485APOS 1 a485a.htm 485APOS 485A

Filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on April 21, 2022
1933 Act Registration File No. 333-179562
1940 Act File No. 811-22668
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933[X]
Pre-Effective Amendment No.[ ]
Post-Effective Amendment No.794[X]
and
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940[X]
Amendment No.795[X]
(Check appropriate box or boxes.)
ETF SERIES SOLUTIONS
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
(Address of Principal Executive Offices, Zip Code)

 (Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code): (414) 765-6076

Kristina R. Nelson, President
ETF Series Solutions
c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
777 East Wisconsin Avenue, 10th Floor
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

Copy to:
Christopher D. Menconi
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004-2541

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practical after the effective date of this Registration Statement
It is proposed that this filing will become effective
Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
on pursuant to paragraph (b)
60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
on pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
X75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
on pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box

    [ ]     this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

Subject to completion
Dated April 21, 2022

The information herein is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction in which the offer or sale is not permitted.

IBITDefiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF




Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.



PROSPECTUS
[ ], 2022



This Prospectus provides important information about the Fund that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The Defiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF (the “Fund”) seeks daily inverse investment results and is intended to be used as a short-term trading vehicle. The Fund attempts to provide the daily investment results that correspond to the inverse (or opposite) of the performance of Amplify Transformational Data Sharing ETF (the “Amplify ETF”).
The Fund is not intended to be used by, and is not appropriate for, investors who do not intend to actively monitor and manage their portfolios. The Fund is very different from most mutual funds and exchange-traded funds. Investors should note that:
(1) The Fund pursues a daily investment objective that is inverse to the performance of the Amplify ETF, a result opposite of most mutual funds and exchange-traded funds.
(2) The Fund seeks daily inverse investment results that are subject to compounding and market volatility risk. The pursuit of its daily investment objective means that the return of the Fund for a period longer than a full trading day will be the product of a series of daily returns, with daily repositioned exposure, for each trading day during the relevant period. As a consequence, especially in periods of market volatility, the volatility of the Amplify ETF may affect the Fund’s return as much as, or more than, the return of the Amplify ETF. Further, the return for investors that invest for periods less than a full trading day will not be the product of the return of the Fund's stated daily inverse investment objective and the performance of Amplify ETF for the full trading day. During periods of high volatility, the Fund may not perform as expected and the Fund may have losses when an investor may have expected gains if the Fund is held for a period that is different than one trading day.

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The Fund is not suitable for all investors. The Fund is designed to be utilized only by sophisticated investors, such as traders and active investors employing dynamic strategies. Investors in the Fund should:
a.understand the consequences of seeking daily inverse investment results;
b.understand the risk of shorting; and
c.intend to actively monitor and manage their investments.
Investors who do not understand the Fund, or do not intend to actively manage their funds and monitor their investments, should not buy the Fund.
There is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its daily inverse investment objective, and an investment in the Fund could lose money. The Fund is not a complete investment program.
THE FUND, ETF SERIES SOLUTIONS, DEFIANCE ETFS, LLC, AND VIDENT INVESTMENT ADVISORY, LLC ARE NOT AFFILIATED WITH THE AMPLIFY ETF, AMPLIFY ETF TRUST, AMPLIFY INVESTMENTS LLC, OR TOROSO INVESTMENTS, LLC.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Defiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF
Important Information Regarding the Fund:
The Fund seeks daily inverse investment results and is very different from most other exchange-traded funds. The pursuit of daily inverse investment goals means that the return of the Fund for a period longer than a full trading day may have no resemblance to ‑100% of the return of the Amplify ETF. This means that the return of the Fund for a period longer than a trading day will be the result of each single day's compounded return over the period, which will very likely differ from ‑100% of the return of the Amplify ETF for that period. Longer holding periods and higher volatility of the Amplify ETF increase the impact of compounding on an investor’s returns. During periods of higher Amplify ETF volatility, the volatility of the Amplify ETF may affect the Fund’s return as much as, or more than, the return of the Amplify ETF. Further, the return for investors that invest for periods longer or shorter than a trading day should not be expected to be ‑100% of the performance of the Amplify ETF for the period.
The Fund is not suitable for all investors. The Fund is designed to be utilized only by knowledgeable investors who understand the potential consequences of seeking daily inverse (-1X) investment results, understand the risks associated with the use of shorting and are willing to monitor their portfolios frequently. The Fund is not intended to be used by, and is not appropriate for, investors who do not intend to actively monitor and manage their portfolios. For periods longer than a single day, the Fund will lose money if the Amplify ETF’s performance is flat, and it is possible that the Fund will lose money even if the Amplify ETF’s performance decreases over a period longer than a single day. An investor could lose the full principal value of his/her investment within a single day.
Investment Objective
The Fund seeks to provide investment results that are approximately the inverse (or opposite) of, before fees and expenses, the daily price and yield performance of the Amplify ETF. The Fund does not seek to achieve its stated investment objective for a period of time different than a trading day.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees[ ]%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees0.00%
Other Expenses1
[ ]%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses2
[ ]%
1 Estimated for the current fiscal year.
2 The cost of investing in swaps, including the embedded cost of the swap and the operating expenses of the referenced assets, is an indirect expense that is not included in the above fee table and is not reflected in the expense example. The total indirect cost of investing in swaps, including the embedded cost of the swap and the operating expenses of the referenced assets, is estimated to be 0.[ ]% for the fiscal year ending [ ], 2022.
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then continue to hold or redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year3 Years
$[ ]$[ ]
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund is newly organized, portfolio turnover information is not yet available.
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its investment objective, under normal circumstances, by investing in swap agreements and short positions on the Amplify ETF that provide inverse (opposite) or short exposure to the value of the Amplify ETF.
The Fund will enter into short positions of Amplify ETF and/or swap agreements with major global financial institutions for a specified period ranging from a day to more than one year whereby the Fund and the global financial institution will agree to exchange the return (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on the Amplify ETF. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties is calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” e.g., the return on or change in value of a particular dollar amount representing the Amplify ETF. At the close of the markets each trading day, the Adviser adjusts the Fund’s exposure to the Amplify ETF consistent with the Fund’s daily investment objective. The impact of market movements during the day determines whether a portfolio needs to be repositioned. If the value of the Amplify ETF has risen on a given day, the Fund’s net assets should fall, meaning its exposure will typically need to be decreased. Conversely, if the value of the Amplify ETF has fallen on a given day, the Fund’s net assets should rise, meaning its exposure will typically need to be increased. The Fund will attempt to achieve its investment objective without regard to overall market movement or the increase or decrease of the value of the securities of the Amplify ETF.
The Amplify ETF is an actively managed ETF that seeks to provide total return by investing at least 80% of its net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in the equity securities of companies actively involved in the development and utilization of “transformational data sharing technologies.” In selecting these companies relevant to the Amplify ETF’s investment theme, the Amplify ETF’s portfolio managers invest at least 80% of the Amplify ETF’s net assets (plus borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities of companies actively involved in the development and utilization of blockchain technologies. The Amplify ETF has significant exposure to information technology companies and companies located in emerging market countries. Under normal circumstances, the Amplify ETF’s portfolio consists of 40 to 60 companies.
A “blockchain” is a digital series of records stored across a decentralized network that uses cryptography to create a secure and verified history of transactions. The decentralized nature of a blockchain utilizes and relies on multiple “nodes” to continuously update and certify the accuracy of information in the chain, mitigating the risks associated with centralized networks, where a single source can be tampered with to change information across a network. Blockchain technology can be used to record transactions involving tangible, intangible, and digital assets, and a blockchain may be constrained to certain users or companies or open to the public. Certain blockchains track records associated with “non-fungible tokens” or “NFTs”, which act like a certificate of authenticity for a digital record. NFTs may be purchased, sold, or held as an original digital collectible for items such as digital art, music, videos, or other electronic content.
The Fund will not invest in digital assets (including cryptocurrencies) directly or indirectly through the use of derivatives. The Fund also will not invest in initial coin offerings. Because the Fund will not invest directly in any digital assets, it will not track price movements of any digital assets. The Fund, however, has indirect exposure to equity securities actively involved in the development and utilization of blockchain technologies by virtue of its use of short positions and swap agreements that provide short exposure to the Amplify ETF, which invests in companies across a wide variety of industries that are leading in the research, development, utilization and funding of blockchain-based transformational data sharing technologies. Although initially associated with digital commodities, blockchain technologies can be used to track tangible, intangible, and digital assets. “Digital assets” refer to electronic files of data that can be owned and transferred, used as a currency to make transactions (e.g., cryptocurrencies and asset-backed stablecoins), or used to store intangible content (e.g., non-fungible tokens (NFTs)) with blockchain technology. Digital assets generally rely on a blockchain to maintain the integrity of their transaction histories, and new amounts of a digital asset are added to the available supply based on the completion of certain complex mathematical problems — a process known as digital asset “mining”. Accordingly, the Amplify ETF invests in the equity securities of companies that comprise the blockchain and digital assets industry.
Generally, at or near the close of the market at each trading day, the Fund will position its portfolio to ensure that the Fund’s exposure to the Amplify ETF is consistent with its stated investment objective. The time and manner in which the Fund rebalances its portfolio may vary from day to day at the sole discretion of the Adviser depending upon market conditions and other circumstances. The Fund reviews the notional exposure of its swap agreement, which reflects the extent of the Fund’s total investment exposure under the swap, to ensure that the Fund’s exposure is in-line with its stated investment objective. The gross returns to be exchanged are calculated with respect to the notional amount and the Amplify ETF returns to which the swap is linked. Swaps are typically closed out on a net basis. Thus, while the notional amount reflects the Fund’s total investment exposure under the swap, the net amount is the Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under the swap. That is the amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement. If for any reason the Fund is unable to rebalance all or a portion of its portfolio, or if all or a portion of the portfolio is rebalanced incorrectly, the Fund’s investment exposure may not be consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. As a result, the Fund may be more or less exposed to leverage risk than if it had been properly rebalanced and may not achieve its investment objective. To the extent that the Fund needs to “roll” its swap positions (i.e., enter into new swap positions with a later expiration date as the current positions approach expiration), it could be subjected to increased costs which could negatively impact the Fund’s performance.
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The Fund may also gain inverse exposure to the Amplify ETF by directly shorting the securities of the Amplify ETF. When the Fund shorts the Amplify ETF, it borrows shares of the Amplify ETF, which it then sells. The Fund closes out a short sale by purchasing the same number of shares of the Amplify ETF that the Fund borrowed and returning those shares to the entity that lent the Amplify ETF shares to the Fund initially.
The Fund expects that its cash balances maintained in connection with the use of financial instruments will typically be held in U.S. government securities, U.S. agency securities, money market funds, or repurchase agreements.
The Fund is considered to be non-diversified, which means that it may invest more of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it were a diversified fund.
Because of daily rebalancing and the compounding of each day’s return over time, the return of the Fund for periods longer than a single day will be the result of each day’s returns compounded over the period, which will very likely differ from -100% of the return of the Amplify ETF over the same period. The Fund will lose money if the Amplify ETF’s performance is flat over time, and as a result of daily rebalancing, the Amplify ETF’s volatility and the effects of compounding, it is even possible that the Fund will lose money over time while the Amplify ETF’s performance decreases over a period longer than a single day.
THE FUND, ETF SERIES SOLUTIONS, DEFIANCE ETFS, LLC, AND VIDENT INVESTMENT ADVISORY, LLC ARE NOT AFFILIATED WITH THE AMPLIFY ETF, AMPLIFY ETF TRUST, AMPLIFY INVESTMENTS LLC, OR TOROSO INVESTMENTS, LLC.
Principal Investment Risks
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. You may lose the full value of your investment within a single day. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives.
In addition, the Fund presents risks not traditionally associated with other ETFs. Because the Fund seeks a daily return that corresponds to the inverse of the Amplify ETF’s performance, the Fund is subject to many of the same risks as the Amplify ETF. While the realization of certain of the risks described herein may benefit the Fund because the Fund seeks a daily return, before fees and expenses, that corresponds to the inverse (-1x) of the daily return of the Amplify ETF, such occurrences may introduce more volatility to the Amplify ETF, which in turn could have a significant negative impact on Fund performance. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Fund.”
Blockchain Investments Risk. The exposure of the Amplify ETF to companies actively engaged in blockchain technology may subject the Amplify ETF to the following risks, which in turn may impact the Fund’s performance:
Blockchain technology is new and many of its uses may be untested. The mechanics of using blockchain technology to transact in digital or other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is relatively new and untested. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur.
Theft, loss or destruction. Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss, or destruction of these keys could adversely affect a user’s ownership claims over an asset or a company’s business or operations if it was dependent on the blockchain.
Competing platforms, technologies, and patents. The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use an alternative to blockchains. Further, if one or more other persons, companies or organizations has or obtains a valid patent covering technology critical to the operation of one or more of a company’s business lines, there can be no guarantee that such an entity would be willing to license such technology at acceptable prices or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Cyber security incidents. Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations, or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response. Additionally, blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies.
Developmental risk. Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.
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Intellectual property claims. A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities.
Key personnel risk. Some of the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest rely on highly skilled financial service professionals and software engineers. Because of competition from other firms, these companies may face difficulties in recruiting and retaining professionals of a caliber consistent with their business strategy in the future. The inability to successfully identify and retain qualified professionals could materially and adversely affect the growth, operations, or financial condition of the company.
Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets. Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.
Lack of regulation. Digital commodities and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. Because blockchain technology works by having every transaction build on every other transaction, participants can self-police any corruption, which can mitigate the need to depend on the current level of legal or government safeguards to monitor and control the flow of business transactions. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity, or even failure. There can be no guarantee that future regulation of blockchain technology or cryptocurrencies will not have a negative impact on the value of such technologies and of the companies in the which the Fund invests.
Network amendment risk. Significant contributors to all or any cryptocurrency network could propose amendments to the respective network’s protocols and software that, if accepted and authorized by such network, could adversely affect a company in which the Amplify ETF may invest. For example, with respect to the bitcoin network, a small group of individuals contribute to the bitcoin network’s source code. Those individuals can propose refinements or improvements to the bitcoin network’s source code through one or more software upgrades that alter the protocols and software that govern the bitcoin network and the properties of bitcoin, including the irreversibility of transactions and limitations on the mining of new bitcoin. To the extent that a significant majority of the users and miners on the bitcoin network install such software upgrade(s), the bitcoin network would be subject to new protocols and software that may adversely affect the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest.
NFT Ecosystem Company Risk. The value of NFTs may decline for short or long periods of time and may be volatile due to factors such as the desirability of the particular NFT, the availability of other similar NFTs, the accessibility of the blockchain used by the NFT, and general risks applicable to these companies. Volatility in the value of NFTs may have a material adverse effect on a company’s business, financial condition, and results of operation.
Third party product defects or vulnerabilities. Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application, may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.
Reliance on cryptocurrency. Some of the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest rely heavily on the success of the digital currency industry, the development and acceptance of which is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. Cryptocurrency generally operates without a central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government. Cryptocurrency is not legal tender. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the United States is still developing. The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss, and destruction. Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. Cryptocurrency exchanges may stop operating or permanently shut down due to fraud, technical glitches, hackers, or malware, which may also affect volatility.
Line of business risk. Some of the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to
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its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.
Compounding and Market Volatility Risk. The Fund has a daily inverse investment objective and the Fund’s performance for periods greater than a trading day will be the result of each day’s returns compounded over the period, which is very likely to differ from -100% of the Amplify ETF’s performance, before fees and expenses. Compounding affects all investments, but has a more significant impact on funds that are inverse and that rebalance daily. For an inverse fund, if adverse daily performance of the reference asset reduces the amount of a shareholder’s investment, any further adverse daily performance will lead to a smaller dollar loss because the shareholder’s investment had already been reduced by the prior adverse performance. Equally, however, if favorable daily performance of the reference asset increases the amount of a shareholder’s investment, the dollar amount lost due to future adverse performance will increase because the shareholder’s investment has increased.
The effect of compounding becomes more pronounced as the Amplify ETF’s volatility and the holding period increase. The impact of compounding will impact each shareholder differently depending on the period of time an investment in the Fund is held and the volatility of the Amplify ETF during a shareholder’s holding period of Fund shares.
The chart below provides examples of how the Amplify ETF’s volatility could affect the Fund’s performance. Fund performance for periods greater than one single day can be estimated given any set of assumptions for the following factors: a) Amplify ETF’s volatility; b) Amplify ETF’s performance; c) period of time; d) financing rates associated with inverse exposure; e) other Fund expenses; and f) dividends or interest paid with respect to portfolio securities held by the Amplify ETF. The chart below illustrates the impact of two principal factors – Amplify ETF’s volatility and Amplify ETF’s performance – on Fund performance. The chart shows estimated Fund returns for a number of combinations of the Amplify ETF’s volatility and the Amplify ETF’s performance over a one-year period. Performance shown in the chart assumes that: (i) no dividends were paid with respect to the portfolio securities held by the Amplify ETF; (ii) there were no Fund expenses; and (iii) borrowing/lending rates (to obtain inverse exposure) of 0%. If Fund expenses and/or actual borrowing/lending rates were reflected, the estimated returns would be different than those shown.
As shown in the chart below, the Fund would be expected to lose -[ ]% if the Amplify ETF provided no return over a one year period during which the Amplify ETF experienced annualized volatility of 25%. If the Amplify ETF annualized volatility were to rise to 75%, the hypothetical loss for a one year period widens to approximately -[ ]%. At higher ranges of volatility, there is a chance of a significant loss of value in the Fund. For instance, if the Amplify ETF’s annualized volatility is 100%, the Fund would be expected to lose approximately -[ ]% of its value, even if the cumulative return of the Amplify ETF for the year was 0%. The volatility of the instruments that reflect the value of the Amplify ETF, such as swaps, may differ from the volatility of the Amplify ETF.
Areas shaded dark gray represent those scenarios where the Fund can be expected to return less than -100% Amplify ETF’s performance and those shaded light gray represent those scenarios where the Fund can be expected to return more than -100% of the Amplify ETF’s performance. The Fund’s actual returns may be significantly better or worse than the returns shown below as a result of any of the factors discussed above or in “Daily Inverse Correlation/Tracking Risk” below.
Estimated Returns of -1X Amplify ETF
Amplify ETF PerformanceOne Year Volatility Rate
One Year Amplify ETFInverse (-1X) of the One Year10%25%50%75%100%
-60%60%147.50%134.90%94.70%42.40%-8.00%
-50%50%98.00%87.90%55.80%14.00%-26.40%
-40%40%65.00%56.60%29.80%-5.00%-38.70%
-30%30%41.40%34.20%11.30%-18.60%-47.40%
-20%20%23.80%17.40%-2.60%-28.80%-54.00%
-10%10%10.00%4.40%-13.50%-36.70%-59.10%
0%0%-1.00%-6.10%-22.10%-43.00%-63.20%
10%-10%-10.00%-14.60%-29.20%-48.20%-66.60%
20%-20%-17.50%-21.70%-35.10%-52.50%-69.30%
30%-30%-23.80%-27.70%-40.10%-56.20%-71.70%
40%-40%-29.30%-32.90%-44.40%-59.30%-73.70%
50%-50%-34.00%-37.40%-48.10%-62.00%-75.50%
60%-60%-38.10%-41.30%-51.30%-64.40%-77.00%
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The Amplify ETF’s annualized historical volatility rate for the period from January 17, 2018 (the inception date of the Amplify ETF) to December 31, 2021 was [ ]%. The Amplify ETF’s highest volatility rate for any one calendar year for the period from January 17, 2018 (the inception date of the Amplify ETF) through December 31, 2021 was [ ]% and volatility for a shorter period of time may have been substantially higher. The Amplify ETF’s annualized performance for the period from January 17, 2018 (the inception date of the Amplify ETF) to December 31, 2021 was [ ]%. Historical Amplify ETF volatility and performance are not indications of what the Amplify ETF volatility and performance will be in the future.
Counterparty Risk. The risk of loss to the Fund for swap transactions that are entered into on a net basis depends on which party is obligated to pay the net amount to the other party. If the counterparty is obligated to pay the net amount to the Fund, the risk of loss to the Fund is loss of the entire amount that the Fund is entitled to receive. If the Fund is obligated to pay the net amount, the Fund’s risk of loss is generally limited to that net amount. If a swap agreement involves the exchange of the entire principal value of a security, the entire principal value of that security is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. A counterparty may be unwilling or unable to make timely payments to meet its contractual obligations or may fail to return holdings that are subject to the agreement with the counterparty. If the counterparty or its affiliate becomes insolvent, bankrupt or defaults on its payment obligations to the Fund, the value of an investment held by the Fund may decline. Additionally, if any collateral posted by the counterparty for the benefit of the Fund is insufficient or there are delays in the Fund’s ability to access such collateral, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective.
In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements with a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty credit risk. Further, there is a risk that no suitable counterparties will be willing to enter into, or continue to enter into, transactions with the Fund and, as a result, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective or may decide to change its investment objective.
Daily Inverse Correlation/Tracking Risk. Investors will lose money when the Amplify ETF appreciates in value. There is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve a high degree of inverse correlation to the Amplify ETF and therefore achieve its daily inverse investment objective. The Fund’s exposure to the Amplify ETF is impacted by the Amplify ETF’s portfolio holdings movement. Because of this, it is unlikely that the Fund will be perfectly exposed to the Amplify ETF at the end of each day. The possibility of the Fund being materially over- or under-exposed to the Amplify ETF increases on days when the Amplify ETF is volatile near the close of the trading day. Market disruptions, regulatory restrictions and high volatility will also adversely affect the Fund’s ability to adjust exposure to the required levels. Due to the inverse nature of the Fund’s investment strategy, the occurrence of some of these events or market conditions discussed below may be favorable to the Fund’s returns; however, nonoccurrence of these events below could have no effect on the Fund’s returns, or could cause the value of the Fund’s assets to decrease.
The Fund may have difficulty achieving its daily inverse investment objective due to fees, expenses, transaction costs, financing costs related to the use of derivatives, income items, valuation methodology, accounting standards and disruptions or illiquidity in the markets for the securities or derivatives held by the Fund. The Fund may be subject to large movements of assets into and out of the Fund, potentially resulting in the Fund being over- or under-exposed to the Amplify ETF. The Fund may take or refrain from taking positions to improve tax efficiency or to comply with various regulatory restrictions, which may negatively impact the Fund’s inverse correlation to the Amplify ETF. Any of these factors could decrease correlation between the performance of the Fund and the Amplify ETF and may hinder the Fund’s ability to meet its daily inverse investment objective.
Derivatives Risk. Derivatives are financial instruments that derive value from the underlying reference asset or assets, such as stocks, bonds, or funds (including ETFs), interest rates or indexes. The Fund’s investments in derivatives may pose risks in addition to, and greater than, those associated with directly investing in securities or other ordinary investments, including risk related to the market, leverage, imperfect daily correlations with underlying investments or the Fund’s other portfolio holdings, higher price volatility, lack of availability, counterparty risk, liquidity, valuation and legal restrictions. The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of derivatives may result in larger losses or smaller gains than directly investing in securities. When the Fund uses derivatives, there may be imperfect correlation between the value of the Amplify ETF and the derivative, which may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective. Because derivatives often require only a limited initial investment, the use of derivatives may expose the Fund to losses in excess of those amounts initially invested. In addition, the Fund’s investments in derivatives are subject to the following risks:
Swap Agreements. The use of swap transactions is a highly specialized activity, which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. Whether the Fund will be successful in using swap agreements to achieve its investment goal depends on the ability of the Sub-Adviser to structure swap agreements in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and to identify counterparties for those swap agreements. If the Sub-Adviser is unable to enter into swap agreements that provide inverse exposure to the Amplify ETF, the Fund may not meet its investment objective.
The swap agreements in which the Fund invests are generally traded in the over-the-counter market, which generally has less transparency than exchange-traded derivatives instruments. In a standard swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the
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return (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined reference assets or underlying securities or instruments. The gross return to be exchanged or swapped between the parties is calculated based on a notional amount or the return on or change in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a basket of securities.
If the Amplify ETF has a dramatic move that causes a material decline in the Fund’s net assets, the terms of a swap agreement between the Fund and its counterparty may permit the counterparty to immediately close out the swap transaction with the Fund. In that event, the Fund may be unable to enter into another swap agreement or invest in other derivatives to achieve exposure consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. This may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective, even if the Amplify ETF later reverses all or a portion of its movement.
Emerging Markets Risk. The exposure of the Amplify ETF to investments in emerging markets subjects the Amplify ETF to emerging markets risk, which in turn may impact the Fund’s performance. Emerging market countries include, but are not limited to, those considered to be developing by the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation or one of the leading global investment banks. The majority of these countries are likely to be located in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and Africa. Investments in emerging market issuers are subject to a greater risk of loss than investments in issuers located or operating in more developed markets. This is due to, among other things, the potential for greater market volatility, lower trading volume, higher levels of inflation, political and economic instability, greater risk of a market shutdown and more governmental limitations on foreign investments in emerging market countries than are typically found in more developed markets. Moreover, emerging markets often have less uniformity in accounting and reporting requirements, less reliable securities valuations and greater risks associated with custody of securities than developed markets. In addition, emerging markets often have greater risk of capital controls through such measures as taxes or interest rate control than developed markets. Certain emerging market countries may also lack the infrastructure necessary to attract large amounts of foreign trade and investment.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., derivative instruments). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used. By paying out higher annual capital gain distributions, investors may be subjected to increased capital gains taxes.
Government Obligations Risk. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). Securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have historically been supported only by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government. While the U.S. government provides financial support to various U.S. government-sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as
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Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, no assurance can be given that it will always do so. In September 2008, at the direction of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship under the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an independent regulator, and they remain in such status as of the date of this Prospectus. The U.S. government also took steps to provide additional financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
Intra-Day Investment Risk. The Fund seeks investment results from the close of the market on a given trading day until the close of the market on the subsequent trading day. The exact exposure of an investment in the Fund intraday in the secondary market is a function of the difference between the value of the Amplify ETF at the market close on the first trading day and the value of the Amplify ETF at the time of purchase. If the Amplify ETF loses value, the Fund’s net assets will rise by the same amount as the Fund’s exposure. Conversely, if the Amplify ETF rises, the Fund’s net assets will decline by the same amount as the Fund’s exposure. Thus, an investor that purchases shares intra-day may experience performance that is greater than, or less than, the inverse of the Amplify ETF’s performance. If there is a significant intra-day market event and/or the securities of the Amplify ETF experiences a significant decrease, the Fund may not meet its investment objective or rebalance its portfolio appropriately.
Leverage Risk. Derivative contracts ordinarily have leverage inherent in their terms. The low margin deposits normally required in trading derivatives, including futures contracts, permit a high degree of leverage. Accordingly, a relatively small price movement may result in an immediate and substantial loss to the Fund. The use of leverage may also cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligations or to meet collateral segregation requirements. The use of leveraged derivatives can magnify the Fund’s potential for gain or loss and, therefore, amplify the effects of market volatility on the Fund’s share price.
Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. This can reduce the Fund’s returns because the Fund may be unable to transact at advantageous times or prices. Markets for securities or financial instruments could be disrupted by a number of events, including, but not limited to, an economic crisis, natural disasters, epidemics/pandemics, new legislation or regulatory changes inside or outside the United States. Illiquid securities may be difficult to value, especially in changing or volatile markets. If the Fund is forced to sell an illiquid security at an unfavorable time or price, the Fund may be adversely impacted. Certain market conditions or restrictions, such as market rules related to short sales, may prevent the Fund from limiting losses, realizing gains or achieving a high correlation with the Amplify ETF. There is no assurance that a security that is deemed liquid when purchased will continue to be liquid.
Management Risk. The Sub-Adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value, and potential appreciation of a particular security or derivative in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and may not produce the desired results.
Market Risk. The investments held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. U.S. and international markets have experienced volatility in recent months and years due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors, including rising inflation, the war between Russia and Ukraine, and the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic. While U.S. and global economies are recovering from the effects of the pandemic, the recovery is proceeding at slower than expected rates and may last for a prolonged period of time. Uncertainties regarding interest rates, political events, the Russia-Ukraine war, rising government debt in the U.S., and trade tensions have also contributed to market volatility. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets. The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments may also fluctuate in response to a variety of other factors, and consequently, the Fund’s NAV and market price may also fluctuate significantly. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Money Market Instrument Risk. The Fund may use a variety of money market instruments for cash management purposes, including money market funds, depositary accounts and repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements are contracts in which a seller of securities agrees to buy the securities back at a specified time and price. Repurchase agreements may be subject to market and credit risk related to the collateral securing the repurchase agreement. Money market instruments may lose money.
New Fund Risk. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors have no track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Non-Diversification Risk. The Fund is considered to be non-diversified, which means that it may invest more of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it were a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a smaller number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively smaller number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance. However, the Fund intends to satisfy the diversification requirements for qualifying as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).
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Rebalancing Risk. If for any reason the Fund is unable to rebalance all or a portion of its portfolio, or if all or a portion of the portfolio is rebalanced incorrectly, the Fund’s investment exposure may not be consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. In these instances, the Fund may have investment exposure to the Amplify ETF that is significantly greater or less than its stated multiple. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to leverage risk than if it had been properly rebalanced and may not achieve its investment objective, leading to significantly greater losses or reduced gains.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Amplify ETF invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Amplify ETF may invest a significant portion of its assets in the following sectors and, therefore, the performance of the Fund could be impacted by events affecting each of these sectors.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability.
Short Sales Risk. The Fund may make short sales of securities, which involves selling a security it does not own in anticipation that the price of the security will decline. Short sales may involve substantial risk and leverage. Short sales expose the Fund to the risk that it will be required to buy (“cover”) the security sold short when the security has appreciated in value or is unavailable, thus resulting in a loss to the Fund. Short sales also involve the risk that losses may exceed the amount invested and may be unlimited.
Shorting Risk. A short position is a financial arrangement in which the short position appreciates in value when a reference asset falls in value and depreciates in value when the reference asset rises in value. Over the long term, most assets are expected to rise in value and short positions are expected to depreciate in value. Short positions therefore may be riskier and more speculative than traditional investments.
Obtaining inverse or “short” exposure through the use of derivatives such as swap agreements may expose the Fund to certain risks such as an increase in volatility or decrease in the liquidity of the securities of the underlying short position. If the Fund were to experience this volatility or decreased liquidity, the Fund’s return may be lower, the Fund’s ability to obtain inverse exposure through the use of derivatives may be limited or the Fund may be required to obtain inverse exposure through alternative investment strategies that may be less desirable or more costly to implement. If the securities underlying the short positions are thinly traded or have a limited market due to various factors, including regulatory action, the Fund may be unable to meet its investment objective due to a lack of available securities or counterparties. The Fund may not be able to issue additional Creation Units during period when it cannot meet its investment objective due to these factors. Any income, dividends or payments by the assets underlying the Fund’s short positions will negatively impact the Fund.
Performance
Performance information for the Fund is not included because the Fund did not have a full calendar year of performance prior to the date of this Prospectus. In the future, performance information for the Fund will be presented in this section. Updated performance information will be available on the Fund’s website at www.defianceetfs.com.
Portfolio Management
AdviserDefiance ETFs, LLC (the “Adviser”)
Sub-Adviser
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”)
Portfolio Manager
Rafael Zayas, CFA, SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading of VIA, has been the Fund’s portfolio manager since the Fund’s inception in [ ].
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Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.defianceetfs.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Fund’s investment adviser, sub-adviser or their affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND
Investment Objectives
The Fund seeks investment results that correspond to the inverse (-100%) of the performance of the Amplify ETF, before fees and expenses. If, on a given day, the Amplify ETF gains 1%, the Fund is designed to lose approximately 1% (which is equal to -100% of 1%). Conversely, if the Amplify ETF loses 1% on a given day, the Fund is designed to gain approximately 1%. The Fund seeks inverse investment results on a daily basis — from the close of regular trading on one trading day to the close on the next trading day — which should not be equated with seeking an inverse investment objective for any other period. As used in this Prospectus, the terms “daily,” “day,” and “trading day,” refer to the period from the regular close of the markets on one trading day to the regular close of the markets on the next trading day.
The Fund does not attempt to, and should not be expected to, provide returns that are the inverse (-100%) of the Amplify ETF’s return for periods other than a single day. The Fund rebalances its portfolio on a daily basis, increasing exposure to the Amplify ETF in response to that day’s gains or that day’s losses.
The exposure to the Amplify ETF received by an investor who purchases the Fund intra-day will differ from the Fund’s stated daily inverse investment objective by an amount determined by the movement of the Amplify ETF from its value at the end of the prior day. If the Amplify ETF moves in a direction favorable to the Fund between the close of the market on one trading day through the time on the next trading day when the investor purchases Fund shares, the investor will receive less exposure to the Amplify ETF than the Fund’s stated daily inverse investment objective. Conversely, if the Amplify ETF moves in a direction adverse to the Fund, the investor will receive more exposure to the Amplify ETF than the Fund’s stated daily inverse investment objective.
The Fund is designed as a short-term trading vehicle. The Fund is intended to be used by investors who intend to actively monitor and manage their portfolios.
The Fund is not suitable for all investors. The Fund is designed to be utilized only by sophisticated investors, such as traders and active investors employing dynamic strategies. Such investors are expected to monitor and manage their portfolios frequently. Investors should (a) understand the consequences of seeking daily inverse investment results; and (b) understand the risk of shorting. Investors who do not understand the Fund or do not intend to actively manage their funds and monitor their investments should not buy the Fund.
There is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective and an investment in the Fund could lose money. No single fund is a complete investment program.
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The Fund’s investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon written notice to shareholders.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund seeks the inverse (-1X) (or opposite) of the performance of the Amplify ETF on a given day. The Sub-Adviser creates net “short” positions for the Fund by holding swaps and short positions on the Amplify ETF. Short positions move in the opposite direction of the Amplify ETF, advancing when the Amplify ETF declines and declining when the Amplify ETF advances.
At the close of the markets each trading day, the Sub-Adviser positions the Fund’s portfolio so that its exposure to the Amplify ETF is consistent with the Fund’s daily inverse investment objective. The impact of market movements during the day determines whether the Fund’s portfolio needs to be repositioned. If the value of the Amplify ETF has risen on a given day, the Fund’s assets (i.e., net assets plus borrowing for investment purposes, if any) should fall, meaning its exposure will typically need to be decreased. Conversely, if the value of the Amplify ETF has fallen on a given day, the Fund’s net assets should rise, meaning its exposure will typically need to be increased. The Sub-Adviser increases the Fund’s exposure when its assets rise and reduces Fund’s exposure when its assets fall.
If the Fund is unable to obtain sufficient exposure to the Amplify ETF due to the limited availability of necessary investments or financial instruments, the Fund could, among other things, limit or suspend creation units until the Sub-Adviser determines that the requisite exposure to the Amplify ETF is obtainable. During the period that creation units are suspended, the Fund could trade at a significant premium or discount to its NAV and could experience substantial redemptions.
The Effects of Fees and Expenses on the Return of the Fund for a Single Trading Day.
The Fund seeks to provide a daily return which is the inverse (or opposite) of the daily return of the Amplify ETF. To create the necessary exposure, the Fund engages in short selling — borrowing and selling securities it does not own. The money that the Fund receives from short sales — the short sale proceeds — is an asset of the Fund that can generate income to help offset the Fund’s operating expenses. However, the costs of creating short exposure, which may require the Fund’s counterparties to borrow and sell certain securities, may offset or outweigh such income. As the holder of a short position, the Fund also is responsible for paying the dividends and interest accruing on the short position, which is an expense to the Fund that could cause the Fund to lose money on the short sale and may adversely affect its performance. The Fund will reposition its portfolio at the end of every trading day. Therefore, if an investor purchases Fund shares at the close of the markets on a given trading day, the investor’s exposure to the Amplify ETF would reflect 100% of the inverse performance of the Amplify ETF during the following trading day, subject to the charges and expenses noted above.
The Fund may have difficulty in achieving its daily inverse investment objective due to fees, expenses, transaction costs, income items, accounting standards, significant purchase and redemption activity by Fund shareholders and/or disruptions or a temporary lack of liquidity in the markets for the securities held by the Fund.
The Fund seeks exposure to daily returns while repositioning daily. Therefore, for a period longer than one day, the pursuit of daily returns will result in daily compounding. This means that the return of the Amplify ETF over a period of time greater than one day multiplied by the Fund’s daily target (i.e., -100%) generally will not equal the Fund’s performance over that same period. As a consequence, investors should not plan to hold the Fund unmonitored for periods longer than a single trading day. Further, the return for investors that invest for periods less than a full trading day or for a period different than a trading day will not be the product of the return of the Fund’s daily inverse investment objective and the Amplify ETF’s performance for the full trading day. The Fund is not suitable for all investors.
Consider the following examples:
Amy is considering investments in two funds, Funds A and B. Fund A is an actively-managed ETF (the “Reference Fund”). Similar to the Fund, Fund B is an ETF that seeks daily investment results (before fees and expenses) that correspond to -100% of the daily performance of the Reference Fund (the “Hypothetical Inverse Fund”).
On Day 1, the Reference Fund’s NAV increases in value from $100 to $105, a gain of 5%. On Day 2, the Reference Fund’s NAV decreases in value from $105 back to $100, a loss of 4.76%. In the aggregate, the value of the Reference Fund has not moved.
An investment in the Reference Fund would be expected to gain 5% on Day 1 and lose 4.76% on Day 2, returning the investment to its original value. The same $100 investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund would be expected to lose 5% on Day 1 but gain 4.76% on Day 2.
.
Day
Value of Reference Fund Investment
Reference Fund PerformanceHypothetical Inverse Fund PerformanceValue of Hypothetical Inverse Fund Investment
$100.00$100.00
1$105.005.00%-5.00%$95.00
2$100.00-4.76%4.76%$99.52
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In the case of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund, although the percentage decrease on Day 2 is sufficient to bring the value of the Reference Fund back to its starting point, because the inverse of that percentage is applied to a lower principal amount on Day 2, the Hypothetical Inverse Fund has a loss.
(These calculations do not include the charges for fund fees and expenses.) As you can see, an investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund has additional risks than the Reference Fund due to the effects of compounding on the Hypothetical Inverse Fund.
An investor who purchases shares of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund intra-day will generally receive more, or less, than -100% exposure to the Reference Fund from that point until the end of the trading day. The actual exposure will be largely a function of the performance of the Reference Fund from the end of the prior trading day. If the Hypothetical Inverse Fund shares are held for a period longer than a single trading day, the Hypothetical Inverse Fund’s performance is likely to deviate from -100% of the return of the Reference Fund’s performance for the longer period. This deviation will increase with higher Reference Fund volatility and longer holding periods.
Examples of the Impact of Amplify ETF Volatility. The Fund rebalances its portfolio on a daily basis, increasing exposure in response to that day’s gains or reducing exposure in response to that day’s losses. Daily rebalancing will typically cause the Fund to lose money if the Amplify ETF experiences volatility. Volatility rate is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in returns over a defined period. For periods longer than a trading day, volatility in the Amplify ETF’s performance from day to day is the primary cause of any disparity between the Fund’s actual returns and the returns of the Amplify ETF for such period. Volatility causes such disparity because it exacerbates the effects of compounding on the Fund’s returns.
Consider the following three examples that demonstrate the effect of volatility on a hypothetical fund seeking an -100% correlation with a hypothetical fund:
Example 1 – Reference Fund Experiences Volatility with Trend
Amy invests $10.00 in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund at the close of trading on Day 1. During Day 2, the Reference Fund’s NAV decrease by 2%. Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund rises 2% to $10.20. Amy holds her investment through the close of trading on Day 3, during which the Reference Fund’s NAV decrease an additional 2.04%. The NAV of Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund rises to $10.41, a gain during Day 3 of 2.04%. For the two day period since Amy invested in the Hypothetical Reference Fund, the Reference Fund’s NAV lost 4% although Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund increased by 4.1%. Because the Reference Fund continued to trend downwards, Amy’s return closely correlates to -100% of the return of the Reference Fund for the period.
Example 2 – Reference Fund Experiences Volatility with Trend Reversal
Amy invests $10.00 in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund after the close of trading on Day 1. During Day 2, the Reference Fund’s NAV decreases by 2%, and Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund rises by 2% to $10.20. Amy continues to hold her investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund through the end of Day 3, during which the Reference Fund’s NAV increases by 4.08%. Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund declines by 4.08%, from $10.20 to $9.78. For the two day period since Amy invested in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund, the Reference Fund’s NAV gained 2% while Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund decreased from $10 to $9.78, a 2.20% loss. The volatility of the Reference Fund and the trend reversal affected the correlation between the Reference Fund’s return for the two day period and Amy’s return. In this situation, Amy lost more than -100% the return of the Reference Fund.
Example 3 – Intra-day Investment with Volatility and Trend Reversal
The examples above assumed that Amy purchased the Hypothetical Inverse Fund at the close of trading on Day 1 and sold her investment at the close of trading on a subsequent day. However, if she made an investment intra-day, she would have received a notional exposure to the Reference Fund determined by the performance of the Reference Fund from the end of the prior trading day until her time of purchase on the next trading day.
Consider the following example.
Amy invests $10.00 in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund at 11 a.m. on Day 2. From the close of trading on Day 1 until 11 a.m. on Day 2, the Reference Fund’s NAV decreased by 2%. In light of that loss, the Hypothetical Inverse Fund’s notional exposure to the Reference Fund at the point at which Amy invests is -96%. From 11 a.m. when Amy purchased the Hypothetical Inverse Fund to 2 p.m. on Day 2, the Reference Fund’s NAV decreases by 8.16%, and Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund rises 7.83% (which is the Reference Fund gain of 8.16% multiplied by the 96% notional exposure to the Reference Fund that she received) to $10.78. Amy continues to hold her investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund through the close of trading on Day 2, during which the Reference Fund’s NAV increases by 22.22%. Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund declines by 18.2%, from $10.78 to $8.82. For the period of Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund, the Reference Fund’s NAV increased by 12.25%, while Amy’s investment in the Hypothetical Inverse Fund decreased from $10.00 to $8.82, an 11.8% loss. The volatility of the Reference Fund affected the correlation between the Reference Fund’s return for the period and Amy’s return. In this situation, Amy lost less than -100% of the return of the Reference Fund. Amy’s investment was also affected because she missed the first 2% move of the Reference Fund and had a notional exposure to the Reference Fund of -96% for the remainder of Day 2.
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Market Volatility. The Fund seeks to provide a return which is -100% of the daily performance of the Amplify ETF. The Fund does not attempt to, and should not be expected to, provide returns which are -100% of the return of the Amplify ETF for periods other than a single day. The Fund rebalances its portfolio on a daily basis, increasing exposure in response to that day’s gains or reducing exposure in response to that day’s losses.
Daily rebalancing will impair the Fund’s performance if the Amplify ETF experiences volatility. For instance, the Fund would be expected to lose 4% (as shown in Table 1 below) if the Amplify ETF provided no return over a one year period and experienced annualized volatility of 20%. If the Amplify ETF’s annualized volatility were to rise to 40%, the hypothetical loss for a one year period for the Fund widens to approximately 18%.
Table 1
Amplify ETF Volatility RangeFund Loss
10%-1%
20%-4%
30%-9%
40%-15%
50%-22%
60%-30%
70%-39%
80%-47%
90%-55%
100%-63%
Note that at higher volatility levels, there is a chance of a significant loss of Fund assets even if the value of the Amplify ETF is flat. For instance, if annualized volatility of the Amplify ETF were 100%, the Fund would be expected to lose more than 60% of its value, even if the Amplify ETF returned 0% for the year. Volatility rate is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in returns.
Table 2 shows the annualized historical volatility rate for the Amplify ETF since its inception on January 17, 2018.
Since market volatility has negative implications for the Fund which rebalances daily, investors should be sure to monitor and manage their investments in the Fund particularly in volatile markets. The negative implications of volatility in Table 1 can be combined with the recent volatility ranges in Table 2 to give investors some sense of the risks of holding the Fund for longer periods over the period since inception of the Amplify ETF. Historical volatility and performance for the Amplify ETF are not likely indicative of future volatility and performance.
Table 2 – Historic Volatility of the Amplify ETF
Historical Volatility Rate
Amplify ETF
[ ]
The Projected Returns of the Fund for Intra-Day Purchases. Because the Fund rebalances its portfolio once daily, an investor who purchases shares during a day will likely have more, or less, than -100% investment exposure to the Amplify ETF. The exposure to the Amplify ETF received by an investor who purchases the Fund intra-day will differ from the Fund’s stated daily investment objective (i.e., -100%) by an amount determined by the movement of the Amplify ETF from its value at the end of the prior day. If the Amplify ETF moves in a direction favorable to the Fund between the close of the market on one trading day through the time on the next trading day when the investor purchases Fund shares, the investor will receive less inverse exposure to the Amplify ETF than the stated fund daily investment objective (i.e., -100%).
Conversely, if the Amplify ETF moves in a direction adverse to the Fund, the investor will receive more inverse exposure to the Amplify ETF than the stated fund daily inverse investment objective (i.e., -100%).
Table 3 below indicates the hypothetical exposure to the Reference Fund that an intra-day purchase of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund would be expected to provide based upon the movement in the value of the Reference Fund from the close of the market on the prior trading day. Such exposure holds until a subsequent sale on that same trading day or until the close of the market on that trading day. For instance, if the Reference Fund has moved 2% in a direction favorable to the Hypothetical Inverse Fund, the investor would receive inverse exposure to the performance of the Reference Fund from that point until the investor sells later that day or the end of the day equal to approximately 96% of the investor’s investment.
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Conversely, if the Reference Fund has moved 2% in a direction unfavorable to the Hypothetical Inverse Fund, an investor at that point would receive inverse exposure to the performance of the Reference Fund from that point until the investor sells later that day or the end of the day equal to approximately -104% of the investor’s investment.
The table below includes a range of hypothetical Reference Fund moves from 5% to – 5% and the corresponding exposure for the Hypothetical Inverse Fund. Movement of the Reference Fund beyond the range noted below will result in exposure further from the Hypothetical Inverse Fund’s daily investment objective
Table 3
Reference Fund MoveResulting Exposure for the Hypothetical Inverse Fund
-5%-90%
-4%-92%
-3%-94%
-2%-96%
-1%-98%
0%-100%
1%-102%
2%-104%
3%-106%
4%-108%
5%-110%
The Projected Returns of the Fund for Periods Other Than a Single Trading Day. The Fund seeks investment results on a daily basis — from the close of regular trading on one trading day to the close on the next trading day — which should not be equated with seeking an investment objective for any other period. For instance, if the Amplify ETF gains 10% for a week, the Fund should not be expected to provide a return of -10% for the week even if it meets its daily investment objective throughout the week. This is true because of the financing charges noted above but also because the pursuit of daily investment objectives may result in daily compounding, which means that the return of the Amplify ETF over a period of time greater than one day multiplied by the Fund’s daily inverse investment objective (-100%) will not generally equal the Fund’s performance over that same period. In addition, the effects of compounding become greater the longer Shares are held beyond a single trading day.
The following tables set out a range of hypothetical daily performances during a given 10 trading days of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund compared to the Reference Fund and demonstrate how changes in the Reference Fund’s hypothetical performance would compare to the performance of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund for a trading day and cumulatively up to, and including, the entire 10 trading day period. The charts are based on a hypothetical $100 investment in the hypothetical funds over a 10 trading day period and do not reflect fees or expenses of any kind.
Table 4 – The Reference Fund Lacks a Clear Trend
Reference FundHypothetical Inverse Fund

NAV
Daily PerformanceCumulative Performance

NAV
Daily PerformanceCumulative Performance
$100.00$100.00
Day 1$105.005.00%5.00%$95.00-5.00%-5.00%
Day 2$110.004.76%10.00%$90.47-4.76%-9.53%
Day 3$100.00-9.09%0.00%$98.699.09%-1.31%
Day 4$90.00-10.00%-10.00%$108.5510.00%8.55%
Day 5$85.00-5.56%-15.00%$114.585.56%14.58%
Day 6$100.0017.65%0.00%$94.35-17.65%-5.65%
Day 7$95.00-5.00%-5.00%$99.065.00%-0.94%
Day 8$100.005.26%0.00%$93.84-5.26%-6.16%
Day 9$105.005.00%5.00%$89.14-5.00%-10.86%
Day 10$100.00-4.76%0.00%$93.384.76%-6.62%
The cumulative performance of the hypothetical Reference Fund in Table 4 is 0% for 10 trading days. The return of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund for the 10 trading day period is -6.62%. The volatility of the Reference Fund’s performance and lack of a clear trend
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results in performance for the Hypothetical Inverse Fund for the period which bears little relationship to the performance of the Reference Fund for the 10 trading day period.
Table 5 – The Reference Fund Rises in a Clear Trend
Reference FundHypothetical Inverse Fund
NAVDaily PerformanceCumulative PerformanceNAVDaily PerformanceCumulative Performance
$100.00$100.00
Day 1$102.002.00%2.00%$98.00-2.00%-2.00%
Day 2$104.001.96%4.00%$96.07-1.96%-3.93%
Day 3$106.001.92%6.00%$94.22-1.92%-5.78%
Day 4$108.001.89%8.00%$92.43-1.89%-7.57%
Day 5$110.001.85%10.00%$90.72-1.85%-9.28%
Day 6$112.001.82%12.00%$89.06-1.82%-10.94%
Day 7$114.001.79%14.00%$87.46-1.79%-12.54%
Day 8$116.001.75%16.00%$85.92-1.75%-14.08%
Day 9$118.001.72%18.00%$84.44-1.72%-15.56%
Day 10$120.001.69%20.00%$83.01-1.69%-16.91%
The cumulative performance of the hypothetical Reference Fund in Table 5 is 20% for 10 trading days. The return of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund for the 10 trading day period is -16.91%. In this case, because of the positive hypothetical Reference Fund trend, the Hypothetical Inverse Fund’s decline is less than -100% of the hypothetical Reference Fund gain for the 10 trading day period.
Table 6 – The Reference Fund Declines in a Clear Trend
Reference FundHypothetical Inverse Fund
NAVDaily PerformanceCumulative PerformanceNAVDaily PerformanceCumulative Performance
$100.00$100.00
Day 1$98.00-2.00%-2.00%$102.002.00%2.00%
Day 2$96.00-2.04%-4.00%$104.082.04%4.08%
Day 3$94.00-2.08%-6.00%$106.242.08%6.24%
Day 4$92.00-2.13%-8.00%$108.502.13%8.50%
Day 5$90.00-2.17%-10.00%$110.852.17%10.85%
Day 6$88.00-2.22%-12.00%$113.312.22%13.31%
Day 7$86.00-2.27%-14.00%$115.882.27%15.88%
Day 8$84.00-2.33%-16.00%$118.582.33%18.58%
Day 9$82.00-2.38%-18.00%$121.402.38%21.40%
Day 10$80.00-2.44%-20.00%$124.362.44%24.36%
The cumulative performance of the hypothetical Reference Fund in Table 6 is -20% for 10 trading days. The return of the Hypothetical Inverse Fund for the 10 trading day period is 24.36%. In this case, because of the negative Reference Fund trend, the Hypothetical Inverse Fund’s gain is greater than 100% of the hypothetical Reference Fund decline for the 10 trading day period.
Principal Investment Risks
This section provides additional information regarding the principal risks described in the Fund Summary. As in the Fund Summary, the principal risks below are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk described below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. Each of the factors below could have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance and trading prices.
Blockchain Investments Risk. The exposure of the Amplify ETF to companies actively engaged in blockchain technology may subject the Amplify ETF to the following risks, which in turn may impact the Fund’s performance:
Blockchain technology is new and many of its uses may be untested. The mechanics of using blockchain technology to transact in digital or other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is relatively new and untested. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur.
Theft, loss or destruction. Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss, or destruction of these keys could adversely affect a user’s ownership claims over an asset or a company’s business or operations if it was dependent on the blockchain.
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Competing platforms, technologies, and patents. The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use an alternative to blockchains. Further, if one or more other persons, companies or organizations has or obtains a valid patent covering technology critical to the operation of one or more of a company’s business lines, there can be no guarantee that such an entity would be willing to license such technology at acceptable prices or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Cyber security incidents. Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations, or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response. Additionally, blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies.
Developmental risk. Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.
Intellectual property claims. A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities.
Key personnel risk. Some of the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest rely on highly skilled financial service professionals and software engineers. Because of competition from other firms, these companies may face difficulties in recruiting and retaining professionals of a caliber consistent with their business strategy in the future. The inability to successfully identify and retain qualified professionals could materially and adversely affect the growth, operations, or financial condition of the company.
Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets. Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.
Lack of regulation. Digital commodities and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. Because blockchain technology works by having every transaction build on every other transaction, participants can self-police any corruption, which can mitigate the need to depend on the current level of legal or government safeguards to monitor and control the flow of business transactions. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity, or even failure. There can be no guarantee that future regulation of blockchain technology or cryptocurrencies will not have a negative impact on the value of such technologies and of the companies in the which the Fund invests.
Network amendment risk. Significant contributors to all or any cryptocurrency network could propose amendments to the respective network’s protocols and software that, if accepted and authorized by such network, could adversely affect a company in which the Amplify ETF may invest. For example, with respect to the bitcoin network, a small group of individuals contribute to the bitcoin network’s source code. Those individuals can propose refinements or improvements to the bitcoin network’s source code through one or more software upgrades that alter the protocols and software that govern the bitcoin network and the properties of bitcoin, including the irreversibility of transactions and limitations on the mining of new bitcoin. To the extent that a significant majority of the users and miners on the bitcoin network install such software upgrade(s), the bitcoin network would be subject to new protocols and software that may adversely affect the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest.
NFT Ecosystem Company Risk. The value of NFTs may decline for short or long periods of time and may be volatile due to factors such as the desirability of the particular NFT, the availability of other similar NFTs, the accessibility of the blockchain used by the NFT, and general risks applicable to these companies. Volatility in the value of NFTs may have a material adverse effect on a company’s business, financial condition, and results of operation.
Third party product defects or vulnerabilities. Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application, may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.
Reliance on cryptocurrency. Some of the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest rely heavily on the success of the digital currency industry, the development and acceptance of which is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act
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as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. Cryptocurrency generally operates without a central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government. Cryptocurrency is not legal tender. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the United States is still developing. The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss, and destruction. Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. Cryptocurrency exchanges may stop operating or permanently shut down due to fraud, technical glitches, hackers, or malware, which may also affect volatility.
Line of business risk. Some of the companies in which the Amplify ETF will invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.
Compounding and Market Volatility Risk. The Fund has a daily inverse investment objective and the Fund’s performance for periods greater than a trading day will be the result of each day’s returns compounded over the period, which is very likely to differ from -100% of the Amplify ETF’s performance, before fees and expenses. Compounding affects all investments, but has a more significant impact on the Fund. Over time, the cumulative percentage increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio may diverge significantly from the cumulative percentage increase or decrease in 100% of the return of the Amplify ETF due to the compounding effect of losses and gains on the returns of the Fund. It also is expected that the Fund will underperform the return of -100% of the Amplify ETF in a trendless or flat market.
The chart below provides examples of how the Amplify ETF’s volatility could affect the Fund’s performance. The Amplify ETF’s volatility rate is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in the returns of the Amplify ETF. The Fund’s performance for periods greater than one single day can be estimated given any set of assumptions for the following factors: a) Amplify ETF’s volatility; b) Amplify ETF’s performance; c) period of time; d) financing rates associated with inverse exposure; e) other Fund expenses; and f) dividends or interest paid with respect to securities in the Amplify ETF. The chart below illustrates the impact of two principal factors – Amplify ETF’s volatility and Amplify ETF’s performance – on the Fund’s performance. The chart shows estimated Fund returns for a number of combinations of Amplify ETF’s volatility and Amplify ETF’s performance over a one-year period. Performance shown in the chart assumes that: (i) no dividends were paid with respect to the portfolio securities held by the Amplify ETF; (ii) there were no Fund expenses; and (iii) borrowing/lending rates (to obtain inverse exposure) of 0%. If the Fund’s expenses and/or actual borrowing/lending rates were reflected, the estimated returns would be worse than those shown. Particularly during periods of higher Amplify ETF volatility, compounding will cause results for periods longer than a trading day to vary from 100% of the Amplify ETF’s performance.
As shown in the chart below, the Fund would be expected to lose -[ ]% if the Amplify ETF provided no return over a one year period during which the Amplify ETF experienced annualized volatility of 25%. If the Amplify ETF annualized volatility were to rise to 75%, the hypothetical loss for a one year period widens to approximately -[ ]%. At higher ranges of volatility, there is a chance of a significant loss of value in the Fund. For instance, if the Amplify ETF’s annualized volatility is 100%, the Fund would be expected to lose approximately -[ ]% of its value, even if the cumulative return of the Amplify ETF for the year was 0%. The volatility of the instruments that reflect the value of the Amplify ETF, such as swaps, may differ from the volatility of the Amplify ETF.
Areas shaded dark gray represent those scenarios where the Fund can be expected to return less than -100% of the Amplify ETF’s performance and those shaded light gray represent those scenarios where the Fund can be expected to return more than -100% of the Amplify ETF’s performance. The Fund’s actual returns may be significantly better or worse than the returns shown below as a result of any of the factors discussed above or in “Daily Inverse Correlation/Tracking Risk” below.
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Estimated Returns of -1X Amplify ETF
Amplify ETF PerformanceOne Year Volatility Rate
One Year Amplify ETFInverse (-1X) of the One Year10%25%50%75%100%
-60%60%147.50%134.90%94.70%42.40%-8.00%
-50%50%98.00%87.90%55.80%14.00%-26.40%
-40%40%65.00%56.60%29.80%-5.00%-38.70%
-30%30%41.40%34.20%11.30%-18.60%-47.40%
-20%20%23.80%17.40%-2.60%-28.80%-54.00%
-10%10%10.00%4.40%-13.50%-36.70%-59.10%
0%0%-1.00%-6.10%-22.10%-43.00%-63.20%
10%-10%-10.00%-14.60%-29.20%-48.20%-66.60%
20%-20%-17.50%-21.70%-35.10%-52.50%-69.30%
30%-30%-23.80%-27.70%-40.10%-56.20%-71.70%
40%-40%-29.30%-32.90%-44.40%-59.30%-73.70%
50%-50%-34.00%-37.40%-48.10%-62.00%-75.50%
60%-60%-38.10%-41.30%-51.30%-64.40%-77.00%
The Amplify ETF’s annualized historical volatility rate for the period from January 17, 2018 (the inception date of the Amplify ETF) to December 31, 2021 was [ ]%. The Amplify ETF’ highest volatility rate for any one calendar year for the period from January 17, 2018 (the inception date of the Amplify ETF) through December 31, 2021 was [ ]% and volatility for a shorter period of time may have been substantially higher. The Amplify ETF’ annualized performance for the period from January 17, 2018 (the inception date of the Amplify ETF) to December 31, 2021 was [ ]%. Historical Amplify ETF volatility and performance are not indications of what the Amplify ETF volatility and performance will be in the future.
Counterparty Risk. The risk of loss to the Fund for swap transactions that are entered into on a net basis depends on which party is obligated to pay the net amount to the other party. If the counterparty is obligated to pay the net amount to the Fund, the risk of loss to the Fund is loss of the entire amount that the Fund is entitled to receive. If the Fund is obligated to pay the net amount, the Fund’s risk of loss is generally limited to that net amount. If a swap agreement involves the exchange of the entire principal value of a security, the entire principal value of that security is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. A counterparty may be unwilling or unable to make timely payments to meet its contractual obligations or may fail to return holdings that are subject to the agreement with the counterparty. If the counterparty or its affiliate becomes insolvent, bankrupt or defaults on its payment obligations to the Fund, the value of an investment held by the Fund may decline. Additionally, if any collateral posted by the counterparty for the benefit of the Fund is insufficient or there are delays in the Fund’s ability to access such collateral, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements with a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty credit risk. Further, there is a risk that no suitable counterparties will be willing to enter into, or continue to enter into, transactions with the Fund and, as a result, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective or may decide to change its investment objective.
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Daily Inverse Correlation/Tracking Risk. Investors will lose money when the Amplify ETF appreciates in value. There is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve a high degree of inverse correlation to the Amplify ETF and therefore achieve its daily inverse investment objective. The Fund’s exposure to the Amplify ETF is impacted by the Amplify ETF’s portfolio holdings movement. Because of this, it is unlikely that the Fund will be perfectly exposed to the Amplify ETF at the end of each day. The possibility of the Fund being materially over- or under-exposed to the Amplify ETF increases on days when the Amplify ETF is volatile near the close of the trading day. Market disruptions, regulatory restrictions and high volatility will also adversely affect the Fund’s ability to adjust exposure to the required levels. Due to the inverse nature of the Fund’s investment strategy, the occurrence of some of these events or market conditions discussed below may be favorable to the Fund’s returns; however, nonoccurrence of these events below could have no effect on the Fund’s returns, or could cause the value of the Fund’s assets to decrease.
The Fund may have difficulty achieving its daily inverse investment objective due to fees, expenses, transaction costs, financing costs related to the use of derivatives, income items, valuation methodology, accounting standards and disruptions or illiquidity in the markets for the securities or derivatives held by the Fund. The Fund may be subject to large movements of assets into and out of the Fund, potentially resulting in the Fund being over- or under-exposed to the Amplify ETF. The Fund may take or refrain from taking positions to improve tax efficiency or to comply with various regulatory restrictions, which may negatively impact the Fund’s inverse correlation to the Amplify ETF. Any of these factors could decrease correlation between the performance of the Fund and the Amplify ETF and may hinder the Fund’s ability to meet its daily inverse investment objective.
Derivatives Risk. The Fund’s derivative investments have risks, including the imperfect correlation between the value of such instruments and the underlying assets; the loss of principal, including the potential loss of amounts greater than the initial amount invested in the derivative instrument; the possible default of the other party to the transaction; and illiquidity of the derivative investments. Use of derivatives could also result in a loss if the counterparty to the transaction does not perform as promised, including because of such counterparty’s bankruptcy or insolvency. This risk is heightened with respect to over-the-counter (“OTC”) swap agreements, and may be greater during volatile market conditions. Other risks include the inability to close out a position because the trading market becomes illiquid (particularly in the OTC markets) or the availability of counterparties becomes limited for a period of time. In addition, the presence of speculators in a particular market could lead to price distortions.
Certain of the Fund’s transactions in derivatives could also affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders, which may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gain and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not engage in such transactions, which may adversely impact the Fund’s after-tax returns.
In addition, the Fund’s investments in derivatives are subject to the following risks:
Swap Agreements. The use of swap transactions is a highly specialized activity, which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. Whether the Fund will be successful in using swap agreements to achieve its investment goal depends on the ability the Sub-Adviser to structure swap agreements in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and to identify counterparties for those swap agreements. If the Sub-Adviser is unable to enter into swap agreements that provide inverse exposure to the Amplify ETF, the Funds may not meet their investment objectives.
The swap agreements transactions in which the Fund invests are generally traded in the over-the-counter market, which generally has less transparency than exchange-traded derivatives instruments. In a standard swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the return (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined reference assets or underlying securities or instruments. The gross return to be exchanged or swapped between the parties is calculated based on a notional amount or the return on or change in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a basket of securities.
If the Amplify ETF has a dramatic move that causes a material decline in the Fund’s net assets, the terms of a swap agreement between the Fund and its counterparty may permit the counterparty to immediately close out the swap transaction with the Fund. In that event, the Fund may be unable to enter into another swap agreement or invest in other derivatives to achieve exposure consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. This may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective, even if the Amplify ETF later reverses all or a portion of its movement.
Emerging Markets Risk. The exposure of the Amplify ETF to investments in emerging markets subjects the Amplify ETF to emerging markets risk, which in turn may impact the Fund’s performance. Emerging market countries include, but are not limited to, those considered to be developing by the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation or one of the leading global investment banks. The majority of these countries are likely to be located in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and Africa. Investments in emerging market issuers are subject to a greater risk of loss than investments in issuers located or operating in more developed markets. This is due to, among other things, the potential for greater market volatility, lower trading volume, higher levels of inflation, political and economic instability, greater risk of a market shutdown and more governmental limitations on foreign investments in emerging market countries than are typically found in more developed markets. Moreover, emerging markets often have less uniformity in accounting and reporting requirements, less reliable securities valuations and greater risks associated with custody of securities than developed markets. In addition, emerging markets often have greater risk of capital controls through such measures as taxes or interest rate control than
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developed markets. Certain emerging market countries may also lack the infrastructure necessary to attract large amounts of foreign trade and investment.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
APs, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid-ask spread.” The bid-ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and the spread is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund, and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid-ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid-ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500® Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares, and this could lead to differences between the market price of the Shares and the underlying value of those Shares.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem Shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. For example, the Fund may not be able to redeem in-kind certain securities held by the Fund (e.g., derivative instruments). In such a case, the Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used. By paying out higher annual capital gain distributions, investors may be subjected to increased capital gains taxes.
Government Obligations Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued, sponsored or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law. For instance, securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have historically been supported only by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government. While the U.S. government provides financial support to various U.S. government-sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as those listed above, no assurance can be given that it will always do so. In September 2008, at the direction of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship under the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an independent regulator, and they remain in such status as of the date of this Prospectus. The U.S. government also took steps to provide additional financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
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The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. An increase in national debt levels may also necessitate the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. Government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. Future downgrades could increase volatility in domestic and foreign financial markets, result in higher interest rates, lower prices of U.S. Treasury securities and increase the costs of different kinds of debt. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
Intra-Day Investment Risk. The Fund seeks inverse investment results from the close of the market on a given trading day until the close of the market on the subsequent trading day. The exact exposure of an investment in the Fund intraday in the secondary market is a function of the difference between the value of the Amplify ETF at the market close on the first trading day and the value of the Amplify ETF at the time of purchase. If the Amplify ETF loses value, the Fund’s net assets will rise by the same amount as the Fund’s exposure. Conversely, if the Amplify ETF appreciates in value, the Fund’s net assets will decline by the same amount as the Fund’s exposure. Thus, an investor that purchases shares intra-day may experience performance that is greater than, or less than, the inverse of the Amplify ETF. If there is a significant intra-day market event and/or the securities of the Amplify ETF experience a significant increase, the Fund may not meet its investment objective, be able to rebalance its portfolio appropriately, or may experience significant premiums or discounts, or widened bid-ask spreads.
Leverage Risk. Derivative contracts ordinarily have leverage inherent in their terms. The low margin deposits normally required in trading derivatives, including futures contracts, permit a high degree of leverage. Accordingly, a relatively small price movement may result in an immediate and substantial loss to the Fund. The use of leverage may also cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligations or to meet collateral segregation requirements. The use of leveraged derivatives can magnify the Fund’s potential for gain or loss and, therefore, amplify the effects of market volatility on the Fund’s share price.
Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. This can reduce the Fund’s returns because the Fund may be unable to transact at advantageous times or prices. Markets for securities or financial instruments could be disrupted by a number of events, including, but not limited to, an economic crisis, natural disasters, epidemics/pandemics, new legislation or regulatory changes inside or outside the United States. Illiquid securities may be difficult to value, especially in changing or volatile markets. If the Fund is forced to sell an illiquid security at an unfavorable time or price, the Fund may be adversely impacted. Certain market conditions or restrictions, such as market rules related to short sales, may prevent the Fund from limiting losses, realizing gains or achieving a high correlation with the Amplify ETF. There is no assurance that a security that is deemed liquid when purchased will continue to be liquid.
Management Risk. The Sub-Adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value, and potential appreciation of a particular security or derivative in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and may not produce the desired results.
Market Risk. The investments held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. In addition, local, regional or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant negative impact on the Fund and its investments. U.S. and international markets have experienced volatility in recent months and years due to a number of economic, political and global macro factors, including rising inflation, the war between Russia and Ukraine, and the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic. While U.S. and global economies are recovering from the effects of the pandemic, the recovery is proceeding at slower than expected rates and may last for a prolonged period of time. Uncertainties regarding interest rates, political events, the Russia-Ukraine war, rising government debt in the U.S., and trade tensions have also contributed to market volatility. Such events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors and industries more significantly than others. Such events could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio securities or other instruments and could result in disruptions in the trading markets. The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments may also fluctuate in response to a variety of other factors, and consequently, the Fund’s NAV and market price may also fluctuate significantly. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Money Market Instrument Risk. The Fund may use a variety of money market instruments for cash management purposes, including money market funds, depositary accounts and repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements are contracts in which a
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seller of securities agrees to buy the securities back at a specified time and price. Repurchase agreements may be subject to market and credit risk related to the collateral securing the repurchase agreement. Money market instruments may lose money.
New Fund Risk. The Fund is a recently organized investment company with no operating history. As a result, prospective investors have no track record or history on which to base their investment decision.
Non-Diversification Risk. The Fund is considered to be non-diversified, which means that it may invest more of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a smaller number of issuers than if it were a diversified fund. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to the risks associated with and developments affecting an individual issuer or a smaller number of issuers than a fund that invests more widely. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a relatively smaller number of issuers to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance. However, the Fund intends to satisfy the diversification requirements for qualifying as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code.
Rebalancing Risk. If for any reason the Fund is unable to rebalance all or a portion of its portfolio, or if all or a portion of the portfolio is rebalanced incorrectly, the Fund’s investment exposure may not be consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. In these instances, the Fund may have investment exposure to the Amplify ETF that is significantly greater or less than its stated multiple. As a result, the Fund may be more exposed to leverage risk than if it had been properly rebalanced and may not achieve its investment objective, leading to significantly greater losses or reduced gains.
Sector Risk. The Fund’s investing approach may result in an emphasis on certain sectors or sub-sectors of the market at any given time. To the extent the Amplify ETF invests more heavily in one sector or sub-sector of the market, it thereby presents a more concentrated risk and its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors or sub-sectors. In addition, the value of Shares may change at different rates compared to the value of shares of a fund with investments in a more diversified mix of sectors and industries. An individual sector or sub-sector of the market may have above-average performance during particular periods, but it may also move up and down more than the broader market. The several industries that constitute a sector may all react in the same way to economic, political or regulatory events. The Fund’s performance could also be affected if the sectors or sub-sectors do not perform as expected. Alternatively, the lack of exposure to one or more sectors or sub-sectors may adversely affect performance.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.
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Short Sales Risk. The Fund may engage in short sales designed to earn the Fund a profit from the decline in the price of particular securities, baskets of securities or indices. Short sales are transactions in which the Fund borrows securities from a broker and sells the borrowed securities. The Fund is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing the security at the market price at the time of replacement. If the market price of the underlying security goes down between the time the Fund sells the security and buys it back, the Fund will realize a gain on the transaction. Conversely, if the underlying security goes up in price during the period, the Fund will realize a loss on the transaction. Any such loss is increased by the amount of premium or interest the Fund must pay to the lender of the security. Likewise, any gain will be decreased by the amount of premium or interest the Fund must pay to the lender of the security. The Fund’s investment performance may also suffer if the Fund is required to close out a short position earlier than it had intended. This would occur if the securities lender required the Fund to deliver the securities the Fund borrowed at the commencement of the short sale and the Fund was unable to borrow the securities from another securities lender or otherwise obtain the security by other means. In addition, the Fund may be subject to expenses related to short sales that are not typically associated with investing in securities directly, such as costs of borrowing and margin account maintenance costs associated with the Fund’s open short positions. As the holder of a short position, the Fund also is responsible for paying the dividends and interest accruing on the short position, which is an expense to the Fund that could cause the Fund to lose money on the short sale and may adversely affect its performance.
Shorting Risk. A short position is a financial arrangement in which the short position appreciates in value when a reference asset falls in value and depreciates in value when the reference asset rises in value. Over the long term, most assets are expected to rise in value and short positions are expected to depreciate in value. Short positions therefore may be riskier and more speculative than traditional investments.
Obtaining inverse or “short” exposure through the use of derivatives such as swap agreements may expose the Fund to certain risks such as an increase in volatility or decrease in the liquidity of the securities of the underlying short position. If the Fund were to experience this volatility or decreased liquidity, the Fund’s return may be lower, the Fund’s ability to obtain inverse exposure through the use of derivatives may be limited or the Fund may be required to obtain inverse exposure through alternative investment strategies that may be less desirable or more costly to implement. If the securities underlying the short positions are thinly traded or have a limited market due to various factors, including regulatory action, the Fund may be unable to meet its investment objective due to a lack of available securities or counterparties. The Fund may not be able to issue additional Creation Units during period when it cannot meet its investment objective due to these factors. Any income, dividends or payments by the assets underlying the Fund’s short positions will negatively impact the Fund.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about the Fund’s daily portfolio holdings is available at www.defianceetfs.com. A complete description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).
MANAGEMENT
Investment Adviser
Defiance ETFs, LLC serves as the investment adviser and has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Fund. The Adviser is located at 78 SW 7th Street, 9th Floor, Miami, Florida 33130, and is an SEC-registered investment adviser. The Adviser was founded in 2018 and arranges for sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, and all other related services necessary for the Fund to operate. The Adviser provides investment advisory services to ETFs, including the Fund.
The Adviser provides oversight of the Sub-Adviser, monitors the Sub-Adviser’s buying and selling of securities for the Fund, and reviews the Sub-Adviser’s performance.
For the services it provides to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on the applicable Fund’s average daily net assets as set forth in the table below.
Name of FundManagement Fee
Defiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF[ ]%
Under the Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except for interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, distribution fees and expenses paid by the Fund under any distribution plan adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, and the unified management fee payable to the Adviser. The Adviser, in turn, compensates the Sub-Adviser from the management fee it receives.
[The basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Advisory Agreement for the Fund is available in the Fund’s Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.]
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Sub-Adviser
The Adviser has retained Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA”) to serve as sub-adviser for the Fund. VIA is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund. VIA, a registered investment adviser, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. Its principal office is located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009. VIA was formed in 2014 and provides investment advisory services to ETFs, including the Fund. The Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities for the Fund, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is paid a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on the applicable Fund’s average daily net assets as set forth in the table below.
Name of FundSub-Advisory Fee
Defiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF[ ]%
[The basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Sub-Advisory Agreement for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.]
Portfolio Manager
The below individual is the Fund’s portfolio manager and is responsible for day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the Fund. Mr. Zayas became SVP, Head of Portfolio Management and Trading at VIA in June 2020. From 2017 to 2020, he was Senior Portfolio Manager – International Equity at VIA and has over 15 years of experience that includes managing international equity portfolios, including in emerging and frontier markets. Prior to joining VIA, he was a Portfolio Manager – Direct Investments for seven years at Russell Investments, a global asset manager, where he co-managed more than $4 billion in quantitative strategies across global markets, including the Russell Strategic Call Overwriting Fund, a mutual fund. Mr. Zayas also helped Russell Investments launch its sponsored ETF initiative and advised on index methodologies. Prior to joining Russell Investments, Mr. Zayas was a Portfolio Manager – Equity Indexing at Mellon Capital Management, where he managed assets for internationally listed global equity ETFs. Mr. Zayas graduated with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University and obtained a Certificate in Computational Finance and Risk Management from the University of Washington. He also attained the Chartered Financial Analyst designation in 2010.
The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Manager’s compensation structure, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Manager, and the Portfolio Manager’s ownership of shares in the Fund.
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in Creation Units. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from the Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV. APs must be a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the SEC and must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor (defined below), and that has been accepted by the Fund’s transfer agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Fund imposes no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs,
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who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Fund accommodates frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Fund employs fair value pricing and may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Fund and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of Net Asset Value
The Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for business. The NAV is calculated by dividing the Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. If such information is not available for a security held by the Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Fund will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents – Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Fund. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Fund is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in a rule under the 1940 Act, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND TAXES
Dividends and Distributions
The Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, and distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. The Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
The Fund intends to elect and qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the Code. If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, the Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements
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would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when the Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (APs only).
Taxes on Distributions
The Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gains. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by the Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by the Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of the Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains, which for non-corporate shareholders are subject to tax at reduced rates of up to 20% (lower rates apply to individuals in lower tax brackets). Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
Distributions reported by the Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund received in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the amount and character of any distributions received from the Fund.
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gains distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.
If the Fund’s distributions exceed its earnings and profits, all or a portion of the distributions made for a taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder’s cost basis in Shares and result in a higher capital gain or lower capital loss when the Shares are sold. After a shareholder’s basis in Shares has been reduced to zero, distributions in excess of earnings and profits in respect of those Shares will be treated as gain from the sale of the Shares.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by the Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. Gains from the sale or other disposition of Shares by non-U.S. shareholders generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless you are a nonresident alien individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Different tax consequences may result if you are a foreign shareholder engaged in a trade or business within the United States or if a tax treaty applies.
Under legislation generally known as “FATCA” (the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act), the Fund is required to withhold 30% of certain ordinary dividends it pays to shareholders that are foreign entities and that fail to meet prescribed information reporting or certification requirements.
The Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that the shareholder is not subject to such withholding.
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Taxes When Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. Any loss realized on a sale will be disallowed to the extent Shares of the Fund are acquired, including through reinvestment of dividends, within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition of Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
The cost basis of Shares of the Fund acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for the Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered, plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market its holdings), or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. APs exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any gain or loss realized upon a creation or redemption of Creation Units will be treated as capital or ordinary gain or loss, depending on the circumstances. Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less.
The Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. The Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
DISTRIBUTION
The Distributor, Foreside Fund Services, LLC, is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor’s principal address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
Information regarding how often Shares traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV per Share will be available, free of charge, on the Fund’s website at www.defianceetfs.com.
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ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of, the timing, prices, or quantities of Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of Shares.
Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, and the Fund make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly.
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
Financial information is not available because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the date of this Prospectus.
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DEFIANCE ETFS
Adviser
Defiance ETFs, LLC
78 SW 7th Street, 9th Floor
Miami, Florida 33130
Sub-Adviser
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC
125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Transfer Agent and
Administrator
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
d/b/a U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
615 East Michigan Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Distributor
Foreside Fund Services, LLC
Three Canal Plaza
Portland, Maine 04101
Legal Counsel
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004-2541
Independent
Registered Public
Accounting Firm
[ ]
Investors may find more information about the Fund in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Fund’s SAI provides additional details about the investments of the Fund and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated [ ], 2022, as supplemented from time to time, is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about the investments for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s annual report and semi-annual reports. In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance.
You can obtain free copies of these documents, request other information or make general inquiries about the Fund by contacting the Fund at Defiance ETFs, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701 or calling 1-833-333-9383.
Shareholder reports and other information about the Fund are available:
Free of charge from the SEC’s EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov; or
Free of charge from the Fund’s Internet website at www.defianceetfs.com; or
For a fee, by e-mail request to publicinfo@sec.gov.

(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-22668)























32
 

IBITDefiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF
a series of ETF Series Solutions

Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
[ ], 2022
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the prospectus dated [ ], 2022, as may be supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”), of the series of ETF Series Solutions (the “Trust”) listed above (the “Fund”). Capitalized terms used in this SAI that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. A copy of the Prospectus may be obtained without charge, by calling the Fund at 1-833-333-9383, visiting www.defianceetfs.com, or writing to the Fund, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701.
The information herein is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction in which the offer or sale is not permitted.
The Fund’s audited financial statements for the most recent fiscal year (when available) are incorporated into this SAI by reference to the Fund’s most recent Annual Report to Shareholders (File No. 811-22668). When available, you may obtain a copy of the Fund’s Annual Report at no charge by contacting the Fund at the address or phone number noted above.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
A-1

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GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRUST
The Trust is an open-end management investment company consisting of multiple investment series. This SAI relates to the Fund. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on February 9, 2012. The Trust is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (together with the rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended, the “1940 Act”), as an open-end management investment company and the offering of the Fund’s shares (“Shares”) is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the “Board”).
Defiance ETFs, LLC (“Defiance” or the “Adviser”) serves as the Fund’s investment adviser, and Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”) serves as sub-adviser to the Fund. The investment objective of the Fund is to provide investment results that are approximately the inverse (or opposite) of, before fees and expenses, the daily price and yield performance of the Amplify Transformational Data Sharing ETF, a series of Amplify ETF Trust (the “Amplify ETF”).
The Fund offers and issues Shares at their net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each, a “Creation Unit”). The Fund generally offers and issues Shares in exchange for a basket of securities (“Deposit Securities”) together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (“Cash Component”). The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. Shares are listed on the [insert name of exchange] (the “Exchange”) and trade on the Exchange at market prices that may differ from the Shares’ NAV. Shares are also redeemable only in Creation Unit aggregations, primarily for a basket of Deposit Securities together with a Cash Component. A Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of [ ] Shares, though this may change from time to time. As a practical matter, only institutions or large investors purchase or redeem Creation Units. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable securities.
Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash at least equal to a specified percentage of the value of the missing Deposit Securities, as set forth in the Participant Agreement (as defined below). The Trust may impose a transaction fee for each creation or redemption. In all cases, such fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the SEC applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the secondary market will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, POLICIES, AND RELATED RISKS
The Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies are described in the Prospectus. The following information supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the Prospectus. For a description of certain permitted investments, see “Description of Permitted Investments” in this SAI.
With respect to the Fund’s investments, unless otherwise noted, if a percentage limitation on investment is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a subsequent increase or decrease as a result of market movement or redemption will not result in a violation of such investment limitation.
Non-Diversification
The Fund is classified as a non-diversified investment company under the 1940 Act. A “non-diversified” classification means that the Fund is not limited by the 1940 Act with regard to the percentage of its total assets that may be invested in the securities of a single issuer. This means that the Fund may invest a greater portion of its total assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. This may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s performance or subject Shares to greater price volatility than more diversified investment companies. Moreover, in pursuing its objective, the Fund may hold the securities of a single issuer in an amount exceeding 10% of the value of the outstanding securities of the issuer, subject to restrictions imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).
Although the Fund is non-diversified for purposes of the 1940 Act, the Fund intends to maintain the required level of diversification and otherwise conduct its operations so as to qualify as a “regulated investment company” (“RIC”) for purposes of the Code. Compliance with the diversification requirements of the Code may limit the investment flexibility of the Fund and may make it less likely that the Fund will meet its investment objectives. To qualify as a RIC under the Code, the Fund must meet the Diversification Requirement described in the section titled “Federal Income Taxes” in this SAI.
General Risks
The value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate with changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic or political conditions that affect a particular security or issuer and changes in general economic or political conditions. An investor in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time.
There can be no guarantee that a liquid market for the securities held by the Fund will be maintained. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities are limited or absent, or if bid-ask spreads are wide.
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Cyber Security Risk. Investment companies, such as the Fund, and their service providers may be subject to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber attacks. Cyber attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber attacks affecting the Fund or the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Fund. For instance, cyber attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential company information, impede trading, subject the Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses, and cause reputational damage. The Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investments in such portfolio companies to lose value.
Recent Events. Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and, in many cases, unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID-19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, and supply chain disruptions affecting the United States and many other countries. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses as a result of these disruptions, and such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. In response, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets, resulting in very low interest rates and in some cases negative yields. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
Description of Permitted Investments
The following are descriptions of the permitted investments and investment practices and the associated risk factors. The Fund will only invest in any of the following instruments or engage in any of the following investment practices if such investment or activity is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and permitted by the Fund’s stated investment policies.
Borrowing
Although the Fund does not intend to borrow money, the Fund may do so to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may borrow up to one-third (1/3) of its total assets. The Fund will borrow money only for short-term or emergency purposes. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by the Fund promptly. Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of the Fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. The Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
Derivative Instruments
Generally, derivatives are financial instruments whose value depends on or is derived from, the value of one or more underlying assets, reference rates, or indices or other market factors (a “reference instrument”) and may relate to stocks, bonds, interest rates, credit, currencies, commodities or related indices. Derivative instruments can provide an efficient means to gain or reduce exposure to the value of a reference instrument without actually owning or selling the instrument. Some common types of derivatives include options, futures, forwards and swaps.
Derivative instruments may be used to modify the effective duration of the Fund’s portfolio investments. Derivative instruments may also be used for “hedging,” which means that they may be used when the Sub-Adviser seeks to protect a Fund’s investments from a decline in value resulting from changes to interest rates, market prices, currency fluctuations, or other market factors. Derivative instruments may also be used for other purposes, including to seek to increase liquidity, provide efficient portfolio management, broaden investment opportunities (including taking short or negative positions), implement a tax or cash management strategy, gain exposure to a particular security or segment of the market and/or enhance total return. However derivative instruments are used, their successful use is not assured and will depend upon, among other factors, the Sub-Adviser’s ability to gauge relevant market movements.
Derivative instruments may be used for purposes of direct hedging. Direct hedging means that the transaction must be intended to reduce a specific risk exposure of a portfolio security or its denominated currency and must also be directly related to such security or currency. The Fund’s use of derivative instruments may be limited from time to time by policies adopted by the Board.
Because some derivative instruments used by the Fund may oblige the Fund to make payments or incur additional obligations in the future, the SEC requires investment companies to “cover” or segregate liquid assets equal to the potential exposure created by such derivatives. See “Borrowing” above for more information on the Fund’s obligation to cover or segregate such assets.
Swaps. Generally, swap agreements are contracts between the Fund and another party (the swap counterparty) involving the exchange of payments on specified terms over periods ranging from a few days to multiple years. A swap agreement may be negotiated bilaterally and traded OTC between the two parties (for an uncleared swap) or, in some instances, must be transacted through an FCM and cleared
3


through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty (for a cleared swap). In a basic swap transaction, the Fund agrees with the swap counterparty to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) and/or cash flows earned or realized on a particular “notional amount” or value of predetermined underlying reference instruments. The notional amount is the set dollar or other value selected by the parties to use as the basis on which to calculate the obligations that the parties to a swap agreement have agreed to exchange. The parties typically do not actually exchange the notional amount. Instead they agree to exchange the returns that would be earned or realized if the notional amount were invested in given investments or at given interest rates. Examples of returns that may be exchanged in a swap agreement are those of a particular security, a particular fixed or variable interest rate, a particular non-U.S. currency, or a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Swaps can also be based on credit and other events.
The Fund will generally enter into swap agreements on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams that are to be made by the Fund and its counterparty with respect to a particular swap agreement are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net difference in the two payments. The Fund’s obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement that is entered into on a net basis will generally be the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the obligations of each party upon termination of the agreement or at set valuation dates. The Fund will accrue its obligations under a swap agreement daily (offset by any amounts the counterparty owes the Fund). If the swap agreement does not provide for that type of netting, the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis.
Comprehensive swaps regulation. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments imposed comprehensive regulatory requirements on swaps and swap market participants. The regulatory framework includes: (1) registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants; (2) requiring central clearing and execution of standardized swaps; (3) imposing margin requirements on swap transactions; (4) regulating and monitoring swap transactions through position limits and large trader reporting requirements; and (5) imposing record keeping and centralized and public reporting requirements, on an anonymous basis, for most swaps. The CFTC is responsible for the regulation of most swaps. The SEC has jurisdiction over a small segment of the market referred to as “security-based swaps,” which includes swaps on single securities or credits, or narrow-based indices of securities or credits.
Uncleared swaps. In an uncleared swap, the swap counterparty is typically a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. The Fund customarily enters into uncleared swaps based on the standard terms and conditions of an International Swaps and Derivatives Association (“ISDA”) Master Agreement. ISDA is a voluntary industry association of participants in the over-the-counter derivatives markets that has developed standardized contracts used by such participants that have agreed to be bound by such standardized contracts. In the event that one party to a swap transaction defaults and the transaction is terminated prior to its scheduled termination date, one of the parties may be required to make an early termination payment to the other. An early termination payment may be payable by either the defaulting or non-defaulting party, depending upon which of them is “in-the-money” with respect to the swap at the time of its termination. Early termination payments may be calculated in various ways, but are intended to approximate the amount the “in-the-money” party would have to pay to replace the swap as of the date of its termination.
During the term of an uncleared swap, the Fund is required to pledge to the swap counterparty, from time to time, an amount of cash and/or other assets equal to the total net amount (if any) that would be payable by the Fund to the counterparty if all outstanding swaps between the parties were terminated on the date in question, including any early termination payments (“variation margin”). Periodically, changes in the amount pledged are made to recognize changes in value of the contract resulting from, among other things, interest on the notional value of the contract, market value changes in the underlying investment, and/or dividends paid by the issuer of the underlying instrument. Likewise, the counterparty will be required to pledge cash or other assets to cover its obligations to the Fund. However, the amount pledged may not always be equal to or more than the amount due to the other party. Therefore, if a counterparty defaults in its obligations to the Fund, the amount pledged by the counterparty and available to the Fund may not be sufficient to cover all the amounts due to the Fund and the Fund may sustain a loss.
Currently, the Fund does not intend to typically provide initial margin in connection with uncleared swaps. However, rules requiring initial margin for uncleared swaps have been adopted and are being phased in over time. When these rules take effect, if the Fund is deemed to have material swaps exposure under applicable swap regulations, the Fund will be required to post initial margin in addition to variation margin.
Cleared swaps. Certain standardized swaps are subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange-trading. The Dodd-Frank Act and implementing rules will ultimately require the clearing and exchange-trading of many swaps. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant, CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and public trading facilities making such cleared swaps available to trade. To date, the CFTC has designated only certain of the most common types of credit default index swaps and interest rate swaps as subject to mandatory clearing and certain public trading facilities have made certain of those cleared swaps available to trade, but it is expected that additional categories of swaps will in the future be designated as subject to mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not eliminate these risks and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps. See “Risks of cleared swaps” below.
In a cleared swap, the Fund’s ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. Cleared swaps are submitted for clearing through each party’s FCM, which must be a member of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. Transactions executed on a swap execution facility (“SEF”) may increase market transparency and
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liquidity but may require the Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps that it has used in the past. When the Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via the FCM) an amount referred to as “initial margin.” Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, and are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of the cleared swap over a fixed period, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a “variation margin” amount may also be required to be paid by the Fund or may be received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts. If the value of the Fund’s cleared swap declines, the Fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM to settle the change in value. Conversely, if the market value of the Fund’s position increases, the FCM will post additional “variation margin” to the Fund’s account. At the conclusion of the term of the swap agreement, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If the Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain is paid to the Fund.
Equity total return swaps. A total return swap (also sometimes referred to as a synthetic equity swap or “contract for difference” when written with respect to an equity security or basket of equity securities) is an agreement between two parties under which the parties agree to make payments to each other so as to replicate the economic consequences that would apply had a purchase or short sale of the underlying reference instrument or index thereof taken place. For example, one party agrees to pay the other party the total return earned or realized on the notional amount of an underlying equity security and any dividends declared with respect to that equity security. In return the other party makes payments, typically at a floating rate, calculated based on the notional amount.
Risks of swaps generally. The use of swap transactions is a highly specialized activity, which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. Whether the Fund will be successful in using swap agreements to achieve its investment goal depends on the ability of the Adviser [Sub-Adviser] correctly to predict which types of investments are likely to produce greater returns. If the Adviser [Sub-Adviser], in using swap agreements, is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates, inflation, currency exchange rates or other applicable factors, the investment performance of the Fund will be less than its performance would have been if it had not used the swap agreements.
The risk of loss to the Fund for swap transactions that are entered into on a net basis depends on which party is obligated to pay the net amount to the other party. If the counterparty is obligated to pay the net amount to the Fund, the risk of loss to the Fund is loss of the entire amount that the Fund is entitled to receive. If the Fund is obligated to pay the net amount, the Fund’s risk of loss is generally limited to that net amount. If the swap agreement involves the exchange of the entire principal value of a security, the entire principal value of that security is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. In addition, the Fund’s risk of loss also includes any margin at risk in the event of default by the counterparty (in an uncleared swap) or the central counterparty or FCM (in a cleared swap), plus any transaction costs.
Because bilateral swap agreements are structured as two-party contracts and may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid and, therefore, subject to the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, the Fund may not be able to establish or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses. Participants in the swap markets are not required to make continuous markets in the swap contracts they trade. Participants could refuse to quote prices for swap contracts or quote prices with an unusually widespread between the price at which they are prepared to buy and the price at which they are prepared to sell. Some swap agreements entail complex terms and may require a greater degree of subjectivity in their valuation. However, the swap markets have grown substantially in recent years, with a large number of financial institutions acting both as principals and agents, utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap markets have become increasingly liquid. In addition, central clearing and the trading of cleared swaps on public facilities are intended to increase liquidity. The Adviser, under the supervision of the Board, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s swap transactions.
Rules adopted under the Dodd-Frank Act require centralized reporting of detailed information about many swaps, whether cleared or uncleared. This information is available to regulators and also, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data is intended to result in greater market transparency. This may be beneficial to funds that use swaps in their trading strategies. However, public reporting imposes additional recordkeeping burdens on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity are not yet tested and may not provide protection of the funds’ identities as intended.
Certain U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) positions may limit the Fund’s ability to use swap agreements in a desired tax strategy. It is possible that developments in the swap markets and/or the laws relating to swap agreements, including potential government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to benefit from using swap agreements, or could have adverse tax consequences.
Risks of uncleared swaps. Uncleared swaps are typically executed bilaterally with a swap dealer rather than traded on exchanges. As a result, swap participants may not be as protected as participants on organized exchanges. Performance of a swap agreement is the responsibility only of the swap counterparty and not of any exchange or clearinghouse. As a result, the Fund is subject to the risk that a counterparty will be unable or will refuse to perform under such agreement, including because of the counterparty’s bankruptcy or insolvency. The Fund risks the loss of the accrued but unpaid amounts under a swap agreement, which could be substantial, in the event of a default, insolvency or bankruptcy by a swap counterparty. In such an event, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the swap agreements, but bankruptcy and insolvency laws could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor. If the counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of a swap agreement would likely decline, potentially resulting in losses. In unusual or extreme market conditions, a
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counterparty’s creditworthiness and ability to perform may deteriorate rapidly, and the availability of suitable replacement counterparties may become limited.
Risks of cleared swaps. As noted above, under recent financial reforms, certain types of swaps are, and others eventually are expected to be, required to be cleared through a central counterparty, which may affect counterparty risk and other risks faced by the Fund.
Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely. There is also a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position, or the central counterparty in a swap contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Credit risk of cleared swap participants is concentrated in a few clearinghouses, and the consequences of insolvency of a clearinghouse are not clear.
With cleared swaps, the Fund may not be able to obtain as favorable terms as it would be able to negotiate for a bilateral, uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally amend the terms of its agreement with the Fund, which may include the imposition of position limits or additional margin requirements with respect to the Fund’s investment in certain types of swaps. Central counterparties and FCMs can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions upon the occurrence of certain events, and can also require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement.
Finally, the Fund is subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the Fund may be required to break the trade and make an early termination payment to the executing broker.
Combined transactions. The Fund may enter into multiple derivative instruments, and any combination of derivative instruments as part of a single or combined strategy (a “Combined Transaction”) when the Adviser [and Sub-Adviser] believe[s] it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so. A Combined Transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions.
Although Combined Transactions are normally entered into based on the [Sub]-Adviser’s judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal(s), it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.
Risks of Potential Government Regulation of Derivatives. It is possible that additional government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, including futures, and swap agreements, may limit or prevent the Fund from using such instruments as part of its investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent the Fund from being able to achieve its investment objectives. It is impossible to fully predict the effects of past, present or future legislation and regulation in this area, but the effects could be substantial and adverse. It is possible that legislative and regulatory activity could limit or restrict the ability of the Fund to use certain instruments as part of its investment strategy. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the Fund engages in derivative transactions could also prevent the Fund from using certain instruments.
There is a possibility of future regulatory changes altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement its investment strategies. The futures and swaps markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations, and margin requirements. In addition, the SEC, the CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits, and the suspension of trading. The regulation of futures and swap transactions in the U.S. is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government action. In particular, Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act set forth a new legislative framework for OTC derivatives, including financial instruments, such as swaps, in which the Fund may invest. The provisions of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act have not yet been fully implemented and accordingly, it is not possible at this time to gauge the exact nature and scope of the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on the Fund. However, swap dealers, major market participants and swap counterparties are now becoming subject to new and/or additional regulations, requirements, compliance burdens and associated costs. This law and the rules to be promulgated may negatively impact the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. In particular, position limits imposed on the Fund or its counterparties may impact the Fund’s ability to invest in futures and swaps in a manner that efficiently meets its investment objective. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Fund, including capital requirements and mandatory clearing, may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.
New Rule 18f-4 (the “Derivatives Rule”), adopted by the SEC on October 28, 2020, replaces the asset segregation regime of Investment Company Act Release No. 10666 (Release 10666) with a new framework for the use of derivatives by registered funds. On August 19, 2022, the SEC will rescind Release 10666 and withdraw letters and similar guidance addressing a fund’s use of derivatives and require funds to satisfy the requirements of the Derivatives Rule. Unless the Fund elects to comply early with the Derivatives Rule, the Fund
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may continue to engage in certain asset segregation practices in accordance with Release 10666 and related staff letters and guidance until August 19, 2022.
Depositary Receipts
The Fund may have indirect exposure to depositary receipts through its exposure to the Amplify ETF. The securities of foreign companies may take the form of depositary receipts or other securities convertible into securities of foreign issuers. American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are dollar-denominated receipts representing interests in the securities of a foreign issuer, which securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. ADRs are receipts typically issued by United States banks and trust companies which evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. Generally, ADRs in registered form are designed for use in domestic securities markets and are traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States. Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), and International Depositary Receipts (“IDRs”) are similar to ADRs in that they are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer, however, GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and are generally designed for use in specific or multiple securities markets outside the U.S. EDRs, for example, are designed for use in European securities markets, while GDRs are designed for use throughout the world. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities.
The Fund will not invest in any unlisted Depositary Receipts or any Depositary Receipt that the Sub-Adviser deems to be illiquid or for which pricing information is not readily available. In addition, all Depositary Receipts generally must be sponsored. However, the Fund may invest in unsponsored Depositary Receipts under certain limited circumstances. The issuers of unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States and, therefore, there may be less information available regarding such issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the value of the Depositary Receipts.
Equity Securities
The Fund has indirect exposure to equity securities through its exposure to the Amplify ETF. Equity securities, such as the common stocks of an issuer, are subject to stock market fluctuations and therefore may experience volatile changes in value as market conditions, consumer sentiment or the financial condition of the issuers change. A decrease in value of the equity securities in a fund’s portfolio may also cause the value of that fund’s shares to decline.
An investment in the Fund should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and therefore a decrease in the value of Shares). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic, public health, or banking crises.
Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Further, unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
When-Issued SecuritiesA when-issued security is one whose terms are available and for which a market exists, but which has not been issued. When the Fund engages in when-issued transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the sale. If the other party fails to complete the sale, the Fund may miss the opportunity to obtain the security at a favorable price or yield.
When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield changes. At the time of settlement, the value of the security may be more or less than the purchase price. The yield available in the market when the delivery takes place also may be higher than those obtained in the transaction itself. Because the Fund does not pay for the security until the delivery date, these risks are in addition to the risks associated with its other investments.
Decisions to enter into “when-issued” transactions will be considered on a case-by-case basis when necessary to maintain continuity in a company’s index membership. The Fund will segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to commitments for the when-issued transactions. The Fund will segregate additional liquid assets daily so that the value of such assets is equal to the amount of the commitments.
Types of Equity Securities:
Common Stocks — Common stocks represent units of ownership in a company. Common stocks usually carry voting rights and earn dividends. Unlike preferred stocks, which are described below, dividends on common stocks are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the company’s board of directors.
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Preferred Stocks — Preferred stocks are also units of ownership in a company. Preferred stocks normally have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of the company. However, in all other respects, preferred stocks are subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer. Unlike common stocks, preferred stocks are generally not entitled to vote on corporate matters. Types of preferred stocks include adjustable-rate preferred stock, fixed dividend preferred stock, perpetual preferred stock, and sinking fund preferred stock.
Generally, the market values of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element vary inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk.
Rights and Warrants — A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are usually issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally have a life that is measured in years and entitles the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive.
An investment in warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights and warrants increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.
Medium-Sized Companies — Investors in medium-sized companies typically take on greater risk and price volatility than they would by investing in larger, more established companies. This increased risk may be due to the greater business risks of their medium size, limited markets and financial resources, narrow product lines and frequent lack of management depth. The securities of medium-sized companies are often traded in the over-the-counter market and might not be traded in volumes typical of securities traded on a national securities exchange. Thus, the securities of medium capitalization companies are likely to be less liquid, and subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements, than securities of larger, more established companies.
Smaller Companies — The securities of small- and mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small- and mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small- or mid-capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning small- and mid-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small- and mid-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs, and earnings.
Tracking Stocks A tracking stock is a separate class of common stock whose value is linked to a specific business unit or operating division within a larger company and which is designed to “track” the performance of such business unit or division. The tracking stock may pay dividends to shareholders independent of the parent company. The parent company, rather than the business unit or division, generally is the issuer of tracking stock. However, holders of the tracking stock may not have the same rights as holders of the company’s common stock.
Illiquid Investments
The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, as such term is defined by Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act. The Fund may not invest in illiquid investments if, as a result of such investment, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in illiquid investments. Illiquid investments include securities subject to contractual or other restrictions on resale and other instruments that lack readily available markets. The inability of the Fund to dispose of illiquid investments readily or at a reasonable price could impair the Fund’s ability to raise cash for redemptions or other purposes. The liquidity of securities purchased by the Fund that are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A, except for certain 144A bonds, will be monitored by the Fund on an ongoing basis. In the event that more than 15% of its net assets are invested in illiquid investments, the Fund, in accordance with Rule 22e-4(b)(1)(iv), will report the occurrence to both the Board and the SEC and seek to reduce its holdings of illiquid investments within a reasonable period of time.
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Investment Company Securities
The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including money market funds and ETFs, subject to applicable limitations under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act and Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act. Investing in another pooled vehicle exposes the Fund to all the risks of that pooled vehicle. Pursuant to Section 12(d)(1), the Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the “acquired company”) provided that the Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own in the aggregate: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of the Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies (other than treasury stock of the Fund) having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of the Fund. To the extent allowed by law or regulation, the Fund may invest its assets in securities of investment companies that are money market funds in excess of the limits discussed above.
If the Fund invests in and, thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Fund’s own investment adviser and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund’s own operations.
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in securities of other registered investment companies, including the Fund. The acquisition of Shares by registered investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, except as may be permitted by exemptive rules under the 1940 Act that allows registered investment companies to invest in the Fund beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including that the registered investment company enter into an agreement with the Fund regarding the terms of the investment.
The Fund may rely on Section 12(d)(1)(F) and Rule 12d1-3 under the 1940 Act, which provide an exemption from Section 12(d)(1) that allows the Fund to invest all of its assets in other registered funds, including ETFs, if, among other conditions: (a) the Fund, together with its affiliates, acquires no more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any acquired fund, and (b) the sales load charged on Shares is no greater than the limits set forth in Rule 2341 of the Conduct Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). Additionally, the Fund may rely on Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act to invest in such other funds in excess of the limits of Section 12(d)(1) if the Fund complies with the terms and conditions of such rule.
Non-U.S. Securities
The Fund may have indirect exposure to non-U.S. securities through its exposure to the Amplify ETF. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present in investments in U.S. securities. For example, non-U.S. securities may be subject to currency risks or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than about a U.S. issuer, and a foreign issuer may or may not be subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those in the U.S. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. Other risks of investing in such securities include political or economic instability in the country involved, the difficulty of predicting international trade patterns and the possibility of imposition of exchange controls. The prices of such securities may be more volatile than those of domestic securities. With respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of expropriation of assets or nationalization, imposition of withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments, difficulty in obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities or diplomatic developments which could affect investment in these countries. Losses and other expenses may be incurred in converting between various currencies in connection with purchases and sales of foreign securities. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell Shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Non-U.S. stock markets may not be as developed or efficient as, and may be more volatile than, those in the U.S. While the volume of shares traded on non-U.S. stock markets generally has been growing, such markets usually have substantially less volume than U.S. markets. Therefore, the Fund’s investment in non-U.S. equity securities may be less liquid and subject to more rapid and erratic price movements than comparable securities listed for trading on U.S. exchanges. Non-U.S. equity securities may trade at price/earnings multiples higher than comparable U.S. securities and such levels may not be sustainable. There may be less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers, banks and listed companies abroad than in the U.S. Moreover, settlement practices for transactions in foreign markets may differ from those in U.S. markets. Such differences may include delays beyond periods customary in the U.S. and practices, such as delivery of securities prior to receipt of payment, that increase the likelihood of a failed settlement, which can result in losses to the Fund. The value of non-U.S. investments and the investment income derived from them may also be affected unfavorably by changes in currency exchange control regulations. Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial expenses and other fees are also generally higher than for securities traded in the U.S. This may cause the Fund to incur higher portfolio transaction costs than domestic equity funds. Fluctuations in exchange rates may also affect the earning power and asset value of the foreign entity issuing a security, even one denominated in U.S. dollars. Dividend and interest payments may be repatriated based on the exchange rate at the time of disbursement, and restrictions on capital flows may be imposed.
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Foreign Currencies
Although the Fund intends to only hold investments denominated in U.S. dollars, the Fund may have indirect exposure to foreign currency fluctuations through exposure to the Amplify ETF which may hold securities denominated in foreign currencies. The Fund’s net asset value could decline if a relevant foreign currency depreciates against the U.S. dollar or if there are delays or limits on the repatriation of such currency. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the Fund’s net asset value may change without warning, which could have a significant negative impact on the Fund.
Other Short-Term Instruments
In addition to repurchase agreements, the Fund may invest in short-term instruments, including money market instruments, on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. Money market instruments are generally short-term investments that may include but are not limited to: (i) shares of money market funds; (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities (including government-sponsored enterprises); (iii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), bankers’ acceptances, fixed time deposits and other obligations of U.S. and foreign banks (including foreign branches) and similar institutions; (iv) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s or “A‑1” by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Sub-Adviser; (v) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of not more than 397 days and that satisfy the rating requirements set forth in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act; and (vi) short-term U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign banks (including U.S. branches) that, in the opinion of the Sub-Adviser, are of comparable quality to obligations of U.S. banks which may be purchased by the Fund. Any of these instruments may be purchased on a current or a forward-settled basis. Money market instruments also include shares of money market funds. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Bankers’ acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
Repurchase Agreements
The Fund may invest in repurchase agreements with commercial banks, brokers or dealers to generate income from its excess cash balances and to invest securities lending cash collateral. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which the Fund acquires a financial instrument (e.g., a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance or a certificate of deposit) from a seller, subject to resale to the seller at an agreed upon price and date (normally, the next Business Day). A repurchase agreement may be considered a loan collateralized by securities. The resale price reflects an agreed upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by the Fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument.
In these repurchase agreement transactions, the securities acquired by the Fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and are held by the Custodian until repurchased. No more than an aggregate of 15% of the Fund’s net assets will be invested in illiquid investments, including repurchase agreements having maturities longer than seven days and securities subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, or for which there are no readily available market quotations.
The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the other party to the agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying security at a time when the value of the security has declined, the Fund may incur a loss upon disposition of the security. If the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by the Fund not within the control of the Fund and, therefore, the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.
Securities Lending
The Fund may lend portfolio securities to certain creditworthy borrowers, including the Fund’s securities lending agent. The borrowers provide collateral that is maintained in an amount at least equal to the current value of the securities loaned. The Fund may terminate a loan at any time and obtain the return of the securities loaned. The lending Fund receives the value of any interest or cash or non-cash distributions paid on the loaned securities. Distributions received on loaned securities in lieu of dividend payments (i.e., substitute payments) would not be considered qualified dividend income.
With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the borrower will be entitled to receive a fee based on the amount of cash collateral. The Fund is compensated by the difference between the amount earned on the reinvestment of cash collateral and the fee paid to the borrower. In the case of collateral other than cash, the Fund is compensated by a fee paid by the borrower equal to a percentage of the value of the loaned securities. Any cash collateral may be reinvested in certain short-term instruments either directly on behalf of the lending Fund or through one or more private funds, joint accounts, or money market funds.
The Fund may pay a portion of the interest or fees earned from securities lending to a borrower as described above, and to one or more securities lending agents approved by the Board who administer the lending program for the Fund in accordance with guidelines approved by the Board. In such capacity, the lending agent causes the delivery of loaned securities from the Fund to borrowers, arranges for the return of loaned securities to the Fund at the termination of a loan, requests deposit of collateral, monitors the daily value of the loaned securities and collateral, requests that borrowers add to the collateral when required by the loan agreements, and provides recordkeeping and accounting services necessary for the operation of the program.
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Securities lending involves exposure to certain risks, including operational risk (i.e., the risk of losses resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process), “gap” risk (i.e., the risk of a mismatch between the return on cash collateral reinvestments and the fees the Fund has agreed to pay a borrower), and credit, legal, counterparty and market risk. In the event a borrower does not return the Fund’s securities as agreed, the Fund may experience losses if the proceeds received from liquidating the collateral do not at least equal the value of the loaned security at the time the collateral is liquidated plus the transaction costs incurred in purchasing replacement securities. Furthermore, because of the risks of delay in recovery, the Fund may lose the opportunity to sell the securities at a desirable price. The Fund will generally not have the right to vote securities while they are being loaned.
Short Sales
The Fund may engage in short sale transactions under which the Fund sells a security it does not own. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing the security at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividends that accrue during the period of the loan. The proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. The Fund will also incur transactions costs when conducting short sales.
Until the Fund closes its short position or replaces the borrowed stock, the Fund will: (1) maintain an account containing cash or liquid assets at such a level that (a) the amount deposited in the account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will equal the current value of the stock sold short and (b) the amount deposited in the account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will not be less than the market value of the stock at the time the stock was sold short; or (2) otherwise cover the Fund’s short position.
The Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sales or short exposure to reference assets utilizing derivatives if the price of the security or reference asset increases between the date of the short sale or exposure and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security or terminates the derivatives providing short exposure. The Fund will realize a gain if the price of a security or reference asset declines in price between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss will be increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends or interest the Fund may be required to pay, if any, in connection with a short sale or derivatives that provide short exposure.
Tax Risks
As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in Shares will be taxed. The tax information in the Prospectus and this SAI is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when the Fund makes distributions or you sell Shares.
U.S. Government Securities
The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (“Farmer Mac”).
Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, Ginnie Mae pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by Fannie Mae, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the federal agency, while other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored federal agencies, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will always do so, since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.
On September 7, 2008, the U.S. Treasury announced a federal takeover of Fannie Mae and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), placing the two federal instrumentalities in conservatorship. Under the takeover, the U.S. Treasury agreed to acquire $1 billion of senior preferred stock of each instrumentality and obtained warrants for the purchase of common stock of each instrumentality (the “Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement” or “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, the U.S. Treasury pledged to provide up to $200 billion per instrumentality as needed, including the contribution of cash capital to the instrumentalities in the event
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their liabilities exceed their assets. This was intended to ensure that the instrumentalities maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations, preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. On December 24, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was amending the Agreement to allow the $200 billion cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in net worth over the next three years. As a result of this Agreement, the investments of holders, including the Fund, of mortgage-backed securities and other obligations issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are protected.
The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt limit to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. An increase in national debt levels may also necessitate the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. Government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. Future downgrades could increase volatility in domestic and foreign financial markets, result in higher interest rates, lower prices of U.S. Treasury securities and increase the costs of different kinds of debt. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
The Trust has adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to the Fund. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the 1940 Act, a “majority of outstanding shares” means the vote of the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.
Except with the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, the Fund may not:
1.Concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in any industry or group of related industries. For purposes of this limitation, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities), registered investment companies, repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities, and tax-exempt securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
2.Borrow money or issue senior securities (as defined under the 1940 Act), except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
3.Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
4.Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, REITs or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business.
5.Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities.
6.Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
In determining its compliance with the fundamental investment restriction on concentration, the Fund will look through to the underlying holdings of any affiliated investment company and will consider its entire investment in any investment company with a policy to concentrate, or having otherwise disclosed that it is concentrated, in a particular industry or group of related industries as being invested in such industry or group of related industries.
If a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or total or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction, except that the percentage limitation with respect to the borrowing of money will be observed continuously.
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
Shares are listed for trading and trade throughout the day on the Exchange.
There can be no assurance that the Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares. The Exchange will consider the suspension of trading in, and will initiate delisting proceedings of, the Shares if any of the requirements set forth in the Exchange rules, including compliance with Rule 6c-11(c) under the 1940 Act, are not continuously maintained or such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the Shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.
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The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of Shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the Fund.
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
Board Responsibilities. The management and affairs of the Trust and its series are overseen by the Board, which elects the officers of the Trust who are responsible for administering the day-to-day operations of the Trust and the Fund. The Board has approved contracts, as described below, under which certain companies provide essential services to the Trust.
The day-to-day business of the Trust, including the management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Distributor, and the Administrator. The Board is responsible for overseeing the Trust’s service providers and, thus, has oversight responsibility with respect to risk management performed by those service providers. Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance, or reputation of the Fund. The Fund and its service providers employ a variety of processes, procedures, and controls to identify such events or circumstances, to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business (e.g., the Sub-Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio investments) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that business. The Board has emphasized to the Fund’s service providers the importance of maintaining vigorous risk management.
The Board’s role in risk oversight begins before the inception of the Fund, at which time certain of the Fund’s service providers present the Board with information concerning the investment objectives, strategies, and risks of the Fund as well as proposed investment limitations for the Fund. Additionally, the Adviser and Sub-Adviser provide the Board with an overview of, among other things, their investment philosophy, brokerage practices, and compliance infrastructure. Thereafter, the Board continues its oversight function as various personnel, including the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, as well as personnel of the Sub-Adviser, and other service providers such as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, make periodic reports to the Audit Committee or to the Board with respect to various aspects of risk management. The Board and the Audit Committee oversee efforts by management and service providers to manage risks to which the Fund may be exposed.
The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent, and quality of the services provided to the Fund by the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser and receives information about those services at its regular meetings. In addition, on an annual basis (following the initial two-year period), in connection with its consideration of whether to renew the Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser, and the Sub-Advisory Agreement with the Sub-Adviser, the Board or its designee may meet with the Adviser and/or the Sub-Adviser to review such services. Among other things, the Board regularly considers the Adviser’s and the Sub-Adviser’s adherence to the Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with various Fund policies and procedures and with applicable securities regulations. The Board also reviews information about the Fund’s performance and the Fund’s investments, including, for example, portfolio holdings schedules.
The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer reports regularly to the Board to review and discuss compliance issues and Fund and Adviser or Sub-Adviser risk assessments. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, as well as personnel of the Adviser, provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser. The report addresses the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; any material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and any material compliance matters since the date of the last report.
The Board receives reports from the Fund’s service providers regarding operational risks and risks related to the valuation and liquidity of portfolio securities. Annually, the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Fund’s financial statements, focusing on major areas of risk encountered by the Fund and noting any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the Fund’s internal controls. Additionally, in connection with its oversight function, the Board oversees Fund management’s implementation of disclosure controls and procedures, which are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Trust in its periodic reports with the SEC are recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the required time periods. The Board also oversees the Trust’s internal controls over financial reporting, which comprise policies and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of the Trust’s financial reporting and the preparation of the Trust’s financial statements.
From their review of these reports and discussions with the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Chief Compliance Officer, the independent registered public accounting firm and other service providers, the Board and the Audit Committee learn in detail about the material risks of the Fund, thereby facilitating a dialogue about how management and service providers identify and mitigate those risks.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified and/or quantified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, reports received by the Board as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. Most of the
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Fund’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and the methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Fund’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s ability to monitor and manage risk, as a practical matter, is subject to limitations.
Members of the Board. There are four members of the Board, three of whom are not interested persons of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act (the “Independent Trustees”). Mr. Michael A. Castino serves as Chairman of the Board and is an interested person of the Trust, and Mr. Leonard M. Rush serves as the Trust’s Lead Independent Trustee. As Lead Independent Trustee, Mr. Rush acts as a spokesperson for the Independent Trustees in between meetings of the Board, serves as a liaison for the Independent Trustees with the Trust’s service providers, officers, and legal counsel to discuss ideas informally, and participates in setting the agenda for meetings of the Board and separate meetings or executive sessions of the Independent Trustees.
The Board is comprised of a super-majority (75 percent) of Independent Trustees. There is an Audit Committee of the Board that is chaired by an Independent Trustee and comprised solely of Independent Trustees. The Audit Committee chair presides at the Audit Committee meetings, participates in formulating agendas for Audit Committee meetings, and coordinates with management to serve as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management on matters within the scope of responsibilities of the Audit Committee as set forth in its Board-approved charter. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics and circumstances of the Trust. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Independent Trustees of the Trust constitute a super-majority of the Board, the number of Independent Trustees that constitute the Board, the amount of assets under management in the Trust, and the number of funds overseen by the Board. The Board also believes that its leadership structure facilitates the orderly and efficient flow of information to the Independent Trustees from Fund management.
Additional information about each Trustee of the Trust is set forth below. The address of each Trustee of the Trust is c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, 615 E. Michigan Street, Milwaukee, WI 53202.
Name and
Year of Birth
Position Held with the TrustTerm of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustee During Past 5 Years
Independent Trustees
Leonard M. Rush, CPA
Born: 1946
Lead Independent Trustee and Audit Committee Chairman
Indefinite term;
since 2012
Retired; formerly Chief Financial Officer, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated (wealth management firm) (2000–2011).
60Independent Trustee, Managed Portfolio Series (34 portfolios) (since 2011).
David A. Massart
Born: 1967
Trustee
Indefinite term;
since 2012
Partner and Manager Director, Beacon Pointe Advisors, LLC (since 2022); Co-Founder, President, and Chief Investment Strategist, Next Generation Wealth Management, Inc. (2005-2021).60Independent Trustee, Managed Portfolio Series (34 portfolios) (since 2011).
Janet D. Olsen
Born: 1956
Trustee
Indefinite term;
since 2018
Retired; formerly Managing Director and General Counsel, Artisan Partners Limited Partnership (investment adviser) (2000–2013); Executive Vice President and General Counsel, Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc. (2012–2013); Vice President and General Counsel, Artisan Funds, Inc. (investment company) (2001–2012).60Independent Trustee, PPM Funds (3 portfolios) (since 2018).
Interested Trustee
Michael A. Castino
Born: 1967
Trustee and Chairman
Indefinite term; Trustee
since 2014;
Chairman
since 2013
Senior Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2013); Managing Director of Index Services, Zacks Investment Management (2011–2013).
60None
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Individual Trustee Qualifications. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of their ability to review and understand information about the Fund provided to them by management, to identify and request other information they may deem relevant to the performance of their duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of the Fund, and to exercise their business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his or her own experience, qualifications, attributes and skills as described below.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Rush should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial industry experience, including serving in several different senior executive roles at various global financial services firms, and the experience he has gained as serving as trustee of another investment company trust since 2011. He most recently served as Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer of Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated and several other affiliated entities and served as the Treasurer for Baird Funds. He also served as the Chief Financial Officer for Fidelity Investments’ four broker-dealers and has substantial experience with mutual fund and investment advisory organizations and related businesses, including Vice President and Head of Compliance for Fidelity Investments, a Vice President at Credit Suisse First Boston, a Manager with Goldman Sachs, & Co. and a Senior Manager with Deloitte & Touche. Mr. Rush has been determined to qualify as an Audit Committee Financial Expert for the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Massart should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial industry experience, including over two decades working with high net worth individuals, families, trusts, and retirement accounts to make strategic and tactical asset allocation decisions, evaluate and select investment managers, and manage complex client relationships, and the experience he has gained as serving as trustee of another investment company trust since 2011. He is currently a Partner and Manager Director at Beacon Pointe Advisors, LLC. Previously, he served as President and Chief Investment Strategist of a SEC registered investment advisory firm he co-founded, as a Managing Director of Strong Private Client, and as a Manager of Wells Fargo Investments, LLC.
The Trust has concluded that Ms. Olsen should serve as a Trustee because of her substantial industry experience, including over a decade serving as a senior executive of an investment management firm and a related public company, and the experience she has gained by serving as an executive officer of another investment company from 2001 to 2012. Ms. Olsen most recently served as Managing Director and General Counsel of Artisan Partners Limited Partnership, a registered investment adviser serving primarily investment companies and institutional investors, and several affiliated entities, including its general partner, Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc. (NYSE: APAM), and as an executive officer of Artisan Funds Inc.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Castino should serve as Trustee because of the experience he gained as Chairman of the Trust since 2013, as a senior officer of U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services (“Fund Services” or the “Transfer Agent”), since 2012, and in his past roles with investment management firms and indexing firms involved with ETFs, as well as his experience in and knowledge of the financial services industry.
In its periodic assessment of the effectiveness of the Board, the Board considers the complementary individual skills and experience of the individual Trustees primarily in the broader context of the Board’s overall composition so that the Board, as a body, possesses the appropriate (and appropriately diverse) skills and experience to oversee the business of the funds.
Board Committees. The Board has established the following standing committees of the Board:
Audit Committee. The Board has a standing Audit Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Audit Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee include: recommending which firm to engage as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm and whether to terminate this relationship; reviewing the independent registered public accounting firm’s compensation, the proposed scope and terms of its engagement, and the firm’s independence; pre-approving audit and non-audit services provided by the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm to the Trust and certain other affiliated entities; serving as a channel of communication between the independent registered public accounting firm and the Trustees; reviewing the results of each external audit, including any qualifications in the independent registered public accounting firm’s opinion, any related management letter, management’s responses to recommendations made by the independent registered public accounting firm in connection with the audit, reports submitted to the Committee by the internal auditing department of the Trust’s Administrator that are material to the Trust as a whole, if any, and management’s responses to any such reports; reviewing the Fund’s audited financial statements and considering any significant disputes between the Trust’s management and the independent registered public accounting firm that arose in connection with the preparation of those financial statements; considering, in consultation with the independent registered public accounting firm and the Trust’s senior internal accounting executive, if any, the independent registered public accounting firms’ report on the adequacy of the Trust’s internal financial controls; reviewing, in consultation with the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, major changes regarding auditing and accounting principles and practices to be followed when preparing the Fund’s financial statements; and other audit related matters.
The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust for the purpose of compliance with Rules 205.2(k) and 205.3(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations, regarding alternative reporting procedures for attorneys retained or employed by an issuer who appear and practice before the SEC on behalf of the issuer (the “issuer attorneys”). An issuer attorney who becomes aware of evidence of a material violation by the Trust, or by any officer, director, employee, or agent of the Trust, may report evidence of such material violation to the QLCC as an alternative to the reporting requirements of Rule 205.3(b) (which requires reporting to the chief legal officer and potentially “up the ladder” to other entities).
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Nominating Committee. The Board has a standing Nominating Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Nominating Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibility of the Nominating Committee is to consider, recommend and nominate candidates to fill vacancies on the Trust’s Board, if any. The Nominating Committee generally will not consider nominees recommended by shareholders. The Nominating Committee meets periodically, as necessary.
Valuation Committee. The Board has delegated day-to-day valuation issues to a Valuation Committee that is comprised of certain officers of the Trust. Although the Valuation Committee is not a committee of the Board (i.e., no Trustee is a member of the Valuation Committee), the Valuation Committee’s membership is appointed by the Board and its charter and applicable procedures are approved by the Board. The function of the Valuation Committee is to value securities held by any series of the Trust for which current and reliable market quotations are not readily available. Such securities are valued at their respective fair values as determined in good faith by the Valuation Committee and the actions of the Valuation Committee are subsequently reviewed and ratified by the Board. The Valuation Committee meets as necessary.
Principal Officers of the Trust
The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise its daily business. The address of each officer of the Trust is c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, 615 E. Michigan Street, Milwaukee, WI 53202. Additional information about the Trust’s officers is as follows:
Name and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Kristina R. Nelson
Born: 1982
President
Indefinite term;
since 2019
Senior Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2020); Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2014–2020).
Alyssa M. Bernard
Born: 1988
Vice PresidentIndefinite term;
since 2021
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2021); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2018–2021); Attorney, Waddell & Reed Financial, Inc. (2017–2018).
Elizabeth B. Scalf
Born: 1985
Chief Compliance Officer and Anti-Money Laundering Officer
Indefinite term;
since 2021
Senior Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2017); Vice President and Assistant CCO, Heartland Advisors, Inc. (2016–2017); Vice President and CCO, Heartland Group, Inc. (2016).
Kristen M. Weitzel
Born: 1977
Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2014
(other roles since 2013)
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2015); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2011–2015); Manager, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (accounting firm) (2005–2011).
Isabella K. Zoller
Born: 1994
Secretary
Indefinite term;
since 2021
(other roles since 2020)
Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2021); Regulatory Administration Attorney, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2019); Regulatory Administration Intern, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2018–2019); Law Student (2016–2019).
Elizabeth A. Winske
Born: 1983
Assistant Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2017
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2020); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2016–2020).
Jason E. Shlensky
Born: 1987
Assistant Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2019
Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2019); Officer, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2014–2019).
Jessica L. Vorbeck
Born: 1984
Assistant TreasurerIndefinite term;
since 2020
Officer, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2018; 2014-2017).
Cynthia L. Andrae
Born: 1971
Deputy Chief Compliance OfficerIndefinite term;
since 2021
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2019); Compliance Officer, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2015-2019).
Trustee Ownership of Shares. The Fund is required to show the dollar amount ranges of each Trustee’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares of the Fund and each other series of the Trust as of the end of the most recently completed calendar year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.
As of the date of this SAI, no Trustee owned Shares or shares of any other series of the Trust.
Board Compensation. The Independent Trustees each receive an annual trustee fee of $213,000 for attendance at the four regularly scheduled quarterly meetings and one annual meeting, if necessary, and receive additional compensation for each additional meeting attended of $2,000, as well as reimbursement for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with attendance at Board meetings. The Lead Independent Trustee receives an additional annual fee of $15,000. The Chairman of the Audit Committee receives an additional annual fee of $15,000. The Trust has no pension or retirement plan.
The following table shows the compensation estimated to be earned by each Trustee for the Fund’s fiscal year ending December 31, 2022. Independent Trustee fees are paid by the adviser to each series of the Trust and not by the Fund. Trustee compensation does not include reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attendance at meetings.
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 Name
Aggregate Compensation
From the Fund
Total Compensation From Fund Complex
Paid to Trustees
Interested Trustee
Michael A. Castino
$0$0
Independent Trustees
Leonard M. Rush, CPA
$0$[ ]
David A. Massart
$0$[ ]
Janet D. Olsen
$0$[ ]
PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS, CONTROL PERSONS, AND MANAGEMENT OWNERSHIP
A principal shareholder is any person who owns of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding Shares. A control person is a shareholder that owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. Shareholders owning voting securities in excess of 25% may determine the outcome of any matter affecting and voted on by shareholders of the Fund. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not commenced operations, and consequently, there were no Shares outstanding.
CODES OF ETHICS
The Trust, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser have each adopted codes of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act. These codes of ethics are designed to prevent affiliated persons of the Trust, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser from engaging in deceptive, manipulative or fraudulent activities in connection with securities held or to be acquired by the Fund (which may also be held by persons subject to the codes of ethics). Each Code of Ethics permits personnel subject to that Code of Ethics to invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, subject to certain limitations, including limitations related to securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund. The Distributor (as defined below) relies on the principal underwriters exception under Rule 17j-1(c)(3), specifically where the Distributor is not affiliated with the Trust, the Adviser, or the Sub-Adviser, and no officer, director, or general partner of the Distributor serves as an officer, director, or general partner of the Trust, the Adviser, or the Sub-Adviser.
There can be no assurance that the codes of ethics will be effective in preventing such activities. Each code of ethics may be examined at the office of the SEC in Washington, D.C. or on the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
PROXY VOTING POLICIES
The Fund has delegated proxy voting responsibilities to the Adviser, subject to the Board’s oversight. In delegating proxy responsibilities, the Board has directed that proxies be voted consistent with the Fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests and in compliance with all applicable proxy voting rules and regulations. The Adviser has adopted proxy voting policies and guidelines for this purpose (“Proxy Voting Policies”) and has engaged a third-party proxy solicitation firm to assist with voting proxies in a timely manner. A copy of the Proxy Voting Policies is set forth in Appendix A to this SAI. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is responsible for monitoring the effectiveness of the Proxy Voting Policies. The Proxy Voting Policies have been adopted by the Trust as the policies and procedures that the Adviser will use when voting proxies on behalf of the Fund.
The Proxy Voting Policies address, among other things, material conflicts of interest that may arise between the interests of the Fund and the interests of the Adviser. The Proxy Voting Policies will ensure that all issues brought to shareholders are analyzed in light of the Adviser’s fiduciary responsibilities.
When available, information on how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling 1–800–617–0004 and (2) on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
INVESTMENT ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISER
Investment Adviser
Defiance ETFs, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and was organized in 2018. The Adviser is majority owned and controlled by Matthew Bielski.
Pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”), the Adviser provides investment advice to the Fund and oversees the day-to-day operations of the Fund, subject to the direction and control of the Board and the officers of the Trust. Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser is also responsible for arranging transfer agency, custody, fund administration, securities lending, accounting, distribution, and other services necessary for the Fund to operate. The Adviser administers the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services. The Adviser bears the costs of all advisory and non-advisory services required to operate the Fund, in exchange for a single unitary management fee from the Fund. For the services it provides to the Fund, the Fund pays the Adviser a unified management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on the Fund’s average daily net assets as follows:
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Name of FundManagement Fee
Defiance Short Blockchain and Digital Assets Industry ETF
[ ]%
Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except for: the fee paid to the Adviser pursuant to the Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution (12b-1) fees and expenses. The Adviser, in turn, compensates the Sub-Adviser from the management fee the Adviser receives.
The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in force for an initial period of two years. Thereafter, the Advisory Agreement will be renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Adviser or the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Advisory Agreement automatically terminates on assignment and is terminable on a 60-day written notice either by the Trust or the Adviser.
The Adviser shall not be liable to the Trust or any shareholder for anything done or omitted by it, except acts or omissions involving willful misfeasance, bad faith, negligence or reckless disregard of the duties imposed upon it by its agreement with the Trust or for any losses that may be sustained in the purchase, holding or sale of any security.
Sub-Adviser
The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, and the Adviser have retained Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”), 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009, to serve as sub-adviser for the Fund. The Sub-Adviser was established in 2014 and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. Vident Financial, LLC was formed in 2013 to develop and license investment market solutions (indices and funds) based on strategies that combine sophisticated risk-balancing methodologies, economic freedom metrics, valuation, and investor behavior. Vident Financial, LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Vident Investors’ Oversight Trust. Vince L. Birley, Brian Shepler and Mohammad Baki serve as the trustees of the Vident Investors’ Oversight Trust.
Pursuant to a Sub-Advisory Agreement between the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser (the “Sub-Advisory Agreement”), the Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities on behalf of the Fund, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions as instructed by the Adviser, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For the services it provides to the Fund, the Sub-Adviser is compensated by the Adviser from the management fees paid by the Fund to the Adviser.
The Sub-Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in force for an initial period of two years after the date of its approval. Thereafter, the Sub-Advisory Agreement will be renewable from year to year, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment, and is terminable at any time without penalty by the Board or, with respect to the Fund, by a majority of the outstanding Shares, on not less than 30 days’ nor more than 60 days’ written notice to the Sub-Adviser, or by the Sub-Adviser on 60 days’ written notice to the Adviser and the Trust. The Sub-Advisory Agreement provides that the Sub-Adviser shall not be protected against any liability to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on its part in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard of its obligations or duties thereunder.
PORTFOLIO MANAGER
The Fund is managed by Rafael Zayas, CFA, SVP, Head of Portfolio Management for VIA (the “Portfolio Manager”).
Share Ownership
The Fund is required to show the dollar range of the portfolio manager’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares of the Fund as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year or a more recent date for a new portfolio manager. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act. As of the date of this SAI, the portfolio manager did not beneficially own Shares.
Other Accounts  
In addition to the Fund, the portfolio manager manages the following other accounts as of [ ], 2022, none of which were subject to a performance-based fee: 
Type of Accounts
Total Number of Accounts
Total Assets of Accounts
Registered Investment Companies[ ]$[ ]
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles[ ]$[ ]
Other Accounts0$0
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Compensation
The Portfolio Manager receives a fixed base salary and discretionary bonus that are not tied to the performance of the Fund.
Material Conflicts of Interest
A portfolio manager’s management of “other accounts” may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with his/her management of the Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The other accounts may have similar investment objectives or strategies as the Fund. Therefore, a potential conflict of interest may arise as a result, whereby a portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include a portfolio manager’s knowledge about the size, timing, and possible market impact of Fund trades, whereby the portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts and to the disadvantage of the Fund. However, the Sub-Adviser has established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts the Sub-Adviser manages are fairly and equitably allocated.
THE DISTRIBUTOR
The Trust and Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) are parties to a distribution agreement (“Distribution Agreement”), whereby the Distributor acts as principal underwriter for the Trust and distributes Shares. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Distributor only in Creation Units. The Distributor will not distribute Shares in amounts less than a Creation Unit and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The principal business address of the Distributor is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101.
Under the Distribution Agreement, the Distributor, as agent for the Trust, will review orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units, provided that any subscriptions and orders will not be binding on the Trust until accepted by the Trust. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the 1934 Act and a member of FINRA.
The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or DTC participants (as defined below).
The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually thereafter. The continuance of the Distribution Agreement must be specifically approved at least annually (i) by the vote of the Trustees or by a vote of the shareholders of the Fund and (ii) by the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operations of the Distribution Agreement or any related agreement, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Distribution Agreement is terminable without penalty by the Trust on 60 days’ written notice when authorized either by majority vote of its outstanding voting Shares or by a vote of a majority of its Board (including a majority of the Independent Trustees), or by the Distributor on 60 days’ written notice, and will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Distribution Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith, or gross negligence on the part of the Distributor, or reckless disregard by it of its obligations thereunder, the Distributor shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.
Intermediary Compensation. The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, or their affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of Fund assets (i.e., without additional cost to the Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”) for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing and educational training or support. These arrangements are not financed by the Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of the Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of Shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of Shares.
Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to the Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). The Adviser and Sub-Adviser periodically assess the advisability of continuing to make these payments. Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professional if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.
Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker, or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by the Adviser, Sub-Adviser or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy Shares.
If you have any additional questions, please call 1-833-333-9383.
Distribution and Service Plan. The Trust has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) in accordance with the provisions of Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, which regulates circumstances under which an investment company may directly or indirectly bear expenses relating to the distribution of its shares. No payments pursuant to the Plan are expected to be made during the twelve (12)
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month period from the date of this SAI. Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by the Fund under the Plan may only be imposed after approval by the Board.
Continuance of the Plan must be approved annually by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust and have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan or in any agreements related to the Plan (“Qualified Trustees”). The Plan requires that quarterly written reports of amounts spent under the Plan and the purposes of such expenditures be furnished to and reviewed by the Trustees. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount that may be spent thereunder without approval by a majority of the outstanding Shares. All material amendments of the Plan will require approval by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and of the Qualified Trustees.
The Plan provides that the Fund pays the Distributor an annual fee of up to a maximum of 0.25% of the average daily net assets of the Shares. Under the Plan, the Distributor may make payments pursuant to written agreements to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations and insurance companies including, without limit, investment counselors, broker-dealers and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively, “Agents”) as compensation for services and reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Plan is characterized as a compensation plan since the distribution fee will be paid to the Distributor without regard to the distribution expenses incurred by the Distributor or the amount of payments made to other financial institutions and intermediaries. The Trust intends to operate the Plan in accordance with its terms and with the FINRA rules concerning sales charges.
Under the Plan, subject to the limitations of applicable law and regulations, the Fund is authorized to compensate the Distributor up to the maximum amount to finance any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of Creation Units of the Fund or for providing or arranging for others to provide shareholder services and for the maintenance of shareholder accounts. Such activities may include, but are not limited to: (i) delivering copies of the Fund’s then current reports, prospectuses, notices, and similar materials, to prospective purchasers of Creation Units; (ii) marketing and promotional services, including advertising; (iii) paying the costs of and compensating others, including Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) with whom the Distributor has entered into written Authorized Participant Agreements, for performing shareholder servicing on behalf of the Fund; (iv) compensating certain Authorized Participants for providing assistance in distributing the Creation Units of the Fund, including the travel and communication expenses and salaries and/or commissions of sales personnel in connection with the distribution of the Creation Units of the Fund; (v) payments to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies and investment counselors, broker-dealers, mutual fund supermarkets and the affiliates and subsidiaries of the Trust’s service providers as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance; (vi) facilitating communications with beneficial owners of Shares, including the cost of providing (or paying others to provide) services to beneficial owners of Shares, including, but not limited to, assistance in answering inquiries related to shareholder accounts; and (vii) such other services and obligations as are set forth in the Distribution Agreement.
THE ADMINISTRATOR, CUSTODIAN, AND TRANSFER AGENT
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as the Fund’s transfer agent and administrator.
Pursuant to a Fund Administration Servicing Agreement and a Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Fund Services, Fund Services provides the Trust with administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) and accounting services, including portfolio accounting services, tax accounting services, and furnishing financial reports. In this capacity, Fund Services does not have any responsibility or authority for the management of the Fund, the determination of investment policy, or for any matter pertaining to the distribution of Shares. As compensation for the administration, accounting and management services, the Adviser pays Fund Services a fee based on the Fund’s average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee. Fund Services also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses for the services mentioned above, including pricing expenses.
Pursuant to a Custody Agreement, U.S. Bank National Association (the “Custodian” or “U.S. Bank”), 1555 North Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212, serves as the custodian of the Fund’s assets. The Custodian holds and administers the assets in the Fund’s portfolio. Pursuant to the Custody Agreement, the Custodian receives an annual fee from the Adviser based on the Trust’s total average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee, and certain settlement charges. The Custodian also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses.
LEGAL COUNSEL
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, located at 1111 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20004-2541, serves as legal counsel for the Trust.
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
[ ], located at [ ], serves as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
The Trust’s Board has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Fund’s security holdings. The Fund’s entire portfolio holdings are publicly disseminated each day the Fund is open for business through financial reporting and news services,
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including publicly available internet web sites. In addition, the composition of the Deposit Securities is publicly disseminated daily prior to the opening of the Exchange via the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”).
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES
The Declaration of Trust authorizes the issuance of an unlimited number of funds and Shares. Each Share represents an equal proportionate interest in the Fund with each other Share. Shares are entitled upon liquidation to a pro rata share in the net assets of the Fund. Shareholders have no preemptive rights. The Declaration of Trust provides that the Trustees may create additional series or classes of Shares. All consideration received by the Trust for shares of any additional funds and all assets in which such consideration is invested would belong to that fund and would be subject to the liabilities related thereto. Share certificates representing Shares will not be issued. Shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.
Each Share has one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required, consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shares of all funds of the Trust vote together as a single class, except that if the matter being voted on affects only a particular fund it will be voted on only by that fund and if a matter affects a particular fund differently from other funds, that fund will vote separately on such matter. As a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust is not required, and does not intend, to hold annual meetings of shareholders. Approval of shareholders will be sought, however, for certain changes in the operation of the Trust and for the election of Trustees under certain circumstances. Upon the written request of shareholders owning at least 10% of the Trust’s shares, the Trust will call for a meeting of shareholders to consider the removal of one or more Trustees and other certain matters. In the event that such a meeting is requested, the Trust will provide appropriate assistance and information to the shareholders requesting the meeting.
Under the Declaration of Trust, the Trustees have the power to liquidate the Fund without shareholder approval. While the Trustees have no present intention of exercising this power, they may do so if the Fund fails to reach a viable size within a reasonable amount of time or for such other reasons as may be determined by the Board.
LIMITATION OF TRUSTEES’ LIABILITY
The Declaration of Trust provides that a Trustee shall be liable only for his or her own willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee, and shall not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law. The Trustees shall not be responsible or liable in any event for any neglect or wrong-doing of any officer, agent, employee, adviser or principal underwriter of the Trust, nor shall any Trustee be responsible for the act or omission of any other Trustee. The Declaration of Trust also provides that the Trust shall indemnify each person who is, or has been, a Trustee, officer, employee or agent of the Trust, any person who is serving or has served at the Trust’s request as a Trustee, officer, trustee, employee or agent of another organization in which the Trust has any interest as a shareholder, creditor or otherwise to the extent and in the manner provided in the Amended and Restated By-laws. However, nothing in the Declaration of Trust shall protect or indemnify a Trustee against any liability for his or her willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee. Nothing contained in this section attempts to disclaim a Trustee’s individual liability in any manner inconsistent with the federal securities laws.
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS
The policy of the Trust regarding purchases and sales of securities for the Fund is that primary consideration will be given to obtaining the most favorable prices and efficient executions of transactions. Consistent with this policy, when securities transactions are effected on a stock exchange, the Trust’s policy is to pay commissions which are considered fair and reasonable without necessarily determining that the lowest possible commissions are paid in all circumstances. The Trust believes that a requirement always to seek the lowest possible commission cost could impede effective portfolio management and preclude the Fund and the Sub-Adviser from obtaining a high quality of brokerage and research services. In seeking to determine the reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid in any transaction, the Sub-Adviser will rely upon its experience and knowledge regarding commissions generally charged by various brokers and on its judgment in evaluating the brokerage services received from the broker effecting the transaction. Such determinations are necessarily subjective and imprecise, as in most cases, an exact dollar value for those services is not ascertainable. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of Shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.
The Sub-Adviser owes a fiduciary duty to its clients to seek to provide best execution on trades effected. In selecting a broker-dealer for each specific transaction, the Sub-Adviser chooses the broker/dealer deemed most capable of providing the services necessary to obtain the most favorable execution. “Best execution” is generally understood to mean the most favorable cost or net proceeds reasonably obtainable under the circumstances. The full range of brokerage services applicable to a particular transaction may be considered when making this judgment, which may include, but is not limited to: liquidity, price, commission, timing, aggregated trades, capable floor brokers or traders, competent block trading coverage, ability to position, capital strength and stability, reliable and accurate communications and settlement processing, use of automation, knowledge of other buyers or sellers, arbitrage skills, administrative ability, underwriting and provision of information on a particular security or market in which the transaction is to occur. The specific criteria will vary depending upon the nature of the transaction, the market in which it is executed, and the extent to which it is possible to select from among multiple broker/dealers. The Sub-Adviser will also use electronic crossing networks (“ECNs”) when appropriate.
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Subject to the foregoing policies, brokers or dealers selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions may include the Fund’s Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or their affiliates. An Authorized Participant or its affiliates may be selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions in conjunction with an all-cash creation unit order or an order including “cash-in-lieu” (as described below under “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units”), so long as such selection is in keeping with the foregoing policies. As described below under “Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units—Creation Transaction Fee” and “—Redemption Transaction Fee”, the Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate the rebalance of the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order, even if the decision to not charge a variable fee could be viewed as benefiting the Authorized Participant or its affiliate selected to execute the Fund’s portfolio transactions in connection with such orders.
The Sub-Adviser may use the Fund’s assets for, or participate in, third-party soft dollar arrangements, in addition to receiving proprietary research from various full service brokers, the cost of which is bundled with the cost of the broker’s execution services. The Sub-Adviser does not “pay up” for the value of any such proprietary research. Section 28(e) of the 1934 Act permits the Sub-Adviser, under certain circumstances, to cause the Fund to pay a broker or dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting the transaction in recognition of the value of brokerage and research services provided by the broker or dealer. The Sub-Adviser may receive a variety of research services and information on many topics, which it can use in connection with its management responsibilities with respect to the various accounts over which it exercises investment discretion or otherwise provides investment advice. The research services may include qualifying order management systems, portfolio attribution and monitoring services and computer software and access charges which are directly related to investment research. Accordingly, the Fund may pay a broker commission higher than the lowest available in recognition of the broker’s provision of such services to the Sub-Adviser, but only if the Sub-Adviser determines the total commission (including the soft dollar benefit) is comparable to the best commission rate that could be expected to be received from other brokers. The amount of soft dollar benefits received depends on the amount of brokerage transactions effected with the brokers. A conflict of interest exists because there is an incentive to: 1) cause clients to pay a higher commission than the firm might otherwise be able to negotiate; 2) cause clients to engage in more securities transactions than would otherwise be optimal; and 3) only recommend brokers that provide soft dollar benefits.
The Sub-Adviser faces a potential conflict of interest when it uses client trades to obtain brokerage or research services. This conflict exists because the Sub-Adviser is able to use the brokerage or research services to manage client accounts without paying cash for such services, which reduces the Sub-Adviser’s expenses to the extent that the Sub-Adviser would have purchased such products had they not been provided by brokers. Section 28(e) permits the Sub-Adviser to use brokerage or research services for the benefit of any account it manages. Certain accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser may generate soft dollars used to purchase brokerage or research services that ultimately benefit other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser, effectively cross subsidizing the other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser that benefit directly from the product. The Sub-Adviser may not necessarily use all of the brokerage or research services in connection with managing the Fund whose trades generated the soft dollars used to purchase such products.
The Sub-Adviser is responsible, subject to oversight by the Adviser and the Board, for placing orders on behalf of the Fund for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities of the Fund and one or more other investment companies or clients supervised by the Sub-Adviser are considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities are allocated among the several investment companies and clients in a manner deemed equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to all by the Sub-Adviser. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security so far as the Fund is concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower brokerage commissions will be beneficial to the Fund. The primary consideration is prompt execution of orders at the most favorable net price.
The Fund may deal with affiliates in principal transactions to the extent permitted by exemptive order or applicable rule or regulation.
The Fund is new and had not paid any brokerage commissions as of the date of this SAI.
Directed Brokerage. The Fund is new, and as of the date of this SAI, the Fund did not pay any commissions on brokerage transactions directed to pursuant to an agreement or understanding whereby the broker provides research or other brokerage services to the Adviser.
Brokerage with Fund Affiliates. The Fund may execute brokerage or other agency transactions through registered broker-dealer affiliates of the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, or the Distributor for a commission in conformity with the 1940 Act, the 1934 Act and rules promulgated by the SEC. These rules require that commissions paid to the affiliate by the Fund for exchange transactions not exceed “usual and customary” brokerage commissions. The rules define “usual and customary” commissions to include amounts which are “reasonable and fair compared to the commission, fee or other remuneration received or to be received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities being purchased or sold on a securities exchange during a comparable period of time.” The Trustees, including those who are not “interested persons” of the Fund, have adopted procedures for evaluating the reasonableness of commissions paid to affiliates and review these procedures periodically. Because the Fund is new, the Fund has not paid brokerage commissions to any registered broker-dealer affiliates of the Fund, the Adviser, or the Distributor as of the date of this SAI.
Securities of “Regular Broker-Dealers.” The Fund is required to identify any securities of its “regular brokers and dealers” (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) that it may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. “Regular brokers or dealers” of the Fund are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from
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the Fund’s portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Fund; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of Shares. Because the Fund is new, as of the date of this SAI, it did not own securities of “regular broker dealers.”
PORTFOLIO TURNOVER RATE
Portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year. High turnover rates are likely to result in comparatively greater brokerage expenses. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by the Sub-Adviser based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid by other institutional investors for comparable services.
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM
The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depositary for Shares. Shares are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC. Except in limited circumstances set forth below, certificates will not be issued for Shares.
DTC is a limited-purpose trust company that was created to hold securities of its participants (the “DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).
Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to in this SAI as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of Shares. The Trust recognizes DTC or its nominee as the record owner of all Shares for all purposes. Beneficial Owners of Shares are not entitled to have Shares registered in their names and will not receive or be entitled to physical delivery of Share certificates. Each Beneficial Owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and any DTC Participant and/or Indirect Participant through which such Beneficial Owner holds its interests, to exercise any rights of a holder of Shares.
Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. DTC will make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee a listing of Shares held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall obtain from each such DTC Participant the number of Beneficial Owners holding Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Share distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the Fund as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.
The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in Shares, or for maintaining, supervising, or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.
DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to the Fund at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Fund and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Fund shall take action either to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of Shares, unless the Trust makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the Exchange.
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PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS
The Trust issues and redeems Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Transfer Agent, without a sales load (but subject to transaction fees, if applicable), at their NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order, on any Business Day, in proper form pursuant to the terms of the Authorized Participant Agreement (“Participant Agreement”). The NAV of Shares is calculated each business day as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE, generally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time. The Fund will not issue fractional Creation Units. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business.
Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) per each Creation Unit and the Cash Component (defined below), computed as described below. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. When accepting purchases of Creation Units for all or a portion of Deposit Cash, the Fund may incur additional costs associated with the acquisition of Deposit Securities that would otherwise be provided by an in-kind purchaser.
Together, the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit,” which represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of the Fund. The “Cash Component” is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares (per Creation Unit) and the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. If the Cash Component is a positive number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such positive amount. If the Cash Component is a negative number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such negative amount and the creator will be entitled to receive cash in an amount equal to the Cash Component. The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. Computation of the Cash Component excludes any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities, if applicable, which shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant (as defined below).
The Fund, through NSCC, makes available on each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern time), the list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, to be included in the current Fund Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund. Such Fund Deposit is subject to any applicable adjustments as described below, to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced composition of the Deposit Securities or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, is made available.
The identity and number of Shares of the Deposit Securities or the amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, required for a Fund Deposit for the Fund changes as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the Adviser with a view to the investment objective of the Fund.
The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of Deposit Cash to replace any Deposit Security, which shall be added to the Cash Component, including, without limitation, in situations where the Deposit Security: (i) may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery; (ii) may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC for corporate securities and municipal securities; (iii) may not be eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant (as defined below) or the investor for which it is acting; (iv) would be restricted under the securities laws or where the delivery of the Deposit Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under the securities laws; or (v) in certain other situations (collectively, “custom orders”).
Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units. To be eligible to place orders with the Transfer Agent to purchase a Creation Unit of the Fund, an entity must be (i) a “Participating Party” (i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC (the “Clearing Process”)), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC; or (ii) a DTC Participant (see “Book Entry Only System”). In addition, each Participating Party or DTC Participant (each, an “Authorized Participant”) must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor, and that has been accepted by the Transfer Agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Each Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of a Participant Agreement, on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that it will pay to the Trust, an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component together with the creation transaction fee (described below), if applicable, and any other applicable fees and taxes.
[All orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund on the next Business Day must be submitted as a “Future Dated Trade” for one or more Creation Units between 4:30 p.m. Eastern time and 5:30 p.m. Eastern time on the prior Business Day and in the manner set forth in the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form. With respect to the Fund, the Business Day following the day on which such an order is submitted to purchase Creation Units (or an order to redeem Creation Units, as set forth below) is referred to as the “Order Placement Date.” ]
An Authorized Participant may require an investor to make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order (e.g., to provide for payments of cash, when required). Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed a Participant Agreement and that, therefore, orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund in Creation Units have to be placed by the
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investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. In such cases there may be additional charges to such investor. At any given time, there may be only a limited number of broker-dealers that have executed a Participant Agreement and only a small number of such Authorized Participants may have international capabilities.
On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to create Creation Units to be placed earlier in the day. In addition, if a market or markets on which the Fund’s investments are primarily traded is closed, the Fund will also generally not accept orders on such day(s). Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Transfer Agent pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement and in accordance with the applicable order form. On behalf of the Fund, the Transfer Agent will notify the Custodian of such order. The Custodian will then provide such information to the appropriate local sub-custodian(s). Those placing orders through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Transfer Agent by the cut-off time on such Business Day. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure may impede the ability to reach the Transfer Agent or an Authorized Participant.
Fund Deposits must be delivered by an Authorized Participant through the Federal Reserve System (for cash) or through DTC (for corporate securities), through a subcustody agent (for foreign securities), and/or through such other arrangements allowed by the Trust or its agents. With respect to foreign Deposit Securities, the Custodian shall cause the subcustodian of the Fund to maintain an account into which the Authorized Participant shall deliver, on behalf of itself or the party on whose behalf it is acting, such Deposit Securities (or Deposit Cash for all or a part of such securities, as permitted or required), with any appropriate adjustments as advised by the Trust. Foreign Deposit Securities must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local subcustodian. The Fund Deposit transfer must be ordered by the Authorized Participant in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of the requisite number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, to the account of the Fund or its agents by no later than 12:00 p.m. Eastern time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive all of the Deposit Securities, or the required Deposit Cash in lieu thereof, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. The “Settlement Date” for the Fund is generally the second Business Day after the Order Placement Date. All questions as to the number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash to be delivered, as applicable, and the validity, form and eligibility (including time of receipt) for the deposit of any tendered securities or cash, as applicable, will be determined by the Trust, whose determination shall be final and binding. The amount of cash represented by the Cash Component must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than the Settlement Date. If the Cash Component and the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, are not received by the Custodian in a timely manner by the Settlement Date, the creation order may be cancelled. Upon written notice to the Transfer Agent, such canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day using a Fund Deposit as newly constituted to reflect the then current NAV of the Fund.
The order shall be deemed to be received on the Business Day on which the order is placed provided that the order is placed in proper form prior to the applicable cut-off time and the federal funds in the appropriate amount are deposited with the Custodian on the Settlement Date. If the order is not placed in proper form as required, or federal funds in the appropriate amount are not received on the Settlement Date, then the order may be deemed to be rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. A creation request is considered to be in “proper form” if all procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, order form and this SAI are properly followed.
Issuance of a Creation Unit. Except as provided in this SAI, Creation Units will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Trust of the Deposit Securities or payment of Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the subcustodian has confirmed to the Custodian that the required Deposit Securities (or the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant subcustodian or subcustodians, the Transfer Agent and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Trust will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Units. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the second Business Day following the day on which the purchase order is deemed received by the Transfer Agent. The Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting from unsettled orders.
Creation Units may be purchased in advance of receipt by the Trust of all or a portion of the applicable Deposit Securities as described below. In these circumstances, the initial deposit will have a value greater than the NAV of Shares on the date the order is placed in proper form since, in addition to available Deposit Securities, cash must be deposited in an amount equal to the sum of (i) the Cash Component, plus (ii) an additional amount of cash equal to a percentage of the value as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the undelivered Deposit Securities (the “Additional Cash Deposit”), which shall be maintained in a separate non-interest bearing collateral account. The Authorized Participant must deposit with the Custodian the Additional Cash Deposit, as applicable, by 12:00 p.m. Eastern time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive the Additional Cash Deposit in the appropriate amount, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. An additional amount of cash shall be required to be deposited with the Trust, pending delivery of the missing Deposit Securities to the extent necessary to maintain the Additional Cash Deposit with the Trust in an amount at least equal to the applicable percentage, as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the daily market value of the missing Deposit Securities. The Participant Agreement will permit the Trust to buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time. Authorized Participants will be liable to the Trust for the costs incurred by the Trust in connection with any such purchases. These costs will be deemed to include the amount by which the actual purchase price of the Deposit Securities exceeds the value of such Deposit Securities on the day
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the purchase order was deemed received by the Transfer Agent plus the brokerage and related transaction costs associated with such purchases. The Trust will return any unused portion of the Additional Cash Deposit once all of the missing Deposit Securities have been properly received by the Custodian or purchased by the Trust and deposited into the Trust. In addition, a transaction fee, as described below under “Creation Transaction Fee,” may be charged. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the Settlement Date.
Acceptance of Orders of Creation Units. The Trust reserves the right to reject an order for Creation Units transmitted to it by the Transfer Agent with respect to the Fund including, without limitation, if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, delivered by the Participant are not as disseminated through the facilities of the NSCC for that date by the Custodian; (c) the investor(s), upon obtaining Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding Shares; (d) the acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (e) the acceptance or receipt of the order for a Creation Unit would, in the opinion of counsel to the Trust, be unlawful; or (f) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Custodian, the Transfer Agent and/or the Adviser make it for all practical purposes not feasible to process orders for Creation Units.
[In addition to the circumstances described above, if the Fund is unable to obtain sufficient inverse exposure to the Amplify ETF due to the limited availability of necessary investments or financial instruments, the Fund could, among other things, limit or suspend creation units until the Adviser determines that the requisite exposure to the Amplify ETF is obtainable.]
Examples of such circumstances include acts of God or public service or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, the Custodian, a sub-custodian, the Transfer Agent, DTC, NSCC, Federal Reserve System, or any other participant in the creation process, and other extraordinary events. The Transfer Agent shall notify a prospective creator of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of the creator of a Creation Unit of its rejection of the order of such person. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall either of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian and the Distributor shall not be liable for the rejection of any purchase order for Creation Units.
All questions as to the number of Shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust, and the Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.
Creation Transaction Fee. A fixed purchase (i.e., creation) transaction fee, payable to the Fund’s custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the purchase of Creation Units (“Creation Order Costs”). The standard fixed creation transaction fee for the Fund is $[ ], regardless of the number of Creation Units created in the transaction. The Fund may adjust the standard fixed creation transaction fee from time to time. The fixed creation fee may be waived on certain orders if the Fund’s custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Creation Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to a maximum of 2% of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash purchases, non-standard orders, or partial cash purchases of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with buying the securities with cash. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate the rebalance of the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order.
Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Trust to their account or on their order.
Risks of Purchasing Creation Units. There are certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the Fund. Because Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that a shareholder performs as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in the shareholder being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render the shareholder a statutory underwriter and subject to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act. For example, a shareholder could be deemed a statutory underwriter if it purchases Creation Units from the Fund, breaks them down into the constituent shares, and sells those shares directly to customers, or if a shareholder chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary-market demand for Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.
Dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act.
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Redemption. Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units at their NAV next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Fund through the Transfer Agent and only on a Business Day. EXCEPT UPON LIQUIDATION OF THE FUND, THE TRUST WILL NOT REDEEM SHARES IN AMOUNTS LESS THAN CREATION UNITS. Investors must accumulate enough Shares in the secondary market to constitute a Creation Unit to have such Shares redeemed by the Trust. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit.
With respect to the Fund, the Custodian, through the NSCC, makes available prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern time) on each Business Day, the list of the names and Share quantities of the Fund’s portfolio securities that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day (“Fund Securities”). Fund Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities.
Redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit are paid either in-kind or in cash, or combination thereof, as determined by the Trust. With respect to in-kind redemptions of the Fund, redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit will consist of Fund Securities - as announced by the Custodian on the Business Day of the request for redemption received in proper form plus cash in an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares being redeemed, as next determined after a receipt of a request in proper form, and the value of the Fund Securities (the “Cash Redemption Amount”), less a fixed redemption transaction fee, as applicable, as set forth below. In the event that the Fund Securities have a value greater than the NAV of Shares, a compensating cash payment equal to the differential is required to be made by or through an Authorized Participant by the redeeming shareholder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, at the Trust’s discretion, an Authorized Participant may receive the corresponding cash value of the securities in lieu of the in-kind securities value representing one or more Fund Securities.
Redemption Transaction Fee. A fixed redemption transaction fee, payable to the Fund’s custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units (“Redemption Order Costs”). The standard fixed redemption transaction fee for the Fund is $[ ], regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed in the transaction. The Fund may adjust the redemption transaction fee from time to time. The fixed redemption fee may be waived on certain orders if the Fund’s custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Redemption Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to a maximum of 2% of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash redemptions, non-standard orders, or partial cash redemptions (when cash redemptions are available) of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with selling portfolio securities to satisfy a cash redemption. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for redemption orders that facilitate the rebalance of the Fund’s portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order.
Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Trust to their account or on their order.
Procedures for Redemption of Creation Units. [Orders to redeem Creation Units of the Fund on the next Business Day must be submitted in proper form to the Transfer Agent as a “Future Dated Trade” for one or more Creation Units between 4:30 p.m. Eastern time and 5:30 p.m. Eastern time on the prior Business Day and in the manner set forth in the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form.] A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if (i) an Authorized Participant has transferred or caused to be transferred to the Trust’s Transfer Agent the Creation Unit(s) being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be effective by the time as set forth in the Participant Agreement and (ii) a request in form satisfactory to the Trust is received by the Transfer Agent from the Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor within the time periods specified in the Participant Agreement. If the Transfer Agent does not receive the investor’s Shares through DTC’s facilities by the times and pursuant to the other terms and conditions set forth in the Participant Agreement, the redemption request shall be rejected.
The Authorized Participant must transmit the request for redemption, in the form required by the Trust, to the Transfer Agent in accordance with procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed a Participant Agreement, and that, therefore, requests to redeem Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant who has executed a Participant Agreement. Investors making a redemption request should be aware that such request must be in the form specified by such Authorized Participant. Investors making a request to redeem Creation Units should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the request by an Authorized Participant and transfer of Shares to the Trust’s Transfer Agent; such investors should allow for the additional time that may be required to effect redemptions through their banks, brokers or other financial intermediaries if such intermediaries are not Authorized Participants.
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Additional Redemption Procedures. In connection with taking delivery of Shares of Fund Securities upon redemption of Creation Units, a redeeming shareholder or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such shareholder must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the Fund Securities are customarily traded, to which account such Fund Securities will be delivered. Deliveries of redemption proceeds generally will be made within two business days of the trade date.
The Trust may in its discretion exercise its option to redeem such Shares in cash, and the redeeming investor will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash. In addition, an investor may request a redemption in cash that the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit. In either case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the NAV of its Shares based on the NAV of Shares next determined after the redemption request is received in proper form (minus a redemption transaction fee, if applicable, and additional charge for requested cash redemptions specified above, to offset the Trust’s brokerage and other transaction costs associated with the disposition of Fund Securities). The Fund may also, in its sole discretion, upon request of a shareholder, provide such redeemer a portfolio of securities that differs from the exact composition of the Fund Securities but does not differ in NAV.
Redemptions of Shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Trust could not lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or could not do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws. An Authorized Participant or an investor for which it is acting subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the Fund Securities applicable to the redemption of Creation Units may be paid an equivalent amount of cash. The Authorized Participant may request the redeeming investor of Shares to complete an order form or to enter into agreements with respect to such matters as compensating cash payment. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” (“QIB”), as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive Fund Securities that are restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A. An Authorized Participant may be required by the Trust to provide a written confirmation with respect to QIB status to receive Fund Securities.
Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on other exchanges on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their Shares, or to purchase or sell Shares on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.
The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (1) for any period during which the Exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (2) for any period during which trading on the Exchange is suspended or restricted; (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of Shares or determination of the NAV of Shares is not reasonably practicable; or (4) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC.
DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE
NAV per Share for the Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of the Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities) by the total number of Shares outstanding, rounded to the nearest cent. Expenses and fees, including the management fees, are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining NAV. The NAV is calculated by Fund Services and determined at the scheduled close of the regular trading session on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) on each day that the NYSE is open, provided that fixed income assets may be valued as of the announced closing time for trading in fixed income instruments on any day that the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) announces an early closing time.
In calculating the Fund’s NAV per Share, the Fund’s investments are generally valued using market valuations. A market valuation generally means a valuation (i) obtained from an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer), (ii) based on a price quotation or other equivalent indication of value supplied by an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer) or (iii) based on amortized cost. In the case of shares of other funds that are not traded on an exchange, a market valuation means such fund’s published NAV per share. The Fund may use various pricing services, or discontinue the use of any pricing service, as approved by the Board from time to time. A price obtained from a pricing service based on such pricing service’s valuation matrix may be considered a market valuation. Any assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.

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DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Dividends, Distributions and Taxes.”
General Policies. Dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid at least annually by the Fund. Distributions of net realized securities gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis to improve index tracking for the Fund or to comply with the distribution requirements of the Code to preserve the Fund’s eligibility for treatment as a RIC, in all events in a manner consistent with the provisions of the 1940 Act.
Dividends and other distributions on Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of such Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from the Trust.
The Fund makes additional distributions to the extent necessary (i) to distribute the entire annual taxable income of the Fund, plus any net capital gains and (ii) to avoid imposition of the excise tax imposed by Section 4982 of the Code. Management of the Trust reserves the right to declare special dividends if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the Fund’s eligibility for treatment as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.
Dividend Reinvestment Service. The Trust will not make the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service available for use by Beneficial Owners for reinvestment of their cash proceeds, but certain individual broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of the Fund through DTC Participants for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Investors should contact their brokers to ascertain the availability and description of these services. Beneficial Owners should be aware that each broker may require investors to adhere to specific procedures and timetables to participate in the dividend reinvestment service and investors should ascertain from their brokers such necessary details. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole Shares issued by the Trust of the Fund at NAV per Share. Distributions reinvested in additional Shares will nevertheless be taxable to Beneficial Owners acquiring such additional Shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash.
FEDERAL INCOME TAXES
The following is only a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations generally affecting the Fund and its shareholders that supplements the discussion in the Prospectus. No attempt is made to present a comprehensive explanation of the federal, state, local or foreign tax treatment of the Fund or its shareholders, and the discussion here and in the Prospectus is not intended to be a substitute for careful tax planning.
The following general discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences is based on provisions of the Code and the regulations issued thereunder as in effect on the date of this SAI. New legislation, as well as administrative changes or court decisions, may significantly change the conclusions expressed herein, and may have a retroactive effect with respect to the transactions contemplated herein.
Shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisers regarding the application of the provisions of tax law described in this SAI in light of the particular tax situations of the shareholders and regarding specific questions as to federal, state, local or foreign taxes.
Taxation of the Fund. The Fund has elected and intends to continue to qualify each year to be treated as a separate RIC under the Code. As such, the Fund should not be subject to federal income taxes on its net investment income and capital gains, if any, to the extent that it timely distributes such income and capital gains to its shareholders. To qualify for treatment as a RIC, the Fund must distribute annually to its shareholders at least the sum of 90% of its net investment income (generally including the excess of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses) and 90% of its net tax-exempt interest income, if any (the “Distribution Requirement”) and also must meet several additional requirements. Among these requirements are the following: (i) at least 90% of the Fund’s gross income each taxable year must be derived from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or foreign currencies and net income derived from interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Qualifying Income Requirement”); and (ii) at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, the Fund’s assets must be diversified so that (a) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities, with such other securities limited, in respect to any one issuer, to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, including the equity securities of a qualified publicly traded partnership, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total assets is invested, including through corporations in which the Fund owns a 20% or more voting stock interest, in the securities (other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs) of any one issuer, the securities (other than securities of other RICs) of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Diversification Requirement”).
To the extent the Fund makes investments that may generate income that is not qualifying income, including certain derivatives, the Fund will seek to restrict the resulting income from such investments so that the Fund’s non-qualifying income does not exceed 10% of its gross income.
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Although the Fund intends to distribute substantially all of its net investment income and may distribute its capital gains for any taxable year, the Fund will be subject to federal income taxation to the extent any such income or gains are not distributed. The Fund is treated as a separate corporation for federal income tax purposes. The Fund therefore is considered to be a separate entity in determining its treatment under the rules for RICs described herein. The requirements (other than certain organizational requirements) for qualifying RIC status are determined at the Fund level rather than at the Trust level.
If the Fund fails to satisfy the Qualifying Income Requirement or the Diversification Requirement in any taxable year, the Fund may be eligible for relief provisions if the failures are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. Additionally, relief is provided for certain de minimis failures of the Diversification Requirement where the Fund corrects the failure within a specified period of time. To be eligible for the relief provisions with respect to a failure to meet the Diversification Requirement, the Fund may be required to dispose of certain assets. If these relief provisions were not available to the Fund and it were to fail to qualify for treatment as a RIC for a taxable year, all of its taxable income would be subject to tax at the regular 21% corporate rate without any deduction for distributions to shareholders, and its distributions (including capital gains distributions) generally would be taxable to the shareholders of the Fund as ordinary income dividends, subject to the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders and the lower tax rates on qualified dividend income received by non-corporate shareholders, subject to certain limitations. To requalify for treatment as a RIC in a subsequent taxable year, the Fund would be required to satisfy the RIC qualification requirements for that year and to distribute any earnings and profits from any year in which the Fund failed to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC. If the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for a period greater than two taxable years, it would generally be required to pay a Fund-level tax on certain net built in gains recognized with respect to certain of its assets upon disposition of such assets within five years of qualifying as a RIC in a subsequent year. The Board reserves the right not to maintain the qualification of the Fund for treatment as a RIC if it determines such course of action to be beneficial to shareholders. If the Fund determines that it will not qualify as a RIC, the Fund will establish procedures to reflect the anticipated tax liability in the Fund’s NAV.
The Fund may elect to treat part or all of any “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund’s taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. The effect of this election is to treat any such “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in characterizing Fund distributions for any calendar year. A “qualified late year loss” generally includes net capital loss, net long-term capital loss, or net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year (commonly referred to as “post-October losses”) and certain other late-year losses.
Capital losses in excess of capital gains (“net capital losses”) are not permitted to be deducted against a RIC’s net investment income. Instead, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, potentially subject to certain limitations, the Fund may carry a net capital loss from any taxable year forward indefinitely to offset its capital gains, if any, in years following the year of the loss. To the extent subsequent capital gains are offset by such losses, they will not result in U.S. federal income tax liability to the Fund and may not be distributed as capital gains to its shareholders. Generally, the Fund may not carry forward any losses other than net capital losses. The carryover of capital losses may be limited under the general loss limitation rules if the Fund experiences an ownership change as defined in the Code.
The Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on certain undistributed income if it does not distribute to its shareholders in each calendar year an amount at least equal to 98% of its ordinary income for the calendar year plus 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending on October 31 of that year, subject to an increase for any shortfall in the prior year’s distribution. For this purpose, any ordinary income or capital gain net income retained by the Fund and subject to corporate income tax will be considered to have been distributed. The Fund intends to declare and distribute dividends and distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of the excise tax, but can make no assurances that all such tax liability will be eliminated. The Fund may in certain circumstances be required to liquidate Fund investments in order to make sufficient distributions to avoid federal excise tax liability at a time when the investment adviser might not otherwise have chosen to do so, and liquidation of investments in such circumstances may affect the ability of the Fund to satisfy the requirement for qualification as a RIC.
If the Fund meets the Distribution Requirement but retains some or all of its income or gains, it will be subject to federal income tax to the extent any such income or gains are not distributed. The Fund may designate certain amounts retained as undistributed net capital gain in a notice to its shareholders, who (i) will be required to include in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their proportionate shares of the undistributed amount so designated, (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the income tax paid by the Fund on that undistributed amount against their federal income tax liabilities and to claim refunds to the extent such credits exceed their tax liabilities, and (iii) will be entitled to increase their tax basis, for federal income tax purposes, in their Shares by an amount equal to the excess of the amount of undistributed net capital gain included in their respective income over their respective income tax credits.
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Taxation of Shareholders – Distributions. The Fund intends to distribute annually to its shareholders substantially all of its investment company taxable income (computed without regard to the deduction for dividends paid), its net tax-exempt income, if any, and any net capital gain (net recognized long-term capital gains in excess of net recognized short-term capital losses, taking into account any capital loss carryforwards). The distribution of investment company taxable income (as so computed) and net realized capital gain will be taxable to Fund shareholders regardless of whether the shareholder receives these distributions in cash or reinvests them in additional Shares.
The Fund (or your broker) will report to shareholders annually the amounts of dividends paid from ordinary income, the amount of distributions of net capital gain, the portion of dividends which may qualify for the dividends received deduction for corporations, and the portion of dividends which may qualify for treatment as qualified dividend income, which, subject to certain limitations and requirements, is taxable to non-corporate shareholders at rates of up to 20%.
Qualified dividend income includes, in general and, subject to certain holding period and other requirements, dividend income from taxable domestic corporations and certain foreign corporations. Subject to certain limitations, eligible foreign corporations include those incorporated in possessions of the United States, those incorporated in certain countries with comprehensive tax treaties with the United States, and other foreign corporations if the stock with respect to which the dividends are paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Dividends received by the Fund from an ETF, an underlying fund taxable as a RIC, or a REIT may be treated as qualified dividend income generally only to the extent so reported by such ETF, underlying fund, or REIT. If 95% or more of the Fund’s gross income (calculated without taking into account net capital gain derived from sales or other dispositions of stock or securities) consists of qualified dividend income, the Fund may report all distributions of such income as qualified dividend income.
Fund dividends will not be treated as qualified dividend income if the Fund does not meet holding period and other requirements with respect to dividend paying stocks in its portfolio, and the shareholder does not meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Shares on which the dividends were paid. Distributions by the Fund of its net short-term capital gains will be taxable as ordinary income. Distributions from the Fund’s net capital gain will be taxable to shareholders at long-term capital gains rates, regardless of how long shareholders have held their Shares. Distributions may be subject to state and local taxes.
In the case of corporate shareholders, certain dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations (generally, dividends received by the Fund in respect of any share of stock (1) with a tax holding period of at least 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date that is 45 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend and (2) that is held in an unleveraged position) and distributed and appropriately so reported by the Fund may be eligible for the 50% dividends received deduction. Certain preferred stock must have a holding period of at least 91 days during the 181-day period beginning on the date that is 90 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend as to that dividend to be eligible. Capital gain dividends distributed to the Fund from REITs and other RICs are generally not eligible for the dividends received deduction. To qualify for the deduction, corporate shareholders must meet the minimum holding period requirement stated above with respect to their Shares, taking into account any holding period reductions from certain hedging or other transactions or positions that diminish their risk of loss with respect to their Shares, and, if they borrow to acquire or otherwise incur debt attributable to Shares, they may be denied a portion of the dividends received deduction with respect to those Shares.
Although dividends generally will be treated as distributed when paid, any dividend declared by the Fund in October, November or December and payable to shareholders of record in such a month that is paid during the following January will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as received by shareholders on December 31 of the calendar year in which it was declared.
U.S. individuals with adjusted gross income (subject to certain adjustments) exceeding certain threshold amounts ($250,000 if married filing jointly or if considered a “surviving spouse” for federal income tax purposes, $125,000 if married filing separately, and $200,000 in other cases) are subject to a 3.8% tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes taxable interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gain distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
Shareholders who have not held Shares for a full year should be aware that the Fund may report and distribute, as ordinary dividends or capital gain dividends, a percentage of income that is not equal to the percentage of the Fund’s ordinary income or net capital gain, respectively, actually earned during the applicable shareholder’s period of investment in the Fund. A taxable shareholder may wish to avoid investing in the Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because the distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of the shareholder’s investment.
To the extent that the Fund makes a distribution of income received by the Fund in lieu of dividends (a “substitute payment”) with respect to securities on loan pursuant to a securities lending transaction, such income will not constitute qualified dividend income to individual shareholders and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders.
If the Fund’s distributions exceed its earnings and profits, all or a portion of the distributions made for a taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. A return of capital distribution will generally not be taxable, but will reduce each shareholder’s cost basis in the Fund and result in a higher capital gain or lower capital loss when the Shares on which the distribution was received are sold. After a shareholder’s basis in the Shares has been reduced to zero, distributions in excess of earnings and profits will be treated as gain from the sale of the shareholder’s Shares.
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Taxation of Shareholders – Sale, Redemption, or Exchange of Shares. A sale, redemption, or exchange of Shares may give rise to a gain or loss. For tax purposes, an exchange of your Fund Shares for shares of a different fund is the same as a sale. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than 12 months. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Shares will generally be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. Any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss, rather than short-term capital loss, to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions to the shareholder of long-term capital gain (including any amounts credited to the shareholder as undistributed capital gains). All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares may be disallowed if substantially identical Shares are acquired (through the reinvestment of dividends or otherwise) within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly acquired Shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.
The cost basis of Shares acquired by purchase will generally be based on the amount paid for Shares and then may be subsequently adjusted for other applicable transactions as required by the Code. The difference between the selling price and the cost basis of Shares generally determines the amount of the capital gain or loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares. Contact the broker through whom you purchased your Shares to obtain information with respect to the available cost basis reporting methods and elections for your account.
An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus the amount of cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of any securities received plus the amount of any cash received for such Creation Units. The ability of Authorized Participants to receive a full or partial cash redemption of Creation Units of the Fund may limit the tax efficiency of the Fund. The Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot currently be deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for a person who does not mark-to-market its portfolio) or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position.
Any gain or loss realized upon a creation or redemption of Creation Units will be treated as capital or ordinary gain or loss, depending on the holder’s circumstances. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the creation of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the securities exchanged for such Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the redemption of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, such capital gains or losses will generally be treated as short-term capital gains or losses. Any loss upon a redemption of Creation Units held for six months or less may be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions to the applicable Authorized Participant of long-term capital gain with respect to the Creation Units (including any amounts credited to the Authorized Participant as undistributed capital gains).
The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the Creation Units so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares and if, pursuant to Section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require the provision of information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination. If the Fund does issue Creation Units to a purchaser (or a group of purchasers) that would, upon obtaining the Creation Units so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares, the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) will not recognize gain or loss upon the exchange of securities for Creation Units.
Authorized Participants purchasing or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax advisers with respect to the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction and whether the wash sales rule applies and when a loss may be deductible.
Foreign Investments. Dividends and interest received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by such countries. Tax treaties between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes. The Fund does not expect to satisfy the requirements for passing through to its shareholders any share of foreign taxes paid by the Fund, with the result that shareholders will not include such taxes in their gross incomes and will not be entitled to a tax deduction or credit for such taxes on their own tax returns.
If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets at the close of any taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, which for this purpose may include obligations of foreign governmental issuers, the Fund may elect, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to treat any foreign income or withholding taxes paid by the Fund as paid by its shareholders. For any year that the Fund is eligible for and makes such an election, each shareholder of the Fund will be required to include in income an amount equal to his or her allocable share of qualified foreign income taxes paid by the Fund, and shareholders will be entitled, subject to certain holding period requirements and other limitations, to credit their portions of these amounts against their U.S. federal income tax due, if any, or to deduct their portions from their U.S. taxable income, if any. No deductions for foreign taxes paid by the Fund may be claimed, however, by non-corporate shareholders who do not itemize deductions. No deduction for such taxes will be permitted to individuals in computing their alternative minimum tax liability. Foreign taxes paid by the Fund will reduce the return from the Fund’s investments.
Foreign tax credits, if any, received by the Fund as a result of an investment in another RIC (including an ETF or underlying fund which is taxable as a RIC) will not be passed through to you unless the Fund qualifies as a “qualified fund-of-funds” under the Code. If the
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Fund is a “qualified fund-of-funds” it will be eligible to file an election with the IRS that will enable the Fund to pass along these foreign tax credits to its shareholders. The Fund will be treated as a “qualified fund-of-funds” under the Code if at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year) is represented by interests in other RICs.
If the Fund holds shares in a “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”), it may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of such shares even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the Fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on the Fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains.
The Fund may be eligible to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” (“QEF”) under the Code in which case, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, the Fund will be required to include in income each year a portion of the ordinary earnings and net capital gains of the qualified electing fund, even if not distributed to the Fund, and such amounts will be subject to the 90% and excise tax distribution requirements described above. To make this election, the Fund would be required to obtain certain annual information from the PFICs in which it invests, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain. Alternatively, the Fund may make a mark-to-market election that will result in the Fund being treated as if it had sold and repurchased its PFIC stock at the end of each year. In such case, the Fund would report any gains resulting from such deemed sales as ordinary income and would deduct any losses resulting from such deemed sales as ordinary losses to the extent of previously recognized gains. The election must be made separately for each PFIC owned by the Fund and, once made, is effective for all subsequent taxable years, unless revoked with the consent of the IRS. By making the election, the Fund could potentially ameliorate the adverse tax consequences with respect to its ownership of shares in a PFIC, but in any particular year may be required to recognize income in excess of the distributions it receives from PFICs and its proceeds from dispositions of PFIC stock. The Fund may have to distribute this excess income to satisfy the 90% distribution requirement and to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax. To distribute this income and avoid a tax at the Fund level, the Fund might be required to liquidate portfolio securities that it might otherwise have continued to hold, potentially resulting in additional taxable gain or loss. Amounts included in income each year by the Fund arising from a QEF election, will be “qualifying income” under the Qualifying Income Requirement (as described above) even if not distributed to the Fund, if the Fund derives such income from its business of investing in stock, securities or currencies.
Backup Withholding. The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold (as “backup withholding”) on amounts payable to any shareholder who (1) fails to provide a correct taxpayer identification number certified under penalty of perjury; (2) is subject to backup withholding by the IRS for failure to properly report all payments of interest or dividends; (3) fails to provide a certified statement that he or she is not subject to “backup withholding;” or (4) fails to provide a certified statement that he or she is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien). The backup withholding rate is currently 24%. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s ultimate U.S. tax liability. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that have been subject to the 30% withholding tax on shareholders who are neither citizens nor permanent residents of the United States.
Non-U.S. Shareholders. Any non-U.S. investors in the Fund may be subject to U.S. withholding and estate tax and are encouraged to consult their tax advisors prior to investing in the Fund. Foreign shareholders (i.e., nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations, partnerships, trusts and estates) are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or a lower tax treaty rate) on distributions derived from taxable ordinary income. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Short-term capital gain dividends received by a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the taxable year are not exempt from this 30% withholding tax. Gains realized by foreign shareholders from the sale or other disposition of Shares generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless the recipient is an individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year. Foreign shareholders who fail to provide an applicable IRS form may be subject to backup withholding on certain payments from the Fund. Backup withholding will not be applied to payments that are subject to the 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) withholding tax described in this paragraph. Different tax consequences may result if the foreign shareholder is engaged in a trade or business within the United States. In addition, the tax consequences to a foreign shareholder entitled to claim the benefits of a tax treaty may be different than those described above.
Unless certain non-U.S. entities that hold Shares comply with IRS requirements that will generally require them to report information regarding U.S. persons investing in, or holding accounts with, such entities, a 30% withholding tax may apply to Fund distributions payable to such entities. A non-U.S. shareholder may be exempt from the withholding described in this paragraph under an applicable intergovernmental agreement between the U.S. and a foreign government, provided that the shareholder and the applicable foreign government comply with the terms of the agreement.
For foreign shareholders to qualify for an exemption from backup withholding, described above, the foreign shareholder must comply with special certification and filing requirements. Foreign shareholders in the Fund should consult their tax advisors in this regard.
Tax-Exempt Shareholders. Certain tax-exempt shareholders, including qualified pension plans, individual retirement accounts, salary deferral arrangements, 401(k) plans, and other tax-exempt entities, generally are exempt from federal income taxation except with respect to their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). Tax-exempt entities are not permitted to offset losses from one unrelated trade or business against the income or gain of another unrelated trade or business. Certain net losses incurred prior to January 1, 2018 are permitted to offset gain and income created by an unrelated trade or business, if otherwise available. Under current law, the Fund
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generally serves to block UBTI from being realized by its tax-exempt shareholders with respect to their shares of Fund income. However, notwithstanding the foregoing, tax-exempt shareholders could realize UBTI by virtue of their investment in the Fund if, for example, (i) the Fund invests in residual interests of Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”), (ii) the Fund invests in a REIT that is a taxable mortgage pool (“TMP”) or that has a subsidiary that is a TMP or that invests in the residual interest of a REMIC, or (iii) Shares constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholders within the meaning of section 514(b) of the Code. Charitable remainder trusts are subject to special rules and should consult their tax advisers. The IRS has issued guidance with respect to these issues and prospective shareholders, especially charitable remainder trusts, are strongly encouraged to consult with their tax advisers regarding these issues.
Certain Potential Tax Reporting Requirements. Under U.S. Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss on disposition of Shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder (or certain greater amounts over a combination of years), the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on IRS Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. Significant penalties may be imposed for the failure to comply with the reporting requirements. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.
Other Issues. In those states which have income tax laws, the tax treatment of the Fund and of Fund shareholders with respect to distributions by the Fund may differ from federal tax treatment.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Financial Statements and Annual Reports will be available after the Fund has completed a fiscal year of operations. When available, you may request a copy of the Fund’s Annual Report at no charge by calling 1‑833-333-9383 or through the Fund’s website at www.defianceetfs.com.

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APPENDIX A

Defiance ETFs, LLC
Proxy Voting Guidelines

Proxy Voting Guidelines
Set forth below are Defiance’s proxy voting guidelines (“Guidelines”) pertaining to specific issues. We generally vote Proposals in accordance with these Guidelines, however, we may deviate from the Guidelines if warranted by the specific facts and circumstances of the situation. If Defiance determines to deviate from these Guidelines, the reasons must be given in writing. In addition, these Guidelines are not intended to address all issues that may appear on all proxy ballots. Proposals not specifically addressed by these Guidelines, whether submitted by management or shareholders, will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and memorialized in writing, keeping in mind that the objective of these Guidelines is to increase the value of the securities in our clients’ accounts.
These Guidelines are divided into two sections: Management and Shareholder proposals. These Guidelines set forth how Defiance will respond to certain proxy voting issues. Where the Guidelines state we will vote in favor of a management proposal on a given issue, we would in turn vote against any corresponding shareholder proposal (e.g. we will vote for management proposals to eliminate cumulative voting and vote against shareholder proposals to adopt it).
I.    MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS
A.    BUSINESS / FINANCIAL ISSUES
1.     Election of Directors                         For
    Unless there is a proxy contest for seats on the Board or if Defiance determines that there are other compelling reasons for withholding votes for directors, we will vote in favor of the management-proposed slate of directors.
Defiance believes that directors have a duty to respond to shareholder actions that have received significant shareholder support. We may withhold votes for directors that fail to act on key issues such as proposals to declassify boards, to implement a majority vote requirement, or to submit a rights plan to a shareholder vote, and for directors who fail to act on tender offers where a majority of shareholders have tendered their shares. In addition, we will withhold votes for directors who fail to attend at least 75% of board meetings within a given year without a reasonable excuse. Finally, we may withhold votes for directors of non-U.S. issuers where there is insufficient information about the nominees disclosed in the proxy statement.
Voting for Director Nominees in a Contested Election        Case-by-Case
Votes in a contested election of directors are evaluated on a case-by-case basis considering, among other things, the following factors: the target company’s long-term financial performance relative to its industry; management’s track record on safeguarding the interests of shareholders; the background of the proxy contest including the steps the dissidents took to influence management prior to initiating the proxy contest; the qualifications of director nominees of both the incumbent and dissident slates; and an evaluation of the objectives and goals made in the competing offers as well as the likelihood that the proposed objectives and goals can be met.
2.    Appointment of Auditors                      For
Defiance believes that the company is in the best position to choose the accounting firm and will generally support management’s recommendation. While the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has proscribed certain non-audit services by auditors, there are still many non-audit services that auditing firms are permitted to provide to a company. We recognize that there may be inherent conflicts when a company’s independent auditors perform substantial non-audit related services for the company. Therefore, in reviewing a proposed auditor we will consider the amount of non-audit related services performed versus the total audit fees paid by the company to the auditing firm and if there are any other reasons to question the independence of the firm’s auditors.
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3.    Increase Authorized Common Stock                 Case-by-Case
Defiance will generally support proposals to increase authorized common stock when it is necessary to implement a stock split, aid in a restructuring or acquisition or provide a sufficient number of shares for employee savings plans, stock option or executive compensation plans. A satisfactory explanation for a company’s plans for the stock must be disclosed in the proxy statement. We will oppose increases in authorized common stock where there is evidence that the shares are to be used to implement a poison pill or another form of anti-takeover device, or if the issuance of new shares could excessively dilute the value of the outstanding shares upon issuance. In addition, a satisfactory explanation of a company’s intentions must be disclosed in the proxy statement for proposals requesting an increase of greater than one hundred percent of the shares outstanding.
4.    Changes in Board Structure and
Amending the Articles of Incorporation            For
Companies may propose changes to the structure of the Board of Directors including changing the manner in which Board vacancies are filled, directors are nominated or the number of directors. Such proposals may require amending the charter or by-laws or otherwise require shareholder approval. In most instances, these proposals are not controversial nor an anti-takeover device. Therefore, Defiance generally votes in favor of such proposals.
Other changes in a company’s charter, articles of incorporation or by-laws are usually technical or administrative in nature. Absent a compelling reason to the contrary, we will support such proposals.
5.    Corporate Restructurings,
Merger Proposals and Spin-offs                Case-by-Case
Proposals requesting shareholder approval of corporate restructurings, merger proposals and spin-offs are determined on a case-by-case basis.
6.    Considering Non-Financial Effects of a Merger Proposal    Against
We will oppose proposals that require the Board to consider the impact a merger would have on groups other than a company’s shareholders, such as employees, consumers, business partners, and the communities in which the company is located. We expect that a company’s Board will act only in the best interest of its shareholders at all times.
7.    Director Liability and Indemnification                Case-by-Case
Some companies argue that increased indemnification and decreased liability for directors are important to ensure the continued availability of competent directors. However, others argue that the risk of such personal liability minimizes the propensity for corruption and negligence.
Moreover, increased litigation against directors and an accompanying rise in the cost for directors’ liability insurance has prompted a number of states to adopt laws that reduce a director’s liability for a breach of the fiduciary duty of care. These state laws usually require shareholder approval of this statutory protection.
Generally, Defiance will support indemnification provisions that are in accordance with state law. Defiance will vote in favor of proposals adopting indemnification for directors as to acts conducted in the normal course of business. We will vote in favor of proposals that expand coverage for directors and officers in the event their legal defense is unsuccessful but where the director was found to have acted in good faith and in the best interests of the company. We will oppose indemnification for gross negligence.
8.    Stock Option Plans                        Case-by-Case
Stock option plans are designed to attract, hold and motivate good executives, employees and, increasingly, outside directors. However, some plans are excessively generous and reward only a small percentage of top executives.
Stock option plans are the single most common, and perhaps the most complex, item shareholders are called upon to decide. Additionally, they are a major corporate expense and therefore warrant careful study. Because each plan may be different, it is necessary to look at the terms and conditions of each proposed plan to ensure that the plan properly aligns the long term interests of management and shareholders. 
Defiance will review the proposed plans to ensure that shareholder equity will not be excessively diluted, the exercise price is not below market price on the date of grant, an acceptable number of employees are eligible to participate
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and an excessive percentage of the company’s shares are not granted but unexercised and/or reserved under other plans (commonly referred to as “overhang”).
Excessive dilution generally occurs where the dilution level of the proposed plan, together with all other continuing plans, exceeds 10 to 20%. In addition, we will scrutinize closely plans that allow for granting in excess of 2% of the shares outstanding in a given year (commonly referred to as the “run rate”) and will look favorably on plans that specifically restrict annual grants to below this level. We will generally oppose plans that permit repricing of underwater stock options without shareholder approval. We also consider other factors such as the company’s performance and industry practice.
Defiance will use outside proxy advisory services to assist in compiling the data relevant to our decision.
9.    Stock Splits                             Case-by-Case
Companies often seek shareholder approval for a stock split in order to increase the liquidity of its common stock. This in turn lowers the price thereby making the stock more attractive to small investors. Defiance will generally vote in favor of a proposal to split a company’s stock.
B.    ANTI-TAKEOVER ISSUES
1.    Blank Check Preferred Stock                    Against
A Blank Check Preferred Stock proposal is one that authorizes the issuance of certain preferred stock at some future point in time and allows the Board to establish voting, dividend, conversion, and other rights at the time of issuance. While blank check preferred stock can provide a corporation with the flexibility needed to meet changing financial conditions, it also may be used as the vehicle for implementing a poison pill defense, or some other entrenchment device.  Our concern is that once this stock has been authorized, shareholders have no further power to determine how or when it will be allocated. Accordingly, we will generally oppose this type of proposal.
2.    Classified Boards                         Against
A classified board typically is divided into three separate classes. Each class holds office for a term of two or three years. Only a portion of the Board can be elected or replaced each year.  Since this type of proposal has fundamental anti-takeover implications, Defiance opposes the adoption of classified boards unless there is a justifiable financial reason or where adequate sunset provisions exist. However, where a classified board already exists, we will not withhold votes for directors who sit on such boards. We will withhold votes for directors that fail to implement shareholder approved proposals to declassify boards.
3.     Fair Price Provisions                        Case-by-case
A Fair Price Provision in the company’s charter or by‑laws is designed to ensure that each shareholder’s securities will be purchased at the same price if the corporation is acquired under a plan not agreed to by the Board. In most instances, the provision requires that any tender offer made by a third party must be made to all shareholders at the same price.
Fair pricing provisions attempt to prevent the “two‑tiered front loaded offer” where the acquirer of a company initially offers a premium for a sufficient percentage of shares of the company to gain control and subsequently makes an offer for the remaining shares at a much lower price. The remaining shareholders have no choice but to accept the offer.  The two‑tiered approach is coercive as it compels a shareholder to sell his or her shares immediately in order to receive the higher price per share. This type of tactic has caused many states to adopt fair price provision statutes to restrict this practice.
Defiance will consider fair price provisions on a case-by-case basis. We will vote against any proposal where there is evidence that management intends to use the provision as an anti-takeover device as well as any fair price proposal where the shareholder vote requirement is greater than a majority of disinterested shares (i.e. shares beneficially owned by individuals other than the acquiring party).
4.    Limiting a Shareholder’s Right to                Against
Call Special Meetings
Companies contend that limitations upon the shareholders’ right to call special meetings are needed to prevent minority shareholders from taking control of the company’s agenda.  However, such limits also have anti-takeover implications because they prevent a shareholder or a group of shareholders who have acquired a significant stake in the company from forcing management to address urgent issues such as the potential sale of the company.  Because most states
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prohibit shareholders from abusing this right, we see no justifiable reason for management to eliminate this fundamental shareholder right. Accordingly, we generally will vote against such proposals.
5.    Limiting a Shareholder’s Right to                Against
Act by Written Consent
Action by written consent enables a large shareholder or group of shareholders of a company to initiate votes on corporate matters prior to the annual meeting. Defiance believes this is a fundamental shareholder right and therefore will oppose proposals that seek to eliminate or limit this right. Conversely, we will support shareholder proposals seeking to restore these rights.
6.    Supermajority Vote Requirements                Against
A supermajority vote requirement is a charter or by-law requirement that, when implemented, raises the percentage (higher than the customary simple majority) of shareholder votes needed to approve certain proposals, such as mergers, changes of control, or proposals to amend or repeal a portion of the Articles of Incorporation.
In most instances, Defiance will oppose these proposals and will support shareholder proposals that seek to reinstate the simple majority vote requirement.
7.    Reincorporation                        Case-by-Case
Defiance individually reviews proposals that seek shareholder approval to reincorporate in a different state or country taking into consideration management’s stated reasons for the proposed move.
There are many valid business reasons why a corporation may choose to reincorporate in another jurisdiction. For example, corporations may choose to reincorporate in another state after a restructuring or a merger or they may seek the flexibility certain states offer when organizing and operating a corporation’s internal governance. Delaware is the state most often selected. However, in many cases a reincorporation proposal is an attempt by the corporation to take advantage of a particular state’s anti-takeover statute.
Careful scrutiny will also be given to proposals that seek approval to reincorporate outside the United States to countries, such as Bermuda, that serve as tax havens. Defiance recognizes that such provisions can help facilitate the growth of a company’s non-US business and can potentially benefit shareholders when a company lowers its tax liability. When evaluating such proposals, Defiance considers factors such as the location of the company’s business, the statutory protections available in the country to enforce shareholder rights and the tax consequences to shareholders as a result of the reincorporation.
8.    Issuance of Stock with Unequal Voting Rights            Against
Proposals seeking shareholder approval for the issuance of stock with unequal voting rights generally are used as anti-takeover devices.  These proposals are frequently structured as a dual class capitalization plan that establishes two classes of stock.  To encourage shareholders to approve plans designed to concentrate voting power in the hands of insiders, some plans give higher dividends to shareholders willing to exchange their shares for new shares with inferior voting rights.
Unequal voting rights plans are designed to reduce the voting power of existing shareholders and concentrate a significant amount of voting power in the hands of management. In the majority of instances, they serve as an effective deterrent to takeover attempts. Defiance deems such plans unacceptable and in most instances will vote against these proposals.
9.    Elimination of Preemptive Rights                  Case-by-Case
Preemptive rights allow the shareholders of the company to buy newly issued shares before they are offered to the public in order to maintain their percentage ownership. Defiance believes preemptive rights are an important shareholder right and therefore careful scrutiny must be given to management’s attempts to eliminate them. However, since preemptive rights can be prohibitively costly to widely held companies, the benefit of such rights will be weighed against the economic effect of maintaining the right.
10.    Other Business                        Against
Proposals such as this allow management to act on issues that shareholders may raise at the annual meeting. Because it is impossible to know what issues may be raised, Defiance will vote against such proposals.
4


II.    SHAREHOLDER PROPOSALS
A.    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ISSUES
1.    Submit Company’s Shareholder Rights
Plan to Shareholder Vote                    For
Most shareholder rights plans (also known as “poison pills”) permit the shareholders of a target company involved in a hostile takeover to acquire shares of that company, the acquiring company, or both, at a substantial discount once a “triggering event” occurs.  A triggering event is usually a hostile tender offer or the acquisition by an outside party of a certain percentage of the company’s stock.  Because most plans exclude the hostile bidder from the purchase, the effect in most instances is to dilute the equity interest and the voting rights of the potential acquirer once the plan is triggered.  A shareholder rights plan is designed to discourage potential acquirers from acquiring shares to make a bid for the issuer. We believe that measures that impede takeovers or entrench management not only infringe on the rights of shareholders but may also have a detrimental effect on the value of the company.
Defiance will support shareholder proposals that seek to require the company to submit a shareholder rights plan to a shareholder vote. Defiance will evaluate on a case-by-case basis proposals to completely redeem or eliminate a rights plan.
2.    Implement Confidential Voting                For
Proponents of confidential voting argue that proxy voting should be conducted under the same rules of confidentiality as voting in political and other elections -- by secret ballot, with an independent party verifying the results. Supporters of these proposals argue that open balloting allows management to re-solicit shareholders and to urge--or sometimes coerce--them into changing their votes. Opponents argue that confidential voting makes it more difficult for a company to garner the necessary votes to conduct business (especially where a supermajority vote is required) because proxy solicitors cannot determine how individual shareholders voted. 
Defiance supports confidential voting because we believe that voting on shareholder matters should be free of any potential for coercion or undue influence from the company or other interested parties.
3.    Adopt Cumulative Voting                    Against
Cumulative voting is a method of electing directors that enables each shareholder to multiply the number of his or her shares by the number of directors being voted upon. A shareholder may then cast the total votes for any one director or a selected group of directors.  For example, A holder of 10 shares normally casts 10 votes for each of 12 nominees to the Board thus giving him 120 (10 x 12) votes.  Under cumulative voting, the shareholder may cast all 120 votes for a single nominee, 60 for two, 40 for three, or any other combination that the shareholder may choose.
Defiance believes that cumulative voting provides a disproportionate voice to minority shareholders in the affairs of a company. Therefore we will generally vote against such proposals, and for management proposals to eliminate it.
4.    Anti-Greenmail Proposal                    For
Greenmail, commonly referred to as “legal corporate blackmail”, is payments made to a potential hostile acquirer who has accumulated a significant percentage of a company’s stock. The company acquires the raider’s holdings of the company’s stock at a premium in exchange for an agreement that the raider will not attempt to acquire control for a certain number of years.  This practice discriminates against all other shareholders as only the hostile party receives a substantial premium over the market value of its shares. These proposals seek to prevent greenmail by adopting amendments to the company’s charter or by-laws that limit the board’s ability to acquire blocks of the company’s stock at above- market prices.
Defiance will vote in favor of an anti‑greenmail proposal provided the proposal has no other management initiated anti-takeover features.
5.    Opt Out of State Anti-takeover Law                Case-by-Case
Many states have enacted anti-takeover laws requiring an acquirer to obtain a supermajority of a company’s stock in order to exercise control. For example, under Delaware law, absent board approval, a bidder must acquire at least 85% of a company’s stock before the bidder can exercise control. Such laws represent a formidable takeover defense for companies because by simply placing 15% of the stock in “friendly” hands, a company can block an otherwise successful takeover attempt that may be in the best interests of the shareholders. These statutes often allow companies to opt out of this law with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares.
5


Shareholders proposing opt‑out resolutions argue that these anti-takeover laws grant the Board too much power to determine a matter that should be left to the shareholders. Critics of such proposals argue that opt-out provisions do not prevent takeovers, but rather provide the Board with an opportunity to negotiate a better deal for all shareholders.  Because each state’s anti-takeover laws are different, and must be considered in the totality of all of a company’s takeover defenses, Defiance reviews these proposals on a case-by-case basis.
6.    Equal Access to the Proxy                    For
These proposals ask companies to give shareholders equal access to the proxy materials in order to state their views on various proxy issues.
Proponents argue that, as owners, shareholders should have access to the proxy materials. While SEC rules provide for the inclusion of shareholder resolutions in the proxy materials, there are a number of handicaps, such as the 500‑word limit on a proponent’s written argument and limits on the subjects that can be addressed.  By contrast, management ability to comment on shareholder proposals is unlimited. 
Management often argues that shareholders already have significant access to the proxy as provided by law (i.e., the right to have shareholder proposals included in the proxy statement and the right to suggest director candidates to the nominating committee).  Furthermore, it would be unworkable to open the proxy process, management argues, because of the large number of shareholders that might wish to comment and it would be impossible to screen out “nuisance” proposals.
Defiance supports resolutions calling for enhancement of shareholders’ ability to access proxy materials to ensure that proxy statements are written in a manner that allows for reasonable consideration by shareholders. However, we believe access should still be limited to discourage proposals put forward by shareholders who may have their own agenda or who otherwise do not have the best interests of all shareholders in mind.
7.    Submit Golden Parachutes/Severance Plans
to a Shareholder Vote                        For
Golden Parachutes assure key officers of a company lucrative compensation packages if the company is acquired and/or if the new owners terminate such officers. Defiance recognizes that offering generous compensation packages that are triggered by a change in control may help attract qualified officers. However, such compensation packages cannot be so excessive that they are unfair to shareholders or make the company unattractive to potential bidders thereby serving as a constructive anti-takeover mechanism. Accordingly, we will support proposals to submit severance plans that exceed 2.99 times the sum of an executive officer’s base salary plus bonus and that are triggered by a change in control to a shareholder vote but will review proposals to ratify or reject such plans on a case-by-case basis.
8.    Submit Golden Parachutes/Severance Plans to a Shareholder
Vote Prior to being Negotiated by Management        Against
Defiance believes that in order to attract qualified employees companies must be free to negotiate compensation packages without shareholder interference. Shareholders must then be given an opportunity to analyze a compensation plan’s final, material terms in order to ensure it is within acceptable limits. Accordingly, we will oppose proposals that require submitting severance plans and/or employment contracts for a shareholder vote prior to being negotiated by management.
9.    Disclose and/or Limit Executive and Director Pay        Case-by-Case
Defiance believes that management, within reason, should be given latitude in determining the mix and types of awards it offers. Generally, we vote for shareholder proposals seeking additional disclosure of executive and director compensation. This includes proposals that seek to specify the measurement of performance based compensation. We will vote on a case-by-case basis shareholder proposals seeking to limit executive and director pay.
10.    Performance Based Stock Option Plans            Case-by-Case
Shareholder proposals such as these require a company to adopt a policy that all or a portion of future stock options granted to executives be performance based. Performance based options usually take the form of indexed options (where the option sale price is linked to the company’s stock performance versus an industry index), premium priced options (where the strike price is significantly above the market price at the time of the grant) or performance vesting options (where options vest when the company’s stock price exceeds a specific target). Proponents argue that performance based options
6


provide an incentive for executives to outperform the market as a whole and prevent management from being rewarded for average performance. While Defiance believes that management, within reason, should be given latitude in determining the mix and types of awards it offers, it recognizes the benefit of linking executive compensation to certain types of performance benchmarks. While we will not support proposals that require all options be performance based, we will generally support proposals that require a portion of options granted to senior executives be performance based. However, since performance based options can also result in unfavorable tax treatment and the company may already have in place an option plan that sufficiently ties executive stock option plans to the company’s performance, we will consider such proposals on a case-by-case basis.
11.    Submit Option Repricing to a Shareholder Vote        For
Repricing underwater options reduces the incentive value of stock compensation plans and dilutes shareholder value. Consequently, Defiance supports shareholder proposals to seek to require a company to submit option repricing to a shareholder vote.
12.    Expensing Stock Options                    For
Defiance recognizes that stock options have become a significant part of the compensation structure of many companies. Critics argue that since there is no uniform method of accounting for options, expensing them may distort a company’s income statement in comparison to its competitors that do not expense them. However, we believe that not expensing options may lead to a similar distortion as we view options as a large company expense. Accordingly, we will support shareholder proposals requiring companies to expense stock options.
13.    Exclude Pension Income from
Performance Based Compensation                For
Defiance is aware that companies may seek to artificially inflate earnings based on questionable assumptions about pension income. Even though these practices are acceptable under the relevant accounting rules, we believe that pension income is not an acceptable way to increase executive pay and that management’s discretion in estimating pension income is a potential conflict of interest. Accordingly, we will support such proposals.
14.    Majority of Independent1 Directors                For
The Board of Directors has a duty to act in the best interest of shareholders at all times. Defiance believes that these interests are best served by having directors who bring objectivity to the company and are free from potential conflicts of interests. Accordingly, we will support proposals seeking a majority of independent directors on the board. While we are aware that the NYSE and NASDAQ have adopted rules that require listed companies to have a majority of independent directors on their board, we will support such proposals regardless of where the company is listed.
15.    Majority of Independent Directors on Key Committees        For
In order to ensure that those who evaluate management’s performance, recruit directors and set management’s compensation are free from conflicts of interests, Defiance believes that the audit2, nominating and compensation committees should be composed of a majority of independent outside directors. While we are aware of that the NYSE and NASDAQ require fully independent audit, nominating and compensation committees), we will support such proposals regardless of where the company is listed. However, in order to allow companies an opportunity to select qualified candidates for these important board positions, at this time we will not withhold votes for inside directors that sit on these committees.
16.    Separate Chairman and CEO                    For
We believe that a combined chairman and CEO position raises doubt as to the objectivity of the board towards evaluating the performance of senior executives. Therefore, we will generally vote in favor of proposals to separate the two positions. However, companies may have governance structures in place that can satisfactorily counterbalance a combined position. Further, for companies with smaller market capitalizations separate positions may not be practical.

_____________________________
1 For purposes of this manual, an independent director is one that meets the requirements of independence pursuant to the listing standards of the exchange on which the common stock is listed. For stocks listed on the NYSE and NASDAQ, a director must qualify as independent under the revised listing standards.
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2 Pursuant to exchange and NASDAQ rules, adopted as directed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, by the earlier of i) their first annual shareholder meeting after January 15, 2004 or ii) October 31, 2004, U.S. listed issuers must have a fully independent audit committee.
17.    Separating Auditors and Consultants                Case-by-Case
We believe that a company serves its shareholders’ interest by avoiding potential conflicts of interest that might interfere with an auditor’s independent judgment. SEC rules adopted as a result of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 attempted to address these concerns by prohibiting certain services by a company’s independent auditors and requiring additional disclosure of others services. Defiance will evaluate on a case-by-case basis proposals that go beyond the SEC rules by prohibiting auditors from performing other non-audit services or calling for the Board to adopt a policy to ensure auditor independence. We will take into consideration the policies and procedures the company already has in place to ensure auditor independence and limit non-audit fees as a percentage of total fees paid to the auditor.
18.    Limit Term of Directorship                    Against
Such proposals limit the term a director may serve on a Board to a set number of years. Proponents believe that this will enable new ideas to be introduced to the company. Opponents argue that director turnover increases the instability of the Board. Defiance believes that a director’s qualifications, not length of service, should be the only factor considered.
19.    Stock Ownership Requirement                Against    
These proposals require directors to own a minimum amount of company stock in order to qualify as a director, or to remain on the Board. Defiance does not believe stock ownership is necessary to align the interests of directors and shareholders. Accordingly, we will oppose these proposals.
20.    Pay Directors Only in Stock                    Against
Defiance does not believe that share ownership is the only way for a director to align his or her interests with those of the shareholders. Further, we believe that management should be given latitude in determining the mix and types of compensation it offers its directors. Accordingly, we will oppose these proposals.
21.    Require Two Candidates for Each Board Seat            Against
Defiance believes that proposals such as these are detrimental to a company’s ability to attract highly qualified candidates. Accordingly, we will oppose these proposals.
22.    Rotation of Locale for Annual Meeting            Against
Proponents contend that the site of the annual meeting should be moved each year to a different locale in order to allow as many shareholders as possible to attend the annual meeting. Defiance believes the location of a company’s annual meeting is best left to the discretion of management, unless there is evidence that the location of previous meetings was specifically chosen with the intention of making it more difficult for shareholders to participate in the meeting.
B.    SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES
1.    Introduction
These types of shareholder proposals often raise controversial issues and may have both a financial and non-financial impact on the company. Accordingly, Defiance will assess these proposals on a case-by-case basis.
We recognize that the effect of certain polices on a company may be difficult to quantify, but nevertheless they usually affect the company’s long term performance. Long term value creation is our overriding concern in these matters. We therefore consider the impact of these proposals on the future earnings of the company. Defiance will vote against proposals that are unduly burdensome or result in unnecessary and excessive costs to the company with no discernable benefits to shareholders. We may abstain from voting on social proposals that do not have a readily determinable financial impact on shareholder value. Set forth below are recent examples of issues that we may be required to address.
2.    Social Issues
a.    Tobacco
There is perhaps no issue more controversial than tobacco, due to the increased negative media attention and heightened concern not only of doctors and smokers, but of nonsmokers, politicians, public health and child welfare advocates. With this backdrop, tobacco companies and even non-tobacco companies with ties to the industry have seen a marked increase in proposals seeking greater responsibility and social consciousness from management.
8


Proposals relating to tobacco issues range from issuing warnings on the risks of environmental tobacco smoke and risks of smoking-related diseases, to linking executive compensation with reductions in teen smoking.
b.    Report on Workplace Diversity and/or Employment Policies
Equal employment refers to the hiring and promotion of women, minorities and the handicapped in the work force. Resolutions generally ask companies to report progress in complying with affirmative action laws. Proponents of equal employment opportunity resolutions support additional reporting in order to sensitize companies to the issue and provide a measurement of performance in this area. We will give careful consideration to whatever policies are already in place at the company.
c.    Sweatshops
These proposals ask companies to issue reports on their corporate standards for doing business abroad and to adopt mechanisms for ensuring vendor compliance with these standards. The standards include policies to ensure that workers are paid sustainable living wages, and to ensure that children are not used as forced labor. We will give careful consideration to whatever policies are already in place at the company.
d.    Animal Testing
These proposals ask companies to reduce reliance on animal tests for consumer product safety.  Proponents of the resolutions argue that animals are needlessly being subjected to painful tests, and that companies should be required to disclose information on the numbers of animals tested, the types of animals used and the types of tests performed.  Opponents, on the other hand, argue that the disclosure requirements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are sufficient and that some testing is still necessary to avoid product liability suits.
e.    Genetically Altered or Engineered Food
These proposals seek to require companies to label genetically modified organisms in a company’s products or in some cases completely eliminate their use. Proponents argue that such measures should be required due to the possible health and safety issues surrounding the use of such products. Opponents point out that the use of such products help improve crop productivity, there is no evidence that such products pose a safety hazard and that implementing such proposals could have immediate negative economic effects on the company.
f.    Plant Closings    
These proposals ask companies to create or expand programs to relocate workers displaced by a plant closing.  Supporters of plant closing resolutions argue management should be more sensitive to employees both during the decision on closing a plant and in efforts at relocation.  Companies generally respond that they already have programs to accommodate displaced workers.  In addition, federal law requires companies with a certain number of employees to give 60 days’ advance notice of a major plant closing or layoff and a number of states also have regulations in this area.
g.    Bank Lending in Developing Countries
These shareholder proposals call on banks to change their lending policies in order to benefit social peace, economic growth and endangered natural resources in developing countries.  Supporters of these resolutions ask banks to forgive some of the loans because most U.S. banks have already increased their loan‑loss reserves to cover possible losses, and that this is already reflected in the stock price. Opponents argue that banks cannot become charitable institutions, and that to forgive debt would simply exacerbate and prolong basic structural economic problems among the debtor countries.
h.    Pharmaceutical Pricing
Proposals such as these seek to require a company to implement pricing restraints to make prescription drugs more affordable, both domestically and in third-world countries. Proponents argue that drug prices in the United States, considered to be among the highest in the world, make adequate medical care inaccessible to those other than the most affluent. Critics of such proposals argue that artificial price controls would reduce revenues, deter investors and ultimately reduce funds available for future research and development.
3.    ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Environmentalists have launched nationwide campaigns over the past three decades in an effort to preserve and protect the natural resources of the United States. Greater emphasis is being placed on the responsibility of industry to preserve these natural resources by modifying or eliminating ecologically destructive activities. Increasingly, corporations are asked to be more responsive to environmental concerns.
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a.    The CERES Principles
Many environmental proposals include a recommendation that companies adopt and report their compliance with the Coalition of Environmentally Responsible Economies (the “CERES” Principles). The CERES Principles are a set of ten principles committing the company to environmental improvement. Proponents argue that endorsement of the CERES Principles gives a company greater public credibility than standards created by industry or government regulation alone. Companies argue that implementing the CERES Principles only duplicates their current environmental policies and is an additional cost to the company.
b.    Nuclear Waste Disposal
These resolutions ask companies to allocate a portion of the cost of building nuclear power plants for research into nuclear waste disposal.  Proponents argue that, because the life span of certain waste byproducts exceeds current containment capabilities, the industry should begin concentrating on waste management and disposal. While opponents acknowledge the need for research, they contend that the problem is overstated, and that some suggested containment programs are unnecessarily expensive. 
4.     POLITICAL ISSUES
a.    Implement the MacBride Principles in Northern Ireland
The MacBride Principles aim to fight discriminatory anti‑Catholic employment practices in the British state of Northern Ireland.  The Principles encourage U.S. companies to actively recruit Catholic employees and where possible groom them for management responsibilities. Companies are also asked to ensure job security for their Catholic employees and to abolish the use of inflammatory religious emblems.
Supporters argue that the MacBride Principles effectively address Northern Ireland’s inequalities in employment (in Northern Ireland, unemployment among Catholic men is twice as high as among Protestant men). Opponents contend that the adoption of the MacBride Principles is itself a form of reverse discrimination, which may violate British law.  The British government is concerned that adoption may increase the “hassle factor” of doing business in the economically troubled area, as well as reduce the attractiveness of investments.
b.    Reports on Corporate and Subcontractor Operations in Northern Ireland
These proposals request that corporate Boards submit a report to shareholders outlining the company’s, or its subcontractors’, labor practices in Northern Ireland. Supporters argue that such proposals could encourage fair labor practices within Northern Ireland, and provide a means for companies to align their worldwide stance on employment with the position they hold in America. Opponents contend that current anti-discrimination regulation is sufficient and that providing one more report (which some companies consider a burdensome task) will do little to alleviate Northern Ireland’s religious tensions.
c.    Military Issues
These proposals ask companies involved in military production to report on future plans and to diversify or convert to the production of civilian goods and services. Opponents of these resolutions are concerned that conversion is not economically rational, and view the proposals as intrusions into management’s decision‑making prerogative.  Opponents also point to the imperative of a strong defense as reason enough to continue military production.
d.    Reporting Political/Charitable Contributions
These shareholder resolutions typically ask for greater disclosure of charitable and political contributions. By requiring reports to shareholders, proponents of these shareholder resolutions contend investors can help police wrongdoings in the political system.  Critics of these proposals contend that reformers overstate the problem and that a company should play an active role in expressing its opinion about relevant legislation.
Shareholder proposals relating to charitable contributions often seek to require companies to report on or restrict charitable contributions. Proponents of such proposals argue that charitable contributions are an inappropriate use of company assets since the purpose of any corporation is to make a profit. Opponents argue that charitable contributions are a useful means for a company to create goodwill. They believe management is in the best position to determine which charities are deserving and are against proposals that seek to promote the special interests of a particular shareholder.
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III. Proxy Voting Guideline Summary
I. Management Proposals
A. Business Financial Issues
Issue
For
Against
Case-by-Case
Abstain
1.
Election of Directors
2.
Voting for Nominees in a Contested Election
3.
Appointment of Auditors
4.
Increase Authorized Common Stock
5.
Changes in Board Structure and Amending the Articles of Incorporation
6.
Corporate Restructurings, Merger Proposals and Spin-offs
7.
Considering Non-Financial Effects of a Merger Proposal
8.
Director Liability and Indemnification
9.
Stock Option Plans
10.
Stock Splits
B. Anti-Takeover Issues
Issue
For
Against
Case-by-Case
Abstain
1.
Blank Check Preferred Stock
2.
Classified Boards
3.
Fair Price Provisions
4.
Limiting a Shareholder’s Right to Call Special Meetings
5.
Limiting a Shareholder’s Right to Act by Written Consent
6.
Supermajority Vote Requirements
7.
Reincorporation
8.
Issuance of Stock with Unequal Voting Rights
9.
Elimination of Preemptive Rights
10.
Other Business
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II. Shareholder Proposals
A. Corporate Governance Issues
Issue
For
Against
Case-by-Case
Abstain
1.
Submit a Shareholder Rights Plan to a Shareholder Vote
2.
Implement Confidential Voting
3.
Adopt Cumulative Voting
4.
Anti-Greenmail Proposal
5.
Opt out of State Anti-takeover law
6.
Equal Access to Proxy
7.
Submit Severance Plans (Golden Parachutes)
to a Shareholder Vote
8.
Submit Severance Plans (Golden Parachutes) and/or Employment Agreements to a Shareholder Vote Prior to being Negotiated by Management
9.
Disclose and/or Limit Executive and Director Pay
10.
Performance Based Stock Option Plans
11.
Submit Option Repricing to a Shareholder Vote
12.
Expensing Stock Options
13.
Exclude Pension Income from Performance Based Compensation
14.
Majority of Independent Directors
15.
Majority of Independent Directors on Key Committees
16.
Separate Chairman and CEO

17.
Separating Auditors and Consultants
18.
Limit Term of Directorships
19.
Stock Ownership Requirement
20.
Pay Directors Only in Stock
21.
Require Two Candidates for Each Board Seat
22.
Rotation of Locale for Annual Meeting
B. Social, Environmental and Political Issues
We vote on these proposals on a case-by-case basis. We will vote against shareholder proposals that will cause the company to incur excessive or unnecessary expenses and may abstain from shareholder proposals that are unlikely to have any economic effect on company’s business or financial conditions.













12
 


PART C: OTHER INFORMATION

Item 28. Exhibits
(a)
(i)
(ii)
(b)
(c)
Not applicable.
(d)
(i)
(A)
(B)
Amended Schedule A to Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Defiance ETFs, LLC – to be filed by subsequent amendment.
(ii)
(A)
(B)
(C)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Defiance ETFs, LLC, and Vident Investment Advisory, LLC – to be filed by subsequent amendment.
(e)
(i)
(A)
(B)
Second Amendment to the Distribution Agreement between the Trust and Foreside Fund Services, LLC – to be filed by subsequent amendment.
(ii)
(f)
Not applicable.
(g)
(i)
(A)
(B)
Amended Exhibit [ ] to the Custody Agreement – to be filed by subsequent amendment.
(h)
(i)
(A)
(B)
Amended Exhibit [ ] to the Fund Administration Servicing Agreement – to be filed by subsequent amendment.
(ii)
(A)
(B)
Amended Exhibit [ ] to the Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement – to be filed by subsequent amendment.
(iii)
(A)
(B)