Beneficial ownership reports
If your company has registered a class of its equity securities under the Exchange Act, shareholders who acquire more than 5% of the outstanding shares of that class must file beneficial owner reports on Schedule 13D or 13G until their holdings drop below 5%. These filings contain background information about the shareholders who file them as well as their investment intentions, providing investors and the company with information about accumulations of securities that may potentially change or influence company management and policies.
Transaction reporting by officers, directors and 10% shareholders
Section 16 of the Exchange Act applies to an SEC reporting company's directors and officers, as well as shareholders who own more than 10% of a class of the company's equity securities registered under the Exchange Act. The rules under Section 16 require these “insiders” to report most of their transactions involving the company's equity securities to the SEC within two business days on Forms 3, 4 or 5.
Section 16 also establishes mechanisms for a company to recover "short swing" profits, or profits an insider realizes from a purchase and sale of the company’s security that occur within a six-month period. In addition, Section 16 prohibits short selling by insiders of any class of the company's securities, whether or not that class is registered under the Exchange Act.
Loans to directors and officers
Section 13(k) of the Exchange Act prohibits SEC reporting companies from making personal loans to their directors and officers. Loans made in the ordinary course of business at market rates by issuers that are financial institutions or in the business of consumer lending are excepted from the prohibition.