0001013871-21-000005.txt : 20210301 0001013871-21-000005.hdr.sgml : 20210301 20210301162803 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001013871-21-000005 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 178 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20201231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20210301 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20210301 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: NRG ENERGY, INC. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001013871 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: ELECTRIC SERVICES [4911] IRS NUMBER: 411724239 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-15891 FILM NUMBER: 21698234 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 804 CARNEGIE CENTER STREET 2: - CITY: PRINCETON STATE: NJ ZIP: 08540 BUSINESS PHONE: 609-524-4500 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 804 CARNEGIE CENTER STREET 2: - CITY: PRINCETON STATE: NJ ZIP: 08540 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: NRG ENERGY INC DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 19960509 10-K 1 nrg-20201231.htm 10-K nrg-20201231
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year ended December 31, 2020.
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition period from                      to                       .
Commission file No. 001-15891
     NRG Energy, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 41-1724239
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
804 Carnegie Center , Princeton , New Jersey
(Address of principal executive offices)
 08540
(Zip Code)
(609524-4500
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01NRGNew York Stock Exchange
     Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes ☐    No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes  ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes  ☒    No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated filer ☐Non-accelerated filer ☐Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes     No ☒
As of the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates was approximately $6,941,658,699 based on the closing sale price of $32.56 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date.
Class Outstanding at March 1, 2021
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share 244,687,907
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Portions of the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders
are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K

1

                                        

    
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 


2

                                        
Glossary of Terms
        When the following terms and abbreviations appear in the text of this report, they have the meanings indicated below:
2023 Term Loan FacilityThe Company's term loan facility due 2023, a component of the Senior Credit Facility, which was repaid during the second quarter of 2019
ACEAffordable Clean Energy
Adjusted EBITDAAdjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization
AROAsset Retirement Obligation
ASCThe FASB Accounting Standards Codification, which the FASB established as the source of authoritative GAAP
ASUAccounting Standards Updates – updates to the ASC
AUCAlberta Utilities Commission
Average realized pricesVolume-weighted average power prices, net of average fuel costs and reflecting the impact of settled hedges
Bankruptcy CodeChapter 11 of Title 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code
Bankruptcy CourtUnited States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division
BaseloadUnits expected to satisfy minimum baseload requirements of the system and produce electricity at an essentially constant rate and run continuously
BETMBoston Energy Trading and Marketing LLC
BTUBritish Thermal Unit
Business SolutionsNRG's business solutions group, which includes demand response, commodity sales, energy efficiency and energy management services
CAAClean Air Act
CAISOCalifornia Independent System Operator
California Bankruptcy CourtUnited States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco Division
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act
CarlsbadCarlsbad Energy Center, a 528 MW natural gas-fired project located in Carlsbad, CA
CCRCoal Combustion Residuals
CDDCooling Degree Day
CFTCU.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Chapter 11 CasesVoluntary cases commenced by the GenOn Entities under the Bankruptcy Code in the Bankruptcy Court
C&ICommercial, industrial and governmental/institutional
CESClean Energy Standard
ClecoCleco Corporate Holdings LLC
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
CO2e
Carbon Dioxide Equivalents
ComEdCommonwealth Edison
CompanyNRG Energy, Inc.
Convertible Senior NotesAs of December 31, 2020, consists of NRG’s $575 million unsecured 2.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2048
CottonwoodCottonwood Generating Station, a 1,153 MW natural gas-fueled plant
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019
CPPClean Power Plan
CPUCCalifornia Public Utilities Commission
CWAClean Water Act
D.C. CircuitU.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
Distributed SolarSolar power projects that primarily sell power to customers for usage on site, or are interconnected to sell power into a local distribution grid
DSIDry Sorbent Injection
3

                                        
DSUDeferred Stock Unit
Economic gross marginSum of energy revenue, capacity revenue, retail revenue and other revenue, less cost of fuels and other cost of sales
EGUElectric Generating Unit
EMEEdison Mission Energy
Energy Plus HoldingsEnergy Plus Holdings LLC
EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPCEngineering, Procurement and Construction
ERCOTElectric Reliability Council of Texas, the Independent System Operator and the regional reliability coordinator of the various electricity systems within Texas
ESCOEnergy Service Companies
ESPElectrostatic Precipitator
ESPPNRG Energy, Inc. Amended and Restated Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Exchange ActThe Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission
FGDFlue gas desulfurization
FPAFederal Power Act
FTRsFinancial Transmission Rights
GAAPGenerally accepted accounting principles in the U.S.
GenConnGenConn Energy LLC
GenOnGenOn Energy, Inc.
GenOn Americas GenerationGenOn Americas Generation, LLC
GenOn EntitiesGenOn and certain of its wholly owned subsidiaries, including GenOn Americas Generation, that filed voluntary petitions for relief under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code in the Bankruptcy Court on June 14, 2017
GenOn Mid-AtlanticGenOn Mid-Atlantic, LLC and, except where the context indicates otherwise, its subsidiaries, which include the coal generation units at two generating facilities under operating leases
GHGGreenhouse Gas
GIPGlobal Infrastructure Partners
Green Mountain EnergyGreen Mountain Energy Company
GuamNRG's wholly owned subsidiary NRG Solar Guam, LLC that was sold during the first quarter of 2019
GWGigawatt
GWhGigawatt Hour
HDDHeating Degree Day
Heat RateA measure of thermal efficiency computed by dividing the total BTU content of the fuel burned by the resulting kWhs generated. Heat rates can be expressed as either gross or net heat rates, depending whether the electricity output measured is gross or net generation and is generally expressed as BTU per net kWh
HLBVHypothetical Liquidation at Book Value
HLWHigh-level radioactive waste
IPPNYIndependent Power Producers of New York
ICEIntercontinental Exchange
ISOIndependent System Operator, also referred to as RTOs
ISO-NEISO New England Inc.
IvanpahIvanpah Solar Electric Generation Station, a 393 MW solar thermal power plant located in California's Mojave Desert in which NRG owns 54.5% interest
kWhKilowatt-hour
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LaGenLouisiana Generating LLC
LIBORLondon Inter-Bank Offered Rate
LSELoad Serving Entities
LTIPsCollectively, the NRG LTIP and the NRG GenOn LTIP
Mass MarketResidential and small commercial customers
MATSMercury and Air Toxics Standards promulgated by the EPA
MDthThousand Dekatherms
MergerThe merger completed on December 14, 2012 by NRG and GenOn pursuant to the Merger Agreement
Midwest GenerationMidwest Generation, LLC
MISOMidcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.
MMBtuMillion British Thermal Units
MMDthMillion Dekatherms
MSUMarket Stock Unit
MWMegawatts
MWeMegawatt equivalent
MWhSaleable megawatt hour net of internal/parasitic load megawatt-hour
NAAQSNational Ambient Air Quality Standards
NEILNuclear Electric Insurance Limited
NEPOOLNew England Power Pool
NERCNorth American Electric Reliability Corporation
Net Capacity FactorThe net amount of electricity that a generating unit produces over a period of time divided by the net amount of electricity it could have produced if it had run at full power over that time period. The net amount of electricity produced is the total amount of electricity generated minus the amount of electricity used during generation
Net ExposureCounterparty credit exposure to NRG, net of collateral
Net GenerationThe net amount of electricity produced, expressed in kWhs or MWhs, that is the total amount of electricity generated (gross) minus the amount of electricity used during generation
Net Revenue RateSum of retail revenues less TDSP transportation charges
NJBPUNew Jersey Board of Public Utilities
NOLNet Operating Loss
NOx
Nitrogen Oxides
NPNSNormal Purchase Normal Sale
NQSONon-Qualified Stock Option
NRCU.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NRGNRG Energy, Inc.
NRG GenOn LTIPNRG 2010 Stock Plan for GenOn Employees (formerly the GenOn Energy, Inc. 2010 Omnibus Incentive Plan, which was assumed by NRG in connection with the Merger)
NRG LTIPNRG Energy, Inc. Amended and Restated Long-Term Incentive Plan
NRG Yield, Inc.NRG Yield, Inc., which changed its name to Clearway energy, Inc. following the sale by NRG or NRG Yield and the Renewables Platform to GIP
Nuclear Decommissioning Trust FundNRG's nuclear decommissioning trust fund assets, which are for the Company's portion of the decommissioning of the STP, units 1 & 2
Nuclear Waste Policy ActU.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982
NYISONew York Independent System Operator
NYMEXNew York Mercantile Exchange
NYSDECNew York State Department of Environmental Conservation
NYSPSCNew York State Public Service Commission
OCI/OCLOther Comprehensive Income/(Loss)
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ORDCOperating Reserve Demand Curve
PeakingUnits expected to satisfy demand requirements during the periods of greatest or peak load on the system
PERPeak Energy Rent
Petra NovaPetra Nova Parish Holdings, LLC
PG&EPG&E Corporation (NYSE: PCG) and its primary operating subsidiary, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
PipelineProjects that range from identified lead to shortlisted with an offtake, and represents a lower level of execution certainty
PJMPJM Interconnection, LLC
PM2.5Particulate Matter that has a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers
PPAPower Purchase Agreement
PPMParts per million
PSUPerformance Stock Unit
PTCProduction Tax Credit
PUCTPublic Utility Commission of Texas
RCEResidential Customer Equivalent is a unit of measure used by the energy industry to denote the typical annual commodity consumption by a single-family residential customer. 1 RCE represents 1,000 therms of natural gas or 10,000 kWh of electricity
RCRAResource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
RECsRenewable Energy Certificates
REMANRG REMA LLC, which leases a 100% interest in the Shawville generating facility and 16.7% and 16.5% interests in the Keystone and Conemaugh generating facilities, respectively
RenewablesConsists of the following projects in which NRG has an ownership interest: Agua Caliente, Ivanpah, and solar generating stations located at various NFL Stadiums
Renewables PlatformThe renewable operating and development platform sold to GIP with NRG's interest in NRG Yield.
Restructuring Support AgreementRestructuring Support and Lock-Up Agreement, dated as of June 12, 2017 and as amended on October 2, 2017, by and among GenOn Energy, Inc., GenOn Americas Generation, LLC, and subsidiaries signatory thereto, NRG Energy, Inc. and the noteholders signatory thereto
Revolving Credit FacilityThe Company's $2.6 billion revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2020, a component of the Senior Credit Facility, due 2024 was amended on May 28, 2019 and August 20, 2020
RGGIRegional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
RMRReliability Must-Run
RPMReliability Pricing Model
RPSRenewable Portfolio Standards
RPSURelative Performance Stock Unit
RSURestricted Stock Unit
RTORegional Transmission Organization
SCESouthern California Edison Company
SCRSelective Catalytic Reduction Control System
SDG&ESan Diego Gas & Electric
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities ActThe Securities Act of 1933, as amended
Senior Credit FacilityNRG's senior secured credit facility, comprised of the Revolving Credit Facility and the 2023 Term Loan Facility. The 2023 Term Loan Facility was repaid in the second quarter of 2019
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Senior Notes
As of December 31, 2020, NRG's $5.3 billion outstanding unsecured senior notes consisting of $1.0 billion of the 7.25% senior notes due 2026, $1.23 billion of the 6.625% senior notes due 2027, $821 million of 5.75% senior notes due 2028, $733 million of the 5.25% senior notes due 2029, $500 million of the 3.375% senior notes due 2029, and $1.0 billion of the 3.625% senior notes due 2031
Senior Secured Notes
As of December 31, 2020, NRG’s $2.5 billion outstanding Senior Secured First Lien Notes consists of $600 million of the 3.75% Senior Secured First Lien Notes due 2024, $500 million of the 2.0% Senior Secured First Lien Notes due 2025, $900 million of the 2.45% Senior Secured First Lien Notes due 2027, and $500 million of the 4.45% Senior Secured First Lien Notes due 2029
Services AgreementNRG provided GenOn with various management, personnel and other services, which include human resources, regulatory and public affairs, accounting, tax, legal, information systems, treasury, risk management, commercial operations, and asset management, as set forth in the services agreement with GenOn
Settlement AgreementA settlement agreement and any other documents necessary to effectuate the settlement among NRG, GenOn, and certain holders of senior unsecured notes of GenOn Americas Generations and GenOn, and certain of GenOn's direct and indirect subsidiaries
SNFSpent Nuclear Fuel
SO2
Sulfur Dioxide
South Central PortfolioNRG's South Central Portfolio, which owned and operated a portfolio of generation assets consisting of Bayou Cove, Big Cajun-I, Big Cajun-II, Cottonwood and Sterlington, was sold on February 4, 2019. NRG is leasing back the Cottonwood facility through May 2025
S&PStandard & Poor's
STPSouth Texas Project — nuclear generating facility located near Bay City, Texas in which NRG owns a 44% interest
STPNOCSouth Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company
Tax ActThe Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
TDSPTransmission/distribution service provider
Texas GencoTexas Genco LLC
Transformation PlanNRG's three-year plan announced in 2017 that included targets related to operations and excellence, portfolio optimization, and capital structure and allocation enhancement and was completed as of December 31, 2020
TSATransportation Services Agreement
TSRTotal Shareholder Return
TWCCTexas Westmoreland Coal Co.
TWhTerawatt Hour
UPMCUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical Center
U.S.United States of America
U.S. DOEU.S. Department of Energy
Utility-Scale SolarSolar power projects, typically 20 MW or greater in size (on an alternating current basis), that are interconnected into the transmission or distribution grid to sell power at a wholesale level
VaRValue at Risk
VIEVariable Interest Entity
WECCWestern Electricity Coordinating Council


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PART I
Item 1 — Business
General
NRG Energy, Inc., or NRG or the Company, is an integrated power company built on dynamic retail brands with diverse generation assets. NRG brings the power of energy to customers by producing and selling energy and related products and services, in major competitive power and gas markets in the U.S. and Canada in a manner that delivers value to all of NRG's stakeholders. NRG is a customer-centric business focused on perfecting the integrated model by balancing retail load with generation supply within its deregulated markets. As of December 31, 2020, the Company sold energy, services, and innovative, sustainable products and services directly to retail customers under the brand names NRG, Reliant, Green Mountain Energy, Stream, and XOOM Energy, as well as other brand names owned by NRG, supported by approximately 23,000 MW of generation.
NRG also conducts business under the brand name of Direct Energy as a result of the Company's acquisition of Direct Energy, a North American subsidiary of Centrica plc, on January 5, 2021. Direct Energy is a leading retail provider of electricity, natural gas, and home and business energy related products and services in North America, with operations in all 50 U.S. states and 8 Canadian provinces. In addition, Direct Energy is a participant in the wholesale gas and power markets in the United States and Canada. See Item 15 Note 4, Acquisitions, Discontinued Operations and Dispositions, to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of the acquisition of Direct Energy.
On February 28, 2021, the Company entered into a definitive purchase agreement with Generation Bridge, an affiliate of ArcLight Capital Partners, to sell approximately 4,850 MWs of fossil generating assets from its East and West regions of operations for total proceeds of $760 million, subject to standard purchase price adjustments and certain other indemnifications. As part of the transaction, NRG is entering into a tolling agreement for its 866 MW Arthur Kill plant in New York City through April 2025. The transaction is expected to close in the fourth quarter of 2021, and is subject to various closing conditions, approvals and consents, including FERC, NYSPSC, and antitrust review under Hart-Scott-Rodino.
The Company has achieved the targets related to operations and cost excellence, portfolio optimization, and capital structure and allocation enhancement, as set out by the Transformation Plan. See Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations for further discussion.
Strategy
NRG's strategy is to maximize stakeholder value through the safe production and sale of reliable power and gas to its customers in the markets it serves, while positioning the Company to provide innovative solutions to the end-use energy customer. This strategy is intended to enable the Company to optimize its integrated model to generate stable and predictable cash flow, significantly strengthen earnings and cost competitiveness, and lower risk and volatility.
To effectuate the Company’s strategy, NRG is focused on: (i) serving the energy needs of end-use residential, commercial and industrial, and wholesale customers in competitive markets through multiple brands and channels; (ii) offering a variety of energy products and services, including renewable energy solutions, that are differentiated by innovative features, premium service, sustainability, and loyalty/affinity programs; (iii) excellence in operating performance of its existing assets; (iv) optimal hedging of NRG's portfolio; and (v) engaging in disciplined and transparent capital allocation.
Sustainability is an integral piece of NRG's strategy and ties directly to business success, reduced risks and brand value. In 2019, NRG announced the acceleration of its science-based GHG emissions reduction goals to align with prevailing climate science, limiting global warming in the post-industrial era to 1.5 degree Celsius. Under its new GHG emissions reduction timeline, NRG is targeting a 50% reduction by 2025, from its current 2014 baseline, and net-zero emissions by 2050. The Company is on track to meet its 2025 goal.
Business Overview
The Company’s core business is the sale of electricity and natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers, supported by the Company's wholesale generation.
As part of perfecting the integrated model, in which the majority of the Company’s generation serves its retail customers, the Company began managing its operations based on the combined results of the retail and wholesale generation businesses with a geographical focus in 2020. As a result, the Company changed its business segments from Retail and Generation to Texas, East and West/Other beginning in the first quarter of 2020. The Company's updated segment structure reflects how management makes financial decisions and allocates resources.
The Company's business is segregated as follows:
Texas, which includes all activity related to customer, plant and market operations in Texas;
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East, which includes the remaining activity related to customer operations and all activity related to plant and market operations in the East;
West/Other, which includes the following assets and activities: (i) all activity related to plant and market operations in the West, (ii) activity related to the Cottonwood power plant that was sold to Cleco on February 4, 2019 and is being leased back until 2025, (iii) the remaining renewables activity, including the Company’s equity method investments in Ivanpah Master Holdings, LLC and Agua Caliente (which was sold on February 3, 2021) and the NFL stadium solar generating assets, and (iv) activity related to the Company’s equity method investment for the Gladstone power plant in Australia; and
Corporate activities.
As of December 31, 2020, the vast majority of the Company’s business was in Texas, where the Company’s generation supply is fully integrated with its retail load. In the East, the Company’s retail load is more dispersed throughout the region and not fully integrated with the Company’s generation supply due to the locations of its power plants in that region. In the West, the Company’s business is primarily generation supply. The acquisition of Direct Energy broadens the Company's presence in the Northeast and into states and locales where it did not previously operate, supporting NRG's objective to diversify its business.
The acquired operations of Direct Energy will be integrated into the existing NRG segment structure. Domestic customer and market operations will be combined into the corresponding geographical segments of Texas, East and West/Other. The East segment will also include the deregulated customer and market operations of Canada. The West/Other segment will also include activity related to the regulated operations in Alberta, Canada and the services businesses.
The Company’s integrated model consists of three core functions: Customer Operations, Market Operations and Plant Operations, which directly support each other in each geographic region. The Company’s integrated model provides the advantage of being able to supply the Company’s retail customers with electricity from the Company’s assets, which reduces the need to sell electricity to and buy electricity from other institutions and intermediaries, resulting in stable earnings and cash flows, lower transaction costs and less credit exposure. The integrated model also results in a reduction in actual and contingent collateral through offsetting transactions, thereby minimizing transactions with third parties.
NRG provides energy and related services to residential, industrial and commercial, and wholesale customers at either fixed, indexed or month-to-month prices through various brands and sales channels across the U.S. and Canada. Residential and small commercial ("Mass market") customers typically contract for terms ranging from one month to five years, while industrial and large commercial ("C&I") contracts are often between one year and five years in length. NRG sold approximately 68.2 TWhs of electricity and 23.5 MMDth of natural gas in 2020 and served approximately 3.6 million customers as of December 31, 2020, making it one of the largest competitive energy retailers in the U.S. In any given year, the quantity of TWhs and MMDth sold can be affected by weather, economic conditions and competition. As of the end of 2020, NRG had recurring electricity and/or natural gas sales in 19 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and 2 provinces in Canada. Following the acquisition of Direct Energy, NRG has recurring electricity and/or natural gas sales in 24 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and 8 provinces in Canada. NRG's retail brands, collectively, have the largest share of competitively served residential electric customers in Texas and nationwide.
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The charts below illustrate NRG's U.S. retail capabilities, power generation and net capacity as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020:
nrg-20201231_g1.jpg
Extreme Weather Event in Texas During February 2021
During February 2021, Texas experienced unprecedented cold temperatures for a prolonged duration, resulting in a power emergency, blackouts, and an estimated all-time peak demand of 77 GWs (without load shed). Ahead of the event, NRG launched residential customer communications calling for conservation across all of its brands, and initiated residential and commercial and industrial demand response programs to curtail customer load. The Company maximized available generating capacity and brought in additional resources to supplement in-state staff with technical and operating experts from the rest of its U.S. fleet. NRG is committed to working with all necessary stakeholders on a comprehensive, objective, and exhaustive root cause analysis of the entirety of the energy system.
The estimated financial impact is still preliminary, due to customer meter and settlement data not being finalized, as well as potential customer and counterparty risk and expected ERCOT default allocations. Based on a preliminary analysis, Winter Storm Uri's financial impact is not expected to be adverse to NRG's financial results. The Company separately stress-tested assumptions and although at a lower probability, this stress-test analysis indicated a potential plus or minus $100 million to income from continuing operations in 2021. NRG's integrated platform continues to deliver stable results through unprecedented events.
COVID-19
In March 2020, the World Health Organization categorized COVID-19 as a pandemic and the President of the United States declared the COVID-19 outbreak a national emergency. Electricity was deemed a ‘critical and essential business operation’ under various state and federal governmental COVID-19 mandates.
NRG has been and continues to remain focused on protecting the health and well-being of its employees, while supporting its customers and the communities in which it operates and assuring the continuity of its operations. During 2020, NRG contributed $2 million to COVID-19 relief efforts, including funding for urgently needed safety equipment supporting first responders, as well as funds that aided local communities and teachers. The Company also allocated funding to the NRG Employee Relief Fund to assist employees adversely impacted by natural disasters and other extraordinary events.
NRG activated its Crisis Management Team ("CMT") in January 2020, which proactively began managing the Company's response to the impacts of COVID-19. The CMT implemented the business continuity plans for the Company and had taken a variety of measures to ensure the ongoing availability of the Company's services, while maintaining the Company's commitment to its core values of health and safety. Pursuant to the Company's Infectious Disease & Pandemic Policy, in March 2020, NRG implemented restrictions on business travel and face-to-face sales channels, instituted remote work practices and enhanced cleaning and hygiene protocols in all of its offices and facilities.
In order to effectively serve the Company’s customers, select essential employees and contractors continued to report to plant and certain office locations. In June 2020, summer-critical office employees also returned to the offices.
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The Company requires pre-entry screening, including temperature checks, separation of work crews, additional personal protective equipment for employees and contractors when social distancing cannot be maintained, and a ban on all non-essential visitors. As a result of these business continuity measures, the Company has not experienced any material disruptions in its ability to continue its business operations to date. The first COVID-19 vaccine became available in the United States in December 2020. NRG continues to advocate alongside state and federal trade groups for the high prioritization of essential electric industry personnel for inoculation against COVID-19. States are receiving weekly doses of vaccines and allocating those doses to frontline healthcare workers, elderly populations and high risk individuals. NRG continues to monitor state information as well as dosage and allocation numbers to anticipate the latest timing of vaccine distribution to our essential employees. The Company will continue to evaluate additional return to normal work operations on a location-by-location basis as COVID-19 conditions evolve.
The Company continues to utilize the communication protocol established in January 2020, including a central information hub on its intranet. The Company has provided additional wellness programs to support employees through the pandemic, including no-cost access to telehealth services, a mindfulness and meditation program, center or home-based backup child and elder care, and access to the Company's Emergency Relief Fund for financially impacted employees.
Following the President's declaration of COVID-19 outbreak as a national emergency in March 2020, the Governors of the majority of states in which the Company operates issued executive orders that every person should, except where necessary to provide or obtain essential services, minimize social gatherings and minimize in-person contact with people who are not in the same household. The impact of these orders affected energy loads due to closed schools, restaurants and bars, except in certain cases for takeout, and other non-essential businesses. As state restrictions have been eased or lifted, loads have begun to recover in those markets in which the Company operates. The rebound in demand has varied across the Company's market footprint, as restrictions vary regionally. During 2020, the Company experienced increased demand from its residential portfolio as many people remained at home, while the load for small businesses and C&I customers decreased due to reduced economic activity. The Company expects similar demand trends to continue in the near future. These restrictions have also created limitations to the Company's face-to-face sales channels and are expected to negatively impact the Company's customer count primarily in the East region. As the COVID-19 vaccine is distributed and the spread of transmission decreases, the Company would anticipate changes to the previously disclosed restrictions.
In Texas, the PUCT adopted the COVID-19 Electricity Relief Program (“ERP”) to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on Texas retail electric customers experiencing economic hardship as a result of the pandemic. The COVID-19 ERP provided temporary disconnection protection for eligible customers and established funds to offset some of the costs incurred by retail electric providers that continued service to those customers. The COVID-19 ERP disconnection protection and benefits ended on September 30, 2020. Consistent with the PUCT's orders, NRG is continuing to offer deferred payment plans to all residential and small commercial customers while the declaration of emergency in Texas is in place.
While the pandemic presented risks, as further described in Part II, Item 1A — Risk Factors of this Form 10-K, to the Company’s business, there was not a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020. NRG believes it has sufficient liquidity on hand to continue business operations in light of current circumstances posed by the pandemic. As disclosed in the Liquidity and Capital Resources section, the Company has total available liquidity of $7.0 billion as of December 31, 2020, consisting of cash on hand, its Revolving Credit Facility and additional facilities.
The situation surrounding COVID-19 remains fluid and the potential for a material adverse impact on the Company exists as long as the virus impacts the level of economic activity in the United States and abroad. The Company expects the risk to decrease in the future as vaccinations are administered. NRG cannot reasonably estimate with any degree of certainty the full impact COVID-19, and any resurgence of COVID-19, may have on the Company’s future results of operations, financial position, and liquidity. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, risk exposure or liquidity will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions, business and workforce disruptions, any resurgence of the pandemic and the effectiveness of actions taken to contain, mitigate and treat the disease. See Part I, Item 1A — Risk Factors of this Form 10-K.
Customer Operations
Customer Operations is responsible for growing and retaining the customer base and delivering an outstanding customer experience. This includes acquisition and retention of all of NRG’s residential, small commercial, government and commercial & industrial customers. NRG employs a multi-brand strategy that leverages a wide array of sales and partnership channels, direct face-to-face sales channels, call centers, websites, and brokers. Go-to-market activities include market strategy planning and development, product innovation, offer design, campaign execution, marketing and creative services, and selling. Customer portfolio maintenance and retention activities include fulfillment, billing, payment processing, collections, customer service, issue resolution, and contract renewals. Throughout all Customer Operations activities, the customer experience is kept at the forefront to inform decision-making and optimize retention, while creating supporters and advocates for NRG’s brands in the
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market. Following the expansion of the customer base with the acquisition of Direct Energy, Customer Operations now comprises three end-use customer facing teams: NRG Home, which serves Mass Market customers, NRG Business, which serves medium and large business customers, and NRG Services, which primarily includes the services businesses acquired.
Product Offerings
NRG sells a variety of products to residential and small commercial customers, including retail electricity and energy management, natural gas, home security, line and surge protection products, HVAC installation, repair and maintenance, home warranty and protection products, carbon offsets, back-up power stations, portable power, portable solar and portable lighting. Mass market customers make purchase decisions based on a variety of factors, including price, incentive, customer service, brand, innovative offers/features and referrals from friends and family. Through its broad range of service offerings and value propositions, NRG is able to attract, retain, and increase the value of its customer relationships. NRG's brands are recognized for exemplary customer service, innovative smart energy and technology product offerings, and environmentally-friendly solutions.
The Company provides power and natural gas to the business-to-business markets in North America, as well as retail services, including demand response, commodity sales, energy efficiency and energy management solutions to C&I customers. The Company is an integrated provider of supply and distributed energy resources and focuses on distributed products and services as businesses seek greater reliability, cleaner power and/or other benefits that they cannot obtain from the grid. These solutions include system power, distributed generation, renewable products, carbon management and specialty services, backup generation, storage and distributed solar, demand response, and energy efficiency and advisory services. In providing on-site energy solutions, the Company often benefits from its ability to supply energy products from its wholesale generation portfolio to C&I customers. In 2020, the Company sold approximately 20 TWhs of electricity to C&I customers and managed approximately 1,750 MWs of demand response positions across its portfolio.
Market Operations
Market Operations has two primary objectives: (i) to supply energy to our customers in the most cost-efficient manner; and (ii) to maximize the value of the Company's assets after satisfying its customer load requirements. These objectives are intended to reduce supply costs and maximize earnings with predictable cash flows.
To meet these objectives, NRG enters into supply, power and gas sales and hedging arrangements via a wide range of products and contracts, including (i) renewable PPAs, (ii) capacity auctions and other contracted revenue sources, (iii) fuel supply and transportation contracts, and (iv) physical and financial natural gas derivative instruments and other financial instruments.
In addition, because changes in power prices in the markets where NRG operates are generally correlated to changes in natural gas prices, NRG uses hedging strategies that may include power and natural gas forward purchases and sales contracts to manage the commodity price risk.
Renewable PPAs
During 2019, NRG began procuring mid to long-term renewable generation through power purchase agreements. As of December 31, 2020, NRG has entered into PPAs in Texas totaling approximately 1,800 MWs with third-party project developers and other counterparties. The tenor of these agreements is an average between eleven and twelve years. The Company expects to continue evaluating and executing agreements, such as these, that support the needs of the business.
Capacity and Other Contracted Revenue Sources
NRG's revenues and cash flows, primarily in the East and West, benefit from capacity/demand payments and other contracted revenue sources, originating from market clearing capacity prices, resource adequacy contracts, tolling arrangements and other long-term contractual arrangements.
The Company's largest sources of capacity revenues are capacity auctions in PJM, ISO-NE and NYISO. Both PJM and ISO-NE operate a pay-for-performance model where capacity payments are modified based on real-time performance and NRG's actual revenues will be the combination of revenues based on the cleared auction MWs plus the net of any over- and under-performance of NRG's respective generation assets. The Company primarily sells physical and financial capacity forward through bilateral contracts for our New York state assets. To the extent NRG is not able to enter into physical bilateral contracts, NRG will sell the remaining capacity into the NYISO six month strip, monthly or spot auctions.
2024/2025 ISO-NE Auction Results - On February 11, 2020 ISO-NE announced the results of its 2024/2025 forward capacity auction. NRG cleared 1,518 MW of capacity. NRG's expected capacity revenues from the auction for the 2024/2025 delivery year are approximately $48 million.
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PJM Auction ResultsPJM announced during 2019 it was suspending all auction deadlines relating to Base Residual Auctions for 2022/2023 and 2023/2024 delivery year, consistent with FERC’s July 25, 2019 Order. The auctions are now set to resume in 2021. Refer to the Capacity Market Reforms Filing discussion within the Regional Regulatory Developments section below for further discussion.
In California, there is a resource adequacy requirement that is primarily satisfied through bilateral contracts. Such bilateral contracts are typically short-term resource adequacy contracts. When bilateral contracting does not satisfy the resource adequacy need, such shortfalls can be addressed through procurement tools administered by the CAISO, including the capacity procurement mechanism or reliability must-run contracts.
Fuel Supply and Transportation
NRG's fuel requirements consist of various forms of fossil fuel and nuclear fuel. The prices of fossil fuels can be volatile. The Company obtains its fossil fuels from multiple suppliers and through multiple transporters. Although availability is generally not an issue, localized shortages, transportation availability, delays arising from extreme weather conditions and supplier financial stability issues can and do occur. The preceding factors related to the sources and availability of raw materials are fairly uniform across the Company's business and fuel products used. NRG's primary fuel requirements consist of the following:
Natural Gas — NRG operates a fleet of mid-merit and peaking natural gas plants across all its U.S. wholesale regions. Fuel needs are managed on a spot basis, especially for peaking assets, as the Company does not believe it is prudent to forward purchase natural gas for these types of units as the dispatch is highly unpredictable. The Company contracts for natural gas storage services, as well as natural gas transportation services to deliver natural gas when needed.
Coal — The Company believes it is adequately hedged, using forward coal supply agreements, for its domestic coal consumption for 2021. NRG actively manages its coal requirements based on forecasted generation, market volatility and its inventory on site. As of December 31, 2020, NRG had purchased forward contracts to provide fuel for approximately 50% of the Company's expected requirements for 2021 and 2022 . NRG purchased approximately 11 million tons of coal in 2020, almost all of which was Powder River Basin coal. For fuel transport, NRG has entered into various rail transportation and rail car lease agreements with varying tenures that will provide for most of the Company's transportation requirements of Powder River Basin coal for the next 2 years.
Nuclear Fuel — STP's owners, including NRG, satisfy their fuel supply requirements by: (i) acquiring uranium concentrates and contracting for conversion of the uranium concentrates into uranium hexafluoride; (ii) contracting for enrichment of uranium hexafluoride; and (iii) contracting for fabrication of nuclear fuel assemblies. Through its proportionate participation in STPNOC, which is the NRC-licensed operator of STP that is responsible for all aspects of fuel procurement, NRG is party to a number of long-term forward purchase contracts with many of the world's largest suppliers covering STP's requirements for uranium concentrates with only approximately 25% of STP's requirements outstanding for the duration of the original operating license. Similarly, NRG is party to long-term contracts to procure STP's requirements for conversion and enrichment services and fuel fabrication for the life of the operating license. Since the operating license was renewed for another 20 years in 2017, STPNOC has begun to review a second phase of fuel purchasing.
Derivative Instruments and Other Financial Instruments
NRG also trades electric power, natural gas and related commodities, environmental products, weather products and financial products, including forwards, futures, options and swaps. NRG enters into these instruments for many reasons, including to manage price and delivery risk, optimize physical and contractual assets in the portfolio, manage working capital requirements, reduce the carbon exposure in its business and comply with regulations and laws.
Plant Operations
The Company owns a diversified power generation portfolio with approximately 23,000 MW of fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable generation capacity at 33 plants as of December 31, 2020. The Company's power generation assets are diversified by fuel-type, dispatch level and region, which helps mitigate the risks associated with fuel price volatility and market demand cycles. NRG continually evaluates its generation portfolio to focus on asset optimization opportunities and the locational value of its generation assets in each of the markets where the Company participates, as well as opportunities for the development of new generation.
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The following table summarizes NRG's generation portfolio as of December 31, 2020:
(In MW)(a)
Type
Texas
East
West/Other
Total
Natural gas4,774 2,742 2,308 9,824 
Coal4,174 3,140 605 7,919 
Oil— 3,600 — 3,600 
Nuclear1,132 — — 1,132 
Utility Scale Solar— — 321 321 
Battery Storage(b)
— — 
Total generation capacity10,082 9,482 3,234 22,798 
(a)All Utility Scale Solar are described in MW on an alternating current basis. MW figures provided represent nominal summer net MW capacity of power generated as adjusted for the Company's owned or leased interest excluding capacity from inactive/mothballed units
(b)The Distributed Solar figure includes the aggregate production capacity of installed and activated residential solar energy systems
Plant Operations is responsible for operating the Company's generation facilities at the highest standards of safety and reliability, and includes (i) operations and maintenance, (ii) asset management, and (iii) development, engineering and construction.
Operations & Maintenance
NRG operates and maintains its generation portfolio, as well as approximately 7,243 MW of additional coal and natural gas generation capacity at 11 plants operated on behalf of third parties as of December 31, 2020 using prudent industry practices for the safe, reliable and economic generation of electricity in compliance with all local, state and federal requirements. The Company follows a consistent set of operating requirements, including a solid base of training, required adherence to specific safety and environmental limits, procedure and checklist usage, and the implementation of continuous process improvement through incident investigations.
NRG uses best-in-class maintenance practices for preventive, predictive, and corrective maintenance planning. The Company’s strategic planning process evaluates equipment condition, performance, and obsolescence to support the development of a comprehensive work scope and schedule for long-term performance.
Asset Management
NRG manages all aspects of its generation portfolio to optimize the lifecycle value of the assets, consistent with the Company’s goals. The Company evaluates capital projects required for continued operation and strategic enhancement of the assets, provides quality assurance on capital outlays, and assesses the impact of rules, regulations, and laws on business profitability. In addition, the Company manages its long-term contracts, power purchase agreements, and real estate holdings and provides third party asset management services.
Development, Engineering & Construction
NRG develops, engineers and executes major plant modifications, “new build” generation and energy storage projects that enhance the value of its generation portfolio and provide options to meet generation growth needs in the retail markets we serve, in accordance with the Company’s strategic goals. Projects have included gas-fired generation development and construction, coal to gas conversions, grid scale energy storage development, grid scale renewable construction, and asset demolition, remediation and reclamation work.
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Operational Statistics
The following statistics represent the Company's retail customer count, load and contract mix:
 Years ended December 31,
 202020192018
Sales volumes (in GWh)
Mass Market electricity - Texas38,473 38,958 37,846 
Mass Market electricity - East10,221 9,918 7,968 
C&I electricity - Texas 17,928 18,976 20,192 
C&I electricity - East1,596 1,214 984 
Total Load68,218 69,066 66,990 
Customer count - Electricity (in thousands)
      Mass Market - Texas (a)
Average retail 2,449 2,358 2,209 
Ending retail 2,451 2,450 2,318 
     Mass Market - East
Average retail 1,019 990 790 
Ending retail 970 1,070 903 
   (a) Includes customers of non-electric services
Customer count - Natural gas - East (in thousands)
Average retail Mass Market156 122 64 
Ending retail Mass Market166 158 99 
Customer contract mix
Fixed69 %67 %65 %
Month-to-month23 %24 %25 %
Indexed%%10 %
100 %100 %100 %
The following are industry statistics for the Company's fossil and nuclear plants, as defined by the NERC, and are more fully described below:
Annual Equivalent Availability Factor, or EAF — Measures the percentage of maximum generation available over time as the fraction of net maximum generation that could be provided over a defined period of time after all types of outages and deratings, including seasonal deratings, are taken into account.
Net Heat Rate — The net heat rate represents the total amount of fuel in BTU required to generate one net kWh provided.
Net Capacity Factor — The net amount of electricity that a generating unit produces over a period of time divided by the net amount of electricity it could have produced if it had run at full power over that time period. The net amount of electricity produced is the total amount of electricity generated minus the amount of electricity used during generation.
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The tables below present these performance metrics for the Company's generation portfolio, including leased facilities and those accounted for as equity method investments, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
 Year Ended December 31, 2020
Fossil and Nuclear Plants (a)
 
Net Owned
Capacity (MW)
Net Generation (In thousands of MWh) (a)
Annual Equivalent Availability FactorAverage Net Heat Rate BTU/kWh
Net Capacity
Factor
Texas10,082 31,385 76.0 %7,704 35.9 %
East9,482 4,102 81.7 %12,329 4.8 %
West/Other (b)(c)
3,234 9,171 88.0 %7,338 52.3 %

Year Ended December 31, 2019
Fossil and Nuclear Plants (a)
 
Net Owned
Capacity (MW)
Net Generation (In thousands of MWh) (a)
Annual Equivalent Availability FactorAverage Net Heat Rate BTU/kWh
Net Capacity
Factor
Texas10,061 37,995 83.3 %10,542 43.2 %
East9,426 6,913 81.7 %11,917 8.3 %
West/Other (b)(c)
3,294 9,462 79.9 %6,751 51.4 %
(a)Net generation excludes equity method investments
(b)Includes the Sherbino and Guam facilities that were sold in 2019
(c)Includes the aggregate production capacity of installed and activated residential solar energy systems
The generation performance by region for the three years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is shown below:
Net Generation
 (In thousands of MWh)202020192018
Texas
Coal15,701 21,985 24,781 
Gas6,006 6,315 4,415 
Nuclear (a)
9,678 9,695 9,018 
Total Texas31,385 37,995 38,214 
East
Coal1,888 4,435 7,965 
Oil322 209 544 
Gas1,892 2,269 1,610 
Total East4,102 6,913 10,119 
West/Other
Gas9,165 9,450 10,187 
Renewables12 783 
Total West/Other9,171 9,462 10,970 
(a)Reflects the Company's undivided interest in total MWh generated by STP
Competition
While there has been consolidation in the competitive retail space over the past few years, there is still considerable competition for customers. In Texas, there is healthy competition in deregulated areas and customers can choose providers based on the most appealing offers. Outside of Texas, electricity retailers compete with the incumbent utilities, in addition to other retail electric providers, which can inhibit competition, depending on the market rules of the state. There is a high degree of fragmentation, with both large and small competitors offering a range of value propositions, including value, rewards, and sustainability.
Wholesale generation is highly fragmented and diverse in terms of industry structure by region. As such, there is a wide variation in terms of the capabilities, resources, nature and identities of the Company’s competitors depending on the market. Competitors include regulated utilities, municipalities, cooperatives, other independent power producers, and power marketers or trading companies, including those owned by financial institutions.
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Seasonality and Price Volatility
The sale of electric power to retail customers is a seasonal business with the demand for power generally peaking during the summer months. In connection with the acquisition of Direct Energy, the Company acquired a large natural gas customer portfolio, which generally experiences peak demand during the winter months. As a result, net working capital requirements for the Company's retail operations generally increase during summer and winter months along with the higher revenues, and then decline during off-peak months. Weather may impact operating results and extreme weather conditions could have a material impact. The rates charged to retail customers may be impacted by fluctuations in total power prices and market dynamics, such as the price of natural gas, transmission constraints, competitor actions, and changes in market heat rates.
Annual and quarterly operating results of the Company's generation portfolio can be significantly affected by weather and energy commodity price volatility. Significant other events, such as the demand for natural gas, interruptions in fuel supply infrastructure and relative levels of hydroelectric capacity can increase seasonal fuel and power price volatility. The preceding factors related to seasonality and price volatility are fairly uniform across the regions in which the Company operates.
Market Framework
NRG sells electricity, natural gas and related products and services to customers throughout the U.S. and Canada. In most of the states and regions that have introduced retail consumer choice, NRG competitively offers electricity, natural gas, portable power and other value-enhancing services to customers. Each retail consumer choice state or province establishes its own retail competition laws and regulations, and the specific operational, licensing, and compliance requirements vary by state or province. Regulated terms and conditions of default service, as well as any movement to replace default service with competitive services, as is done in ERCOT, can affect customer participation in retail competition. In Canada, NRG sells energy and related services to residential and commercial customers in the province of Alberta pursuant both to a regulated rate service governed by provincial regulations as well as a competitive service with rates set by market forces. Sales of energy to commercial customers take place in other provinces as well. The attractiveness of NRG's retail offerings may be impacted by the rules, regulations, market structure and communication requirements from public utility commissions in each state and province.
NRG's fleet operates in organized energy markets, known as RTOs or ISOs. Each organized market administers day-ahead and real-time centralized bid-based energy and ancillary services markets pursuant to tariffs approved by FERC, or in the case of ERCOT, market rules approved by the PUCT. These tariffs and rules dictate how the energy markets operate, how market participants make bilateral sales with one another, and how entities with market-based rates are compensated. Established prices reflect the value of energy at the specific location and time it is delivered, which is known as the Locational Marginal Price. Each market is subject to market mitigation measures designed to limit the exercise of locational market power. These market structures facilitate NRG's sale of power and capacity products at market-based rates.
Other than ERCOT, each of the ISO regions also operates a capacity or resource adequacy market that provides an opportunity for generating and demand response resources to earn revenues to offset their fixed costs that are not recovered in the energy and ancillary services markets. The ISOs are also responsible for transmission planning and operations.
Texas
NRG's business in Texas is subject to standards and regulations adopted by the PUCT and ERCOT(a), including the requirement for retailers to be certified by the PUCT in order to contract with end-users to sell electricity. The ERCOT market is one of the nation's largest and, historically, fastest growing power markets. ERCOT is an energy-only market and has implemented market rule changes referred to as the Operating Reserve Demand Curve (ORDC) to provide pricing more reflective of higher energy value when operating reserves are scarce or constrained. The PUCT directed the implementation of the ORDC in 2014 to act as the primary scarcity pricing mechanism, with subsequent amendments made in 2019 and 2020. The majority of the retail load in the ERCOT market region is served by competitive retail suppliers, except certain areas that have not opted into competitive consumer choice and are served by municipal utilities and electric cooperatives.
East
While most of the states in the East region have introduced some level of retail consumer choice for electricity and/or natural gas, the incumbent utilities currently provide default service in most of the states and as a result typically serve the majority of residential customers. NRG’s retail activities in the East are subject to standards and regulations adopted by the ISOs and state public utility commissions, including the requirement for retailers to be certified in each state in order to contract with end-users to sell electricity.


(a)The Cottonwood facility is located in Deweyville, Texas, but operates in the MISO market
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NRG's power plants and demand response assets located in the East region of the U.S. are within the control areas of ISO-NE, MISO, NYISO and PJM. Each of the market regions in the East region provides for robust competition in the day-ahead and real-time energy and ancillary services markets. Additionally, the East region receives a significant portion of its revenues from capacity markets. PJM and ISO-NE use a three-year forward capacity auction, while NYISO uses a month-ahead capacity auction. MISO has an annual auction, known as the Planning Resource Auction. Capacity market prices are sensitive to design parameters, as well as additions of new capacity. Both ISO-NE and PJM operate a pay-for-performance model where capacity payments are modified based on real-time generator performance. In such markets, NRG’s actual capacity revenues will be the combination of cleared auction prices times the quantity of MWs cleared, plus the net of any over-performance "bonus payments" and any under-performance charges. Additionally, bidding rules allow for the incorporation of a risk premium into generator bids.
West
In the West region of the U.S., NRG operates a fleet of natural gas-fired power plants located entirely within the CAISO footprint. The CAISO operates day-ahead and real-time locational markets for energy and ancillary services, while managing congestion primarily through nodal prices. The CAISO system facilitates NRG's sale of power, ancillary services and capacity products at market-based rates, either within the CAISO's centralized energy and ancillary service markets or bilaterally pursuant to tolling arrangements or other capacity sales with California's LSEs. The CPUC also determines capacity requirements for LSEs and for specified local areas utilizing inputs from the CAISO. Both the CAISO and CPUC rules require LSEs to contract with sufficient generation resources in order to maintain minimum levels of generation within defined local areas. Additionally, the CAISO has independent authority to contract with needed resources under certain circumstances, typically either when LSEs have failed to procure sufficient resources, or system conditions change unexpectedly.
Canada
In Canada, NRG sells to residential and commercial retail customers in Alberta under both regulated rates approved by the AUC as well as through competitive service with rates set by the market. The Company's regulated rates are approved through periodic rate applications that establish rates for power and gas sales as well as for recovery of other costs associated with operating the regulated business. In addition, the Company conducts retail sales of energy to commercial customers in other provinces. All sales and operations are subject to applicable federal and provincial laws, regulations and licensing requirements.
Regulatory Matters
As participants in wholesale and retail energy markets and owners and operators of power plants, certain NRG entities are subject to regulation by various federal and state government agencies. These include the CFTC, FERC, NRC and the PUCT, as well as other public utility commissions in certain states where NRG's generation or distributed generation assets are located. In addition, NRG is subject to the market rules, procedures and protocols of the various ISO and RTO markets in which it participates. Likewise, certain NRG entities participating in the retail markets are subject to rules and regulations established by the states and provinces in which NRG entities are licensed to sell at retail. NRG must also comply with the mandatory reliability requirements imposed by NERC and the regional reliability entities in the regions where NRG operates.
Since entering office in January 2021, the President has signed a package of executive orders which, amongst other things, intends to boost the federal government's response to COVID-19, as well as elevate climate change across all levels and jurisdictions of the federal government. The administration has requested all agencies delay submitting rules to the Federal Register or posting their effective date for 60 days if not already effective, until they can be reviewed by appointees of the current administration. NRG is closely monitoring agency action as the orders will likely result in the promulgation of new regulations, where applicable.
NRG's operations within the ERCOT footprint are not subject to rate regulation by FERC, as they are deemed to operate solely within the ERCOT market and not in interstate commerce. These operations are subject to regulation by the PUCT, as well as to regulation by the NRC with respect to NRG's ownership interest in STP.
Federal Energy Regulation
D.C. Circuit Ruling on FERC's Use of Tolling Orders — On June 30, 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit issued a decision stating that FERC's ability to "toll" actions on rehearing beyond the statutory 30-day period is unlawful. On September 17, 2020, FERC staff explained that in Federal Power Act cases, it will no longer issue tolling orders but instead will issue either a Notice of Denial of Rehearing by Operation of Law or a Notice of Denial of Rehearing by Operation of Law and Providing for Further Consideration. The first indicates that FERC would not intend to issue a merits order and the second indicates that FERC intends to issue further action. This decision impacts an array of appeals related to the PJM MOPR order and will impact how rehearings are decided and appeals filed.
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State and Provincial Energy Regulation
State Proceedings Regarding States’ Participation in the Wholesale Market — Various states, including Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York as well as the District of Columbia have initiated proceedings to investigate resource adequacy alternatives and to consider its participation in the regional wholesale electricity market constructs, specifically withdrawal from the regional market or implementing a Fixed Resource Requirement Regime. Any actions taken by the states could affect market design and market prices in the respective regional markets.
Regional Regulatory Developments
NRG is affected by rule/tariff changes that occur in the ISO regions. For further discussion on regulatory developments see Item 15 — Note 25, Regulatory Matters, to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
East/West
PJM
Capacity Market Reforms Filing — On December 19, 2019, FERC issued an order on the pending proposals to reform the PJM market to mitigate subsidized resources in the capacity market. FERC directed PJM to apply the Minimum Offer Price Rule, or MOPR, to new and existing resources receiving state subsidies and subject them to default offer floor prices in their capacity bids. The Order provided for various category specific exemptions to the MOPR, as well as a unit specific exemption, which permits any resource that can justify an offer lower than the default offer price floor to submit such capacity bids to PJM for review. After subsequent filings and orders, on November 13, 2020, PJM submitted its third compliance filing, including a timeline to hold the next Base Residual Auction for Delivery Year 2022-2023 on May 19-25, 2021, which was accepted by FERC. Multiple parties filed appeals in this matter, which have been consolidated at the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals. Subjecting subsidized resources to default offer floors in the capacity market should protect the market from further price suppression. The impact of these changes on capacity market outcomes depends on, among other factors, bidding behavior, load forecast changes, new resource entry, and existing resource exit.
Indiana Municipal Power Agency and City of Lawrenceburg, Indiana Complaint on Station Power On September 17, 2020, FERC issued an order in response to a complaint and request for declaratory judgement challenging the station power wholesale netting provisions in PJM's tariff. FERC found that it does not have jurisdiction over the supply of station power and the provision of station power is a retail sale subject to state jurisdiction. The order established a Section 206 proceeding and required PJM to submit a filing within 60 days to show why the station service netting provisions of its tariff are just and reasonable. Lawrenceburg Power, LLC filed for rehearing, which was denied by operation of law on November 19, 2020 and they subsequently appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The matter is pending. On November 23, 2020, PJM submitted its station power compliance filing to FERC. Multiple parties filed comments and protests to PJM's compliance filing. This decision could affect the rates that plants pay for station power.
PJM's ORDC Filing and Compliance Directives — On March 29, 2019, PJM proposed energy and reserve market reforms to enhance price formation in reserve markets, which includes modifying its ORDC and aligning market-based reserve product in Day-Ahead and Real-Time markets. On May 21, 2020, FERC approved PJM's proposed energy and reserve market reforms. FERC also directed PJM to implement a forward-looking Energy and Ancillary Services Offset to be used in PJM's capacity markets. PJM submitted a compliance filing to revise its tariff on August 5, 2020. On November 12, 2020, FERC approved two PJM compliance filings regarding PJM's reserve markets and the forward-looking Energy and Ancillary Services Offset and subsequently issued a timeline to hold the Base Residual Auction as noted above. PJM will implement the forward-looking Energy and Ancillary Services Offset for the 2022/2023 Base Residual Auction.
New England
ISO-NE Inventoried Energy Compensation Proposal — FERC approved ISO-NE's proposed interim measure to address near-term fuel security concerns by operation of law. After an appeal to the Court of Appeals and a remand back to FERC, FERC issued an order accepting Inventoried Energy Compensation Proposal and by operation of law denied requests for rehearing on August 20, 2020. Multiple parties filed amended petitions for review to include FERC's order on remand. ISO-NE's proposal will affect future capacity market prices and the compensation that fuel secure units receive.
Mystic's Complaint on Transmission Reliability Review — On June 10, 2020, Constellation Mystic Power LLC filed a complaint at FERC against ISO-NE alleging that ISO-NE violated its Tariff in its addition of language to its planning procedure and in its conduct in carrying out a competitive transmission REP to address the retirements of Mystic Units 8 and 9. On August 17, 2020, FERC issued an order denying the complaint. After a rehearing that was denied by operation of law, on January 4, 2021, Constellation Mystic Power LLC filed an appeal to the D.C. Circuit. The outcome of this proceeding affects the retirement of the Mystic Units 8 and 9, thereby affecting capacity prices in ISO-NE.
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Paper Hearing on ISO-NE's New Entrant Rule — On July 1, 2020, FERC issued an order establishing a Section 206 hearing initiated by FERC's preliminary finding that the "new entrant rules" may be unjust and unreasonable, specifically as it relates to the seven-year price-lock rule as a result of the D.C. Circuit Court's remand on a FERC Order. The price-lock mechanism permits qualified new resources that clear the auction to receive their first-year clearing price for seven years. On December 1, 2020, FERC issued an order eliminating the seven-year price lock rule beginning in Forward Capacity Auction 16. The elimination of the seven-year price lock rule could affect future capacity prices in ISO-NE.
Competitive Auctions with Sponsored Resources Proposal (CASPR) — On January 8, 2018, ISO-NE filed the CASPR proposal which attempts to accommodate state sponsored resources while maintaining competitive market pricing. On November 19, 2020, FERC upheld the order approving CASPR. Multiple parties filed an appeal to the D.C. Circuit. The outcome of this proceeding will potentially affect future capacity market prices.
New York
New York State Public Service Commission Retail Energy Market Proceedings — On February 23, 2016, the NYSPSC issued an order referred to as the Retail Reset Order. Among other things, the Retail Reset Order placed a price cap on energy supply offers and imposed burdensome new regulations on ESCO's. Various parties have challenged the NYSPSC's authority to regulate prices charged by competitive suppliers. On May 9, 2019 the New York Court of Appeals, the state’s highest tribunal, issued a decision affirming the NYSPSC’s authority to regulate ESCO’s prices as a condition of access to the utilities’ infrastructure. On December 12, 2019, the NYSPSC issued an order limiting ESCO's offers for electric and natural gas to three compliant products: guaranteed savings from the utility default rate, a fixed term capped at 5% of the rolling 12-month average utility default rate, or NY-sourced renewable energy that is at least 50% greater than the prevailing NY Renewable Energy Standard for load serving entities. The Order effectively limited ESCO offers to natural gas customers to only the guaranteed savings and capped fixed term compliant products because no equivalent renewable energy product exists for natural gas. The Order also establishes new ESCO eligibility criteria and certification process, as well as re-certification of current ESCOs. Multiple parties filed for rehearing, which were denied. After extension requests, the NYSPSC ordered compliance effective April 16, 2021. On January 21, 2021, the NYSPSC issued an Order setting a timeline to evaluate additional compliant energy-related value-added products and also provided for a limited one-year waiver whereby ESCOs, including NRG's Green Mountain Energy and XOOM Energy, which currently offer green gas products, could continue to serve existing customers. The limited offerings imposed by the Order, as issued, may impact the Company's retail sales to Mass Market customers in New York, although the Company is currently in the process of moving existing customers to compliant products.
New York Buyer Side Mitigation Proceedings — On February 20, 2020, FERC issued multiple orders pertaining to the NYISO capacity market. The orders narrowed certain exemptions to buyer side mitigation measures. Specifically, FERC stated that certain renewable and self-supply resources would be exempt from offer floor mitigation but rejected NYISO’s proposal of a 1,000 MW cap on renewable resources that could qualify for the exemption. FERC ordered NYISO to make a compliance filing narrowly tailoring its cap. The NYISO submitted its compliance filing, which FERC largely accepted. FERC rejected a complaint to exempt new electric storage resources and also rejected a blanket exemption to demand response providers currently subject to mitigation but granted a request for new demand response to receive a blanket exemption from the buyer side mitigation measures. On June 18, 2020, the NYSPSC filed petitions for review with the D.C. Circuit regarding these buyer side mitigation orders, but the appeals were held in abeyance pending FERC's consideration of rehearing requests. On December 7, 2020, FERC denied rehearings by operation of law regarding the exemption to demand response providers. FERC sustained its position in an October 15, 2020 order regarding the rehearing on electric storage resources. Parties have re-appealed the order regarding electric storage resources. Implementation of buyer side mitigation measures to address price suppression provides more accurate capacity price signals in the competitive market.
New York Generators' Complaint on Buyer Side Mitigation Rules — On October 14, 2020, two New York generators, Cricket Valley and Empire Generating, filed a complaint at FERC against the NYISO arguing that the NYISO's offer floor rules are unjust and unreasonable because they do not address price suppression in the market. The complaint requests that FERC order the NYISO to implement a MOPR that covers out-of-market support to new and existing resources, similar to that in PJM. The outcome of this proceeding could affect capacity market prices in New York. The complaint remains pending at FERC.
Texas
Public Utility Commission of Texas’ Actions Related to COVID-19 — On March 26, 2020, the PUCT adopted the COVID-19 Electricity Relief Program ("ERP") aimed to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on residential customers in the competitive retail electric market who are experiencing economic hardship as a result of the pandemic. The COVID-19 ERP protected residential customers deemed eligible by the PUCT’s third party administrator from disconnection for nonpayment until September 30, 2020 and established an emergency fund to allow Retail Electric Providers ("REPs") to recover a certain amount of credit losses incurred while continuing to serve these customers. Final reimbursement requests by REPs were due by November 30, 2020.
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California
California Resource Adequacy Proceedings — Since a summer 2020 heat storm that resulted in emergency load curtailments, the State of California and CAISO have embarked on numerous new regulatory activities while redirecting existing proceedings related to the topic of resource adequacy. In a rulemaking docket, on December 28, 2020, the CPUC directed the state's major investor-owned utilities to engage in emergency procurement for 2021 and 2022. In the same docket, the CPUC is considering ways to increase the volume of demand response available to the state during emergency conditions. The CPUC is also considering longer term structural reforms of the resource adequacy policy in California. Additionally, the CAISO has indicated it will procure resources to a higher reserve margin in 2021 than it employed in 2020, while evaluating the conditions likely to exist at early-evening hours when peak load, net of solar resources, is highest.
Midway-Sunset RMR Proceeding — San Joaquin Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of NRG, owns a 50%, non-controlling interest in the Midway-Sunset Cogeneration Company ("MSCC"). MSCC owns a cogeneration facility near Fellows, CA and submitted mothball notices for the cogeneration facility to the CAISO in the latter half of 2020. On December 17, 2020, the CAISO Board effectively rejected the mothball notices by authorizing its staff to designate the MSCC facility as a reliability must-run resource conditioned on execution of a RMR contract. In a letter dated December 16, 2020 sent to the CAISO Board, MSCC indicated that it did not object to the RMR designation but noted certain permitting and maintenance requirements for RMR operation. On January 29, 2021, MSCC made its RMR filing at FERC.
Canada
Alberta Energy Market — In December 2020, prior to its acquisition by NRG, Direct Energy filed a Non-Energy Rate Application with the AUC to approve cost recovery for the 2020-2022 period. Major cost elements of this application relate to bad debt, corporate costs, and customer care and billing contracts. The Company is engaged in a mediation and settlement process. Typically, AUC proceeding take 12-18 months to reach resolution, if settlement procedures do not result in the resolution of contested issues more quickly. The AUC's decision ultimately will result in a surcharge or rebate to adjust collected revenues to AUC-approved costs for the 2020-2022 period. The Company also is waiting on a final review and approval from the AUC of a negotiated rate settlement for its electricity focused 2020-2022 Energy Price Setting Plan, of which a decision is expected during the first quarter of 2021. The Company is also in the process of repaying the remainder of amounts advanced to it from the Balance Pool and the Alberta government as part of its 90 day utility bill deferral program. This program, effective March 18, 2020, was designed to assist residential, farms, and small business customers who were negatively affected by COVID-19 related economic circumstances by temporarily deferring their utility bill payments. The program was also designed to mitigate bad debt risks associated with the implementation of the program.
Environmental Regulatory Matters
NRG is subject to numerous environmental laws in the development, construction, ownership and operation of power plants. These laws generally require that governmental permits and approvals be obtained before construction and maintained during operation of power plants. Federal and state environmental laws historically have become more stringent over time. Future laws may require the addition of emissions controls or other environmental controls or impose restrictions on the Company's operations. Complying with environmental laws often involves specialized human resources and significant capital and operating expenses, as well as occasionally curtailing operations. The COVID-19 pandemic may prevent the Company from complying with certain of its environmental requirements, which federal and state regulators have recognized. NRG decides to invest capital for environmental controls based on the relative certainty of the requirements, an evaluation of compliance options, and the expected economic returns on capital.
A number of regulations that affect the Company have been revised recently by the EPA, including ash storage and disposal requirements, NAAQS revisions and implementation and effluent limitation guidelines. Some of these recent revisions may, in turn, be revised by the new U.S. presidential administration. NRG will evaluate the impact of these regulations as they are revised but cannot fully predict the impact of each until anticipated revisions and legal challenges are resolved.
Air 
The CAA and related regulations (as well as similar state and local requirements) have the potential to affect air emissions, operating practices and pollution control equipment required at power plants. Under the CAA, the EPA sets NAAQS for certain pollutants including SO2, ozone, and PM2.5. Many of the Company's facilities are located in or near areas that are classified by the EPA as not achieving certain NAAQS (non-attainment areas). The relevant NAAQS may become more stringent. The Company maintains a comprehensive compliance strategy to address continuing and new requirements. Complying with increasingly stringent air regulations could require the installation of additional emissions control equipment at some NRG facilities or retiring of units if installing such controls is not economic. Significant changes to air regulatory programs affecting the Company are described below.
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CPP/ACE Rules — The attention in recent years on GHG emissions has resulted in federal and state regulations. In October 2015, the EPA promulgated the CPP, addressing GHG emissions from existing EGUs. On February 9, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court stayed the CPP. In July 2019, EPA promulgated the ACE rule, which rescinded the CPP, which had sought to broadly regulate CO2 emissions from the power sector. On January 19, 2021, the D.C. Circuit vacated the ACE rule (but on February 22, 2021, at the EPA's request, stayed the issuance of the portion of the mandate that would vacate the repeal of the CPP). Accordingly, we expect the EPA to promulgate a new rule to regulate GHG emissions from power plants.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions — NRG emits CO2 (and small quantities of other GHGs) when generating electricity at a majority of its facilities. The graphs presented below illustrate NRG's domestic emissions of CO2e for the 2014, and the 2018 through 2020 period. Nearly all (>99%) of NRG's GHG emissions are subject to federal (U.S. EPA) GHG reporting requirements.
In 2019, NRG announced the acceleration of its science-based GHG emissions reduction goals to align with prevailing climate science, which seeks to limit global warming in the post-industrial era to 1.5 degrees Celsius. NRG is targeting a 50% reduction by 2025, from its current 2014 baseline, and net-zero emissions by 2050. From 2014 to 2020, the Company's CO2e emissions decreased from 63 million metric tons to 28 million metric tons, representing a cumulative 55% reduction. The decrease is attributed to reductions in fleet-wide annual net generation, a market-driven shift away from coal as a primary fuel to natural gas, and in 2020 reduced load as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company believes the 2020 emissions level may change as load recovers from the impact of COVID-19. The Company is continuing to target a 50% reduction by 2025 and is on track to meet that goal.
As of December 31, 2020, less than 10% of the Company's consolidated operating revenues were derived from coal-fired operating assets.
The following tables reflect the Company’s generation portfolio, including leased facilities and those accounted for through equity method investments. Prior year information was adjusted to remove divested assets.
nrg-20201231_g2.jpg
Byproducts, Wastes, Hazardous Materials and Contamination
In April 2015, the EPA finalized the rule regulating byproducts of coal combustion (e.g., ash and gypsum) as solid wastes under the RCRA. In September 2017, the EPA agreed to reconsider the rule. On July 30, 2018, the EPA promulgated a rule that amended the existing ash rule by extending some of the deadlines and providing more flexibility for compliance. On August 21, 2018, the D.C. Circuit found, among other things, that the EPA had not adequately regulated unlined ponds and legacy ponds. In 2019 and 2020, the EPA proposed several changes to this rule. On August 28, 2020, the EPA finalized "A Holistic Approach to Closure Part A: Deadline to Initiate Closure," which amended the April 2015 Rule to address the August 2018 D.C. Circuit decision and extend some of the deadlines. On November 12, 2020, the EPA finalized "A Holistic Approach to Closure Part B: Alternative Demonstration for Unlined Surface Impoundments," which further amended the April 2015 Rule to, among other things, provide procedures for requesting approval to operate existing ash impoundments with an alternate liner. The Company has updated its estimates of required environmental capital expenditures to address this revised rule.
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Domestic Site Remediation Matters
Under certain federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of a facility, including an electric generating facility, may be required to investigate and remediate releases or threatened releases of hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products. NRG may be responsible for property damage, personal injury and investigation and remediation costs incurred by a party in connection with hazardous material releases or threatened releases. These laws impose liability without regard to whether the owner knew of or caused the presence of the hazardous substances, and the courts have interpreted liability under such laws to be strict (without fault) and joint and several. Cleanup obligations can often be triggered during the closure or decommissioning of a facility, in addition to spills during its operations. Further discussions of affected NRG sites can be found in Item 15 — Note 24, Commitments and Contingencies, to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Jewett Mine Lignite Contract The Company's Limestone facility historically burned lignite obtained from the Jewett mine, which was operated by TWCC. In 2019, the Jewett mine and related lignite supply agreement with NRG were acquired by Westmoreland Jewett Mining LLC ("Jewett Mining"), a subsidiary of Westmoreland Mining LLC pursuant to a plan of reorganization confirmed by the Texas Bankruptcy Court. Effective August 5, 2020, NRG's subsidiary, NRG Texas LLC, acquired all of the equity interests of Jewett Mining. Active mining under the lignite supply agreement ceased as of December 31, 2016; however, under the terms of the lignite supply agreement, Jewett Mining remains responsible for reclamation activities and NRG is responsible for all reclamation costs. NRG has recorded an adequate ARO liability. The Railroad Commission of Texas has imposed a bond obligation of approximately $99 million for the reclamation of the Jewett mine, which NRG supports through surety bonds. The cost of the reclamation may exceed the value of the bonds. NRG may provide additional performance assurance if required by the Railroad Commission of Texas.
Nuclear Waste — The federal government's program to construct a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was discontinued in 2010. Since 1998, the U.S. DOE has been in default of the federal government's obligations to begin accepting spent nuclear fuel, or SNF, and high-level radioactive waste, or HLW, under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Owners of nuclear plants, including the owners of STP, had been required to enter into contracts setting out the obligations of the owners and the U.S. DOE, including the fees to be paid by the owners for the U.S. DOE's services to license a spent fuel repository. Effective May 16, 2014, the U.S. DOE stopped collecting the fees.
On February 5, 2013, STPNOC entered into a settlement agreement with the U.S. DOE for payment of damages relating to the U.S. DOE's failure to accept SNF and HLW under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act through December 31, 2013, which has been extended three times through addendums to cover payments through December 31, 2022. There are no facilities for the reprocessing or permanent disposal of SNF currently in operation in the U.S., nor has the NRC licensed any such facilities. STPNOC currently stores all SNF generated by its nuclear generating facilities on-site. STPNOC plans to continue to assert claims against the U.S. DOE for damages relating to the U.S. DOE's failure to accept SNF and HLW.
Under the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, as amended in 1985, the state of Texas is required to provide, either on its own or jointly with other states in a compact, for the disposal of all low-level radioactive waste generated within the state. Texas is currently in a compact with the state of Vermont, and the compact low-level waste facility located in Andrews County in Texas has been operational since 2012.
Water 
The Company is required under the CWA to comply with intake and discharge requirements, requirements for technological controls and operating practices. As with air quality regulations, federal and state water regulations have become more stringent and imposed new requirements.
Effluent Limitations Guidelines — In November 2015, the EPA revised the Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Steam Electric Generating Facilities, which imposed more stringent requirements (as individual permits were renewed) for wastewater streams from FGD, fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas mercury control. On September 18, 2017, the EPA promulgated a final rule that, among other things, postponed the compliance dates to preserve the status quo for FGD wastewater and bottom ash transport water by two years to November 2020 until the EPA amended the rule. On October 13, 2020, the EPA amended the 2015 ELG rule by: (i) altering the stringency of certain limits for FGD wastewater; (ii) relaxing the zero-discharge requirement for bottom ash transport water; and (iii) changing several deadlines. The Company is in the process of estimating the environmental capital expenditures that will be required to comply. The capital expenditures required to comply will depend on elections regarding future operations of each coal-fired unit. NRG expects to make these elections for each unit in Q4 2021 at which time the EPA will be notified as required. Accordingly, we do not expect to provide estimates of ELG compliance costs until early 2022.
Regional Environmental Developments
NY NOx — On December 31, 2019, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation finalized a more stringent NOx regulation that will result in the retirement of the Company's combustion turbines in Astoria, New York in 2023.
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Ash Regulation in Illinois — On July 30, 2019, Illinois enacted legislation that requires the state to promulgate regulations regarding coal ash at surface impoundments. On March 30, 2020, the state released its proposed implementing regulations. The Company expects the state to promulgate the final implementing regulations in March 2021, at which time regulated entities will then prepare and submit permit applications.
Customers
NRG sells to a wide variety of customers, primarily end-use customers in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The Company owns and operates power plants to generate and sell power to wholesale customers, such as utilities and other intermediaries. The Company had no customer that comprised more than 10% of the Company's consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2020, NRG and its consolidated subsidiaries had 4,104 employees, approximately 23% of whom were covered by U.S. collective bargaining agreements. During 2020, the Company did not experience any labor stoppages or labor disputes at any of its facilities.
NRG believes its employees are vital to its success and is committed to offering employees a rewarding career that provides opportunities for growth and the ability to make valuable contributions toward the achievement of the Company’s business objectives. NRG focuses on safety, health and wellness, diversity and inclusion, talent development and total rewards for its employees.
Safety
Safety is embedded in the culture at NRG. The Company strives to begin each meeting with a safety moment and regularly reminds its employees that safety comes first. NRG has achieved its targeted top decile safety record of Occupational Safety and Health Administration recordable injury rates in each of the 5 previous years.
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Health and Wellness
For several years, NRG has invested in the well-being of its employees and their families. NRG provides programs that holistically support its employees’ physical, emotional and financial wellness, allowing employees the opportunity to take control of their well-being and focus on what matters most to them for a healthy, secure future.
During 2020, the Company evaluated its approach to health and well-being in light of the circumstances resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to COVID-19, NRG implemented additional programs to provide services to support the needs of employees, including those working from home, such as programs that provided back-up childcare, expanded access to telemedicine (for both physical and mental health), and supported mental and emotional well-being through programs such as mindfulness.
For a further discussion on the Company’s overall response to COVID-19, please see above in this Item 1 — Business under the caption COVID-19.
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Diversity and Inclusion
NRG is committed to diversity and inclusion as an integral part of the Company. In 2020, NRG completed a gender and race pay equity study to ensure that the Company's pay decisions were not influenced by gender, race, or other similar factors. The study showed equitable pay practices after accounting for education, experience, performance and location. NRG also conducted company-wide unconscious bias training to help all employees recognize, understand, and reduce implicit bias and offers various other related guides and tools to its employees and management.
Talent Development
NRG deploys various talent development strategies and programs with the goal of ensuring a pipeline of leadership who can execute on the Company’s strategy and drive value for all stakeholders. The Board of Directors regularly engages with management on leadership development and succession planning, including providing feedback on development plans and bench strength for key senior leader positions. The Board of Directors also has a structured program that allows directors to interact directly with individuals deeper within the organization whom management, through a robust talent assessment program, as well as mentoring relationships, has identified as high potential future leaders. The Company has a performance management tool that emphasizes a continuous feedback loop and a robust online training curriculum with topics including leadership, communication and productivity.
Total Rewards
NRG seeks to provide the median target of compensation and benefits, benchmarked against direct peers, industry, and, where appropriate, general peers. To ensure incentives are properly aligned with business needs and can attract and retain qualified employees, the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors actively reviews the Company's total rewards programs, including benchmarking programs against peer groups, assessing the risks of programs and evaluating the design of the annual and long-term incentive programs. The Company offers full-time employees incentives designed to motivate and reward success. NRG continues to evaluate its offerings taking into consideration the needs of its employees to ensure they are competitive and best serve its employees. Every two years, the Company engages an independent third party to benchmark its compensation and benefits programs against its peers and report the results to the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors.
For additional information and recent available data regarding the Company’s efforts and programs please see the Company’s 2020 Proxy Statement and 2019 Sustainability Report, which are available on the Company’s website at: www.nrg.com. Information included in these documents is not intended to be incorporated into this Form 10-K.
Available Information
NRG's annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge through the SEC's website, www.sec.gov, and through the Company's website, www.nrg.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The Company also routinely posts press releases, presentations, webcasts, sustainability reports and other information regarding the Company on the Company's website. The information posted on the Company's website is not a part of this report.









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Item 1A — Risk Factors
NRG's risk factors are grouped into the following categories: (i) Risks Related to Public Health Threats; (ii) Risks Related to the Acquisition of Direct Energy; (iii) Risks Related to the Operation of NRG's Business; (iv) Risks Related to Governmental Regulation and Laws; and (v) Risks Related to the Company's Indebtedness and Economic and Financial Market Conditions.
Risks Related to Public Health Threats
Public health threats or outbreaks of communicable diseases could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s operations and financial results.
The Company may face risks related to public health threats or outbreaks of communicable diseases. A widespread healthcare crisis, such as an outbreak of a communicable disease, could adversely affect the global economy and the Company’s ability to conduct its business for an indefinite period of time. For example, the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted local and global economies, disrupted financial markets and international trade, resulted in increased unemployment levels and impacted local and global supply chains, all of which negatively impact the electricity industry and the Company’s business. In addition, federal, state, and local governments have implemented various mitigation measures, including travel restrictions, border closings, restrictions on public gatherings, shelter-in-place orders and limitations on business activities. Although the operations of the Company are considered an essential service, some of these measures have adversely impacted the ability of NRG employees, contractors, suppliers, customers, and other business partners to conduct business activities. This could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, risk exposure and liquidity.
In particular, the continued spread of COVID-19 and efforts to contain the virus could:
adversely impact demand for the Company’s electricity services and other products and services and the ability of customers to pay their bills;
cause an increase in costs for the Company as a result of emergency measures taken by state and local regulatory authorities in response to the COVID-19 crisis, including regulatory changes prohibiting customer disconnects and late fees;
impact the ability of the Company's partners or counterparties to perform their obligations under existing arrangements, including development projects, power purchase and sale arrangements, hedging arrangements or other commercial activities; and
cause other unpredicted events which may have an adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, risk exposure and liquidity.
The situation surrounding COVID-19 remains fluid and the potential for a material impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, risk exposure and liquidity increases the longer the virus, or any variants thereof, impacts the level of economic activity in the United States and abroad. NRG cannot reasonably estimate with any degree of certainty the future impact of COVID-19, or any resurgence of COVID-19 or other pandemic may have on the Company’s results of operations, financial position, risk exposure and liquidity.
Risks Related to the Acquisition of Direct Energy
The acquisition of Direct Energy may not achieve its intended results.
Achieving the anticipated benefits of cost savings and operating efficiencies of the acquisition is subject to a number of uncertainties, including whether the businesses of NRG and Direct Energy are integrated in an efficient and effective manner. Failure to achieve these anticipated benefits could result in increased costs, lower-than-expected revenues or income generated by the combined company and diversion of management's time and energy, which could have an adverse effect on the Company's business, financial results and prospects.
The Company will be subject to business uncertainties related to Direct Energy that could adversely affect its financial results.
Uncertainty about the effects of the acquisition of Direct Energy on employees, customers and suppliers may have an adverse effect on NRG's business. Although the Company intends to take steps designed to reduce any adverse effects, these uncertainties may impair its ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel for a period of time, and could cause customers, suppliers and others that deal with it to seek to change existing business relationships.
Employee retention and recruitment may be particularly challenging, as employees and prospective employees may experience uncertainty about their future roles with the Company. If, despite the Company's retention and recruiting efforts, key employees depart or fail to accept employment with NRG because of issues relating to the uncertainty and difficulty of integration or a desire not to remain with NRG, the Company's financial results could be affected.
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The integration of NRG and Direct Energy may disrupt or have a negative impact on the Company’s business.
The acquisition of Direct Energy is complex, and the Company will devote significant time and resources to integrating its operations with the operations of NRG. NRG could have difficulty integrating the acquired assets and personnel of Direct Energy with its own. The integration of NRG and Direct Energy may place a significant burden on management and internal resources. The diversion of management attention away from ongoing business concerns and any difficulties encountered in the transition and integration process could affect the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition. Risks that could impact the Company negatively include:
the difficulty of managing and integrating Direct Energy and its operations;
the potential disruption of the ongoing businesses and distraction of management;
changes in our business focus and/or management;
difficulties in implementing and maintaining uniform processes, systems, standards, controls, procedures, practices, policies and compensation standards;
unanticipated issues in integrating information technology, communications, and other systems;
the possibility of faulty assumptions underlying expectations regarding the integration process;
the potential impairment of relationships with employees and partners as a result of any integration of new management personnel;
unforeseen expenses associated with the acquisition of Direct Energy, including delays to the integration of Direct Energy’s business as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the potential difficulty in managing an increased number of locations and employees;
the potential loss of valuable employees;
difficulty addressing any possible differences in corporate cultures and management philosophies;
unanticipated changes in federal or state laws or regulations; and
the effect of any government regulations which relate to the business acquired.
If the Company is not successful in addressing these risks effectively, the business could be impacted. Many of these factors will be outside of the Company’s control, and any one of them could result in delays, increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could materially affect NRG’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Risks Related to the Operation of NRG's Business
NRG's financial performance may be impacted by price fluctuations in the retail and wholesale power and natural gas markets, as well as fluctuations in coal and oil markets and other market factors that are beyond the Company's control.
Market prices for power, capacity, ancillary services, natural gas, coal and oil are unpredictable and tend to fluctuate substantially. Unlike most other commodities, electric power can only be stored on a very limited basis and generally must be produced concurrently with its use. As a result, power prices are subject to significant volatility due to supply and demand imbalances, especially in the day-ahead and spot markets. Long and short-term power and gas prices may also fluctuate substantially due to other factors outside of the Company's control, including:
changes in generation capacity in the Company’s markets, including the addition of new supplies of power as a result of the development of new plants, expansion of existing plants, the continued operation of uneconomic power plants due to state subsidies, or additional transmission capacity;
environmental regulations and legislation;
electric supply disruptions, including plant outages and transmission disruptions;
changes in power and gas transmission infrastructure;
fuel price volatility and transportation capacity constraints or inefficiencies;
changes in law, including judicial decisions;
weather conditions, including extreme weather conditions and seasonal fluctuations, including the effects of climate change;
changes in commodity prices and the supply of commodities, including but not limited to natural gas, coal and oil;
changes in the demand for power or gas, or in patterns of power or gas usage, including the potential development of demand-side management tools and practices, distributed generation, and more efficient end-use technologies;
development of new fuels, new technologies and new forms of competition for the production of power;
economic and political conditions;
federal, state and provincial power regulations and legislation, and regulations and actions of the ISO and RTOs;
changes in prices related to RECs; and
changes in capacity prices and capacity markets.
While retail rates are generally designed to allow retail sellers of electricity and natural gas to pass through price fluctuations and other changes to costs, the Company may not be able to pass through all such changes to customers. For example, serving retail power customers in ISOs that have a capacity market exposes the Company to the risk that capacity costs can change and may not be recoverable, or the Company may engage in sales of power at fixed prices. Additionally, increases in wholesale costs to retail customers may cause additional customer defaults or increased customer attrition, or may be limited by regulatory rules.
Further, low natural gas prices can cause natural gas to be the more cost-competitive fuel compared to coal for generating electricity. Because the Company enters into guaranteed supply contracts to provide for the amount of coal needed to operate its base load coal-fired generating facilities, the Company may experience periods where it holds excess amounts of coal if fuel pricing results in the Company reducing or idling coal-fired generating facilities. In addition, the Company may incur costs to terminate supply contracts for coal in excess of its generating requirements.
Such factors and the associated fluctuations in power prices have affected the Company's wholesale and retail profitability in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future.
Volatile power and gas supply costs and demand for power and gas could adversely affect the financial performance of NRG's retail operations.
NRG's retail power operations purchase a significant portion of their supply from third parties. All of the gas sold by the Company in retail and wholesale markets is purchased from third parties. As a result, financial performance depends on the ability to obtain adequate supplies of power and gas from third parties at prices below the prices it charges its customers. Consequently, the Company's earnings and cash flows could be adversely affected in any period in which the wholesale power or gas prices rise at a greater rate than the rates the Company can charge to customers. The price of wholesale electricity and gas supply purchases associated with the retail operations' energy commitments can be different than that reflected in the rates charged to customers due to, among other factors:
varying supply procurement contracts used and the timing of entering into related contracts;
subsequent changes in the overall price of natural gas;
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daily, monthly or seasonal fluctuations in the price of natural gas relative to the 12-month forward prices;
transmission and transportation constraints and the Company's ability to move power or gas to its customers; and
changes in market heat rate (i.e., the relationship between power and natural gas prices).
The Company's earnings and cash flows could also be adversely affected in any period in which its customers' actual usage of electricity or gas significantly varies from the forecasted usage, which could occur due to, among other factors, weather events, changes in usage patterns, competition and economic conditions.
Substantially all of NRG's businesses operates, wholly or partially, without long-term power sale agreements.
Many of NRG’s retail customers are contracted for a period of one year or less, and NRG may or may not hedge its retail power sales exposure, or may hedge in a manner that is not effective at managing quantity or price risk in the retail market. In addition, many of NRG’s generation facilities are exposed to market risk because they operate as "merchant" facilities without long-term power sales agreements for some or all of their generating capacity and output. Without the benefit of long-term power sales or purchase agreements, and without long-term load obligations, NRG cannot be sure that it will be able to sell or purchase power at commercially attractive rates or that its generation facilities will be able to operate profitably. This could lead to future impairments of the Company's property, plants and equipment, the closing of certain of its facilities or the loss of retail customers, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Competition may have a material adverse effect on NRG's results of operations, cash flows and the market value of its assets.
NRG has numerous competitors in all aspects of its business, and additional competitors may enter the industry. The Company's retail operations specifically face competition for customers. Competitors may offer different products, lower prices, and other incentives, which may attract customers away from the Company. In some retail electricity markets, the principal competitor may be the incumbent utility. The incumbent utility has the advantage of long-standing relationships with its customers and strong brand recognition. Furthermore, NRG may face competition from other energy service providers, other energy industry participants, or nationally branded providers of consumer products and services, who may develop businesses that will compete with NRG.
The Company’s plant operations face competition from newer or more efficient plants owned by competitors, which may put some of the Company's plants at a disadvantage to the extent these competitors are able to consume the same or less fuel as the Company's plant. Over time, the Company's plants may be unable to compete with these more efficient plants, which could result in retirements.
NRG’s competitors may have greater liquidity, greater access to credit and other financial resources, lower cost structures, more effective risk management policies and procedures, greater ability to incur losses, longer-standing relationships with customers, greater potential for profitability from retail sales or greater flexibility in the timing of their sale of generation capacity and ancillary services than NRG does. Competitors may also have better access to subsidies or other out-of-market payments that put NRG at a competitive disadvantage.
NRG's competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new laws or regulations or emerging technologies, or to devote greater resources to marketing of retail power than NRG can. In addition, current and potential competitors may make strategic acquisitions or establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties. Accordingly, it is possible that new competitors or alliances among current and new competitors may emerge and rapidly gain significant market share.
There can be no assurance that NRG will be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, and any failure to do so would have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
NRG's costs, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely impacted by disruption of its fuel supplies.
NRG relies on natural gas, coal and oil to fuel a majority of its power generation facilities. Grid operations depend on the continuing financial viability of contractual counterparties, as well as the infrastructure (including rail lines, rail cars, barge facilities, roadways, riverways and natural gas pipelines) available to serve generation facilities and to ensure that there is sufficient power produced to meet retail demand. As a result, the Company’s wholesale generation facilities are subject to the risks of disruptions or curtailments in the production of power at its generation facilities if no fuel is available at any price, if a counterparty fails to perform or if there is a disruption in the fuel delivery infrastructure.
NRG routinely hedges both its wholesale sales and purchases to support its retail load obligations. In order to hedge these obligations, the Company may enter into long-term and short-term contracts for the purchase and delivery of fuel. Many of the forward power sales contracts do not allow the Company to pass through changes in fuel costs or discharge the power sale obligations in the case of a disruption in fuel supply due to force majeure events or the default of a fuel supplier or transporter.
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Disruptions in the Company's fuel supplies or power supply arrangements may therefore require it to find alternative fuel sources at higher costs, to find other sources of power to deliver to retail customers or other counterparties at a higher cost, or to pay damages to counterparties for failure to deliver power or sell electricity or natural gas as contracted. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial performance.
NRG also buys significant quantities of electricity and fuel on a short-term or spot market basis. Prices sometimes rise or fall significantly over a relatively short period of time. The price NRG can obtain for the sale of energy may not rise at the same rate, or may not rise at all, to match a rise in fuel or delivery costs. Retail rates may also not rise at the same rate or may not rise at all. This may have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial performance.
NRG's plant operating characteristics and equipment, particularly at its coal-fired plants, often dictate the specific fuel quality to be combusted. The availability and price of specific fuel qualities may vary due to supplier financial or operational disruptions, transportation disruptions and force majeure. At times, coal of specific quality may not be available at any price or the Company may not be able to transport such coal to its facilities on a timely basis. In this case, the Company may not be able to run the coal facility even if it would be profitable. Operating a coal facility with different quality coal can lead to emission or operating problems. If the Company had sold forward the power from such a coal facility, it could be required to supply or purchase power from alternate sources, perhaps at a loss. This could have a material adverse impact on the financial results of specific plants and on the Company's results of operations.
There may be periods when NRG will not be able to meet its commitments under forward sale or purchase obligations at a reasonable cost or at all.
The Company may sell fixed price gas as a proxy for power. Because the obligations under most of the Company's forward sale agreements are not contingent on a unit being available to generate power, NRG is generally required to deliver power to the buyer, even in the event of a plant outage, fuel supply disruption or a reduction in the available capacity of the unit. To the extent that the Company does not have sufficient lower-cost capacity to meet its commitments under its forward sale obligations, the Company would be required to supply replacement power either by running its other, higher cost power plants or by obtaining power from third-party sources at market prices that could substantially exceed the contract price. If NRG fails to deliver the contracted power, it would be required to pay the difference between the market price at the delivery point and the contract price, and the amount of such payments could be substantial.
NRG's trading operations and use of hedging agreements could result in financial losses that negatively impact its results of operations, and NRG's hedging activities may increase the volatility in the Company's quarterly and annual financial results.
The Company typically enters into hedging agreements, including contracts to purchase or sell commodities at future dates and at fixed prices, to manage the commodity price risks inherent in its business. The Company’s risk management policies and hedging procedures may not mitigate risk as planned, and the Company may fail to fully or effectively hedge its commodity supply and price risk. In addition, these activities, although intended to mitigate price volatility, expose the Company to other risks. When the Company sells or buys power or gas forward, it gives up the opportunity to buy or sell at the future price, which not only may result in lost opportunity costs but also may require the Company to post significant amounts of cash collateral or other credit support to its counterparties. The Company also relies on counterparty performance under its hedging agreements and is exposed to the credit quality of its counterparties under those agreements. Further, if the values of the financial contracts change in a manner that the Company does not anticipate, or if a counterparty fails to perform under a contract, it could harm the Company's business, operating results or financial position.
NRG does not typically hedge the entire exposure of its operations against commodity price volatility. To the extent it does not hedge against commodity price volatility, the Company's results of operations and financial position may be improved or diminished based upon movement in commodity prices.
NRG may engage in trading activities, including the trading of power, fuel and emissions allowances that are not directly related to the operation of the Company's generation facilities or the management of related risks. These trading activities take place in volatile markets and some of these trades could be characterized as speculative. The Company would expect to settle these trades financially rather than through the production of power or the delivery of fuel. This trading activity may expose the Company to the risk of significant financial losses which could have a material adverse effect on its business and financial condition.
NRG generally attempts to balance its fixed-price physical and financial purchases and sales commitments in terms of contract volumes and the timing of performance and delivery obligations through the use of financial and physical derivative contracts. These derivatives are accounted for in accordance with the FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or ASC 815, which requires the Company to record all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value with changes in the fair value resulting from fluctuations in the underlying commodity prices immediately recognized in earnings, unless the derivative qualifies for
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cash flow hedge accounting treatment or a scope exception. As a result, the Company's quarterly and annual results are subject to significant fluctuations caused by changes in market prices.
NRG may not have sufficient liquidity to hedge market risks effectively.
The Company is exposed to market risks through its retail and wholesale operations, which involve the purchase of electricity and natural gas for resale, the sale of energy, capacity and related products, and the purchase and sale of fuel, transmission services and emission allowances. These market risks include, among other risks, volatility arising from location and timing differences that may be associated with buying and transporting fuel, converting fuel into energy and delivering energy to a buyer.
NRG undertakes these market activities through agreements with various counterparties. Many of the Company's agreements with counterparties include provisions that require the Company to provide guarantees, offset or netting arrangements, letters of credit, a first lien on assets and/or cash collateral to protect the counterparties against the risk of the Company's default or insolvency. The amount of such credit support that must be provided typically is based on the difference between the price of the commodity in a given contract and the market price of the commodity. Significant movements in market prices can result in the Company being required to provide cash collateral and letters of credit in very large amounts. The effectiveness of the Company's strategy may depend on the amount of collateral available to enter into or maintain these contracts, and liquidity requirements may be greater than the Company anticipates or will be able to meet. Without a sufficient amount of working capital to post as collateral in support of performance guarantees or as a cash margin, the Company may not be able to manage price volatility effectively or to implement its strategy. An increase in the amount of letters of credit or cash collateral required to be provided to the Company's counterparties may negatively affect the Company's liquidity and financial condition.
Further, if any of NRG's facilities experience unplanned outages or if retail customers use more power or gas than expected, the Company may be required to procure additional power or gas at spot market prices to fulfill contractual commitments. Without adequate liquidity to meet margin and collateral requirements, the Company may be exposed to significant losses, may miss significant opportunities, and may have increased exposure to the volatility of spot markets.
Operation of power generation facilities involves significant risks and hazards customary to the power industry that could have a material adverse effect on NRG's revenues and results of operations, and NRG may not have adequate insurance to cover these risks and hazards.
The ongoing operation of NRG's facilities involves risks that include the breakdown or failure of equipment or processes, performance below expected levels of output or efficiency and the inability to transport the Company's product to its customers in an efficient manner due to a lack of transmission capacity. Unplanned outages of generating units, including extensions of scheduled outages due to mechanical failures or other problems occur from time to time and are an inherent risk of the Company's business. Unplanned outages typically increase the Company's operation and maintenance expenses and may reduce the Company's revenues as a result of selling fewer MWh or non-performance penalties or require NRG to incur significant costs as a result of running one of its higher cost units or obtaining replacement power from third parties in the open market to satisfy the Company's forward power sales obligations. NRG's inability to operate the Company's plants efficiently, manage capital expenditures and costs, and generate earnings and cash flow from the Company's asset-based businesses could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
In addition, NRG provides plant operations and commercial services to a variety of third-parties. There is a risk that mistakes, mis-operations, or actions taken by these third-parties could be attributed to NRG, including the risk of investigation or penalties being assessed to NRG in connection with the services it offers, or that regulators could question whether NRG had the appropriate safeguards in place.
Power generation involves hazardous activities, including acquiring, transporting and unloading fuel, operating large pieces of rotating equipment and delivering electricity to transmission and distribution systems. In addition to natural risks such as earthquake, flood, lightning, hurricane and wind, other hazards, such as fire, explosion, structural collapse and machinery failure are inherent risks in the Company's operations. These and other hazards can cause significant personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property, plant and equipment, contamination of, or damage to, the environment and suspension of operations. The occurrence of any one of these events may result in NRG being named as a defendant in lawsuits asserting claims for substantial damages, including for environmental cleanup costs, personal injury and property damage and fines and/or penalties.
NRG maintains an amount of insurance protection that it considers adequate, obtains warranties from vendors and obligates contractors to meet certain performance levels, but the Company cannot provide any assurance that these measures will be sufficient or effective under all circumstances and against all hazards or liabilities to which it may be subject. A successful claim for which the Company is not fully insured or protected could hurt its financial results and materially harm NRG's financial condition. NRG cannot provide any assurance that its insurance coverage will continue to be available at all or
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at rates or on terms similar to those presently available. Any losses not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Maintenance, expansion and refurbishment of power generation facilities involve significant risks that could result in unplanned power outages or reduced output and could have a material adverse effect on NRG's results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Many of NRG's facilities require periodic maintenance and repair. Any unexpected failure, including failure associated with breakdowns, forced outages or any unanticipated capital expenditures could result in reduced profitability.
NRG cannot be certain of the level of capital expenditures that will be required due to changing environmental and safety laws (including changes in the interpretation or enforcement thereof) needed facility repairs and unexpected events (such as natural disasters or terrorist attacks). The unexpected requirement of large capital expenditures could have a material adverse effect on the Company's liquidity and financial condition.
NRG and its subsidiaries have guaranteed the performance of third parties, which may result in substantial costs in the event of non-performance.
NRG and its subsidiaries have issued certain guarantees of the performance of others, which obligate NRG and its subsidiaries to perform in the event that the third parties do not perform. In the event of non-performance by the third parties, NRG could incur substantial cost to fulfill their obligations under these guarantees. Such performance guarantees could have a material impact on the operating results, financial condition, or cash flows of the Company.
Supplier and/or customer concentration may expose the Company to significant financial credit or performance risks.
NRG often relies on a single contracted supplier or a small number of suppliers for the provision of fuel, transportation of fuel, chemicals and other services required for the operation of certain of its facilities. If these suppliers cannot perform, the Company utilizes the marketplace to provide these services. There can be no assurance that the marketplace can provide these services as, when and where required or at comparable prices.
At times, NRG may rely on a single customer or a few customers to purchase all or a significant portion of a facility's output, in some cases under long-term agreements that account for a substantial percentage of the anticipated revenue from a given facility. In many cases for renewable generation, these purchases are specific to a facility, which at times may be in the early stages of development. The Company may also hedge a portion of its exposure to power and fuel price fluctuations through various physical or financial agreements with counterparties. Counterparties to these agreements may breach or may be unable to perform their obligations, and in case of renewable generation, such counterparties may be subject to additional risks, such as facility development and transmission risks, unfavorable weather and atmospheric conditions, and mechanical or operational failures. NRG may not be able to enter into replacement agreements on terms as favorable as its existing agreements, or at all. If the Company was unable to enter into replacement PPAs, the Company would sell its plants' power at market prices. If the Company is unable to enter into replacement fuel or fuel transportation purchase agreements or other replacement hedging agreements, the Company would be exposed to market price volatility and the risk that fuel and transportation may not be available during certain periods at any price.
The failure of any supplier or customer to fulfill its contractual obligations to NRG could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial results. Consequently, the financial performance of the Company's facilities is dependent on the credit quality of, and continued performance by, suppliers and customers.
NRG relies on power transmission and distribution facilities that it does not own or control and that are subject to transmission constraints within a number of the Company's core regions.
NRG depends on transmission and distribution facilities owned and operated by others to deliver power to its customers. If transmission or distribution is disrupted, including by force majeure events, or if the transmission or distribution infrastructure is inadequate, NRG's ability to deliver power may be adversely impacted. The Company also cannot predict whether transmission or distribution facilities will be expanded in specific markets to accommodate competitive access to those markets.
In addition, in certain of the markets in which NRG operates, energy transmission congestion may occur and the Company may be deemed responsible for congestion costs associated with power sales or purchases, or retail sales, particularly where the Company’s load is not co-located with its retail sales obligations. If NRG were liable for such congestion costs, the Company's financial results could be adversely affected.
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NRG relies on storage, transportation assets and suppliers, which they do not own or control, to deliver natural gas.
The Company depends on natural gas pipelines and other transportation and storage facilities owned and operated by third parties to deliver natural gas to wholesale and retail markets and to provide retail energy services to customers. The Company's ability to provide natural gas for its present and projected sales will depend upon its suppliers' ability to obtain and deliver supplies of natural gas, as well as NRG's ability to acquire supplies directly from new sources. Factors beyond the control of the Company and its suppliers may affect the Company's ability to deliver such supplies. These factors include other parties' control over the drilling of new wells and the facilities to transport natural gas to the Company's receipt points, development of additional interstate pipeline infrastructure, availability of supply sources competition for the acquisition of natural gas, priority allocations, impact of severe weather disruptions to natural gas supplies and the regulatory and pricing policies of federal and state regulatory agencies, as well as the availability of Canadian reserves for export to the U.S. Energy deregulation legislation may increase competition among natural gas utilities and impact the quantities of natural gas requirements needed for sales service. If supply, transportation or storage is disrupted, including for reasons of force majeure, the ability of the Company to sell and deliver its products and services may be hindered. As a result, the Company may be responsible for damages incurred by its customers, such as the additional cost of acquiring alternative supply at then-current market rates. These conditions could have a material impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Rates and terms for service of certain residential and commercial customers in Alberta are subject to regulatory review and approval.
As a result of the acquisition of Direct Energy, the Company owns Direct Energy Regulated Services, which serves as a regulated rate supplier for residential and commercial energy customers in portions of the province of Alberta. It is required to engage in regulatory approval proceedings as a part of the process of establishing the terms and rates for sales of power and natural gas. These proceedings typically involve multiple parties, including governmental bodies and officials, consumer advocacy groups and various consumers of energy, who have differing concerns but who have the common objective of limiting rate increases or even reducing rates. Decisions are subject to appeal, potentially leading to additional uncertainty associated with the approval proceedings. The potential duration of such proceedings creates a risk that rates ultimately approved by the applicable regulatory body may not be sufficient for the Company to recover its costs by the time the rates become effective. Established rates are also subject to subsequent reviews by regulators, whereby various portions of rates could be adjusted, subject to refund or disallowed. In certain instances, the Company could agree to negotiated settlements related to various rate matters and other cost recovery elements. These settlements are subject to regulatory approval. The ultimate outcome and timing of regulatory rate proceedings have a significant effect on the Company to recover its costs or earn an adequate return. In addition, subsequent legislative or regulatory action could alter the terms on which the regulated business operates and future earnings could be negatively impacted. The Company also operates a competitive energy supply business in Alberta that is not subject to rate regulation and is subject to stringent requirements to segregate operations and information relating to the competitive business from the regulated business. Failure to comply with these and other requirements on the business could subject the Company's regulated and competitive businesses in Alberta to fines, penalties, and restrictions on the ability to continue business.
Because NRG owns less than a majority of the ownership interests of some of its project investments, the Company cannot exercise complete control over their operations.
NRG has limited control over the operation of some project investments and joint ventures because the Company's investments are in projects where it beneficially owns less than a majority of the ownership interests. NRG seeks to exert a degree of influence with respect to the management and operation of projects in which it owns less than a majority of the ownership interests by negotiating to obtain positions on management committees or to receive certain limited governance rights, such as rights to veto significant actions. However, the Company may not always succeed in such negotiations. NRG may be dependent on its co-venturers to operate such projects. The Company's co-venturers may not have the level of experience, technical expertise, human resources management or other attributes necessary to operate these projects optimally. The approval of co-venturers also may be required for NRG to receive distributions of funds from projects or to transfer the Company's interest in projects.