to keep pace with production needs due to increased customer demand. Furthermore, for our defense businesses the uncertainty of being awarded follow-on contracts and the related timing can also present difficulties in matching workforce size with contract needs. Such challenges in aligning the size of our businesses’ workforces with current or future business needs have resulted and may, in the future result in increased costs, production delays or other adverse impacts on our business and results of operations.
In addition, from time to time we face challenges that may impact employee retention, such as workforce reductions and facility consolidations and closures, and some of our most experienced employees are retirement-eligible which may adversely impact retention. To the extent that we lose experienced personnel through retirement or otherwise, it is critical for us to develop other employees, hire new qualified employees and successfully manage the transfer of critical knowledge. Competition for skilled employees is intense, and we may incur higher labor, recruiting and/or training costs in order to attract and retain employees with the requisite skills. We may not be successful in hiring or retaining such employees which could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
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The increasing costs of certain employee and retiree benefits could adversely affect our results.
Our results of operations and cash flows may be adversely impacted by increasing costs and funding requirements related to our employee benefit plans. The obligation for our defined benefit pension plans is driven by, among other things, our assumptions of the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets and the discount rate used for future payment obligations. Additionally, as part of our annual evaluation of these plans, significant changes in our assumptions, due to changes in economic, legislative and/or demographic experience or circumstances, or changes in our actual investment returns could negatively impact the funded status of our plans requiring us to substantially increase our pension liability with a resulting decrease in shareholders’ equity. Also, changes in pension legislation and regulations could increase the cost associated with our defined benefit pension plans.
Our business could be adversely affected by strikes or work stoppages and other labor issues.
Approximately 7,400, or 27%, of our U.S. employees are unionized, and many of our non-U.S. employees are represented by organized councils. As a result, from time to time we experience work stoppages, which can negatively impact our ability to manufacture our products on a timely basis, resulting in strain on our relationships with our customers, loss or delay of revenues and/or increased cost. The presence of unions also may limit our flexibility in responding to competitive pressures in the marketplace. In addition, the workforces of many of our suppliers and customers are represented by labor unions. Work stoppages or strikes at the plants of our key suppliers could disrupt our manufacturing processes; similar actions at the plants of our customers could result in delayed or canceled orders for our products. Any of these events could adversely affect our results of operations.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Overview
Our IT and related systems are critical to the efficient operation of our business and essential to our ability to perform day to day processes. We face persistent security threats, including threats to our IT infrastructure and unlawful attempts to gain access to our confidential, classified or otherwise proprietary information, or that of our employees or customers, via phishing/malware campaigns and other cyberattack methods.
Our centrally defined security policies and processes are based on industry best practices and are revisited regularly to ensure their appropriateness based on risk, threats and current technological capabilities. We monitor compliance with these policies and processes through frequent internal audits and a set of robust metrics that assist in protection of our environment. As a U.S. defense contractor, we are additionally obligated to comply with current Department of Defense regulations such as Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement and the evolving Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification guidelines.
We maintain Information Systems Incident Management Standards applicable to all our businesses that are intended to ensure information security events and weaknesses associated with information systems are communicated and acted on in a timely manner. Our disclosure controls and procedures address cybersecurity and include processes intended to ensure that security breaches are reported to appropriate personnel and, if warranted, analyzed for potential disclosure. While we have experienced cybersecurity attacks, such attacks to date have not materially affected the Company or our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.
Governance
Board Oversight of Cybersecurity Matters
Oversight of information security matters is conducted by our full Board of Directors. The Board annually receives a comprehensive presentation on information security and controls from our Chief Information Officer (CIO) and, as may be necessary for specific topics, follow up occurs at additional meetings during the course of the year.
Management of Cybersecurity Risks
Textron Information Services is led by our CIO who has held positions of increasing responsibility within our corporate, Bell and Textron Systems IT organizations since 2008, including leading the IT organizations at both segments in maintaining compliance with U.S. Department of Defense information security requirements, as well as with our enterprise information security policies and standards. He previously led strategic IT projects and teams responsible for delivering global IT solutions for several large U.S. based companies.
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Our corporate information security organization, led by our Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who reports to our CIO, is responsible for our overall information security strategy, policy, security engineering, operations and cyber threat detection and response. Our CISO has more than 20 years of experience in the field of information security and holds multiple cybersecurity certifications including the designation of Certified Information Systems Security Professional.
Risk Management
Cybersecurity related risks have been identified as material business risks, and identifying, assessing and managing these risks is integrated into our Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) process, which is designed to identify, assess and guide in managing material risks throughout Textron at both the business segment and enterprise levels. We maintain cyber risk/network protection mitigation plans through our ERM process to assist in management of these risks. Our full Board oversees our ERM process through discussions at our Board of Directors’ Annual Strategic Business and Risk Review and at an annual dedicated ERM Review. In addition, high risk areas, including cybersecurity matters, are reviewed and discussed with the full Board or other Board Committees, as appropriate. The Audit Committee, as reflected in its charter, has been designated to assist the Board in its oversight of our ERM process, including with respect to cybersecurity risk.
We maintain a detailed Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan that guides our incident response process. Upon the occurrence of a cybersecurity event, the cyber incident response team will follow a predefined process, documenting each step taken, to analyze and validate the event, and, if a cybersecurity incident is suspected to have occurred, quickly perform an initial analysis to determine the incident’s scope. The team will prioritize the response to each incident based on its estimate of the business impact caused by the incident and the estimated efforts required to recover from the incident. Notification of the incident is made to various stakeholders, including senior management and, if appropriate based upon the incident severity assessment, our Board. The team will also conduct incident containment, eradication and recovery, and post incident activity.
Strategy
Our Security Culture
We protect our information assets and manage risk by promoting a culture that communicates security risks, designs secure IT systems and operates according to approved processes to reduce the likelihood and impact of security incidents. We achieve this objective by:
Designing, implementing and maintaining solutions with appropriate security controls.
Sustaining solutions with required patching and vulnerability remediation.
Creating and executing controls in support of policy as well as regulatory compliance.
Ensuring that our policies, processes, practices and technologies proactively protect, shield, defend and remediate cyber threats.
Delivering quality communications and annual training to stakeholders on cyber awareness and computing hygiene.
We believe that the conduct of our employees is critical to the success of our information security. Through our security awareness program, we keep our employees apprised of threats, risks and the part that they play in protecting both themselves and the company. We conduct periodic compliance training for our employees regarding the protection of sensitive information, which includes training intended to prevent the success of cyberattacks. We also conduct regular phishing simulations to increase employee awareness on how to spot phishing attempts, and what to do if they suspect an email to be a phishing attack.
We execute penetration testing against our technical environment and processes, and continuously monitor our network and systems for signs of intrusion. We also retain consultants to enhance our penetration testing program with current trends and methodologies utilized against other companies, ensuring we are proactively reducing risk from emerging threats. These penetration tests are conducted at a random interval and target our infrastructure and certain of the products we deliver to our customers.
We have a rigorous process, including a formal IT risk assessment, to assess our service providers prior to allowing our information to be processed, stored or transmitted by third parties, and we include standardized contractual requirements in each contract where appropriate. We validate our service providers’ security via questionnaires, open-source intelligence and, where appropriate, SOC1 reports on financially significant third-party service providers. Our process also includes regular monitoring of risk related to third parties on a periodic basis or when services or product purchases expand beyond their original scope or intended use.
Protections against insider threat is a critical component of our security strategy, particularly within our defense business units. Our insider threat detection processes are designed to identify and evaluate potential insider threats so that appropriate mitigation can be implemented.
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Collaboration with our industry partners and government customers contributes to the protection of Textron’s computing environment as well as our military stakeholders. Textron is engaged with various industry groups such as Aerospace Industries Association, National Defense Information Sharing & Analysis Center and our Defense Industrial Base colleagues to ensure that we are aware of and are addressing the latest adversarial threats. Additionally, we share cyber best practices with industry peers to help to make the industry more secure.
Item 2. Properties
On December 30, 2023, we operated a total of 56 plants located throughout the U.S. and 44 plants outside the U.S. We own 59 plants and lease the remainder for a total manufacturing space of approximately 23.7 million square feet. We consider the productive capacity of the plants operated by each of our business segments to be adequate. We also own or lease offices, warehouses, training and service centers and other space at various locations. In general, our facilities are in good condition, are considered to be adequate for the uses to which they are being put and are substantially in regular use.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are subject to actual and threatened legal proceedings and other claims arising out of the conduct of our business, including proceedings and claims relating to commercial and financial transactions; government contracts; alleged lack of compliance with applicable laws and regulations; disputes with suppliers, production partners or other third parties; product liability; patent and trademark infringement; employment disputes; and environmental, health and safety matters. Some of these legal proceedings and claims seek damages, fines or penalties in substantial amounts or remediation of environmental contamination. As a government contractor, we are subject to audits, reviews and investigations to determine whether our operations are being conducted in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements. Under federal government procurement regulations, certain claims brought by the U.S. Government could result in our suspension or debarment from U.S. Government contracting for a period of time. On the basis of information presently available, we do not believe that existing proceedings and claims will have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The principal market on which our common stock is traded is the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "TXT." At December 30, 2023, there were approximately 5,200 record holders of Textron common stock.
Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities
The following provides information about our fourth quarter 2023 repurchases of equity securities that are registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended:
Period (shares in thousands)
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased *
Average Price
Paid per Share
(excluding
commissions)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
part of Publicly
Announced Plan *
Maximum
Number of Shares
that may yet be
Purchased under
the Plan
October 1, 2023 – November 4, 2023495 $76.41 495 31,650 
November 5, 2023 – December 2, 20231,075 76.93 1,075 30,575 
December 3, 2023 – December 30, 20232,099 77.76 2,099 28,476 
Total3,669 $77.33 3,669 
* These shares were purchased pursuant to a plan authorizing the repurchases of up to 35 million shares of Textron common stock that was approved on July 24, 2023 by our Board of Directors. This share repurchase program has no expiration date.
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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total return on a cumulative basis at the end of each year of $100 invested in our common stock on December 31, 2018 with the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Stock Index, the S&P 500 Aerospace & Defense (A&D) Index and the S&P 500 Industrials Index, all of which include Textron. The values calculated assume dividend reinvestment.
1117
201820192020202120222023
Textron Inc.$100.00 $98.17 $106.29 $170.00 $156.09 $177.49 
S&P 500100.00 132.82 157.02 202.09 165.49 209.00 
S&P 500 A&D100.00 137.16 110.84 125.50 147.30 157.27 
S&P 500 Industrials100.00 133.52 164.01 209.76 169.06 220.52 

Item 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Overview
In 2023, Textron’s revenues increased 6%, compared with 2022, reflecting the impact of higher pricing, principally at the Textron Aviation, Industrial and Bell segments, and higher volume and mix at the Industrial segment. Segment profit increased 17%, compared with 2022, largely due to higher pricing, net of inflation at the Textron Aviation and Industrial segments. Our backlog increased 5% in 2023 to $13.9 billion, which included a $782 million increase at the Textron Aviation segment. During 2023, we continued to manage through the impacts of ongoing global supply chain shortages/delays and labor shortages to deliver products to our customers. Financial highlights for 2023 also include:
Generated $1.3 billion of net cash from operating activities from our manufacturing businesses.
Invested $570 million in research and development projects and $402 million in capital expenditures.
Returned $1.2 billion to our shareholders through the repurchase of 16.2 million shares of our common stock.
For an overview of our business segments, including a discussion of our major products and services, refer to Item 1. Business. A discussion of our financial condition and operating results for 2023 compared with 2022 is provided below, while a discussion of 2022 compared with 2021 can be found in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Beginning in 2023, we changed how we measure our segment profit for the manufacturing segments, as discussed in the Segment Analysis section below. As a result of this change, the prior periods have been recast to conform to this presentation. The impact of the change in the segment profit measure on the narrative discussion of fluctuations in segment profit provided in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 was insignificant.
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Consolidated Results of Operations
% Change
(Dollars in millions)20232022202120232022
Revenues$13,683$12,869$12,3826%4%
Cost of sales11,40510,80010,2976%5%
Gross margin as a percentage of Manufacturing revenues16.3%15.7%16.5%
Selling and administrative expense1,2251,1861,2213%(3)%
Interest expense, net77107142(28)%(25)%
Special charges12625
Non-service components of pension and postretirement income, net237240159(1)%51%
Revenues
Revenues increased $814 million, 6%, in 2023, compared with 2022. The revenue increase primarily included the following factors:
Higher Industrial revenues of $376 million due to higher volume and mix of $280 million across both product lines and a favorable impact from pricing of $99 million.
Higher Textron Aviation revenues of $300 million, reflecting higher pricing of $335 million, partially offset by lower volume and mix of $35 million.
Higher Textron Systems revenues of $63 million, primarily due to higher volume of $44 million.
Higher Bell revenues of $56 million, reflecting higher pricing of $68 million, partially offset by lower volume and mix of $12 million.
Cost of Sales and Selling and Administrative Expense
Cost of sales includes cost of products and services sold for the Manufacturing group. In 2023, cost of sales increased $605 million, 6%, compared with 2022, largely due to the impact of higher net volume and mix described above, and $257 million of inflation. Gross margin as a percentage of Manufacturing revenues increased 60 basis points in 2023, compared with 2022, largely due to higher margins at the Industrial, Bell and Textron Aviation segments.

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Selling and administrative expense increased $39 million, 3%, in 2023, compared with 2022, primarily reflecting higher share-based compensation expense and $27 million of inflation, largely in labor costs, partially offset by a $17 million recovery of amounts that were previously written off related to one customer relationship at the Finance segment.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net includes interest expense for both the Finance and Manufacturing borrowing groups, with interest on intercompany borrowings eliminated, and interest income earned on cash and equivalents for the Manufacturing borrowing group. In 2023, interest expense, net decreased $30 million, 28%, compared with 2022, primarily due to an increase in interest income of $34 million. For 2023, 2022 and 2021, gross interest expense totaled $133 million, $129 million and $142 million, respectively.
Special Charges
Special charges include restructuring activities and asset impairment charges as described in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Non-service Components of Pension and Postretirement Income, Net
Non-service components of pension and postretirement income, net decreased by $3 million, 1%, in 2023, compared with 2022.
Income Taxes
202320222021
Effective tax rate15.2%15.2%14.4%
In 2023 and 2022, the effective tax rate of 15.2% was lower than the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21%, largely due to the favorable impact of research and development credits and tax deductions for foreign-derived intangible income.
For a full reconciliation of our effective tax rate to the U.S. federal statutory tax rate, see Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Segment Analysis
We conduct our business through six operating segments: Textron Aviation, Bell, Textron Systems, Industrial, Textron eAviation and Finance. Segment profit is an important measure used for evaluating performance and for decision-making purposes. Beginning in 2023, we changed how we measure our segment profit for the manufacturing segments to exclude the non-service components of pension and postretirement income, net; LIFO inventory provision; and intangible asset amortization. This measure also continues to exclude interest expense, net for Manufacturing group; certain corporate expenses; gains/losses on major business dispositions; and special charges. The prior periods have been recast to conform to this presentation. The measurement for the Finance segment includes interest income and expense along with intercompany interest income and expense. Operating expenses for the Manufacturing segments include cost of sales and selling and administrative expense, while excluding certain corporate expenses, LIFO inventory provision, intangible asset amortization and special charges.
In our discussion of comparative results for the Manufacturing group, changes in revenues and segment profit for our commercial businesses typically are expressed in terms of volume and mix, pricing, foreign exchange, acquisitions and dispositions, inflation and performance. For revenues, volume and mix represents changes in revenues from increases or decreases in the number of units delivered or services provided and the composition of products and/or services sold. For segment profit, volume and mix represents a change due to the number of units delivered or services provided and the composition of products and/or services sold at different profit margins. Pricing represents changes in unit pricing. Foreign exchange is the change resulting from translating foreign-denominated amounts into U.S. dollars at exchange rates that are different from the prior period. Revenues generated by acquired businesses are reflected in Acquisitions for a twelve-month period, while reductions in revenues and segment profit from the sale of businesses are reflected as Dispositions. Inflation represents higher material, wages, benefits, pension service cost or other costs. Performance reflects an increase or decrease in research and development, depreciation, selling and administrative costs, warranty, product liability, quality/scrap, labor efficiency, overhead, product line profitability, start-up, ramp up and cost-reduction initiatives or other manufacturing inputs.
Approximately 21% of our 2023 revenues were derived from contracts with the U.S. Government, including those under the U.S. Government-sponsored foreign military sales program.  For our segments that contract with the U.S. Government, changes in revenues related to these contracts are expressed in terms of volume. Changes in segment profit for these contracts are typically expressed in terms of volume and mix and performance; these include cumulative catch-up adjustments associated with a) revisions to the transaction price that may reflect contract modifications or changes in assumptions related to award fees and other variable consideration or b) changes in the total estimated costs at completion due to improved or deteriorated operating performance.
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Textron Aviation
% Change
(Dollars in millions)20232022202120232022
Revenues:
Aircraft$3,577$3,387$3,1166%9%
Aftermarket parts and services1,7961,6861,4507%16%
Total revenues5,3735,0734,5666%11%
Operating expenses4,7244,5134,2175%7%
Segment profit$649$560$34916%60%
Profit margin12.1%11.0%7.6%
Backlog$7,169$6,387$4,12012%55%
Textron Aviation Revenues and Operating Expenses
Factors contributing to the 2023 year-over-year revenue change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Pricing$335 
Volume and mix(35)
Total change$300 
Textron Aviation’s revenues increased $300 million, 6%, in 2023, compared with 2022, reflecting higher pricing of $335 million, partially offset by lower volume and mix of $35 million. Volume and mix included lower Citation jet and pre-owned volume, partially offset by higher defense, aftermarket, commercial turboprop and other aircraft volume. We delivered 168 Citation jets and 153 commercial turboprops in 2023, compared with 178 Citation jets and 146 commercial turboprops in 2022.
Textron Aviation’s operating expenses increased $211 million, 5%, in 2023, compared with 2022, largely reflecting inflation of $176 million.
Textron Aviation Segment Profit
Factors contributing to 2023 year-over-year segment profit change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Pricing, net of inflation$159 
Volume and mix
Performance(79)
Total change$89 
Textron Aviation’s segment profit increased $89 million, 16%, in 2023, compared with 2022, due to favorable pricing, net of inflation of $159 million and a favorable impact from the mix of products and services sold, partially offset by an unfavorable impact from performance of $79 million, largely related to supply chain and labor inefficiencies.
Textron Aviation Backlog
Textron Aviation’s backlog increased $782 million in 2023, reflecting orders in excess of deliveries. 
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Bell
% Change
(Dollars in millions)20232022202120232022
Revenues:
Military aircraft and support programs$1,701$1,740$2,073(2)%(16)%
Commercial helicopters, parts and services1,4461,3511,2917%5%
Total revenues3,1473,0913,3642%(8)%
Operating expenses2,8272,8092,9651%(5)%
Segment profit$320$282$39913%(29)%
Profit margin10.2%9.1%11.9%
Backlog$4,780$4,781$3,8710%24%
A significant portion of Bell’s military aircraft and support program revenues has been from the U.S. Government for the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft and the H-1 helicopter platforms. Under current contracts, production of the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft is expected to end with final deliveries in the next two years after which this program will transition to the support stage. For the H-1 helicopter, final deliveries under the current contract are expected to be completed in early 2024, fully transitioning this platform to the support stage. In December 2022, Bell was awarded the development contract for the U.S. Army's FLRAA program, which has begun to represent an increasing portion of Bell’s military aircraft and support program revenues.
Bell Revenues and Operating Expenses
Factors contributing to the 2023 year-over-year revenue change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Pricing$68 
Volume and mix(12)
Total change$56 
Bell’s revenues increased $56 million, 2%, in 2023, compared with 2022, reflecting higher pricing of $68 million, partially offset by lower volume and mix of $12 million. Volume and mix included lower military volume of $39 million, as higher volume from the FLRAA program was more than offset by lower volume on the V-22 and H-1 programs. Commercial volume and mix increased $27 million, reflecting a favorable mix as we delivered 171 commercial helicopters in 2023, compared with 179 commercial helicopters in 2022.
Bell’s operating expenses increased $18 million, 1%, in 2023, compared with 2022, primarily due to inflation of $55 million and higher operating expenses due to the mix of products and services sold, partially offset by lower research and development costs described below.
Bell Segment Profit
Factors contributing to 2023 year-over-year segment profit change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Performance$74 
Pricing, net of inflation13 
Volume and mix(49)
Total change$38 
Bell’s segment profit increased $38 million, 13%, in 2023, compared with 2022, largely reflecting a favorable impact from performance of $74 million, which included $84 million of lower research and development costs, partially offset by lower volume and mix described above.

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Textron Systems
% Change
(Dollars in millions)20232022202120232022
Revenues$1,235$1,172$1,2735%(8)%
Operating expenses1,0881,0401,0955%(5)%
Segment profit$147$132$17811%(26)%
Profit margin11.9%11.3%14.0%
Backlog$1,950$2,098$2,144(7)%(2)%
Textron Systems Revenues and Operating Expenses
Factors contributing to the 2023 year-over-year revenue change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Volume and mix$44 
Pricing19 
Total change$63 
Revenues at Textron Systems increased $63 million, 5%, in 2023, compared with 2022, primarily due to higher volume and mix, which was principally related to weapons products.
Textron Systems’ operating expenses increased $48 million, 5%, in 2023, compared with 2022, largely related to higher volume and mix described above.
Textron Systems Segment Profit
Factors contributing to 2023 year-over-year segment profit change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Performance$10 
Pricing, net of inflation10 
Volume and mix(5)
Total change$15 
Textron Systems’ segment profit increased $15 million, 11%, in 2023, compared with 2022, due to a favorable impact from performance of $10 million and higher pricing, net of inflation of $10 million, partially offset by an unfavorable impact from the mix of products and services sold.
Industrial
% Change
(Dollars in millions)20232022202120232022
Revenues:
Kautex$1,954$1,771$1,73510%2%
Specialized Vehicles1,8871,6941,39511%21%
Total revenues3,8413,4653,13011%11%
Operating expenses3,6133,3103,0109%10%
Segment profit$228$155$12047%29%
Profit margin5.9%4.5%3.8%
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Industrial Revenues and Operating Expenses
Factors contributing to the 2023 year-over-year revenue change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Volume and mix$280 
Pricing99 
Foreign exchange(3)
Total change$376 
Industrial segment revenues increased $376 million, 11%, in 2023, compared with 2022, largely due to higher volume and mix of $280 million across both product lines and a favorable impact of $99 million from pricing, principally in the Specialized Vehicles product line.
Operating expenses for the Industrial segment increased $303 million, 9%, in 2023 compared with 2022, primarily reflecting the impact of higher volume and mix described above.
Industrial Segment Profit
Factors contributing to 2023 year-over-year segment profit change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Pricing, net of inflation$58 
Volume and mix54 
Foreign exchange
Performance(40)
Total change$73 
Segment profit for the Industrial segment increased $73 million, 47%, in 2023, compared with 2022, largely due to a favorable impact from pricing, net of inflation of $58 million, principally in the Specialized Vehicles product line, and higher volume and mix of $54 million as described above, partially offset by an unfavorable impact of $40 million from performance.
Textron eAviation

% Change
(Dollars in millions)20232022202120232022
Revenues$32$16$100%
Operating expenses9540138%
Segment loss$(63)$(24)$163%
Textron eAviation Revenues and Operating Expenses
Factors contributing to the 2023 year-over-year revenue change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Volume and mix$
Acquisition
Other
Total change$16 
Textron eAviation segment revenues increased $16 million in 2023, compared with 2022, primarily reflecting higher volume and mix.
Textron eAviation's operating expenses increased $55 million in 2023, compared with 2022, primarily related to higher research and development costs.
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Textron eAviation Segment Loss
Factors contributing to 2023 year-over-year segment loss change are provided below:
(In millions)2023 versus
2022
Performance and other$(43)
Volume and mix
Total change$(39)
Textron eAviation's segment loss increased $39 million in 2023, compared with 2022, largely due to an unfavorable impact from performance and other, primarily reflecting higher research and development costs.
Finance
(In millions)202320222021
Revenues$55 $52 $49 
Segment profit46 31 18 
Finance segment revenues increased $3 million and segment profit increased $15 million in 2023, compared with 2022. The increase in segment profit was largely due to a $17 million recovery of amounts that were previously written off related to one customer relationship. The following table reflects information about the Finance segment’s credit performance related to finance receivables.
(Dollars in millions)December 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Finance receivables$609$587
Allowance for credit losses2424
Ratio of allowance for credit losses to finance receivables3.94%4.09%
Nonaccrual finance receivables1546
Ratio of nonaccrual finance receivables to finance receivables2.46%7.84%
60+ days contractual delinquency41
60+ days contractual delinquency as a percentage of finance receivables0.66%0.17%
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our financings are conducted through two separate borrowing groups.  The Manufacturing group consists of Textron consolidated with its majority-owned subsidiaries that operate in the Textron Aviation, Bell, Textron Systems, Industrial and Textron eAviation segments. The Finance group, which also is the Finance segment, consists of Textron Financial Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. We designed this framework to enhance our borrowing power by separating the Finance group. Our Manufacturing group operations include the development, production and delivery of tangible products and services, while our Finance group provides financial services. Due to the fundamental differences between each borrowing group’s activities, investors, rating agencies and analysts use different measures to evaluate each group’s performance. To support those evaluations, we present balance sheet and cash flow information for each borrowing group within the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Assessment of Liquidity and Significant Future Cash Requirements
Key information that is utilized in assessing our liquidity is summarized below:
(Dollars in millions)December 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Manufacturing group
Cash and equivalents$2,121$1,963
Debt3,5263,182
Shareholders’ equity6,9877,113
Capital (debt plus shareholders’ equity)10,51310,295
Net debt (net of cash and equivalents) to capital17%15%
Debt to capital34%31%
Finance group
Cash and equivalents$60$72
Debt348375
We believe that our calculations of debt to capital and net debt to capital are useful measures as they provide a summary indication of the level of debt financing (i.e., leverage) that is in place to support our capital structure, as well as to provide an indication of our capacity to add further leverage.
We expect to have sufficient cash to meet our needs based on our existing cash balances, the cash we expect to generate from our manufacturing operations and the availability of our existing credit facility. In addition to our manufacturing operating cash requirements, future material cash outlays include our contractual combined debt and interest payments for the Manufacturing group of $483 million in 2024, $467 million in 2025, $452 million in 2026 and $2.8 billion thereafter, and for the Finance Group of $32 million in 2024, $49 million in 2025, $22 million in 2026 and $613 million thereafter.
For the Manufacturing Group, we also have purchase obligations that require material future cash outlays totaling $2.9 billion in 2024, $445 million in 2025 and $107 million thereafter. Purchase obligations include undiscounted amounts committed under legally enforceable contracts or purchase orders for goods and services with defined terms as to price, quantity and delivery dates, as well as property, plant and equipment. Approximately 14% of our purchase obligations represent purchase orders issued for goods and services to be delivered under firm contracts with the U.S. Government for which we have full recourse under customary contract termination clauses.
Credit Facilities and Other Sources of Capital
Textron has a senior unsecured revolving credit facility for an aggregate principal amount of $1.0 billion, of which $100 million is available for the issuance of letters of credit. We may elect to increase the aggregate amount of commitments under the facility to up to $1.3 billion by designating an additional lender or by an existing lender agreeing to increase its commitment. The facility expires in October 2027 and provides for two one-year extensions at our option with the consent of lenders representing a majority of the commitments under the facility. At December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, there were no amounts borrowed against the facility and there were $9 million of outstanding letters of credit issued under the facility.
We also maintain an effective shelf registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission that allows us to issue an unlimited amount of public debt and other securities. In November 2023, we issued $350 million in SEC-registered fixed-rate notes due in November 2033 with an annual interest rate of 6.10%. The proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes, including the redemption or repayment of certain of our debt, including the $350 million outstanding amount of our 4.30% notes due in March 2024.
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Manufacturing Group Cash Flows
Cash flows from continuing operations for the Manufacturing group as presented in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows are summarized below:
(In millions)202320222021
Operating activities$1,270 $1,461 $1,469 
Investing activities(345)(511)(335)
Financing activities(776)(875)(1,349)
Cash flows from operating activities were $1,270 million in 2023, compared with $1,461 million from 2022, as higher earnings were more than offset by changes in working capital, reflecting an increase in inventories and lower accounts payable, partially offset by a decrease in other assets. Net income tax payments were $338 million and $332 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Pension contributions were $45 million and $49 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. 
In 2023, investing cash flows included capital expenditures of $402 million, partially offset by $40 million of net proceeds from corporate-owned life insurance policies. Investing cash flows in 2022 included capital expenditures of $354 million and $202 million of net cash paid for business acquisitions, largely related to the Pipistrel acquisition.
Cash flows used by financing activities in 2023 included $1,168 million of cash paid to repurchase an aggregate of 16.2 million shares of our common stock under the 2023 share repurchase plan described below, partially offset by $348 million of net proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt. In 2022, cash flows used by financing activities included $867 million of cash paid to repurchase an aggregate of 13.1 million shares of our common stock under a 2022 share repurchase plan.
On July 24, 2023, Textron's Board of Directors approved a new program for the repurchase of up to 35 million shares of our common stock. This share repurchase program allows us to continue our practice of repurchasing shares to offset the impact of dilution from stock-based compensation and benefit plans and for opportunistic capital management purposes. The new program has no expiration date and replaced the prior 2022 share repurchase program, which was utilized in 2022 for repurchases.
Dividend payments to shareholders totaled $16 million and $17 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Finance Group Cash Flows
The cash flows from continuing operations for the Finance group as presented in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows are summarized below:
(In millions)202320222021
Operating activities$14 $(7)$(1)
Investing activities11 100 185 
Financing activities(37)(216)(97)
In 2023, cash flows from operating activities were $14 million, compared with cash outflows of $7 million in 2022. The $21 million increase in cash flows was primarily due to higher earnings and $10 million in lower income tax payments.
The Finance group’s cash flows from investing activities primarily included collections on finance receivables totaling $169 million and $147 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively, partially offset by finance receivable originations of $160 million and $92 million, respectively. Cash flows provided by investing activities in 2022 also included $45 million of other investing activities, largely related to proceeds from the sale of operating lease assets. Cash flows used in financing activities included payments on long-term and nonrecourse debt of $37 million and $216 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively.  
Consolidated Cash Flows
The consolidated cash flows from continuing operations, after elimination of activity between the borrowing groups, are summarized below:
(In millions)202320222021
Operating activities$1,267 $1,490 $1,599 
Investing activities(317)(447)(281)
Financing activities(813)(1,091)(1,446)
Consolidated cash flows from operating activities were $1,267 million in 2023, compared with $1,490 million in 2022 as higher earnings were more than offset by changes in working capital and a net cash outflow from captive finance receivables of $52 million. Working capital changes between the periods primarily reflected an increase in inventories and lower accounts payable,
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partially offset by a decrease in other assets. Net income tax payments were $352 million and $356 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Pension contributions were $45 million and $49 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
In 2023, investing cash flows included capital expenditures of $402 million, partially offset by $40 million of net proceeds from corporate-owned life insurance policies. Investing cash flows in 2022 included capital expenditures of $354 million and $202 million of net cash paid for business acquisitions, largely related to the Pipistrel acquisition.
Cash flows used by financing activities in 2023 included $1,168 million of share repurchases, partially offset by $348 million of net proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt. In 2022, cash flows used by financing activities included $867 million of share repurchases and $234 million of payments on long-term debt.
Captive Financing and Other Intercompany Transactions
The Finance group provides financing primarily to purchasers of new and pre-owned Textron Aviation aircraft and Bell helicopters manufactured by our Manufacturing group, otherwise known as captive financing. In the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, cash received from customers is reflected as operating activities when received from third parties. However, in the cash flow information provided for the separate borrowing groups, cash flows related to captive financing activities are reflected based on the operations of each group. For example, when product is sold by our Manufacturing group to a customer and is financed by the Finance group, the origination of the finance receivable is recorded within investing activities as a cash outflow in the Finance group’s statement of cash flows. Meanwhile, in the Manufacturing group’s statement of cash flows, the cash received from the Finance group on the customer’s behalf is recorded within operating cash flows as a cash inflow. Although cash is transferred between the two borrowing groups, there is no cash transaction reported in the consolidated cash flows at the time of the original financing. These captive financing activities, along with all significant intercompany transactions, are reclassified or eliminated from the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Reclassification adjustments included in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows on page 38 are summarized below:
(In millions)202320222021
Reclassification adjustments from investing activities to operating activities:
Finance receivable originations for Manufacturing group inventory sales$(160)$(92)$(100)
Cash received from customers143 127 231 
Other— — 
Total reclassification adjustments from investing activities to operating activities$(17)$36 $131 
Under a Support Agreement between Textron and TFC, Textron is required to maintain a controlling interest in TFC. The agreement, as amended in December 2015, also requires Textron to ensure that TFC maintains fixed charge coverage of no less than 125% and consolidated shareholders' equity of no less than $125 million. There were no cash contributions required to be paid to TFC in 2023 and 2022 to maintain compliance with the support agreement.
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Critical Accounting Estimates
To prepare our Consolidated Financial Statements to be in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, we must make complex and subjective judgments in the selection and application of accounting policies. The accounting policies that we believe are most critical to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations are listed below. We believe these policies require our most difficult, subjective and complex judgments in estimating the effect of inherent uncertainties. This section should be read in conjunction with Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, which includes other significant accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
A substantial portion of our revenues is related to long-term contracts with the U.S. Government, including those under the U.S. Government-sponsored foreign military sales program, for the design, development, manufacture or modification of aerospace and defense products as well as related services. We generally use the cost-to-cost method to measure progress for these contracts because it best depicts the transfer of control to the customer that occurs as we incur costs on our contracts.  Under this measure, the extent of progress towards completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the estimated costs at completion of the performance obligation, and revenue is recorded proportionally as costs are incurred.
Due to the number of years it may take to complete these contracts and the scope and nature of the work required to be performed on the contracts, the estimation of total transaction price and costs at completion is complicated and subject to many variables and, accordingly, is subject to change. In estimating total costs at completion, we are required to make numerous assumptions related to the complexity of design and related development work to be performed; engineering requirements; product performance; subcontractor performance; availability and cost of materials; labor productivity, availability and cost; overhead and capital costs; manufacturing efficiencies; the length of time to complete the contract (to estimate increases in wages and prices for materials); and costs of satisfying offset obligations, among other variables. Our cost estimation process is based on the professional knowledge and experience of engineers and program managers along with finance professionals. We review and update our cost projections quarterly or more frequently when circumstances significantly change. When our estimate of the total costs to be incurred on a contract exceeds the estimated total transaction price, a provision for the entire loss is recorded in the period in which the loss is determined.
At the outset of each contract, we estimate an initial profit booking rate considering the risks surrounding our ability to achieve the technical requirements (e.g., a newly developed product versus a mature product), schedule (e.g., the number and type of milestone events), and costs by contract requirements in the initial estimated costs at completion. Profit booking rates may increase during the performance of the contract if we successfully retire risks surrounding the technical, schedule and cost aspects of the contract. Conversely, the profit booking rate may decrease if we are not successful in retiring the risks; and, as a result, our estimated costs at completion increase. All estimates are subject to change during the performance of the contract and, therefore, may affect the profit booking rate.
Changes in our estimate of the total expected cost or in the transaction price for a contract typically impact our profit booking rate. We utilize the cumulative catch-up method of accounting to recognize the impact of these changes on our profit booking rate for a contract. Under this method, the inception-to-date impact of a profit adjustment on a contract is recognized in the period the adjustment is identified. The impact of our cumulative catch-up adjustments on segment profit recognized in prior periods is presented below:
(In millions)202320222021
Gross favorable$106 $101 $154 
Gross unfavorable(62)(117)(73)
Net adjustments$44 $(16)$81 
Due to the significance of judgment in the estimation process described above, it is likely that materially different revenues and/or cost of sales amounts could be recorded if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Our earnings could be reduced by a material amount resulting in a charge to earnings if (a) total estimated contract costs are significantly higher than expected due to changes in customer specifications prior to contract amendment, (b) total estimated contract costs are significantly higher than previously estimated due to cost overruns or inflation, (c) there is a change in engineering efforts required during the development stage of the contract or (d) we are unable to meet contract milestones.
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Goodwill
We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill annually in the fourth quarter or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate a potential impairment of a reporting unit. We calculate the fair value of each reporting unit using discounted cash flows. These cash flows incorporate assumptions for revenue growth rates and operating margins that are based on our strategic plans and long-range planning forecasts, which include our best estimates of current and forecasted market conditions, cost structure and anticipated net cost reductions. The long-term revenue growth rate we use to determine the terminal value of the business is based on our assessment of its minimum expected terminal growth rate, as well as its past historical growth and broader economic considerations such as gross domestic product, inflation and the maturity of the markets we serve. The discount rates utilized in this analysis are based on each reporting unit’s weighted average cost of capital, which takes into account the relative weights of each component of capital structure (equity and debt) and represents the expected cost of new capital, adjusted as appropriate to consider the risk inherent in future cash flows of the respective reporting unit. We believe this approach yields a discount rate that is consistent with an implied rate of return that an independent investor or market participant would require for an investment in a company having similar risks and business characteristics to the reporting unit being assessed.
Based on our annual impairment review, the fair value calculated using the estimates discussed above exceeded the carrying value by an adequate amount for each reporting group. Accordingly, we do not believe that there is a reasonable possibility that any units might fail the impairment test in the foreseeable future.
Retirement Benefits
We sponsor funded and unfunded domestic and international pension plans for certain of our employees. Beginning on January 1, 2010, we initiated actions to commence the closure of the pension plans to new entrants. We provide employees hired subsequent to these closures with defined contribution benefits. Our pension benefit obligations are calculated based on actuarial valuations. Key assumptions used in determining these obligations and related expenses or benefits include the expected long-term rates of return on plan assets and discount rates. We also make assumptions regarding employee demographic factors such as retirement patterns, mortality, turnover and rate of compensation increases. We evaluate and update these assumptions annually.
To determine the weighted-average expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, we consider the current and expected asset allocation, as well as historical and expected returns on each plan asset class.  A lower expected rate of return on plan assets will decrease pension income.  For 2023 and 2022, the assumed expected long-term rate of return on plan assets used in calculating pension income was 7.14% and 7.10%, respectively. For 2023, the assumed rate of return for our domestic plans, which represent approximately 90% of our total pension assets, was 7.25%.
The discount rate enables us to state expected future benefit payments as a present value on the measurement date, reflecting the current rate at which the pension liabilities could be effectively settled. This rate should be in line with rates for high-quality fixed income investments available for the period to maturity of the pension benefits, which fluctuate as long-term interest rates change. A lower discount rate increases the present value of the benefit obligations and generally decreases pension income.  In 2023, the weighted-average discount rate used in calculating pension income was 5.51%, compared with 2.99% in 2022.  For our domestic plans, the assumed discount rate was 5.55% in 2023, compared with 3.05% in 2022. A change of 50 basis-points higher or lower, with all other assumptions held constant, in this weighted-average discount rate in 2023 would have changed our pension income for our domestic plans by approximately $10 million.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Our financial results are affected by changes in foreign currency exchange rates in the various countries in which our products are manufactured and/or sold.  For our manufacturing operations, we manage our foreign currency transaction exposures by entering into foreign currency exchange contracts. These contracts generally are used to fix the local currency cost of purchased goods or services or selling prices denominated in currencies other than the functional currency. The notional amount of outstanding foreign currency exchange contracts was $478 million and $354 million at December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. We also may hedge exposures to certain of our foreign currency assets and earnings by funding those asset positions with debt in the same foreign currency so the exposures are naturally offset.
Interest Rate Risk
Our financial results are affected by changes in interest rates. As part of managing this risk, we seek to achieve a prudent balance between floating- and fixed-rate exposures. We continually monitor our mix of these exposures and adjust the mix, as necessary. For our Finance group, we generally limit our risk to changes in interest rates with a strategy of matching floating-rate assets with floating-rate liabilities. This strategy includes the use of interest rate swap agreements. We had interest rate swap agreements with a total notional amount of $210 million at December 30, 2023 and $297 million at December 31, 2022, which effectively converted certain floating-rate debt to a fixed-rate equivalent.
Quantitative Risk Measures
In the normal course of business, we enter into financial instruments for purposes other than trading. The financial instruments that are subject to market risk include finance receivables (excluding leases), debt (excluding finance lease obligations) and foreign currency exchange contracts. To quantify the market risk inherent in these financial instruments, we utilize a sensitivity analysis that includes a hypothetical change in fair value assuming a 10% decrease in interest rates and a 10% strengthening in foreign exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. The fair value of these financial instruments is estimated using discounted cash flow analysis and indicative market pricing as reported by leading financial news and data providers.
At the end of each year, the table below provides the carrying and fair values of these financial instruments along with the sensitivity of fair value to the hypothetical changes discussed above. This sensitivity analysis is most likely not indicative of actual results in the future.
December 30, 2023December 31, 2022
(In millions)
Carrying
Value*
Fair
Value*
Sensitivity of
Fair Value
to a 10%
Change
Carrying
Value*
Fair
Value*
Sensitivity of
Fair Value
to a 10%
Change
Manufacturing group
Foreign currency exchange risk
Debt$(6)$(6)$(1)$(6)$(6)$(1)
Foreign currency exchange contracts30 (11)(11)28 
$(5)$(5)$29 $(17)$(17)$27 
Interest rate risk
Debt$(3,520)$(3,342)$(54)$(3,175)$(2,872)$(51)
Finance group
Interest rate risk
Finance receivables$417 $423 $$390 $369 $10 
Debt(348)(293)(1)(375)(294)(1)
* The value represents an asset or (liability).
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related report of our independent registered public accounting firm thereon are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K on the pages indicated below:
Page
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022
Accounts Payable and Other Current Liabilities
Supplementary Information:
All other schedules are omitted either because they are not applicable or not required or because the required information is included in the financial statements or notes thereto.
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Consolidated Statements of Operations
For each of the years in the three-year period ended December 30, 2023
(In millions, except per share data)202320222021
Revenues
Manufacturing product revenues$11,573 $10,945 $10,541 
Manufacturing service revenues2,055 1,872 1,792 
Finance revenues55 52 49 
Total revenues13,683 12,869 12,382 
Costs, expenses and other
Cost of products sold9,770 9,380 8,955 
Cost of services sold1,635 1,420 1,342 
Selling and administrative expense1,225 1,186 1,221 
Interest expense, net77 107 142 
Special charges126  25 
Non-service components of pension and postretirement income, net(237)(240)(159)
Gain on business disposition  (17)
Total costs, expenses and other12,596 11,853 11,509 
Income from continuing operations before income taxes1,087 1,016 873 
Income tax expense165 154 126 
Income from continuing operations$922 $862 $747 
Loss from discontinued operations(1)(1)(1)
Net income$921 $861 $746 
Basic Earnings per share
Continuing operations$4.62 $4.05 $3.33 
Discontinued operations(0.01)  
Basic Earnings per share$4.61 $4.05 $3.33 
Diluted Earnings per share
Continuing operations$4.57 $4.01 $3.30 
Discontinued operations(0.01)  
Diluted Earnings per share$4.56 $4.01 $3.30 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
For each of the years in the three-year period ended December 30, 2023
(In millions)202320222021
Net income$921 $861 $746 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Pension and postretirement benefits adjustments, net of reclassifications(82)283 981 
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of reclassifications45 (103)(37)
Deferred gains (losses) on hedge contracts, net of reclassifications5 (3)2 
Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(32)177 946 
Comprehensive income$889 $1,038 $1,692 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In millions, except share data)December 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Assets
Manufacturing group
Cash and equivalents$2,121 $1,963 
Accounts receivable, net868 855 
Inventories3,914 3,550 
Other current assets857 1,033 
Total current assets7,760 7,401 
Property, plant and equipment, net2,477 2,523 
Goodwill2,295 2,283 
Other assets3,663 3,422 
Total Manufacturing group assets16,195 15,629 
Finance group
Cash and equivalents60 72 
Finance receivables, net585 563 
Other assets16 29 
Total Finance group assets661 664 
Total assets$16,856 $16,293 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Liabilities
Manufacturing group
Current portion of long-term debt$357 $7 
Accounts payable1,023 1,018 
Other current liabilities2,998 2,645 
Total current liabilities4,378 3,670 
Other liabilities1,904 1,879 
Long-term debt3,169 3,175 
Total Manufacturing group liabilities9,451 8,724 
Finance group
Other liabilities70 81 
Debt348 375 
Total Finance group liabilities418 456 
Total liabilities9,869 9,180 
Shareholders’ equity
Common stock (195.0 million and 207.4 million shares issued, respectively,
    and 192.9 million and 206.2 million shares outstanding, respectively)
24 26 
Capital surplus1,910 1,880 
Treasury stock(165)(84)
Retained earnings5,862 5,903 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(644)(612)
Total shareholders’ equity6,987 7,113 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$16,856 $16,293 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity
(In millions, except per share data)Common
Stock
Capital
Surplus
Treasury
Stock
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Balance at January 2, 2021$29 $1,785 $(203)$5,973 $(1,739)$5,845 
Net income— — — 746 — 746 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 946 946 
Dividends declared ($0.08 per share)
— — — (18)— (18)
Share-based compensation activity1 212 — — — 213 
Purchases of common stock— — (921)— — (921)
Retirement of treasury stock(2)(134)967 (831)—  
Other— — — — 4 4 
Balance at January 1, 202228 1,863 (157)5,870 (789)6,815 
Net income— — — 861 — 861 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 177 177 
Dividends declared ($0.08 per share)
— — — (17)— (17)
Share-based compensation activity— 144 — — — 144 
Purchases of common stock— — (867)— — (867)
Retirement of treasury stock(2)(127)940 (811)—  
Balance at December 31, 202226 1,880 (84)5,903 (612)7,113 
Net income— — — 921 — 921 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (32)(32)
Dividends declared ($0.08 per share)
— — — (16)—