F-1 1 d735110df1.htm FORM F-1 Form F-1
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 17, 2023.

Registration Statement No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM F-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Jayud Global Logistics Limited

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

Cayman Islands   4731   Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

  (Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number)  

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

4th Floor, Building 4, Shatoujiao Free Trade Zone

Shenyan Road, Yantian District

Shenzhen, China

(86) 0755-25595406

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

Cogency Global Inc.

122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor

New York, NY 10168

(800) 221-0102

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Yang Ge, Esq.

DLA Piper UK LLP

20th Floor, South Tower, Kerry Center

No.1 Guanghua Road, Chaoyang District

Beijing, China 100020

Tel: 86-10-8520-0616

 

Richard I. Anslow, Esq.

Lijia Sanchez, Esq.

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10105

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: as soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to such Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)

Dated             , 2023

 

LOGO

Jayud Global Logistics Limited

             Class A Ordinary Shares

This is an initial public offering of              Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.000125 per share, by Jayud Global Logistics Limited. We currently anticipate the initial public offering price of our Class A ordinary shares to be between US$                  and US$                  per Class A ordinary share.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares. We have applied to list our Class A ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “JYD.” This offering is contingent upon the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market. At this time, the Nasdaq Capital Market has not yet approved our application to list our Class A ordinary shares. We cannot assure you that our application will be approved; however, if it is not approved, we will not complete this offering.

We have two classes of ordinary shares outstanding: Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Upon the completion of this offering, our issued and outstanding share capital will consist of              Class A ordinary shares and 5,127,680 Class B ordinary shares, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. Each Class A ordinary share will be entitled to one (1) vote, and each Class B ordinary share shall be entitled to ten (10) votes on all matters subject to a vote at general meetings of our Company. Each Class B ordinary share shall be convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time at the option of the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares shall not be convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. For more detailed description of risks related to the dual-class structure, please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Class A Ordinary Shares and This Offering—The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares has the effect of concentrating voting power with our existing shareholders prior to the consummation of this offering, which will limit your ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.”

[Additionally, upon the completion of this offering, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under corporate governance rules of Nasdaq Stock Market, because our founder and chief executive officer, Mr. Xiaogang Geng, as the only shareholder of all our issued and outstanding 5,127,680 Class B ordinary shares, will beneficially own approximately                 % of our then-issued and outstanding ordinary shares and will be able to exercise approximately                 % of the total voting power of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares immediately after the consummation of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise its option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares. For further information, see “Principal Shareholders.” For more detailed description of risks related to being a “controlled company,” see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We will be a ‘controlled company’ within the meaning of the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.”]

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” under applicable U.S. federal securities laws, and, as such are eligible for certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings. See the section titled “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company” and “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being a Foreign Private Issuer” for additional information.

We are not a Chinese operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company with operations conducted by our subsidiaries based in China. The “Company” and “our Company” refer to Jayud Global Logistics Limited, a Cayman Islands company. “We,” “us,” and “our” refer to Jayud Global Logistics Limited and its subsidiaries. We currently conduct our business substantially through Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Jayud Global Logistics Limited, and nine first-level operating subsidiaries wholly owned by Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. All of these ten operating subsidiaries are established under the laws of the PRC. This operating structure may involve unique risks to investors. Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, foreign investors are permitted to own 100% of the equity interests in a PRC-incorporated company engaged in the business of providing end-to-end supply chain solution. However, the PRC government may implement changes to the existing laws and regulations in the future, which may result in the prohibition or restriction of foreign investors from owning equity interests in our PRC operating subsidiaries. There are significant legal and operational risks and uncertainties associated with being based in or having the majority of operations in China. Any of such risks and uncertainties could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our Class A ordinary shares or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer Class A ordinary shares and/or other securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. The PRC government has significant authority to exert influence on the ability of a company with operations in China to conduct business. Recently, the PRC government initiated a series of regulatory actions and made a number of public statements on the regulation of business operations in China with little advance notice, including cracking down on illegal activities in the securities market, enhancing supervision over China-based companies listed overseas, adopting new measures to extend the scope of cybersecurity reviews, and expanding efforts in anti-monopoly enforcement and data privacy protection. As of the date of this prospectus, we do not believe that we are subject to: (a) the cybersecurity review with the Cyberspace Administration of China, or CAC, as our products and services are not offered to individual users but to our institutional customers, we do not possess a large amount of personal information in our business operations, and our business does not involve the collection of data that affects or may affect national security, implicates cybersecurity, or involves any type of restricted industry; or (b) merger control review by China’s anti-monopoly enforcement agency due to the fact that we do not engage in monopolistic behaviors that are subject to these statements or regulatory actions. However, since these statements and regulatory actions are new, it is highly uncertain how soon legislative or administrative regulation making bodies will respond and what existing or new laws or regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations will be modified or promulgated, and, if any, the potential impact such modified or new laws and regulations will have on our daily business operation, ability to accept foreign investments and listing of our securities on a U.S. or other foreign exchange. As of the date of this prospectus, no relevant laws or regulations in the PRC explicitly require us to seek approval from the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) or any other PRC governmental authorities for our overseas listing plan, nor have we received any inquiry, notice, warning or sanctions regarding our planned overseas listing from the CSRC or any other PRC governmental authorities. In addition, changes in the legal, political and economic policies of the Chinese government, the relations between China and the United States, or Chinese or U.S. regulations may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such changes could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities to investors and could cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For a detailed description of risks related to doing business in China, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” from pages 39 to 58 of this prospectus.

The PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries such as the education and internet industries, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the PRC


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted

 

government, could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or in extreme cases, become worthless. For additional information, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes of PRC laws and regulations with little advance notice could adversely affect us and limit the legal protections available to you and us, and the Chinese government may exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas, which changes could materially hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless” on page 40 of this prospectus.

As of the date of this prospectus, we have three subsidiaries in Hong Kong, including (i) Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Jayud Global Logistics Limited; (ii) HongKong Jayud International Logistics Company Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited; and (iii) Sky Pacific Logistics HK Company Limited, 67.0% equity interest of which is wholly owned by our PRC subsidiary, Shenzhen Jiayuda Global Supply Chain Co., Ltd. Hong Kong is currently a separate jurisdiction from mainland China. Pursuant to the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, or the “Basic Law,” which is a national law of the PRC and the constitutional document for Hong Kong, national laws and regulations of the PRC shall not apply to Hong Kong except for those listed in Annex III of the Basic Law (which is limited to laws relating to defense and foreign affairs, as well as other matters outside the autonomy of Hong Kong), we do not believe there will be material effects on our Hong Kong Subsidiaries’ operations and financial results resulting from the legal and operational risks relating to the PRC regulations. As such, the legal and operational risks associated with our operations in the PRC apply to its operations in Hong Kong only to the extent applicable. However, there remains regulatory uncertainty with respect to the implementation and interpretation of laws in China. We are subject to the risks of uncertainty about any future actions the Chinese government or authorities in Hong Kong may take in this regard, which could result in a material adverse change to our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and the value of our securities.

Furthermore, on May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, requiring a foreign company to certify it is not owned or controlled by a foreign government if the PCAOB is unable to audit specified reports because the company uses a foreign auditor not subject to PCAOB inspection. On March 28, 2021, the SEC issued interim measures implementing the HFCA Act which became effective on May 5, 2021. On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments implementing the submission and disclosure requirements outlined in the HFCA Act, which went into effect on January 10, 2022. Our Class A ordinary shares may be prohibited to trade on a national exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or HFCA Act, if the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, determines that it cannot inspect or fully investigate our auditors for three consecutive years beginning in 2021. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the Accelerating HFCA Act which, if passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed into law, would decrease the number of non-inspection years for foreign companies to comply with PCAOB audits from three to two, thus reducing the time period before their securities may be prohibited from trading or delisted. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions. On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol with the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the PRC Ministry of Finance which was the first step toward opening access for the PCAOB to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong completely. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB determined that it was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and vacated its previous determinations to the contrary. However, should PRC authorities obstruct or otherwise fail to facilitate the PCAOB’s access in the future, the PCAOB may consider the need to issue a new determination. On December 29, 2022, the Accelerating HFCA Act was signed into law, which amended the HFCA Act by requiring the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three. Our auditor, Friedman LLP, which is based in New York, is currently subject to inspection by the PCAOB at least every three years. Therefore, it is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021 as it is not on the list published by the PCAOB. However, our auditor’s China affiliate is located in, and organized under the laws of the PRC. We cannot assure you that we will not be identified by the SEC under the HFCA Act as an issuer that has retained an auditor that has a branch or office located in a foreign jurisdiction that the PCAOB determines it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in that foreign jurisdiction. In addition, there can be no assurance that, if we have a “non-inspection” year, we will be able to take any remedial measures. If any such event were to occur, trading in our securities could in the future be prohibited under the HFCA Act and, as a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market or that you will be allowed to trade our Class A ordinary shares in the United States on the “over-the-counter” markets or otherwise. Should our Class A ordinary shares become not listed or tradeable in the United States, the value of the Class A ordinary shares could be materially affected. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” from pages 39 to 58 of this prospectus for a detailed discussion.

Jayud Global Logistics Limited holds all of the equity interests in Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. and its PRC subsidiaries through the subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong, Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited. As we have a direct equity ownership structure, we do not have any agreement or contract between our Company and any of its subsidiaries that are typically seen in a variable interest entity structure. Within our direct equity ownership structure, funds from foreign investors can be directly transferred to our PRC subsidiaries by way of capital injection or in the form of a shareholder loan from Jayud Global Logistics Limited following this offering. If we plan to distribute dividends to our shareholders, our PRC operating subsidiaries will transfer the funds to our subsidiary incorporated in Hong Kong, Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, which will be subject to the PRC laws and regulations, and Jayud Global Logistics Limited will then distribute dividends to all shareholders in proportion to the shares they hold, regardless of the citizenship or domicile of the shareholders. See “Corporate History and Structure” on pages 77 to 79 for additional details.

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 19 to read about factors you should consider before buying our Class A ordinary shares.

 

     Per Class A
Ordinary
Share
     Total  

Public offering price

   US$                    US$                

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)(2)

   US$            US$        

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   US$            US$        

 

(1)

For a description of compensation payable to the underwriters, see “Underwriting.”

(2)

Represents underwriting discounts up to seven percent (7%) (or $             per Class A ordinary share), of gross proceeds of this offering. Does not include a non-accountable expense allowance. See “Underwriting” for all compensation to be paid to the underwriters.

The underwriters have a [30]-day option to purchase up to an additional                  Class A ordinary shares from us at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the Class A ordinary shares against payment in U.S. dollars in New York, NY on                , 2023.

 

 

The Benchmark Company

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2023


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

THE OFFERING

     17  

RISK FACTORS

     19  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

     67  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     68  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     70  

CAPITALIZATION

     71  

DILUTION

     72  

ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

     74  

CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

     77  

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

     80  

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

     109  

BUSINESS

     116  

REGULATIONS

     143  

MANAGEMENT

     163  

PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS

     169  

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     171  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     173  

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

     183  

TAXATION

     186  

UNDERWRITING

     192  

EXPENSES RELATED TO THIS OFFERING

     200  

LEGAL MATTERS

     201  

EXPERTS

     202  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     203  

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1  

INDEX TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1  

No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representations. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the Class A ordinary shares offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the Class A ordinary shares.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the Class A ordinary shares and the distribution of this prospectus or any filed free writing prospectus outside of the United States.

Until                , 2023 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade Class A ordinary shares, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our Class A ordinary shares discussed under “Risk Factors” and information contained in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” before deciding whether to buy our Class A ordinary shares. In addition, this prospectus contains information from a report prepared by Frost & Sullivan (Beijing) Inc., or Frost & Sullivan, a third-party market research firm. Frost & Sullivan was commissioned by us to provide information on the end-to-end cross-border supply chain industry in China.

Unless otherwise indicated, all share amounts and per share amounts in this prospectus have been presented on a retroactive basis to reflect a reverse share split of our outstanding ordinary shares at a ratio of 1 for 1.25, which was implemented on February 16, 2023.

OUR MISSION

Our mission is to become a leading global end-to-end supply chain solution provider.

OVERVIEW

We are one of the leading Shenzhen-based end-to-end supply chain solution providers in China, with a focus on providing cross-border logistics services. According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, in 2021, we ranked fifth in terms of the revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution among all end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen. Headquartered in Shenzhen, a key component of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, or the Greater Bay Area, in China, we benefit from the unique geographical advantages of providing high degree of support for ocean, air and overland logistics. A well-connected transportation network enables us to significantly increase efficiency and reduce transportation costs. As one of the most open and dynamic regions in China, Shenzhen is home to renowned enterprises and the gathering place of cross-border e-commerce market players, which provides us with a large customer base and enables us to develop long-term in-depth relationships with our customers. In addition, the sustained and steady growth of local economy and supportive government policies have backed up our development and brought us great convenience in daily operations.

According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market experienced a soaring growth during the past two years, with its total revenue surging from US$211.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020 to US$537.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. In line with this increase, we experienced a rapid growth in 2020 and 2021 as well as the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB19.1 million, or 161.4%, from RMB11.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB30.9 million (US$4.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB13.5 million, or 64.1%, from RMB21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB34.5 million (US$5.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our revenue generated from end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB98.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB332.7 million (US$49.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, representing a period-to-period increase of 236.5%. Our revenue generated from end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB210.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing a year-on-year increase of 85.1%.

We offer a comprehensive range of cross-border supply chain solution services, including: (i) freight forwarding services, (ii) supply chain management, and (iii) other value-added services.

 

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Freight Forwarding Services

Our freight forwarding services primarily comprise (i) integrated cross-border logistics services, and (ii) fragmented logistics services. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our freight forwarding services amounted to RMB138.6 million and RMB412.2 million (US$61.4 million), respectively, representing an increase of 197.5%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our freight forwarding services amounted to RMB243.6 million and RMB488.0 million (US$76.5 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 100.3%.

Integrated Cross-border Logistics Services

Our integrated cross-border logistics services primarily consist of (i) contract logistics services, and (ii) basic logistics services. In our contract logistics services, we provide our enterprise customers with customized integrated logistics services covering the entire delivery process from order origination to the final point of sale or delivery, representing a customized and seamless combination of order processing, warehousing management, transportation and delivery, and other value-added services. In our basic logistics services, our customers may choose from various modularized integrated logistics service offerings that are designed based on our in-depth understanding of the demands of various industries, such as cross-border e-commerce, chemical industry, and the retail sector. Leveraging our integrated service capabilities and our self-developed logistics information technology, or IT, systems, we aspire to manage our distribution network seamlessly, allowing our customers to outsource to us their supply chain process. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our integrated cross-border logistics services amounted to RMB98.9 million and RMB332.7 million (US$49.6 million), respectively, representing an increase of 236.5%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our integrated cross-border logistics services amounted to RMB210.8 million and RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 85.1%.

Fragmented Logistics Services

We are also engaged by our customers to provide one or more types of logistics services that only cover part of the entire cross-border cargo delivery process. Such fragmented logistics services primarily include one or a combination of the following: (i) air freight forwarding; (ii) ocean freight forwarding; (iii) overland freight services; (iv) warehousing; and (v) other fragmented logistics services, such as port and depot services, non-time-definite delivery and coordination among various carriers and freight forwarders. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our fragmented logistics services amounted to RMB39.7 million and RMB79.5 million (US$11.9 million), respectively, representing an increase of 100.3%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our fragmented logistics services amounted to RMB32.8 million and RMB97.8 million (US$15.3 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 198.1%.

Supply Chain Management

Our supply chain management business primarily consists of two sub-segments, namely, (i) international trading business, where we engage in international trading directly, with our customers being the purchasers or sellers, and (ii) agent services, where we are engaged by customers as their international trade agent, for the purpose of further streamlining the customers’ supply chain process. We believe our supply chain management business allows us to enhance the overall customer experience and to create vast cross-selling opportunities to drive customer retention, thus further differentiating us from our competitors. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our supply chain management business amounted to RMB24.8 million and RMB39.0 million (US$5.8 million), respectively, representing an increase of 57.1%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our supply chain management business amounted to RMB44.0 million and RMB53.5 million (US$8.4 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 21.8%.

 

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International Trading

We engage in international trading directly through the wholesaling of certain goods with our customers. Unlike our freight forwarding services, our international trading business requires us to bear both inventory risks and credit risks. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our international trading amounted to RMB24.7 million and RMB38.9 million (US$5.8 million), respectively, representing an increase of 57.6%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our international trading amounted to RMB42.0 million and RMB53.0 million (US$8.3 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 26.2%.

Agent Services

We may be engaged by our customers to act as their international trade agent, managing their cross-border supply chains through assisting our customers, pursuant to an agreement between our customers and a designated third-party, either (i) to procure certain goods from the designated third-party, or (ii) to sell and deliver certain goods to the designated third-party. Similar to our integrated cross-border logistics services, our agent services also involve a seamless combination of order processing, warehousing management, transportation and delivery, and other value-added services, with the major difference being that we carry out a substantial portion of the supply chain process in our own name, and accordingly may be required to bear credit risks in the supply chain process. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our agent services amounted to

RMB0.2 million and RMB0.1 million (US$0.02 million), respectively, representing a decrease of 17.2%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our agent services amounted to RMB2.0 million and RMB0.6 million (US$0.1 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year decrease of 71.9%.

Other Value-added Services

We endeavor to differentiate our service offerings by, among other things, developing other value-added services. Our value added services primarily include (i) custom brokerage and (ii) intelligent logistic IT systems. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our other value-added services amounted to RMB1.9 million and RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million), respectively, representing an increase of 52.4%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our other value-added services amounted to RMB2.8 million and RMB4.0 million (US$0.6 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 45.9%.

Leveraging our integrated service capabilities and our proprietary IT systems, we aspire to manage our distribution network seamlessly, allowing our customers to outsource to us their supply chain process.

OUR GLOBAL NETWORK

Our Geographic Location

Headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, we focus on China as our primary market and

also expect to expand our business globally. Located in this strategic city, we enjoyed the benefits of its rapid development over the three decades and will continue to take advantage of its continued growth. The advantages of being headquartered in Shenzhen include: (i) strategic geographical location; (ii) large customer base; and (iii) sustained and steady growth of the local economy as well as supportive government policies. For more details, please see “Business—Our Global Network—Our Geographic Location.”

Our Network

We have established a global operation nexus to support our business. We own logistic facilities strategically located throughout major transportation hubs in China and globally. As of June 30, 2022, we have

 

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established a presence in 12 provinces (including provincial municipalities) in mainland China, such as Shenzhen of Guangdong province, Nanjing of Jiangsu province, Ningbo and Yiwu of Zhejiang province, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, as well as some major global transportation hubs such as Hong Kong.

Our global freight network covers various major trade lanes across the world, including Asia-North America, Asia-Europe and Intra-Asia trade lines. As of June 30, 2022, our footprints spread across six continents and over 16 countries, such as Thailand, Singapore, India, Philippine, Hamburg, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Please see maps set forth the countries and regions where we have established presence as of June 30, 2022 under “Business—Our Global Network.”.

OUR STRENGTHS

We believe the following strengths have contributed to our success and differentiate us from others:

 

   

One of the leading end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen

 

   

Strong and integrated logistic service capabilities

 

   

Customized logistic solutions comprising a wide range of integrated logistics and freight forwarding services

 

   

R&D capabilities in proprietary IT systems’ development contributing to increased operational efficiency

 

   

Long-standing relationships with a wide and diversified customer base

 

   

Visionary and experienced management team with a proven track record

OUR STRATEGIES

We aim to execute the following business strategies:

 

   

Further enhance our distribution network

 

   

Adapt our logistic services and customized solutions to different industry verticals in China

 

   

Further invest in our intelligent logistic IT systems

 

   

Further invest in our human capital

 

   

Develop our business and service capacities through investments or acquisitions

RECENT REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS

Cybersecurity Review

On December 28, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and 12 other relevant PRC government authorities published the amended Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022. The final Cybersecurity Review Measures provide that a “network platform operator” that possesses personal information of more than one million users and seeks a listing in a foreign country must apply for a cybersecurity review. Further, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate a cybersecurity review against any company if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities of such company affect or may affect national security.

Potential CSRC Filing Requirements

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC published the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), and Administrative

 

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Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), or, collectively, the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations. Such Draft Overseas Listing Regulations set out new filing procedures for China-based companies seeking direct or indirect listings and offerings in overseas markets. The Draft Overseas Listing Regulations require that China-based companies seeking to offer and list securities in overseas markets complete certain post-application / post-listing filing procedures with the CSRC, and that an initial filing with the CSRC be submitted within three working days after the application for an initial public offering is submitted to the overseas regulators, and that a supplemental filing with respect to the result of the overseas listing or offering be submitted after the overseas listing or offering is completed. The Draft Overseas Listing Regulations do not require a China-based company including the Company to obtain the CSRC’s pre-approval before it applies for or completes a listing or offering of securities in overseas markets.

Under the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, an overseas offering or listing is prohibited if (i) it is prohibited by PRC laws, (ii) it constitutes a threat to or endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent PRC authorities, (iii) it has material ownership disputes over equity, major assets, and core technology, (iv) in recent three years, the Chinese operating entities and their controlling shareholders and actual controllers have committed certain criminal offenses or are currently under investigations for suspicion of criminal offenses or major violations, (v) the directors, supervisors, or senior executives have been subject to administrative punishment for severe violations, or are currently under investigations for suspicion of criminal offenses or major violations, or (vi) it is subject to other circumstances as prescribed by the State Council.

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC issued the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises, or the Trial Measures, which will become effective on March 31, 2023. On the same date of the issuance of the Trial Measures, the CSRC circulated No.1 to No.5 Supporting Guidance Rules, the Notes on the Trial Measures, the Notice on Administration Arrangements for the Filing of Overseas Listings by Domestic Enterprises and the relevant CSRC Answers to Reporter Questions on the official website of the CSRC, or collectively, the Guidance Rules and Notice. The Trial Measures, together with the Guidance Rules and Notice, reiterate the basic supervision principles as reflected in the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations by providing substantially the same requirements for filings of overseas offering and listing by domestic companies, yet made the following updates compared to the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations: (a) further clarification of the circumstances prohibiting overseas issuance and listing; (b) further clarification of the standard of indirect overseas listing under the principle of substance over form, and (c) adding more details of filing procedures and requirements by setting different filing requirements for different types of overseas offering and listing. Under the Trial Measures and the Guidance Rules and Notice, domestic companies conducting overseas securities offering and listing activities, either in direct or indirect form, shall complete filing procedures with the CSRC pursuant to the requirements of the Trial Measures within three working days following its submission of initial public offerings or listing application. The companies that have already been listed on overseas stock exchanges or have obtained the approval from overseas supervision administrations or stock exchanges for its offering and listing and will complete their overseas offering and listing prior to September 30, 2023 are not required to make immediate filings for its listing yet need to make filings for subsequent offerings in accordance with the Trial Measures. The companies that have already submitted an application for an initial public offering to overseas supervision administrations prior to the effective date of the Trial Measures but have not yet obtained the approval from overseas supervision administrations or stock exchanges for the offering and listing may arrange for the filing within a reasonable time period and should complete the filing procedure before such companies’ overseas issuance and listing.

As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any formal inquiry, notice, warning, sanction, or any regulatory objection from the CSRC with respect to this offering. As the Trial Measures were newly published and there exists uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and its implementation, if we are required to submit to the CRSC and complete the filing procedure of our overseas public offering and listing, we cannot be sure that we will be able to complete such filings in a timely manner. Any failure or perceived failure by us to

 

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comply with such filing requirements under the Trial Measures may result in forced corrections, warnings and fines against us and could materially hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities.

CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

Our Corporate History and Structure

We commenced our commercial operations in September 2009 through Shenzhen Jiayuda Trading Co., Ltd. In July 2015, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. (previously under the name of “Shenzhen Xinyuxiang Supply Chain Co., Ltd.”) was established to optimize our resource allocation to further expand our business. On June 10, 2022, we incorporated Jayud Global Logistics Limited under the laws of the Cayman Islands as our offshore holding company to facilitate offshore financing. In June 2022, we established Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, our wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary. From May to September 2022, we underwent a series of corporate reorganizations in anticipation of our initial public offering.

On February 16, 2023, we implemented a 1 for 1.25 reverse share split of our ordinary shares under Cayman Islands law, or the Reverse Share Split. As a result of the Reverse Share Split, the total of 13,590,400 issued and outstanding Class A ordinary shares prior to the Reverse Share Split was reduced to a total of 10,872,320 issued and outstanding Class A ordinary shares and the total of 6,409,600 issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares prior to the Reverse Share Split was reduced to a total of 5,127,680 issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares. The purpose of the Reverse Share Split was to enhance our ability to achieve a share price for our Class A ordinary shares consistent with the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market. The Reverse Share Split maintained our existing shareholders’ percentage ownership interests in our company. The Reverse Share Split also increased the par value of our ordinary shares from $0.0001 to $0.000125 and decreased the number of authorized shares of our company from 500,000,000 to 400,000,000, which are divided into 384,000,000 Class A ordinary shares and 16,000,000 Class B ordinary shares.

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure as of the date of this prospectus:

 

LOGO

 

Note:

the English names of our PRC business entities are directly translated from Chinese and may be different from their names shown on their respective records filed with relevant PRC authorities.

(1) 

No single shareholder among “other shareholders” beneficially owns more than 5% of our ordinary shares.

 

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Holding Company Structure

Jayud Global Logistics Limited is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries in China and Hong Kong. As a result, Jayud Global Logistics Limited’s ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries. If our existing PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries or any newly formed ones incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us.

In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries had aggregate retained earnings as determined under PRC accounting standards as of December 31, 2022. Pursuant to the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC Company Law, our PRC subsidiaries are required to make contribution of at least 10% of their after-tax profits calculated in accordance with the PRC GAAP to the statutory common reserve. Contribution is required until the reserve fund has reached 50% of the registered capital of our subsidiaries. As of June 30, 2022, our reserve fund did not reach 50% of the registered capital of our subsidiaries.

As of June 30, 2022, our PRC subsidiaries had RMB52.9 million (US$7.9 million) of restricted net asset. As of December 31, 2021, our PRC subsidiaries had RMB22.6 million of restricted net asset.

On February 8, 2022 and February 28, 2022, Shenzhen Jiayuda E-Commerce Technology Co., Ltd and Shenzhen Jiayuda Global Supply Chain Co., Ltd. declared RMB2.4 million cash dividend and RMB7.4 million cash dividend respectively, to its then shareholders and its holding company, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. On March 15, 2022, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd declared RMB9.0 million of dividend to its then shareholders. Historically, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. has also received equity financing from its then shareholders to fund business operations of our PRC subsidiaries. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, two of our Hong Kong subsidiaries, Sky Pacific Logistics HK Company Limited (“Sky Pacific”) and HongKong Jayud International Logistics Company Limited (“HK Jayud International”), transferred cash proceeds of nil and RMB0.9 million (US$0.1 million) to our PRC subsidiaries for the settlement of intercompany transactions for our PRC subsidiaries. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, we transferred cash proceeds of RMB1.6 million and RMB7.3 million (US$1.1 million) to Sky Pacific and HK Jayud International for the settlement of intercompany transactions. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, we transferred cash proceeds of RMB0.3 million (US$0.04 million) to Sky Pacific and HK Jayud International for the settlement of intercompany transactions. In the future, most cash proceeds raised from overseas financing activities, including this offering, may be, and are intended to be, transferred by us through our wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary, Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, to our PRC subsidiaries via capital contribution and shareholder loans, as the case may be. Our PRC subsidiaries that receive such cash proceeds then will transfer funds to its subsidiaries to meet the capital needs of our business operations. For details about the applicable PRC rules that limit transfer of funds from overseas to our PRC subsidiaries, see “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

The structure of cash flows within our organization, and the applicable regulations, are as follows. After foreign investors’ funds are received by Jayud Global Logistics Limited, our holding company, at the close of this offering, subject to the cash demand of our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries, the funds can be transferred to our wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary, Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, which will further distribute the funds to our PRC subsidiaries. If we intend to distribute dividends, PRC subsidiaries will transfer the dividends to Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited in accordance with the laws and regulations of the PRC, and then Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited will transfer the dividends up to Jayud Global Logistics Limited, and the dividends will be distributed from Jayud Global Logistics Limited to all shareholders

 

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respectively in proportion to the shares they hold, regardless of whether the shareholders are U.S. investors or investors in other countries or regions. The cross-border transfer of funds within our corporate group under our direct holding structure must be legal and compliant with relevant laws and regulations of China and Hong Kong. In utilizing the proceeds from this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions and to our affiliated entities only through loans, subject to applicable government reporting, registration and approvals. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries in China, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.” We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We have, from time to time, transferred cash between our PRC subsidiaries to fund their operations, and we do not anticipate any difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between such subsidiaries. As of the date of this prospectus, no cash generated from our PRC subsidiaries has been used to fund operations of any of our non-PRC subsidiaries. We may encounter difficulties in our ability to transfer cash between PRC subsidiaries and non-PRC subsidiaries largely due to various PRC laws and regulations imposed on foreign exchange. However, as long as we are compliant with the procedures for approvals from foreign exchange authorities and banks in China, the relevant laws and regulations in China do not impose limitations on the amount of funds that we can transfer out of China. We currently do not have any cash management policy that dictate the transfer of cash between our subsidiaries. See “Regulations—Regulations Relating to Foreign Exchange” for details of such procedures.

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately US$             million (after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us), of which approximately US$             million will be transferred to our PRC subsidiaries for daily operations. See “Use of Proceeds” for more details.

CORPORATE INFORMATION

We were incorporated on June 10, 2022 as a company limited by shares structures as a holding company incorporated under the laws of Cayman Islands. Our registered office is located at Vistra (Cayman) Limited, P. O. Box 31119 Grand Pavilion, Hibiscus Way, 802 West Bay Road, Grand Cayman, KY1-1205 Cayman Islands.

Our principal executive offices of our operating subsidiaries are located at 4th Floor, Building 4, Shatoujiao Free Trade Zone, Yantian District, Shenzhen, the People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 0755-25595406.

Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc. located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168.

Investors should contact us for any inquiries through the address and telephone number of our principal executive office. Our principal website is http://www.jayud.com/. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus.

IMPLICATIONS OF BEING AN EMERGING GROWTH COMPANY

As a company with less than US$1.235 billion in revenue for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements compared to those that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new

 

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or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. We have elected to take advantage of such exemptions.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenue of at least US$1.235 billion; (ii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have, during the preceding three-year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of the Class A ordinary shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

IMPLICATIONS OF BEING A FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER

We are also considered a “foreign private issuer.” Accordingly, upon consummation of this offering, we will report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. This means that, even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents, (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

In this prospectus, we have taken advantage of certain of the reduced reporting requirements as a result of being an emerging growth company and a foreign private issuer. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold equity securities.

IMPLICATION OF BEING A CONTROLLED COMPANY

Upon the completion of this offering, our founder and chief executive officer, Mr. Xiaogang Geng, as the only shareholder of all our issued and outstanding 5,127,680 Class B ordinary shares, will beneficially own             % of our total issued and outstanding ordinary shares, representing             % of our total voting power, assuming that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares, or             % of our total issued and outstanding ordinary shares, representing             % of our total voting power, assuming that the option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares is exercised by the underwriters in full. As a result, we will be a “controlled company” as defined under the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules because Mr. Xiaogang Geng will hold more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors. As a “controlled company,” we are permitted to elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. If we rely on these exemptions, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.

 

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CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS

Except otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires:

 

   

“CAGR” refers to compound average growth rate;

 

   

“China” or the “PRC”, in each case, refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this prospectus only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. The term “Chinese” has a correlative meaning for the purpose of this prospectus. When used in the case of laws and regulations, of “China” or “the PRC”, it refers to only such laws and regulations of mainland China;

 

   

“Class A ordinary shares” refer to our class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.000125 per share after the Reverse Share Split;

 

   

“Class B ordinary shares” refer to our class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.000125 per share after the Reverse Share Split;

 

   

“EIT” refers to enterprise income tax;

 

   

“Hong Kong” refers to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the PRC;

 

   

“ordinary shares” or “shares” prior to the completion of this offering refer to our ordinary shares of par value US$0.000125 per share after the Reverse Share Split, and upon and after the completion of this offering are to our Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares;

 

   

“R&D” refers to research and development;

 

   

“Reverse Share Split” refers to a 1 for 1.25 reverse share split of our ordinary shares under Cayman Islands law implemented on February 16, 2023;

 

   

“RMB” and “Renminbi” refer to the legal currency of mainland China;

 

   

“SEC” refers to the Securities and Exchange Commission;

 

   

“US$” and “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States;

 

   

“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States; and

 

   

“we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to Jayud Global Logistics Limited, a Cayman Islands company and its subsidiaries.

Unless otherwise indicated, (a) information in this prospectus assumes that the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares, and (b) references in this prospectus to this offering are to our offering of Class A ordinary shares pursuant to this prospectus.

Our reporting currency is RMB. This prospectus contains translations from RMB to U.S. dollars solely for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, the translations from RMB to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to RMB in this prospectus were made at a rate of RMB6.3757 to US$1.00 for the year of 2021 and RMB6.7114 to US$1.00 for the six months ended June 30, 2022, representing the middle rates as set forth in the statistical release of the Bank of China as of December 31, 2021 and June 30, 2022, respectively. We make no representation that the RMB or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this prospectus could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

The English names of our PRC business entities are directly translated from Chinese and may be different from their names shown on their respective records filed with relevant PRC authorities.

Internet site addresses in this prospectus are included for reference only and the information contained in any website, including our website, is not incorporated by reference into, and does not form part of, this prospectus.

 

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains estimates and information concerning our industry, including our market position and the size and growth rates of the markets in which we participate, that are based on industry publications and the reports. This prospectus contains statistical data and estimates published by Frost & Sullivan, an independent research firm, for which we paid a fee. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry reports. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications and reports.

Industry publications, research, surveys, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. These forecasts and forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under “Risk Factors”. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the forecasts or estimates from independent third parties and us.

OUR CHALLENGES

Investing in our Class A ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. Investors in the Class A ordinary shares are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. Jayud Global Logistics Limited is a Cayman Islands holding company that conducts substantial business operation in China through its PRC subsidiaries, in particular, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries. Such structure involves unique risks to investors in the Class A ordinary shares. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties summarized below, the risks described under the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 19 of this prospectus, including the risks described under the subsections headed “Risks Related to Our Business and Industry,” “Risks Related to Doing Business in China” and “Risks Related to the Class A ordinary shares and This Offering,” and other information contained in this prospectus before you decide whether to purchase the Class A ordinary shares.

In particular, as we are a China-based company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties related to being based in and having substantive business operations in China. The PRC government has significant authority to exert influence on the ability of a China-based company, such as us, to conduct its business, accept foreign investments or list on an U.S. or other foreign exchanges. Such risks could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our Class A ordinary shares or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer Class A ordinary shares and/or other securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

The PRC government also has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and our operations may be affected by evolving regulatory policies as a result. The PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. These risks could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our Class A ordinary shares, or could significantly limit or completely hinder our

 

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ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. You should pay special attention to the subsection headed “Risks Related to Doing Business in China” below.

Hong Kong is currently a separate jurisdiction from mainland China. Pursuant to the Basic Law, national laws and regulations of the PRC shall not apply to Hong Kong except for those listed in Annex III of the Basic Law (which is limited to laws relating to defense and foreign affairs, as well as other matters outside the autonomy of Hong Kong), we do not believe there will be material effects on our Hong Kong subsidiaries’ operations and financial results resulting from the legal and operational risks relating to the PRC regulations. As such, the legal and operational risks associated with our operations in the PRC apply to its operations in Hong Kong only to the extent applicable. However, such list of national laws and regulations that are applicable in Hong Kong can be expanded by amendment to the Basic Law. There is no assurance that (1) the Basic Law will not be further amended to apply more PRC laws and regulations in Hong Kong, or (2) the PRC and/or Hong Kong government will not take other actions to promote the integration of Hong Kong legal system into the PRC legal system. Our Hong Kong subsidiaries could be subject to more influence and/or control of the PRC government or even direct oversight or intervention thereof if the Hong Kong legal system becomes more integrated into the PRC legal system. As such, there remains regulatory uncertainty with respect to the implementation and interpretation of laws in China. We are subject to the risks of uncertainty about any future actions the Chinese government or authorities in Hong Kong may take in this regard, which could result in a material adverse change to our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations, and the value of our securities.

We face the following risks and uncertainties in realizing our business objectives and executing our strategies. For details of each of these bulleted risk factors, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry” under the same subheadings.

 

   

Our business and growth are significantly affected by the development of international commerce and the e-commerce industry, as well as macroeconomic and other factors that affect demand for supply chain solutions and logistics services, in China and globally. (page 19)

 

   

Trade restrictions could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. (page 20)

 

   

We face intense competition which could adversely affect our results of operations and market share. (page 20)

 

   

We face risks associated with the items we deliver and the contents of shipments and inventories handled through our logistics networks, including real or perceived quality or health issues with the products that are handled through our logistics networks, and risks inherent in the logistics industry, including personal injury, product damage, and transportation-related incidents. (page 21)

 

   

We may be exposed to credit risks in relation to defaults from customers. (page 22)

 

   

Our historical results of operations and financial performance are not indicative of future performance. (page 22)

 

   

If we are unable to collect our receivables from our existing customers, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. (page 22)

 

   

Our financial position and results of operations may be materially adversely affected if our expenditure on warehouses and equipment do not match customer demand or if there is a lack of funding for these investments. (page 23)

 

   

Failure to successfully implement our business strategy, effectively respond to changes in market dynamics and satisfactorily meet customer demand will cause our future financial results to suffer. (page 23)

 

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We may need additional capital to pursue business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. (page 24)

 

   

We may fail to successfully enter necessary or desirable strategic alliances or make acquisitions or investments, and we may not be able to achieve the anticipated benefits from these alliances, acquisitions or investments we make. (page 24)

 

   

We rely on service providers, such as air, ocean and ground freight carriers, and if they become financially unstable or have reduced capacity to provide services because of COVID-19, it may adversely impact our business and operating results. (page 25)

 

   

Our business may be affected by fluctuations in China’s road transportation market. (page 25)

 

   

Any disruption to the operation of the warehousing and logistics facilities operated by us or other third-party transportation companies and couriers that facilitate our logistics services, or to the development of new warehousing and logistics facilities, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. (page 25)

 

   

If we are unable to utilize our container depots and warehouses effectively, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. (page 26)

 

   

We may be unable to obtain adequate amount of cargo space to meet our customers’ needs. (page 26)

 

   

We use third parties in some aspects of our operations and failure to maintain positive relationships with them could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. (page 26)

 

   

If we are unable to manage the expansion of our logistics infrastructure successfully, our business prospects and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. (page 27)

 

   

We depend on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our revenues and the loss of one or more of these customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. (page 27)

 

   

If our customers reduce their expenditure on third-party supply chain solutions and logistics services or increase utilization of their internal solutions, our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected. (page 28)

 

   

If we fail to cost-efficiently attract new customers to use our solutions and services, or to maintain relationships with existing customers, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. (page 28)

We are a China-based company and we may face the following risks and uncertainties in doing business in China. For details of each of these bulleted risk factors, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China” under the same subheadings.

 

   

Change in China’s economic, political or social conditions, laws, regulations or governmental policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations. (page 39)

 

   

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes of PRC laws and regulations with little advance notice could adversely affect us and limit the legal protections available to you and us, and the Chinese government may exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas, which changes could materially hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. (page 40)

 

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The Chinese government exerts substantial oversight and influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business and may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which actions could impact our operations materially and adversely, and significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless. (page 41)

 

   

The recent joint statement by the SEC and PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCA Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies, including companies based in China, upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB. (page 42)

 

   

The approval of and the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing. (page 43)

 

   

We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided directly or indirectly by our customers or end users. (page 45)

 

   

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management named in the prospectus based on foreign laws. (page 47)

 

   

You may incur additional costs and procedural obstacles in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in Hong Kong against us or our management named in this prospectus based on Hong Kong laws. (page 47)

 

   

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China. (page 48)

 

   

It may be difficult for overseas shareholders and/or regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within Hong Kong. (page 48)

 

   

If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders. (page 49)

 

   

We face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfer of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies. (page 49)

 

   

If our preferential tax treatments are revoked or become unavailable or if the calculation of our tax liability is successfully challenged by the PRC tax authorities, we may be required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions. (page 50)

 

   

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations or comply with laws and regulations on other employment practices may subject us to penalties. (page 51)

 

   

The enforcement of the PRC Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may subject us to penalties or liabilities. (page 51)

 

   

The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions. (page 51)

 

   

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to change their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to liability and penalties under PRC laws. In addition, any failure to comply with PRC regulations with respect to registration requirements for offshore financing may subject us to legal or administrative sanctions. (page 52)

 

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We may be materially adversely affected if our shareholders and beneficial owners who are PRC entities fail to comply with the PRC overseas investment regulations. (page 53)

In addition to the risks described above, we are subject to the following risks relating to the Class A ordinary shares and this offering. For details of each of these bulleted risk factors, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Class A Ordinary Shares and This Offering” under the same subheadings.

 

   

An active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares may not develop and the trading price for our Class A ordinary shares may fluctuate significantly. (page 58)

 

   

The trading price of our Class A ordinary shares is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors. (page 58)

 

   

The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares has the effect of concentrating voting power with our existing shareholders prior to the consummation of this offering, which will limit your ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control. (page 60)

 

   

The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may adversely affect the trading market for our Class A ordinary shares. (page 60)

 

   

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and trading volume could decline. (page 61)

 

   

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares could adversely affect their market price. (page 61)

 

   

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares for return on your investment. (page 61)

 

   

[Because the initial public offering price is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution.] (page 62)

 

   

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree. (page 62)

 

   

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could subject U.S. investors in our Class A ordinary shares to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. (page 62)

 

   

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our ordinary shares. (page 63)

 

   

Our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association provide that the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (or, if the Southern District of New York lacks subject matter jurisdiction over a particular dispute, the state courts of New York County, New York) shall be the exclusive forum within the United States for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising out of or relating in any way to the federal securities laws of the United States, regardless of whether such legal suit, action, or proceeding also involves parties other than us. This could limit the ability of holders of our Class A ordinary shares or other securities to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us, our directors and officers, and potentially others. (page 63)

 

   

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law. (page 64)

 

   

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable. (page 64)

 

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We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company. (page 65)

 

   

The obligation to disclose information publicly may put us at a disadvantage to competitors that are private companies. (page 65)

 

   

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies. (page 65)

 

   

We are an emerging growth company, and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A ordinary shares less attractive to investors. (page 66)

 

   

Nasdaq may apply additional and more stringent criteria for our initial and continued listing because we plan to have a small public offering and [insiders will hold a large portion of the company’s listed securities]. (page 66)

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Offering price

US$             per Class A ordinary share

 

Class A ordinary shares offered by us

             Class A ordinary shares (or              Class A ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares).

 

Ordinary shares

We have adopted a dual-class structure which has been effective since our incorporation. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. Each Class A ordinary share will be entitled to one (1) vote, and each Class B ordinary share shall be entitled to ten (10) votes on all matters subject to a vote at general meetings of our Company. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time at the option of the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares shall not be convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances.

 

  The right to convert shall be exercisable by the holder of the Class B ordinary share delivering a written notice to us that such holder elects to convert a specified number of Class B ordinary shares into Class A ordinary shares. Any conversion of Class B ordinary shares into Class A ordinary shares may be affected by means of the re-designation and re-classification of each relevant Class B ordinary share as a Class A ordinary share.

 

Ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately after this offering

             Class A ordinary shares (or              Class A ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise the option to purchase additional              Class A ordinary shares in full) and 5,127,680 Class B ordinary shares.

 

Option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable for [30 days] from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an aggregate of additional              Class A ordinary shares at the initial public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions, solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments.

 

Listing

We have applied to have our Class A ordinary shares listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “JYD.” Our ordinary shares will not be listed on any exchange or quoted for trading on any over-the-counter trading system.

 

Payment and settlement

The underwriters expect to deliver the Class A ordinary shares on             , 2023.

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds of approximately US$             million from this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, the

 

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mid-point of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deducting estimated underwriter discounts, commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use our net proceeds from this offering for the daily operations of onshore and offshore subsidiaries. See “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of the risks you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our Class A ordinary shares.

 

Transfer agent

Transhare Corporation

 

Representative’s Warrant

We have agreed to issue warrants to the representative of the underwriters to purchase such number of Class A ordinary shares equal to 3% of the total number of Class A ordinary shares sold in this offering (including any Class A ordinary share sold pursuant to the exercise of the over-allotment option). Such warrants shall have an exercise price equal to 100% of the offering price of the Class A ordinary shares sold to investors in this offering and may be exercised on a cashless basis. The representative’s warrants will be exercisable commencing six months from the closing of this offering and will terminate on the fifth anniversary of the commencement of sales for this offering.

 

Lock-up

Our directors and officers and holders of more than 5% of our outstanding shares as of the effective date of this registration statement will enter into customary “lock-up” agreements in favor of the underwriters for a period of six (6) months from the date of this offering. We have agreed with the underwriters that, for a period of three (3) months from the closing of this offering, we will not (a) offer, sell, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any capital shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for capital shares; or (b) file or caused to be filed any registration statement with the SEC relating to the offering of any capital shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for capital shares. See “Underwriting” for more information.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in the Class A ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, as well as other information contained in this prospectus, before making an investment in our company. The risks discussed below could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, ability to pay dividends and the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares. We may face additional risks and uncertainties aside from the ones mentioned below. There may be risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently do not consider material, that may become important factors that adversely affect our business in the future. Any of the following risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay dividends. In such case, the market prices of the Class A ordinary shares could decline and you may lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our business and growth are significantly affected by the development of international commerce and the e-commerce industry, as well as macroeconomic and other factors that affect demand for supply chain solutions and logistics services, in China and globally.

We generate a significant portion of volume of orders by serving merchants that may conduct business on various e-commerce platforms, which rely on our supply chain solutions and logistics services to fulfill orders placed by consumers on such platforms. As such, our business and growth are highly dependent on the viability and prospects of international commerce, as well as the domestic and international e-commerce industry. Any uncertainties relating to the growth, profitability and regulatory regime of international commerce and/or the e-commerce industry could have a significant impact on us. The development of international commerce and/or the e-commerce industry is affected by a number of factors, most of which are beyond our control. These factors include but not limited to:

 

   

the consumption power and disposable income of consumers, as well as changes in demographics and consumer tastes and preferences;

 

   

the potential impact of the COVID-19 and other pandemics on our business operations and the economy in China and elsewhere in the world generally;

 

   

the growth of broadband and mobile Internet penetration and usage;

 

   

the availability, reliability and security of e-commerce platforms;

 

   

the selection, price and popularity of products offered on e-commerce platforms;

 

   

the emergence of alternative channels or business models that better suit the needs of consumers;

 

   

the development of logistics, payment and other ancillary services associated with international commerce and/or e-commerce; and

 

   

changes in laws and regulations, as well as government policies that govern international commerce and/or the e-commerce industry.

International commerce and the e-commerce industry are highly sensitive to the changes of macroeconomic conditions, and people’s e-commerce spending tends to decline during recessionary periods. Many factors beyond our control, including economic recessions, downturns in business cycles, inflation and deflation, fluctuation of currency exchange rate, volatility of stock and property markets, interest rates, tax rates and other government policies and changes in unemployment rates, can adversely affect international commerce, consumer confidence and spending behavior on e-commerce platforms, which could in turn materially and adversely affect our growth and profitability. In addition, unfavorable changes in domestic and international politics, including military conflicts, political turmoil and social instability, may also adversely affect consumer confidence and spending behavior, which could in turn negatively impact our growth and profitability.

 

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Further, the supply chain solution industry has historically experienced cyclical fluctuations in operational and financial performance due to economic recessions, reductions in per capita disposable income and levels of consumer spending, downturns in the business cycles of customers, interest rate fluctuations and economic factors beyond our control. During economic downturns, whether in China or globally, reduced overall demand for supply chain services will likely result in decreased demand for our supply chain solutions and logistics services and exert downward pressures on our rates and margins. As we provide a significant portion of our supply chain solutions and logistics services for the international commerce and the e-commerce industry, if the online and offline retail channel integration trend or any other trend required for the development of international commerce and the e-commerce industry does not develop as we expect, our business prospect may be adversely affected. In periods of strong economic growth, demand for limited transportation resources can also result in increased network congestion and operating inefficiencies.

In addition, any deterioration in the economic environment subjects our business to various risks that may have a material impact on our operating results and future prospects. For example, the trade dispute between the PRC and the United States and the increase in tariffs that the two states imposed on each other’s imports have contributed to increased market volatility, weakened business and consumer confidence, and diminished expectations for economic growth around the world. The adverse impact on sellers, cross-border e-commerce, logistics companies and overseas warehouses were most prominent in the trade war if products sold belonged to the tariff lines, further leading to massive growth in tax costs. Any trade barriers, legal measures and exchange rate fluctuations may severely affect cross-border business activities or integrated supply chain solution providers that are highly sensitive to price changes. In such deteriorated economic environment, some of our customers may face difficulties in paying us, and some may go out of business. These customers may not complete their payments as quickly as they did in the past, if at all, which may have adverse impact on our working capital. We may not be able to promptly adjust our expenses in response to changing market demands and it may be more difficult to match our staffing levels to our business needs.

Trade restrictions could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are an end-to-end supply chain solution provider, and a substantial portion of our business operations is freight forwarding, particularly international freight forwarding. Our freight forwarding operations may be affected by trade restrictions implemented by countries or territories in which our customers are located or in which our customers’ products are manufactured or sold. For example, we are subject to risks relating to changes in trade policies, tariff regulations, embargoes or other trade restrictions adverse to our customers’ business. Actions by governments which result in restrictions on movement of cargo or otherwise could also impede our ability to carry out freight forwarding operations. In addition, international trade and political issues, tensions, conflicts and wars may cause delays and interruptions to cross-border transportation and result in limitations on our insurance coverage. If we are unable to transport cargo to and from countries with trade restrictions in a timely manner or at all, we may face to risks related to contract violations and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We face intense competition which could adversely affect our results of operations and market share.

The industries we operate in are highly competitive and fragmented. Our extensive supply chain solutions and logistics services encompass a wide range of services, including freight forwarding services, supply chain management and other value-added services. As a result, we may compete with a broad range of companies, such as integrated supply chain solution and service providers, and express and freight delivery service providers. Specifically, there are multiple existing market players that offer integrated supply chain solutions and logistics services, and there may be new entrants emerging in each of the markets we operate in, which compete to attract, engage and retain consumers and merchants. These companies may have greater financial, technological, research and development, marketing, distribution, and other resources than we do. They may also have longer operating histories, a larger customer base or broader and deeper market coverage. As a result, our competitors

 

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may be able to respond more quickly and effectively to new or evolving opportunities, technologies, standards or user requirements than we do and may have the ability to initiate or withstand significant regulatory changes and industry evolvement. Furthermore, when we expand into other markets, we will face competition from new competitors, domestic or foreign, who may also enter markets where we currently operate or plan to operate.

Any significant increase in competition may have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability as well as on our operations and business prospect. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continuously distinguish our services from those of our competitors, preserve and improve our relationships with various participants in the supply chain solution industry, or increase or even maintain our existing market share. We may experience the loss of market share, and our financial condition and results of operations may deteriorate if we fail to compete effectively.

In addition, many operators in the supply chain solution industry have consolidated in recent years to create larger enterprises with greater bargaining power, which created greater competitive pressures on us. If this consolidation trend continues, this industry will be more competitive. New partnerships and strategic alliances in the supply chain solution industry also can alter market dynamics and adversely impact our businesses and competitive positioning. If we cannot equip ourselves with necessary resources and skills, we may lose our market share as competition increases. In addition, our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative or strategic relationships amongst themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources and offerings. If we are unable to anticipate or react to these competitive challenges, our competitive position could be undermined, and we could experience a decline in growth which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, certain large retailers or e-commerce platforms may establish or further develop their own logistics networks leveraging on their established warehousing and delivery capacities in selected areas in order to gain control of the consumer touchpoint and to create synergies with their businesses. They may also compete with us for qualified delivery personnel and warehouse staff with competitive remuneration. Any of the above could adversely affect our results of operations and market share.

We face risks associated with the items we deliver and the contents of shipments and inventories handled through our logistics networks, including real or perceived quality or health issues with the products that are handled through our logistics networks, and risks inherent in the logistics industry, including personal injury, product damage, and transportation-related incidents.

We handle a large volume of parcels, cargo and freights across our logistics network, and face challenges with respect to the protection and examination of these parcels. Parcels in our network may be delayed, stolen, damaged or lost during delivery for various reasons, and we may be perceived or found liable for such incidents. In addition, we may fail to screen parcels and detect unsafe, prohibited or restricted items. Unsafe items, such as flammables and explosives, toxic or corrosive items and radioactive materials, may damage other parcels in our network, harm the personnel and facilities of us, or even injure the recipients. Furthermore, if we fail to prevent prohibited or restricted items from entering into our network and if we participate in the transportation and delivery of such items unknowingly, we may be subject to administrative or even criminal penalties, and if any personal injury or property damage is concurrently caused, we may also be liable for civil compensation.

The delivery of parcels also involves inherent risks. We constantly have a large number of vehicles and personnel in transportation, and are therefore subject to risks associated with transportation safety. The insurance maintained by us may not fully cover the liabilities caused by transportation related injuries or losses. From time to time, the vehicles and personnel of our third-party business partners may be involved in transportation and vehicle accidents, and the parcels carried by them may be lost or damaged. In addition, frictions or disputes may occasionally arise from the direct interactions between the pickup and delivery personnel with parcel senders and recipients. Personal injuries or property damages may arise if such incidents escalate.

Any of the foregoing could disrupt our services, cause us to incur substantial expenses and divert the time and attention of our management. We may face claims and incur significant liabilities if found liable or partially

 

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liable for any of injuries, damages or losses. Claims against us may exceed the amount of our insurance coverage, or may not be covered by insurance at all. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could negatively influence our business and financial condition. Governmental authorities may also impose significant fines on us or require us to adopt costly preventive measures. Furthermore, if our services are perceived to be insecure or unsafe by our customers, our business volume may be significantly reduced, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We may be exposed to credit risks in relation to defaults from customers.

Our exposure to credit risk may be influenced mainly by the individual characteristics of each customer as well as the industry or country in which the customers operate, and may be concentrated on few number of customers. Although we will monitor our exposure to credit risk on an ongoing basis and make periodic judgment on impairment of overdue receivables based on the likelihood of collectability, we cannot assure you that all of our customers are creditworthy and reputable and will not default on payments in the future. If we encounter significant delays or defaults in payment by our customers or are otherwise unable to recover our accounts receivables, our cash flow, liquidity and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

Our historical results of operations and financial performance are not indicative of future performance.

Our total revenues increased by 174.7% from RMB165.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB454.1 million (US$67.7 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our total revenues increased by 87.9% from RMB290.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB545.6 million (US$85.5 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our gross profits increased by 90.7% from RMB11.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB30.9 million (US$4.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profits increased by 64.1% from RMB21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB34.5 million (US$5.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Although our business has grown rapidly, our historical results of operations and financial performance may not be indicative of our future performance. In addition, we cannot assure you that we can continue to operate under our existing business models successfully. As the market and our business evolve, we may modify our operations, data and technology, sales and marketing, solutions and services. These changes may not achieve expected results and may have a material and adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition. We expect our expenses to continue to increase in the future as we expand our business. Our expenses may grow faster than our revenue, and our expenses may be greater than we expected. We cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve similar results or grow at the same speed as we did in the past or at all. Rather than relying on our historical operating and financial results to evaluate us, you should consider our business prospects in light of the risks and difficulties we may encounter as a company in its ramp-up stage of development and operating in emerging and dynamic industries, including, among other factors, our ability to attract and retain customers; our ability to create value for participants in our ecosystem and increase monetization; our ability to navigate in the evolving regulatory environment; our ability to provide high-quality and satisfactory services; our ability to build up our reputation and promote our brand; and our ability to anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions. We may not be able to successfully address these risks and difficulties, which could significantly harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we are unable to collect our receivables from our existing customers, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to successfully collect payment from our customers of the amounts they owe us for our services. As of June 30, 2022, we had accounts receivable recorded at RMB54.6 million (US$8.1 million), of which RMB0.8 million (US$0.1 million) was allowanced, accounting for approximately 1.5% of our total accounts receivable. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon estimates, historical experience and other factors surrounding the credit risk of specific customers. However, actual losses on customer receivables balance could differ from our anticipation and as a result we might need to adjust our

 

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allowance. There is no guarantee that we will accurately assess the creditworthiness of our customers. Macroeconomic conditions, including related turmoil in the global financial system, could also result in financial difficulties for our customers, including limited access to the credit markets, insolvency or bankruptcy, and as a result could cause customers to delay payments to us, requesting modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance or default on the payment obligations to us. As a result, an extended delay or default in payment relating to a significant account will have a material and adverse effect on the aging schedule and turnover days of our accounts receivable. If we are unable to collect our receivables from our customers, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our financial position and results of operations may be materially adversely affected if our expenditure on warehouses and equipment do not match customer demand or if there is a lack of funding for these investments.

In order to carry out our strategies and expansion plan, we will incur significant expenses on equipment and infrastructure in connection with the growth of our business, including leasing warehouses, fleet procurement, and purchase of equipment and other fixed assets.

To facilitate our future expansion, including the entry into new markets, we may need to continue to make substantial capital expenditures. Our operations require significant expenditure on warehouses and equipment, the amount and timing of which depend on various factors, including anticipated order volume and the price/rental rates and availability of appropriate property that could be used as our warehouses. If our anticipated requirements for warehouses, fleet or other equipment differ materially from actual usage and demand, our operations may have more or less capacity than optimal.

Our expenditure on warehouses and equipment depends on our ability to generate cash flow from operations and our access to external financing channels. A decline in the availability of these funding sources could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Even if we have sufficient funding, facilities and equipment that best suit our needs may not be available at reasonable prices or at all. For example, warehouse resources may be scarce in an area that best fits our network expansion plan due to local zoning plans or other regulatory controls. In addition, we are likely to incur expenditures earlier than all of the anticipated benefits and the return on these expenditures may be lower, or may be realized more slowly, than we expected. In addition, the carrying value of the related assets may be subject to impairment, which may adversely affect our financial conditions and operating results. Furthermore, our continued expenditure on our logistics infrastructure and networks may put us at a competitive disadvantage against competitors who spend less on these assets but focus more on improving other aspects of their business that are less capital intensive.

Failure to successfully implement our business strategy, effectively respond to changes in market dynamics and satisfactorily meet customer demand will cause our future financial results to suffer.

We are making significant investments and other decisions in connection with our long-term business strategy including our ability to expand the breadth and depth of our solutions and services and further invest in supply chain technologies. Such initiatives and enhancements may require us to make significant capital expenditures. Additionally, in developing our business strategy, we make certain assumptions including, but not limited to, those related to customer demand and preferences, competition landscape and the economy in China and globally. However, the actual market, economic and other conditions may be different from our assumptions. As the technology, customer behavior and market conditions continue to evolve, it is important that we maintain the relevance of our brand and service offerings to our customers. If we are not able to successfully implement our business strategies and effectively respond to changes in market dynamics, our future financial results will suffer. We have also incurred, and may continue to incur, increased operating expenses in connection with certain changes to our business strategies.

In addition, we make planning and spending decisions, including capacity expansion, procurement commitments, personnel needs and other resource requirements based on our estimate of customer demand. In

 

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particular, we may potentially experience capacity and resource shortages in fulfilling customer orders during peak season of e-commerce consumption or following special promotional campaigns on any e-commerce platforms. Failure to meet customer demand in a timely fashion or at all will adversely affect our competitive position, financial condition and results of operations.

We may need additional capital to pursue business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

Since inception, we have obtained credit facilities from commercial banks to support the growth of our business. As we intend to continue to make investments to support the growth of our business, we may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, including developing new supply chain solutions and logistics services, expanding our logistics infrastructure, and acquiring complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. However, additional funds may not be available when we need them, on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. Repayment of the indebtness may divert a substantial portion of cash flow to repay principal and service interest, which would reduce the funds available for expenses, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes; and we may suffer default and foreclosure on our assets if our operating cash flow is insufficient to fulfill our obligations, which could in turn result in acceleration of obligations to repay the indebtedness and limit our sources of financing.

Volatility in the credit markets may also have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing shareholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our ordinary shares. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.

We may fail to successfully enter necessary or desirable strategic alliances or make acquisitions or investments, and we may not be able to achieve the anticipated benefits from these alliances, acquisitions or investments we make.

We may evaluate and consider strategic investments and acquisitions or enter into strategic alliances to develop new services or solutions and enhance our competitive position. Investments or acquisitions involve numerous risks, including potential failure to achieve the expected benefits of the integration or acquisition; difficulties in, and the cost of, integrating operations, technologies, services and personnel; potential write-offs of acquired assets or investments; and downward effect on our operating results. These transactions will also divert the management’s time and resources from our normal course of operations, and we may have to incur unexpected liabilities or expenses. Further, since our inception, we had entered into strategic alliances with air freight carriers and ocean freight carriers, thus boosting and stabilizing our service capabilities. We may also in the future enter into strategic alliances with various third parties. Strategic alliances with third parties could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with potential leakage of proprietary information, non-performance by the counterparty and an increase in expenses incurred in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business.

In addition, if we do not successfully execute or effectively operate, integrate, leverage and grow acquired businesses, our financial results and reputation may suffer. Our strategy for long-term growth, productivity and profitability depends in part on our ability to make prudent strategic investment or acquisition decisions and to realize the benefits we expect when we make those investments or acquisitions. While we expect our past and future acquisitions to enhance our value proposition to customers and improve our long-term profitability, there can be no assurance that we will realize our expectations within the time frame we envisage, if at all, or that we

 

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can continue to support the value we allocate to these acquired businesses, including their goodwill or other intangible assets.

We rely on service providers, such as air, ocean and ground freight carriers, and if they become financially unstable or have reduced capacity to provide services because of pandemics, such as COVID-19, it may adversely impact our business and operating results.

We depend on services by air, ocean and overland freight carriers. The quality and profitability of our services depend upon the effective selection and oversight of our service providers. Pandemics, such as COVID-19 have ever placed significant stress on our air, ocean and freight ground carriers, which may continue to result in reduced carrier capacity or availability, pricing volatility or more limited carrier transportation schedules which could adversely impact our operations and financial results. During the pandemic, air carriers have been particularly affected having to cancel flights due to travel restrictions resulting in dramatic drops in revenues, historical losses and liquidity challenges. Uncertainty over recovery of demand for passenger air travel, in particular business travel, to pre-pandemic levels means air carriers’ operations and financial stability may be adversely affected long term.

Our business may be affected by fluctuations in China’s road transportation market.

We are sensitive to changes in overall economic conditions that impact cargo volumes and truck capacity. China’s road transportation market historically has experienced cyclical fluctuations due to economic slowdowns, downturns in business cycles of shippers, volatility in energy price, pandemic and other economic factors beyond our control. Deterioration in the economic environment subjects our business to various risks, including the following that may have a material and adverse impact on our operating results and cause us not to achieve growth or profitability:

 

   

a reduction in overall cargo volumes reduces our revenue and opportunities for growth; in addition, a decline in the volume of cargo shipped due to a downturn in shippers’ business cycles or other factors generally results in decreases in order pricing, as truckers compete for shipping orders to maintain truck productivity, which will affect our monetization opportunities;

 

   

a number of truckers may go out of business and we may be unable to have sufficient truckers to meet shippers’ demand when the market recovers; and

 

   

we may not be able to appropriately adjust our expenses to changing platform activities. In order to maintain high variability in our business model, it is necessary to adjust staffing levels to changing platform activities. In periods of rapid change, it is more difficult to match our staffing levels to our business needs. In addition, we have other expenses that are fixed for a period of time, and we may not be able to adequately adjust them in a period of rapid change in platform activities.

Any disruption to the operation of the warehousing and logistics facilities operated by us or other third-party transportation companies and couriers that facilitate our logistics services, or to the development of new warehousing and logistics facilities, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

As of June 30, 2022, we self-operated one warehouse located in Shenzhen of Guangdong province, with an aggregate gross floor area, or GFA, of approximately 5,596 sq. m. As of the same date, we had the rights to use two third-party warehouses located in Yiwu of Zhejiang province and Hong Kong, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 8,531 sq.m. In May 2022, we, through Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., entered into an agreement to obtain the right to use a brand new warehouse (“Dachan Bay Warehouse”) that was located close to Dachan Bay Terminals, Shenzhen Baoan International Airport and National Highway G4 which connects Beijing, Hong Kong and Macao, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 11,000 sq.m. Later in August, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. assigned all its rights and obligations under such agreement to Shenzhen Jayud Yuncang Technology Co., Ltd., one of our subsidiaries in China, by entering into a supplementary agreement. Dachan Bay Warehouse further enhances our capabilities to cover logistics services in the Southeast Asian market. See “Business—Our Business Model—Fragmented Logistics Services—Warehousing Services.” Natural disasters or other unanticipated catastrophic events, including power interruptions, water shortage, storms, fires, environmental pollutions, earthquakes, terrorist attacks and wars, as

 

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well as changes in governmental planning for the land underlying these facilities, could destroy any inventory located in these facilities and significantly impair our business operations. We may not be able to identify suitable replacement warehousing and logistics facilities that meet our requirements in a timely manner, should any of the foregoing occur.

If we are unable to utilize our container depots and warehouses effectively, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

As part of our end-to-end supply chain solution, we offer depot and warehousing services to our customers. Our continued growth depends in part on our ability to open and profitably operate our container depots and warehouses. The actual opening timing of new warehouses and its associated contribution to our growth are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to our ability to: (i) obtain adequate funding for development; (ii) accurately estimate the customer demand in new warehouses; (iii) successfully promote our new warehouses; and (iv) hire and retain skilled management and employees, especially qualified warehouse managers through our training and promotion, on commercially reasonable terms. Adverse changes in the economic conditions and any material decline in demand of our container depots and warehouse may lead to excess capacity. If we are unable to utilize excess warehouse capacity on hand, we may incur losses which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be unable to obtain adequate amount of cargo space to meet our customers’ needs.

We typically obtained cargo space from carriers through arrangements under block space agreements and spot agreements. Pursuant to the block space agreements, we may procure cargo space on specified routes for an agreed freight carriage capacity that the shipping carriers provide and we agree to obtain during the term of the contract. If we wish to obtain more cargo space than the allocated under the block space agreements, such additional cargo space will be subject to the latest market price, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain such additional cargo space at all. Further, since cargo space offered by our suppliers is on a first-come-first-served basis with no formal agreement for guaranteed supply of cargo space from our suppliers other than those under block space agreements, there is no assurance that we will be able to source cargo space within our customers’ expected timeframe cost-effectively. We cannot guarantee that this will not happen in the future and if we cannot obtain sufficient cargo space from our suppliers to meet our customers’ demand, in particular during peak seasons, our reputation within the industry could be damaged.

We use third parties in some aspects of our operations and failure to maintain positive relationships with them could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We engage independent third parties to supplement some aspects of our operations and form our integrated logistic service offerings, such as freight transportation and last-mile delivery. We also depend on third parties to provide transportation services, including fleet and drivers, warehousing equipment, replacement parts, packaging and certain other materials. Our equipment and transportation service supplier bases are not concentrated and their performance will impact our overall service quality. In addition, the market for third-party transportation services is fragmented with a large number of service providers, and it can be difficult to find reliable partners whose performance and reliability meet our standards at the scale our operations require. Decreased availability or increased costs of key logistics and supply chain services, such as warehousing equipment and materials, could impact our cost of operations, our profitability, as well as our cash flows. In addition, we may also be exposed to legal risks and subject to certain liabilities, including administrative fines, if those third parties fail to obtain all necessary licenses and permits as required.

In addition, we are dependent in part on third party business partners to report certain events to us, such as delivery information and cargo claims. This partial reliance on third parties could cause delays in reporting certain events, impacting our ability to recognize revenue and claims in a timely manner. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain access to preferred third-party service providers at attractive rates or that these providers will have adequate capacity available to meet the needs of our customers.

We believe that we have good relationships with our third-party business partners and are generally able to obtain favorable pricing and other terms from such parties. If we fail to maintain these relationships with our

 

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third-party business partners, or if our third-party business partners are unable to provide the services we need or undergo financial hardship, we could experience difficulty in obtaining the services needed. Subsequently, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, our inability to maintain positive relationships with these third-party service providers could significantly limit our ability to serve our customers on competitive terms. If we are unable to secure sufficient equipment or other transportation or delivery services to meet our commitments to our customers or provide our services on competitive terms, our customers could shift their business to our competitors or other third-party service providers, temporarily or permanently, and our operating results could be materially and adversely affected. Our ability to secure sufficient equipment or other transportation or delivery services to meet our commitments to customers or provide our services on competitive terms is subject to inherent risks, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

   

equipment shortages, particularly among contracted truckload carriers and railroads;

 

   

interruptions or stoppages in transportation services as a result of labor disputes, strikes, network congestion, weather-related issues, wars, or acts of terrorism;

 

   

changes in regulations that have adverse impact on transportation;

 

   

increases in operating expenses for carriers, such as fuel costs, insurance premiums and licensing expenses, that result in a reduction in available carriers; and

 

   

changes in transportation rates.

If we are unable to manage the expansion of our logistics infrastructure successfully, our business prospects and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

As of June 30, 2022, we self-operated one warehouses located in Shenzhen City of Guangdong province, respectively, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 5,596 sq.m. In addition, as of the same date, we had the rights to use two third-party warehouses located in Yiwu City of Zhejiang province and Hong Kong, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 8,531 sq.m. In May 2022, we, through Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., entered into an agreement to obtain the right to use a brand new warehouse (“Dachan Bay Warehouse”) that was located close to Dachan Bay Terminals, Shenzhen Baoan International Airport and National Highway G4 which connects Beijing, Hong Kong and Macao, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 11,000 sq.m. Later in August, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. assigned all its rights and obligations under such agreement to Shenzhen Jayud Yuncang Technology Co., Ltd., one of our subsidiaries in China, by entering into a supplementary agreement. As of June 30, 2022, we had an operation team of over 49 personnel who are responsible for delivery, warehouse operations as well as other functions such as customer services. We plan to establish larger, custom-designed warehouses to increase our storage capacity and to restructure and reorganize our logistics workflow and processes. We also plan to establish more warehouses in additional counties and districts to further enhance our service capacity and distribution network. As we continue to add logistics and warehouse capability, our logistics network becomes increasingly complex and challenging to operate. We cannot assure you that we will be able to set up warehouses or lease suitable facilities on commercially acceptable terms or at all. Moreover, the order volume in those less developed areas may not be sufficient to allow us to operate our own delivery network in a cost-efficient manner. We may not be able to recruit a sufficient number of qualified employees in connection with the expansion of our logistics infrastructure. In addition, the expansion of our logistics infrastructure may strain our managerial, financial, operational and other resources. If we fail to manage such expansion successfully, our growth potential, business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Even if we manage the expansion of our logistics infrastructure successfully, it may not give us the competitive advantage that we expect if improved logistics services become widely available at reasonable prices to our existing and potential customers, such as large retailers, in China.

We depend on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our revenues and the loss of one or more of these customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Certain of our businesses depend significantly on a limited number of key customers. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues generated from our five largest customers in terms of contract amount

 

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accounted for approximately 39.8% and 53.1%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues generated from our five largest customers in terms of contract amount accounted for approximately 59.9% and 35.8%. Most of our contracts with these key customers are generally renewed year-by-year. No other client accounted for more than 10.0% of revenues. Due to the concentration of revenues from a limited number of customers, if we do not receive the payments expected from any of these key customers, our revenue, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively impacted. In addition, we cannot assure that any of our customers in the future will not cease purchasing services or products from us in favor of services or products from our competitors, significantly reduce orders or seek price reductions in the future, and any such event could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, profitability, and results of operations.

If our customers reduce their expenditure on third-party supply chain solutions and logistics services or increase utilization of their internal solutions, our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

Our growth strategy is partially based on the assumption that the trend toward outsourcing of supply chain services will continue. Third-party service providers like us are generally able to provide such services more efficiently than otherwise could be provided “in-house,” primarily as a result of our expertise, technology and lower and more flexible employee cost structure. However, many factors could cause a reversal in the trend. For example, our customers may see risks in relying on third-party service providers, or they may begin to define these activities as within their own core competencies and decide to perform supply chain operations themselves. If our customers are able to improve the cost structure of their in-house supply chain activities, including in particular their labor-related costs, we may not be able to provide our customers with an attractive alternative for their supply chain needs. If our customers in-source significant aspects of their supply chain operations, or if potential new customers decide to continue to perform their own supply chain activities, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.

If we fail to cost-efficiently attract new customers to use our solutions and services, or to maintain relationships with existing customers, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The success of our business depends in part on our ability to cost-effectively attract and retain new customers and increase engagement of existing customers by providing additional solutions and services. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, we were successful in increasing our cooperation with existing customers and retaining new customers and the total number of customers increased from 535 in 2020 to 1,299 in 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the total number of customers decreased to 1,184 mainly because we ceased to cooperate with some low-margin customers. We believe that our selling and marketing efficiency, consistent and reliable services and rapid responses to changing customer preferences have been critical in promoting awareness of our services, which in turn drive customer growth and engagement. However, if our promotional activities and marketing strategies do not work efficiently, we cannot maintain our selling and marketing expenses at a reasonable level.

In addition, if the customers do not perceive our solutions and services to be timely and reliable, we may not be able to attract and retain customers and increase their use of our solutions and services. If we fail to cost-effectively retain customers and increase their use of our solutions and services, our business and results of operations could be adversely and materially affected.

Further, while we currently believe we can achieve profitability and grow cash flows organically through further penetration of existing customers and by expanding our customer base, we may not be able to effectively and successfully implement such strategies and realize our stated goals. Our goals may be negatively affected by a failure to further penetrate our existing customer base, expand our service offerings, pursue new customer opportunities, manage the operations and expenses of new or growing service offerings or otherwise achieve growth of our service offerings.

 

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Overall tightening of the labor market, increases in labor costs or any labor unrest may affect our business as we operate in a labor-intensive industry.

Our business requires a considerable number of personnel. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, our labor costs comprised 2.5% and 4.8% of our total operating expenses and cost of revenue for the same periods, respectively. And the labor costs comprised 5.3% and 3.5% of our total operating expenses and cost of revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Any failure to retain stable and dedicated labor by us may lead to disruptions to or delays in our services. We sometimes hire additional or temporary workers, in particular logistics and delivery personnel, during peak periods of e-commerce activities. We have observed an overall tightening labor market. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, increases in labor costs due to increases in salaries, social benefits and employee headcounts and we may also face seasonal labor shortages. We may compete with other companies for labor, and we may not be able to offer competitive salaries and benefits compared to what other companies do.

Our results of operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations.

We experience seasonality in our business, mainly correlating to the seasonality patterns associated with the e-commerce and logistics and supply chain industries both in China and in other countries. We typically experience a seasonal surge in volume of orders during the second and fourth quarters of each year when major online retail and e-commerce platforms launch special promotional campaigns, for example, June 18 Anniversary Sale in China and the Black Friday Sale in the United States each year. We may experience capacity and resource shortages in fulfilling orders during the period of such seasonal surge in our business. On the contrary, activity levels across our business lines are typically lower around Chinese national holidays, including Chinese New Year in the first quarter of each year, primarily due to weaker consumer spending, lower user activity levels and decreased availability of delivery personnel and warehouse staff during these holiday seasons.

Our financial condition and results of operations for future periods may continue to fluctuate, and the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares, may fluctuate from time to time, due to seasonality.

Fluctuations in the price or availability of fuel, may adversely affect our results of operations.

We offer transportation services as part of our supply chain solutions and logistics services, for which we use heavy-duty trucks as the major transportation instrument. Therefore truck fuel costs and tolls account for a portion of our cost. We, or our third party business partners, must purchase large quantities of fuel to meet the demand of our vehicles, and the price and availability of fuel is subject to political, economic, and market factors that are outside of our control and can be highly volatile. In the event of significant fuel prices rise, our related costs may arise and our gross profits may decrease if we are unable to adopt any effective cost control-measures or pass on the incremental costs to our customers in the form of service surcharges.

Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business operation may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and any requirement of approvals or permits in connection with our offering of securities could cause our operations and financial conditions to be materially adversely affected, our ability to offer securities to investors to become significantly limited or completely hindered, and the securities being offered to substantially decline in value and become worthless.

Our business is subject to certain regulations, and we are required to hold or complete a number of licenses, permits and filings in connection with our business operation, including, but not limited to, Road Transportation Operation Permit, Filings of International Freight Forwarding Agencies, Fillings of Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier and Fillings of Customs Declaration Entities. Failure to satisfy these requirements may result in penalties to rectify, fines, or suspension of business for remediation. We hold and complete all material licenses, permits and filings for our current operations and will apply for certain permits and filings with the government authorities if needed in the future. Please see “Business—Licenses, Permits and Approvals” for more details of licenses and permits we have obtained and filings we have made. However, we cannot assure you that we can

 

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complete such filings in a timely manner, or at all, due to complex procedural requirements and the expansion of our business.

We, as an end-to-end supply chain solution provider, conduct a substantial portion of our business operations of freight forwarding, particularly international freight forwarding. According to the Administrative Provisions on International Freight Forwarders and the implementation rules thereof as well as the Tentative Measures on Putting on Record of International Freight Forwarding Agencies, all international freight forwarding agencies and their branches shall be filed with the Ministry of Commerce (“MOC”) or the governmental authorities authorized by MOC. Entities engaging in international freight forwarding operations who do not complete or maintain the filing will be subject to penalties as determined by competent authorities and any illegal operational activities will be banned. In addition, we, as an end-to-end supply chain solution provider, also provide our service as a non-vessel operating common carrier (“NVOCC”). Under the Regulations on International Maritime Transport and its implementation rules, all NVOCC shall complete bill of lading filing formalities with the department responsible for transportation under the State Council. Entities conducting business as an NVOCC in violation of such filing requirements may be ordered to suspend business and the illegal gains may be confiscated. If the illegal gains are less than RMB100,000, a fine of between two to five times of their illegal gains may be imposed. Where there are no illegal gains or the illegal gains are less than RMB100,000, a fine ranging from RMB50,000 to RMB200,000 may be imposed.

Meanwhile, we also conduct international trading business and provide agent services related to export and import business, including application for duty-refund and customs brokerage services. According to the Customs Law of the People’s Republic of China and the Administrative Provisions of the Customs of the People’s Republic of China on Record-filing of Customs Declaration Entities, enterprises conducting customs declaration business shall file a record with the Customs in accordance with laws. Implementing Regulations of the Customs of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Penalties provides that, in case anyone undertakes customs declaration business without completing filing with the Customs, including the fillings of customs declaration entities, it shall be prohibited from conducting relevant business activities, the illegal gains shall be confiscated, and a fine of less than RMB100,000 may be imposed. Before December 30, 2022, the then-effective Foreign Trade Law and the Measures for the Record-Filing and Registration of Foreign Trade Business Operators require a foreign trade business operator who engages in the import or export of goods or technologies to go through the record registration formalities with the MOC or its entrusted agency. In case a foreign trade business operator fails to complete the said record registration formalities, the Customs shall not process the formalities for import or export declaration and release. On December 30, 2022, the Foreign Trade Law of the PRC was amended, and foreign trade operators were no longer required to go through the record registration formalities.

We are also engaged in the business of road transportation in support of and concurrently with our main business mentioned above. Road Transport Regulation of the PRC requires that entities apply for engaging in the freight transport business operations shall apply for a road transport business operation permit, and further sets out that entities engaging in the road transport business operations without possessing a road transport business operation permit will be subject to an order to stop business operation and confiscation of any illegal gains, and shall be fined two to ten times of the amount of the illegal gains, and, if it has not obtained any illegal gains or the amount of illegal gains is less than RMB20,000, a fine ranging from RMB30,000 to RMB100,000 shall be imposed.

The information contained in the licenses, permits, records or filings that we possessed may not be updated in a timely manner due to changes in any registered information of the applicable PRC subsidiaries, such as their domicile address, registered capital and type of entity, and we will apply for these changes of registration as required. However, we cannot guarantee that we will complete such change of registration in time or at all and any failure to complete the change of registration in a timely manner may result in fines and penalties.

New laws and regulations may be enforced from time to time to require additional licenses and permits other than those we currently have or provide additional requirements on the operation of our business. If we do

 

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not receive, complete or maintain necessary approvals or filings, or we inadvertently conclude that such approvals or filings are not required, or there is a change in the applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations such that we need to make filings or obtain approvals in the future, we may be subject to (i) investigations by competent regulatory authorities, (ii) fines or penalties, (iii) orders to suspend our operations and to rectify any non-compliance, or (iv) prohibitions from engaging in relevant businesses and even securities offerings. These risks could result in material adverse changes in our operations, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless.

As of the date of this prospectus, aside from the necessary documentation, approvals and filings required in the ordinary course of business, as advised by our PRC counsel, PacGate Law Group, neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are currently required to obtain regulatory approval from Chinese authorities before listing in the U.S. under any existing PRC law, regulations or rules, including from the CSRC, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or any other relevant Chinese regulatory agencies that is required to approve our subsidiaries’ operations. However, given the current PRC regulatory environment, it is uncertain when and whether we or our subsidiaries will be required to obtain permission from the PRC government to list on the U.S. exchanges in the future, and even when such permission is obtained, whether it will be denied or rescinded. There remains significant uncertainty as to the enactment, interpretation and implementation of regulatory requirements related to overseas securities offerings and other capital market activities. If we do not receive or maintain such permissions or approvals should the permissions or approvals be required in the future by the PRC government, or we inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required, or due to the change of applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations in the future, we are required to obtain such permissions or approvals, our operations and financial conditions could be materially adversely affected, and our ability to offer securities to investors could be significantly limited or completely hindered and the securities currently being offered may substantially decline in value and be worthless.

We have been closely monitoring regulatory developments in China regarding any necessary approvals from the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities required for overseas listings, including this offering. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, sanctions or regulatory objection to this offering from the CSRC or other PRC governmental authorities. However, there remains significant uncertainty as to the enactment, interpretation and implementation of regulatory requirements related to overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities. If it is determined in the future that the approval of any PRC regulatory authority is required for this offering, we may face sanctions by such regulatory authorities. These regulatory authorities may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operations in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our securities. The PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before settlement and delivery of our Class A ordinary shares. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, you do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the regulatory PRC agencies later promulgate new rules requiring that we obtain their approvals for this offering, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties and/or negative publicity regarding such an approval requirement could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our securities.

The PRC government may take actions to exert more oversight and control over offerings by China based issuers conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in such companies, which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors outside China and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. See “—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes of PRC laws and regulations with little advance notice could adversely affect us and limit the legal protections available to you and us, and the Chinese government may exert more oversight and control

 

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over offerings that are conducted overseas, which changes could materially hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless” on page 40 and “The approval of and the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing” on page 43.

The COVID-19 pandemic has, and will likely continue to, negatively impact the global economy and disrupt normal business activity, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

The global spread of COVID-19 and the efforts to control it have slowed global economic activity and disrupted, and reduced the efficiency of, normal business activities in much of the world. The pandemic has resulted in authorities around the world implementing numerous unprecedented measures such as travel restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place orders, and factory and office shutdowns. These measures have impacted and will likely continue to impact our workforce and operations, and those of our customers and suppliers.

In particular, we have experienced some disruption to our supply chain during the Chinese government mandated lockdown. For instance, from April to May, 2022, Shanghai was shut down and all the businesses in Shanghai were closed due to the COVID-19 Omicron variant. While all our major suppliers were fully operational as of June 30, 2022, any future disruption in their operations would impact our ability to manufacture and deliver our products to customers. In addition, reductions in commercial airline and cargo flights, disruptions to ports and other shipping infrastructure resulting from the pandemic are resulting in increased transport times to deliver packages to our customers.

In response to governmental directives and recommended safety measures, we have implemented personal safety measures at all our facilities. However, these measures may not be sufficient to mitigate the risk of infection by COVID-19. If a significant number of our employees, or employees and third parties performing key functions, including our chief executive officer and members of our board of directors, become ill, our business may be further adversely impacted.

In the longer-term, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, and could result in a global economic downturn and a recession. Although China began to modify its zero-COVID policy in late 2022, and most of the travel restrictions and quarantine requirements were lifted in December 2022, there remains uncertainty as to the future impact of the virus, especially in light of this change in policy. Future lockdowns or other restrictive measures that may be imposed, especially those imposed in major cities where we have a significant presence, may have a material impact on our services and our customers, which may, in turn negatively impact our results of operations.

The Russia-Ukrainian War has, and will likely continue to, negatively impact the global economy and disrupt international trade and oil price, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

The conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which commenced in February 2022, has disrupted supply chains and caused instability and significant volatility in the energy markets and the global economy. Much uncertainty remains regarding the global impact of the conflict in Ukraine, and it is possible that such instability, uncertainty and resulting volatility could significantly increase our costs and adversely affect our business, including our ability to obtain oil and other energy resources, and as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.

As a result of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Switzerland, the US, the EU, the UK and others have announced unprecedented levels of sanctions and other measures against Russia and certain Russian entities and nationals. Such sanctions against Russia may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. For example, apart from the immediate commercial disruptions caused in the conflict

 

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zone, escalating tensions among the two countries and fears of potential shortages in the supply of Russian crude have caused the price of oil to trade above $100 per barrel as of March 18, 2022. The consequent rise of fuel prices may increase our costs and reduce our profits. See “—Fluctuations in the price or availability of fuel, may adversely affect our results of operations” for more details. In addition, the China-Europe Railway Express, which we originally relied on as a major means of overland transportation between China and Europe, was at risk because most of its routes pass through Russia. The ongoing conflict could result in the imposition of further economic sanctions against Russia, with uncertain impacts on the logistics market and the world economy. While we do not have any Ukrainian or Russian crew, our shipping routes currently do not cross the Black Sea and we otherwise conduct zero operations in Russia and Ukraine, it is possible that the conflict in Ukraine, including any increased shipping costs, disruptions of global shipping routes, any impact on the global supply chain and any impact on current or potential customers caused by the events in Russia and Ukraine, could adversely affect our operations or financial performance.

Any failure to maintain the satisfactory performance of our technology systems and resulting interruptions in the availability of our websites, applications, or services could adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our technology platform are critical to our success. We have developed a technology platform that enables us to deliver supply chain solutions and logistics services with simplicity, convenience, speed and reliability. These integrated systems support the smooth performance of certain key functions of our business. However, our technology platform or infrastructure may not function properly at all times. We may be unable to monitor and ensure high-quality maintenance and upgrade of our technology platform and infrastructure, and our customers may experience service outages and delays in accessing and using our platforms as we seek to source additional capacity. In addition, we may experience surges in online traffic and orders associated with promotional activities as we scale, which can put additional demand on our platform at specific times. Any disruption to our technology platform and causing interruptions to our website, applications, platform or services could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our technology systems may also experience telecommunications failures, computer viruses, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components, power outages, hardware failures, user errors, or other attempts to harm our technology systems, which may result in the unavailability or slowdown of our technology platform or certain functions, delays or errors in transaction processing, loss of data, inability to accept and fulfill orders, reduced gross merchandise volume and the attractiveness of our technology platform. Further, hackers, acting individually or in coordinated groups, may also launch distributed denial of service attacks or other coordinated attacks that may cause service outages or other interruptions in our business. Any of such occurrences could cause severe disruption to our daily operations. If we cannot successfully execute system maintenance and repair, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected and we could be subject to liability claims.

If we fail to keep up with the technological developments and implementation of advanced technologies, our business, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We apply technology to serve our clients more efficiently and bring them better user experience. Our success will in part depends on our ability to keep up with the changes in technology and the continued successful implementation of advanced technology, including 5G, cloud computing, distributed architecture and big data analytics. If we fail to adapt our platform and services to changes in technological development in an effective and timely manner, our business operations may suffer. Changes in technologies may require substantial expenditures in research and development as well as in modification of our services. Technical hurdles in implementing technological advances may result in our services becoming less attractive to clients, which, in turn, may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

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We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our trademarks, copyrights, patents, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property (which we have ownership or legal rights to use) as critical to our success, and we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements, including confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete arrangements with our employees and others, to protect our proprietary rights. Despite these measures, any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, there can be no assurance that our patent applications will be approved, that any issued patents will adequately protect our intellectual property, or that such patents will not be challenged by third parties or found by a judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable. Further, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms, or at all.

It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources, and could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or narrowed in scope. We cannot assure you that we will prevail in such litigation, and even if we do prevail, we may not obtain a meaningful recovery. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. Any failure in maintaining, protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate patents, copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We have been, and from time to time in the future may be, subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, there may be other third-party intellectual property that is infringed by our solutions or services, the solutions or services provided by third-party merchants on our marketplace, or other aspects of our business. There could also be existing patents of which we are not aware that our solutions or services may inadvertently infringe. We cannot assure you that holders of patents purportedly relating to some aspects of our technology platform or business, if any such holders exist, would not seek to enforce such patents against us in China, the United States or any other jurisdictions. Further, the application and interpretation of China’s patent laws and the procedures and standards for granting patents in China are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis. If we are found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. In addition, we may incur significant expenses, and may be forced to divert management’s time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these third-party infringement claims, regardless of their merits. Successful infringement or licensing claims made against us may result in significant monetary liabilities and may materially disrupt our business and operations by restricting or prohibiting our use of the intellectual property in question. Finally, we use open source software in

 

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connection with our solutions and services. Companies that incorporate open source software into their solutions and services have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the ownership of open source software and compliance with open source license terms. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses may require users who distribute open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software and make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Any requirement to disclose our source code or pay damages for breach of contract could be harmful to our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business depends on the continued efforts of our senior management, particularly Mr. Geng. If Mr. Geng, or one or more other of our key executives and employees, were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

Our business operations depend on the continuing services of our senior management, particularly Mr. Geng, our chairman and chief executive officer, and our other executive officers named in this prospectus. While we have provided different incentives to our management, we cannot assure you that we can continue to retain their services. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all, our future growth may be constrained, our business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. In addition, although we have entered into confidentiality and non-competition agreements with our key executives of our subsidiaries in China, there is no assurance that any member of our management team will not join our competitors or form a competing business. Moreover, it is possible that our key employees, upon their departure, will join our competitors or start their own competing businesses, and may solicit certain of our current customers, which may adversely affect our business, financial results and daily operations. If any dispute arises between us and our current or former officers, we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements in China or we may be unable to enforce them at all.

Our executive officers have no prior experience in operating a U.S. public company, and their inability to operate the public company aspects of our business could harm us.

Our executive officers have no experience in operating a U.S. public company, which makes our ability to comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations uncertain. Our failure to comply with all laws, rules and regulations applicable to U.S. public companies could subject us or our management to regulatory scrutiny or sanction, which could harm our reputation and share price.

Any damage to the reputation and recognition of our brand names, including negative publicity against us, our solutions and services, operations and our directors, senior management and business partners may materially and adversely affect our business operations and prospects.

We believe our brand image and corporate reputation will play an increasingly important role in enhancing our competitiveness and maintaining business growth. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, may negatively impact our brand image and corporate reputation if not properly managed. These factors include our ability to provide superior solutions and services to our customers, successfully conduct marketing and promotional activities, manage relationship with and among our customers and business partners, and manage complaints and events of negative publicity, maintain positive perception of our Company, our peers and logistics industry in general. Any actual or perceived deterioration of our service quality, which is based on an array of factors including customer satisfaction, rate of complaint or rate of accident, could subject us to damages such as loss of important customers. Any negative publicity against us, our solutions and services, operations, directors, senior management, employees, business partners or our peers could adversely affect customer perception of our brand, cause damages to our corporate reputation and result in decreased demand for our

 

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solutions and services. If we are unable to promote our brand image and protect our corporate reputation, we may not be able to maintain and grow our customer base, and our business and growth prospects may be adversely affected.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA prohibits us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls.

We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities in the ordinary course of business. We have also entered into joint ventures and/or other business partnerships with government agencies and state-owned or affiliated entities. These interactions subject us to an increased level of compliance- related concerns. We are in the process of implementing policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents and business partners with applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations. However, our policies and procedures may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.

Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our shares.

We will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

We will be a “controlled company” as defined under the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules because our founder, Mr. Xiaogang Geng, will beneficially own more than 50% of our total voting power immediately after the completion of this offering. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely on, and may rely on, certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors. As a result, you may not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.

We will be subject to changing laws, rules and regulations in the U.S. regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosure that will increase both our costs and the risks associated with non-compliance.

Following this offering, we will be subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies and self-regulatory organizations, including, for example, the SEC and The Nasdaq Stock Market, which are charged with

 

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the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalty and our business may be harmed.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our shares may be materially and adversely affected.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act of 1934, or Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of and the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq Stock Market. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, as we are not required to provide a report of management’s assessment on our internal control over financial reporting due to a transition period established by the rules of the SEC for newly public companies. However, in the course of auditing our consolidated financial statements for the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified three material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness identified relates to (i) the lack of formal internal control policies and internal independent supervision functions to establish formal risk assessment process and internal control framework; (ii) the lack of accounting staff and resources with appropriate knowledge of generally accepted U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting and compliance requirements to design and implement formal period-end financial reporting policies and procedures to address complex U.S. GAAP technical accounting issue in accordance with U.S. GAAP and the SEC requirements; and iii) Information technology general control (“ITGC”) in the areas of: (1) Risk and Vulnerability Assessment and Management; (2) Third-Party (Service Organization) Vendor Management; (3) System Change Management; (4) Backup and Recovery Management; (5) Access to Systems and Data; (6) Segregation of Duties, Privileged Access, and Monitoring; (7) Password Management.

In response to the material weaknesses identified prior to this offering, we are in the process of implementing a number of measures to address the material weakness identified, including but not limited to (i) hiring additional qualified accounting and financial personnel with appropriate knowledge and experience in U.S. GAAP accounting and SEC reporting; and (ii) organizing regular training for our accounting staffs, especially training related to U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements. We also plan to adopt additional measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting, including, among others, creating U.S. GAAP accounting policies and procedures manual, which will be maintained, reviewed and updated, on a regular basis, to the latest US GAAP accounting standards, and establishing an audit committee and strengthening corporate governance.

However, we cannot assure you that we will not identify additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future. In addition, if we are unable to meet the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, our Class A ordinary shares may not be able to remain listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F beginning with our annual report beginning with our second annual report on Form 20-F. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth

 

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company” as such term is defined under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, as we are a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations and lead to a decline in the trading price of our shares. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

Our insurance coverage may not be adequate, which could expose us to significant costs and business disruptions.

We have obtained or caused relevant counterparties to obtain insurance to cover certain potential risks and liabilities. We provide social security insurance, including pension insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance, maternity insurance and medical insurance for our employees. Additionally, we provide group accident insurance for all delivery personnel we employed and some drivers we cooperated with. Further, we have purchased compulsory motor vehicle liability insurance, as well as commercial insurance for self-operated vehicles. In addition, we also purchase logistics liability insurance, property insurance covering warehouses and parcels, and some other liability insurance as needed. However, we do not maintain product liability insurance or key-man insurance. There can be no assurance that our insurance coverage is sufficient to prevent us from any loss or that we will be able to successfully claim our losses under our current insurance policies on a timely basis, or at all. If we incur any loss that is not covered by our insurance policies, or the compensated amount is significantly less than our actual loss, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Natural disasters, epidemics, acts of war, terrorist attacks and other events could materially and adversely affect our business.

Natural disasters (such as typhoons, flooding and earthquakes), epidemics, acts of war, terrorist attacks and other events, many of which are beyond our control, may lead to global or regional economic instability, which may in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. An outbreak or epidemic, such as those of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (“SARS”), the H1N1 and H5N1, and the COVID-19 viruses, could cause general consumption or the demand for specific products to decline, which could result in reduced demand for our services. Such an outbreak or epidemic may also cause significant interruption to our operations as health or governmental authorities may impose quarantine and inspection measures on our contract carriers or restrict the flow of cargo to and from areas affected by the epidemic. In

 

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addition, airplanes, shipping vessels and other transportation vehicles can be targets of terrorist attacks, which could lead to, among other things, increased insurance and security costs. Political tensions or conflicts and acts of war, such as the conflicts in Ukraine, or the potential for war could also cause damage and disruption to our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to potential liability in connection with pending or threatened legal proceedings and other matters, which could adversely affect our business or financial results

From time to time, we have become and may in the future become a party to various legal or administrative proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business in China. We may also be subject to potential liability in connection with pending or threatened legal proceedings arising from breach of contract claims, anti-competition claims and other matters. These proceedings, investigations, claims and complaints could be initiated or asserted under or on the basis of a variety of laws in different jurisdictions, including data protection and privacy laws, trucker or consumer protection laws, labor and employment laws, anti-monopoly or competition laws, transportation laws, advertising laws, intellectual property laws, securities laws, tort laws, contract laws and property laws. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending ourselves in legal and administrative actions or in asserting our rights under various laws. If we fail to defend ourselves in these actions, we may be subject to restrictions, fines or penalties that will materially and adversely affect our operations. Even if we are successful in our attempt to defend ourselves in legal and regulatory actions or to assert our rights under various laws and regulations, the process of communicating with relevant regulators, defending ourselves and enforcing our rights against the various parties involved may be expensive and time-consuming. These actions could expose us to negative publicity, substantial monetary damages and legal defense costs, injunctive relief and criminal and civil fines and penalties, including but not limited to suspension or revocation of licenses to conduct business.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Change in China’s economic, political or social conditions, laws, regulations or governmental policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

Substantially all of our revenues are sourced from China. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are influenced by economic, political and legal developments in China. Economic reforms begun in the late 1970s have resulted in significant economic growth. However, any economic reform policies or measures in China may from time to time be modified or revised. China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including with respect to the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past 30 years, growth has been uneven across different regions and among different economic sectors. The Chinese government has implemented measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of the resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations.

Although the PRC economy has grown significantly in the past decade, that growth may not continue, as evidenced by the slowing of the growth of the PRC economy since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic

 

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conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on a specific industry including our operating companies in China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position.

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes of PRC laws and regulations with little advance notice could adversely affect us and limit the legal protections available to you and us, and the Chinese government may exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas, which changes could materially hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

Our operating subsidiaries are incorporated under and governed by the laws of the PRC. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general, such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation and trade. As a significant part of our business is conducted in China, our operations are principally governed by PRC laws and regulations. However, since the PRC legal system continues to evolve rapidly, rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice. The interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to us. Uncertainties due to evolving laws and regulations could also impede the ability of a China-based company like us, to obtain or maintain permits or licenses required to conduct business in China. In the absence of required permits or licenses, governmental authorities could impose material sanctions or penalties on us. See “—Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business operation may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and any requirement of approvals or permits in connection with our offering of securities could cause our operations and financial conditions to be materially adversely affected, our ability to offer securities to investors to become significantly limited or completely hindered, and the securities being offered to substantially decline in value and become worthless.” for more details. In addition, some regulatory requirements issued by certain PRC government authorities may not be consistently applied by other PRC government authorities (including local government authorities), thus making strict compliance with all regulatory requirements impractical, or in some circumstances impossible. For example, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce the legal protection that we enjoy either by law or contract. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate or predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection available to you and us than in more developed legal systems.

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

On July 6, 2021, the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued an announcement to crack down on illegal activities in the securities market and promote the high-quality development of the capital market, which, among other things, requires the relevant governmental authorities to strengthen cross-border oversight of law-enforcement and judicial cooperation, to enhance supervision over China-based companies listed overseas, and to establish and improve the system of extraterritorial application of the PRC securities laws. Since this announcement is relatively new,

 

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uncertainties still exist in relation to how soon legislative or administrative regulation making bodies will respond and what existing or new laws or regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations will be modified or promulgated, and, if any, the potential impact such modified or new laws and regulations will have on companies like us and our securities.

Given recent statements by the Chinese government indicating an intent to exert more oversight and control over securities offerings and other capital markets activities that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Although we are currently not required to obtain permission from any of the PRC federal or local government and has not received any denial to list on the U.S. exchange, it is uncertain whether or when we might be required to obtain permission from the PRC government to list on U.S. exchanges in the future, and even if such permission is obtained, whether it will be later denied or rescinded, which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities to investors and cause the value of our shares to significantly decline or be worthless. Any actions by the Chinese government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas could materially and adversely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

The Chinese government has substantial oversight and influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business and may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which actions could impact our operations materially and adversely, and significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

The Chinese government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene or influence our operations at any time as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. For instance, the Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries such as the education and internet industries. The Chinese government has exercised, and continues to exercise, substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership, which could materially and adversely impact the results of our operations and future prospects.

Our ability to operate in the PRC may be further harmed by changes in its laws and regulations. The central or local governments of the PRC may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in the PRC or particular regions thereof. We cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and the value of our Class A ordinary shares.

Our business is also subject to various government and regulatory interference. We could be subject to regulation by various political and regulatory entities, including various local and municipal agencies and government sub-divisions. The Company may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply. Our operations could be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by existing or future laws and regulations relating to our business or industry, which could result in further material changes in our operations and adversely impact the value of our securities.

 

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The recent joint statement by the SEC and PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCA Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies, including companies based in China, upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB.

On April 21, 2020, SEC Chairman Jay Clayton and PCAOB Chairman William D. Duhnke III, along with other senior SEC staff, released a joint statement highlighting the risks associated with investing in companies based in or have substantial operations in emerging markets including China. The joint statement emphasized the risks associated with lack of access for the PCAOB to inspect auditors and audit work papers in China and higher risks of fraud in emerging markets.

On May 18, 2020, Nasdaq filed three proposals with the SEC to (i) apply minimum offering size requirement for companies primarily operating in “Restrictive Market”, (ii) adopt a new requirement relating to the qualification of management or board of director for Restrictive Market companies, and (iii) apply additional and more stringent criteria to an applicant or listed company based on the qualifications of the company’s auditors.

On May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the HFCA Act requiring a foreign company to certify it is not owned or controlled by a foreign government if the PCAOB is unable to audit specified reports because the company uses a foreign auditor not subject to PCAOB inspection. If the PCAOB is unable to inspect the company’s auditors for three consecutive years, the issuer’s securities are prohibited to trade on a national exchange. On December 2, 2020, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the HFCA Act. On December 18, 2020, the HFCA Act was signed into law. On March 28, 2021, the SEC issued interim measures implementing the HFCA Act which became effective on May 5, 2021. On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments implementing congressionally mandated submission and disclosure requirements of the HFCA Act, which went into effect on January 10, 2022. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the Accelerating HFCA Act. The bill, if enacted, would shorten the three-consecutive-year compliance period under the HFCA Act to two consecutive years. As a result, the time period before our Class A ordinary shares may be prohibited from trading or delisted will be reduced.

The lack of access to the PCAOB inspection in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of the auditors based in China. As a result, the investors may be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol with the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which was the first step toward opening access for the PCAOB to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong completely, consistent with U.S. Law. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB determined that it was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and vacated its previous determinations to the contrary. However, should PRC authorities obstruct or otherwise fail to facilitate the PCAOB’s access in the future, the PCAOB may consider the need to issue a new determination. On December 29, 2022, the Accelerating HFCA Act was signed into law, which amended the HFCA Act by requiring the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three.

Our auditor, Friedman LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess our auditor’s compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor is headquartered in Manhattan, New York, and has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis. Therefore, it is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021 as it is not on the list published by the PCAOB. However, in the event the PRC authorities would further strengthen regulations over auditing work of Chinese companies listed on the U.S. stock exchanges, which would prohibit our current auditor to perform work in China, then we would need to change our auditor and the audit workpapers prepared by our new auditor may not be inspected by the PCAOB without the approval of the PRC authorities, in which case the PCAOB may not be able to fully evaluate the audit or the auditors’ quality control procedures. Furthermore, due to the recent developments in connection with the implementation of the HFCA Act, we cannot assure you whether the SEC, Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of

 

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personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach or experience as it relates to the audit of our financial statements. The requirement in the HFCA Act that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the issuer’s public accounting firm within three years, may result in our delisting in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our accounting firm at such future time.

As of April 12, 2022, 23 China-based companies have been identified by SEC and were given 15 business days to submit opinion. The identification occurred after these companies have filed their annual reports to the SEC and subsequently, share prices of them plunged. As such, it is possible that we will be identified by SEC and the value of our Class A ordinary shares may be materially adversely affected.

The approval of and the filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing.

Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC persons or entities to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. Based on our understanding of the Chinese laws and regulations in effect at the time of this prospectus, we will not be required to submit an application to the CSRC for its approval of this offering and the listing and trading of our Class A ordinary shares on the Nasdaq under the M&A Rules. However, the interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear, and our offshore offerings may ultimately require approval of the CSRC. If the CSRC approval is required, it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain the approval and, even if we obtain such CSRC approval, the approval could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining the CSRC approval for any of our offshore offerings, or a rescission of such approval if obtained, would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities, which could include fines and penalties on our operations in China, restrictions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends outside of China, and other forms of sanctions that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

On July 6, 2021, the relevant PRC government authorities issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. As a follow-up, on December 24, 2021, the State Council issued a draft of the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies, and the CSRC issued a draft of Administration Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies for public comments, collectively with the above draft of the Provisions, the draft Provisions and Measures. These draft Provisions and Measures propose to establish a new filing-based regime to regulate overseas offerings and listings by domestic companies. Specifically, an overseas offering and listing by a PRC company, whether directly or indirectly, an initial or follow-on offering, must be filed with the CSRC. The examination and determination of an indirect offering and listing will be conducted on a substance-over-form basis, and an offering and listing shall be deemed as a PRC company’s indirect overseas offering and listing if the issuer meets the following conditions: (i) any of the operating income, gross profit, total assets, or net assets of the PRC enterprise in the most recent fiscal year was more than 50% of the relevant line item in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statement for that year; and (ii) senior management personnel responsible for business operations and management are mostly PRC citizens or are ordinarily resident in the PRC, and the principal place of business is in the PRC or carried out in the PRC. The issuer or its affiliated PRC entity, as the case may be, shall file with the CSRC for its initial public offering, follow-on offering and other equivalent offering activities. Particularly, the issuer shall submit the filing with respect to its initial public offering and listing within three business days after its initial filing of the listing application, and submit the filing with respect to its follow-on offering within three business days after the completion of the follow-on offering. Failure to comply with the filing requirements may result in fines to the relevant PRC companies, suspension of their businesses, revocation

 

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of their business licenses and operation permits and fines on the controlling shareholder and other responsible persons. These draft Provisions and Measures also set forth certain regulatory red lines for overseas offerings and listings by PRC enterprises.

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC issued the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises, or the Trial Measures, which will become effective on March 31, 2023. On the same date of the issuance of the Trial Measures, the CSRC circulated No.1 to No.5 Supporting Guidance Rules, the Notes on the Trial Measures, the Notice on Administration Arrangements for the Filing of Overseas Listings by Domestic Enterprises and the relevant CSRC Answers to Reporter Questions on the official website of the CSRC, or collectively, the Guidance Rules and Notice. The Trial Measures, together with the Guidance Rules and Notice, reiterate the basic supervision principles as reflected in the draft Provisions and Measures by providing substantially the same requirements for filings of overseas offering and listing by domestic companies, yet made the following updates compared to the draft Provisions and Measures: (a) further clarification of the circumstances prohibiting overseas issuance and listing; (b) further clarification of the standard of indirect overseas listing under the principle of substance over form, and (c) adding more details of filing procedures and requirements by setting different filing requirements for different types of overseas offering and listing. Under the Trial Measures and the Guidance Rules and Notice, domestic companies conducting overseas securities offering and listing activities, either in direct or indirect form, shall complete filing procedures with the CSRC pursuant to the requirements of the Trial Measures within three working days following its submission of initial public offerings or listing application. The companies that have already been listed on overseas stock exchanges or have obtained the approval from overseas supervision administrations or stock exchanges for its offering and listing and will complete their overseas offering and listing prior to September 30, 2023 are not required to make immediate filings for its listing yet need to make filings for subsequent offerings in accordance with the Trial Measures. The companies that have already submitted an application for an initial public offering to overseas supervision administrations prior to the effective date of the Trial Measures but have not yet obtained the approval from overseas supervision administrations or stock exchanges for the offering and listing may arrange for the filing within a reasonable time period and should complete the filing procedure before such companies’ overseas issuance and listing.

As of the date of this prospectus, we have not received any formal inquiry, notice, warning, sanction, or any regulatory objection from the CSRC with respect to this offering. As the Trial Measures were newly published and there exists uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and its implementation, if we are required to submit to the CRSC and complete the filing procedure of our overseas public offering and listing, we cannot be sure that we will be able to complete such filings in a timely manner. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with such filing requirements under the Trial Measures may result in forced corrections, warnings and fines against us and could materially hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities.

On December 27, 2021, the NDRC and the Ministry of Commerce jointly issued the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021 Version), or the 2021 Negative List, which became effective on January 1, 2022. Pursuant to the Special Administrative Measures, if a PRC company engaging in the prohibited business stipulated in the 2021 Negative List seeks an overseas offering and listing, it shall obtain the approval from the competent governmental authorities. Besides, the foreign investors of the issuer shall not be involved in the company’s operation and management, and their shareholding percentages shall be subject, mutatis mutandis, to the relevant regulations on the domestic securities investments by foreign investors. As the 2021 Negative List is relatively new, there remain substantial uncertainties as to the interpretation and implementation of these new requirements, and it is unclear as to whether and to what extent listed companies like us will be subject to these new requirements. If we are required to comply with these requirements and fail to do so on a timely basis, if at all, our business operation, financial conditions and business prospect may be adversely and materially affected.

In addition, we cannot assure you that any new rules or regulations promulgated in the future will not impose additional requirements on us. If it is determined in the future that approval and filing from the CSRC or other regulatory authorities or other procedures, including the cybersecurity review under the Measures for Cybersecurity Review and the Draft Measures for Internet Data Security, are required for our offshore offerings,

 

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it is uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to obtain such approval or complete such filing procedures and any such approval or filing could be rescinded or rejected. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval or completing such filing procedures for our offshore offerings, or a rescission of any such approval or filing if obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities for failure to seek CSRC approval or filing or other government authorization for our offshore offerings. These regulatory authorities may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from our offshore offerings into China or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects, as well as the trading price of our listed securities. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt our offshore offerings before settlement and delivery of the shares offered. Consequently, if investors engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, they do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or accomplish the required filing or other regulatory procedures for our prior offshore offerings, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval requirement could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, reputation, and the trading price of our listed securities.

We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided directly or indirectly by our customers or end users.

We may become subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the PRC regarding privacy, data security, cybersecurity, and data protection. These laws and regulations are continuously evolving and developing. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to us are often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws. In particular, there are numerous laws and regulations regarding privacy and the collection, sharing, use, processing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other user data. Such laws and regulations often vary in scope, may be subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among different jurisdictions.

We expect to obtain information about various aspects of our operations as well as regarding our employees and third parties. The integrity and protection of our customers, employees and company data is critical to our business. Our customers, end users and employees expect that we will adequately protect their personal information. We are required by applicable laws to keep strictly confidential the personal information that we collect, and to take adequate security measures to safeguard such information.

The PRC Criminal Law, as amended by its Amendment 7 (effective on February 28, 2009) and Amendment 9 (effective on November 1, 2015), prohibits institutions, companies and their employees from selling or otherwise illegally disclosing a citizen’s personal information obtained during the course of performing duties or providing services or obtaining such information through theft or other illegal ways.

The Civil Code of the PRC (issued by the PRC National People’s Congress on May 28, 2020 and effective from January 1, 2021) provides main legal basis for privacy and personal information infringement claims under the Chinese civil laws. PRC regulators, including the Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”), MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security have been increasingly focused on regulation in the areas of data security and data protection.

The PRC regulatory requirements regarding cybersecurity are constantly evolving. For instance, various regulatory bodies in China, including the CAC, the Ministry of Public Security and the SAMR, have enforced data privacy and protection laws and regulations with varying and evolving standards and interpretations.

In November 2016, the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress passed China’s first Cybersecurity Law (“CSL”), which became effective in June 2017. The CSL is the first PRC law that systematically lays out the regulatory requirements on cybersecurity and data protection, subjecting many previously under-regulated or unregulated activities in cyberspace to government scrutiny. The legal consequences of violation of the CSL include penalties of warning, confiscation of illegal income, suspension of

 

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related business, winding up for rectification, shutting down the websites, and revocation of business license or relevant permits. In April 2020, the CAC and certain other PRC regulatory authorities promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2020), which became effective in June 2020. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2020), operators of critical information infrastructure must pass a cybersecurity review when purchasing network products and services which do or may affect national security.

On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the NPC promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect on September 1, 2021. The Data Security Law also sets forth the data security protection obligations for entities and individuals handling personal data, including that no entity or individual may acquire such data by stealing or other illegal means, and the collection and use of such data should not exceed the necessary limits.

On November 14, 2021, the CAC published the Regulations on Network Data Security (draft for public comments), or the draft Regulations on Network Data Security, which reiterate that data processors that process the personal information of more than one million users and intend to list overseas should apply for a cybersecurity review. In addition, data processors that process important data or are listed overseas shall carry out an annual data security assessment on their own or by engaging a data security services institution, and the data security assessment report for the prior year should be submitted to the local cyberspace affairs administration department before January 31 of each year. Currently, the draft Regulations on Network Data Security has been released for public comment only, and its implementation provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date remains substantially uncertain and may be subject to change.

On December 28, 2021, the CAC issued the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2021), which replaced the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2020) and took into effect on February 15, 2022. The Cybersecurity Review Measures (2021) required that, in addition to “operator of critical information infrastructure,” any “operator of internet platform” carrying out data processing activities that affect or may affect national security should also be subject to cybersecurity review, and further elaborated the factors to be considered when assessing the national security risks of the relevant activities, including, among others, (i) the risk of core data, important data or a large amount of personal information being stolen, leaked, destroyed, and illegally used or exited the country; and (ii) the risk of critical information infrastructure, core data, important data or a large amount of personal information being affected, controlled, or maliciously used by foreign governments after listing abroad. The CAC has said that under the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2021), operators of internet platforms holding data on more than 1,000,000 users must now apply for cybersecurity approval when seeking listings in other nations because of the risk that such data and personal information could be “affected, controlled, and maliciously exploited by foreign governments.” The cybersecurity review will also investigate the potential national security risks from overseas IPOs. Given the recency of the issuance of the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2021), there is a general lack of guidance and substantial uncertainties exist with respect to their interpretation and implementation. For example, it is unclear whether the requirement of cybersecurity review applies to follow-on offerings by an “online platform operator” that is in possession of personal data of more than one million users where the offshore holding company of such operator is already listed overseas. We do not know what regulations will be adopted or how such regulations will affect we and our listing on Nasdaq. In the event that the Cyberspace Administration of China determines that we are subject to these regulations, we may be required to delist from Nasdaq and we may be subject to fines and penalties.

We are not subject to the cybersecurity review by the CAC, given that: (i) we do not possess a large amount of personal information in our business operations and (ii) data processed in our business does not have a bearing on national security and thus may not be classified as core or important data by the authorities. However, there remains uncertainty as to how the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2021) will be interpreted or implemented and whether the PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, may adopt new laws, regulations, rules, or detailed implementation and interpretation related to the Cybersecurity Review Measures (2021). If any such new laws, regulations, rules, or implementation and interpretation comes into effect, we will take all reasonable measures and actions to comply and to minimize the adverse effect of such laws on us.

On August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of the NPC approved the Personal Information Protection Law (“PIPL”), which became effective on November 1, 2021. The PIPL regulates collection of personal identifiable information and seeks to address the issue of algorithmic discrimination. Companies in violation of the PIPL may be subject to warnings and admonishments, forced corrections, confiscation of corresponding

 

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income, suspension of related services, and fines. We mainly interact with corporate clients and has limited direct interactions with individual customers, which means our potential access or exposure to customers’ personal identifiable information is limited. However, in the event we inadvertently access or become exposed to end-users’ personal identifiable information, through our corporate clients’ end-user-facing applications which access or store end users’ personal identifiable information, then we may face heightened exposure to the PIPL.

We cannot assure you that PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, would take the same view as we do, and there is no assurance that we can fully or timely comply with such laws. In the event that we are subject to any mandatory cybersecurity review and other specific actions required by the CAC, we face uncertainty as to whether any clearance or other required actions can be timely completed, or at all. Given such uncertainty, we may be further required to suspend our relevant business, shut down our website, or face other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

As of the date of this prospectus, our three Hong Kong subsidiaries have not collected, stored, or managed any personal information in Hong Kong. Therefore, we concluded that currently we do not expect that laws and regulations in mainland China on data security, data protection, or cybersecurity to be applied to our Hong Kong subsidiaries or that the oversight of the Cyberspace Administration of China will be extended to its operations outside of mainland China. In Hong Kong, the Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance (Cap. 486 of Hong Kong), or the PDPO, applies to data users, that control the collection, holding, processing or use of personal data in Hong Kong. Our Hong Kong subsidiaries are subject to the general requirements under PDPO including the need to obtain the prescribed consent of the data subject and to take all practicable steps to protect the personal data held by data users against unauthorized or accidental access, loss or use. Breaches of the PDPO may lead to a variety of civil and criminal sanctions including fines and imprisonment. In addition, data subjects have a right to bring proceedings in court to seek compensation for damage. We cannot guarantee that we are, or will be, in compliance with all applicable international regulations as they are enforced now or as they evolve.

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management named in the prospectus based on foreign laws.

We are a company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. However, we conduct substantially all of our operations in China and substantially all of our assets are located in China. In addition, most of our management members reside within China for a significant portion of the time and many of them are PRC nationals. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process upon us or our management named in the prospectus inside mainland China. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts of the judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors as none of them currently resides in the United States or has substantial assets located in the United States. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands or the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state.

The recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law and other applicable laws, regulations and interpretations based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, the PRC courts will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC laws or national sovereignty, security or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States. Furthermore, class action lawsuits, which are available in the United States for investors to seek remedies, are generally uncommon in China.

You may incur additional costs and procedural obstacles in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in Hong Kong against us or our management named in this prospectus based on Hong Kong laws.

We have three subsidiaries in Hong Kong, including (i) Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, the wholly owned subsidiary of Jayud Global Logistics Limited; (ii) HongKong Jayud International Logistics Company Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited; and (iii) Sky Pacific Logistics HK Company Limited, 67.0% equity interest of which is wholly owned by our PRC subsidiary,

 

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Shenzhen Jiayuda Global Supply Chain Co., Ltd. We do have management members who are Hong Kong residents and reside within Hong Kong for a significant portion of the time. You may incur additional costs and procedural obstacles in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in Hong Kong against us or our management named in the prospectus, as judgments entered in the U.S. can be enforced in Hong Kong only at common law. If you want to enforce a judgment of the U.S. in Hong Kong, it must be a final judgment conclusive upon the merits of the claim, for a liquidated amount in a civil matter and not in respect of taxes, fines, penalties, or similar charges, the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice, and the enforcement of the judgment is not contrary to public policy of Hong Kong. Such a judgment must be for a fixed sum and must also come from a “competent” court as determined by the private international law rules applied by the Hong Kong courts.

Furthermore, foreign judgments of the U.S. courts will not be directly enforced in Hong Kong as there are currently no treaties or other arrangements providing for reciprocal enforcement of foreign judgments between Hong Kong and the U.S. However, the common law permits an action to be brought upon a foreign judgment. That is to say, a foreign judgment itself may form the basis of a cause of action since the judgment may be regarded as creating a debt between the parties to it. In a common law action for enforcement of a foreign judgment in Hong Kong, the enforcement is subject to various conditions, including but not limited to, that the foreign judgment is a final judgment conclusive upon the merits of the claim, the judgment is for a liquidated amount in civil matter and not in respect of taxes, fines, penalties, or similar charges, the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice, and the enforcement of the judgment is not contrary to public policy of Hong Kong. Such a judgment must be for a fixed sum and must also come from a “competent” court as determined by the private international law rules applied by the Hong Kong courts. The defenses that are available to a defendant in a common law action brought on the basis of a foreign judgment include lack of jurisdiction, breach of natural justice, fraud, and contrary to public policy. However, a separate legal action for debt must be commenced in Hong Kong in order to recover such debt from the judgment debtor. As a result, subject to the conditions with regard to enforcement of judgments of United States courts being met, including but not limited to the above, a foreign judgment of United States of civil liabilities predicated solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any State or territory within the U.S. could be enforceable in Hong Kong.

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, which became effective in March 2020 (“Article 177”), no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. In addition, entities or individuals are prohibited from providing documents and information in connection with any securities business activities to any organizations and/or persons aboard without the prior consent of the securities regulatory authority of the State Council and the competent departments of the State Council. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests. See also “—Risks Related to the Class A Ordinary Shares and This Offering—You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law” for risks associated with investing in us as a Cayman Islands company.

It may be difficult for overseas shareholders and/or regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within Hong Kong.

The Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong (“SFC”) is a signatory to the International Organization of Securities Commissions Multilateral Memorandum of Understanding (“MMOU”), which

 

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provides for mutual investigatory and other assistance and exchange of information between securities regulators around the world, including the SEC. This is also reflected in section 186 of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (“SFO”) which empowers the SFC to exercise its investigatory powers to obtain information and documents requested by non-Hong Kong regulators, and section 378 of the SFO which allows the SFC to share confidential information and documents in its possession with such regulators. However, there is no assurance that such cooperation will materialize, or if it does, whether it will adequately address any efforts to investigate or collect evidence to the extent that may be sought by the U.S. regulators.

If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with “de facto management body” within China is considered a “resident enterprise” and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control and overall management over the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. The Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore-Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, which was issued by the State Administration of Taxation on April 22, 2009 and further amended on December 29, 2017, or Circular 82, provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

We believe none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we could be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25% on our worldwide income, subject to any reduction set forth in applicable tax treaties. Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends payable to our non-PRC individual shareholders and any gain realized on the transfer of Class A ordinary shares by such shareholders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 10% in the case of non-PRC enterprises or a rate of 20% in the case of non-PRC individuals unless a reduced rate is available under an applicable tax treaty. It is unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of our company would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country or area of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in the Class A ordinary shares.

We face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfer of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

We may face uncertainties regarding the reporting on and consequences of private equity financing transactions involving the transfer and exchange of shares in our company by non-resident investors in the future. In February 2015, the State Administration of Taxation issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on

 

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Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7. Pursuant to Bulletin 7, an “indirect transfer” of PRC assets, including a transfer of equity interests in an unlisted non-PRC holding company of a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of the underlying PRC assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise.

On October 17, 2017, the State Administration of Taxation issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or Bulletin 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017 and was most-recently amended on June 15, 2018. Bulletin 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of nonresident enterprise income tax. We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences of potential future private equity financing transactions, share exchanges or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises. The PRC tax authorities may pursue such non-resident enterprises with respect to a filing or the transferees with respect to withholding obligation, and request our PRC subsidiaries to assist in the filing. As a result, we and non-resident enterprises in such transactions may become at risk of being subject to filing obligations or being taxed under Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37, and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with them or to establish that we and our non-resident enterprises should not be taxed under these regulations, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The PRC tax authorities have the discretion under Bulletin 7 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the taxable assets transferred and the cost of investment. If the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of the transactions under Bulletin 7, our income tax costs associated with such transactions will be increased, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure you that the PRC tax authorities will not, at their discretion, adjust any capital gains and impose tax return filing obligations on us or require us to provide assistance to them for the investigation of any transactions we were involved in. Heightened scrutiny over acquisition transactions by the PRC tax authorities may have a negative impact on potential acquisitions we may pursue in the future.

If our preferential tax treatments are revoked or become unavailable or if the calculation of our tax liability is successfully challenged by the PRC tax authorities, we may be required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions.

The Chinese government has provided various tax incentives to our PRC subsidiaries, primarily in the form of reduced enterprise income tax rates. For example, under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, the statutory enterprise income tax rate is 25%. However, the income tax of an enterprise that has been determined to be a small low-profit enterprise can be reduced to a preferential rate of 20% on 12.5% of its taxable income with respect to the portion of the annual taxable income that does not exceed RMB1 million during certain periods. In addition, certain of our PRC subsidiaries enjoy preferential tax treatment. Any increase in the enterprise income tax rate applicable to our PRC subsidiaries in China, or any discontinuation, retroactive or future reduction or refund of any of the preferential tax treatments and local government subsidies currently enjoyed by our PRC subsidiaries in China, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further, in the ordinary course of our business, we are subject to complex income tax and other tax regulations, and significant judgment is required in the determination of a provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax provisions are reasonable, if the PRC tax authorities successfully challenge our position and we are required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, our financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations or comply with laws and regulations on other employment practices may subject us to penalties.

Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. Currently, our PRC subsidiaries are making contributions to the plans based on the minimum standards as required by law for most employees. With respect to the underpaid or unpaid employee benefits, we may be required to complete registrations, make up the contributions for these plans as well as to pay late fees and fines. If we are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid or unpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. We may also be subject to regulatory investigations and other penalties if our other employment practices are deemed to be in violation of relevant PRC laws and regulations.

The enforcement of the PRC Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may subject us to penalties or liabilities.

The PRC Labor Contract Law, which was enacted in 2008 and amended in 2012, introduced specific provisions related to fixed-term employment contracts, part-time employment, probationary periods, consultation with labor unions and employee assemblies, employment without a written contract, dismissal of employees, severance, and collective bargaining to enhance previous PRC labor laws. Under the Labor Contract Law, an employer is obligated to sign a non-fixed term labor contract with any employee who has worked for the employer for ten consecutive years. Further, if an employee requests or agrees to renew a fixed-term labor contract that has already been entered into twice consecutively, the resulting contract, with certain exceptions, must have non-fixed term, subject to certain exceptions. With certain exceptions, an employer must pay severance to an employee where a labor contract is terminated or expires. In addition, the PRC governmental authorities have continued to introduce various new labor-related regulations since the effectiveness of the Labor Contract Law.

These laws and regulations designed to enhance labor protection tend to increase our labor costs. In addition, as the interpretation and implementation of these regulations are still evolving, our employment practices may not be at all times deemed in compliance with the regulations. As a result, we could be subject to penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with labor disputes or investigations.

The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and some other regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established complex procedures and requirements for acquisition of Chinese companies by foreign investors, including requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, which became effective in 2008 and was recently amended in June 2022, requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds must be cleared by the Ministry of Commerce before they can be completed. In addition, the Rules on Implementation of Security Review System for the Merger and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors issued by the Ministry of Commerce and became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers

 

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and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement.

In the future, we may pursue potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other rules to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval or clearance from the Ministry of Commerce, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share. Furthermore, according to the M&A Rules, if a PRC entity or individual plans to merge or acquire its related PRC entity through an overseas company legitimately incorporated or controlled by such entity or individual, such a merger and acquisition will be subject to examination and approval by the Ministry of Commerce. The application and interpretations of M&A Rules are still uncertain, and there is possibility that the PRC regulators may promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain approval of the Ministry of Commerce for our completed or ongoing mergers and acquisitions. There is no assurance that we can obtain such approval from the Ministry of Commerce for our mergers and acquisitions, and if we fail to obtain those approvals, we may be required to suspend our acquisition and be subject to penalties. Any uncertainties regarding such approval requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and corporate structure.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to change their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to liability and penalties under PRC laws. In addition, any failure to comply with PRC regulations with respect to registration requirements for offshore financing may subject us to legal or administrative sanctions.

In July 2014, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents (including PRC individuals and PRC corporate entities as well as foreign individuals that are deemed as PRC residents for foreign exchange administration purpose) to register with SAFE or its local branches in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the SAFE registrations in the event of any changes with respect to the basic information of the offshore special purpose vehicle, such as change of a PRC individual shareholder, name and operation term, or any significant changes with respect to the offshore special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contribution, share transfer or exchange, or mergers or divisions. SAFE Circular 37 is applicable to our shareholders who are PRC residents and may be applicable to any offshore acquisitions that we make in the future.

Under these foreign exchange regulations, PRC residents who make, or have previously made, prior to the implementation of these foreign exchange regulations, direct or indirect investments in offshore companies are required to register those investments. In addition, any PRC resident who is a direct or indirect shareholder of an offshore company is required to update its previously filed SAFE registration, to reflect any material change involving its round-trip investment. If any PRC shareholder fails to make the required registration or update the previously filed registration, the PRC subsidiary of that offshore parent company may be restricted from distributing their profits and the proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to their offshore parent company, and the offshore parent company may also be restricted from injecting additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various foreign exchange registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions, including (i) the requirement by SAFE to return the foreign exchange remitted overseas or into the PRC within a period of time specified by SAFE, with a fine of up to 30% of the total amount of foreign exchange remitted overseas or into PRC and deemed to have been evasive or illegal and (ii) in circumstances involving

 

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serious violations, a fine of no less than 30% of and up to the total amount of remitted foreign exchange deemed evasive or illegal.

We are committed to complying with and to ensuring that our shareholders who are subject to these regulations will comply with the SAFE rules and regulations. However, due to the inherent uncertainty in the implementation of the regulatory requirements by the PRC authorities, such registration might not be always practically available in all circumstances as prescribed in those regulations. In addition, we may not always be able to compel them to comply with SAFE Circular 37 or other related regulations. We cannot assure you that SAFE or its local branches will not release explicit requirements or interpret the PRC laws and regulations otherwise. We may not be fully informed of the identities of all our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents, and we cannot provide any assurance that all of our shareholders and beneficial owners who are PRC residents will comply with our request to make, obtain or update any applicable registrations or comply with other requirements under SAFE Circular 37 or other related rules in a timely manner.

Because there is uncertainty concerning the reconciliation of these foreign exchange regulations with other approval requirements, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the governmental authorities. We cannot predict how these regulations will affect our business operations or future strategy. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign-currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

In addition, our offshore financing activities, such as the issuance of foreign debt, are also subject to PRC laws and regulations. In accordance with such laws and regulations, we may be required to complete filing and registration with the National Development and Reform Commission (or “NDRC”) prior to such activities. Failure to comply with the requirements may result in administrative meeting, warning, notification and other regulatory penalties and sanctions.

We may be materially adversely affected if our shareholders and beneficial owners who are PRC entities fail to comply with the PRC overseas investment regulations.

On December 26, 2017, the NDRC promulgated the Administrative Measures on Overseas Investments by Enterprises, which took effect as of March 1, 2018. According to this regulation, nonsensitive overseas investment projects are subject to record-filing requirements with the local branch of the NDRC. On September 6, 2014, the Ministry of Commerce promulgated the Administrative Measures on Overseas Investments, which took effect as of October 6, 2014. According to this regulation, overseas investments of PRC enterprises that involve nonsensitive countries and regions and nonsensitive industries are subject to record-filing requirements with a local branch of Ministry of Commerce. According to the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Issuing the Regulations on Foreign Exchange Administration of the Overseas Direct Investment of Domestic Institutions, which was promulgated by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, on July 13, 2009 and took effect on August 1, 2009, and Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving the Administration of the Foreign Exchange Concerning Direct Investment, which was promulgated by the SAFE on February 13, 2015 and took effect on June 1, 2015, PRC enterprises must register for overseas direct investment with a local SAFE branch or its authorized banks.

We may not be fully informed of the identities of all our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC entities, and we cannot provide any assurance that all of our shareholders and beneficial owners who are PRC entities will comply with our request to complete the overseas direct investment procedures under the aforementioned regulations or other related rules in a timely manner, or at all. If they fail to complete the filings or registrations required by the overseas direct investment regulations, the authorities may order them to suspend or cease the implementation of such investment and make corrections within a specified time, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject our plan participants for us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, replacing earlier rules promulgated in 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year and participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas-listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas-entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year and who may be granted options will be subject to these regulations when our company grants options after it becomes an overseas-listed company upon the completion of this offering. Failure to complete SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions, and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.

In addition, the State Administration of Taxation has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise share options and/or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options and/or restricted shares with tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and we rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries for our cash requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders for services of any debt we may incur. If our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries incur debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiary, which is a foreign-owned enterprise, may pay dividends only out of its respective accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a foreign-owned enterprise, according to the PRC companies law, is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a certain statutory reserve fund, until the aggregate amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. Such reserve funds cannot be distributed to us as dividends.

Our PRC subsidiaries generate essentially all of their revenue in Renminbi, which is not freely convertible into other currencies. As a result, any restriction on currency exchange may limit the ability of our PRC subsidiary to use their Renminbi revenues to pay dividends to us.

The PRC government may continue to strengthen its capital controls, and more restrictions and substantial vetting process may be put forward by SAFE for cross-border transactions falling under both the current account and the capital account. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends or make other kinds of payments to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

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In addition, the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules provide that a withholding tax rate of up to 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

You may be subject to PRC income tax on dividends from us or on any gain realized on the transfer of our Class A ordinary shares.

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, PRC withholding tax at a rate of 10% is generally applicable to dividends from PRC sources paid to investors that are resident enterprises outside of China and that do not have an establishment or place of business in China, or that have an establishment or place of business in China if the income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business. Any gain realized on the transfer of shares by such investors is subject to 10% PRC income tax if this gain is regarded as income derived from sources within China. Under the PRC Individual Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, dividends from sources within China paid to foreign individual investors who are not PRC residents are generally subject to a PRC withholding tax at a rate of 20% and gains from PRC sources realized by these investors on the transfer of shares are generally subject to 20% PRC income tax. Any such PRC tax liability may be reduced by the provisions of an applicable tax treaty.

Although substantially all of our business operations are in China, it is unclear whether the dividends we pay with respect to our Class A ordinary shares, or the gains realized from the transfer of our Class A ordinary shares, would be treated as income derived from sources within China and as a result be subject to PRC income tax if we are considered a PRC resident enterprise. If PRC income tax is imposed on gains realized through the transfer of our Class A ordinary shares or on dividends paid to our non-resident investors, the value of your investment in our Class A ordinary shares may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, our shareholders whose jurisdictions of residence have tax treaties or arrangements with China may not qualify for benefits under these tax treaties or arrangements.

In addition, pursuant to the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement between Hong Kong and China, if a Hong Kong resident enterprise owns more than 25% of the equity interest of a PRC company at all times during the twelve-month period immediately prior to obtaining a dividend from such company, the 10% withholding tax on the dividend is reduced to 5%, provided that certain other conditions and requirements are satisfied at the discretion of the PRC tax authority. However, based on the Notice on Certain Issues with Respect to the Enforcement of Dividend Provisions in Tax Treaties, issued in 2009 by the State Administration of Taxation, if the PRC tax authorities determine, in their discretion, that a company benefits from the reduced income tax rate due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, the PRC tax authorities may adjust the preferential tax treatment. If our Hong Kong subsidiaries are determined by PRC government authorities as receiving benefits from reduced income tax rates due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, the dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to our Hong Kong subsidiaries will be taxed at a higher rate, which will have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries in China, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries, or we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, or we may establish new PRC subsidiaries and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, or we may acquire offshore entities with business operations in China in an offshore transaction.

 

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Most of these ways are subject to PRC regulations and approvals or registration. For example, loans by us to our wholly owned PRC subsidiary to finance its activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE. If we decide to finance our wholly owned PRC subsidiary by means of capital contributions, these capital contributions are subject to registration with the State Administration for Market Regulation or its local branch, reporting of foreign investment information with the PRC Ministry of Commerce, or registration with other governmental authorities in China.

SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective June 2015, in replacement of the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, the Notice from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Relevant Issues Concerning Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Exchange Businesses, and the Circular on Further Clarification and Regulation of the Issues Concerning the Administration of Certain Capital Account Foreign Exchange Businesses. According to SAFE Circular 19, the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that RMB capital may not be used for the issuance of RMB entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of banks loans that have been transferred to a third party. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within China, it also reiterates the principle that RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. Thus, it is unclear whether SAFE will permit such capital to be used for equity investments in China in actual practice. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from this offering, to our PRC subsidiary, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in China. On October 23, 2019, the SAFE promulgated the Notice for Further Advancing the Facilitation of Cross-border Trade and Investment, or the SAFE Circular 28, which, among other things, allows all foreign-invested companies to use Renminbi converted from foreign currency-denominated capital for equity investments in China, as long as the equity investment is genuine, does not violate applicable laws, and complies with the negative list on foreign investment. However, since the SAFE Circular 28 is newly promulgated, it is unclear how SAFE and competent banks will carry this out in practice.

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, or at all, with respect to future loans to our PRC subsidiary or future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiary. As a result, uncertainties exist as to our ability to provide prompt financial support to our PRC subsidiary when needed. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we expect to receive from this offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and

 

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unpredictably. The value of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future. From time to time, we are exposed to currency risk primarily through sales and purchases which give rise to receivables, payables and cash balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the operations to which the transactions relate.

Substantially all of our income and expenses are denominated in Renminbi and our reporting currency is Renminbi. Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material and adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from our initial public offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would reduce the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of paying dividends or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would reduce the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to hedge our exposure adequately or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our income effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our income in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our Cayman Islands holding company may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements payable outside of China. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiary in China may be used to pay dividends to our company without prior approval of SAFE. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiary to pay any debts they may incur in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi.

In addition, if any of our shareholders who is subject to SAFE regulations fails to satisfy the applicable overseas direct investment filing or approval requirement, the PRC government may restrict our access to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If we are prevented from obtaining sufficient foreign currency to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders.

If the chops of our PRC subsidiaries are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.

In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a

 

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company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiaries are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so.

We may be subject to penalties for failure to register our lease with the PRC real estate administration department.

Pursuant to the Law on Administration of Urban Real Estate which took effect in January 1995 with the latest amendment in August 2019 and the Administrative Measures on Leasing of Commodity Housing which was promulgated by Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development on December 1, 2010 and took effect on February 1, 2011, lessors and lessees are required to enter into a written lease contract and to register the lease with the real estate administration department, and failure to comply with the registration requirement may result in a fine ranging from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000. Our PRC subsidiaries only registered three of their leases with the real estate administration department. With respect to the unregistered lease, we may be required to complete such registration or subject to fines, which may materially affect our financial position or operation.

Risks Related to the Class A Ordinary Shares and This Offering

An active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares may not develop and the trading price for our Class A ordinary shares may fluctuate significantly.

We have applied to list our Class A ordinary shares on the Nasdaq. Prior to the completion of this offering, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares, and we cannot assure you that a liquid public market for our Class A ordinary shares will develop. If an active public market for our Class A ordinary shares does not develop following the completion of this offering, the market price and liquidity of our Class A ordinary shares may be materially and adversely affected. The initial public offering price for our Class A ordinary shares will be determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters based upon several factors, and we can provide no assurance that the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares after this offering will not decline below the initial public offering price. As a result, investors in our securities may experience a significant decrease in the value of their investment.

The trading price of our Class A ordinary shares is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

Recently, there have been instances of extreme stock price run-ups followed by rapid price declines and strong stock price volatility with a number of recent initial public offerings, especially among companies with relatively smaller public floats. As a relatively small-capitalization company with relatively small public float, we may experience greater stock price volatility, extreme price run-ups, lower trading volume and less liquidity than large-capitalization companies. Such volatility, including any stock-run up, may be unrelated to our actual or expected operating performance, financial condition or prospects, making it difficult for prospective investors to assess the rapidly changing value of our Class A ordinary shares.

Moreover, the volatility and fluctuation of the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. A number of Chinese companies have listed or are in the process of listing their securities on U.S. stock markets. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility, including price declines in connection with their initial public offerings. The trading performances of these Chinese companies’ securities

 

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after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States in general and consequently may impact the trading performance of our Class A ordinary shares, regardless of our actual operating performance.

In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our Class A ordinary shares may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

 

   

variations in our income, earnings and cash flow;

 

   

announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;

 

   

announcements of new services and expansions by us or our competitors;

 

   

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 

   

detrimental adverse publicity about us, our services or our industry;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities; and

 

   

potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our Class A ordinary shares will trade. Furthermore, the stock market in general experiences price and volume fluctuations that are often unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies like us. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares.

In addition, if the trading volumes of our Class A ordinary shares are low, persons buying or selling in relatively small quantities may easily influence prices of our Class A ordinary shares. This low volume of trades could also cause the price of our Class A ordinary shares to fluctuate greatly, with large percentage changes in price occurring in any trading day session. Holders of our Class A ordinary shares may also not be able to readily liquidate their investment or may be forced to sell at depressed prices due to low volume trading. If high spreads between the bid and ask prices of our Class A ordinary shares exist at the time of a purchase, the stock would have to appreciate substantially on a relative percentage basis for an investor to recoup their investment. Broad market fluctuations and general economic and political conditions may also adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares. As a result of this volatility, investors may experience losses on their investment in our Class A ordinary shares. A decline in the market price of our Class A ordinary shares also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional Class A ordinary shares or other of our securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future. No assurance can be given that an active market in our Class A ordinary shares will develop or be sustained. If an active market does not develop, holders of our Class A ordinary shares may be unable to readily sell the shares they hold or may not be able to sell their shares at all.

In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares has the effect of concentrating voting power with our existing shareholders prior to the consummation of this offering, which will limit your ability to influence the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.

Our Class B ordinary shares have ten (10) votes per share, and our Class A ordinary shares have one (1) vote per share. Upon the completion of this offering, our issued and outstanding share capital will consist of              Class A ordinary shares and 5,127,680 Class B ordinary shares, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares. Before and immediately after this offering, our founder and chief executive officer, Mr. Xiaogang Geng is and will be the only shareholder who owns all our issued and outstanding 5,127,680 Class B ordinary shares. Upon the closing of this offering, Mr. Xiaogang Geng, will beneficially own more than 50% of our total voting power. See “Principal Shareholders” and “—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We will be a ‘controlled company’ within the meaning of the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.” Upon the closing of this offering, our existing shareholders prior to the consummation of this offering will beneficially own approximately             % of the voting power of our outstanding shares. Accordingly, considering there are voting agreements among some of our existing shareholders and Mr. Xiaogang Geng, upon the closing of this offering, our existing shareholders prior to the consummation of this offering, including Mr. Xiaogang Geng, individually or together, will be able to significantly influence matters submitted to our shareholders for approval, including the election of directors, amendments of our memorandum and articles of association and any merger or other major corporate transactions that require shareholder approval. Our existing shareholders prior to the consummation of this offering, including Mr. Xiaogang Geng, individually or together, may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentrated voting power may, by changing the directors of the Company, have the ultimate effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of our Company, could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately materially and adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares. Future transfers by the holder of Class B ordinary shares may result in those shares converting into Class A ordinary shares. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time at the option of the holder, but Class A ordinary shares shall not be convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. However, following this offering, as long as at least              Class B ordinary shares remain outstanding, and without giving effect to any future issuances, the holder of our Class B ordinary shares will hold a majority of the outstanding voting power and will continue to control the outcome of matters submitted to shareholders approval. Our amended and restated articles of association generally does not prohibit us from issuing additional Class B ordinary shares, and any future issuance of Class B ordinary shares may be dilutive to Class A ordinary shareholders. For more information about our dual-class structure, see “Description of Share Capital.”

The dual-class structure of our ordinary shares may adversely affect the trading market for our Class A ordinary shares.

We cannot predict whether our dual-class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A ordinary shares or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on companies with dual-class or multi-class share structures in their indices. In July 2017, S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell announced changes to their eligibility criteria for the inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the Russell 2000, the S&P 500, the S&P MidCap 400 and the S&P SmallCap 600, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares from being added to these indices. Beginning in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on their treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. As a result, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in any of these indices, and mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track these

 

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indices will not be investing in our Class A ordinary shares. These policies are still relatively new and it is as of yet unclear what effect, if any, they will have on the valuations of publicly traded companies excluded from the indices, but it is possible that they may depress these valuations compared to those of other similar companies that are included. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that other stock indices will not take a similar approach to S&P Dow Jones or FTSE Russell in the future. Exclusion from indices could make our Class A ordinary shares less attractive to investors and, as a result, the market price of our Class A ordinary shares could be adversely affected.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A ordinary shares will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A ordinary shares, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for our Class A ordinary shares to decline.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares in the public market after the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. The Class A ordinary shares sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. There will be              Class A ordinary shares outstanding immediately after this offering, or              Class A ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares in full. In connection with this offering, our directors and officers and holders of more than 5% of our outstanding shares as of the effective date of this registration statement will enter into customary “lock-up” agreements in favor of the underwriters for a period of six (6) months from the date of this offering. We have agreed with the underwriters that, for a period of three (3) months from the closing of this offering, we will not (a) offer, sell, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any capital shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for capital shares; or (b) file or caused to be filed any registration statement with the SEC relating to the offering of any capital shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for capital shares. However, the underwriters may release these securities from these restrictions at any time, subject to applicable regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our Class A ordinary shares. See “Underwriting” and “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares for return on your investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our Class A ordinary shares as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will

 

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depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiary, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our Class A ordinary shares will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares. There is no guarantee that our Class A ordinary shares will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the Class A ordinary shares. You may not realize a return on your investment in our Class A ordinary shares and you may even lose your entire investment in our Class A ordinary shares.

[Because the initial public offering price is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution.]

If you purchase Class A ordinary shares in this offering, you will pay more for each Class A ordinary share than the corresponding amount paid by existing shareholders for their ordinary shares. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution of approximately US$             per Class A ordinary share. This number represents the difference between (1) our pro forma net tangible book value per Class A ordinary share of US$             as of             , after giving effect to this offering and (2) the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus. See “Dilution” for a more complete description of how the value of your investment in our Class A ordinary shares will be diluted upon the completion of this offering.

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree.

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, and our management will have considerable discretion in deciding how to apply these proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately before you make your investment decision. You must rely on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. We cannot assure you that the net proceeds will be used in a manner that will improve our results of operations or increase the price of our Class A ordinary shares, nor that these net proceeds will be placed only in investments that generate income or appreciate in value.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could subject U.S. investors in our Class A ordinary shares to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

We will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income or (b) 50% or more of the value of our assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). We will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets and earnings of any other corporation in which we own, directly or indirectly, more than 25% (by value) of the stock. Based upon our current and expected income and assets, including goodwill and other unbooked intangibles not reflected on our balance sheet (taking into account the expected proceeds from this offering) and projections as to the market price of our Class A ordinary shares immediately following the offering, we do not expect to be classified as a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future.

While we do not expect to be classified as a PFIC, because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our Class A ordinary shares, fluctuations in the market price of our Class A ordinary shares may cause us to be classified as a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years. The determination of whether we will be classified as a PFIC will also depend, in part, on the composition of our income and assets. In addition, the composition of our income and assets will also be affected by how, and

 

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how quickly, we use our liquid assets and the cash raised in this offering. If we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of being a PFIC may substantially increase. It is also possible that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, could challenge our classification of certain income and assets as non-passive, which could result in our company being or becoming a PFIC for the current or future taxable years. Because PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year.

If we are a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) may incur significantly increased U.S. income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the Class A ordinary shares and on the receipt of distributions on the Class A ordinary shares to the extent such distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the U.S. federal income tax rules, and such U.S. Holder may be subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Further, if we are a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder holds our Class A ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder holds our Class A ordinary shares, unless we were to cease to be a PFIC and the U.S. Holder were to make a “deemed sale” election with respect to the Class A ordinary shares. For more information see “Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—PFIC Rules.”

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares.

We have conditionally adopted our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering. Our new memorandum and articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our Class A ordinary shares may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares may be materially and adversely affected.

Our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association provide that the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (or, if the Southern District of New York lacks subject matter jurisdiction over a particular dispute, the state courts of New York County, New York) shall be the exclusive forum within the United States for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising out of or relating in any way to the federal securities laws of the United States regardless of whether such legal suit, action, or proceeding also involves parties other than us. This could limit the ability of holders of our Class A ordinary shares or other securities to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us, our directors and officers, and potentially others.

Our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association provide that the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (or, if the Southern District of New York lacks subject matter jurisdiction over a particular dispute, the state courts of New York County, New York) shall be the exclusive forum within the United States for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising out of or relating in any way to the federal securities laws of the United States, regardless of whether such legal suit, action, or proceeding also involves parties other than us. However, the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings in the United States, and it is possible that a court could find this type of provision to be inapplicable, unenforceable, or

 

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inconsistent with other documents that are relevant to the filing of such lawsuits. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions. If upheld, the forum selection clause in our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association may limit a security-holder’s ability to bring a claim against us, our directors and officers, and potentially others in a his or her preferred judicial forum, and this limitation may discourage such lawsuits.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. Currently, we plan to rely on home country practice with respect to corporate governance matters, and our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Act (Revised) of the Cayman Islands and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see “Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law.”

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, a majority of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries and regions other than the United States, including China and Hong Kong. Substantially all of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a

 

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result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands, China and Hong Kong may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. For more information regarding the relevant laws of the Cayman Islands, China and Hong Kong see “Enforcement of Civil Liabilities.”

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.

Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

The obligation to disclose information publicly may put us at a disadvantage to competitors that are private companies.

Upon completion of this offering, we will be a publicly listed company in the United States. As a publicly listed company, we will be required to file annual reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission. In some cases, we will need to disclose material agreements or results of financial operations that we would not be required to disclose if we were a private company. Our competitors may have access to this information, which would otherwise be confidential. This may give them advantages in competing with our company. Similarly, as a U.S.-listed public company, we will be governed by U.S. laws that some of our competitors are not required to follow. To the extent compliance with U.S. laws increases our expenses or decreases our competitiveness against such companies, our public listing could affect our results of operations.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be

 

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furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely than that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

We are an emerging growth company, and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A ordinary shares less attractive to investors.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act, and may remain an emerging growth company until the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering. However, if certain events occur prior to the end of such five-year period, including if we become a “large accelerated filer,” our annual gross revenues exceed $1.235 billion or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such five-year period. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. We have taken advantage of reduced reporting burdens in this prospectus. In particular, in this prospectus, we have provided only two years of audited consolidated financial statements and have not included all of the executive compensation related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. We cannot predict whether investors will find our Class A ordinary shares less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares and the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares may be reduced or more volatile.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of these accounting standards until they would otherwise apply to private companies.

Nasdaq may apply additional and more stringent criteria for our initial and continued listing because we plan to have a small public offering and our founder will hold a large portion of our listed securities.

Nasdaq Listing Rule 5101 provides Nasdaq with broad discretionary authority over the initial and continued listing of securities in Nasdaq and Nasdaq may use such discretion to deny initial listing, apply additional or more stringent criteria for the initial or continued listing of particular securities, or suspend or delist particular securities based on any event, condition, or circumstance that exists or occurs that makes initial or continued listing of the securities on Nasdaq inadvisable or unwarranted in the opinion of Nasdaq, even though the securities meet all enumerated criteria for initial or continued listing on Nasdaq. In addition, Nasdaq has used its discretion to deny initial or continued listing or to apply additional and more stringent criteria in the instances, including but not limited to: (i) where we engaged an auditor that has not been subject to an inspection by the PCAOB, an auditor that PCAOB cannot inspect, or an auditor that has not demonstrated sufficient resources, geographic reach, or experience to adequately perform our audit; (ii) where we planned a small public offering, which would result in insiders holding a large portion of our listed securities. Nasdaq was concerned that the offering size was insufficient to establish our initial valuation, and there would not be sufficient liquidity to support a public market for us; and (iii) where we did not demonstrate sufficient nexus to the U.S. capital market, including having no U.S. shareholders, operations, or members of the board of directors or management. Our public offering will be relatively small, and our founder will hold a large portion of our listed securities. Nasdaq might apply the additional and more stringent criteria for our initial and continued listing, which might cause delay or even denial of our listing application.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business” and “Regulations.” Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under “Risk Factors,” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

 

   

our goals and strategies;

 

   

our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;

 

   

the expected growth of the integrated logistics industry in China;

 

   

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

   

our expectations regarding our bases of customers;

 

   

our plans to invest in our products and services;

 

   

competition in our industry; and

 

   

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.

These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should thoroughly read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to herein with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This prospectus contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. China’s integrated logistics industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this industry to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of our Class A ordinary shares. In addition, the highly-fragmented and rapidly changing nature of the integrated logistics industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our industry. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$             million, or approximately US$             million if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and the estimated offering expenses payable by us. These estimates are based upon an assumed initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, the midpoint of the price range shown on the front cover page of this prospectus. A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$             million, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares and the number of Class A ordinary shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

The primary purposes of this offering are to the daily operations of onshore and offshore subsidiaries. We expect approximately 20% of the net proceeds from this offering to be used to fund operations of our offshore subsidiaries and 80% of the net proceeds to be used to fund operations of our subsidiaries in the PRC.

We plan to use the net proceeds from this offering as follows:

 

   

Approximately 40% of the net proceeds from this offering for supplementing our operating cash flow and general corporate use;

 

   

Approximately 20% of the net proceeds from this offering for leasing or purchasing warehouses that have strategic importance to our business operation on a long-term basis;

 

   

Approximately 20% of the net proceeds from this offering for adding new chartered services in key trade lines in the future;

 

   

Approximately 10% of the net proceeds from this offering for the registration and operation of our overseas business entities, branches and offices; and

 

   

Approximately 10% of the net proceeds from this offering for overseas investments and potential mergers and acquisitions in the future.

The foregoing represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions to use and allocate the net proceeds of this offering. With respect to the use of proceeds on leasing and purchasing warehouses that have strategic importance to our business operation on a long-term basis, (i) domestically, we plan to lease and/or purchase warehouses that have easy access to major highways and close to airports or ports in economically active areas in China; (ii) internationally, we plan to lease and/or purchase warehouses that have strategic importance to our operation at our major trade destinations, such as Los Angeles, California and Atlanta, Georgia in the U.S., York in the U.K., as well as Hamburg in Germany. With respect to the use of proceeds on adding new chartered services in key trade lines, we plan to add new chartered services between the airports in Shenzhen and Delhi, India and we are also evaluating the feasibility of adding long-haul chartered services from Shenzhen to the U.S. and the EU.

Our management will have flexibility and discretion in the application of net proceeds from this offering, and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the use of these net proceeds.

In using the proceeds of this offering, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations as an offshore holding company to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions. Subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements, we may extend inter-company loans to our PRC subsidiaries or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries to fund its capital expenditures or working capital. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all, which may delay or prevent us from providing the proceeds

 

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of this offering to our PRC subsidiaries. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries in China, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

Our board of directors has discretion on whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain restrictions under Cayman Islands law, namely that our company may only pay dividends out of profits or share premium, and provided always that we are able to pay our debts as they become due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant.

As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the balance of dividend payable was RMB6,950,000 (US$1,035,552) and RMB1,200,000, respectively. In February 2022 and March 2022, our subsidiaries declared cash dividends in the amount of RMB11,931,000. As of the date of this prospectus, we have paid cash dividends of RMB7,531,000 in total. Please see “Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity” on page F-6, “Note 17 Subsequent Events” on page F-35, and “Note 17 Subsequent Events” on page F-73 for more details. We do not have any present plan to declare any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and grow our business.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may rely on dividends from our subsidiaries in China for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. For example, under PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to use the net proceeds of this offering to provide funding to our PRC Subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions. Subject to satisfaction of necessary registrations with government authorities and required governmental approvals, we may extend inter-company loans or make additional capital contributions to our PRC Subsidiaries. We cannot assure you that we will be able to make such registrations or obtain such approvals in a timely manner, or at all. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries in China, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

 

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CAPITALIZATION

As described elsewhere in this prospectus, all share amounts and per share amounts set forth below have been presented on a retroactive basis to reflect the Reverse Share Split of our outstanding ordinary shares at a ratio of 1 for 1.25 which was implemented on February 16, 2023.

The following table sets forth our capitalization, as of June 30, 2022 as follows:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on an adjusted basis to reflect the issuance and sale of              Class A ordinary shares in this offering at an initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, assuming the underwriters do not exercise the over-allotment option.

You should read this table together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes, and the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that are included in this prospectus.

 

     As of June 30, 2022  
     Actual     Pro Forma As adjusted(1)  
     RMB     US$     RMB      US$  
     (in US$, except for share and per share data)  

Long-term borrowings

                                                           

Shareholders’ Equity:

         

Class A Ordinary shares (par value of US$0.000125 per share; 384,000,000 Class A ordinary shares authorized and 10,872,320 Class A ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2022, respectively.)*

     6,880       1,079                                                 

Class B Ordinary shares (par value of US$0.000125 per share; 16,000,000 Class B ordinary shares authorized and 5,127,680 class B shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2022, respectively.)*

     4,087       641                                                 

Additional paid in capital

     37,870,206       5,642,669                                                 

Statutory reserves

     4,395,909       654,991                                                 

Accumulated deficit

     (2,506,044     (373,401                                               

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     (45,241     (6,827                                               
  

 

 

   

 

 

      

Total Jayud Global Logistics Limited shareholders’ equity

     39,725,797       5,919,152                                                 
  

 

 

   

 

 

      

Total capitalization

     39,725,797       5,919,152                                                 

 

*

The shares data are presented on a retroactive basis to reflect the Reverse Share Split.

(1)

Reflects the sale of Class A ordinary shares in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us, assuming that the option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares has not been exercised. The pro forma as adjusted information is for illustrative purposes only, and we will adjust this information based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Additional paid-in capital includes the aggregate amount of issued and paid-in capital of the entities now comprising our corporate group less consideration paid to acquire the relevant interest, if any. We estimate that net proceeds will be approximately US$            , assuming no exercise of the option to purchase additional Class A ordinary shares. The net proceeds of US$             is calculated as follows: US$             gross offering proceeds, less underwriting discounts and commissions of US$             and estimated offering expenses of US$            . The pro forma as adjusted total shareholders’ equity is the sum of the net proceeds of US$             and the actual equity of US$            .

 

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DILUTION

As described elsewhere in this prospectus, all share amounts and per share amounts set forth below have been presented on a retroactive basis to reflect the Reverse Share Split of our outstanding ordinary shares at a ratio of 1 for 1.25 which was implemented on February 16, 2023.

If you invest in our Class A ordinary shares, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per Class A ordinary share and our net tangible book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per Class A ordinary share is substantially in excess of the book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding Class A and Class B ordinary shares.

Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2022 was approximately US$             million, or US$             per both Class A and Class B ordinary share as of that date. Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total consolidated tangible assets, less the amount of our total consolidated liabilities. Dilution is determined by subtracting net tangible book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share, after giving effect to the additional proceeds we will receive from this offering, from the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Because the Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same dividend and other rights, except for voting and conversion rights, the dilution is presented based on all issued and outstanding ordinary shares, including Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares.

Without taking into account any other changes in net tangible book value after June 30, 2022, other than to give effect to the sale of              Class A ordinary shares offered in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated range of the offering price, after deduction of the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2022 would have been approximately US$             million, or US$             per outstanding Class A and Class B ordinary share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$             per Class A and Class B ordinary share to the existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$             per Class A ordinary share to investors purchasing Class A ordinary shares in this offering. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 

     Pro Forma
As Adjusted
(Assuming No
Exercise of
Over-Allotment
Option)
 
     (US$)  

Assumed initial public offering price per Class A ordinary share

                   

Net tangible book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share as of June 30, 2022

                   

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share after giving effect this offering

                   

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share to new investors in this offering

                   

A US$1.00 change in the assumed public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share would increase (decrease), in the case of an increase (decrease), our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by approximately US$             million, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per both Class A and Class B ordinary share after giving effect to this offering by US$             per Class A ordinary share and Class B ordinary share, and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share to new investors in this offering by US$             per both Class A and Class B ordinary share, assuming no change to the number of Class A ordinary shares offered by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.

 

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The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of June 30, 2022, the differences between existing shareholders and the new investors with respect to the number of ordinary shares purchased from us in this offering, the total consideration paid and the average price per ordinary share paid before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses. The total number of ordinary shares does not include Class A ordinary shares upon the exercise of the over-allotment option granted to the underwriters.

 

     Ordinary Shares
Purchased
     Total Consideration      Average
Price Per
Ordinary
Share (in
US$)
 
     Number      Percent      Amount
(in US$
thousands)
     Percent  

Existing shareholders

                                                                                                   

New investors

                                                                                                   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

                                                                                                   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our net tangible book value following the completion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of our Class A ordinary shares and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

 

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ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands to take advantage of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands exempted company, such as:

 

   

political and economic stability;

 

   

an effective judicial system;

 

   

a favorable tax system;

 

   

the absence of exchange control or currency restrictions; and

 

   

the availability of professional and support services.

However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include, but are not limited to:

 

   

the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and these securities laws provide significantly less protection to investors as compared to the United States; and

 

   

Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China, and substantially all of our assets are located in China. All of our directors and executive officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States, including China and Hong Kong, and some of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

We have appointed Cogency Global Inc. as our agent upon whom process may be served in any action brought against us under the securities laws of the United States.

Harney Westwood & Riegels, our legal counsel as to Cayman Islands law, and PacGate Law Group, our legal counsel as to PRC law, have advised us, respectively, that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands and China, respectively, would:

 

   

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

   

entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

There is uncertainty with regard to Cayman Islands law relating to whether a judgment obtained from the United States courts under civil liability provisions of the securities laws will be determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands as penal or punitive in nature. If such a determination is made, the courts of the Cayman Islands will not recognize or enforce the judgment against a Cayman Islands company. Because the courts of the Cayman Islands have yet to rule on whether such judgments are penal or punitive in nature, it is uncertain whether they would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands Grand Court will at common law enforce final and conclusive in personam judgments of state and/or federal courts of the United States of America (the “Foreign Court”) of a debt or definite sum of money against the Company (other than a sum of money payable in respect of taxes or other charges of a like nature, or in respect of a fine or other penalty (which may include a multiple damages judgment in an anti-trust action)). The Grand Court of the Cayman Islands will also at common law enforce final and conclusive in personam judgments of the Foreign Court that are non-monetary against the Company, for example, declaratory judgments ruling upon the true legal owner of shares in

 

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a Cayman Islands company. The Grand Court will exercise its discretion in the enforcement of non-money judgments by applying the law of equity and determining whether the principle of comity requires recognition. To be treated as final and conclusive, any relevant judgment must be regarded as res judicata by the Foreign Court. A debt claim on a foreign judgment must be brought within 12 years of the judgment becoming enforceable, and arrears of interest on a judgment debt cannot be recovered after six years from the date on which the interest was due. The Cayman Islands courts are unlikely to enforce a judgment obtained from the Foreign Court under civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities law if such a judgment is found by the courts of the Cayman Islands to give rise to obligations to make payments that are penal or punitive in nature. Such a determination has not yet been made by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, and it is therefore uncertain whether such civil liability judgments from the Foreign Court would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere. A judgment entered in default of appearance by a defendant who has had notice of the Foreign Court’s intention to proceed may be final and conclusive notwithstanding that the Foreign Court has power to set aside its own judgment and despite the fact that it may be subject to an appeal the time-limit for which has not yet expired. The Grand Court may safeguard the defendant’s rights by granting a stay of execution pending any such appeal and may also grant interim injunctive relief as appropriate for the purpose of enforcement.

PacGate Law Group has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or the Cayman Islands. Under the PRC Civil Procedures Law, foreign shareholders may originate actions based on PRC law against us in the PRC, if they can establish sufficient nexus to the PRC for a PRC court to have jurisdiction, and meet other procedural requirements, including, among others, the plaintiff must have a direct interest in the case, and there must be a concrete claim, a factual basis and a cause for the suit. However, it would be difficult for foreign shareholders to establish sufficient nexus to the PRC by virtue only of holding our ordinary shares.

In addition, our investors may incur additional costs and procedural obstacles in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in Hong Kong against us or our management named in the prospectus, as judgments entered in the U.S. can be enforced in Hong Kong only at common law. If you want to enforce a judgment of the U.S. in Hong Kong, it must be a final judgment conclusive upon the merits of the claim, for a liquidated amount in a civil matter and not in respect of taxes, fines, penalties, or similar charges, the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice, and the enforcement of the judgment is not contrary to public policy of Hong Kong. Such a judgment must be for a fixed sum and must also come from a “competent” court as determined by the private international law rules applied by the Hong Kong courts.

Furthermore, foreign judgments of United States courts will not be directly enforced in Hong Kong as there are currently no treaties or other arrangements providing for reciprocal enforcement of foreign judgments between Hong Kong and the U.S.. However, the common law permits an action to be brought upon a foreign judgment. That is to say, a foreign judgment itself may form the basis of a cause of action since the judgment may be regarded as creating a debt between the parties to it. In a common law action for enforcement of a foreign judgment in Hong Kong, the enforcement is subject to various conditions, including but not limited to, that the foreign judgment is a final judgment conclusive upon the merits of the claim, the judgment is for a liquidated amount in civil matter and not in respect of taxes, fines, penalties, or similar charges, the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice, and the enforcement of the judgment is not contrary to public policy of Hong Kong. Such a judgment must be for a fixed sum and must also come from a “competent” court as determined by the private international law rules applied by the Hong Kong courts. The

 

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defenses that are available to a defendant in a common law action brought on the basis of a foreign judgment include lack of jurisdiction, breach of natural justice, fraud, and contrary to public policy. However, a separate legal action for debt must be commenced in Hong Kong in order to recover such debt from the judgment debtor. As a result, subject to the conditions with regard to enforcement of judgments of United States courts being met, including but not limited to the above, a foreign judgment of United States of civil liabilities predicated solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any State or territory within the U.S. could be enforceable in Hong Kong.

 

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

OUR CORPORATE HISTORY

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and primarily conduct our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries. We commenced our commercial operations in September 2009 through Shenzhen Jiayuda Trading Co., Ltd. In July 2015, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. (previously under the name of “Shenzhen Xinyuxiang Supply Chain Co., Ltd.”) was established to optimize our resource allocation to further expand our business. On June 10, 2022, we incorporated Jayud Global Logistics Limited under the laws of the Cayman Islands as our offshore holding company to facilitate offshore financing. In June 2022, we established Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, our wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary.

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiary may pay cash dividends to us of its respective accumulated profits. However, the ability of our PRC subsidiary to make such distribution to us is subject to various PRC laws and regulations, including the requirement to fund certain statutory funds, as well potential restriction on currency exchange and capital controls imposed by the PRC government. For more details, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” and “Regulations—Regulations Relating to Dividend Distributions.”

On February 16, 2023, we implemented a 1 for 1.25 reverse share split of our ordinary shares under Cayman Islands law (the “Reverse Share Split”). As a result of the Reverse Share Split, the total of 13,590,400 issued and outstanding Class A ordinary shares prior to the Reverse Share Split was reduced to a total of 10,872,320 issued and outstanding Class A ordinary shares and the total of 6,409,600 issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares prior to the Reverse Share Split was reduced to a total of 5,127,680 issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares. The purpose of the Reverse Share Split was to enhance our ability to achieve a share price for our Class A ordinary shares consistent with the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market. The Reverse Share Split maintained our existing shareholders’ percentage ownership interests in our company. The Reverse Share Split also increased the par value of our ordinary shares from $0.0001 to $0.000125 and decreased the number of authorized shares of our company from 500,000,000 to 400,000,000, which are divided into 384,000,000 Class A ordinary shares and 16,000,000 Class B ordinary shares.

 

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OUR CORPORATE STRUCTURE

From May to September 2022, in anticipation of the proposed initial public offering, we completed a series of reorganizational steps. The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure prior to the initial offering, including our principal subsidiaries and other entities that are material to our business:

 

LOGO

 

Note:

the English names of our PRC business entities are directly translated from Chinese and may be different from their names shown on their respective records filed with relevant PRC authorities.

(1) 

No single shareholder among “other shareholders” beneficially owns more than 5% of our ordinary shares.

 

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The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our significant subsidiaries immediately upon the completion of this offering, assuming no exercise of the over-allotment option granted to the underwriters, based on the initial public offering price of US$             per Class A ordinary share.

 

LOGO

 

Note:

the English names of our PRC business entities are directly translated from Chinese and may be different from their names shown on their respective records filed with relevant PRC authorities.

(1) 

No single shareholder among “other shareholders” beneficially owns more than 5% of our ordinary shares.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis and other parts of this prospectus contain forward-looking statements based upon current beliefs, plans and expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. You should carefully read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus to gain an understanding of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements.

As described elsewhere in this prospectus, all share amounts and per share amounts set forth below have been presented on a retroactive basis to reflect the Reverse Share Split of our outstanding ordinary shares at a ratio of 1 for 1.25 which was implemented on February 16, 2023.

OVERVIEW

We are one of the leading Shenzhen-based end-to-end supply chain solution providers in China, with a focus on providing cross-border logistics services. According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, in 2021, we ranked fifth in terms of the revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border supply chain solutions among all end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen, China. Headquartered in Shenzhen, a key component of the Greater Bay Area in China, we benefit from the unique geographical advantages of providing high degree of support for ocean, air and overland logistics. A well-connected transportation network enables us to significantly increase efficiency and reduce transportation costs. As one of the most open and dynamic regions in China, Shenzhen is home to renowned enterprises and the gathering place of cross-border e-commerce market players, which provides us with a large customer base and enables us to develop long-term in-depth relationships with our customers. In addition, the sustained and steady growth of local economy and supportive government policies have backed up our development and brought us great convenience in daily operations.

According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market experienced a soaring growth during the past two years, with its total revenue surging from US$211.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020 to US$537.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. In line with this increase, we experienced a rapid growth in 2020 and 2021 as well as for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB19.1 million, or 161.4%, from RMB11.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB30.9 million (US$4.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB13.5 million, or 64.1%, from RMB21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB34.5 million (US$5.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our revenue generated from end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB98.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB332.7 million (US$49.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, representing a period-to-period increase of 236.5%. Our revenue generated from end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB210.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing a year-on-year increase of 85.1%.

We offer a comprehensive range of cross-border supply chain solution services, including: (i) freight forwarding services, (ii) supply chain management, and (iii) other value-added services. Please see the section entitled “Business” for more details.

 

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KEY FACTORS THAT AFFECT OPERATING RESULTS

Changes in the global and local economic conditions

Our financial performance, particularly our ability to drive growth, depends upon the demand for our services, which is closely linked to the global and local economies, and is sensitive to the level of expenditure by business entities’ on our services. While the logistics industry in China has been benefiting from the remarkable growth of the Chinese economy in recent years, issues and conditions with global reach, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, trade wars and occasional regional armed conflicts, have negatively affected the global economy and had a chain reaction in the global logistics industry. Despite the substantial improvements in social and economic conditions in China since the peak of COVID-19 in March 2020, there remain uncertainties regarding the overall economic conditions and demand for our services worldwide. Other macro-economic factors beyond our control may also affect our results of operations. For example, any prolonged recurrence of other contagious diseases, social instability or significant natural disasters may have a negative impact on the demand for our services.

Our ability to maintain our major customers

For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, approximately 40.0% and 53.1% of our total revenues, respectively, were generated by our five largest customers of the same periods. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, approximately 59.9% and 35.8% of our total revenues, respectively, were generated by our five largest customers of the same periods. While certain service contracts contain options of renewal, there is no assurance that our major customers will continue their business relationships with us, or the revenue generated from dealings with them will be maintained or increased in the future. If we are unable to enter into new service contracts with our customers upon expiry of the current contracts, or there is a reduction or cessation of demands from these customers for whatever reasons and we are unable to enter into service contracts of comparable size and terms in substitution, our business, financial conditions and results of operation may be materially and adversely affected.

Our ability to obtain new customers and to increase our revenue per customer

The number of our customers increased from 722 as of June 30, 2021 to 1,184 as of June 30, 2022, representing a 64.0% increase. Meanwhile, average revenue per customer was RMB228.9 thousand for the six months ended June 30, 2021 as compared to approximately RMB383.5 thousand (US$57.1 thousand) per customer for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The number of our customers increased from 535 as of December 31, 2020 to 1,299 as of December 31, 2021, representing a 142.8% increase. In addition, average revenue per customer was RMB542.7 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to approximately RMB420.0 thousand (US$65.9 thousand) per customer for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our ability to increase our revenues and our profitability will depend on our ability to continue to increase our customer base and revenue per customer. To achieve this, we strive to increase our marketing efforts such as making more event sponsorships, increasing online and offline advertising advertisements in targeted markets and enhancing the quality and capabilities of our technologies.

Our ability to pursue strategic opportunities for growth

Although the end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market in China is highly fragmented, top companies in this market in China hold stronger comprehensive service capabilities and bargaining power. In the future, it is expected that more competitors will enter this market. Therefore, we intend to continue to pursue strategic investments in selective businesses in the logistics industry that will enhance our service capabilities. We believe that a solid investment strategy in warehouses and licenses for e-commerce exports may be critical for us to accelerate our growth and strengthen our competitive position in the future. Our ability to identify and execute strategic investments will likely have an effect on our operating results over time.

Regulatory Environment

Our ability to anticipate and respond to potential changes in government policies and regulations will have a significant impact on our business operations in such countries and our overall results of operations. In recent

 

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years, the PRC government has issued many supportive policies to encourage the development of the logistic industry. Encouraged by those policies, the logistic industry in China is expected to become more standardized and modernized. The integrated cross-border logistics service market, as a sub-segment of the logistic industry, is likely to evolve along with the development of the logistic industry.

Impact of Global Inflationary Pressures

We primarily face two types of inflationary pressures: one is inflation-related economic slowdown, and the other is a rise in fuel prices as a result of inflation. Our business is less affected by the first type of inflationary pressure since substantially all of our business operations are in China, where inflation has been stable over the past three years. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, the inflation rate in China was 2.9%, 2.5% and 0.9%, respectively. However, due to global inflation and also triggered by the conflict between Russia and Ukraine in 2022, the prices of fossil fuel have surged and affected the freight forwarding services section which still relies heavily on fossil fuels to power transportation. With higher fuel prices, costs of freight forwarding services will increase and the demand for cross-border logistics services will be adversely affected. But we expect the pressure of high fuel prices to be limited, as we plan to expand warehouse management services to diversify our service lines to mitigate the impact starting from June 30, 2022.

Impact of Supply Chain Disruptions

The outbreak of COVID-19 since the beginning of March 2020 caused widespread shutdown and weakened the financial conditions of our upstream suppliers and downstream customers, which resulted in some disruptions to our business operations. However, as supply chain disruptions in North America and Europe have stimulated global demand for Chinese exports, we, on the other hand, have gained more opportunities to provide cross-border logistics services. Based on the current situation in China, we do not expect a material impact on our results of operations and financial performance to be caused by COVID-19 in the future. The war in Ukraine in 2022 also gave rise to supply chain disruptions in Europe. However, supply chain disruption in Europe does not have material impact on our results of operations and financial performance since our revenue generated from Europe, primarily from freight forwarding services and supply chain management in aggregate, accounted only RMB3.1 million, or 0.69% of total revenue, for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and RMB18.6 million (US$2.9 million), or 3.4% of total revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2021. We will continuously pay close attention to the supply chain disruptions caused by COVID-19 and the war in Ukraine, conduct a further assessment, and take measures to minimize the impact. Except for the impact of COVID-19 and the war in Ukraine, there are no other supply chain disruptions affecting our business.

KEY COMPONENTS OF OUR RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Revenues

Our revenues consist of (i) revenues from our freight forwarding services, which primarily comprise service fees typically ascertained based on the number of packages, weight, measurement, destination port, types of freight and other special demands; (ii) revenues from our supply chain management, which primarily comprise product revenues and commissions relates to cross-border supply chains; and (iii) revenues from our other valued-added services, which primarily comprise custom brokerage, and intelligent logistic IT systems.

 

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Our breakdown of revenues for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022 is summarized below:

 

     For the Six Months Ended June 30,      Variances  
     2021      2022      Amount     %  
     RMB ’000      RMB ’000      US$ ’000      RMB ’000        

Freight forwarding

     138,568        412,189        61,417        273,621       197.5  

Integrated cross-border logistics services

     98,867        332,661        49,567        233,794       236.5  

Fragmented logistics services

     39,701        79,528        11,850        39,827       100.3  

Supply chain management

     24,832        39,019        5,814        14,187       57.1  

International trading

     24,663        38,879        5,793        14,216       57.6  

Agent services

     169        140        21        (29     (17.2

Other value-added services

     1,898        2,892        431        994       52.4  

Total revenues

     165,298        454,100        67,662        288,802       174.7  

Our breakdown of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 is summarized below:

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,      Variances  
     2020      2021      Amount     %  
     RMB ’000      RMB ’000      US$ ’000      RMB ’000        

Freight forwarding

     243,607        488,036        76,547        244,429       100.3

Integrated cross-border logistics services

     210,795        390,229        61,206        179,434       85.1

Fragmented logistics services

     32,812        97,807        15,341        64,995       198.1

Supply chain management

     43,967        53,532        8,396        9,565       21.8

International trading

     41,986        52,975        8,309        10,989       26.2

Agent services

     1,981        557        87        (1,424     (71.9 )% 

Other value-added services

     2,759        4,025        631        1,266       45.9

Total revenues

     290,333        545,593        85,574        255,260       87.9

Cost of Revenues

Cost of revenues represents costs and expenses incurred in order to generate revenue. Our cost of revenues primarily consists of (i) cost of freight charges, (ii) cost of goods, (iii) labor costs, (iv) cost of customs brokerage, (v) cost of packaging, (vi) cost of indemnities paid to carriers. Cost of freight charges consists of (i) air freight/ocean freight/land freight charges, (ii) delivery fees, and (iii) other service fees.

Our breakdown of cost of revenues for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022 is summarized below:

 

     For the Six Months Ended June 30,      Variances  
     2021      2022      Amount      %  
     RMB ’000      RMB ’000      US$ ’000      RMB ’000         

Freight forwarding

     127,976        382,859        57,046        254,883        199.2  

Integrated cross-border logistics services

     90,714        306,674        45,694        215,960        238.1  

Fragmented logistics services

     37,262        76,185        11,352        38,923        104.5  

Supply chain management

     24,025        38,616        5,754        14,591        60.7  

International trading

     24,025        38,616        5,754        14,591        60.7  

Agent services

                                  

Other value-added services

     1,478        1,737        259        259        17.5  

Total cost of revenues

     153,479        423,212        63,059        269,733        175.7  

 

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Our breakdown of cost of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 is summarized below:

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,      Variances  
   2020      2021      Amount      %  
   RMB ’000      RMB ’000      US$ ’000      RMB ’000         

Freight forwarding

     226,154        456,262        71,563        230,108        101.7  

Integrated cross-border logistics services

     195,000        364,104        57,108        169,104        86.7  

Fragmented logistics services

     31,154        92,158        14,455        61,004        195.8  

Supply chain management

     41,263        51,929        8,145        10,666        25.8  

International trading

     41,263        51,929        8,145        10,666        25.8  

Agent services

                                 NA  

Other value-added services

     1,889        2,902        455        1,013        53.6  

Total cost of revenues

     269,306        511,093        80,163        241,787        89.8  

Gross Profit

Our gross profit equals to our revenue less our cost of revenues. Our gross profit is primarily affected by our ability to generate revenue and the fluctuation of our cost. Our cost of revenues increased by 175.7% from RMB15.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB42.3 million (US$6.3 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit margin was 7.2% and 6.8% for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, respectively. Our breakdown of gross profit by service line for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022 is set forth below:

 

     For the Six Months ended June 30,     Variance  
   2021     2022  
   RMB ’000     RMB ’000     US$ ’000     RMB ’000 or %  

Freight forwarding

        

Gross profit

     10,592       29,330       4,371       18,738  

Gross margin

     7.6     7.1     7.1     (0.5 )% 

Supply chain management

        

Gross profit

     807       403       60       (404

Gross margin

     3.2     1.0     1.0     (2.2 )% 

Other value-added services

        

Gross profit

     420       1,155       172       735  

Gross margin

     22.1     39.9     39.9     17.8

Total

        

Gross profit

     11,819       30,888       4,603       19,069  

Gross margin

     7.2     6.8     6.8     (0.4 )% 

 

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Our cost of revenues increased by 89.8% from RMB269.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB511.1 million (US$80.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was primarily attributable to the increase of freight charges. Our gross profit margin was 7.2% and 6.3%, respectively, for the same periods. Our breakdown of gross profit by service line for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 is set forth below:

 

     For the Years ended December 31,     Variance  
   2020     2021  
   RMB ’000     RMB ’000     US$ ’000     RMB ’000 or %  

Freight forwarding

        

Gross profit

     17,453       31,774       4,984       14,321  

Gross margin

     7.2     6.5     6.5     (0.7 )% 

Supply chain management

        

Gross profit

     2,704       1,603       251       (1,101

Gross margin

     6.2     3.0     3.0     (3.2 )% 

Other value-added services

        

Gross profit

     870       1,123       176       253  

Gross margin

     31.5     27.9     27.9     (3.6 )% 

Total

        

Gross profit

     21,027       34,500       5,411       13,473  

Gross margin

     7.2     6.3     6.3     (0.9 )% 

Operating expenses

The following table sets forth our operating expenses, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of the total operating expenses, for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022:

 

     For the six months Ended June 30,  
     2021      2022  
     RMB ’000      %      RMB ’000      US$ ’000      %  

General and administrative expenses

     4,748        57.7        9,223        1,374        49.8  

Selling expenses

     2,763        33.6        8,289        1,235        44.8  

Research and development expenses

     723        8.7        999        149        5.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     8,234        100.0        18,511        2,758        100.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The following table sets forth our operating expenses, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of the total operating expenses, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021:

 

     For the Years Ended December 31  
     2020      2021  
     RMB ’000      %      RMB ’000      US$ ’000      %  

General and administrative expenses

     7,043        47.9        11,276        1,768        52.0  

Selling expenses

     6,273        42.7        8,956        1,405        41.3  

Research and development expenses

     1,377        9.4        1,461        229        6.7  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     14,693        100.0        21,693        3,402        100.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Operating expenses include selling expenses, general and administrative expenses, and research and development expenses. General and administrative expenses mainly consist of (i) employee payroll, rental and depreciation related to general and administrative personnel, (ii) professional service fees; and (iii) other corporate expenses. Our selling expenses mainly consist of (i) employee payroll and commission, (ii) entertainment and marketing expenses, and (iii) rental and depreciation related to selling and marketing

 

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functions. Research and development expenses mainly consist of (i) cost of materials used for experiment, (ii) employee payroll, and (iii) depreciation expense for experimental facilities and other daily expenses related to our research and development activities in logistics related software development.

We anticipate that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we hire additional personnel and incur additional costs in connection with the expansion of our business operations and in anticipation to become a public listed company.

Other income, net

Other expenses, net consists of other non-operating expenses, net and financial expenses, net. Other non-operating expenses, net mainly consists of (i) government subsidy, and (ii) other gains or losses for penalties and compensation. Foreign exchange gain mainly consists of foreign exchange gain or loss. Interest expense, net mainly consists of (i) interest expenses and (ii) bank charges.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 Compared to Six Months Ended June 30, 2022

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated. This information should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The operating results in any period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period.

 

     For the six months ended June 30,     Change  
     2021     2022     2022     Amount     %  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB        

Revenues

     165,297,747       454,099,525       67,660,924       288,801,778       174.7

Cost of revenues

     (153,479,652     (423,211,920     (63,058,664     (269,732,268     175.7

Gross profit

     11,818,095       30,887,605       4,602,260       19,069,510       161.4 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

          

General and administrative expenses

     (4,747,775     (9,223,117     (1,374,246     (4,475,342     94.3

Selling expenses

     (2,763,178     (8,288,836     (1,235,038     (5,525,658     200.0

Research and development expenses

     (723,204     (998,923     (148,840     (275,719     38.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (8,234,157     (18,510,876     (2,758,124     (10,276,719     124.8 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     3,583,938       12,376,729       1,844,136       8,792,791       245.3 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income:

          

Other non-operating income, net

     33,851       99,901       14,885       66,050       195.1

Foreign exchange gain, net

     535,244       2,567,807       382,604       2,032,563       379.7

Interest expenses, net

     (442,494     (500,445     (74,566     (57,951     13.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income, net

     126,601       2,167,263       322,923       2,040,662       1,611.9 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before income tax expense

     3,710,539       14,543,992       2,167,059       10,833,453       292.0 % 

Income tax expenses

     (1,272,006     (4,927,596     (734,213     (3,655,590     287.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

     2,438,533       9,616,396       1,432,846       7,177,863       294.4 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Revenues

Total revenues increased by approximately RMB288.8 million, or 174.7%, from approximately RMB165.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB454.1 million (US$67.7 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily attributable to a huge growth of our freight forwarding services, and slight increase of our supply chain management and other value-added services.

 

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Revenues from our freight forwarding services increased by RMB273.6 million, or 197.5%, from RMB138.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB412.2 million (US$61.4 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The increase was mainly due to the development of new routes of chartered airline freight services, which accounted for 25.9% of total revenue. This new chartered airline freight services operated three times a week and through the same route for one single client from integrated cross-border logistics services. In addition, the 64.0% increase in customers from 722 customers for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to 1,184 customers for the six months ended June 30, 2022, was attributable to the thriving of e-commerce related logistics services. Among the new customers acquired for the six months ended June 30, 2022, 45.6% of them are relevant to e-commerce related logistics services. With the expansion of our e-commerce related logistics services, the percentage of revenue generated from e-commerce related logistics services increased from 13.2% for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to 14.6% for the six months ended June 30, 2022.

Revenues from our supply chain management increased by RMB14.2 million, or 57.1%, from RMB24.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB39.0 million (US$5.8 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to the business growth of international trading, which was resulting from the growing logistic network enabling us to serve a wider range of customers in different geographic areas.

Revenues from our other value-added services increased by RMB1.0 million, or 52.4%, from RMB1.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase of revenue generated from customs brokerage services as we acquired the certificate of Authorized Economic Operator (“AEO”) allowing us to benefit from special expedited customs treatment, which significantly facilitated the shipment of our goods in various markets so as to attract more customers.

Cost of Revenues

Our cost of revenues increased by 175.7% from RMB153.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB423.2 million (US$63.1 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022.

Our cost of revenues for freight forwarding services increased by approximately RMB254.9 million, or 199.2%, from approximately RMB128.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB382.9 million (US$57.0 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to the increase of the freight charges.

Our cost of revenues for supply chain management increased by approximately RMB14.6 million, or 60.7%, from approximately RMB24.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB38.6 million (US$5.8 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The increase was in line with the business growth of international trading.

Our cost of revenues for other value-added services was RMB1.7 million (US$0.5 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022 remained steady as compared to RMB1.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021.

Cost of freight charges, representing the main source of our cost of revenue, increased by RMB263.7 million, or 226.3%, from approximately RMB116.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB380.2 million (US$56.7 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The main components of freight charges were the freight and the delivery fees paid to third-party carriers. The total amount of the freight and the delivery fees were RMB108.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and RMB376.5 million (US$56.1 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, accounting for 92.7% of total freight cost for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 99.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The

 

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soaring in freight charges was primarily due to the continuous increase in fuel price for the six months ended June 30, 2022, which was consistent with the 50.8% increase in the average oil price disclosed by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, from US$69.9 per barrel to US$105.4 per barrel for the six months ended June 30, 2022. In addition, as a result of the rising fuel oil price, despite we canceled some flights due to cost control concerns, we still incurred indemnity costs paid to carriers. Last but not least, under the COVID-19 pandemic in 2022, in order to comply with the epidemic prevention requirements of the government such as Shenzhen, Shanghai and Hong Kong, we had to bear extra costs for longer delivery routes and sterilization for goods.

Gross Profit

Our gross profit increased by RMB19.1 million, or 161.3%, from RMB11.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB30.9 million (US$4.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to the business growth of freight forwarding services. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, our overall gross profit margin slightly decreased from 7.2% to 6.8%.

Gross profit margin of freight forwarding services decreased from 7.6% for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to 7.1% for the six months ended June 30, 2022 mainly due to (i) additional costs for longer routes, costs associated with sterilization and inspection of goods caused by the COVID-19; and (ii) increasing costs of fuel oil price and indemnities paid to carriers as a result of flight cancelation, which was offset by (i) the higher price that we achieved with our stronger bargain power; and (ii) the increase in the number of customers with higher profit margin. We were seeking to expand our freight forwarding services by continuously developing new routes and attracting new customers in order to create economies of scale and thereby increased gross profit.

Gross profit margin of our supply chain management decreased from 3.2% for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to 1.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2022, resulting from the slow growth in international trading due to inflation and the need to lower gross profit margin in order to maintain customer relationships.

Gross profit margin of our other value-added services increased from 22.1% for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to 39.9% for the six months ended June 30, 2022 mainly due to the fact that we were able to undertake orders for customs brokerage with higher margin after we acquired the AEO certificate.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses increased from RMB8.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB18.5 million (US$2.8 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, representing a period-on-period increase of 124.8%.

This increase was attributable to the increase in our general and administrative expenses, selling expenses and our research and development expenses. We anticipate that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we hire additional personnel and incur additional costs in connection with the expansion of our business operations and the anticipation of becoming a public listed company.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses mainly consisted of (i) employee payroll, rental and depreciation related to general and administrative functions, (ii) professional service fees; and (iii) other corporate expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased by 94.3% from RMB4.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB9.2 million (US$1.4 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, which was primarily attributable to (i) an increase of RMB1.9 million (US$0.3 million) in professional expenses for consulting and auditing services; (ii) an increase of RMB1.5 million (US$0.2 million) in leasing expenses to satisfy the need for offices and warehouses; (iii) an increase of RMB1.3 million (US$0.2 million) in staff costs due to an increase of employee headcounts resulting from our business growth and establishment of three new branch offices of Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd. in Guangzhou, Qingdao and Ningbo.

 

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Selling expenses

Our selling expenses mainly consisted of (i) employee payroll and commission, (ii) entertainment and marketing expenses, and (iii) rental and depreciation related to selling and marketing functions. Our selling expenses increased by 200.0% from RMB2.8 million for the six months ended June, 2021 to RMB8.3 million (US$1.2 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, which was primarily attributable to (i) an increase of RMB4.6 million (US$0.7 million) of customer acquisition costs, including RMB3.3 million (US$0.5 million) in employee payroll and commission resulting from our business growth and establishment of three branch offices of Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd. in Guangzhou, Qingdao and Ningbo, and RMB1.3 million (US$0.2 million) business promotion and entertainment expenses for market expansion; (ii) an increase of RMB0.8 million (US$0.1 million) for new office space.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses mainly consisted of (i) cost of materials used for experiments, (ii) employee payroll, and (iii) depreciation expense for experimental facilities and other daily expenses related to our research and development activities. Research and development expenses increased slightly by 38.1% from RMB0.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB1.0 million (US$0.1 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, which was mainly due to more investment for maintenance and inspection of equipment for research activities.

Other income, net

Total other income, net increased by 1,611.9% from RMB0.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB2.2 million (US$0.3 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Other income, net consisted of financial expenses, non-operating income, and non-operating expenses.

Other non-operating income, net increased by 195.1% from RMB0.03 million for the year ended June 30, 2021 to RMB0.1 million (US$0.01 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, which was due to an increase of government subsidies.

Foreign exchange gain, net increased by 379.7% from RMB0.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB2.6 million (US$0.4 million) for the six months ended June 2022, which was primarily attributable to an increase of RMB2.0 million (US$0.3 million) in foreign exchange gain.

Interest expenses, net increased by 13.1% from RMB0.4 million to RMB0.5 million (US$0.1 million), which relatively remained stable.

Income taxes

Our income tax expense increased by RMB3.7 million, or 287.4%, from RMB1.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB4.9 million (US$0.7 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. This increase was primarily attributable to the growth of net income for the six months ended June 30, 2022.

Net income

As a result of the foregoing, our net income increased by RMB7.2 million, or 294.4%, from RMB2.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB9.6 million (US$1.4 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022.

Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2021

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the periods indicated. This information should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included

 

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elsewhere in this prospectus. The operating results in any period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period.

 

     For the years ended December 31,     Change  
     2020     2021     2021     Amount     %  
    

RMB

    RMB     US$     RMB        

Revenues

     290,332,933       545,593,497       85,573,897       255,260,564       87.9

Cost of revenues

     (269,306,314     (511,092,522     (80,162,574     (241,786,208     89.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     21,026,619       34,500,975       5,411,323       13,474,356       64.1 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

          

General and administrative expenses

     (7,043,391     (11,275,729     (1,768,548     (4,232,338     60.1

Selling expenses

     (6,272,901     (8,956,522     (1,404,790     (2,683,621     42.8

Research and development expenses

     (1,376,644     (1,460,960     (229,145     (84,316     6.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     (14,692,936     (21,693,211     (3,402,483     (7,000,275     47.6 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating profit

     6,333,683       12,807,764       2,008,840       6,474,081       102.2 % 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income/(expenses):

          

Other non-operating expense, net

     (87,504     (11,599     (1,819     75,905       (86.7 )% 

Financial expenses, net

     (1,564,122     (869,318     (136,349     694,804       (44.4 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income/(expenses), net

     (1,651,626     (880,917     (138,168     770,709       (46.7 )
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before income tax expense

     4,682,057       11,926,847       1,870,672       7,244,790       154.7

Income tax expenses

     (1,634,929     (1,703,179     (267,136     (68,250     4.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

     3,047,128       10,223,668       1,603,536       7,176,540       235.5

Revenues

Total revenues increased by approximately RMB255.3 million, or 87.9%, from approximately RMB290.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB545.6 million (US$85.6 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily attributable to a huge growth of our freight forwarding services and stable development of our supply chain management and other value-added services.

Revenues from our freight forwarding services increased by RMB244.4 million, or 100.3%, from RMB243.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB488.0 million (US$76.5 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was mainly due to the 142.8% increase in customers from 535 customers in 2020 to 1,299 customers in 2021, which is consistent with the 125.93% increase in our customer acquisition costs from RMB3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB7.2 million (US$1.1 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The soaring customer acquisition costs in 2021 was mainly for the development of e-commerce related logistics services, as we established a new subsidiary (Shenzhen Jiayuda E-Commerce Technology Co., Ltd.) and three branch offices (Nanjing Jiayuda Logistics Co., Ltd. - Xiamen branch office and Danyang branch office, and Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd. - Jiangmen Branch which was deregistered in February 2023) in 2021. Among the new customers acquired in 2021, 65.5% of them are relevant to e-commerce related logistics services.

With the expansion of our e-commerce related logistics services in 2021, the percentage of revenue generated from e-commerce related logistics services increased from 6.5% in 2020 to 24.6% in 2021. Customers from e-commerce businesses are relatively small-scale companies compared to traditional freight forwarding customers, resulting in higher transaction volume but lower transaction amount. Therefore, with the increase in e-commerce related logistics services, our number of customers increased rapidly in 2021, but our average revenue per customer decreased from RMB543 in 2020 to RMB420 in 2021.

As compared to 2020, the economy gradually recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the demand for domestic and cross boarder logistic services increased. Under the favorable environment, we established four

 

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new branch offices to complete our transportation coverage in Guangdong province, Fujian province and Jiangsu province in China. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our new branch offices in Guangdong province, Jiangsu province and Fujian province contributed RMB79.8 million (US$12.5 million), RMB2.4 million (US$0.4 million), and RMB1.4 million (US$0.2 million), representing 14.6%, 0.4% and 0.3% of the total revenue, respectively. All of the new branch offices are focused on e-commerce related logistics services, therefore, revenue generated from these new branch offices consists of relatively lower price but high transaction volumes. In addition, we chartered more airplanes and airlines to strengthen our transportation capacity and optimize transportation efficiency, which enables us to complete the domestic and global logistic network, providing our customers with more route choices and greater efficiency. Meanwhile, we continuously seek to expand our customer base and achieve a higher customer retention in 2022.

Revenues from our supply chain management increased by RMB9.6 million, or 21.8%, from RMB44.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB53.5 million (US$8.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to the business growth of international trading, which was resulted from (i) the increasing demand of commercial products under the gradual recovery of COVID-19 pandemic; (ii) the growing logistics network enabled us to serve a wider range of customers in different geographic areas.

Revenues from our other value-added services increased by RMB1.3 million, or 45.9%, from RMB2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB4.0 million (US$0.6 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase of revenue generated from selling intelligent logistic IT system and rendering IT services, as we offered an upgrade system with more functions.

Cost of Revenues

Our cost of revenues increased by 89.8% from RMB269.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB511.1 million (US$80.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Our cost of revenues for freight forwarding services increased by approximately RMB230.1 million, or 101.7%, from approximately RMB226.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB456.3 million (US$71.6 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to the increase of the freight charges. Cost of freight charges increased by RMB208.8 million, or 155.6%, from approximately RMB134.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB342.9 million (US$53.8 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The main components of freight charges were the freight and the delivery fees paid to third-party carriers. The total amount of the freight and the delivery fees was RMB112.5 million in 2020 and RMB324.0 million (US$50.8 million) in 2021, accounting for 83.9% of total freight charges in 2020 and 94.5% in 2021. The soaring in freight charges was primarily due to the increase in fuel price in 2021, which was consistent with the 70.5% increase in the average oil price disclosed by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, from US$41.0 per barrel in 2020 to US$69.9 per barrel in 2021. Cost of warehouse management increased by RMB0.7 million, or 21.5%, from RMB3.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, to RMB4.1 million (US$0.6 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Warehouse management was the facilitating activities to our freight forwarding services for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, which mainly included rental fees, labor costs for warehouse staff and depreciation and amortization expenses for warehouse equipment and software.

Our cost of revenues for supply chain management increased by approximately RMB10.6 million, or 25.8%, from approximately RMB41.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB51.9 million (US$8.1 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase synchronized with the business growth of international trading. Our cost of revenues for other value-added services increased approximately RMB1.0 million, or 53.6%, from approximately RMB1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB2.9 million (US$0.5 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to more investment in rendering research IT services.

 

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Gross Profit

Our gross profit increased by RMB13.5 million, or 64.1%, from RMB21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB34.5 million (US$5.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to the business growth of freight forwarding services. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, our overall gross profit margin was 7.2% and 6.3%, respectively.

Gross profit margin of freight forwarding services decreased from 7.2% for the year ended December 31, 2020 to 6.5% for the year ended December 31, 2021 mainly due to (i) a lower price of our chartered airlines freight services provided in order to attract more customers as to increase the utilization; (ii) the increasing ocean freight charges due to the soaring demand caused by the COVID-19. Overall, although the gross profit margin slightly decreased, we were able to expand our freight forwarding services by continuously developing new routes and attracting new customers, resulting in an increase of gross profit.

Gross profit margin of our supply chain management decreased from 6.2% for the year ended December 31, 2020 to 3.0% for the year ended December 31, 2021, resulting from the slow growth in international trading and the decrease in agent services due to the decrease of import business.

Gross profit margin of our other value-added services decreased from 31.5% for the year ended December 31, 2020 to 27.9% for the year ended December 31, 2021 mainly due to the increasing employee welfare costs, in order to improve our efficiency of providing customs brokerage services, which was offset by increasing demands for software development system we offered.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses increased from RMB14.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB21.7 million (US$3.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing a year-on-year increase of 47.6%. This increase was primarily attributable to the increases in our general and administrative expenses, selling expenses and, to a lesser extent, our research and development expenses. We anticipate that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we hire additional personnel and incur additional costs in connection with the expansion of our business operations and the anticipation of becoming a public listed company.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses mainly consisted of (i) employee payroll, rental and depreciation related to general and administrative functions, (ii) professional service fees; and (iii) other corporate expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased by 60.1% from RMB7.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB11.3 million (US$1.8 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was primarily attributable to (i) an increase of RMB2.1 million in staff cost due to an increase of employee headcounts resulting from our business growth and establishment of a new subsidiary (Shenzhen Jiayuda E-Commerce Technology Co., Ltd.) and three branch offices (Nanjing Jiayuda Logistics Co., Ltd. - Xiamen branch office and Danyang branch office, and Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd. - Jiangmen Branch which was deregistered in February 2023); (ii) an increase of RMB0.6 million in entertainment expense for business developments; (iii) an increase of RMB0.5 million in leasing expense to satisfy the need for office and warehousing.

Selling expenses

Our selling expenses mainly consisted of (i) employee payroll and commission, (ii) entertainment and marketing expenses, and (iii) rental and depreciation related to selling and marketing functions. Our selling expenses increased by 42.8% from RMB6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB9.0 million (US$1.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was primarily attributable to an increase of RMB2.2 million in employee payroll and commission resulting from our business growth and establishment of a

 

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new subsidiary (Shenzhen Jiayuda E-Commerce Technology Co., Ltd.) and three branch offices (Nanjing Jiayuda Logistics Co., Ltd. - Xiamen branch office and Danyang branch office, and Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd. - Jiangmen Branch which was deregistered in February 2023). However, selling expenses as a percentage of revenues declined from 2.2% in 2020 to 1.6% in 2021, consistent with the slight decrease in customer acquisition costs per customer from RMB5,935 in 2020 to RMB5,523 in 2021. As analyzed under “—Revenues,” the soaring customer acquisition costs in 2021 were mainly due to the development of e-commerce related logistics services, and among the new customers acquired in 2021, 65.5% of customers were for e-commerce related logistics services. Due to the nature of new customers in e-commerce and the travel restrictions caused by COVID-19, the frequency of business travel was decreased, and we switched to online communication when we approached new customers in 2021. Instead of visiting customers in person and attending exhibitions, we set up online chatting groups through instant messaging software and post our promotions or advertisements through online communities.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses mainly consisted of (i) cost of materials used for experiment, (ii) employee payroll, and (iii) depreciation expense for experimental facilities and other daily expenses related to our research and development activities. Research and development expenses increased slightly by 6.1% from RMB1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB1.5 million (US$0.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our research project was mainly related to the logistics-related software development and our continuous improvement of the functions and efficiency of our softwares.

Other expenses, net

Total other expenses, net decreased by 46.7% from RMB1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB0.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Other expenses, net consisted of financial expenses, non-operating income, and non-operating expenses.

Financial expenses, net decreased by 44.4% from RMB1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB0.9 million (US$0.1 million) for the year ended December 2021, which was primarily attributable to (i) an increase of RMB1.4 million in foreign exchange gain and was offset by (ii) an increase of RMB0.5 million in interest expenses as a result of the increased short-term borrowings balances.

Income taxes

Our income tax expense increased by RMB0.1 million, or 4.2%, from RMB1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB1.7 million (US$0.3 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily attributable to the growth of net income for the year ended December 31, 2021 and was offset by the utilization of tax credit accumulated from net operating losses in previous years.

Net income

As a result of the foregoing, our net income increased by RMB7.2 million, or 235.5%, from RMB3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB10.2 million (US$1.6 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

In assessing our liquidity, we monitor and analyze our cash on-hand and our operating and capital expenditure commitments. To date, we have financed our working capital requirements from cash flow from operations, debt and equity financings and capital contributions from our existing shareholders.

 

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As of June 30, 2022, we had cash of RMB46.7 million (US$7.0 million). Our working capital was approximately RMB9.0 million (US$1.3 million) as of June 30, 2022. As of December 31, 2021, we had cash of RMB40.3 million (US$6.3 million). Our working capital was approximately RMB13.6 million (US$2.1 million) as of December 31, 2021.

We believe our current working capital is sufficient to support our operations for the next twelve months. We may, however, need additional cash resources in the future if we experience changes in business conditions or other developments, or if we find and wish to pursue opportunities for investment, acquisition, capital expenditure or similar actions. If we determine that our cash requirements exceed the amount of cash and cash equivalents we have on hand at the time, we may seek to issue equity or debt securities or obtain credit facilities. The issuance and sale of additional equity would result in further dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could result in operating covenants that would restrict our operations. Our obligation to bear credit risk for certain financing transactions we facilitate may also strain our operating cash flow. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

Current foreign exchange and other regulations in the PRC may restrict our PRC entities in their ability to transfer their net assets to us and our subsidiaries in Hong Kong. However, as of the date of this prospectus, these restrictions have no impact on the ability of these PRC entities to transfer funds to us as we do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future, as we plan to retain our retained earnings to continue to grow our business. In addition, these restrictions have no impact on the ability for us to meet our cash obligations.

To utilize the proceeds we expect to receive from this offering, we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, establish new PRC subsidiaries and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, or make loans to the PRC subsidiaries. However, most of these uses are subject to PRC regulations. Foreign direct investment and loans must be approved by and/or registered with SAFE, and its local branches. The total amount of loans we can make to our PRC subsidiary cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE. The statutory limit for the total amount of foreign debts of a foreign-invested company, based on its discretionary application, is either the difference between the amount of total investment and the amount of registered capital or 2.5 times of the amount of the net assets of such foreign-invested company.

We are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions, and only if we satisfy the applicable government registration and approval requirements. The relevant filing and registration processes for capital contributions typically take approximately eight weeks to complete. The filing and registration processes for loans typically take approximately four weeks or longer to complete. While we currently see no material obstacles to completing the filing and registration procedures with respect to future capital contributions and loans to our PRC subsidiaries, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete these filings and registrations on a timely basis, or at all. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.” Additionally, while there is no statutory limit on the amount of capital contribution that we can make to our PRC subsidiaries, loans provided to our PRC subsidiaries in the PRC are subject to certain statutory limits. With respect to our PRC subsidiaries, the maximum amount of the loans that they can acquire in aggregate from the outside of China is (i) approximately RMB52.5 million (US$8.2 million) under the total investment minus registered capital approach as foreign-invested companies (assuming no change to the amount of registered capital of Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. as of the date hereof); or (ii) approximately RMB154.3 million (US$23.0 million) as of June 30, 2022 under the net asset approach. With respect to our PRC subsidiaries, the maximum amount of the loans that they can acquire in aggregate from the outside of China is

 

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(i) approximately RMB52.5 million (US$8.2 million) under the total investment minus registered capital approach as foreign-invested companies (assuming no change to the amount of registered capital of Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. as of the date hereof); or (ii) approximately RMB77.9 million (US$12.2 million) as of December 31, 2021 under the net asset approach. We are able to use all of the net proceeds from this offering for investment in our PRC operations by funding our PRC subsidiaries through capital contributions which is not subject to any statutory limit on the amount under PRC laws and regulations. See “Regulations—Regulations Relating to Dividend Distributions” and “Regulations—Regulations Relating to Funds Transfer to PRC Subsidiaries.” We expect approximately 20% of the net proceeds from this offering to be used to fund operations of our offshore subsidiaries and 80% of the net proceeds to be used to fund operations of our subsidiaries in the PRC in the form of RMB. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries will need to convert any capital contributions or loans from U.S. dollars into Renminbi in accordance with applicable PRC laws and regulations.

Cash Flows

Cash Flows for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 compared to the Six Months Ended June 30, 2022

The table below sets forth our cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022.

 

     For the six months ended June 30,     Change  
     2021     2022     2022     Amount     %  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB        

Net cash used in operating activities

     (17,853,721     (9,046,287     (1,347,899     8,807,434       (49.3 )% 

Net cash used in investing activities

     (310,599     (3,994,320     (595,154     (3,683,721     1,186.0

Net cash provided by financing activities

     5,692,003       19,547,673       2,912,607       13,855,670       243.4

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash

     9,361       (63,841     (9,512     (73,202     (782.0 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (decrease) increase in cash

     (12,462,956     6,443,225       960,042       18,906,181       (151.7 )% 

Cash at the beginning of the periods presented

     23,705,696       40,266,725       5,999,750       16,561,029       69.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash at the end of the periods presented

      11,242,740        46,709,950          6,959,792       35,467,210       315.5 % 

Operating activities

For the six months ended June 30, 2021, our net cash used in operating activities was RMB17.9 million, which was primarily attributable to (i) net income of RMB2.4 million; (ii) an increase of accounts payable of RMB10.0 million; (iii) a decrease of accounts receivable from related parties of RMB2.5 million for collection; and (iv) an increase of contract liabilities of RMB1.7 million, which was offset by (i) an increase of prepaid expenses of RMB15.4 million for more logistics services and more tax refund receivables; (ii) a decrease of accounts payable to related parties of RMB10.8 million for payments; (iii) an increase of contract assets of RMB3.1 million and accounts receivable of RMB2.9 million for increasing service revenues; and (iv) an increase of prepaid expenses to related parties of RMB1.8 million for logistics services.

For the six months ended June 30, 2022, our net cash used in operating activities was RMB9.0 million (US$1.3 million), which was primarily attributable to (i) net income of RMB9.6 million (US$1.4 million); (ii) a decrease of accounts receivable of RMB32.8 million (US$4.9 million) for collection; (iii) an increase of contract liabilities of RMB28.9 million (US$4.3 million); and (iv) an increase of tax payable of RMB1.7 million (US$0.2 million) as we generated more income for this period, which was offset by (i) a decrease of accounts payable to related parties of RMB40.6 million (US$6.1 million) and accounts payable to third parties of RMB8.5 million (US$1.3 million) for payments; (ii) an increase of prepaid expense and other current assets of

 

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RMB25.2 million (US$3.8 million) for increasing advances to suppliers, growing deposits from customers and tax refund receivables from the government; (iii) a decrease of operating lease liabilities of RMB7.4 million (US$1.1 million) for a new warehouse lease payment; and (iv) a decrease of accrued expenses and other current liabilities of RMB2.5 million (US$0.4 million).

The average receivable balance and revenues for the six months ended June 30, 2022 increased by 93.8% and 173.7% with those for the six months ended June 30 2021, respectively, which led to the decrease of the average days sales in receivables from 79 days for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to 55 days for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The decrease was mainly due to the credit term from the new route of chartered airline freight services which accounted for 5.9% of total revenue for the first half year of 2022, was is to pay the full transaction price in advance. The average payable balance increased by 51.6%, from the first half year of 2021 to first half year of 2022, and revenue increased by 174.7% from first half year of 2021 to first half year of 2022, resulting in the average days sales in payable decreased from 54 days in first half year of 2021 to 30 days in first half year of 2022. The decrease was also attributing to the requirement to pay airline carriers in advance in performing chartered airlines freight services.

We identified several material changes of assets and liabilities as below:

Accounts receivable, net decreased by RMB32.9 million, or 37.6% from RMB87.5 million as of December 31, 2021 to RMB54.6 million (US$8.1 million) as of June 30, 2022. The decrease of accounts receivable mainly attributable to the decrease of freight forwarding services in the slack season, especially during May and June, 2022. Compared with November and December in 2021, the revenue from freight forwarding services for May and June in 2022 decreased by RMB106.2 million, or 130%. The credit terms of our accounts receivable were generally between 30 to 60 days for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Prepaid expenses and other current assets, net increased by RMB22.2 million, or 77.8% from RMB28.6 million as of December 31, 2021 to RMB50.8 million (US$7.6 million) as of June 30, 2022, which was mainly due to (i) the increase of RMB14.3 million (US$2.1 million) of advance to suppliers for chartered airlines freight services; (ii) an increase of RMB4.0 million (US$0.6 million) of tax refund receivable from local tax authorities; and (iii) an increase of RMB3.8 million (US$0.6 million) of current deposits receivable for the logistics services provided.

Accounts payable to third parties decreased by RMB8.5 million, or 20.3% from RMB41.9 million as of December 31, 2021 to RMB33.4 million (US$5.0 million) as of June 30, 2022. The decrease was consistent with the decrease of freight forwarding services we performed during May and June of 2022, compared to November and December of 2021.

Accounts payable to related parties decreased by RMB40.6 million, or 66.6% from RMB61.0 million as of December 31, 2021 to RMB20.4 million (US$3.0 million). The decrease was mainly due to the reduced freight forwarding services in the slack season, especially during May and June 2022 and the settlement of accounts payable.

Contract liabilities increased by RMB28.9 million, or 368.1% from RMB7.9 million as of December 31, 2021 to RMB36.8 million (US$5.5 million) as of June 30, 2022. It was mainly due to the increase of prepayment from customers for chartered airline freight services.

Investing activities

For the six months ended June 30, 2021, our net cash used in investing activities was RMB0.3 million, which was primarily attributable to purchase of property, equipment and intangible assets.

 

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For the six months ended June 30, 2022, our net cash used in investing activities was RMB4.0 million (US$0.6 million), which was primarily attributable to (i) prepayment expenses of rent and payroll for an acquisition target of RMB3.5 million (US$0.5 million) and purchase of property, equipment and intangible assets of RMB0.5 million (US$0.1 million).

Financing activities

For the six months ended June 30, 2021, our net cash provided by financing activities was RMB5.7 million, which was primarily due to (i) proceeds of borrowings from banks of RMB8.0 million in total; (ii) proceeds from loans provided by third parties of RMB3.0 million mainly for business operation; and (iii) proceeds from shareholder’s contribution of RMB0.4 million; (iv) proceeds from loans provided by shareholders of RMB0.4 million and was offset by (i) repayments of bank borrowings of RMB3.3 million; (ii) repayments of loans to third parties of RMB1.4 million; (iii)) repayments for settling the constructive disbursement paid by related parties on behalf of us of RMB1.3 million; and (iv) repayments of loans to shareholders of RMB0.3 million.

For the six months ended June 30, 2022, our net cash provided by financing activities was RMB19.5 million (US$2.9 million), which was primarily due to (i) proceeds from shareholders’ contribution of RMB24.7 million (US$3.7 million), (ii) proceeds from loans provided by shareholders for RMB6.2 million (US$0.9 million); (iii)proceeds from loans provided by third parties of RMB5.6 million (US$0.8 million); (iv) proceeds from bank short-term borrowings of RMB5.0 million (US$0.7 million); (v) proceeds from a loan provided by a related party of RMB0.5 million (US$0.1 million); and (vi) an increase of others payable to related parties of RMB0.3 million (US$0.04 million) for constructive disbursement and was offset by (i) payments for dividend distribution of RMB6.2 million (US$0.9 million); (ii) repayments of loans to third parties of RMB5.3 million (US$0.8 million); (iii) repayments of bank borrowings of RMB3.9 million (US$0.6 million); (iv) repayments of loans to shareholders of RMB3.7 million (US$0.5 million); (v) repayments of loans to related parties of RMB2.1 million (US$0.3 million); and (vi) repayments for deferred offering costs of RMB1.5 million (US$0.2 million).

Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 compared to the Years Ended December 31, 2021

The table below sets forth our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021.

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,     Change  
     2020     2021     2021     Amount     %  
     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB        

Net cash provided by operating activities

     15,319,723       4,239,582       664,960       (11,080,141     (72.3 )% 

Net cash used in investing activities

     (155,102     (634,871     (99,577     (479,769     309.3

Net cash provided by financing activities

     3,787,938       12,946,160       2,030,548       9,158,222       241.8

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash

     11,615       10,158       1,593       (1,457     (12.5 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase in cash

     18,964,174       16,561,029       2,597,524       (2,403,145     (12.7 )% 

Cash at the beginning of the periods presented

     4,741,522       23,705,696       3,718,132       18,964,174                 400.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash at the end of the periods presented

      23,705,696        40,266,725          6,315,656       16,561,029       69.9 % 

Operating activities

For the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash provided by operating activities was RMB15.3 million, which was primarily attributable to (i) net income of RMB3.0 million; (ii) an increase of accounts payable to

 

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related parties of RMB6.2 million for purchase of freight services with Cargo Link Logistics HK Company Ltd.; (iii) a decrease of accounts receivable of RMB5.0 million for collection due to higher account receivable turnover as a result of better management; (iv) an increase of contract liabilities of RMB1.8 million and accounts payable of RMB0.6 million for purchase of logistic services; (v) an increase of tax payable of RMB1.6 million resulting from more profit achieved and was offset by (i) an increase of prepaid expenses and other current asset of RMB2.6 million for more tax refund and deposits receivables; (ii) an increase of accounts receivable from related parties of RMB0.7 million for logistic services provided.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, our net cash provided by operating activities was RMB4.2 million (US$0.7 million), which was primarily attributable to (i) net income of RMB10.2 million; (ii) an increase of RMB39.4 million in accounts payable to related parties as we purchased more freight services from Cargo Link Logistics HK Company Ltd. and Winpass Logistics (HK) Co. Limited; (iii) an increase of accounts payable of RMB22.1 million and contract liabilities of RMB5.9 million; (iv) an increase of accrued expenses and other current liabilities of RMB2.9 million for transportation deposits and advances to employees; (v) a decrease of accounts receivable from related parties of RMB2.8 million for collection; and was offset by (i) an increase of accounts receivable of RMB53.6 million and contract assets of RMB2.6 million as we achieved business growth and more sales; (ii) an increase of prepaid expenses and other current assets, net of RMB21.8 million as we made prepaid service fees for chartered airlines and advance payments for goods for international trading; (iii) a decrease of tax payable of RMB0.8 million for payments of taxation; (iv) a decrease of others payable to shareholders of RMB0.7 million for payments of reimbursement.

The average receivable balance increased by 65.4%, from 2020 to 2021, and revenue increased by 87.9% from 2020 to 2021, resulting in the average days sales in receivables decreased from 46 days in 2020 to 41 days in 2021. Specifically, the average days sales in receivables from e-commerce related logistics services dropped from 46 days in 2020 to 10 days in 2021. This is mainly due to the development of e-commerce related logistics services, accounting for 24.6% of total revenue in 2021 and 6.5% of total revenue in 2020, respectively, the customers of which have shortened payment terms. The average days sales in payables remained relatively stable, from 47 days in 2020 to 48 days in 2021, as the increase (90.0%) in average payable balance from 2020 to 2021 was comparable to the increase of 87.9% in revenue.

We identified several material changes of assets and liabilities as below:

Accounts receivable, net increased by RMB53.1 million, or 154.5%, from RMB34.4 million as of December 31, 2020 to RMB87.5 million (US$13.7 million) as of December 31, 2021, which was mainly due to the sharp increase of our revenues from freight forwarding services, especially during November and December 2021. Compared with the same period of 2020, the revenue from freight forwarding services for November and December 2021 increased by RMB154.3 million, or 82%. The credit terms of our accounts receivable were generally between 30 to 60 days for the fiscals years of 2020 and 2021.

Prepaid expenses and other current assets, net increased by RMB21.8 million, or 320.2%, from RMB6.8 million as of December 31, 2020 to RMB28.6 million (US$4.5 million) as of December 31, 2021, which was mainly due to (i) an increase of RMB18.5 million (US$2.9 million) of the advance payment to our suppliers of charter airlines freight services; (ii) an increase of RMB1.4 million (US$0.2 million) of tax refund receivable from local tax authorities.

Accounts payable increased by RMB22.1 million, or 111.4%, from RMB19.8 million as of December 31, 2020 to RMB41.9 million (US$6.6 million) as of December 31, 2021. This increase was consistent with the increase of freight forwarding services we performed during November and December 2021.

Accounts payable to related parties increased by RMB39.4 million, or 183.1%, from RMB21.5 million as of December 31, 2020 to RMB61.0 million (US$9.6 million) as of December 31, 2021. The increase was mainly due to the increase in accounts payable to Cargo Link Logistics HK Company Limited (“Cargo Link”), which

 

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was increased from RMB21.2 million as of December 31, 2020 to RMB60.8 million (US$9.5 million) as of December 31, 2021. Cargo Link was one of our suppliers which mainly engaged in air freight forwarding services. This increase in accounts payable to Cargo Link was consistent with the increase of freight forwarding services we performed during November and December 2021.

Investing activities

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, our net cash used in investing activities was RMB0.2 million and RMB0.6 million (US$0.1 million), respectively, which was primarily attributable to the purchase of property, equipment and software. Among the RMB0.6 million (US$0.1 million) increase in capital expenditure, RMB0.2 million (US$0.03 million) was invested in logistics-related software, in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness in daily operations. The rest of RMB0.4 million (US$0.06 million) was invested in electronic equipment and machinery.

The depreciation expense of property and equipment declined from RMB0.75 million in 2020 to RMB0.55 (US$0.08 million) in 2021. Among the RMB0.75 million depreciation expense incurred for the year ended December 31, 2020, RMB0.2 million depreciation expense was from electronic equipment and machinery which were fully depreciated in 2020. In addition, 44% of new electronic equipment and machinery was placed in use in the second half of 2021. Therefore, the depreciation expense of property and equipment was decreased by RMB0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Financing activities

For the year ended December 31, 2020, our net cash provided by financing activities was RMB3.8 million, which was primarily attributable to (i) proceeds from short-term borrowings of RMB10.7 million; (ii) proceeds from loans provided by third parties of RMB7.6 million; (iii) expenses paid by related parties on behalf of Jayud of RMB3.0 million; (iv) proceeds from a loan provided by a related party of RMB1.4 million; and was offset by (i) repayments of short-term borrowings of RMB10.0 million; (ii) repayments of loans to third parties of RMB6.2 million; (iii) repayment of a loan to a related party of RMB1.4 million; (iv) payment of dividend distribution to a shareholder of RMB1.4 million.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, our net cash provided by financing activities was RMB12.9 million (US$2.0 million), which was primarily attributable to (i) proceeds from short-term borrowings of RMB18.0 million for our business growth and expansion; (ii) proceeds of loans provided by shareholders of RMB6.2 million; (iii) proceeds of loans provided by third parties of RMB4.8 million; (iv) proceeds from a long-term borrowing of RMB5.0 million; (v) proceeds of a short-term loan provided by a related party of RMB2.1 million; (vi) capital contribution by a shareholder of RMB0.4 million, and was offset by (i) repayments of short-term borrowings of RMB14.8 million and a long-term borrowing of RMB0.6 million; (ii) repayments of loans to shareholders of RMB3.7 million; (iv) repayments for settling the constructive disbursement paid by related parties on behalf of Jayud of RMB1.8 million; (v) repayments of loans to third parties of RMB1.4 million; (vi) payments for deferred offering costs of RMB0.9 million; (vii) repayment of a loan to a related party of RMB0.5 million.

CONTINGENCIES

From time to time, we may become involved in litigation relating to claims arising in the ordinary course of the business. There are no claims or actions pending or threatened against us that, if adversely determined, would in our judgment have a material adverse effect on us.

CAPITAL EXPENDITURES

We made capital expenditures of RMB0.3 million and RMB0.5 million (US$0.1 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022. We made capital expenditures of RMB0.2 million and RMB0.6 million

 

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(US$0.1 million) for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Our capital expenditures consisted primarily of expenditures related to the expansion of our new branch offices and logistics equipment. We plan to fund our future capital expenditures with our existing cash balance and proceeds from this offering. We will continue to make capital expenditures to meet the expected growth of our business.

OFF-BALANCE SHEET COMMITMENTS AND ARRANGEMENTS

We have not entered into any off-balance sheet financial guarantees or other off-balance sheet commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. We have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our shares and classified as shareholder’s equity or that are not reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. We do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or product development services with us.

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations as of June 30, 2022:

 

     Payments due by period  
     Total      Within one year      Within 1-2 years      Over 2 years  
     RMB      RMB      RMB      RMB  

Operating lease payment

     41,341,487        7,958,341        14,473,681        18,909,465  

Bank borrowings

     12,300,000        12,300,000                

Loans from shareholders

     5,033,000        5,033,000                

Loans from third parties

     5,090,000        5,090,000                
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     63,764,487        30,381,341        14,473,681        18,909,465  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2021:

 

     Payments due by period  
     Total      Within one year      Within 1-2 years  
     RMB      RMB      RMB  

Operating lease payment

     6,769,937        3,889,527        2,880,410  

Bank borrowings

     15,350,000        11,500,000        3,850,000  

Loans from related parties

     1,612,000        1,612,000         

Loans from shareholders

     2,560,000        2,560,000         

Loans from third parties

     4,800,000        4,800,000         
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     31,091,937        24,361,527        6,730,410  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other than as shown above, we did not have any significant capital and other commitments, long-term obligations, or guarantees as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2021.

HOLDING COMPANY STRUCTURE

Jayud Global Logistics Limited is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our subsidiaries in China and Hong Kong. As a result, Jayud Global Logistics Limited’s ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries. If our existing PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries or any newly formed ones incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us.

 

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In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries had aggregate retained earnings as determined under PRC accounting standards as of December 31, 2021. Pursuant to the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC Company Law, our PRC subsidiaries are required to make contribution of at least 10% of their after-tax profits calculated in accordance with the PRC GAAP to the statutory common reserve. Contribution is required until the reserve fund has reached 50% of the registered capital of our subsidiaries. As of June 30, 2022, our reserve fund did not reach 50% of the registered capital of our subsidiaries.

As of June 30, 2022, our PRC subsidiaries had RMB52.9 million (US$7.9 million) of restricted net asset. As of December 31, 2021, our PRC subsidiaries had RMB22.6 million of restricted net asset.

On February 8, 2022 and February 28, 2022, Shenzhen Jiayuda E-Commerce Technology Co., Ltd and Shenzhen Jiayuda Global Supply Chain Co., Ltd. declared RMB2.4 million cash dividend and RMB7.4 million cash dividend respectively, to its then shareholders and its holding company, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. On March 15, 2022, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd declared RMB9.0 million of dividend to its then shareholders. Historically, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. has also received equity financing from its then shareholders to fund business operations of our PRC subsidiaries. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, two of our Hong Kong subsidiaries, Sky Pacific Logistics HK Company Limited (“Sky Pacific”) and HongKong Jayud International Logistics Company Limited (“HK Jayud International”), transferred cash proceeds of nil and RMB0.9 million (US$0.1 million) to our PRC subsidiaries for the settlement of intercompany transactions for our PRC subsidiaries. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, we transferred cash proceeds of RMB1.6 million and RMB7.3 million (US$1.1 million) to Sky Pacific and HK Jayud International for the settlement of intercompany transactions. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, we transferred cash proceeds of RMB0.3 million (US$0.04 million) to Sky Pacific and HK Jayud International for the settlement of intercompany transactions. In the future, most cash proceeds raised from overseas financing activities, including this offering, may be, and are intended to be, transferred by us through our wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary, Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, to our PRC subsidiaries via capital contribution and shareholder loans, as the case may be. Our PRC subsidiaries that receive such cash proceeds then will transfer funds to their respective subsidiaries to meet the capital needs of our business operations. For details about the applicable PRC rules that limit transfer of funds from overseas to our PRC subsidiaries, see “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

The structure of cash flows within our organization, and the applicable regulations, are as follows. After foreign investors’ funds are received by Jayud Global Logistics Limited, our holding company, at the closing of this offering, subject to the cash demand of our PRC and Hong Kong subsidiaries, the funds can be transferred to our wholly owned Hong Kong subsidiary, Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited, which will further distribute the funds to our PRC subsidiaries. If we intend to distribute dividends, PRC subsidiaries will transfer the dividends to Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited in accordance with the laws and regulations of the PRC, and then Jayud Global Logistics (Hong Kong) Limited will transfer the dividends up to Jayud Global Logistics Limited, and the dividends will be distributed from Jayud Global Logistics Limited to all shareholders respectively in proportion to the shares they hold, regardless of whether the shareholders are U.S. investors or investors in other countries or regions. The cross-border transfer of funds within our corporate group under our direct holding structure must be legal and compliant with relevant laws and regulations of China and Hong Kong. In utilizing the proceeds from this offering, as an offshore holding company, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions and to our affiliated entities only through loans, subject to applicable government reporting, registration and approvals. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to

 

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and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries in China, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.” We do not have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future after this offering. We have, from time to time, transferred cash between our PRC subsidiaries to fund their operations, and we do not anticipate any difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between such subsidiaries. As of the date of this prospectus, no cash generated from our PRC subsidiaries has been used to fund operations of any of our non-PRC subsidiaries. We may encounter difficulties in our ability to transfer cash between PRC subsidiaries and non-PRC subsidiaries largely due to various PRC laws and regulations imposed on foreign exchange. However, as long as we are compliant with the procedures for approvals from foreign exchange authorities and banks in China, the relevant laws and regulations in China do not impose limitations on the amount of funds that we can transfer out of China. We currently do not have any cash management policy that dictates the transfer of cash between our subsidiaries. See “Regulations—Regulations Relating to Foreign Exchange” for details of such procedures.

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately US$             million (after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us), of which approximately US$             million will be transferred to our PRC subsidiaries for daily operations. See “Use of Proceeds” for more details.

INFLATION

Since our inception, inflation in China has not materially affected our results of operations. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the year-over-year percent changes in the consumer price index for December 2020 and December 2021 were increases of 0.2% and 1.5%, respectively. The period-over-period percent changes in the consumer price index for June 2021 and June 2022 were 1.1% and 2.5%, respectively. Although we have not been materially affected by inflation in the past, we may be affected if China experiences higher rates of inflation in the future.

TAXATION

Cayman Islands

Under the current laws of the Cayman Islands, we are not subject to tax on income or capital gain. Additionally, upon payments of dividends to our shareholders, no Cayman Islands withholding tax will be imposed.

Hong Kong

Entities incorporated in Hong Kong are subject to profits tax in Hong Kong at the rate of 16.5%. According to Tax (Amendment) (No. 3) Ordinance 2018 published by Hong Kong government, effective April 1, 2018, under the two-tiered profits tax rates regime, the profits tax rate for the first HKD2 million of assessable profits will be lowered to 8.25% (half of the rate specified in Schedule 8 to the Inland Revenue Ordinance (IRO)) for corporations. We are not subject to Hong Kong profit tax for any period presented as it did not have assessable profit during the periods presented.

PRC

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Laws of the PRC, or the EIT Laws, domestic enterprises and Foreign Investment Enterprises, or the FIEs, are usually subject to a unified 25% enterprise income tax rate, while preferential tax rates, tax holidays and tax exemption may be granted on case-by-case basis.

In January 2019, the State Administration of Taxation provides a preferential corporate income tax rate of 20% and an exemption ranged from 50% to 75% in the assessable taxable profits for entities qualified as

 

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small-size enterprises (the exemption range has been changed to from 50% to 87.5% for the period from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2022). For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda Trading Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda Customs Declaration Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Xinyuxiang Import & Export Co., Ltd., and Nanjing Jiayuda Logistics Co., Ltd. were recognized as small low-profit enterprises and there were three additional subsidiaries, Xuchang Jayud Supply Chain Management Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda E-commerce Technology Co., Ltd. and Cargo Link Company Limited that were recognized as small low-profit enterprises for the year ended December 31, 2021.

For the year ended December 31, 2020 the six months ended June 30, 2021, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda International Logistics Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda Trading Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda Customs Declaration Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Xinyuxiang Import & Export Co., Ltd., Nanjing Jiayuda Logistics Co., Ltd., Xuchang Jayud Supply Chain Management Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Jiayuda E-commerce Technology Co., Ltd. and Cargo Link Company Limited were recognized as small low-profit enterprises. For the year ended December 31, 2021 and six months ended June 30, 2022, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd changed to be a general taxpayer whose applicable tax rate was 25% and other subsidiaries remained unchanged. General entity taxpayers are entities with annual taxable income exceeding RMB3,000,000, total assets exceeding RMB50,000,000, and the total number of employees exceeding 300.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date and revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant accounting estimates include, but not limited to allowance for doubtful accounts, useful lives and impairment of long-lived assets, accounting for deferred income taxes and valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. Changes in facts and circumstances may result in revised estimates. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and as such, differences may be material to the consolidated financial statements.

We believe the following critical accounting policies involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity than our other accounting policies. Therefore, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Accounts receivable, net

Accounts receivable, net, include amounts billed and currently due from customers. The amounts due are stated at their net estimated realizable value. The credit terms are generally between 30 to 60 days. Provision for doubtful accounts is recognized when reasonable and supportable forecasts affect the expected collectability. We review the accounts receivable on a periodic basis and makes general and specific allowances when there is doubt as to the collectability of individual balances. We consider many factors in assessing the collectability such as the age of the amounts due, consideration of historical loss experience, adjusted for current conditions, forward-looking indicators, trends in customer payment frequency, and judgments about the probable effects of relevant observable data, including present and future economic conditions and the financial health of specific customers and market sectors. We established standards and policies for reviewing major account exposures and concentrations of risk.

Revenue Recognition

Substantially all of our revenues are from contracts associated with freight forwarding services domestically and internationally. Additionally, we provide supply chain management to customers, by exploiting its advantages in global supply chain services.

 

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Type A: Freight forwarding services

We primarily engage in freight forwarding services, including freight services and facilitating services such as customs brokerage services, packaging services and so on. We fulfill our performance obligation by transporting freights from the origin to the destination, both are specified by customers, via air freight, ocean freight, and land freight. We consider that there is only one performance obligation as the customer cannot benefit from the facilitating services on its own but be bundled with the freight services since the customer’s purpose for entering into this order is to transport goods from the origin to the destination. This type of revenue is recognized over time based on the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation. We adopt the output method, which is based on the transit time period, to measure progress.

We consider itself the principal for transactions that it is in control of establishing the transaction price, and it is responsible for managing all aspects of the shipments process and taking the risk of loss for delivery. Therefore, such revenues are reported on a gross basis.

For certain contracts, we consider itself the agent for transactions that it cooperates with third-party carriers to arrange freight services. Third-party carriers signed the contracts with customers and were in control of establishing the transaction price, and were responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide freight services. Therefore, such revenues are reported on a net basis.

We further divide this type of revenue into two sub-categories, “Integrated cross-border logistics” and “Fragmented logistics”. These two sub-categories are consistent regarding revenue recognition analysis, but with different quotation process. For “Integrated cross-border logistics” services, transaction prices remained unchanged for similar orders during a specific period of time, usually six to twelve months depending on different route. While for “Fragmented logistics” services, transaction prices are assessed and quoted based on each specific order, which could be varied among similar orders during a specific period of time.

The payment term is within 60 days after completion of freight forwarding services.

Type B: Supply chain management

We also engage in supply chain management, which includes international trading and agent services. We provide international trading, which sells electronic products through both export and import, by exploiting its advantages in global supply chain services and networks. We fulfill our performance obligation by transferring products to the designated location. In accordance with our customary business practices, the delivery term is “Free on board” (“FOB”). Therefore, once the products are loaded on the board, the control of products has transferred. This type of revenue is recognized based on the product value specified in the contract at a point in time when the control of products has transferred. We consider itself the principal because it is in control of establishing the transaction price and bearing inventory risk. Therefore, such revenues are reported on a gross basis.

In addition to international trading, we also provide agent services relates to export/import procedures, for example, application for duty-refund, customs brokerage services and so on. We fulfill our performance obligation by arranging export/import business for the customer, including but not limited to signing contracts with end customers on behalf of the customer and preparing customs brokerage and duty refund. This type of revenue is recognized over time based on the extent of progress towards completion of the agent services. We consider itself the agent because we are not primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified goods, neither bears the inventory risks. Therefore, such revenues are reported on a net basis.

The payment term is within 60 days after completion of international trading and agent services.

Type C: Other value-added services

We also provide customs brokerage services, and logistics-related software development services.

 

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Customs brokerage services under Type C represents independent revenue stream, different from being one of the facilitating services of the freight forwarding services under Type A, nor being one of the facilitating services of the agent services under Type B. We fulfill our performance obligation by providing customs brokerage services only. This type of revenue is recognized over service period, usually within one day.

We also generate revenues from logistics-related software development services. We identify two performance obligations within the contract: the software development services and the maintenance services. The transaction price is allocated based on the stand-alone selling price for each type of service. We recognize software development services revenue over time in proportionate to the relative labor costs over the total budgeted hours of the project. We also promise to provide one-year maintenance service after the abovementioned software has been launched. We recognize maintenance services revenue over the service period of one year.

Contract assets and liabilities

In-transit freight with performance obligations recognized over time that have revenue recognized to date in excess of cumulative billings are reported on consolidated balance sheets as “Contract assets”. Contract assets are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Contract liabilities represents the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the entity has received consideration from the customer. Our contract liabilities mainly consist of advance product payments from customers of international trading. We expect to recognize this balance as revenue over the next 12 months.

Contract costs

Contract costs consists of incremental costs of obtaining a contract with customers, for example, sales commissions. We elect to use the practical expedient, allowing to recognize the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as a cost or an expense when incurred if the amortization period, usually the contractual period, would have been one year or less.

Income taxes

Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current and prior periods are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from, or paid to, the tax authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted at the end of the reporting period.

We account for income taxes under ASC 740. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases (“Temporary differences”).

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those Temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the periods in which the asset or liability will be settled, based on rates enacted or substantively enacted at the end of the reporting period. Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.

The provisions of ASC 740-10-25, “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes,” prescribe a more-likely-than-not threshold for consolidated financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken (or expected to be taken) in a tax return. This interpretation also provides guidance on the recognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, and related disclosures. We believe there were no uncertain tax positions on December 31, 2020 and 2021, as well as June 30, 2022, respectively.

 

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Guidance was also provided on derecognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, accounting for income taxes in interim periods, and income tax disclosures. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining provision for income taxes. We did not recognize any significant interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021. As of December 31, 2020 and 2021. As of December 31, 2020, 2021 and June 30, 2022, we did not have any significant unrecognized uncertain tax positions.

INTERNAL CONTROL OF FINANCIAL REPORTING

Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources to address our internal controls and procedures. Our independent registered public accounting firm had not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. However, in connection with the audits of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended and as of December 31, 2020 and 2021, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified three “material weaknesses” in our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in the standards established by the PCAOB, and other control deficiencies.

A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The material weaknesses identified are related to:

 

  i)

Lack of formal internal control policies and internal independent supervision functions to establish formal risk assessment process and internal control framework;

 

  ii)

Lack of accounting staff and resources with appropriate knowledge of generally accepted U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting and compliance requirements to design and implement formal period-end financial reporting policies and procedures to address complex U.S. GAAP technical accounting issue in accordance with U.S. GAAP and the SEC requirements; and

 

  iii)

Information technology general control, or ITGC, in the areas of: (1) Risk and Vulnerability Assessment and Management; (2) Third-Party (Service Organization) Vendor Management; (3) System Change Management; (4) Backup and Recovery Management; (5) Access to Systems and Data; (6) Segregation of Duties, Privileged Access, and Monitoring; (7) Password Management.

In response to the material weaknesses identified prior to this offering, we are in the process of implementing a number of measures to address the material weaknesses identified, including but not limited to: hiring additional qualified accounting and financial personnel with appropriate knowledge and experience in U.S. GAAP accounting and SEC reporting, and organizing regular training for our accounting staffs, especially training related to U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements.

We plan to adopt additional measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting, including, among others, creating U.S. GAAP accounting policies and procedures manual, which will be maintained, reviewed and updated, on a regular basis, to the latest US GAAP accounting standards, and establishing an audit committee and strengthening corporate governance.

We are also in the process of implementing a set of policies and procedures to address our ITGC deficiencies.

However, we cannot assure you that we will remediate our material weaknesses in a timely manner. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our shares may be materially and adversely affected.”

 

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As a company with less than US$1.235 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act as further explained on page 8. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

A list of recently issued accounting pronouncements that are relevant to us is included in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially expose us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and accounts receivable. We place substantially all of our cash with financial institutions with high credit ratings and quality in China. In the event of bankruptcy of one of these financial institutions, we may not be able to claim its cash and demand deposits back in full. We continue to monitor the financial strength of the financial institutions. There has been no recent history of default in relation to these financial institutions.

For accounts receivables, credit risk is controlled by the application of credit approvals, limits and monitoring procedures. We manage credit risk through in-house research and analysis of the Chinese economy and the underlying obligors and transaction structures. We identify credit risk collectively based on industry, geography and customer type. In measuring the credit risk of our sales to our customers, we mainly reflect the “probability of default” by the customer on its contractual obligations and considers the current financial position of the customer and the exposures to the customer and its likely future development.

Foreign Exchange Risk

Our operations are primarily in China. Our reporting currency is denominated in RMB. We are exposed to currency risk primarily through sales and purchases which give rise to receivables, payables and cash balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the operations to which the transactions relate. Thus, revenues and results of operations may be impacted by exchange rate fluctuations between RMB and US$. We incurred and recognized foreign currency exchange loss of RMB912,988, foreign currency exchange gain of RMB489,268 (US$76,739), foreign currency exchange gain of RMB2,567,807 (US$382,604) in 2020, 2021 and for the six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, as a result of changes in the exchange rate.

RECENTLY ADOPTED OR ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses,” which will require the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Further, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-04, ASU No. 2019-05, ASU No. 2019-10, ASU No. 2019-11 and ASU No. 2020-02 to provide additional guidance on the credit losses standard. For all other entities, the amendments for ASU No. 2016-13 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. Adoption of the ASUs is on a modified retrospective basis. We will adopt ASU No. 2016-13 from January 1, 2023. We are in the process of evaluating the impacts the standards will have on its consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing exceptions and simplifies the accounting for income taxes

 

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regarding franchise tax, good will, separate financial statements, enacted change in tax laws or rates and employee stock ownership plans. ASU 2019-12 will be effective for us for annual reporting periods beginning January 1, 2022 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning January 1, 2023. We are in the process of evaluating the impacts the standards that will have on its consolidated financial statements.

Other accounting standards that have been issued by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. We do not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.

 

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Certain information, including statistics and estimates, set forth in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus has been derived from an industry report commissioned by us and independently prepared by Frost & Sullivan in connection with this offering. All the information and data presented in this section has been derived from Frost & Sullivan’s industry report unless otherwise noted. Frost & Sullivan has advised us that the statistical and graphical information contained herein is drawn from its database and other sources. However, neither we nor any other party involved in this offering has independently verified such information, and neither we nor any other party involved in this offering makes any representation as to the accuracy or completeness of such information. Therefore, investors are cautioned not to place any undue reliance on the information, including statistics and estimates, set forth in this section or similar information included elsewhere in this prospectus.

OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL END-TO-END CROSS-BORDER SUPPLY CHAIN SOLUTION INDUSTRY

Between 2017 and 2021, the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market, measured by revenues, increased from approximately US$122.8 billion to approximately US$537.8 billion, delivering a CAGR of approximately 44.7% during the period. In 2020, the outbreak of the global pandemic gave rise to the imbalance between cargo supply and freight demand, leading to the freight rates for the ocean and air logistics raised explosively from 2020 to 2021. Thereby the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market presented a soaring growth, surging from approximately US$211.8 billion in 2020 to approximately US$537.8 billion in 2021. In the foreseeable future, it is forecasted that ocean and air logistics will fluctuate at a high level, compared with precrisis level, driven by the increasing demand especially from the e-commerce sector and the shortage of freight capacity.

End-to-end Cross-border Supply Chain Solution Market, Global

 

LOGO

Source: Frost & Sullivan

Analysis of the Global Cross-border Supply Chain Solution Market

Cross-border supply chain solution primarily refers to a series of services along the whole process of cross-border cargo delivery, including ocean logistics, air logistics, depot operations, warehousing, trucking, customs clearance, and last-mile delivery, etc. that facilitate the delivery of cargos from shippers to consignees who are usually located in different countries. End-to-end cross-border supply chain solution refers to the logistics services that involve the delivery either through the ocean or air freight together with at least one type of other fulfillment services both before and after the ocean and air transportation stage.

 

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Ocean and air logistics services consist of the most important components of global cross-border supply chain solutions. The ocean freight market maintained steady growth over the past few years. Ocean freight service undertakes pivotal responsibility for cross-border merchandise flow due to its convenient and affordable mode of transportation that importers and exporters use. In the past years, the global ocean freight market experienced stable growth, attaining an average CAGR of approximately 2.4% between 2017 and 2021. Whereas, the proliferation of the global retail and e-commerce market is expected to drive export volume and cross-border transportation needs, stimulating substantial demand for the industry. By 2026, the global ocean freight market as measured by volume is expected to reach approximately 262.1 million twenty-foot equivalent units, or TEUs, representing a CAGR of 4.8% between 2021 and 2026. The global air freight volume increased from approximately 197.2 billion freight tonne-kilometers, or FTKs, to approximately 203.3 billion FTKs from 2017 to 2018, due to the growth of international trade. Amidst trade tension between U.S. and China followed by the slowdown of the global economy, the volume of air freight volume decreased by approximately 2.8%. Since 2020, the pandemic has caused industry-wide plummet of the availability of air cargo tonne-kilometer. The restrictive regulation of international travel sharply reduced the air traffic, leading less cargo capacity available in passenger planes which represented around 60% of international air cargo capacity precrisis. Besides, the dynamics of international trade are dampened by an economic slowdown. Hence, the air freight market, measured by volume, was recorded at a value of approximately 161.1 billion FTKs in 2020. Due to the partially alleviated shortage of air cargo capacity in 2021, the figure of air freight volume was valued at approximately 184.5 billion FTKs. As more and more countries start to liberalize their air travel restrictions, international air cargo traffic is expected to resume back to the pre-COVID level.

Global Ocean Freight and Air Freight Market by Volume, 2017-2026E

 

LOGO

Source: Frost & Sullivan

Analysis of the Asia-North America, Asia-Europe and Intra-Asia Trade Lanes

Between 2017 and 2021, the ocean freight volume of the Asia-North America trade lane increased from approximately 26.8 million TEUs to approximately 32.7 million TEUs, and is estimated to reach approximately 44.7 million TEUs by 2026, representing a CAGR of approximately 6.5% between 2021 and 2026.

As of the end of 2021, the ocean freight volume of the Asia-North America, Asia-Europe and Intra-Asia trade lanes accounted for approximately 15.8%, 12.8% and 16.4% of the global cargo shipping volume, respectively. In recent years, more and more manufacturing capacity has been shifting from western countries towards eastern Asia, illustrating the mounting exporting volume through the cross-border supply chain. As of the end of 2021, the air freight volume of the Asia-North America, Asia-Europe and Intra-Asia trade lanes accounted for approximately 26.7%, 22.1% and 9.5% of the international air freight traffic in 2021.

 

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MARKET DRIVERS AND FUTURE TRENDS

Market Drivers

According to Frost & Sullivan, major drivers of the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution industry are set forth as below:

The prosperity of globalization stimulates cross-border supply chain services. Globalization entails incorporating national wealth through the cross-border flow of merchandise, relocating manufacturing, and exchange of labor. Retailers and manufacturers benefit from globalization to acquire more international customers and lower production cost by expanding overseas business and outsourcing manufacturing processes abroad, respectively. Moreover, many emerging economies have increasingly opened their markets to foreign companies and lowered trade barriers. Ultimately, the strong demand of transporting finished goods, semi-finished goods and raw materials and distributing merchandise to customers propels the growth of cross-border logistics services. Integrated supply chain solution providers capitalized strong growth of cross-border trade with divergent services, such as forwarding, freight, warehousing, etc. and gradually acquired industry-wide recognition.

Accelerated growth of cross-border e-commerce spawns demand for integrated supply chain solutions. The boom of cross-border e-commerce has changed the composition of consumer buying behavior and expectations, as consumers nowadays expect time-sensitive goods with free or affordable shipping and competitive pricing. Under the complex international cargo shipping process, the demanding delivery schedule encourages cross-border e-commerce companies to enhance their fulfillment capabilities by outsourcing the shipping process to integrated logistics service providers. Specifically for medium and small cross-border B2C e-commerce sellers, attaching importance to the timeliness of shipping but concerned on logistics management cost, integrated supply chain solution can shorten lead time by offering on-demand delivery service, but also provide value-added services, such as sophisticated operation, management and planning. Hence the end-to-end supply chain market experienced a steep increase through serving an incremental number of cross border e-commerce sellers.

Digitalization gives an essential impetus for supply chain efficiency. The rise of technologies, as part of industry 4.0, has enabled the supply chain to be managed more efficiently. More digital technologies such as blockchain, Internet of Things, or IoT, Radio Frequency Identification, or RFID, machine learning and Artificial Intelligence, or AI, are applied to optimize planning, sourcing and tracking throughout the whole cross-border supply chain. Besides, the global pandemic has hastened the cross-border supply chain to shift towards digitalization, due to the strict health protocols that moved away from face-to-face manual supply chain operation and transactions. Integrated logistics service providers have established comprehensive platforms to connect each key process of logistics, making delivery services more transparent and efficient.

Future Trends

According to Frost & Sullivan, major drivers of the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution industry are set forth as below:

Deeper adoption of visualization and cloud technology. Digitalization which involves data visualization and cloud technology throughout the whole cross-border supply chain is anticipated to be the key to efficiency improvement. As an asset-light service, it emerges to jointly operate supply chain platforms between consumers, retailers or merchants and suppliers by assessing, integrating and visualizing real-time logistics and operation overview by tracking each stage of the cross-border supply chain. The transparency and visibility of the delivery and transportation process enable companies to optimize operational performance and customers to monitor their orders as they move across the last mile, bringing customer trust and strong end-user stickiness. Consequently, a mounting number of cross-border retailers and merchants are attracted to access this service from integrated cross-border supply chain solution providers.

 

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Intensified competition provokes increasing concentration. Despite the various nature of market players, the competitive landscape is expected to be concentrated in the long run. The leading integrated logistics service providers tend to operate essential trade routes on their own and establish field stocking locations and warehouses to provide stable and standardized services, strengthening their competitive advantages of integrating and controlling freight, warehousing and delivery resources. Plus, the top players will continuously expand their market share through merger and acquisition activities, which are sought to improve the economy of scale and diversify geographics and product offering. Therefore, the market dynamics of the integrated logistics industry are expected to be reinforced, leading to increasing concentration.

Customer-centric strategy embodies tailored supply chain services. Due to divergent product lines and various customer segments, nowadays brand owners are encountering more fragmented destinations, smaller loads, and higher frequency delivery schedules. Apparently, freight and forwarding demands are shifting from full container load, or FCL, towards less than container load, or LCL, revealing a lucrative market of tailored and targeted cross-border supply chain services. Tailored supply chain service is the use of extensive transportation methods, customized warehousing service and on-demand delivery schedule based on industry segment, customer density and distance, responsiveness required and product value & quantity. Further, tailored supply chain service empowers brand owners, retailers and manufacturers to enhance their logistics efficiency and competitive advantage by the purposing a professional management plan.

Favorable regulations are issued to advocate industry development. According to Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Accelerating the Development of New Business Patterns and Modes of Foreign Trade (Guo Ban Fa [2021] 24), the Chinese government is dedicated to developing cross-border e-commerce and supporting services, which presents a great opportunity for the integrated logistics service providers in China. They have played increasingly prominent roles to help cross-border e-commerce businesses to reduce logistics costs and minimize lead time through a one-stop supply chain solution, as an innovative business model.

Entry Barriers

According to Frost & Sullivan, the entry barriers of the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution industry include the following:

Strong customer relationship. The long-term cooperation and diverse client base contribute to sustainable demand for integrated cross-border supply chain services. To be more specific, large clients base and solid customer relationship guarantee the ever-increasing scale and density of order, making the best use of resources and infrastructure. Operation efficiency also helps bring a better customer experience, strengthening user stickiness. The leading players, with strong customer relationships, not only enjoy operation efficiency, but also benefit from privileged brand names to recruit new customers. It is difficult for new entrants to possess various customer bases or gain customer trust in a short period of time.

Comprehensive network and industry resources. Extensive geographic coverage, sufficient freight capability on core trade lanes, and end-to-end digitalization are pillars for integrated cross-border supply chain players to maintain leadership. The comprehensive network and industry resources can meet customers’ ever-changing demands by providing flexible and miscellaneous logistics solutions. Further, it enables leading cross-border supply chain providers to grasp opportunities in considerable verticals, such as e-commerce. New entrants are not able to build such a comprehensive network with limited capability and resources.

High-quality and stable services. Well-established integrated logistics companies strongly connect with each stage of the process, helping their customers to increase fulfillment capability and shipping efficiency. Currently, shipping is seen as a significant component of purchasing experience. Retailers have shown more customer loyalty and stickiness to those who can consistently provide high-quality and stable logistics services in terms of timeliness and accuracy. Nevertheless, new entrants are hard to compete with the leading players in terms of high-quality and sophisticated services.

 

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Industry expertise and authorized certifications. The integrated logistics market is highly fragmented and complicated, dealing with various authorized licenses and qualifications in each stage. The integrated logistics service providers are bound to have a good grasp of customs brokerage, warehouse management, freight and forwarding business to overcome underlying obstacles and mitigate uncertainties. However, the multiple certifications for imports and exports activities among different countries set up major barriers for the new entrants.

COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

The end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market in China is a highly fragmented market with the top 10 China-based companies comprising only approximately 1.2% of the total integrated cross-border supply chain solution market. In the future, it is expected more integrated cross-border supply chain solution companies will strengthen their end-to-end cross-border abilities across the world to reasonably control and decrease transportation time and ensure a centralized logistics system.

In 2021, we ranked the fifth place in terms of the revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border supply chain solutions in Shenzhen. Shenzhen is a key component of the Greater Bay Area in China, which is comprised of Hong Kong, Macau and nine municipalities of Guangdong Province. The Greater Bay Area has three competitive advantages in cross-border logistics, including: (1) rapid growth of GDP and trading volume; (2) strategic geographical advantages providing high degree of support for the development of ocean, air and overland logistics; and (3) government policies supporting trade liberalization. Leveraging on the competitive advantages of the Greater Bay Area, Shenzhen also has advantages compared to other cities in China in cross-border logistics industry. Shenzhen has leading and surging-growth GDP within the Greater Bay Area, and possesses favorable industrial advantages and infrastructure and thus has gathered a large number of cross-boarder e-commerce market players who have substantive demands for logistics services. In addition, China’s General Administration of Customs Shenzhen Customs District has established integrated cross-border logistics ecosystem to ensure unobstructed pathway for logistics services, such as “China Railway Express”, “Sea-lane Mail” and “Airpass.” As one of the leading Shenzhen-based end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution providers in China, we focus on providing end-to-end cross-border logistics services and the revenue generated from providing end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB210.8 million in 2020 to approximately RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million) in 2021, representing impressive year-on-year growth of approximately 85.1%.

Ranking of Leading Shenzhen-based End-to-end Cross-border Supply Chain Solution Companies by Revenue, 2021

 

Ranking

  

Company

   Revenue      Global
Market Share
 
          (US$ in million)      (Percentage)  
1    Company A      600.0        0.11
2    Company B      310.0        0.06
3    Company C      210.0        0.04
4    Company D      120.0        0.02
5    Our Company      61.2        0.01

COST ANALYSIS

The major cost of integrated logistics services is transportation cost. For air freight and ocean freight, the prices have drastically increased from 2017 to 2021, mainly attributable to the outbreak of COVID-19. For air freight, the global cost has continued increasing from 2017 to 2021, and the price increase since 2020 is due to an upsurge in demand of cross-border shipping, owing to lockdowns and social distancing, and shortage of airlines, owing to decreased airlines from damped traveling volume. For ocean freights, the transport costs from Asia and China to Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as the U.S., have experienced a particularly sharp rise since the

 

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pandemic as major ports have limited capacity to manage incrementing freight volume, resulting in an uneven distribution of ocean freight capacity globally, which has eventually led to a drastic increase of average price of containers shipped across the world.

 

Air Freight    Ocean Freight
LOGO    LOGO

Source: Frost & Sullivan

As the risk of virus infection increased during COVID-19, the number of workers returning to work remains uncertain. Many regions worldwide impose draconic requirements for resumption of work. Therefore, labor shortage has increased labor costs with also fewer working hours. For customs clearance, as the inspection of goods is currently more stringent, the duration for customs clearance has increased. As the pandemic continues to prevail, more countries and ports will impose stricter control over the entry and exit of crew members.

Other cost components include warehousing, renting and labor costs.

EFFECTS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND GEOPOLITICS

COVID-19 Pandemic

Accelerating overseas market expansion. Attributable to effective outbreak preventions, China’s economy has recovered at full tilt as businesses resumed to work after the second quarter of 2020. Compared to the relatively chaotic situations in overseas economies with tight production in supply chain and delayed logistics, Chinese exporters are more likely to seize opportunities in overseas markets by leveraging local capabilities and resilience.

Changing in consumption habits. The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has severely pounded offline consumption due to social distancing policies and compelled mass closures of retail stores. Consumers’ shopping behaviors have extensively transformed from offline to online that surged the number of online customers, frequency of online shopping and cross-border shopping behaviors during the period. The pandemic has created further opportunities for market participants to constantly optimize online infrastructure and supply chain solution services to meet consumers’ ever-changing demands.

Supportive policies released by governments. At the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has curtailed the economic development in China. The Chinese government, in line with the development trend of the country’s economy, proposed a “dual circulation” measure and policies such as the establishment of Comprehensive Bonded Zones and exemption of value-added tax and consumption tax extensively propelled the growth of China’s cross-border e-commerce and integrated logistics markets in the scale of import and export trade.

International and domestic logistics services suffered from the pandemic. The growth of the cross-border delivery business has hampered in the first quarter of 2020 as the global pandemic posed a negative impact on the transportation of international express and post parcels. Postal, logistics, supply chain management and express companies have taken various measures such as establishing new routes, and implementing temporary charter flights and China-Europe trains to ensure the capacity of international transportation. In terms of domestic logistics, cross-border supply chain may be severely impacted due to China’s zero-COVID strategy accompanied by unpredicted lockdowns in cities and areas.

 

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Geopolitics

US-China Trade War. In the past years starting in 2018, Section 301 tariffs on Chinese import products that have exacerbated trading tensions between U.S. and China. China has also imposed retaliatory tariffs on American import products. The adverse impact on sellers, cross-border e-commerce, logistics companies and overseas warehouses were most prominent in the trade war if products sold belonged to the tariff lines, further leading to massive growth in tax costs. Any trade barriers, legal measures and exchange rate fluctuations may severely affect cross-border business activities or integrated supply chain solution providers that are highly sensitive to price changes.

Russia-Ukraine Tension. China has been Russia’s largest trading partner for over a decade and has become Ukraine’s biggest trading partner in 2019, and the robust growth of e-commerce in the two countries has contributed to the prosperous growth of cross-border trade. The Russia-Ukraine war and its numerous associated economic sanctions could add pressure to the global supply chain, and the war has adversely impacted China’s cross-border transactions due to disruption of orderings, confined logistics and increase in raw material prices. As such, integrated logistics service providers may also suffer from the impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.

 

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BUSINESS

OUR MISSION

Our mission is to become a leading global end-to-end supply chain solution provider.

OVERVIEW

We are one of the leading Shenzhen-based end-to-end supply chain solution providers in China, with a focus on providing cross-border logistics services. According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, in 2021, we ranked fifth in terms of the revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution among all end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen. Headquartered in Shenzhen, a key component of the Greater Bay Area in China, we benefit from the unique geographical advantages of providing high degree of support for ocean, air and overland logistics. A well-connected transportation network enables us to significantly increase efficiency and reduce transportation costs. As one of the most open and dynamic regions in China, Shenzhen is home to renowned enterprises and the gathering place of cross-border e-commerce market players, which provides us with a large customer base and enables us to develop long-term in-depth relationships with our customers. In addition, the sustained and steady growth of local economy and supportive government policies have backed up our development and brought us great convenience in daily operations.

According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, the global end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution market experienced a soaring growth during the past two years, with its total revenue surging from US$211.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020 to US$537.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. In line with this increase, we experienced a rapid growth in 2020 and 2021 as well as the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB19.1 million, or 161.4%, from RMB11.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB30.9 million (US$4.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB13.5 million, or 64.1%, from RMB21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB34.5 million (US$5.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our revenue generated from end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB98.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB332.7 million (US$49.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, representing a period-to-period increase of 236.5%. Our revenue generated from end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB210.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing a year-on-year increase of 85.1%.

We offer a comprehensive range of cross-border supply chain solution services, including: (i) freight forwarding services, (ii) supply chain management, and (iii) other value-added services.

Freight Forwarding Services

Our freight forwarding services primarily comprise (i) integrated cross-border logistics services, and (ii) fragmented logistics services. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our freight forwarding services amounted to RMB138.6 million and RMB412.2 million (US$61.4 million), respectively, representing an increase of 197.5%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our freight forwarding services amounted to RMB243.6 million and RMB488.0 million (US$76.5 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 100.3%.

Integrated Cross-border Logistics Services

Our integrated cross-border logistics services primarily consist of (i) contract logistics services, and (ii) basic logistics services. In our contract logistics services, we provide our enterprise customers with customized integrated logistics services covering the entire delivery process from order origination to the final

 

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point of sale or delivery, representing a customized and seamless combination of order processing, warehousing management, transportation and delivery, and other value-added services. In our basic logistics services, our customers may choose from various modularized integrated logistics service offerings that are designed based on our in-depth understanding of the demands of various industries, such as cross-border e-commerce, chemical industry, and the retail sector. Leveraging our integrated service capabilities and our self-developed logistics information technology, or IT, systems, we aspire to manage our distribution network seamlessly, allowing our customers to outsource to us their supply chain process. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our integrated cross-border logistics services amounted to RMB98.9 million and RMB332.7 million (US$49.6 million), respectively, representing an increase of 236.5%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our integrated cross-border logistics services amounted to RMB210.8 million and RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 85.1%.

Fragmented Logistics Services

We are also engaged by our customers to provide one or more types of logistics services that only cover part of the entire cross-border cargo delivery process. Such fragmented logistics services primarily include one or a combination of the following: (i) air freight forwarding; (ii) ocean freight forwarding; (iii) overland freight services; (iv) warehousing; and (v) other fragmented logistics services, such as port and depot services, non-time-definite delivery and coordination among various carriers and freight forwarders. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our fragmented logistics services amounted to RMB39.7 million and RMB79.5 million (US$11.9 million), respectively, representing an increase of 100.3%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our fragmented logistics services amounted to RMB32.8 million and RMB97.8 million (US$15.3 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 198.1%.

Supply Chain Management

Our supply chain management business primarily consists of two sub-segments, namely, (i) international trading business, where we engage in international trading directly, with our customers being the purchasers or sellers, and (ii) agent services, where we are engaged by customers as their international trade agent, for the purposes of further streamlining the customers’ supply chain process. We believe our supply chain management business allows us to enhance the overall customer experience and to create vast cross-selling opportunities to drive customer retention, thus further differentiating us from our competitors. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our supply chain management business amounted to RMB24.8 million and RMB39.0 million (US$5.8 million), respectively, representing an increase of 57.1%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our supply chain management business amounted to RMB44.0 million and RMB53.5 million (US$8.4 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 21.8%.

International Trading

We also engage in international trading directly through the wholesaling of certain goods with our customers. Unlike our freight forwarding services, our international trading business requires us to bear both inventory risks and credit risks. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our international trading amounted to RMB24.7 million and RMB38.9 million (US$5.8 million), respectively, representing an increase of 57.6%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our international trading amounted to RMB42.0 million and RMB53.0 million (US$8.3 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 26.2%.

Agent Services

We may be engaged by our customers to act as their international trade agent, managing their cross-border supply chains through assisting our customers, pursuant to an agreement between our customers and a designated

 

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third-party, either (i) to procure certain goods from the designated third-party, or (ii) to sell and deliver certain goods to the designated third-party. Similar to our integrated cross-border logistics services, our agent services also involve a seamless combination of order processing, warehousing management, transportation and delivery, and other value-added services, with the major difference being that we carry out a substantial portion of the supply chain process in our own name, and accordingly may be required to bear credit risks in the supply chain process. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our agent services amounted to RMB0.2 million and RMB0.1 million (US$0.02 million), respectively, representing a decrease of 17.2%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our agent services amounted to RMB2.0 million and RMB0.6 million (US$0.1 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year decrease of 71.9%.

Other Value-added Services

We endeavor to differentiate our service offerings by, among other things, developing other value-added services. Our value added services primarily include (i) custom brokerage and (ii) intelligent logistic IT systems. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our other value-added services amounted to RMB1.9 million and RMB2.9 million (US$0.4 million), respectively, representing an increase of 52.4%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our other value-added services amounted to RMB2.8 million and RMB4.0 million (US$0.6 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 45.9%.

Leveraging our integrated service capabilities and our proprietary IT systems, we aspire to manage our distribution network seamlessly, allowing our customers to outsource to us their supply chain process.

OUR GLOBAL NETWORK

Our Geographic Location

Headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, we focus on China as our primary market and expect to expand our business globally. Shenzhen is of great significance in the history of China’s opening-up. Located in this strategic city, we have enjoyed the benefits of its rapid development over the three decades and will continue to take advantage of its growth. The advantages of being headquartered in Shenzhen include: (i) strategic geographical location; (ii) large customer base; and (iii) sustained and steady growth of the local economy as well as supportive government policies.

Shenzhen is a key component of the Greater Bay Area in China. The Greater Bay Area, comprising of Hong Kong, Macau and nine municipalities of Guangdong Province, has unique geographical advantages providing high degree of support for the development of ocean, air and overland logistics. For instance, according to Frost & Sullivan, from 2017 to 2021, the port container throughput in Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Shenzhen ports has increased at a CAGR of 1.7%, and has surpassed that of other major bay areas in the world including San Francisco Bay Area, New York Bay and Tokyo Bay. In Shenzhen, we not only enjoy the support of China’s complete transportation infrastructure, but also, through the links among the cities in the Greater Bay Area, we can take advantage of Hong Kong as the window to efficiently access offshore logistics resources. In addition, we are very close to foreign countries with large consumption power, such as India and Indonesia. Local companies in Shenzhen and those in other cities in China are more likely to trust us when they have business connections with those countries and thus need supply chain solution services.

Shenzhen is home to renowned enterprises and the gathering place of cross-border e-commerce market players in China. The vigorous development of these business entities has promoted the huge demand for international trading, supply chain solutions and logistics services. We are physically close to our customers and understand their needs better. Meanwhile, our business portfolio, which is primarily composed of four segments, covers all links of cross-border supply chain solution and renders us integrated service capabilities. Therefore, we are able to provide our customers with one-stop logistic solutions customized to customers’ continuously evolving demands with lower costs, which in turn allows us to develop long-term in-depth relationships with our customers and further facilitates our business growth and expansion.

 

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Furthermore, the Greater Bay Area is well-recognized as one of the best places to do business in China, mainly attributable to sustained and steady growth of local economy and supportive government policies to promote private economy. According to Frost & Sullivan, from 2017 to 2021, the GDP of the Greater Bay Area has increased from RMB10.2 trillion to RMB12.6 trillion (US$2.0 trillion), representing a CAGR of 5.4%. Stable local revenue enables the local government to better serve local enterprises like us, and it also enables favorable tax policies. Local customs agencies in the Greater Bay Area are flexible, efficient and supportive. For instance, over the years, the China’s General Administration of Customs Shenzhen Customs District has established several logistics pathways, including “China Railway Express”, “Sea-lane Mail” and “Airpass”, to fulfill diversified demands for cross-border logistics companies. China’s central government is also very encouraging to Shenzhen’s development. For example, in 2022, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce jointly issued Opinions on Several Special Measures for Relaxing Market Access in Shenzhen’s Construction of a Pilot Demonstration Zone of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. All such policies bring great convenience to our daily operation, reduce our operating costs, and make us more competitive in the industry.

Our Network

We have established a global operation nexus to support our business. We own logistic facilities strategically located throughout major transportation hubs in China and globally. As of June 30, 2022, we have established a presence in 12 provinces (including provincial municipalities) in mainland China, such as Shenzhen of Guangdong province, Nanjing of Jiangsu province, Ningbo and Yiwu of Zhejiang province, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, as well as some major global transportation hubs such as Hong Kong.

Our global freight network covers various major trade lanes across the world, including Asia-North America, Asia-Europe and Intra-Asia trade lines. As of June 30, 2022, our footprints spread across six continents and over 16 countries, such as Thailand, Singapore, India, Philippine, Hamburg, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The maps on pages 121 and 122 set forth the countries and regions where we have established presence as of June 30, 2022.

OUR STRENGTHS

We believe the following strengths have contributed to our success and differentiate us from others:

One of the leading end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen

According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, in 2021, we ranked fifth in terms of the revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution among all end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen. In September 2022, we were shortlisted as Top Ten North America Special Line/Overseas Warehouse Logistics Service Providers and Top Ten High-quality FBA Service Providers in the online voting for the 2022 Golden Bull Award jointly hosted by Shenzhen Logistics and Supply Chain Management Association and the Shenzhen Cross-border E-commerce Supply Chain Services Association. Headquartered in Shenzhen, a key component of the Greater Bay Area, we benefit from the unique geographical advantages of providing high degree of support for ocean, air and overland logistics. A well-connected transportation network enables us to significantly increase efficiency and reduce transportation costs. As one of the most open and dynamic regions in China, Shenzhen is home to renowned enterprises and the gathering place of cross-border e-commerce market players, which provides us with a large customer base and enables us to develop long-term in-depth relationships with our customers. In addition, the sustained and steady growth of local economy and supportive government policies have backed up our development and brought us great convenience in daily operations.

Our end-to-end supply chain solution primarily includes (i) integrated cross-border logistics services that fall under two sub-categories, namely, contract logistics services and basic logistics services, (ii) fragmented

 

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logistics services, and (iii) other value-added services, such as local labeling services, local replacement packaging services and intelligent logistic services. Leveraging our integrated service capabilities, we are able to provide our customers with one-stop logistic solutions customized to and continuously evolving according to the customers’ demands, which in turn allow us to develop long-term in-depth relationships with our customers. According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, the end-to-end supply chain solution market is rapidly growing and has considerable headroom for growth. Total revenue of the end-to-end supply chain solution market increased from US$122.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2017 to US$537.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing a CAGR of approximately 44.7%.

We focus on China as our primary market and have established operations in Hong Kong and 12 provinces in mainland China. Our logistic facilities are strategically located throughout major transportation hubs in China, Shenzhen of Guangdong province, Nanjing of Jiangsu province, Ningbo and Yiwu of Zhejiang province, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, as well as major global transportation hub such as Hong Kong. We believe our logistic services, enabled by our self-developed logistic IT systems and well-established coverage, are more deeply integrated than those offered by traditional logistics service providers.

Strong and integrated logistic service capabilities

We have developed strong and integrated stable service capabilities. We hold all relevant licenses and permits that are required to engage in water, air and overland transportation or logistics services within China, and we are also qualified to conduct businesses such as customs declaration and international trading within our operation scope. Please see “—Licenses, Permits and Approvals” for more details. In terms of air freight forwarding services, we have established strategic cooperation relationships domestically and internationally, allowing our distribution network to efficiently connect major transportation hubs in China, Southeast Asia and the U.S. For the six months ended June 30, 2022 and for the year ended December 31, 2021, the air freight capacity that we sourced in aggregate amounted to 5,099 and 8,600 tons, respectively. In terms of ocean freight forwarding services, our strategic cooperation partners include major container shipping companies, enabling us to develop a major presence in port cities such as Shenzhen of Guangdong province, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Qingdao of Shandong province. For the six months ended June 30, 2022 and for the year ended December 31, 2021, the aggregate shipping capacity that we sourced amounted to 1,718 and 1,592 ocean freight containers, respectively, among which 1,924 and 1,700 tons are in relation to cross-border e-commerce customers, respectively. In terms of overland freight services, we maintained a fleet of two self-owned trucks as of June 30, 2022, and also cooperate with rail transport providers and third-party trucking services providers. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, the trucking service capacities we sourced amounted to 3,089 ton trucks. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, the trucking service capacities we sourced amounted to 2,956 ton trucks and 2,964 ton trucks, respectively. Further, with regard to warehousing services, as of June 30, 2022, we self-operated one warehouse located in Shenzhen of Guangdong province, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 5,596 sq. m. As of June 30, 2022, we had the rights to use two third-party warehouses located in Yiwu of Zhejiang province and Hong Kong, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 8,531 sq.m. In May 2022, we, through Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., entered into an agreement to obtain the right to use a brand new warehouse (“Dachan Bay Warehouse”) that was located close to Dachan Bay Terminals, Shenzhen Baoan International Airport and National Highway G4 which connects Beijing, Hong Kong and Macao, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 11,000 sq.m. Later in August, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. assigned all its rights and obligations under such agreement to Shenzhen Jayud Yuncang Technology Co., Ltd., one of our subsidiaries in China, by entering into a supplementary agreement. Dachan Bay Warehouse further enhances our capabilities to cover logistics services in the Southeast Asian market. In terms of custom brokerage, we were recognized as an Advanced Certified Enterprise with a China AEO (that is, Authorized Economic Operator) Certificate issued by General Administration of Customs of the PRC, or the China Customs, in 2021, which allows us to perform custom brokerage more efficiently and ensures timely delivery. Leveraging such comprehensive, strong and stable service capabilities and our self-developed logistic IT systems, we are able to manage our distribution network seamlessly, allowing our customers to outsource to us their supply chain process.

 

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LOGO

 

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LOGO

 

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Customized logistic solutions comprising a wide range of integrated logistics and freight forwarding services

We have customized our logistics services to meet our customers’ demands. According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, customers have an increasing demand for customized logistics services to deliver merchandise in small quantities but multiple batches. Our integrated logistics services cater to the customers’ demands in two ways: (i) contract logistics, and (ii) basis logistics. In contract logistics, we design customized integrated logistics solution for each of our major enterprise customers, seamlessly covering their entire supply chain processes. For example, we provide one of our key customers, a leading technology company headquartered in Dongguan, with an end-to-end one-stop integrated logistics services solution, including custom brokerage, warehousing, logistics and all other links in the integrated cross-border logistics service process. We opened exclusive air routes for this customer, namely China to Southeast Asia and China to India. Over the years, our self-developed IT systems are gradually connecting with this customer’s internal IT systems in order to realize more efficient logistics management. In basic logistics, we design various modularized integrated logistics service offerings based on our in-depth understanding of the demands of various industries, such as cross-border e-commerce, chemical industry, and the retail sector. Customers of our basic logistics services, such as e-commerce shop owners and other small-and-medium-sized enterprises, or SMEs, may easily choose the service module(s) that accommodate their needs. Further, our customers may also order our supply chain management services and other value-added services, such as local labeling, local replacement packaging, after-sales reverse logistics services and the development of intelligent logistics IT systems, further improving the efficiency of their supply chains. According to the Frost & Sullivan Report, the adoption of information technologies in the logistics industry has enabled logistics service providers and customers to manage supply chains more efficiently. We believe our customized service offerings allow us to have a significant competitive advantage as compared to traditional logistic service providers.

R&D capabilities in proprietary IT systems’ development contributing to increased operational efficiency

We value investment in R&D and technology innovation in the supply chain solution industry. From 2020 to 2021, our expenditure on R&D increased 6.1%. As of June 30, 2022, we owned 51 software copyrights. We have subsidiaries as comprehensive R&D platforms specialized in proprietary IT systems development, and a young and dynamic IT systems development team.

Our IT systems are internally designed, developed and supported to enable efficient operational management and to better serve our customers’ supply chain needs. Our major types of proprietary IT systems include: the warehouse management system (or the “WMS”), the order management system (or the “OMS”), the transportation management system (or the “TMS”) and the booking management system (or the “BMS”). The WMS enables us to manage the entire flow of inventory, labor force and information in and out of our warehouse network, leading to improved inventory visibility and operational accuracy. The OMS realizes visualization of logistics and can exchange application programming interface, or API, data with customers, as well as conducts business intelligence, or BI, data analysis. The TMS provides us an online platform to enhance visibility, accessibility and connectivity by enabling prompt information flow between our customers and their supply chains. The BMS allows our staff and customers to review the details of cargo booking and handling information in real-time. Each of our proprietary IT systems can integrate with our enterprise resource planning, or ERP, system, providing seamless services while allowing us to achieve better efficiency.

As part of our value-added services, we sell and license our proprietary intelligent logistics IT systems as per our major customers’ requests from time to time. We also develop customized proprietary IT systems depending on our major customers’ supply chain needs, such as the Service Supplier Agreement we entered with a leading China-based personal computer company in 2020, in which we undertook to develop a customized TMS pursuant to client’s requirements.

 

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Long-standing relationships with a wide and diversified customer base

We have a wide and diversified customer base. Our major customers include reputable companies such as, among others, a leading China-based lithium-ion battery manufacturer for electric vehicles, a leading China-based designer and manufacturer of consumer electronics, and a leading China-based personal computer company. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, our five largest customers accounted for 59.9% and 35.8% of our revenue, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, approximately 39.8% and 53.1% of our total revenues, respectively, were generated by our five largest customers of the same periods. In addition, we have established sound relationships with many of our major customers, which are due in part to our ability to continually meet or exceed their requirements for quality and reliability of service. For example, our ten largest customers in terms of service fees for the year ended December 31, 2021 had been in cooperation with us for nearly three years on average, among which, four of them have over five years cooperation relationships with us. Leveraging our in-depth understanding of our customers’ supply chain operations, we are well positioned to expand our service level for each customer and offer customized logistic solutions. We believe our logistic solutions have offered our customers compelling value propositions, making us their preferred logistics service provider.

Visionary and experienced management team with a proven track record

Our executive directors have approximately 20 years of experience in the logistics industry. Our senior management team has in-depth knowledge of the end-to-end supply chain solution industry, as well as a solid understanding of the China market. We believe their industry expertise, coupled with their vision and entrepreneurial spirit, enables us to compete successfully in the market by timely adjusting our business strategies and operations based on customers’ needs and market conditions. Under the leadership of our senior management team, supported by local management teams comprising many local managers with substantial local market knowledge, we have been successful in growing our operations as well as integrating acquired businesses in many new geographic markets and strategic service segments. In particular, we experienced a rapid growth in 2020 and 2021, as well as the six months ended June 30, 2022. We generate revenue primarily from our integrated cross-border logistics services and fragmented logistics services. Our revenue increased by 174.7% from RMB165.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB454.1 million (US$67.7 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our revenue increased by 87.9% from RMB290.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB545.6 million (US$85.6 million) in for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our gross profit increased by RMB19.1 million, or 161.4%, from RMB11.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to RMB30.9 million (US$4.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Our gross profit increased by RMB 13.5 million, or 64.1%, from RMB 21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to RMB 34.5 million (US$5.4 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021.

OUR STRATEGIES

Further enhance our distribution network

We plan to further expand our logistics network by improving overall utilization through economies of scale, increasing the level of integration across our logistics networks, and improving efficiencies through more intelligent decision-making. We will continue to strengthen our logistics network and infrastructure by strategically accessing advantageous geographical locations. We plan to broaden and deepen our logistics networks’ reach to penetrate further into transportation hubs and port cities in China, and also extend our cross-border coverage. We intend to expand our air freight and ocean freight network by increasing the number of destinations and flight and shipment frequencies. We plan to establish more warehouses at major transportation hubs such as Shanghai and Shenzhen of Guangdong province. We will also continue to adopt an open mindset in collaborating with industry participants and partners, and fully utilize their resources and operational expertise to realize synergies.

 

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Adapt our logistic services and customized solutions to different industry verticals in China

We intend to adapt our logistic services and customized solutions to different industry verticals in China, such as the electronics industry primarily located in Shenzhen and Guangzhou of Guangdong province; the apparel and footwear industry primarily located in Xiamen and Fuzhou of Fujian province; or the steel industry primarily located in Hebei province and Tianjin. To that end and leveraging our supply chain management service capabilities, we plan to develop more integrated and sophisticated solutions and services within such industry verticals, and across the entire supply chain from upstream (including production and manufacturing) to downstream (including distribution and delivery), in order to create additional value for our customers.

Further invest in our intelligent logistic IT systems

We plan to further develop, upgrade and maintain our intelligent logistic IT systems. We believe our IT systems are integral to our businesses as they enable us to offer enhanced supply chain management services to customers and create value for customers’ supply chains. While we will continue to leverage our proprietary IT systems to provide customers with better supply chain visibility and higher efficiency in supply chain management, we plan to continue to invest in enhancing our IT capabilities to enable us to respond quickly to, or introduce new IT systems or processes to address, customers’ changing needs, thereby continually improving the competitiveness of our logistic services. We will also continue to integrate our proprietary IT systems, providing seamless logistics services while allowing us to achieve optimal efficiency.

In addition, we will also continue developing, licensing and selling intelligent logistics IT systems to our customers as a part of our other value-added services to accelerate the digitalization and streamlining of the customers’ supply chains.

Further invest in our human capital

We are fully committed to cultivating the development of our employees’ skills and knowledge. We intend to continue to invest in our human capital by providing a continuous learning environment and offering more opportunities for our employees to pursue professional growth. As we enter new markets, we will continue to seek to develop expertise in the local markets through recruiting local talent. Furthermore, we will strive to maintain our dynamic corporate culture and structure, as well as our core values, as we expand our network and service offerings.

Develop our business and service capacities through investments or acquisitions

We intend to further develop our business and service capacities by seeking additional opportunities through potential domestic or international acquisitions, revenue sharing arrangements, partnerships or investments. Specifically, as we expand our distribution network globally, we will consider investments and/or acquisitions in the U.S. to establish warehouses in cooperation with third parties, or on our own. For instance, in July 2022, we invested in Shenzhen Jayud Yuncang Technology Co., Ltd., or Jayud Yuncang, and held 52.0% equity interest in it. Jayud Yuncang was established to implement the Dachan Bay front warehouse project, or the Project, through which we planned to operate distributed mini warehouses, or DMWs, located nearby the wharf and airport in Shenzhen. By pre-positioning the warehouse and placing customer orders close to the community service station, goods in Jayud Yuncang can be transmitted and delivered very quickly. As part of the Project, in May 2022, we, through Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd., entered into an agreement to obtain the right to use Dachan Bay Warehouse that located close to Dachan Bay Terminals, Shenzhen Baoan International Airport and National Highway G4 which connects Beijing, Hong Kong and Macao, with an aggregate GFA of approximately 11,000 sq.m. Later in August 2022, Shenzhen Jayud Logistics Technology Co., Ltd. assigned all its rights and obligations under such agreement to Jayud Yuncang. Jayud Yucang began to operate Dachan Bay Warehouse and was actively configuring the warehouse’s infrastructures. The total investment in the Project is expected to be RMB20.0 million. After its completion, Jayud Yuncang will further enhance our integrated service capabilities and enable our reach to the Southeast Asian market.

 

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OUR BUSINESS MODEL

We are one of the leading Shenzhen-based end-to-end supply chain solution providers in China, with a focus on providing end-to-end cross-border logistics services. In 2021, according to the Frost & Sullivan Report, we ranked fifth in terms of the revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border supply chain solution among all end-to-end supply chain solution providers based in Shenzhen. Our revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB98.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 to approximately RMB332.7 million (US$49.6 million) for the six months ended June 30, 2022, representing an increase of 236.5%. Our revenues generated from providing end-to-end cross-border logistics services increased from approximately RMB210.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 to approximately RMB390.2 million (US$61.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing a year-on-year increase of 85.1%. In addition, we were recognized by the China Federation of Logistics & Purchasing as an AAAA Logistics Service Provider according to the GB/T19680-2013 National Standards of China in 2021.

Operating via our subsidiaries and branches located in the PRC, we provide a comprehensive range of cross-border logistics services that enable our customers to outsource to us their supply chain process:

 

   

Freight forwarding services

 

   

Supply chain management

 

   

Other value-added services

Freight Forwarding Services

Our freight forwarding services primarily comprise (i) integrated cross-border logistics services, including contract logistics services and basic logistics services, and (ii) fragmented logistics services, including air freight forwarding, ocean freight forwarding, overland freight, warehousing services and other fragmented logistics services. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2022, revenues from our freight forwarding services amounted to RMB138.6 million and RMB412.2 million (US$61.4 million), respectively, representing an increase of 197.4%. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021, revenues from our freight forwarding services amounted to RMB243.6 million and RMB488.0 million (US$76.5 million), respectively, representing a year-on-year increase of 100.3%.