10-K 1 lnc2011form10k.htm LEUCADIA NATIONAL CORPORATION 2011 FORM 10-K lnc2011form10k.htm



SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
______________________
FORM 10-K

[x]
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011
or
[_]
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from ___________ to ___________
Commission file number:  1-5721
 
LEUCADIA NATIONAL CORPORATION
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

New York
13-2615557
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

315 Park Avenue South
New York, New York  10010
(212) 460-1900
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Shares, par value $1 per share
New York Stock Exchange
7-3/4% Senior Notes due August 15, 2013
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
(Title of Class)
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  [x]   No  [  ]

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes  [  ]   No  [x]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  [x]   No  [  ]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  [x]   No  [  ]

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statement incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   [x]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer,” and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer  o
Smaller reporting company o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes  [  ]   No  [x]

Aggregate market value of the voting stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant at June 30, 2011 (computed by reference to the last reported closing sale price of the Common Shares on the New York Stock Exchange on such date):  $6,776,967,000.

On February 16, 2012, the registrant had outstanding 244,582,588 Common Shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
 
Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in connection with the 2012 annual meeting of shareholders of the registrant are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.

 
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PART I
 
Item 1.  Business.
 
The Company
 

 
The Company is a diversified holding company engaged through its consolidated subsidiaries in a variety of businesses, including beef processing, manufacturing, land based contract oil and gas drilling, gaming entertainment, real estate activities, medical product development and winery operations.  The Company also has a significant investment in the common stock of Jefferies Group, Inc. (“Jefferies”), a full-service investment bank and Mueller Industries, Inc. (“Mueller”), a leading manufacturer of copper, brass, plastic, and aluminum products, both of which are accounted for at fair value.  The Company owns equity interests in operating businesses which are accounted for under the equity method of accounting, including a broker-dealer engaged in making markets and trading of high yield and special situation securities and a commercial mortgage origination and servicing business.  The Company concentrates on return on investment and cash flow to maximize long-term shareholder value.  Additionally, the Company continuously evaluates the retention and disposition of its existing operations and investigates possible acquisitions of new businesses.  Changes in the mix of the Company’s businesses and investments should be expected.

Shareholders’ equity has grown from a deficit of $7,657,000 at December 31, 1978 (prior to the acquisition of a controlling interest in the Company by the Company’s Chairman and President), to a positive shareholders’ equity of $6,174,396,000 at December 31, 2011, equal to a book value per common share of the Company (a “common share”) of negative $.04 at December 31, 1978 and $25.24 at December 31, 2011.  Shareholders’ equity and book value per share amounts have been reduced by the $811,925,000 special cash dividend paid in 1999.

In December 2011, the Company acquired 78.9% of National Beef Packing Company, LLC (“National Beef”) for aggregate net cash consideration of $867,869,000.  National Beef processes, packages and delivers fresh and frozen beef and beef by-products for sale to customers in the U.S. and international markets.

The Company’s manufacturing operations are conducted through Idaho Timber, LLC (“Idaho Timber”) and Conwed Plastics, LLC (“Conwed Plastics”).  Idaho Timber is headquartered in Boise, Idaho and primarily remanufactures dimension lumber and remanufactures, packages and/or produces other specialized wood products.  Conwed Plastics manufactures and markets lightweight plastic netting used for a variety of purposes including, among other things, building and construction, erosion control, packaging, agricultural, carpet padding, filtration and consumer products.

The Company’s land based contract oil and gas drilling operations are conducted by Keen Energy Services, LLC (“Keen”).  Keen became a consolidated subsidiary when the Company acquired the remaining equity interests it did not previously own in November 2009.

The Company’s gaming entertainment operations are conducted through Premier Entertainment Biloxi LLC (“Premier”), which is the owner of the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Biloxi (“Hard Rock Biloxi”), located in Biloxi, Mississippi.

The Company’s domestic real estate operations include a mixture of commercial properties, residential land development projects and other unimproved land.

 
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The Company’s medical product development operations are conducted through Sangart, Inc. (“Sangart”).  Sangart is developing a product called MP4OX, which is a solution of cell-free hemoglobin administered intravenously to provide rapid oxygen delivery to oxygen deprived tissues.

The Company’s winery operations consist of Pine Ridge Vineyards in Napa Valley, California, Archery Summit in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, Chamisal Vineyards in the Edna Valley of California, Seghesio Family Vineyards in the Alexander and Russian River Valleys of California and a vineyard development project in the Columbia Valley of Washington.  The wineries primarily produce and sell wines in the premium, ultra premium and luxury segments of the premium table wine market.

The Company owns approximately 28.2% of the outstanding common shares of Jefferies, a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) (Symbol: JEF).  Jefferies is a full-service global investment bank and institutional securities firm serving companies and their investors.

During 2011, the Company acquired approximately 27.3% of the outstanding common shares of Mueller, a company listed on the NYSE (Symbol: MLI), for aggregate cash consideration of $408,558,000.  Mueller is a leading manufacturer of copper, brass, plastic, and aluminum products.

The Company owns an equity investment in Jefferies High Yield Holdings, LLC (“JHYH”).  Through its wholly-owned subsidiary, JHYH makes markets in high yield and special situation securities and provides research coverage on these types of securities.

The Company owns a 50% equity interest in Berkadia Commercial Mortgage LLC (“Berkadia”), a joint venture with Berkshire Hathaway Inc. (“Berkshire Hathaway”).  Berkadia is engaged in the commercial mortgage origination and servicing business.

In August 2006, pursuant to a subscription agreement with Fortescue Metals Group Ltd (“Fortescue”) and its subsidiary, FMG Chichester Pty Ltd (“FMG”), the Company invested in Fortescue’s Pilbara iron ore and infrastructure project in Western Australia.  Fortescue is a publicly traded company on the Australian Stock Exchange (Symbol:  FMG).  At December 31, 2011, the Company owned 130,586,000 common shares of Fortescue; however, the Company sold 100,000,000 Fortescue common shares for net cash proceeds of $506,490,000 in January 2012.  The Company also owns a $100,000,000 unsecured note of FMG that matures in August 2019 (the “FMG Note”); interest on the FMG Note is calculated as 4% of the revenue, net of government royalties, invoiced from the iron ore produced from two specified project areas.  As further described below, the Company is currently engaged in litigation with Fortescue concerning Fortescue’s assertion that it has the ability to dilute the interest payable to the Company by issuing additional notes identical to the Company’s note.

The Company and certain of its subsidiaries have federal income tax net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) of approximately $4,738,150,000 at December 31, 2011.  For more information see Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

As used herein, the term “Company” refers to Leucadia National Corporation, a New York corporation organized in 1968, and its subsidiaries, except as the context otherwise may require.

Investor Information

The Company is subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).  Accordingly, the Company files periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).  Such reports, proxy statements and other information may be obtained by visiting the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549 or by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.  In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding the Company and other issuers that file electronically.  Material filed by the Company can also be inspected at the offices of the NYSE, 20 Broad Street, New York, NY 10005, on which the Company’s common shares are listed.

 
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The Company’s website address is www.leucadia.com.  The Company makes available, without charge through its website, copies of its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC.

Cautionary Statement for Forward-Looking Information

Statements included in this Report may contain forward-looking statements.  Such statements may relate, but are not limited, to projections of revenues, income or loss, development expenditures, plans for growth and future operations, competition and regulation, as well as assumptions relating to the foregoing.  Such forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe-harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which cannot be predicted or quantified.  When used in this Report, the words “will,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “plans,” “intends” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.  Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by or underlying the forward-looking statements.

Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from any results projected, forecasted, estimated or budgeted or may materially and adversely affect the Company’s actual results include, but are not limited to, those set forth in Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Report and in the Company’s other public filings with the SEC.

Undue reliance should not be placed on these forward-looking statements, which are applicable only as of the date hereof.  The Company undertakes no obligation to revise or update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date of this Report or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

Financial Information about Segments

The Company’s reportable segments consist of the consolidated operating units identified above, which offer different products and services and are managed separately.  Other operations primarily consist of the Company’s wineries and energy projects.

Associated companies include equity interests in other entities that the Company accounts for under the equity method of accounting.  Investments in associated companies that are accounted for under the equity method of accounting include HomeFed Corporation (“HomeFed”), a corporation engaged in real estate activities, Linkem S.p.A. (“Linkem”), a wireless broadband services provider in Italy, JHYH, Berkadia and Garcadia, a joint venture that owns automobile dealerships.  Associated companies also include the Company’s investments in Jefferies and Mueller which are accounted for at fair value rather than under the equity method of accounting.

Corporate assets primarily consist of the deferred tax asset, investments and cash and cash equivalents and corporate revenues primarily consist of investment and other income and securities gains and losses.  Corporate assets include the Company’s investment in Fortescue and in the common shares of Inmet Mining Corporation (“Inmet”), a Canadian-based global mining company.  Corporate assets, revenues, overhead expenses and interest expense are not allocated to the operating units.

 
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Conwed Plastics has a manufacturing and sales facility located in Belgium, National Beef has sales offices in and exports its products to various countries and the Company owns a small Caribbean-based telecommunications provider; these are the only foreign operations with non-U.S. revenue or assets that the Company consolidates.  Unconsolidated non-U.S. based investments include the investments in Fortescue, Inmet and Linkem.

Certain information concerning the Company’s segments is presented in the following table.  Consolidated subsidiaries are reflected as of the date a majority controlling interest was acquired, which was November 2009 for Keen and December 30, 2011 for National Beef.  Since National Beef’s operating activities subsequent to the acquisition during 2011 were not significant they have not been included in the Company’s 2011 consolidated statement of operations.  Associated Companies are not considered to be a reportable segment, but are reflected in the table below under income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and identifiable assets employed.

 
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2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Revenues and other income (a):
                 
Manufacturing:
                 
  Idaho Timber
  $ 159,026     $ 172,908     $ 142,709  
  Conwed Plastics
    85,961       87,073       82,094  
Oil and Gas Drilling Services (b)
    136,146       116,560       60,459  
Gaming Entertainment
    117,238       114,809       103,583  
Domestic Real Estate
    96,501       17,075       30,637  
Medical Product Development
    378       123       5,147  
Other Operations (c)
    69,038       67,119       51,764  
Corporate (d)
    906,480       744,337       98,815  
Total consolidated revenues and other income
  $ 1,570,768     $ 1,320,004     $ 575,208  
                         
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes:
                       
Manufacturing:
                       
  Idaho Timber
  $ (3,787 )   $ 547     $ (12,680 )
  Conwed Plastics
    5,916       8,803       11,578  
Oil and Gas Drilling Services (b)
    3,533       (13,937 )     46,738  
Gaming Entertainment
    12,616       (2,159 )     2,379  
Domestic Real Estate
    80,919       (54,935 )     (71,298 )
Medical Product Development
    (42,696 )     (25,443 )     (23,818 )
Other Operations (c)
    (24,374 )     (17,487 )     (26,434 )
Income (loss) related to Associated Companies
    (612,362 )     375,021       805,803  
Corporate (d)
    648,861       473,614       (167,619 )
Total consolidated income from continuing
                       
  operations before income taxes
  $ 68,626     $ 744,024     $ 564,649  
                         
Depreciation and amortization expenses:
                       
Manufacturing: (e)
                       
  Idaho Timber
  $ 5,299     $ 6,131     $ 8,631  
  Conwed Plastics
    6,509       9,068       8,476  
Oil and Gas Drilling Services
    21,051       25,447       3,103  
Gaming Entertainment
    16,785       16,657       16,532  
Domestic Real Estate
    3,461       6,163       8,408  
Medical Product Development
    845       870       836  
Other Operations (e)
    9,922       7,183       8,125  
Corporate
    23,296       20,979       18,441  
Total consolidated depreciation and amortization expenses
  $ 87,168     $ 92,498     $ 72,552  
                         
Identifiable assets employed:
                       
Beef Processing
  $ 1,786,855     $     $  
Manufacturing:
                       
  Idaho Timber
    71,859       84,436       94,211  
  Conwed Plastics
    56,539       60,822       67,940  
Oil and Gas Drilling Services
    224,563       237,212       257,086  
Gaming Entertainment
    243,888       253,221       266,951  
Domestic Real Estate
    254,885       255,027       311,571  
Medical Product Development
    27,893       16,950       26,702  
Other Operations
    226,306       167,535       158,326  
Investments in Associated Companies
    1,991,795       2,274,163       2,764,885  
Corporate
    4,378,606       6,000,932       2,652,422  
Assets of discontinued operations
    –        –        162,270  
Total consolidated assets
  $ 9,263,189     $ 9,350,298     $ 6,762,364  

 
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(a)
Revenues and other income for each segment include amounts for services rendered and products sold, as well as segment reported amounts classified as investment and other income and net securities gains (losses) in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
 
(b)
Investment and other income for oil and gas drilling services includes a bargain purchase gain of $49,345,000 in 2009.  For more information see Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
(c)
Other operations include pre-tax losses of $28,598,000, $16,076,000 and $25,324,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, for the investigation and evaluation of various energy related projects.  There were no significant operating revenues or identifiable assets associated with these activities in any period; however, other income includes $5,366,000 and $11,143,000 in 2011 and 2010, respectively, with respect to government grants to reimburse the Company for certain of its prior expenditures, which were fully expensed as incurred.
 
(d)
Net securities gains (losses) for Corporate aggregated $641,480,000, $179,494,000 and $(21,106,000) during 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  Corporate net securities gains (losses) are net of impairment charges of $3,586,000, $2,474,000 and $31,420,000 during 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  In 2011, security gains included gains of $628,197,000 from the sale of certain of the Company’s common shares of Fortescue.  In 2010, security gains include a gain of $66,200,000 from the sale of the Company’s investment in Light and Power Holdings, Ltd. (“LPH”), the parent company of the principal electric utility in Barbados, and a gain of $94,918,000 from the sale of certain of the Company’s common shares of Fortescue.  Corporate investment and other income includes the gain on sale of the Company’s remaining interest in the Cobre Las Cruces copper mining project (“Las Cruces”) to Inmet of $383,369,000 in 2010.
 
(e)
Includes amounts classified as cost of sales.
 
(f)
For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, interest expense was primarily comprised of Corporate; interest expense for other segments was not significant.

At December 31, 2011, the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries had 11,711 full-time employees.
 
Beef Processing
 
Business Description
 
    The Company acquired 78.9% of National Beef for aggregate net cash consideration of $867,869,000 on December 30, 2011.  National Beef, headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri, is one of the largest beef processing companies in the U.S., accounting for approximately 14% of the federally inspected steer and heifer slaughter during 2011, as reported by the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”).   National Beef processes, packages and delivers fresh and frozen beef and beef by-products for sale to customers in the U.S. and international markets.  National Beef’s products include boxed beef, ground beef, hides, tallow, and other beef and beef by-products.
 
Beef production, from the birth of the animal through the delivery of beef products to the customer, is comprised of two primary segments, production and processing.  The production segment raises cattle for slaughter and the processing segment slaughters cattle and packages beef for delivery to customers.  The production segment bears the cost of feeding the cattle to the appropriate market weights and has direct financial exposure to the volatility in grain and other input costs.  Beef processors like National Beef are primarily “spread” operators, earning margin between the selling price for their products and the cost of procuring and processing the cattle.
 

 
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    Approximately 90% of National Beef’s revenues are generated from the sale of fresh meat either as a boxed beef product or a case-ready product.  In addition, National Beef sells beef by-products to the variety meat, feed processing, fertilizer and pet food industries.  National Beef also owns 75% of Kansas City Steak Company, LLC (“Kansas City Steak”), which sells portioned beef and other products to customers in the food service and retail channels as well as direct to consumers through the internet and direct mail.
 
    National Beef operates a wet blue tanning facility that sells processed hides to tanners that produce finished leather for the automotive, luxury goods, apparel and furniture industries.  Wet blue tanning refers to the first step in processing raw and brine-cured hides into tanned leather.  National Beef also owns a refrigerated and livestock transportation company that provides transportation services for National Beef and third parties.
 
    The seasonal demand for beef products is generally highest in the spring and summer months.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
    The sales office for National Beef’s domestic operations is responsible for selling and coordinating the movement of approximately 50 million pounds per week of boxed beef products to customers.  National Beef markets its products to national and regional retailers, including supermarket chains, independent grocers, club stores, wholesalers and distributors, food service providers and distributors, further processors and the United States military.  National Beef exports products to more than 30 countries; export sales currently represent approximately 12% of annual revenues.  In 2011, Wal-Mart and its affiliate, Sam’s Club, represented approximately 9% of National Beef’s revenues, and its top 10 customers accounted for approximately 30% of revenues.  Wal-Mart purchases a substantial portion of National Beef’s case-ready products.
 
National Beef emphasizes the sale of higher-margin, value-added products, which include branded boxed beef, case-ready beef, portion control beef and further processed hides.  National Beef believes its value-added products can command higher prices than commodity products because of National Beef’s ability to consistently meet product specifications, based on quality, trim, weight, size, breed or other factors, tailored to the needs of its customers.  In addition to the value-added brands that National Beef owns, National Beef licenses the use of Certified Angus Beef®, a registered trademark of Certified Angus Beef LLC, and Certified Hereford Beef®, a registered trademark of Certified Hereford Beef LLC.

Raw Materials and Procurement
 
The primary raw material for the processing plants is live cattle. The domestic beef industry is characterized by cattle prices that change daily based on seasonal consumption patterns, overall supply and demand for beef and other proteins, cattle inventory levels, weather and other factors.

National Beef has entered into a cattle supply agreement with U.S. Premium Beef, LLC (“USPB”), the current owner of a 15% interest in National Beef that sold a substantial portion of its ownership interest to the Company.  National Beef has agreed to purchase through USPB from the members of USPB 735,385 head of cattle per year (subject to adjustment), based on pricing grids furnished by National Beef to the members of USPB.  National Beef believes the pricing grids are based on terms that could be obtained from an unaffiliated party.  The cattle supply agreement is for an initial five year term, with automatic one year extensions on each annual anniversary date of the Company’s acquisition of National Beef, unless either party provides a notice not to extend sixty days prior to the annual anniversary date.  During its most recent fiscal year, National Beef purchased approximately 20% of the total cattle it processed from USPB members pursuant to a previous cattle supply agreement.  National Beef also purchased additional cattle from certain USPB members outside of the cattle supply agreement.
 

 
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Cattle are also purchased through cash bids and other arrangements from cattle producers in primary and secondary markets.  National Beef purchases cattle from nearly 1,000 suppliers annually.

Processing Facilities

National Beef owns three beef processing facilities located in Liberal, Kansas, Dodge City, Kansas, and Brawley, California.  The Liberal and Dodge City facilities can each process approximately 6,000 cattle per day, and the Brawley facility approximately 2,000 cattle per day.  National Beef owns case-ready facilities in Hummels Wharf, Pennsylvania (approximately 79,000 square feet) and Moultrie, Georgia (approximately 114,000 square feet), and the wet blue tanning facility in St. Joseph, Missouri (approximately 221,000 square feet).  The Kansas City Steak processing facility is located in Kansas City, Kansas (approximately 63,000 square feet).
 
Competition
 
The beef processing industry is highly competitive.  Competition exists both in the purchase of live cattle, as well as in the sale of beef products.  Beef products compete with other protein sources, including pork and poultry, but National Beef’s principal competition comes from other beef processors.  National Beef believes the principal competitive factors in the beef processing industry are price, quality, food safety, customer service, product distribution, technological innovations (such as food safety interventions and packaging technologies) and brand loyalty.  Some of National Beef’s competitors have substantially larger beef operations, greater financial and other resources and wider brand recognition for their products.
 
Regulation and Environmental
 
National Beef’s operations are subject to extensive regulation by the USDA including its Food Safety and Inspection Service (“FSIS”) and its Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (“GIPSA”), the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and other state, local and foreign authorities regarding the processing, packaging, storage, safety, distribution, advertising and labeling of its products.
 
National Beef’s domestic operations are subject to the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921 (“PSA”).  Among other things, this statute generally requires National Beef to make full payment for livestock purchases not later than the close of business the day after the purchase and transfer of possession or determination of the purchase price.  Under the PSA, National Beef must hold in trust for the benefit of unpaid livestock suppliers all livestock purchased until the sellers have received full payment.  At December 31, 2011, National Beef has obtained from an insurance company a surety bond in the amount of $40,900,000 to satisfy these requirements.
 
    The Dodge City and Liberal facilities are subject to Title V permitting pursuant to the federal Clean Air Act and the Kansas Air Quality Act.  The Liberal permit expired on January 25, 2010, but has been administratively extended pending renewal by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment.  The Brawley and St. Joseph facilities are subject to secondary air permits which are in place.  The Dodge City, Liberal, Hummels Wharf, Moultrie and Brawley facilities are subject to Clean Air Act Risk Management Plan requirements relating to the use of ammonia as a refrigerant.
 
All of National Beef’s plants are indirect dischargers of wastewater to publicly owned treatment works and are subject to requirements under the federal Clean Water Act, state and municipal laws, as well as agreements or permits with municipal or county authorities.  Upon renewal of these agreements and permits, National Beef is from time to time required to make capital expenditures to upgrade or expand wastewater treatment facilities to address new and more stringent discharge requirements imposed at the time of renewal.  Storm water discharges from National Beef’s plants are also regulated by state and local authorities.

 
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All of National Beef’s facilities generate solid wastestreams including small quantities of hazardous wastes.  National Beef is subject to laws that provide for strict, and in certain circumstances joint and several, liability for remediation of hazardous substances at contaminated sites; however, National Beef has not received any demands that it has any liability at sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“Superfund”) or state counterparts.  All plants are subject to community right to know reporting requirements under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, which requires yearly filings as to the substances used on facility premises.
 
Employees
 
National Beef has approximately 9,400 employees, of which approximately 4,000 are currently represented by collective bargaining agreements.  Approximately 2,800 employees at the Liberal plant are represented by the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union under a collective bargaining agreement scheduled to expire in December 2012.  Approximately 1,100 employees at the Brawley plant are jointly represented by the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union and the Teamsters International Union under a collective bargaining agreement scheduled to expire in December 2013.  Approximately 100 employees at the St. Joseph plant are represented by the United Cereal Workers of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union under a collective bargaining agreement scheduled to expire in May 2014. 

The employees at the Dodge City plant voted in favor of union representation by the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union in November 2011.  The union has been certified as the representative of a bargaining unit of approximately 2,600 employees in production and maintenance, shipping and receiving, grounds keeping and the warehouse.

Manufacturing
Idaho Timber

Business Description

Idaho Timber, which was acquired in May 2005, is headquartered in Boise, Idaho and is engaged in the manufacture and/or distribution of various wood products.  Idaho Timber’s principal product lines include remanufacturing dimension lumber; remanufacturing, bundling and bar coding of home center boards for large retailers; and production of 5/4” radius-edge, pine decking.  The net book value of the Company’s investment in Idaho Timber was $64,725,000 at December 31, 2011.

Remanufactured dimension lumber is Idaho Timber’s largest product line.  Dimension lumber is used for general construction and home improvement, remodeling and repair projects, the demand for which is normally a function of housing starts and home size.  All dimension lumber is assigned a quality grade, based on the imperfections in the wood, and higher-grade lumber is sold at a higher price than lower-grade lumber.  Idaho Timber purchases low-grade dimension lumber from sawmills located in North America and Europe and upgrades it into higher-grade dimension lumber products.  The remanufacturing process includes ripping, trimming and planing lumber to reduce imperfections and produce a variety of lumber sizes.  These products are produced at plants located in Florida, North Carolina, Texas, Idaho and New Mexico.

Home center board products are principally sold to large home improvement retailers.  Idaho Timber purchases high-grade boards from sawmills, performs minor re-work on those boards to upgrade the quality, and then packages and bar codes those boards according to customer specifications.  Idaho Timber also operates a sawmill in Arkansas to produce its 5/4” radius-edge, pine decking products.

 
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Idaho Timber owns and operates seven plants, one sawmill that principally produces decking products and one sawmill that produces split-rail fencing.  These nine facilities in the aggregate have approximately 748,000 square feet of manufacturing and office space, covering approximately 154 acres.  One plant is principally dedicated to home center board products and the remaining plants principally produce remanufactured dimension lumber products.

Sales and Marketing

Idaho Timber primarily markets to local, regional and national lumber retailers for its dimension lumber products, home improvement centers for its home center board products and decking treaters for its sawmill product, and other resellers of home construction materials.  For dimension lumber products, sales are primarily generated at each of the plants, with a dedicated sales force located in the same geographic region as the customers the plant serves.  Board and decking products are sold and managed centrally.  Sales of home center board products are heavily dependent on national home center chains.  Idaho Timber’s sales are somewhat concentrated in regions where its facilities are located, with the largest being Florida, 15%; North Carolina, 14%; and Texas, 14%.

Competition

Idaho Timber sells commodity products, and operates in an industry that is very competitive and currently suffering from continuing lack of demand due to limited housing starts and remodeling activity.  Idaho Timber competes against domestic and foreign sawmills and intermediate distributors for its dimension lumber and decking products.  In some cases, Idaho Timber competes on a limited basis with the same sawmills that are a source of supply of low-grade dimension lumber.  Idaho Timber also competes for raw material purchases needed for its remanufactured dimension lumber and home center board products.  A recent increase in off-shore demand for low-grade lumber used in its remanufacturing facilities has further constrained available supply.

Government Regulation

Lumber and decking are identified at Idaho Timber facilities with a grade stamp that shows the grade, moisture content, mill number, species and grading agency.  All lumber is graded in compliance with the National Grading Rule for Dimension Lumber, which is published by the U.S. Department of Commerce.  Idaho Timber facilities are subject to regular inspection by agencies approved by the American Lumber Standards Committee.  Idaho Timber believes that its procedure for grading lumber is highly accurate; however, Idaho Timber could be exposed to product liability claims if it can be demonstrated its products are inappropriately rated.

Plastics Manufacturing

Business Description

Through Conwed Plastics, which was acquired in March 1985, the Company manufactures and markets lightweight plastic netting used for a variety of purposes including, among other things, building and construction, erosion control, packaging, agricultural, carpet padding, filtration and consumer products.  These products are primarily used for containment purposes, reinforcement of other products, packaging for produce and meats, various types of filtration and erosion prevention.  The net book value of the Company’s investment in Conwed Plastics was $46,270,000 at December 31, 2011.

 
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Certain products of Conwed Plastics are proprietary, protected by patents and/or trade secrets.  The Company holds patents on certain improvements to the basic manufacturing processes it uses and on applications thereof.  The Company believes that the expiration of these patents, individually or in the aggregate, is unlikely to have a significant effect on its operations.

Sales and Marketing

Products are marketed both domestically and internationally, with approximately 24% of 2011 revenues generated by customers from Europe, Latin America, Japan and Australia.  Products are sold primarily through an employee sales force, located in the U.S. and Europe.  Conwed Plastics emphasizes development of new products and new applications of existing products to grow its revenues.  New product development focuses on market niches where proprietary technology and expertise can lead to sustainable competitive economic advantages.  Approximately half of Conwed Plastics’ revenues are generated on a make to order basis.

Competition

Conwed Plastics is subject to domestic and international competition, generally on the basis of price, service and quality.  Conwed Plastics has 3 to 5 competitors in most of its market segments but the size and type of its competition varies by market segment.  Additionally, certain products are dependent on cyclical industries, including the construction industry.  The cost of the principal raw material used in its products, polypropylene, has increased by approximately 20% over the last three years, a continuing trend that started in 2002.  The price of polypropylene has historically fluctuated with the price of oil and natural gas but growing economies in China and India have resulted in increased demand for raw materials and raised prices globally.
 
 
Oil and Gas Drilling Services

Business Description

Keen is a land based contract oil and gas drilling company based in Stillwater, Oklahoma that provides drilling services to independent oil and natural gas exploration and production companies in the Mid-Continent Region of the U.S.  Keen currently operates drilling rigs in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana.  Keen became a consolidated subsidiary in November 2009; the net book value of the Company’s investment in Keen was $210,194,000 at December 31, 2011.

Keen, which has been in business since 1991, typically generates revenues through drilling contracts based on daily rates (daywork contracts), footage (charged by depth of the well) or based on a turnkey contract (fixed price to drill a well).  In 2011, all drilling services were performed pursuant to daywork contracts.  Keen supplies the drilling rig, all ancillary equipment and drilling personnel; all of Keen’s rigs are capable of drilling horizontal and directional wells.  Once Keen has drilled a well for a customer, the drilling rig will be moved off of the well and another service provider will use a service rig (a smaller rig) that is built for completions, which brings the well into production.  Keen has 26 drilling rigs in its fleet that have rated maximum depth capabilities ranging from 12,000 feet to 22,000 feet.  Keen also owns and operates a fleet of trucks, trailers and other construction equipment primarily used to take down, rig up and transport rigs between locations and to prepare the locations for drilling operations.
 
 
Keen’s revenue volume and profitability are significantly affected by the actual and anticipated price of natural gas and oil, levels of natural gas and oil in storage and the supply of drilling rigs available in the marketplace.  The exploration and production industry is cyclical and the level of exploration and production activity has historically been very volatile.  During periods of lower levels of drilling activity, price competition for drilling services tends to increase, which may result in reduced revenues and profitability; conversely, during periods of increased drilling activity, drilling rigs are in demand often resulting in higher prices and contractual commitments from customers to obtain exclusive use of a particular rig for a longer term.

 
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Sales and Marketing

Keen markets its drilling rigs to a number of independent oil and gas companies.  Most of Keen’s contracts are with established customers on a competitive bid or negotiated basis and may cover one well, a multi-well project or are entered into for a specified period of time.  At December 31, 2011, Keen has 6 drilling rigs under contract for a remaining term of more than 1 year, 14 rigs are operating under term contracts that will expire within the next 12 months, 2 are under well-to-well contracts with specific customers, and 4 are not currently under contract.

Keen’s business is fairly concentrated with its top eight customers accounting for over 77% of 2011 drilling revenues.  Two customers accounted for 34% of 2011 drilling revenues and six other customers each exceeded 5% of 2011 drilling revenues.

Competition

Customers award contracts to contract drillers based on factors such as price, rig availability, quality of service, proximity to the well site, experience with the specific geological formation, condition and type of equipment, reputation, safety of operations and customer relationships.  Contracts for drilling services may be awarded based solely on price.  Although contract drilling companies generally compete on a regional basis, drilling rigs can be moved from one market to another in response to market conditions which can have the effect of increasing competition.

Gaming Entertainment

Business Description

Premier owns the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Biloxi, located in Biloxi, Mississippi, which opened to the public on June 30, 2007.  Acquired in 2006, the Company owns all of Premier’s common units; including outstanding loans; the net book value of the Company’s investment in Premier was $227,028,000 at December 31, 2011.

The Hard Rock Hotel & Casino is located on a 10 acre site on the Mississippi Gulf Coast and has approximately 1,305 slot machines, 52 table games, six live poker tables, five restaurants (including a Hard Rock Café and Ruth’s Chris Steakhouse), a full service spa, an outdoor pool and deck, retail space, an eleven-story hotel with 325 rooms and suites and a Hard Rock Live! entertainment venue with a capacity of approximately 2,000 persons.  The Company is investigating a hotel expansion which would add 154 rooms at an estimated cost of $30,000,000.  If the Company decides to go forward, construction could begin in the second quarter of 2012.

Premier’s marketing strategy is to position the resort as a full service gaming, boutique hotel and entertainment resort catering to the Mississippi Gulf Coast marketplace and the southern region of the U.S.  The Mississippi Gulf Coast region is located along the Interstate 10 corridor and is within a ninety minute drive from the New Orleans metropolitan area, Mobile, Alabama and the Florida panhandle.  Premier’s primary means of marketing utilizes its database of customers for direct mail campaigns and promotional giveaways designed to reward customers and generate loyalty and repeat visits.  In addition, Premier benefits from the “Hard Rock” brand name which appeals to a broad range of customers.

The Hard Rock Biloxi’s casino is constructed over water on concrete pilings; however, the threat of hurricanes is a risk to the facility.  Premier’s current insurance policy provides up to $242,000,000 in coverage for damage to real and personal property including business interruption coverage.  The coverage is provided by a panel of U.S., Bermuda and London based insurers and is comprised of a $50,000,000 primary layer and three excess layers.  The coverage is syndicated through several insurance carriers, each with an A.M. Best Rating of A- (Excellent) or better.  Although the insurance policy is an all risk policy, any loss resulting from a weather catastrophe occurrence, which is defined to include damage caused by a named storm, is sublimited to $100,000,000 with a deductible of $5,000,000.

 
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Competition

Premier faces significant competition primarily from ten other gaming operations in the Mississippi Gulf Coast gaming market and secondarily from gaming operations in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana as well as from a Native American casino in Atmore, Alabama.  Other competition comes from gaming operations in Lake Charles, Bossier City and Shreveport, Louisiana; Tunica and Philadelphia, Mississippi; Tampa and Hollywood, Florida and other states.  Such competition may increase if gaming operations grow in these markets or if legalized gaming expands to nearby states.  Many of Premier’s competitors are larger and have greater marketing and financial resources.

Government Regulation
 
    The gaming industry in Mississippi is highly regulated.  Premier, its ownership and management are subject to findings of suitability reviews by the Mississippi Gaming Commission.  In addition, the laws, rules and regulations of state and local governments in Mississippi require Premier to hold various licenses, registrations and permits and to obtain various approvals for a variety of matters.  In order to continue operating, Premier must remain in compliance with all laws, rules and regulations and pay gaming taxes on its gross gaming revenues.  Failure to maintain such approvals or obtain renewals when due, or failure to comply with new laws or regulations or changes to existing laws and regulations would have an adverse effect on Premier’s business.  Premier believes it is in compliance with all governmental rules and regulations.

Domestic Real Estate

At December 31, 2011, the Company’s net investment in the domestic real estate segment was $245,700,000.  The real estate operations include a mixture of commercial properties, residential land development projects and other unimproved land.  Certain of the Company’s real estate investments and the real estate carrying values as of December 31, 2011 include: a large scale mixed-use development project with various residential, retail and commercial space located in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina ($33,787,000); approximately 73 acres of land used by Garcadia, the automobile dealership joint venture ($55,360,000); approximately 76 acres of land located on the island of Islesboro, Maine (approved for 13 residential waterfront lots) and 45 fully developed residential lots on approximately 120 acres of land located in Rockport, Maine on Penobscot Bay, ($46,146,000 in the aggregate); and a 15 acre, unentitled air rights parcel above the train tracks behind Union Station in Washington, D.C. ($11,543,000).  None of these projects is secured by any indebtedness.

The Company had previously entered into an agreement with the Panama City-Bay County Airport and Industrial District of Panama City, Florida to purchase approximately 708 acres of land which used to be the Panama City-Bay County International Airport.  The Company had placed $56,500,000 into escrow; the purchase price was subsequently adjusted to $51,870,000, the excess funds were returned and the transaction closed in February 2012.  The Company intends to develop the property into a mixed use community with residential, retail, commercial, educational and office sites.  The project is fully entitled and zoned for 3,200 residential units and 700,000 square feet of commercial space and includes a permitted marina with 117 slips. Development of the property is subject to completion of project design and obtaining required development and construction permits, the timing of which is uncertain.   

The Company owns approximately 31.4% of the outstanding common stock of HomeFed.  In addition, as a result of a 1998 distribution to all of the Company’s shareholders, approximately 7.7% and 9.4% of HomeFed is owned by the Company’s Chairman and President, respectively.  HomeFed is currently engaged, directly and through subsidiaries, in the investment in and development of residential real estate projects in California.  The Company accounts for its investment in HomeFed under the equity method of accounting.  At December 31, 2011, its investment had a carrying value of $47,493,000, which is included in investments in associated companies.  HomeFed is a public company traded on the NASD OTC Bulletin Board (Symbol: HOFD).  Detailed financial and other information about HomeFed may be found on its website (www.homefedcorporation.com).

 
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Residential property sales volume, prices and new building starts have declined significantly in many U.S. markets, including markets in which the Company has real estate projects.  The slowdown in residential sales has been exacerbated by the turmoil in the mortgage lending and credit markets, which has resulted in stricter lending standards and reduced liquidity for prospective home buyers.  The Company is not actively soliciting bids for developed and undeveloped lots in Maine, and has deferred its development plans for certain other projects as well.  The Company intends to wait for market conditions to improve before marketing certain of its projects for sale.

The real estate development industry is subject to substantial environmental, building, construction, zoning and real estate regulations that are imposed by various federal, state and local authorities.  In order to develop its properties, the Company must obtain the approval of numerous governmental agencies regarding such matters as permitted land uses, density, the installation of utility services (such as water, sewer, gas, electric, telephone and cable television) and the dedication of acreage for various community purposes.  Furthermore, changes in prevailing local circumstances or applicable laws may require additional approvals or modifications of approvals previously obtained.  Delays in obtaining required approvals and authorizations could adversely affect the profitability of the Company’s projects.

Medical Product Development

Business Description

At December 31, 2011, the Company owned approximately 96% of Sangart, a development stage biopharmaceutical company principally engaged in developing medicines designed to enhance the oxygenation of oxygen deprived tissues through targeted oxygen delivery.  The Company has invested an aggregate of $211,648,000 in Sangart, principally to help fund Sangart’s ongoing product development activities and overhead costs.  Sangart became a consolidated subsidiary in 2005; the net book value of the Company’s investment in Sangart was $16,356,000 at December 31, 2011.

In 2002, Sangart commenced human clinical trials of MP4OX, a solution of cell-free hemoglobin administered intravenously to provide rapid oxygen delivery to ischemic (oxygen deprived) tissues.  The basis for Sangart’s technology is the result of more than 20 years of research in the understanding of how hemoglobin (the oxygen carrier in red blood cells) functions outside of red blood cells in a cell-free environment and how it can be used in conjunction with normal red blood cells to enhance oxygen delivery to organ tissue.  MP4 products are made from purified human hemoglobin that is extracted from fully screened and tested outdated human blood obtained from accredited blood centers, which is then bound to polyethylene glycol molecules using Sangart’s proprietary processes.  Sangart’s manufacturing process is able to generate approximately four units of MP4OX using a single unit of blood.  Sangart owns or exclusively licenses eighteen U.S. patents and has more than thirty applications pending worldwide covering product composition, manufacturing or methods of use.   Patents applicable to the MP4 technology do not begin to expire until 2017.

During 2010, Sangart completed a Phase 2 proof of concept clinical trial of MP4OX in trauma patients in Europe and South Africa.  Study results were considered to be successful and supported the conduct of a larger Phase 2 clinical study in trauma patients, which commenced in the second quarter of 2011.  If this larger Phase 2 study were to be successful, Sangart would have to conduct Phase 3 clinical studies in trauma patients.  Completing these studies will take several years at substantial cost, and until they are successfully completed, if ever, Sangart will not be able to request marketing approval and generate revenues from sales in the trauma market.  Sangart also recently commenced a Phase 1b clinical study involving its MP4CO product to treat sickle cell disease patients.  If this Phase 1b study were to be successful, Sangart would have to conduct Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical studies in sickle cell disease patients, at substantial cost, prior to requesting marketing approval for the product.

 
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In addition to obtaining requisite regulatory approvals for the manufacture and sale of MP4 products, including approval of a manufacturing facility which has yet to be built, Sangart would have to create sales, marketing and distribution capabilities prior to any commercial launch, either directly or in partnership with a service provider.  In recent years, substantially all of the funding needed for MP4 development has come from the Company, and the Company expects to provide Sangart with sufficient capital to fund its activities during 2012.  Thereafter, significant additional funding will be needed prior to regulatory approval and commercial launch; the source of such funding has not as yet been determined.

Any successful commercialization of MP4 products will depend on an adequate supply of raw materials, principally human red blood cells and polyethylene glycol, at an acceptable quality, quantity and price.  Sangart has contracted for a supply of human red blood cells that is expected to be sufficient to produce MP4 at volumes needed for a commercial launch; however, if the product is successful additional sources of red blood cells will be needed to support sales growth.  Commitments for quantities of polyethylene glycol to support a commercial launch have not yet been secured.

Government Regulation

As a product intended for medical use, clinical trials, marketing approval, manufacturing and distribution of MP4 is highly regulated.  An application for marketing approval may only be made after the safety and effectiveness of the product has been demonstrated, including through human clinical trial data.  In the U.S., the FDA regulates medical products, including the category known as “biologics”, which includes MP4 products.  The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act govern the testing, manufacture, safety, effectiveness, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising and promotion of MP4 products.

In Europe, each country has its own agency that regulates clinical trials.  However, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”), which is administered by the European Medicines Agency, is an EU-wide regulatory body.  Following completion of clinical trials, marketing approval can be granted either by a centralized application through CHMP, or on a decentralized basis by one or more selected countries.

Other Operations

Wineries

The Company’s winery operations are managed under the umbrella name, Crimson Wine Group (“Crimson”).  Crimson is engaged in the production and sale of premium, ultra premium and luxury wines (i.e., wines that retail for $10 to $14, $14 to $25 and over $25 per 750ml bottle, respectively).  Crimson is headquartered in Napa, California and owns four wineries: Pine Ridge Vineyards, Archery Summit, Chamisal Vineyards and Seghesio Family Vineyards.  Pine Ridge was acquired in 1991 and has been conducting operations since 1978, the Company started Archery Summit in 1993, Chamisal Vineyards was acquired during 2008 and has been conducting operations since 1973, and Seghesio Family Vineyards was acquired in 2011 and has been conducting operations since 1895.  Crimson controls approximately 188 acres of vineyards in the Napa Valley, California, 120 acres of vineyards in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 97 acres of vineyards in the Edna Valley, California, 231 acres in the Alexander Valley, California and 68 acres in the Russian River Valley, California, substantially all of which are owned and producing grapes.  Additionally, in 2005 and 2006, the Company acquired an aggregate of 611 acres of land in the Horse Heaven Hills of Washington’s Columbia Valley, of which approximately 87 acres have been developed into producing vineyards.  At December 31, 2011, the net book value of the Company’s aggregate investment in Crimson was $177,096,000.

 
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During 2011, Crimson sold approximately 212,000 9-liter equivalent cases of wine generating revenues of $36,864,000.  Crimson’s wines are primarily sold to distributors, who then sell to retailers and restaurants.  Consolidation at the distributor and retail level has increased which has added competitive pressure to increase marketing and sales spending and constrain pricing.  As permitted under federal and local regulations, Crimson has also been placing increasing emphasis on direct sales to consumers, which they are able to do through the internet, wine clubs and at the wineries’ tasting rooms.  During 2011, direct sales to consumers represented 15% of case sales and 39% of wine revenues.  Seghesio Family Vineyards has historically sold approximately 19% of its production to international markets, which Crimson expects to continue and expand with the export of products from its other wineries.

Crimson’s wines compete with small and large producers in the U.S., as well as with imported wines, and the ultimate consumer has many choices.  Demand for wine in the premium, ultra premium and luxury market segments can rise and fall with general economic conditions, and is also significantly affected by grape supply.  The demand for Crimson’s products is also affected by the ratings given the wines in industry and consumer publications.  In the current economic climate, consumer demand has shifted away from the higher-priced luxury segment to wines in the lower-priced premium and ultra premium categories.  Crimson’s production, sales and distribution activities are subject to regulation by agencies of both federal and state governments.

Energy Projects
 
    During the past few years, the Company has been incurring costs to investigate and evaluate the development of a number of large scale domestic energy projects.  These projects plan to use gasification technology to convert different types of low grade fossil fuels into clean energy products.  The Company has also invested in certain energy projects that do not plan to use gasification technologies.  The Company has expensed costs to investigate, evaluate and obtain various permits and approvals for its various energy projects of $33,964,000, $27,220,000 and $25,343,000 during the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

Although there are a number of large scale projects the Company is currently investigating, the Company is not obligated to develop any of the projects, and no assurance can be given that the Company will be successful in fully developing any of these projects.  Any project that the Company might develop would likely require a significant equity investment, which the Company presently does not intend to fund by itself, the acquisition of substantial non-recourse borrowings to build the projects (total development costs for these types of projects range from $2.5 billion to $3.5 billion), the procurement of purchase commitments for long-term supplies of feedstock, long-term commitments from purchasers of the output, various permits and regulatory approvals and significant technological and engineering expertise to implement.  The investigation, evaluation and financing of these large scale projects will take years to complete.

The Company is currently evaluating the development of a gasification project which would be built in Louisiana by the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Lake Charles Cogeneration LLC (“LCC”), for an estimated total cost of between $2,300,000,000 and $2,600,000,000.  LCC has been awarded $1,561,000,000 in tax exempt bonds to support the development of the project, which would be issued by the Lake Charles Harbor and Terminal District of Lake Charles, Louisiana, $128,000,000 of investment tax credits and received a $260,000,000 federal government grant for carbon capture and sequestration.  Receipt of these awards and grants are contingent upon satisfaction of numerous regulatory and other conditions.  The Company is not obligated to make equity contributions to LCC until it completes its investigation, the project is approved by the Company’s Board of Directors and significant financing has been obtained from third parties which has not been arranged.  The Lake Charles Cogeneration project is a new chemical manufacturing facility that plans to use proven quench gasification technology to produce various products from petroleum coke, a low grade solid fuel source.  LCC is evaluating the primary product options to be produced by the Lake Charles Cogeneration project, including methanol and hydrogen, and has signed two letters of intent for the majority of its production.  LCC has also entered into a 20-year contract for the sale of its entire carbon dioxide by-product stream which would be used for enhanced oil recovery.

 
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In July 2009, two of the Company’s other prospective gasification projects, one in Indiana and the other in Mississippi, were selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) to proceed to detailed due diligence and negotiations of terms and conditions necessary for the DOE to issue conditional commitments for loan guarantees aggregating up to $3,600,000,000.  While these commitments represent important milestones in the selection process, the guarantees are subject to detailed and extensive due diligence by the DOE and no assurance can be given that a loan guaranty for either project will ultimately be given.
 
    A subsidiary of the Company acquired a leasehold interest and certain permits to construct and operate an onshore liquefied natural gas (“LNG”) terminal and associated facilities in Warrenton, Oregon.  The project would include construction of an offshore dock and berth and onshore facilities to store up to 480,000 cubic meters of LNG.  The current plan includes construction of an approximate 121 mile long natural gas pipeline to connect to the U.S. natural gas transmission grid.  Due to the recent increases in U.S. natural gas production, LNG receiving and storage facilities now only play a role in niche markets, where insufficient pipeline infrastructure can create short-term shortages, and the Company is evaluating whether a facility focused on LNG exports would provide better returns.  Numerous regulatory permits and approvals and acquisitions of rights of way for the pipeline will be required before project construction can commence; construction of the terminal and associated facilities could potentially begin early in 2014.  Completion of the project is also subject to obtaining significant financing from third parties, which has not been arranged.

Other Investments

Berkadia

Berkadia, a joint venture between Berkshire Hathaway and the Company, acquired a commercial mortgage origination and servicing business in December 2009.  The Company and Berkshire Hathaway each have a 50% equity interest in Berkadia, and each party contributed $217,169,000 of equity capital to fund the acquisition.  At December 31, 2011, the net book value of the Company’s investment in Berkadia was $193,496,000.
 
Berkadia is a servicer of commercial real estate loans in the U.S., performing primary, master and special servicing functions for U.S. government agency programs, commercial mortgage-backed securities transactions (“CMBS”), banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions.  Berkadia is an approved servicer of loans for Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae and the FHA.  As of December 31, 2011, Berkadia serviced approximately 25,000 loans with an unpaid principal balance of $190 billion.

A primary servicer of a loan is the primary contact with the borrower and is generally responsible for carrying out all cash management functions relating to the loan, including providing monthly billing statements to the borrower and collecting and applying payments on the loan; administering reserve and escrow funds for repairs, tenant improvements, taxes and insurance; obtaining and analyzing operating and financial statements of the borrower and performing periodic property inspections; preparing and providing periodic reports and remittances to the master servicer or other designated persons; administering lien filings; and other specified functions.

A master servicer is responsible for administration of a pool of loans that is transferred to a trust or other special purpose entity in connection with a securitization transaction pursuant to a pooling and servicing agreement.  While some master servicer functions may be sub-contracted and performed by a primary servicer, as a master servicer Berkadia is ultimately responsible for the performance of any functions that have been sub-contracted to a primary servicer.  Master servicers are generally required to advance funds to cover any delinquent payments on the securitized loans and any taxes and insurance premiums not paid by borrowers or covered by borrowers’ escrow funds, provided that the servicer determines that the advances will be recoverable from loan payments or liquidation proceeds in the future.  These “servicing advances,” along with accrued interest, are treated as having priority over the rights of other investors in the securitization.

 
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A special servicer is a specialist in dealing with defaulted loans and is usually selected by the holder of the subordinated interest in a securitization vehicle.  Typically, a loan may be transferred from the master servicer to a special servicer if it is more than 60 days delinquent, a borrower files for bankruptcy or the master servicer determines a default is imminent.  Once a loan is transferred to special servicing, asset managers take steps to bring the account to a performing status or exercise other remedies, including loan modification, foreclosure, a negotiated pay-off or a sale of the loan.  Special servicers are generally paid higher monthly servicing fees and resolution fees in connection with the loans that they service.

As a servicer, Berkadia is frequently responsible for managing, on behalf of its investors, the balances that are maintained in custodial accounts for the purposes of collecting and distributing principal and interest and for funding repairs, tenant improvements, taxes and insurance related to the mortgaged properties it services.  Berkadia derives certain economic benefits from investing these custodial accounts.  Such balances totaled in excess of $4 billion as of December 31, 2011.
 
Berkadia originates commercial real estate loans for Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae and the FHA using their underwriting guidelines, and will typically sell the loan shortly after it is funded.  Provided Berkadia adheres to their guidelines, these government related entities must purchase the loan at the face amount plus accrued interest; Berkadia retains the mortgage servicing rights.  In addition, as a condition to Fannie Mae’s delegation of responsibility for underwriting, originating and servicing of loans, Berkadia assumes a limited first-dollar and shared loss position throughout the term of each loan sold to Fannie Mae.
 
During 2011, Berkadia commenced originating commercial mortgage loans which are not part of the government agency programs.  Berkadia has a portfolio of loans that provide interim financing to borrowers who intend to refinance the loan with longer-term loans from an eligible government agency or other third party (“Bridge loans”).  Berkadia may also from time to originate loans intended to be conveyed into CMBS transactions sponsored by third parties (“CMBS loans”).  Bridge loans are typically floating rate loans with 2 to 3 year maturities; CMBS loans are typically 10 year fixed rate loans that Berkadia intends to hold for 3 to 6 months pending sale to a securitization vehicle.  At December 31, 2011, $310,000,000 of such loans were outstanding, substantially all of which were Bridge loans.
 
Berkadia is required under its servicing agreements to maintain certain minimum servicer ratings or qualifications from the rating agencies.  A downgrade below a certain level may give rise to the right of a customer or trustee of a securitized transaction to terminate Berkadia as servicer.  Berkadia currently maintains approvals or ratings from Moody’s Investors Service, Fitch Ratings, Standard & Poor’s and Dominion Bond Rating Services.  These ratings currently exceed the minimum ratings required by the related servicing agreements.  Ratings issued by the rating agencies can be withdrawn or lowered at any time.  In addition, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac retain broad discretion to terminate Berkadia as a seller/servicer without cause upon notice.

Jefferies

The Company owns 58,006,024 Jefferies common shares (approximately 28.2% of the Jefferies outstanding common shares) for a total investment of $980,109,000.  The Company’s investment in Jefferies is classified as an investment in an associated company and is carried at fair value, which was $797,583,000 at December 31, 2011.  Jefferies has entered into a registration rights agreement covering all of the Jefferies common stock owned by the Company.  Jefferies is a full-service global investment bank and institutional securities firm serving companies and their investors.  Detailed financial and other information about Jefferies may be found on its website (www.jefferies.com).

In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), the Company is permitted to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value (the “fair value option”), and to report unrealized gains and losses on items for which the fair value option is elected in earnings.  The Company elected the fair value option to account for its investment in Jefferies rather than the equity method of accounting.  Income (losses) related to associated companies includes unrealized gains (losses) resulting from changes in the fair value of Jefferies of $(684,397,000), $143,298,000 and $469,820,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

 
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Mueller

During 2011, the Company acquired 10,422,859 common shares of Mueller, representing approximately 27.3% of the outstanding common shares of Mueller, for aggregate cash consideration of $408,558,000.  Mueller is a leading manufacturer of copper, brass, plastic, and aluminum products.  Detailed financial and other information about Mueller may be found on its website (www.muellerindustries.com).  In September 2011, the Company entered into a standstill agreement with Mueller for the two year period ending September 1, 2013, pursuant to which, among other things, subject to certain provisions the Company has agreed not to sell its shares if the buyer would own more than 4.9% of the outstanding shares, and not to increase its ownership interest to more than 27.5% of the outstanding Mueller common shares.  In addition, the Company has the right to nominate two directors to the board of directors of Mueller and Mueller has agreed to give the Company registration rights covering all of the Mueller shares of common stock owned by the Company.  Detailed financial and other information about Mueller may be found on its website (www.muellerindustries.com).

The Company elected the fair value option to account for its investment in Mueller rather than the equity method of accounting.  Income (losses) related to associated companies includes unrealized losses resulting from changes in the fair value of Mueller of $8,112,000 for the year ended December 31, 2011.  At December 31, 2011, the Company’s investment in Mueller was $400,446,000.

JHYH

During 2007, the Company and Jefferies formed JHYH and each initially committed to invest $600,000,000.  The Company invested $350,000,000 during 2007; any request for additional capital contributions from the Company requires the consent of the Company’s designees to the Jefferies board.  The Company does not anticipate making additional capital contributions.  JHYH owns Jefferies High Yield Trading, LLC (“JHYT”), a registered broker-dealer that is engaged in the secondary sales and trading of high yield securities and special situation securities, including bank debt, post-reorganization equity, public and private equity, equity derivatives, credit default swaps and other financial instruments.  JHYT makes markets in high yield and distressed securities and provides research coverage on these types of securities.  JHYT does not invest or make markets in sub-prime residential mortgage securities.

Jefferies and the Company each have the right to nominate two of a total of four directors to JHYH’s board, and each own 50% of the voting securities.  The organizational documents also permit passive investors to invest up to $800,000,000 in JHYH.  Jefferies also received additional JHYH securities entitling it to 20% of the profits.  The voting and non-voting interests are entitled to a pro rata share of the balance of the profits of JHYH, and are mandatorily redeemable in 2013, with a mutual option to extend up to three additional one-year periods.  For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, the Company recorded pre-tax income from this investment of $11,211,000, $20,053,000 and $37,249,000, respectively, under the equity method of accounting; at December 31, 2011, the Company’s investment in JHYH was $323,262,000.

Linkem

During 2011, the Company acquired approximately 37% of the common shares of Linkem, a wireless broadband services provider in Italy, for aggregate cash consideration of $88,575,000.  Linkem was established in 2001 to provide wireless broadband services to Italian consumers and in 2003 became the first national airport WiFi operator in Italy.  Subsequently, Linkem expanded its wireless networks to provide WiFi services over wider coverage areas. 

In 2008, Linkem acquired wireless spectrum licenses in the 3.5GHz band and launched Italy’s first commercial 4G wireless service.  Linkem’s 4G service offers a variety of lower-cost options for broadband services on customer premises.  Unlike the U.S. and most of Western Europe, Italy does not have a national cable television system; as a result, Italy’s broadband penetration rate is among the lowest in Europe, and substantially all broadband services are provided using legacy copper telephone lines.

 
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Linkem’s wireless spectrum licenses can provide geographic coverage to all of Italy.  Linkem has signed agreements with several large telecommunication companies for the use of their infrastructure, providing Linkem access to approximately 16,000 wireless towers throughout Italy.  At December 31, 2011, Linkem’s network includes over 600 wireless towers that can reach approximately 9 million people; Linkem has over 33,000 subscribers for its services.   Linkem plans to increase its network coverage across Italy over the next few years as it adds subscribers; expansion and customer acquisition costs are expected to result in operating losses over the next few years.  The Company accounts for Linkem under the equity method of accounting and at December 31, 2011, the net book value of Company’s investment was $86,332,000.

Garcadia

Garcadia is a joint venture between the Company and Garff Enterprises, Inc. (“Garff”) pursuant to which Garcadia has acquired various automobile dealerships.  The Garcadia joint venture agreement specifies that the Company and Garff shall have equal board representation and equal votes on all matters affecting Garcadia, and that all cash flows from Garcadia will be allocated 65% to the Company and 35% to Garff, with the exception of one dealership from which the Company receives 83% of all cash flows.  Garcadia’s strategy is to acquire automobile dealerships in secondary market locations meeting its specified return criteria.  At December 31, 2011, Garcadia owned 17 dealerships comprised of domestic and foreign automobile makers.  The Company has received cash distributions of fees and earnings aggregating $10,382,000, $8,778,000 and $6,137,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  In addition, the Company owns the land for certain dealerships and leases it to the dealerships for rent aggregating $5,654,000, $5,062,000 and $4,971,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  At December 31, 2011, the Company’s investment in Garcadia (excluding the land) was classified as an investment in associated company with a carrying value of $72,303,000.
 
 
Fortescue

During 2006 and 2007, the Company invested an aggregate of $452,247,000 in Fortescue’s Pilbara iron ore and infrastructure project in Western Australia, including expenses.  In exchange for its cash investment, the Company received 277,986,000 common shares of Fortescue, and a $100,000,000 unsecured note of FMG that matures in August 2019.  During 2010 and 2011, the Company sold an aggregate of 147,400,000 common shares of Fortescue for net cash proceeds of $853,715,000, which resulted in the recognition of net securities gains of $723,115,000, reducing its interest in Fortescue to 130,586,000 common shares.  The Company’s investment in the Fortescue common shares is classified as a non-current available for sale investment and carried at market value as of each balance sheet date.  At December 31, 2011, the market value of the Fortescue common shares was $569,256,000.  In January 2012, the Company sold 100,000,000 Fortescue common shares for net cash proceeds of $506,490,000.

Interest on the FMG Note is calculated as 4% of the revenue, net of government royalties, invoiced from the iron ore produced from the project’s Cloud Break and Christmas Creek areas, payable semi-annually within 30 days of June 30th and December 31st of each year.  The Company recorded interest income before withholding taxes on the FMG Note of $214,455,000, $149,257,000 and $66,079,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  The ultimate value of the FMG Note will depend on the volume of iron ore shipped and iron ore prices over the remaining term of the FMG Note, which can fluctuate widely, as well as the outcome of the litigation described below.

In August 2010, the Company was advised that Fortescue is asserting that FMG is entitled to issue additional notes identical to the FMG Note in an unlimited amount.  Fortescue further claims that any interest to be paid on additional notes can dilute, on a pro rata basis, the Company’s entitlement to the stated interest of 4% of net revenue.  The Company does not believe that FMG has the right to issue additional notes which affect the Company’s interest or that the interpretation by Fortescue of the terms of the FMG Note, as currently claimed by Fortescue, reflects the agreement between the parties.

 
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On September 1, 2010, the Company filed a Writ of Summons against Fortescue, FMG and Fortescue’s then Chief Executive Officer in the Supreme Court of Western Australia.  The Writ of Summons seeks, among other things, an injunction restraining the issuance of any additional notes identical to the FMG Note and damages.  If the litigation is ultimately determined adversely to the Company and additional notes are issued, the Company’s future cash flows from the FMG Note and future results of operations would be significantly and adversely affected to the extent of the dilution resulting from the issuance of such additional notes.

The project information presented in the paragraphs below was obtained from Fortescue’s website, (www.fmgl.com.au), which contains substantial additional information about Fortescue, its operating activities and the project.  Fortescue shipped its first iron ore in May 2008 and for the year ending December 31, 2011, Fortescue’s total revenue from iron ore sales was $6,189,560,000.

Fortescue announced reserve estimates for the Cloud Break and Christmas Creek areas, which are net of mine depletion and ore recovery, include 38 million metric tons of proved iron ore reserves and 1.51 billion metric tons of probable iron ore reserves, in accordance with the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee code.  This reserve estimate is solely for these two areas, which cover an area of approximately 770 square kilometers.  Fortescue has additional tenements in the Pilbara region of Western Australia and has since announced reserve estimates for some of its other tenements.  Mining revenues derived from tenements other than Cloud Break and Christmas Creek do not increase the interest payable to the Company on the FMG Note.

In 2011, Fortescue completed an expansion of its Cloud Break and Christmas Creek operations which will enable it to produce 55 million metric tons per annum.  In 2010, Fortescue announced a further expansion to increase its mining plan to 155 million metric tons per annum, of which 90 million metric tons per annum would come from Cloud Break and Christmas Creek.  For the year ended December 31, 2011, Fortescue sold 46.5 million metric tons of iron ore, entirely from Cloud Break and Christmas Creek.  Fortescue, along with the other major iron ore producers, charges its customers prices based on an index pricing regime that reflects recent iron ore spot prices.
 
    In addition to the Company’s investment and equity investments from other parties, Fortescue initially raised $2,051,000,000 of senior secured debt to fund the construction of its infrastructure, which included a 260 kilometer railroad, port and related port infrastructure at Port Hedland, Australia, as well as a crushing and screening plant, access roads and other infrastructure at the mine site.  Subsequently, Fortescue raised additional debt to fund expansion activities.  At December 31, 2011, Fortescue had $5,000,000,000 of senior unsecured notes outstanding.

Inmet

Inmet is a Canadian-based global mining company traded on the Toronto stock exchange (Symbol: IMN).  In August 2005, the Company sold to Inmet a 70% interest in Cobre Las Cruces, a Spanish company that holds the exploration and mineral rights to the Las Cruces copper deposit in the Pyrite Belt of Spain, in exchange for 5,600,000 common shares of Inmet.  In November 2010, the Company sold to Inmet its remaining 30% equity interest in and subordinated sponsor loans to Las Cruces for aggregate consideration of $576,000,000.  The purchase price was comprised of $150,000,000 of cash and 5,442,413 newly issued common shares of Inmet; the Company reported a gain on the sale of $383,369,000 in investment and other income.  At December 31, 2011, the Company owns a total of 11,042,413 Inmet common shares which are reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet at market value of $708,193,000 (approximately 15.9% of Inmet’s outstanding common shares).  The Inmet shares have registration rights and may be sold in accordance with applicable securities laws.  Detailed financial and other information about Inmet may be found on its website (www.inmetmining.com).

 
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Other

The Company beneficially owns equity interests representing more than 5% of the outstanding capital stock of each of the following domestic public companies at February 16, 2012 (determined in accordance with Rule 13d-3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934):  Jefferies (28.2%), Mueller (27.3%), HomeFed (31.4%) and INTL FCStone Inc. (8.5%).  In addition to the Company’s equity interests in Fortescue and Inmet discussed above, the Company also owns a 7.0% equity interest in JZ Capital Partners Limited, a British company traded on the London Stock Exchange.

Item 1A.  Risk Factors.
 
    Our business is subject to a number of risks.  You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Report, before you decide whether to purchase our common stock.  The risks set out below are not the only risks we face.  If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.  In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Future acquisitions and dispositions of our operations and investments are possible, changing the components of our assets and liabilities, and if unsuccessful could reduce the value of our common shares.  Any future acquisitions or dispositions may result in significant changes in the composition of our assets and liabilities. Consequently, our financial condition, results of operations and the trading price of our common shares may be affected by factors different from those affecting our financial condition, results of operations and trading price at the present time.

We are dependent on certain key personnel.  We are dependent on the services of Ian M. Cumming and Joseph S. Steinberg, our Chairman of the Board and President, respectively.  Messrs. Cumming’s and Steinberg’s employment agreements with us expire June 30, 2015.  These individuals are also significant shareholders of our Company.  As of February 16, 2012, Messrs. Cumming and Steinberg and trusts for the benefit of their respective families (excluding certain private charitable foundations) beneficially owned approximately 9.0% and 10.0% of our outstanding common shares, respectively.  Accordingly, Messrs. Cumming and Steinberg exert significant influence over all matters requiring approval by our shareholders, including the election or removal of directors and the approval of mergers or other business combination transactions.

We operate in a variety of industries and market sectors, all of which are very competitive and susceptible to economic downturns and have been adversely affected by recent economic conditions.  The Company operates in industries that sell commodity products and services, including beef processing, manufacturing and oil and gas drilling services, all of which are very competitive with product pricing often being the most significant factor to customers.  Certain industries have seen a consolidation of the customer base, which tends to increase competition and pricing pressure.  In addition, starting in 2008, the recession and general economic conditions have adversely affected operating results in the manufacturing, oil and gas drilling services, gaming entertainment and domestic real estate segments, which is likely to continue until the economy recovers.  The performance of these business units during this period has resulted in a lower valuation for these businesses, and a worsening of general economic or market conditions could result in a further deterioration in the values of our businesses or investments.

 
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The prices and availability of key raw materials affects the profitability of our beef processing and manufacturing operations, and also impacts Sangart’s ability to conduct its clinical trials.  The supply and market price of cattle purchased by National Beef are dependent upon a variety of factors over which National Beef has little or no control, including fluctuations in the size of herds maintained by producers, the relative cost of feed and energy, weather and livestock diseases.  Sangart has access to sufficient raw materials to conduct its clinical trials; however, it has not secured commitments for sufficient raw materials for a commercial launch, which would also require additional investments in manufacturing capacity.  The cost of polypropylene, the principal raw material used by Conwed Plastics, has increased by approximately 20% over the last three years, a continuing trend that started in 2002.  The price of polypropylene has historically fluctuated with the price of oil and natural gas but growing economies in China and India have resulted in increased demand and impacted prices.  Although the Company’s operating subsidiaries are not currently experiencing any shortage of raw materials, if the subsidiaries experience shortages, revenues and profitability could decline.
 
    Outbreaks of disease affecting livestock can adversely affect the supply of cattle and the demand for National Beef’s products.  National Beef is subject to risks relating to animal health and disease control.  An outbreak of disease affecting livestock (such as foot-and-mouth disease or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“BSE”), commonly referred to as mad cow disease) could result in restrictions on sales of products, restrictions on purchases of livestock from suppliers or widespread destruction of cattle.  The discovery of BSE in the past caused certain countries to restrict or prohibit the importation of beef products.  Outbreaks of diseases, or the perception by the public that an outbreak has occurred, or other concerns regarding diseases, can lead to inadequate supply, cancellation of orders by customers and create adverse publicity, any of which can have a significant negative impact on consumer demand and, as a result, on the Company’s consolidated financial position, cash flows and results of operations.
 
    If National Beef’s products or products made by others using its products become contaminated or are alleged to be contaminated, National Beef may be subject to product liability claims that would adversely affect its business.  National Beef may be subject to significant liability in excess of insurance policy limits if its products or products made by others using its products causes injury, illness or death.  In addition, National Beef could recall or be required to recall products that are, or are alleged to be, contaminated, spoiled or inappropriately labeled.  Organisms producing food borne illnesses (such as E. coli) could be present in National Beef’s products and result in illness or death if they are not eliminated through further processing or cooking.  Contamination of National Beef’s or its competitors’ products may create adverse publicity or cause consumers to lose confidence in the safety and quality of beef products.  Allegations of product contamination may also be harmful even if they are untrue or result from third-party tampering.  Any of these events may increase costs or decrease demand for beef products, any of which could have a significant adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
 
    National Beef generally does not enter into long-term contracts with customers; as a result the volumes and prices at which beef products are sold are subject to market forces. National Beef’s customers generally place orders for products on an as-needed basis and, as a result, their order levels have varied from period to period in the past and may vary significantly in the future. The loss of one or more significant customers, a significant decline in the volume of orders from customers or a significant decrease in beef product prices for a sustained period of time could negatively impact cash flows and results of operations.

National Beef’s international operations expose it to political and economic risks in foreign countries, as well as to risks related to currency fluctuations. Approximately 12% of National Beef’s annual sales are export sales, primarily to Mexico, Japan, South Korea, Canada, China (for hides), Hong Kong, Egypt, and Taiwan, and on average these sales have a higher margin than domestic sales of similar products.  A reduction in international sales could adversely affect revenues and margins.  Risks associated with international activities include inflation or deflation and changes in foreign currency exchange rates, including changes in currency exchange rates of other countries that may export beef products in competition with National Beef; the closing of borders by foreign countries to product imports due to disease or other perceived health or food safety issues; exchange controls; changes in tariffs; changes in political or economic conditions; trade restrictions and changes in regulatory requirements.  The occurrence of any of these events could increase costs, lower demand for products or limit operations, which could have a significant adverse effect on cash flows, results of operations and future prospects. 

 
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National Beef incurs substantial costs to comply with environmental regulations and could incur additional costs as a result of new regulations or compliance failures that result in civil or criminal penalties, liability for damages and negative publicity.  National Beef’s operations are subject to extensive and increasingly stringent environmental regulations administered by the EPA and state, local and other authorities with regards to water usage, wastewater and storm water discharge, air emissions and odor, and waste management and disposal.  Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have serious consequences, including criminal, civil and administrative penalties and negative publicity.  In addition, National Beef incurs and will continue to incur significant capital and operating expenditures to comply with existing and new or more stringent regulations and requirements.  All of National Beef’s processing facilities procure wastewater treatment services from municipal or other regional governmental agencies that are in turn subject to environmental laws and permit limits regarding their water discharges.  As permit limits are becoming more stringent, upgrades and capital improvements to these municipal treatment facilities are likely.  In locations where National Beef is a significant volume discharger, it could be asked to contribute toward the costs of such upgrades or to pay significantly increased water or sewer charges to recoup such upgrade costs.  National Beef may also be required to undertake upgrades and make capital improvements to its own wastewater pretreatment facilities, the cost of which could be significant.  Compliance with environmental regulations has had and will continue to have a significant impact on National Beef’s cash flows, margins and profitability.  In addition, under most environmental laws, most notably the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) and analogous state laws, National Beef could be held liable for the cost to investigate or remediate any contamination at properties it owns or operates, or as to which it arranges for the disposal or treatment of hazardous substances, as such liability is imposed without regard to fault.
 
National Beef’s operating results could be negatively impacted by hedging and derivative positions. National Beef uses derivative financial instruments and other strategies in an attempt to reduce exposure to various market risks, including changes in commodity prices.  These positions do not qualify as hedges for financial reporting purposes and are marked to fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in earnings.  Losses on these instruments will negatively impact reported operating results and the use of such instruments may limit National Beef’s ability to benefit from favorable commodity price movements.
 
Failure by Wal-Mart and its affiliates to continue purchasing from National Beef could have a significant adverse effect on our sales. Sales to Wal-Mart Stores and its affiliate, Sam’s Club, represented approximately 9% of National Beef’s total net sales during its last fiscal year.  Wal-Mart recently requested that its beef suppliers, including National Beef, submit a proposal for future business.  If Wal-Mart and its affiliates do not continue to purchase from National Beef, it could have a significant adverse effect on results of operations.
 
National Beef is subject to extensive governmental regulation and noncompliance with or changes in applicable requirements could adversely affect its business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. National Beef’s operations are subject to extensive regulation and oversight by the USDA, FSIS, GIPSA, the FDA, and other state, local and foreign authorities regarding the processing, packaging, storage, safety, distribution, advertising and labeling of its products.  Recently, food safety practices and procedures in the meat processing industry have been subject to more intense scrutiny and oversight by the USDA.  National Beef is also subject to a variety of immigration, labor and worker safety laws and regulations, including those relating to the hiring and retention of employees.  Failure to comply with existing or new laws and regulations could result in administrative penalties and injunctive relief, civil remedies, fines, interruption of operations, recalls of products or seizures of properties, potential criminal sanctions and personal injury or other damage claims. These remedies, changes in the applicable laws and regulations or discovery of currently unknown conditions could increase costs, limit business operations and reduce profitability.

 
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National Beef’s performance depends on favorable labor relations with its employees, in particular employees represented by collective bargaining agreements. A substantial number of National Beef’s employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements.  A labor-related work stoppage by unionized employees, or employees who become unionized in the future, could limit National Beef’s ability to process and ship products or could increase costs.  Any significant increase in labor costs, deterioration of employee relations, slowdowns or work stoppages at any of National Beef’s locations, whether due to union activities, employee turnover or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Declines in the U.S. housing market have reduced revenues and profitability of our manufacturing businesses and may continue to do so.  Our manufacturing operations, in particular Idaho Timber, have generated significant revenues when the U.S. housing market was strong.  The weak U.S. housing market during the last few years has resulted in fewer new housing starts, which has adversely impacted revenues and profitability at Idaho Timber and Conwed Plastics.  Idaho Timber does not expect to return to prior levels of profitability until the U.S. housing market recovers.

Keen’s revenues and profitability are impacted by natural gas and oil supplies and prices and the supply of drilling rigs in the marketplace.  During periods of decreased demand for natural gas and oil, Keen’s rig utilization will decline and Keen’s competitors may also have excess capacity in the marketplace, which adversely impacts Keen’s revenues and profitability.

The nature of Keen’s operating activities can be hazardous, and accidents can cause personal injury or death, damage to Keen’s equipment and/or environmental damage.  These hazards are inherent in the contract drilling business, and if Keen is not fully protected through insurance coverage or indemnification from its customers any such accidents could adversely impact Keen’s profitability.  Keen maintains insurance coverage and has indemnification agreements with many of its customers; however, there is no assurance that such insurance or indemnification agreements would adequately protect Keen against liability or loss from all consequences of any accidents.  Additionally, Keen may not be able to purchase insurance economically.

New technologies and aging equipment could cause Keen’s drilling equipment and methods to become less competitive, resulting in reduced profitability or a requirement to make significant capital investments to remain competitive.  Improvements in drilling technology and aging equipment could cause Keen to become less competitive, lose business, suffer reduced profitability or result in impairment charges with respect to its drilling equipment.

The Hard Rock Biloxi is dependent upon patronage of persons living in the Gulf Coast region. The Hard Rock Biloxi primarily seeks to attract patrons from its local geographic area.  Downturns in local and regional economic conditions, an increase in competition in the surrounding area and interruptions caused by hurricanes could negatively impact operating results.

We may not be able to insure certain risks economically.  We cannot be certain that we will be able to insure all risks that we desire to insure economically or that all of our insurers or reinsurers will be financially viable if we make a claim.  If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits should occur, or if the Company is required to pay a deductible for an insured loss, results of operations could be adversely affected.  Premier has been severely damaged by hurricanes in the past, and it is possible that storms could cause significant damage in the future.  Damages from storms could result in Premier closing its facility to make repairs, resulting in lost business and adversely affecting results of operations.

 
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Increases in mortgage interest rate levels, the lack of available consumer credit and the depressed real estate market have reduced and may continue to reduce consumer demand for certain of our real estate development projects and result in impairment charges.  Due to current depressed economic conditions in the national real estate market, most of the Company’s real estate development projects are not being marketed for sale.  If the Company begins to market its development projects in the future, the ability to successfully attract customers will be highly dependent upon consumers’ ability to finance real estate purchases with affordable loans.  If the Company is unable to realize its projected cash flows for its development projects, impairment charges are likely.

Sangart is subject to extensive government regulation, cannot generate any revenue without regulatory approval of its products and is also subject to all of the risks inherent in establishing a new business.  Although funds invested in Sangart are generally expensed by Sangart when spent, the Company cannot be assured that it will ever receive a return on its investment due to the risky nature of Sangart’s development activities.  Clinical trials of Sangart’s product candidates are not complete, the products have not been approved for sale by regulatory authorities and there is a risk that its products may never prove effective or be approved.

Sangart’s success depends on its ability to obtain, maintain, renew and defend patent protection for its products and technologies, preserve trade secrets and operate without infringing on the intellectual property rights of others.  The patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies, such as Sangart, are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions.  If Sangart’s intellectual property positions are challenged, invalidated, circumvented or expire, or if Sangart fails to maintain or renew its third-party intellectual property licenses in good standing, its ability to successfully bring MP4 products to market would be adversely affected, it could incur monetary liabilities or be required to cease using the technology or product in dispute.

Sangart will require significant additional funding for product development and clinical trial activities prior to regulatory approval and commercial launch; the source of such funding has not been identified.  The Company expects to provide Sangart with sufficient capital during 2012.  Sangart has had discussions with third-party investors; however, no agreements have been reached and if such agreements are entered into it would likely result in significant dilution of the Company’s interest.  The Company has not determined whether it will continue to provide funds to Sangart and if so how much it will provide.  If Sangart is not provided with additional funds from either the Company or other sources when needed, it is unlikely that the Company will ever realize any significant return of its invested capital.

The Company has incurred costs to investigate and evaluate the development of a number of large scale energy projects; however, development of these projects is subject to obtaining significant third-party debt and equity financing, regulatory approvals, the procurement of purchase commitments for long-term supplies of feedstock and securing long-term commitments from purchasers of the output.  Although the Company has spent significant amounts investigating large scale energy projects, it will not be able to develop these projects without financing from other sources, various regulatory approvals and commitments from third-parties.  The timing of the commencement of construction of any project is also dependent upon the receipt of financing and regulatory approvals.  If the Company is unable to obtain such financing, approvals or commitments, it will not be able to recover its investment.

If Berkadia does not maintain certain specified ratings from the credit rating agencies it could lose its mortgage servicing rights.  Berkadia is required to maintain specified ratings from the credit rating agencies, and failure to do so would give its customers the right to terminate their mortgage servicing agreements.  If mortgage servicing agreements were terminated as a result of a credit ratings downgrade, the Company could lose its entire equity investment.

 
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When Berkadia originates loans for Fannie Mae, it is often required to share in the losses on such loans, which could be in excess of reserved amounts.  Berkadia carries a reserve on its balance sheet for contingent losses on loans originated for Fannie Mae that have loss sharing requirements.  If actual losses exceed amounts reserved, Berkadia’s profitability and cash flows will be reduced.

The loss of or changes in Berkadia’s relationships with U.S. Government-Sponsored Enterprises and federal agencies would have an adverse effect on Berkadia’s business.  Berkadia’s failure to comply with the applicable U.S. Government-Sponsored Enterprise or agency may result in its termination as an approved seller/servicer, mortgagee or issuer.  The loss of any such status could have a significant adverse impact on Berkadia’s results of operations, could result in a loss of similar approvals from other U.S. Government-Sponsored Enterprises or federal agencies and could have other adverse consequences to the business.  Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac retain broad discretion to terminate Berkadia as a seller/servicer without cause upon notice.

Changes in existing government-sponsored and federal mortgage programs could negatively affect Berkadia’s business.  Berkadia’s ability to generate income through mortgage sales to institutional investors depends in part on programs sponsored by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the FHA, which purchase such loans from Berkadia and/or facilitate the issuance of mortgage-backed securities in the secondary market.  The federal government has announced that the continuation of these programs is under review, and that any or all of the government agency programs could be substantially modified or eliminated in the future.  Any discontinuation of, or significant reduction or change in, the operation of those programs would have an adverse effect on Berkadia’s loan origination and servicing business and results of operations.  

Berkadia’s special servicing and fee-for-service businesses may be terminated on short notice.  Special servicing for each CMBS transaction is usually controlled by the subordinated bond holder class of the securitization.  The owners of the subordinated bonds may change from time to time, and subordinated bond holders may replace Berkadia with a different special servicer.  Fee-for-service customers are permitted to terminate Berkadia on short notice, usually 30 days.  If Berkadia loses special servicing rights or is terminated by fee-for-service customers, it would negatively impact Berkadia’s results of operations and cash flows.

CMBS loan and Bridge loan programs will expose Berkadia to credit and interest rate risk that it is not subject to with its government agency lending programs.  Unlike its government agency lending programs, Berkadia cannot be assured it will be able to sell CMBS and Bridge loans at par value to a third-party without any exposure to credit or interest rate risk.  If for any reason Berkadia is unable to sell a CMBS loan into the securitization market or if a borrower is unable to refinance a Bridge loan, Berkadia will retain all risks associated with such loan for as long as it owns the loan.  Berkadia may be forced to foreclose on defaulted loans and suffer a loss, or to sell loans to a third party at a discount, either of which would reduce Berkadia’s profitability and cash flows.

If Berkadia suffered significant losses and was unable to repay its commercial paper borrowings, the Company would be exposed to loss pursuant to a reimbursement obligation to Berkshire Hathaway.  Berkadia obtains funds generated by commercial paper sales of an affiliate of Berkadia.  All of the proceeds from the commercial paper sales are used by Berkadia to fund new mortgage loans, servicer advances, investments and other working capital requirements.  Repayment of the commercial paper is supported by a $2,500,000,000 surety policy issued by a Berkshire Hathaway insurance subsidiary and corporate guaranty, and the Company has agreed to reimburse Berkshire Hathaway for one-half of any losses incurred thereunder.  If Berkadia suffers significant losses and is unable to repay its commercial paper borrowings, the Company would suffer losses to the extent of its reimbursement obligation to Berkshire Hathaway.  As of December 31, 2011, the aggregate amount of commercial paper outstanding was $2,000,000,000.

 
28

 


Berkadia’s business is significantly affected by general economic conditions, particularly in the commercial real estate industry, and could be harmed in the event of a continued economic slowdown, prolonged recession or other market downturn or disruption.  Berkadia’s business and earnings are sensitive to changes in government policies and regulations, changes in interest rates, inflation, deflation, oversupply of real estate properties, fluctuations in the real estate and debt capital markets and developments in national and local economies.  Unfavorable economic conditions could have an adverse effect on Berkadia’s business, including decreasing the demand for new loans and the servicing of loans originated by third parties.

The Company has a substantial investment in Jefferies, an investment banking and securities firm whose operating results are greatly affected by the economy and financial markets.  Turmoil in the equity and credit markets had an adverse effect on the volume and size of transactions Jefferies executes for its customers, resulting in reduced revenues and profitability in its investment banking, asset management and trading activities, as well as losses in its principal trading activities.  Future declines in Jefferies’ operating results caused by these or other conditions could adversely affect the value of the Company’s investment.
 
    New financial legislation could affect the market value of the Company’s investment in Jefferies.  Recently adopted legislation in the U.S. will result in more comprehensive regulation of the financial services industry.  Such regulation could have an adverse impact on the market value of the Company’s investment in Jefferies.  Jefferies is also subject to certain specific risks which could impact the value of the Company’s investment; these risks are disclosed in Jefferies’ filings with the SEC.
 
    The Company has a substantial investment in Mueller, a manufacturer of copper, brass, plastic, and aluminum products whose operating results are greatly impacted by raw material costs, economic conditions in the housing and commercial construction industries and general overall economic conditions.  Mueller’s products are impacted by the prices of certain commodities used as raw materials and energy costs, which have been volatile.  Mueller typically attempts to pass cost increases onto its customers but is not always successful.  Mueller’s operating results have also been adversely impacted by general economic conditions particularly in the housing and commercial construction industries.  To the extent Mueller’s operating results are adversely impacted by these and other factors, the value of the Company’s investment in Mueller could decline.  Additional information about risk factors that impact Mueller are disclosed in its filings with the SEC.

The Company has substantial investments in Fortescue and Inmet, entities which are engaged in the mining of base metals (principally iron ore and copper), the prices of which have been volatile and can reduce the value of the Company’s investments.  The value of the Company’s investment in the base metals mining sector rise and fall with the changes in the underlying base metal prices.  In addition, mining operations are often subject to delay and regulatory scrutiny, which can increase costs or delay bringing mines into full production.  Pricing changes and mining delays have a direct impact on the value of the Company’s investments, and could adversely impact results of operations and equity.

The value of the FMG Note could be significantly reduced if the Company loses its litigation against Fortescue.  If the litigation is ultimately determined adversely to the Company and Fortescue issues additional notes, the Company’s future cash flows from the FMG Note and future results of operations would be adversely affected to the extent of the dilution resulting from the issuance of such additional notes, which could be significant.  In addition, depending upon the extent of any such dilution, the Company may have to record an impairment charge for its prepaid mining interest.

Garcadia’s business is dependent, in part, upon revenue from new and used car sales at its dealerships, and declines in revenues due to industry or other factors could result in reduced profitability, reduced cash flows and/or impairment charges.  Garcadia has recorded impairment charges in the past, principally for goodwill and other intangible assets, and if the automobile industry experiences a downturn in the future additional impairment charges are likely.  In addition, reduced revenues would result in reduced profitability and cash flows for the Company.

 
29

 


From time to time the Company may invest in illiquid securities that are subject to standstill agreements or are otherwise restricted.  From time to time the Company may invest in securities that are subject to restrictions which prohibit the Company from selling the subject securities for a period of time.  The Company has entered into a standstill agreement with Mueller for the two year period ending September 1, 2013, pursuant to which, among other things, the Company has agreed not to sell its shares if the buyer would own more than 4.9% of the outstanding shares.  Should the Company need to generate liquidity quickly, the agreement would limit the Company’s ability to dispose of this investment while the agreement is effective.
 
    The Company has significant investments in publicly traded securities and changes in the market prices of these securities, particularly during times of increased volatility in security prices, can have a significant impact on the Company’s investment portfolio, equity and, for certain investments, on results of operations.  The Company has significant investments in publicly traded securities, principally Fortescue, Jefferies, Mueller and Inmet, and in JHYH, an operating business that typically owns publicly traded securities.  Changes in the market values of publicly traded available for sale securities, such as Fortescue and Inmet, are reflected in other comprehensive income (loss) and equity but not in the consolidated statements of operations.  However, changes in the market value of Jefferies and Mueller, for which the Company has elected the fair value option, declines in the fair values of equity securities that the Company deems to be other than temporary, and declines in the fair values of debt securities related to credit losses are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and equity.  The Company’s investment in JHYH is accounted for on the equity method of accounting for which the Company records its share of JHYH’s profits or losses in its consolidated statements of operations.  To the extent that JHYH owns public securities, with changes in market values reflected in its earnings, this increases the Company’s exposure to volatility in the public securities markets.  Global securities markets have been highly volatile, and continued volatility may have a significant negative impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.
 
    Changes in government tax policies in foreign or domestic jurisdictions where the Company has investments could have an adverse impact on the value of those investments.  The Company has significant investments in both domestic and foreign businesses, where local and national government tax policies in the jurisdictions where those businesses operate could have an adverse impact on the value of those investments.  Government budget deficits may result in legislation to increase or add new taxes on businesses, in particular the domestic financial services and foreign mining sectors.  The Company has equity investments and/or loans to businesses operating in those sectors, and the announcement of unfavorable taxation policy or regulation for those businesses has had and could continue to have an adverse impact on the values of those investments, and reduce cash flows to the Company.

Current economic conditions have adversely affected most of the Company’s operations and investments.  A worsening of current economic conditions or a prolonged recession could cause a decline in estimated future cash flows expected to be generated by certain of the Company’s operations and investments, potentially resulting in impairment charges for long-lived assets.  Certain of the Company’s operating businesses and investments have significant investments in long-lived assets, in particular beef processing, manufacturing, oil and gas drilling services and gaming entertainment.  Current economic conditions have resulted in declining revenues for certain of these operations and their property and equipment is not being fully utilized.  As required, the Company has reviewed certain of these assets and investments for potential impairment, and except as otherwise disclosed has not concluded that the book values of these long-lived assets are not recoverable.  If the operating revenues of these businesses deteriorate in the future, and/or the Company lowers its estimates of future cash flows, impairment charges might have to be recorded.

 
30

 


We could experience significant increases in operating costs and reduced profitability due to competition for skilled management and staff employees in our operating businesses.  The Company competes with many other entities for skilled management and staff employees, including entities that operate in different market sectors than the Company.  Costs to recruit and retain adequate personnel could adversely affect results of operations.

Extreme weather, loss of electrical power or other forces beyond our control could negatively impact our business. Natural disasters, fire, terrorism, pandemic or extreme weather, including droughts, floods, excessive cold or heat, hurricanes or other storms, could interfere with our operating businesses due to power outages, fuel shortages, water shortages, damage to facilities or disruption of transportation channels, among other things.  Any of these factors, as well as disruptions to information systems, could have an adverse effect on financial results.

We rely on the security of our information technology systems and those of our third party providers to protect our proprietary information and information of our customers.  Some of our businesses involve the storage and transmission of customers’ personal information, consumer preferences and credit card information.  While we believe that we have implemented protective measures to effectively secure information and prevent security breaches, our information technology systems may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer hacking, computer viruses or other unauthorized attempts by third parties to access the proprietary information of our customers.  Information technology breaches and failures could disrupt our ability to function in the normal course of business resulting in lost revenue, the disclosure or modification of sensitive or confidential information and the incurrence of remediation costs, resulting in legal and financial exposure.  Moreover, loss of confidential customer identification information could harm our reputation and subject us to liability under laws that protect confidential personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenues.

From time to time we are subject to litigation, for which we may be unable to accurately assess our level of exposure and which if adversely determined, may have a significant adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.  The Company and its subsidiaries are or may become parties to legal proceedings that are considered to be either ordinary, routine litigation incidental to their business or not significant to the Company’s consolidated financial position or liquidity.  Although the Company’s current assessment is that there is no pending litigation that could have a significant adverse impact, if the Company’s assessment proves to be in error, then the outcome of litigation could have a significant impact on the Company’s financial statements.

We may not be able to generate sufficient taxable income to fully realize our deferred tax asset, which would also have to be reduced if U.S. federal income tax rates are lowered.  At December 31, 2011, we have recognized a net deferred tax asset of $1,584,886,000.  If we are unable to generate sufficient taxable income, we will not be able to fully realize the recorded amount of the net deferred tax asset.  If we are unable to generate sufficient taxable income prior to the expiration of our NOLs, the NOLs would expire unused.  The Company’s projections of future taxable income required to fully realize the recorded amount of the net deferred tax asset reflect numerous assumptions about our operating businesses and investments, and are subject to change as conditions change specific to our business units, investments or general economic conditions.  Changes that are adverse to the Company could result in the need to increase the deferred tax asset valuation allowance resulting in a charge to results of operations and a decrease to total stockholders’ equity.  In addition, if U.S. federal income tax rates are lowered, the Company would be required to reduce its net deferred tax asset with a corresponding reduction to earnings during the period.

The payment of dividends in the future is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors.  The Company does not have a regular dividend policy and whether or not to pay any dividends is determined each year by our Board of Directors.

 
31

 


Our common shares are subject to transfer restrictions.  We and certain of our subsidiaries have significant NOLs and other tax attributes, the amount and availability of which are subject to certain qualifications, limitations and uncertainties.  In order to reduce the possibility that certain changes in ownership could result in limitations on the use of the tax attributes, our certificate of incorporation contains provisions that generally restrict the ability of a person or entity from acquiring ownership (including through attribution under the tax law) of 5% or more of our common shares and the ability of persons or entities now owning 5% or more of our common shares from acquiring additional common shares.  The restriction will remain until the earliest of (a) December 31, 2024, (b) the repeal of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (or any comparable successor provision) and (c) the beginning of a taxable year to which these tax benefits may no longer be carried forward.  The restriction may be waived by our Board of Directors on a case by case basis.  Shareholders are advised to carefully monitor their ownership of our common shares and consult their own legal advisors and/or us to determine whether their ownership of our common shares approaches the proscribed level.
 
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments.

Not applicable.

Item 2.
Properties.

National Beef’s processing facilities, which are the principal properties used in its business, are described in Item 1 of this Report.  National Beef also leases corporate office space in Kansas City, Missouri (27,200 square feet) for its headquarters facility.

Idaho Timber’s plants and sawmills, which are the principal properties used in its business are described in Item 1 of this Report.  Premier’s Hard Rock Hotel & Casino facility is described in Item 1 of this Report.  Real estate investments that are part of the Company’s Domestic Real Estate segment are described in Item 1 of this Report.

Through its various subsidiaries, the Company owns and utilizes facilities in Salt Lake City, Utah for corporate office space and other activities (totaling approximately 26,700 square feet).  Subsidiaries of the Company own facilities primarily used for plastics manufacturing located in Georgia, Virginia and Genk, Belgium (totaling approximately 457,300 square feet), facilities and land in California, Oregon and Washington used for winery operations (totaling approximately 259,700 square feet and 1,534 acres, respectively), and facilities and land in Oklahoma used for oil and gas drilling services (totaling approximately 33,100 square feet and 75 acres, respectively).

The Company and its subsidiaries lease numerous manufacturing, warehousing, office and headquarters facilities.  The facilities vary in size and have leases expiring at various times, subject, in certain instances, to renewal options.  A subsidiary of the Company also leases space in New York, New York for corporate and other activities (approximately 32,600 square feet).  See Note 22 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings.

For information concerning litigation brought by the Company with respect to the FMG Note, see Item 1 and Item 7 of this Report.  The Company and its subsidiaries are also parties to legal proceedings that are considered to be either ordinary, routine litigation incidental to their business or not significant to the Company’s consolidated financial position or liquidity.

 
32

 


Item 4.      Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

Item 10.
Executive Officers of the Registrant.

All executive officers of the Company are elected at the organizational meeting of the Board of Directors of the Company held annually and serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.  As of February 16, 2012, the executive officers of the Company, their ages, the positions held by them and the periods during which they have served in such positions were as follows:


Name
 
Age
 
Position with Leucadia
Office Held Since
           
Ian M. Cumming
    71  
Chairman of the Board
June 1978
Joseph S. Steinberg
    68  
President
January 1979
Thomas E. Mara
    66  
Executive Vice President
May 1980
Joseph A. Orlando
    56  
Vice President and
January 1994;
         
  Chief Financial Officer
   April 1996
Barbara L. Lowenthal
    57  
Vice President and
April 1996
         
  Comptroller
 
Justin R. Wheeler
    39  
Vice President
October 2006
Joseph M. O’Connor
    36  
Vice President
May 2007
Rocco J. Nittoli
    53  
Vice President and
September 2007;
         
  Treasurer
   May 2007

Mr. Cumming has served as a director and Chairman of the Board of the Company since June 1978.  Mr. Cumming has also been a director of Skywest, Inc., a Utah-based regional air carrier, since June 1986 and a director of HomeFed since May 1999.  Mr. Cumming has been a director of Jefferies since April 2008 and a director of Mueller since September 2011.  Mr. Cumming previously served as a director and was Chairman of the Board of The FINOVA Group Inc. (“FINOVA”) and was a director of AmeriCredit Corp. (“ACF”) and Fortescue.

Mr. Steinberg has served as a director of the Company since December 1978 and as President of the Company since January 1979.  In addition, he has served as a director of HomeFed since August 1998 (Chairman since December 1999), Jefferies since April 2008 and Mueller since September 2011.  Mr. Steinberg previously served as a director of FINOVA, White Mountains Insurance Group, Jordan Industries Inc. and Fortescue.

Mr. Mara joined the Company in April 1977 and was elected Vice President of the Company in May 1977.  He has served as Executive Vice President of the Company since May 1980 and as Treasurer of the Company from January 1993 to May 2007.  In addition, he is a director of Inmet (since August 2005) and previously served as a director and Chief Executive Officer of FINOVA.

Mr. Orlando, a certified public accountant, has served as Chief Financial Officer of the Company since April 1996 and as Vice President of the Company since January 1994.

Ms. Lowenthal, a certified public accountant, has served as Vice President and Comptroller of the Company since April 1996.

Mr. Wheeler joined the Company in March 2000, and has served in a variety of capacities in the Company’s subsidiaries and as Vice President of the Company since October 2006.  In addition, he has served as a director of INTL FCStone Inc. since November 2004 and was a director of ACF.
 
Mr. O’Connor joined the Company in August 2001 and has served as Vice President of the Company since May 2007.

Mr. Nittoli joined the Company in September 1997, and has served in a variety of capacities at the Company’s subsidiaries and as Treasurer of the Company since May 2007, and as Vice President of the Company since September 2007.

 
33

 


PART II
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
 
The common shares of the Company are traded on the NYSE under the symbol LUK.  The following table sets forth, for the calendar periods indicated, the high and low sales price per common share on the consolidated transaction reporting system, as reported by the Bloomberg Professional Service provided by Bloomberg L.P.
 
   
Common Share
 
   
High
   
Low
 
             
2010
           
First Quarter
  $ 26.06     $ 21.30  
Second Quarter
    28.37       19.43  
Third Quarter
    24.21       18.80  
Fourth Quarter
    29.64       23.26  
                 
2011
               
First Quarter
  $ 37.61     $ 29.77  
Second Quarter
    39.02       32.11  
Third Quarter
    35.85       22.68  
Fourth Quarter
    28.61       20.42  
                 
2012
               
First Quarter (through February 16, 2012)
  $ 29.72     $ 23.89  

As of February 16, 2012, there were approximately 2,104 record holders of the common shares.

The Company paid cash dividends of $0.25 per common share in 2011 and 2010 and did not pay any cash dividends in 2009.  The payment of dividends in the future is subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon general business conditions, legal and contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends and other factors that the Board of Directors may deem to be relevant.

Certain subsidiaries of the Company have significant NOLs and other tax attributes, the amount and availability of which are subject to certain qualifications, limitations and uncertainties.  In order to reduce the possibility that certain changes in ownership could result in limitations on the use of the Company’s tax attributes, the Company's certificate of incorporation contains provisions which generally restrict the ability of a person or entity from acquiring ownership (including through attribution under the tax law) of five percent or more of the common shares and the ability of persons or entities now owning five percent or more of the common shares from acquiring additional common shares.  The restrictions will remain in effect until the earliest of (a) December 31, 2024, (b) the repeal of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (or any comparable successor provision) or (c) the beginning of a taxable year to which these tax benefits may no longer be carried forward.

The Company did not purchase any of its common shares during the fourth quarter of 2011.

The Board of Directors from time to time has authorized acquisitions of the Company’s common shares.  At December 31, 2011, the Company is authorized to purchase 11,987,880 common shares.

 
34

 
 
 
 
Stockholder Return Performance Graph

Set forth below is a graph comparing the cumulative total stockholder return on our common shares against the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the Standard & Poor’s 1500 Industrial Conglomerates Index for the period commencing December 31, 2006 to December 31, 2011.  Index data was furnished by Standard & Poor’s Capital IQ.  The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2006 in each of our common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P 1500 Industrial Conglomerates Index and that all dividends were reinvested.
 


 
 

         
INDEXED RETURNS
 
   
Base
   
Years Ending
 
   
Period
                               
Company / Index
 
Dec06
   
Dec07
   
Dec08
   
Dec09
   
Dec10
   
Dec11
 
Leucadia National Corporation
    100       167.91       70.59       84.81       104.92       82.66  
S&P 500 Index
    100       105.49       66.46       84.05       96.71       98.76  
S&P 1500 Industrial Conglomerates
    100       104.27       50.80       56.11       66.62       67.19  


Item 6.
Selected Financial Data.

The following selected financial data have been summarized from the Company’s consolidated financial statements and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with, such consolidated financial statements and Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Report.
 

 
35

 


 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
   
2007
 
   
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
 
                               
SELECTED INCOME STATEMENT DATA: (a)
                             
Revenues and other income (b)
  $ 1,570,768     $ 1,320,004     $ 575,208     $ 490,540     $ 714,762  
Expenses
    889,780       951,001       816,362       862,046       785,687  
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and income (losses) related to associated companies
      680,988         369,003       (241,154 )     (371,506 )     (70,925 )
Income tax provision (benefit) (c)
    270,253       (1,139,318 )     7,108       1,672,313       (561,753 )
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income (losses) related to associated companies
    410,735       1,508,321       (248,262 )     (2,043,819 )     490,828  
Income (losses) related to associated companies, net of taxes
    (394,041 )     380,766       780,236       (539,068 )     (21,875 )
Income (loss) from continuing operations (c)
    16,694       1,889,087       531,974       (2,582,887 )     468,953  
Income from discontinued operations, including gain (loss) on disposal, net of taxes
    8,262       51,149       16,621       46,075       11,319  
    Net income (loss) attributable to Leucadia National
                                       
      Corporation common shareholders
    25,231       1,939,312       550,280       (2,535,425 )     484,294  
                                         
Per share:
                                       
Basic earnings (loss) per common share attributable
                                       
to Leucadia National Corporation common
                                       
shareholders:
                                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations
  $ .07     $ 7.77     $ 2.21     $ (11.20 )   $ 2.17  
Income from discontinued operations, including gain (loss) on disposal
     .03        .20        .07         .20         .05  
Net income (loss)
  $ .10     $ 7.97     $ 2.28     $ (11.00 )   $ 2.22  
                                         
Diluted earnings (loss) per common share attributable
                                       
to Leucadia National Corporation common
                                       
shareholders:
                                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations
  $ .07     $ 7.66     $ 2.18     $ (11.20 )   $ 2.05  
Income from discontinued operations, including gain (loss) on disposal
     .03        .19        .07         .20         .05  
Net income (loss)
  $ .10     $ 7.85     $ 2.25     $ (11.00 )   $ 2.10  

   
At December 31,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
   
2007
 
   
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
 
SELECTED BALANCE SHEET DATA: (a)
                             
Cash and investments
  $ 2,545,500     $ 4,538,571     $ 2,343,420     $ 1,602,769     $ 4,168,439  
Total assets
    9,263,189       9,350,298       6,762,364       5,198,493       8,126,622  
Indebtedness, including current maturities
    2,323,183       2,092,249       1,970,371       2,080,891       2,135,161  
Shareholders’ equity
    6,174,396       6,956,758       4,361,647       2,676,797       5,570,492  
Book value per common share
  $ 25.24     $ 28.53     $ 17.93     $ 11.22     $ 25.03  
Cash dividends per common share
  $ .25     $ .25     $     $     $ .25  

(a)  
Subsidiaries are reflected above as consolidated entities from the date of acquisition.  National Beef was acquired on December 30, 2011; however, since its operating activities subsequent to the acquisition during 2011 were not significant they were not included in the 2011 consolidated statement of operations.  Keen was acquired in November 2009; for the periods prior to the acquisition the Company accounted for its equity interest in Keen under the equity method of accounting.  Premier is reflected as a consolidated subsidiary beginning in August 2007.  For additional information, see Note 3 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(b)  
Includes net securities gains (losses) of $641,476,000, $179,494,000, $(21,106,000), $(144,547,000) and $95,641,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.  Net securities gains (losses) are net of impairment charges of $3,586,000, $2,474,000, $31,420,000, $143,416,000 and $36,834,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

 
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(c)  
At December 31, 2010, the Company concluded that it was more likely than not that it would be able to realize a portion of the net deferred tax asset; accordingly, $1,157,111,000 of the deferred tax valuation allowance was reversed as a credit to income tax expense.  During 2008, the Company recorded a charge to income tax expense of $1,672,138,000 to reserve for substantially all of its net deferred tax asset due to the uncertainty about the Company’s ability to generate sufficient taxable income to realize the net deferred tax asset.  During 2007, the Company concluded that it was more likely than not that it would be able to realize a portion of the net deferred tax asset; accordingly, $542,686,000 of the deferred tax valuation allowance was reversed as a credit to income tax expense.
 
 
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The purpose of this section is to discuss and analyze the Company’s consolidated financial condition, liquidity and capital resources and results of operations.  This analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, related footnote disclosures and “Cautionary Statement for Forward-Looking Information,” which appear in Part I and elsewhere in this Report.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

General

The Company’s investment portfolio, equity and results of operations can be significantly impacted by the changes in market values of certain securities, particularly during times of increased volatility in security prices.  Changes in the market values of publicly traded available for sale securities are reflected in other comprehensive income (loss) and equity.  However, changes in the market prices of investments for which the Company has elected the fair value option, declines in the fair values of equity securities that the Company deems to be other than temporary, and declines in the fair values of debt securities related to credit losses are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and equity.  JHYH also owns public securities with changes in market values reflected in its earnings.  Since the Company accounts for JHYH on the equity method of accounting, it records its share of JHYH’s earnings in the consolidated statement of operations which increases the Company’s exposure to volatility in the public securities markets.

The Company’s largest publicly traded available for sale equity securities with changes in market values reflected in other comprehensive income (loss) are Fortescue and Inmet.  During the year ended December 31, 2011, the market value of the Company’s investment in the common shares of Fortescue decreased from $873,931,000 (excluding shares sold in 2011) to $569,256,000.  The market value of the Company’s investment in Inmet decreased from $862,481,000 to $708,193,000.  The market value of the Company’s investment in Jefferies, for which the fair value option was elected, decreased during the year with unrealized losses reflected in operations as a component of income related to associated companies.  During the year ended December 31, 2011, the Company recognized an unrealized loss related to its investment in Jefferies of $684,397,000.

Liquidity

Leucadia National Corporation is a holding company whose assets principally consist of the stock of its direct subsidiaries, cash and cash equivalents and other non-controlling investments in debt and equity securities.  The Company continuously evaluates the retention and disposition of its existing operations and investments and investigates possible acquisitions of new businesses in order to maximize shareholder value.  Accordingly, further acquisitions, divestitures, investments and changes in capital structure are possible.  Its principal sources of funds are its available cash resources, liquid investments, public and private capital market transactions, repayment of subsidiary advances, funds distributed from its subsidiaries as tax sharing payments, management and other fees, and borrowings and dividends from its subsidiaries, as well as dispositions of existing businesses and investments.

 
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In addition to cash and cash equivalents, the Company also considers investments classified as current assets and investments classified as non-current assets on the face of its consolidated balance sheet as being generally available to meet its liquidity needs.  Securities classified as current and non-current investments are not as liquid as cash and cash equivalents, but they are generally easily convertible into cash within a relatively short period of time.  As of December 31, 2011, the sum of these amounts aggregated $2,545,500,000.  However, since $694,265,000 of this amount is pledged as collateral pursuant to various agreements, is subject to trading restrictions, represents investments in non-public securities or is held by subsidiaries that are party to agreements that restrict the Company’s ability to use the funds for other purposes, the Company does not consider those amounts to be available to meet its liquidity needs.  The $1,851,235,000 that is available is comprised of cash and short-term bonds and notes of the U.S. Government and its agencies, U.S. Government-Sponsored Enterprises and other publicly traded debt and equity securities (including the Fortescue and Inmet common shares).  The Company’s available liquidity, and the investment income realized from cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities is used to meet the Company’s short-term recurring cash requirements, which are principally the payment of interest on its debt and corporate overhead expenses.
 
The holding company’s only long-term cash requirement is to make principal payments on its long-term debt ($1,474,311,000 principal outstanding as of December 31, 2011).  In January 2012, the Company called for redemption $511,344,000 aggregate principal amount of bonds pursuant to pre-existing call rights; excluding accrued interest the Company will pay an aggregate of $528,308,000 to redeem the bonds in March 2012.  The contractual maturity of these bonds was $423,140,000 in 2017 and $88,204,000 in 2027.  Excluding these bonds, the holding company’s remaining long-term debt matures as follows: $406,745,000 in 2013, $97,581,000 in 2014 and $458,641,000 in 2015.  Historically, the Company has used its available liquidity to make acquisitions of new businesses and other investments, but, except as disclosed in this Report, the timing of any future investments and the cost cannot be predicted.

From time to time in the past, the Company has accessed public and private credit markets and raised capital in underwritten bond financings.  The funds raised have been used by the Company for general corporate purposes, including for its existing businesses and new investment opportunities.  However, given the recent volatility in the credit markets, if and when the Company decides to raise funds through an underwritten bond offering it might be at a higher interest rate than in the past, or with terms that the Company may not find acceptable.  The Company has no current intention to seek additional bond financing, and will rely on its existing liquidity to fund corporate overhead expenses and corporate interest payments and, to fund new investing opportunities, it may also dispose of existing businesses and investments.  The Company’s senior debt obligations are rated four levels below investment grade by Moody’s Investors Services, two levels below investment grade by Fitch Ratings and one level below investment grade by Standard & Poor’s.  Ratings issued by bond rating agencies are subject to change at any time.

In March 2011, the Company invested an additional $50,000,000 in Sangart, which increased its ownership interest to approximately 96%.

In June 2011, a subsidiary of the Company purchased the assets of Seghesio Family Vineyards, the owner and operator of premium estate vineyards and a winery located in Healdsburg, California.  The cash purchase price was $86,018,000, which was primarily allocated as follows: $48,503,000 to property, equipment and leasehold improvements, $22,250,000 to amortizable intangible assets, $1,053,000 to goodwill and $12,962,000 to prepaids and other current assets (principally inventory).

 
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During 2009, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway provided Berkadia with a five-year, $1 billion secured credit facility, which was used to fund outstanding mortgage loans and servicer advances, purchase mortgage servicing rights and for working capital needs.  In 2010, Berkadia’s secured credit facility was amended to increase the size of the credit facility to $1.5 billion, with the Company agreeing to provide the increased funds under the facility.  In 2011, Berkadia fully repaid the amount outstanding under its secured credit facility, including $250,000,000 that was loaned by the Company, with funds generated by commercial paper sales of an affiliate of Berkadia.  Effective as of December 31, 2011, the secured credit facility was terminated.  All of the proceeds from the commercial paper sales are used by Berkadia to fund new mortgage loans, servicer advances, investments and other working capital requirements.  Repayment of the commercial paper is supported by a $2,500,000,000 surety policy issued by a Berkshire Hathaway insurance subsidiary and corporate guaranty, and the Company has agreed to reimburse Berkshire Hathaway for one-half of any losses incurred.  As of December 31, 2011, the aggregate amount of commercial paper outstanding was $2,000,000,000.

During 2011, the Company sold 117,400,000 common shares of Fortescue for net cash proceeds of $732,217,000, which resulted in the recognition of a net securities gain of $628,197,000.  In January 2012, the Company sold 100,000,000 Fortescue common shares for net cash proceeds of $506,490,000, and will record a net securities gain of $417,887,000 during the three month period ending March 31, 2012.

During 2011, the Company received $171,718,000 from FMG (net of $19,080,000 in withholding taxes) in payment of interest due on the FMG Note for the twelve month period ended June 30, 2011.  In January 2012, the Company received $97,093,000 (net of $10,788,000 in withholding taxes) from FMG in payment of interest due for the second half of 2011.  Future interest payments under the FMG Note will be dependent upon the physical volume of iron ore sold and the selling price, which can fluctuate widely, as well as the outcome of the litigation as described below.  As a result, it is not possible to predict whether interest earned in the most recent year will continue at the same level in future years.

In August 2010, the Company was advised that Fortescue is asserting that FMG is entitled to issue additional notes identical to the FMG Note in an unlimited amount.  Fortescue further claims that any interest to be paid on additional notes can dilute, on a pro rata basis, the Company’s entitlement to the stated interest of 4% of net revenue.  The Company does not believe that FMG has the right to issue additional notes which affect the Company’s interest or that the interpretation by Fortescue of the terms of the FMG Note, as currently claimed by Fortescue, reflects the agreement between the parties.

In September 2010, the Company filed a Writ of Summons against Fortescue, FMG and Fortescue’s then Chief Executive Officer in the Supreme Court of Western Australia.  The Writ of Summons seeks, among other things, an injunction restraining the issuance of any additional notes identical to the FMG Note and damages.  If the litigation is ultimately determined adversely to the Company and additional notes are issued, the Company’s future cash flows from the FMG Note and future results of operations would be significantly and adversely affected to the extent of the dilution resulting from the issuance of such additional notes.

During 2011, the Company purchased an aggregate of 8,654,639 Jefferies common shares through a public offering, in private transactions and in the open market for total cash consideration of $167,753,000.

During 2011, the Company acquired 10,422,859 common shares of Mueller, representing approximately 27.3% of the outstanding common shares of Mueller, for aggregate cash consideration of $408,558,000.  The Company has entered into a standstill agreement with Mueller for the two year period ending September 1, 2013, pursuant to which, among other things, the Company has agreed not to sell its shares if the buyer would own more than 4.9% of the outstanding shares.

 
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On December 30, 2011, the Company acquired 78.9% of National Beef for aggregate net cash consideration of $867,869,000, and National Beef became a consolidated subsidiary of the Company.  At December 31, 2011, National Beef’s credit facility consisted of a $323,750,000 outstanding term loan and a revolving credit line of up to $250,000,000; amounts outstanding under the facility mature in June 2016.  The term loan requires quarterly principal payments of $9,250,000.  The term loan and the revolving credit facility bear interest at the Base Rate or the LIBOR Rate (as defined in the credit facility), plus a margin ranging from .75% to 2.50% depending upon certain financial ratios and the rate selected.  At December 31, 2011, the interest rate on the term loan was 2.1% and the interest rate in the revolving credit facility was 2.2%.  The credit facility is secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of the assets of National Beef and its subsidiaries, which aggregated $1,786,855,000 at December 31, 2011.  The Company has not guaranteed any of National Beef’s liabilities.  For more information on the allocation of the purchase price to National Beef’s individual assets and liabilities, see Critical Accounting Estimates below.

In February 2009, the Board of Directors authorized the Company, from time to time, to purchase its outstanding debt securities through cash purchases in open market transactions, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise.  Such repurchases, if any, depend upon prevailing market conditions, the Company’s liquidity requirements and other factors; such purchases may be commenced or suspended at any time without notice.

In March 2007, the Board of Directors increased the number of the Company’s common shares that the Company is authorized to purchase.  Such purchases may be made from time to time in the open market, through block trades or otherwise.  Depending on market conditions and other factors, such purchases may be commenced or suspended at any time without notice.  During the three year period ended December 31, 2011, the only common shares acquired by the Company were in connection with the exercise of stock options.  As of February 16, 2012, the Company is authorized to repurchase 11,987,880 common shares.

The Company and certain of its subsidiaries have substantial NOLs and other tax attributes.  The amount and availability of the NOLs and other tax attributes are subject to certain qualifications, limitations and uncertainties.  In order to reduce the possibility that certain changes in ownership could impose limitations on the use of the NOLs, the Company’s certificate of incorporation contains provisions which generally restrict the ability of a person or entity from acquiring ownership (including through attribution under the tax law) of five percent or more of the common shares and the ability of persons or entities now owning five percent or more of the common shares from acquiring additional common shares.  The restrictions will remain in effect until the earliest of (a) December 31, 2024, (b) the repeal of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (or any comparable successor provision) or (c) the beginning of a taxable year to which certain tax benefits may no longer be carried forward.  For more information about the NOLs and other tax attributes, see Note 19 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

As discussed above, the Company has historically relied on its available liquidity to meet its short-term and long-term needs, and to make acquisitions of new businesses and investments.  Except as otherwise disclosed herein, the Company’s operating businesses do not generally require significant funds to support their operating activities, and the Company does not depend on positive cash flow from its operating segments to meet its liquidity needs.  The components of the Company’s operating businesses and investments change frequently as a result of acquisitions or divestitures, the timing of which is impossible to predict but which often have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of cash flows in any one period.  Further, the timing and amounts of distributions from investments in associated companies may be outside the control of the Company.  As a result, reported cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities do not generally follow any particular pattern or trend, and reported results in the most recent period should not be expected to recur in any subsequent period.

 
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    Net cash of $9,084,000 and $431,266,000 was provided by operating activities in 2011 and 2010, respectively, The change in operating cash flows reflects interest payments received from FMG ($171,718,000 in 2011 and $154,930,000 in 2010, net of withholding taxes), greater income tax payments, lower interest payments and the proceeds received from the sale of ACF in excess of the cost of the investment in 2010 ($404,700,000).  Keen generated funds of $23,446,000 and $7,311,000 during 2011 and 2010, respectively; Premier generated funds of $26,516,000 and $26,524,000 during 2011 and 2010, respectively; and the Company’s manufacturing segments generated funds of $12,819,000 and $28,333,000 during 2011 and 2010, respectively.  Funds used by Sangart, a development stage company, increased to $39,396,000 during 2011 from $23,757,000 during 2010.  During 2011, distributions from associated companies principally include earnings distributed by Berkadia ($23,636,000), Jefferies ($7,789,000) and Garcadia ($5,654,000).  In 2010, distributions from associated companies principally include ACF, earnings distributed by Berkadia ($29,000,000) and Jefferies ($14,575,000).  Net gains related to real estate, property and equipment, and other assets in 2011 include a gain of $81,848,000 on forgiveness of debt related to the Myrtle Beach project.  Funds provided by operating activities include $4,690,000 and $11,640,000 in 2011 and 2010, respectively, from funds distributed by Empire Insurance Company (“Empire”), a discontinued operation.
 
    Net cash of $431,266,000 was provided by operating activities in 2010 as compared to $133,398,000 of cash used for operating activities in 2009.  The change in operating cash flows reflects the sale of ACF in 2010, interest paid on the FMG Note in 2010, greater income tax payments, lower interest payments and increased distributions of earnings from associated companies.  The telecommunications operations of STi Prepaid, LLC (“STi Prepaid”), which was sold during 2010, generated funds from operating activities of $532,000 in 2010 and $3,355,000 in 2009.  The property management and services operations of ResortQuest International, LLC (“ResortQuest”), which was sold in 2010, generated funds from operating activities of $6,268,000 in 2010 and used funds of $888,000 in 2009.  Keen, which became a consolidated subsidiary in November 2009, generated funds of $7,311,000 in 2010 and used funds of $5,410,000 in 2009.  Premier generated funds of $26,524,000 and $21,866,000 in 2010 and 2009, respectively; and the Company’s manufacturing segments generated funds from operating activities of $28,333,000 and $30,342,000 in 2010 and 2009, respectively.  Funds used by Sangart, a development stage company, were $23,757,000 in 2010 and $20,334,000 in 2009.  In 2010, distributions from associated companies principally include ACF, earnings distributed by Berkadia ($29,000,000) and Jefferies ($14,575,000).  In 2009, distributions from associated companies principally include earnings distributed by HFH ShortPLUS Fund L.P. (“Shortplus”) ($14,545,000), Keen ($8,379,000) and Garcadia ($11,108,000).  Funds provided by operating activities include $11,640,000 and $11,253,000 in 2010 and 2009, respectively, from funds distributed by Empire.
 
    Net cash of $175,297,000 and $208,718,000 was used for investing activities in 2011 and 2010, respectively, as compared to net cash flows provided by investing activities of $71,971,000 in 2009.  During 2011, proceeds from disposals of real estate, property and equipment, and other assets include $12,040,000 from the sale of certain of Keen’s rigs.  Acquisitions, net of cash acquired, primarily relates to the Company’s acquisition of National Beef and Seghesio Family Vineyards.  Proceeds from disposal of discontinued operations, net of expenses and cash of operations sold principally include STi Prepaid ($10,644,000) in 2011 and ResortQuest ($52,135,000), a shopping center ($17,064,000) and STi Prepaid ($(9,819,000)) in 2010.  Investments in associated companies include Jefferies ($167,753,000), Mueller ($408,558,000), Linkem ($88,575,000) and Garcadia ($32,400,000) in 2011, Berkadia ($292,544,000), Las Cruces ($2,687,000), Jefferies ($17,998,000) and ACF ($7,236,000) in 2010 and Las Cruces ($43,320,000), ACF ($13,316,000) and Berkadia ($217,169,000) in 2009.  Capital distributions and loan repayment from associated companies include Berkadia ($283,530,000), JHYH ($8,710,000), Jefferies ($8,326,000) and Garcadia ($10,382,000) in 2011, ACF ($425,842,000), Berkadia ($44,544,000), JHYH ($17,077,000), Wintergreen Partners Fund, L.P. (“Wintergreen”) ($4,397,000) and Garcadia ($8,778,000) in 2010 and Keen ($28,340,000), Wintergreen ($38,958,000), Shortplus ($24,861,000) and Starboard Value Opportunity Partners, LP ($11,502,000) in 2009.

 
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Net cash of $106,637,000 and $21,948,000 was used for financing activities in 2011 and 2009, respectively, as compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $64,664,000 in 2010.  Issuance of long-term debt primarily reflects the increase in repurchase agreements of $16,358,000, $202,539,000 and $47,494,000 for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, and, in 2011, $75,947,000 borrowed by National Beef under its revolving credit facility.  Immediately after the Company’s acquisition of its interest, National Beef borrowed funds to redeem the interest of its chief executive officer pursuant to pre-existing put rights.

Reduction of debt for 2011 includes $19,275,000 in full satisfaction of the Myrtle Beach project’s non-recourse indebtedness, $32,881,000 on the maturity of debt of a subsidiary that was collateralized by certain of the Company’s corporate aircraft, $8,500,000 for the repayment of Keen’s line of credit and $82,531,000 in the aggregate for the buyback of $21,359,000 principal amount of the Company’s 8 1/8% Senior Notes due 2015, $54,860,000 principal amount of the Company’s 7 1/8% Senior Notes due 2017 and $1,350,000 principal amount of the Company’s 8.65% Junior Subordinated Deferrable Interest Debentures due 2027.  Reduction of debt for 2010 includes $10,226,000 for repayment of debt by a subsidiary, and $80,859,000 in the aggregate for the buyback of $5,500,000 principal amount of the 7 3/4% Senior Notes, $27,200,000 principal amount of the 7% Senior Notes, $20,000,000 principal amount of the 8 1/8% Senior Notes, $22,000,000 principal amount of the 7 1/8% Senior Notes, and $2,146,000 principal amount of the 8.65% Junior Subordinated Deferrable Interest Debentures.  Reduction of debt for 2009 includes $35,361,000 in the aggregate for the buyback of $35,555,000 principal amount of the 7% Senior Notes and $6,500,000 principal amount of the 8.65% Junior Subordinated Deferrable Interest Debentures.  Purchase of interest in subsidiary by noncontrolling interest for 2011 represents the acquisition of a minority interest in National Beef by its chief executive officer immediately after the Company acquired its interest.  Issuance of common shares reflects the exercise of employee stock options for all periods.

Debt due within one year includes $417,479,000 and $401,121,000 at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, relating to repurchase agreements of one of the Company’s subsidiaries.  These fixed rate repurchase agreements have a weighted average interest rate of approximately 0.3%, mature in January 2012 and are secured by non-current investments with a carrying value of $432,768,000 at December 31, 2011.  These borrowings are used solely to fund a portion of the purchase price of a segregated portfolio of mortgage pass-through certificates issued by U.S. Government agencies (GNMA) and by U.S. Government-Sponsored Enterprises (FHLMC or FNMA).  The securities purchased are generally adjustable rate certificates, secured by seasoned pools of securitized, highly rated residential mortgages, and the certificates acquired generally represent all of the certificates issued by the securitization.

The Company’s senior note indentures contain covenants that restrict its ability to incur more Indebtedness or issue Preferred Stock of Subsidiaries unless, at the time of such incurrence or issuance, the Company meets a specified ratio of Consolidated Debt to Consolidated Tangible Net Worth, limit the ability of the Company and Material Subsidiaries to incur, in certain circumstances, Liens, limit the ability of Material Subsidiaries to incur Funded Debt in certain circumstances, and contain other terms and restrictions all as defined in the senior note indentures.  The Company has the ability to incur substantial additional indebtedness or make distributions to its shareholders and still remain in compliance with these restrictions.  If the Company is unable to meet the specified ratio, the Company would not be able to issue additional Indebtedness or Preferred Stock, but the Company’s inability to meet the applicable ratio would not result in a default under its senior note indentures.  The senior note indentures do not restrict the payment of dividends.  Certain of the debt instruments of subsidiaries of the Company require that collateral be provided to the lender; principally as a result of such requirements, the assets of subsidiaries which are subject to limitations on transfer of funds to the Company were $2,251,548,000 at December 31, 2011.

 
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As shown below, at December 31, 2011, the Company’s contractual cash obligations totaled $3,173,653,000.

   
Payments Due by Period (in thousands)
 
 
Contractual Cash Obligations
 
Total
   
Less than 1 Year
   
 1-3 Years
   
4-5 Years
   
After 5 Years
 
                               
Indebtedness, including current maturities
  $ 2,327,320     $ 447,612     $ 583,347     $ 783,017     $ 513,344  
Estimated interest expense on debt
    500,025       117,972       188,134       110,992       82,927  
Cattle commitments
    101,399       101,399                    
Planned funding of pension and
                                       
postretirement obligations
    63,073       3,000       60,073              
Operating leases, net of  sublease income
    104,872       20,227       34,065       17,654       32,926  
Asset purchase obligations
    16,648       5,158       7,835       2,388       1,267  
Other
    60,316       19,011       9,839       8,838       22,628  
                                         
Total Contractual Cash Obligations
  $ 3,173,653     $ 714,379     $ 883,293     $ 922,889     $ 653,092  
 
    Contractual cash obligations aggregating $783,135,000 related to indebtedness called for redemption in 2012 are reflected in the table above in the period of their original contractual maturities.
 
    The estimated interest expense on debt includes interest related to variable rate debt which the Company determined using rates in effect at December 31, 2011.  Amounts related to the Company’s pension liability ($63,073,000) are included in the table in the less than 1 year period ($3,000,000) and the remainder in the 1-3 years period; however, the exact timing of those cash payments is uncertain.  The above amounts do not include liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits as the timing of payments, if any, is uncertain.  Such amounts aggregated $9,800,000 at December 31, 2011; for more information, see Note 19 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

When the Company sold its former telecommunications subsidiary, WilTel Communications Group, LLC (“WilTel”) in 2005, WilTel’s defined benefit pension plan was not transferred in connection with the sale.  At December 31, 2011, the Company had recorded a liability of $63,073,000 on its consolidated balance sheet for WilTel’s unfunded defined benefit pension plan obligation.  This amount represents the difference between the present value of amounts owed to former employees of WilTel (referred to as the projected benefit obligation) and the market value of plan assets set aside in segregated trust accounts.  Since the benefits in this plan have been frozen, future changes to the unfunded benefit obligation are expected to principally result from benefit payments, changes in the market value of plan assets, differences between actuarial assumptions and actual experience and interest rates.

The Company expects to make substantial contributions to the segregated trust account for the WilTel defined benefit pension plan in the future to reduce its plan liabilities although the timing after 2012 is uncertain.  The Company expects to contribute $3,000,000 to WilTel’s defined benefit pension plan in 2012.  The tax deductibility of contributions is not a primary consideration, principally due to the availability of the Company’s NOLs to otherwise reduce taxable income.
 
    As of December 31, 2011, certain amounts for the WilTel plan are as follows (dollars in thousands):


Projected benefit obligation
  $ 251,949  
Funded status – balance sheet liability at December 31, 2011
    63,073  
Deferred losses included in other comprehensive income (loss)
    104,424  
Discount rate used to determine the projected benefit obligation
    4.4 %

 
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Calculations of pension expense and projected benefit obligations are prepared by actuaries based on assumptions provided by management.  These assumptions are reviewed on an annual basis, including assumptions about discount rates, interest credit rates and expected long-term rates of return on plan assets.  The timing of expected future benefit payments was used in conjunction with the Citigroup Pension Discount Curve to develop a discount rate that is representative of the high quality corporate bond market.

This discount rate will be used to determine pension expense in 2012.  Holding all other assumptions constant, a 0.25% change in this discount rate would affect pension expense by $492,000 and the benefit obligation by $9,182,000.

The deferred losses included in other comprehensive income (loss) primarily result from differences between the actual and assumed return on plan assets and changes in actuarial assumptions, including changes in discount rates and changes in interest credit rates.  Deferred losses are amortized to expense if they exceed 10% of the greater of the projected benefit obligation or the market value of plan assets as of the beginning of the year; such amount aggregated $71,131,000 at December 31, 2011.  A portion of these excess deferred losses will be amortized to expense during 2012 based on an amortization period of twelve years.
 
    The assumed long-term rates of return on plan assets are based on the investment objectives of the plan, which are more fully discussed in Note 20 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
    At December 31, 2011, the Company’s off-balance sheet arrangements consist of guarantees and letters of credit.  Pursuant to an agreement that was entered into before the Company sold CDS Holding Corporation ("CDS") to HomeFed in 2002, the Company agreed to provide project improvement bonds for the San Elijo Hills project.  These bonds, which are for the benefit of the City of San Marcos, California and other government agencies, are required prior to the commencement of any development at the project.  CDS is responsible for paying all third party fees related to obtaining the bonds.  Should the City or others draw on the bonds for any reason, CDS and one of its subsidiaries would be obligated to reimburse the Company for the amount drawn.  At December 31, 2011, the amount of outstanding bonds was $1,224,000, almost all of which expires in 2012 and 2013.
 
    Subsidiaries of the Company have outstanding letters of credit aggregating $36,524,000 at December 31, 2011, principally to secure various obligations.  All of these letters of credit expire before 2016.

As discussed above, the Company and Berkshire Hathaway have agreed to share equally any losses incurred under a $2,500,000,000 surety policy and corporate guaranty issued by Berkshire Hathaway for a commercial paper program funding sponsored by Berkadia.  As of December 31, 2011, the aggregate amount of commercial paper outstanding was $2,000,000,000.

Critical Accounting Estimates

The Company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations are based upon its consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP.  The preparation of these financial statements requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the financial statements and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities.  On an on-going basis, the Company evaluates all of these estimates and assumptions.  The following areas have been identified as critical accounting estimates because they have the potential to have a significant impact on the Company's financial statements, and because they are based on assumptions which are used in the accounting records to reflect, at a specific point in time, events whose ultimate outcome won’t be known until a later date.  Actual results could differ from these estimates.

 
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Income Taxes – The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its net deferred tax asset to the net amount that is more likely than not to be realized.  If in the future the Company determines that it is more likely than not that the Company will be able to realize its net deferred tax asset in excess of its net recorded amount, an adjustment to increase the net deferred tax asset would increase income in such period.  If in the future the Company were to determine that it would not be able to realize all or part of its recorded net deferred tax asset, an adjustment to decrease the net deferred tax asset would be charged to income in such period.  The Company is required to consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, and to weight the evidence when determining whether a valuation allowance is required and the amount of such valuation allowance.  Generally, greater weight is required to be placed on objectively verifiable evidence when making this assessment, in particular on recent historical operating results.

During 2010, the Company realized significant gains from the sale of certain investments, recorded significant unrealized gains in the fair values of other investments and began to experience modest improvement in the operating results in some business segments.  Additionally, the Company’s cumulative taxable income for recent years became a positive amount, reflecting the realized gains on the sales of ACF and Las Cruces during the fourth quarter of 2010.  With this recent positive evidence the Company gave greater weight to its revised projections of future taxable income, which consider significant unrealized gains in its investment portfolio, and to its long-term historical ability to generate significant amounts of taxable income when assessing the amount of its required valuation allowance.  As a result, the Company was able to conclude that it is more likely than not that it will have future taxable income sufficient to realize a significant portion of the Company’s net deferred tax asset; accordingly, $1,157,111,000 of the deferred tax valuation allowance was reversed as a credit to income tax expense on December 31, 2010.  In addition to its projections of future taxable income, the Company is relying upon the sale of investments that have unrealized gains before the NOLs expire and the corresponding reversal of related deferred tax liabilities to realize a portion of its net deferred tax asset.

The Company’s estimate of future taxable income considers all available evidence, both positive and negative, about its operating businesses and investments, included an aggregation of individual projections for each significant operating business and investment, estimated apportionment factors for state and local taxing jurisdictions and included all future years that the Company estimated it would have available NOLs (until 2029).  The Company believes that its estimate of future taxable income is reasonable but inherently uncertain, and if its current or future operations and investments generate taxable income different than the projected amounts, further adjustments to the valuation allowance are possible.  In addition to the reversal of deferred tax liabilities related to unrealized gains, the Company will need to generate approximately $4,600,000,000 of future U.S. pre-tax income to fully realize its net deferred tax asset.  The current balance of the deferred tax valuation allowance principally reserves for NOLs of certain subsidiaries that are not available to offset income generated by other members of the Company’s consolidated tax return group.

The Company also records reserves for contingent tax liabilities based on the Company’s assessment of the probability of successfully sustaining its tax filing positions.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets – The Company evaluates its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate, in management’s judgment, that the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable.  When testing for impairment, the Company groups its long-lived assets with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities (or asset group).  The determination of whether an asset group is recoverable is based on management’s estimate of undiscounted future cash flows directly attributable to the asset group as compared to its carrying value.  If the carrying amount of the asset group is greater than the undiscounted cash flows, an impairment loss would be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its estimated fair value.

 
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One of the Company’s real estate subsidiaries (MB1) had been the owner and developer of a mixed use real estate project located in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.  The project was comprised of a retail center with approximately 346,000 square feet of retail space, 41,000 square feet of office space and 195 residential apartment rental units.  The acquisition and construction costs were funded by capital contributed by the Company and nonrecourse indebtedness with a balance of $100,524,000 at December 31, 2010, that was collateralized by the real estate.

During the second quarter of 2009, MB1 was unable to make scheduled payments under its interest rate swap agreement and received several default notices under its bank loan.  These events constituted a change in circumstances that caused the Company to evaluate whether the carrying amount of MB1’s real estate asset was recoverable.  The Company prepared cash flow models and utilized a discounted cash flow technique to determine the fair value of MB1’s real estate.  The most significant assumptions in the Company’s cash flow models were the discount rate (11%) and the capitalization rate used to estimate the selling price of the retail center (9%); these rates were selected based on published reports of market conditions for similar properties.  Based on its evaluation, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $67,826,000 during the second quarter of 2009 (classified as selling, general and other expenses).  Although MB1’s bank loan matured in October 2009, it was not repaid since MB1 did not have sufficient funds and the Company was under no obligation to provide the funds to MB1 to pay off the loan.

During the second quarter of 2010, MB1 entered into an agreement with its lenders under which, among other things, MB1 agreed not to interfere with or oppose foreclosure proceedings and the lenders agreed to release MB1 and various guarantors of the loan.  A receiver was put in place at the property, foreclosure proceedings commenced and an auction of the property was conducted; however, the Company was informed during the fourth quarter of 2010 that the highest bidder for the property failed to close.  In December 2010, the Company was invited to make a bid for the property, with the condition that a foreclosure sale to the Company must close as soon as possible without any due diligence period, which new bidders for the property would require.  A subsidiary of the Company offered $19,275,000 for the property (including net working capital amounts); the offer was accepted and the foreclosure sale closed on January 7, 2011.

As a result of the failure of the initial buyer to purchase the property and the subsequent sale to the Company in 2011, the Company concluded that the carrying value of the property was further impaired at December 31, 2010; accordingly, the Company recorded an additional impairment charge in 2010 of $47,074,000 to reflect the property at its fair value of $18,094,000.  At closing in 2011, MB1 was released from any remaining liability under the bank loan; accordingly, the remaining balance due after payment of the purchase price ($81,848,000) was recognized in other income in 2011.  Including the cash paid in the foreclosure sale, the Company’s cumulative net cash investment in this project is $85,595,000.

There were no significant impairment charges recorded during 2011.  During 2010, the Company recorded impairment charges in selling, general and other expenses of $2,357,000 for another real estate project and $1,449,000 in the corporate segment for one of its corporate aircraft that was later sold.  In 2009, the Company recorded impairment charges in selling, general and other expenses of $2,563,000 related to its manufacturing segment (primarily Idaho Timber) and $3,646,000 related to its real estate segment.

Current economic conditions have adversely affected most of the Company’s operations and investments.  A worsening of current economic conditions or a prolonged recession could cause a decline in estimated future cash flows expected to be generated by the Company’s operations and investments.  If future undiscounted cash flows are estimated to be less than the carrying amounts of the asset groups used to generate those cash flows in subsequent reporting periods, particularly for those with large investments in intangible assets and property and equipment (for example, beef processing, manufacturing, gaming entertainment, land based contract oil and gas drilling operations, real estate and certain associated company investments), impairment charges would have to be recorded.

 
46

 


Impairment of Equity Method Investments – The Company evaluates equity method investments for impairment when operating losses or other factors may indicate a decrease in value which is other than temporary.  For investments in investment partnerships that are accounted for under the equity method, the Company obtains from the investment partnership financial statements, net asset values and other information on a quarterly basis and annual audited financial statements.  On a quarterly basis, the Company also makes inquiries and discusses with investment managers whether there were significant procedural, valuation, composition and other changes at the investee.  Since these investment partnerships record their underlying investments at fair value, after application of the equity method the carrying value of the Company’s investment is equal to its share of the investees’ underlying net assets at their fair values.  Absent any unusual circumstances or restrictions concerning these investments, which would be separately evaluated, it is unlikely that any additional impairment charge would be required.
 
For equity method investments in operating businesses, the Company considers a variety of factors including economic conditions nationally and in their geographic areas of operation, adverse changes in the industry in which they operate, declines in business prospects, deterioration in earnings, increasing costs of operations and other relevant factors specific to the investee.  Whenever the Company believes conditions or events indicate that one of these investments might be significantly impaired, the Company will obtain from such investee updated cash flow projections and impairment analyses of the investee assets.  The Company will use this information and, together with discussions with the investee’s management, evaluate if the book value of its investment exceeds its fair value, and if so and the situation is deemed other than temporary, record an impairment charge.
 
During the second quarter of 2009, the Company’s equity in losses of Garcadia included impairment charges for goodwill and other intangible assets aggregating $32,348,000.  Garcadia’s automobile dealerships had been adversely impacted by general economic conditions, and the bankruptcy filings by two of the three largest U.S. automobile manufacturers was a change in circumstances that caused Garcadia to evaluate the recoverability of its goodwill and other intangible assets.  Garcadia prepared discounted cash flow projections for each of its dealerships and concluded that the carrying amount of its goodwill and other intangible assets was impaired.
 
Impairment of Securities – Declines in the fair value of equity securities considered to be other than temporary and declines in the fair values of debt securities related to credit losses are reflected in net securities gains (losses) in the consolidated statements of operations.  The Company evaluates its investments for impairment on a quarterly basis.

The Company’s determination of whether a security is other than temporarily impaired incorporates both quantitative and qualitative information; GAAP requires the exercise of judgment in making this assessment, rather than the application of fixed mathematical criteria.  The various factors that the Company considers in making its determination are specific to each investment.  For publicly traded debt and equity securities, the Company considers a number of factors including, but not limited to, the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, the financial condition and near term prospects of the issuer, the reason for the decline in fair value, changes in fair value subsequent to the balance sheet date, the ability and intent to hold investments to maturity, and other factors specific to the individual investment.  For investments in private equity funds and non-public securities, the Company bases its determination upon financial statements, net asset values and/or other information obtained from fund managers or investee companies.

The Company recorded the following impairment charges for securities in the consolidated statement of operations during the three year period ended December 31, 2011 (in thousands):

 
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2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Publicly traded securities
  $ 3,243     $     $ 14,384  
Non-public securities and private equity funds
    8       767       2,224  
Non-agency mortgage-backed bond securitizations
    335       1,707       14,812  
  Totals
  $ 3,586     $ 2,474     $ 31,420  

The Company’s assessment involves a high degree of judgment and accordingly, actual results may differ significantly from the Company’s estimates and judgments.

Credit Quality of Financing Receivables and Allowance for Credit Losses – The Company’s operating subsidiaries do not provide financing to their customers in the ordinary course of business.  However, the Company does have the FMG Note, which had a balance of $40,801,000 at December 31, 2011, that meets the accounting definition of a finance receivable.  The Company exercises judgment in evaluating the credit risk and collectability of this note.  This assessment was made prior to the inception of the credit exposure and continues to be made at regular intervals.  The various factors that the Company considers in making its assessment include the current and projected financial condition of FMG, the Company’s collection experience and the length of time until the note becomes due.  As a result of its assessment, the Company concluded that an allowance for credit losses was not required as of December 31, 2011.

Business Combinations – At acquisition, the Company allocates the cost of a business acquisition to the specific tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their fair values.  Significant judgments and estimates are often made by the Company’s management to determine these values, and may include the use of appraisals, consideration of market quotes for similar transactions, use of discounted cash flow techniques or consideration of other information the Company believes to be relevant.  The finalization of the purchase price allocation will typically take a number of months to complete, and if final values are significantly different from initially recorded amounts adjustments to prior periods may be required.  Any excess of the cost of a business acquisition over the fair values of the net assets and liabilities acquired is recorded as goodwill, which is not amortized to expense.  If the fair values of the net assets and liabilities acquired are greater than the purchase price, the excess is treated as a bargain purchase and recognized in income.  Recorded goodwill of a reporting unit is required to be tested for impairment on an annual basis, and between annual testing dates if events or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its net book value.  At December 31, 2011, the book value of goodwill was $18,119,000 and was not impaired.
 
Subsequent to the finalization of the purchase price allocation, any adjustments to the recorded values of acquired assets and liabilities would be reflected in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations.  Once final, the Company is not permitted to revise the allocation of the original purchase price, even if subsequent events or circumstances prove the Company’s original judgments and estimates to be inaccurate.  In addition, long-lived assets recorded in a business combination like property and equipment, intangibles and goodwill may be deemed to be impaired in the future resulting in the recognition of an impairment loss.  The assumptions and judgments made by the Company when recording business combinations will have an impact on reported results of operations for many years into the future.

In December 2011, the Company acquired 78.9% of National Beef and it became a consolidated subsidiary of the Company.  The preliminary allocation of the purchase price included $446,166,000 to property, equipment and leasehold improvements, $809,569,000 to amortizable intangible assets, $8,915,000 to goodwill, $269,395,000 to net working capital accounts, $357,529,000 to long-term debt and $304,356,000 to redeemable non-controlling interests.

 
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To assist the Company’s management in its determination of the fair value of National Beef’s property and equipment, identifiable intangible assets and equity value, the Company engaged an independent valuation and appraisal firm.  The methods used by the Company’s management to determine the fair values included estimating National Beef’s business enterprise value through the use of a discounted cash flow analysis.  Property and equipment asset valuations included an analysis of depreciated replacement cost and current market prices.  The Company considered several factors to determine the fair value of property and equipment, including local market conditions, recent market transactions, the size, age, condition, utility and character of the property, the estimated cost to acquire replacement property, an estimate of depreciation from use and functional obsolescence and the remaining expected useful life of the assets.

Amounts allocated to product inventories were principally based on quoted commodity prices on the acquisition date.  For other components of working capital, the historical carrying values approximated fair values.  National Beef’s long-term debt principally consists of its senior credit facility payable to its bank group, which was renegotiated in June 2011.  In December 2011, the lenders consented to the acquisition as required by the credit facility, and to certain other amendments to the facility’s covenants; the pricing of the credit facility remained the same.  In addition to these factors, the Company also analyzed changes in market interest rates from June 2011 and concluded that the principal amount due under the credit facility approximated its fair value on the acquisition date.

The fair value of certain pre-existing redeemable noncontrolling interests was the amount paid to redeem such interests immediately after the Company’s acquisition of its controlling interest in National Beef.  The fair value of other redeemable noncontrolling interests was determined based upon the purchase price paid by the Company for its interest.

During 2006, the Company acquired a 30% limited liability company interest in Keen for aggregate consideration of $60,000,000, excluding expenses, and agreed to lend to Keen, on a senior secured basis, up to $126,000,000 to finance new rig equipment purchases and construction costs and to repay existing debt.  During 2007, the Company increased its equity interest to 50% for additional payments aggregating $45,000,000.  In addition, the credit facility was amended to increase the borrowing capacity to $138,500,000, and the Company provided Keen with two additional secured credit facilities aggregating $60,000,000.  When the Company increased its investment in Keen to 50%, the terms of the limited liability agreement were amended to provide that in the event of a dissolution, liquidation or termination of Keen, available cash or assets would first be used to pay all of Keen’s debts (including loans made by the Company), then distributed to the Company as a liquidation preference until it had received a return of its equity investment ($105,000,000), before any payments were made to the other equity owner of Keen.

During 2009, the Company believes it became apparent to the other equity owner of Keen that Keen would not be able to make scheduled debt payments to the Company, and that the resulting payment default could result in a liquidation of Keen.  In that event, the Company’s liquidation preference over equity distributions would result in very little, if any, distributions to the other equity owner of Keen.  In November 2009, the Company purchased the other 50% equity interest that it did not own plus a secured note payable to the other equity owner of Keen for aggregate cash consideration of $15,000,000.  The Company believes it was able to acquire the remaining 50% equity interest at this distressed price because of the expected payment default on Keen’s senior secured debt owed to the Company and the Company’s preferred equity distribution in the event Keen was liquidated.

When the Company acquired the controlling interest in Keen it became a consolidated subsidiary; prior to that time the investment in Keen was classified as an investment in an associated company.  Under GAAP, upon consolidation the Company was required to record Keen’s assets and liabilities at fair value, and was required to adjust the carrying value of the Company’s equity investment immediately prior to the acquisition to fair value.  Due to the unique circumstances surrounding the Company’s 2009 acquisition described above, the fair value of the net assets acquired exceeded the amount paid by $49,345,000; the bargain purchase was recognized as a gain on the date of acquisition and included in investment and other income.  However, the fair value of the Company’s equity interest immediately prior to the acquisition was less than its $85,889,000 carrying value; accordingly the Company included a charge of $36,544,000 in income (losses) related to associated companies to write down the pre-acquisition carrying value of its investment in Keen to fair value.

 
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Use of Fair Value Estimates – Under GAAP, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.  Further, a fair value hierarchy prioritizes inputs to valuation techniques into three broad levels.  The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1), the next priority to inputs that don’t qualify as Level 1 inputs but are nonetheless observable, either directly or indirectly, for the particular asset or liability (Level 2), and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3).
 
Over 92% of the Company’s investment portfolio is classified as available for sale securities, which are carried at estimated fair value in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.  The estimated fair values are principally based on publicly quoted market prices (Level 1 inputs), which can rise or fall in reaction to a wide variety of factors or events, and as such are subject to market-related risks and uncertainties.  The Company has a segregated portfolio of mortgage pass-through certificates issued by U.S. Government-Sponsored Enterprises (FHLMC or FNMA), which are carried on the balance sheet at their estimated fair value of $622,191,000 at December 31, 2011.  Although the markets that these types of securities trade in are generally active, market prices are not always available for the identical security.  The fair value of these investments are based on observable market data including benchmark yields, reported trades, issuer spreads, benchmark securities, bids and offers.  These estimates of fair value are considered to be Level 2 inputs, and the amounts realized from the disposition of these investments has not been significantly different from their estimated fair values.

The Company also has a segregated portfolio of non-agency mortgage-backed securities which are carried on the balance sheet at their estimated fair value of $39,839,000 at December 31, 2011.  Although these securities trade in brokered markets, the market for these securities is sometimes inactive.  The fair values of these investments are based on bid and ask prices, quotes obtained from independent market makers and pricing services.  These estimates of fair values are also considered to be Level 2 inputs.

Contingencies The Company accrues for contingent losses when the contingent loss is probable and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated.  Estimates of the likelihood that a loss will be incurred and of contingent loss amounts normally require significant judgment by management, can be highly subjective and are subject to significant change with the passage of time as more information becomes available.  Estimating the ultimate impact of litigation matters is inherently uncertain, in particular because the ultimate outcome will rest on events and decisions of others that may not be within the power of the Company to control.  The Company does not believe that any of its current litigation will have a significant adverse effect on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity; however, if amounts paid at the resolution of litigation are in excess of recorded reserve amounts, the excess could be significant in relation to results of operations for that period.  As of December 31, 2011, the Company’s accrual for contingent losses was not significant.

Results of Operations

Substantially all of the Company’s operating businesses sell products or services that are impacted by general economic conditions in the U.S. and to a lesser extent internationally.  Poor general economic conditions have reduced the demand for products or services sold by the Company’s operating subsidiaries and/or resulted in reduced pricing for products or services.  Troubled industry sectors, like the residential real estate market, have had an adverse direct impact not only on the Company’s real estate segments, but have also had an adverse indirect impact on some of the Company’s other operating segments, including manufacturing and gaming entertainment.  The discussions below concerning revenue and profitability by segment consider current economic conditions and the impact such conditions have had and may continue to have on each segment; however, should general economic conditions worsen and/or if the country experiences a prolonged recession, the Company believes that all of its businesses would be adversely impacted.

 
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A summary of results of continuing operations for the Company for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
Income (loss) from continuing operations before
                 
 income taxes and income (losses) related to
                 
 associated companies:
                 
Manufacturing:
                 
Idaho Timber
  $ (3,787 )   $ 547     $ (12,680 )
Conwed Plastics
    5,916       8,803       11,578  
Oil and Gas Drilling Services
    3,533       (13,937 )     46,738  
Gaming Entertainment
    12,616       (2,159 )     2,379  
Domestic Real Estate
    80,919       (54,935 )     (71,298 )
Medical Product Development
    (42,696 )     (25,443 )     (23,818 )
Other Operations
    (24,374 )     (17,487 )     (26,434 )
Corporate
    648,861       473,614       (167,619 )
Total consolidated income (loss) from continuing
                       
   operations before income taxes and income
                       
   (losses) related to associated companies
    680,988       369,003       (241,154 )
                         
Income (losses) related to associated companies
                       
 before income taxes
    (612,362 )     375,021       805,803  
Total consolidated income from
                       
  continuing operations before income taxes
    68,626       744,024       564,649  
                         
Income taxes:
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations before
                       
  income (losses) related to associated companies
    (270,253 )     1,139,318       (7,108 )
Associated companies
    218,321       5,745       (25,567 )
Total income taxes
    (51,932 )     1,145,063       (32,675 )
                         
Income from continuing operations
  $ 16,694     $ 1,889,087     $ 531,974  

Manufacturing – Idaho Timber

A summary of results of operations for Idaho Timber for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 159,026     $ 172,908     $ 142,709  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Cost of sales
    150,651       159,689       140,428  
Salaries and incentive compensation
    5,390       5,938       5,575  
Depreciation and amortization
    4,136       4,138       4,317  
Selling, general and other expenses
    2,636       2,596       5,069  
      162,813       172,361       155,389  
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
  $ (3,787 )   $ 547     $ (12,680 )

Idaho Timber’s revenues for 2011 decreased as compared to 2010; shipment volume and average selling prices decreased 6% and 2%, respectively.  Idaho Timber believes that the abundance of existing homes available for sale in the market and high unemployment will continue to negatively impact housing starts and Idaho Timber’s revenues.  Until housing starts substantially increase, annual dimension lumber shipping volume may remain flat or could further decline.

 
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Idaho Timber’s revenues for 2010 increased as compared to 2009; shipment volume and average selling prices increased approximately 3% and 17%, respectively.  Idaho Timber believes that the increase in revenues for 2010 primarily reflected customers replenishing dimension lumber inventory levels during the first half of the year that had been reduced during the recession, an increase in housing starts in the first half of 2010 prior to the expiration of the federal government’s home buyers’ tax credits program, a more balanced supply of lumber in the marketplace relative to demand and an increase in demand for certain of Idaho Timber’s products.

Raw material costs, the largest component of cost of sales (approximately 81% of cost of sales), reflect the lower shipment volume in 2011 as compared to 2010.  Raw material cost per thousand board feet was largely unchanged in 2011 as compared to 2010.  Raw material costs reflect the greater shipment volume and increased costs in 2010 as compared to 2009.  Raw material cost per thousand board feet increased approximately 15% in 2010 as compared to 2009, which was caused by reduced supply due to increased low-grade lumber exports and greater demand.  The difference between Idaho Timber’s selling price and raw material cost per thousand board feet (spread) is closely monitored, and the rate of change in pricing and cost is not necessarily the same.  Idaho Timber’s spread decreased approximately 14% in 2011 as compared to the prior year; the spread in 2010 increased by 29% as compared to the prior year.  Cost of sales during 2009 also included charges of $1,427,000 to reduce the carrying value of certain timber deed contracts.

Manufacturing – Conwed Plastics

A summary of results of operations for Conwed Plastics for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 85,961     $ 87,073     $ 82,094  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Cost of sales
    65,312       64,614       56,539  
Salaries and incentive compensation
    6,092       6,493       6,740  
Depreciation and amortization
    301       327       318  
Selling, general and other expenses
    8,340       6,836       6,919  
      80,045       78,270       70,516  
                         
Income before income taxes
  $ 5,916     $ 8,803     $ 11,578  

Conwed Plastics’ revenues decreased in 2011 as compared to 2010, primarily reflecting declines in the housing, construction and filtration markets.  The ongoing slump in the domestic housing and construction industries has continued to unfavorably impact Conwed Plastics’ revenues, and the drop in filtration product revenues in 2011 reflects greater sales during 2010 related to the 2010 gulf oil spill.  In addition, revenues in some markets declined due to tighter inventory control by certain customers, loss of customers to competitors and general economic conditions.  The turf, erosion control and agricultural markets reflect increased revenues during 2011, principally due to increases in market share and new customers.

Conwed Plastics’ revenues increased in 2010 as compared to 2009 primarily in the erosion control, filtration, consumer products and turf reinforcement markets.  While Conwed Plastics saw signs of improved economic conditions in those markets and benefited from certain new product launches and new uses of its products, its results continued to be negatively impacted by competitive pressures and customers closely managing their inventory.

 
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The primary raw material in Conwed Plastics’ products is a polypropylene resin, which is a byproduct of the oil refining process, whose price has historically fluctuated with the price of oil.  Global demand for raw materials has also resulted in higher prices for polypropylene.  Prices for polypropylene resin increased substantially in each annual period as compared to the preceding year, which adversely affected gross margin.  The volatility of oil and natural gas prices along with current general economic conditions worldwide make it difficult to predict future raw material costs.  Conwed Plastics believes that the increased competition for raw materials by foreign nations have and will continue to adversely impact raw material costs.  In addition, gross margins declined in 2011 due to changes in product mix and in 2010 due to greater amortization expense for intangible assets.
 
    Selling, general and other expenses in 2011 include losses of $1,404,000 related to the loss of a major customer and the sale of the plant in Mexico, and $634,000 of severance costs and professional fees related to employment matters.

Oil and Gas Drilling Services

A summary of results of operations for Keen for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 and for the period from the date of acquisition (November 2009) through December 31, 2009 is as follows (in thousands).  As more fully discussed above, prior to the date of acquisition Keen was accounted for under the equity method of accounting.

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 136,146     $ 116,560     $ 60,459  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Direct operating expenses
    100,639       93,281       8,830  
Interest
    137       1,234       188  
Salaries and incentive compensation
    4,834       3,406       398  
Depreciation and amortization
    21,051       25,447       3,103  
Selling, general and other expenses
    5,952       7,129       1,202  
      132,613       130,497       13,721  
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
  $ 3,533     $ (13,937 )   $ 46,738  

Keen’s revenue volume and profitability are significantly affected by the actual and anticipated price of natural gas and oil, levels of natural gas and oil in storage and the supply of drilling rigs available in the marketplace.  The exploration and production industry is cyclical and the level of exploration and production activity has historically been very volatile.  During periods of lower levels of drilling activity, price competition for drilling services tends to increase, which may result in reduced revenues and profitability; conversely, during periods of increased drilling activity, drilling rigs are in demand often resulting in higher prices and contractual commitments from customers to obtain exclusive use of a particular rig for a longer term.  Keen’s rig utilization and dayrates increased substantially during 2011 as compared to 2010, as the negative impact of low natural gas prices was mitigated by a greater proportion of Keen’s customers using its rigs to drill for oil rather than natural gas.  In January 2011, Keen sold its 12 older mechanical rigs and recognized a gain of $937,000.  During 2010, these 12 rigs generated revenues of $20,733,000.

 
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Although Keen’s rig utilization and dayrates increased throughout 2010, its revenues and profitability were adversely impacted by continued low natural gas prices and high levels of natural gas in storage.  The negative impact of lower natural gas prices was partially offset by an increasing proportion of Keen’s customers using its rigs to drill for oil rather than natural gas.  Keen’s revenues and profitability during 2009 were adversely affected by the same factors as during 2010, as well as by tight credit markets, which forced many of its customers to make significant reductions in their drilling programs.  Revenues and other income for 2009 also reflect a gain of $49,345,000 resulting from the bargain purchase, as more fully discussed above.

Direct operating expenses reflected $31,930,000 and $30,774,000 in 2011 and 2010, respectively, of costs incurred for major maintenance and repair projects and, primarily in 2010, to make certain of its rigs operational following periods when they were not in use.  Keen believes that as its rigs age, the cost to maintain and repair its equipment will increase.  Direct operating expenses also reflected $2,968,000 of greater salaries and bonuses in 2011 as compared to 2010, primarily due to wage increases, and $2,680,000 of greater employee benefits, insurance and other compensation related costs.  Salaries and incentive compensation expense increased in 2011 as compared to 2010, primarily due to greater accrued incentive bonus expense.  Depreciation and amortization expense declined in 2011 as compared to 2010 principally due to the sale of certain rigs discussed above.

Gaming Entertainment

A summary of results of operations for Premier for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 117,238     $ 114,809     $ 103,583  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Direct operating expenses
    84,795       83,075       79,452  
Interest
    33       244       489  
Salaries and incentive compensation
    2,460       2,459       1,977  
Depreciation and amortization
    16,785       16,657       16,532  
Selling, general and other expenses
    549       14,533       2,754  
      104,622       116,968       101,204  
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
  $ 12,616     $ (2,159 )   $ 2,379  

Premier’s gaming revenues increased 3% in 2011 as compared to 2010, principally due to slot machine revenue, which increased due to customer loyalty programs and enhancements, offset in part by a larger amount of table games payouts.  During 2011, overall gaming revenues for the entire Biloxi market declined slightly as compared to 2010.  Premier’s gaming revenues for 2010 increased approximately 12% as compared to 2009, while the local gaming market was largely unchanged.  Premier implemented new and enhanced customer loyalty programs, which it believes was the primary reason for the growth in its gaming revenues and market share.

The increase in direct operating expenses in 2011 as compared to 2010 primarily reflects greater marketing and promotional costs.  The increase in direct operating expenses in 2010 as compared to 2009 primarily reflects greater gaming taxes and marketing and promotional costs.

 
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Selling, general and other expenses for 2010 include a loss for the award of $11,200,000, including interest, to the former holders of Premier’s bond debt as a result of a decision by the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Mississippi.  The Premier noteholders had argued that they were entitled to liquidated damages under the indenture governing the notes, and as such were entitled to more than the amount paid to them when Premier emerged from bankruptcy in 2007.  Premier filed a notice of appeal of the Bankruptcy Court’s decision and no amounts were paid while the appeal was pending.  In April 2011, Premier entered into an agreement to settle the litigation with its former noteholders for $9,000,000.  As a result, Premier reduced the liability for the award and credited selling, general and other expenses for $2,241,000 in 2011.  All litigation with respect to Premier’s chapter 11 restructuring has been settled.

Domestic Real Estate

A summary of results of operations for the domestic real estate segment for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 96,501     $ 17,075     $ 30,637  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Interest
    34       2,034       2,322  
Depreciation and amortization
    3,461       6,163       8,408  
Other operating expenses, including impairment
                       
   charges described below
    12,087       63,813       91,205  
      15,582       72,010       101,935  
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
  $ 80,919     $ (54,935 )   $ (71,298 )

Pre-tax results for the domestic real estate segment are largely dependent upon the performance of the segment’s operating properties, the current status of the Company’s real estate development projects and non-recurring gains or losses recognized when real estate assets are sold.  As a result, pre-tax results for this segment for any particular period are not predictable and do not follow any consistent pattern.

Revenues and other income in 2011 period include a gain on forgiveness of debt of $81,848,000 related to the Myrtle Beach project.  As is more fully discussed above, in January 2011 a subsidiary of the Company paid $19,275,000 to the lenders of the Myrtle Beach project in full satisfaction of the project’s non-recourse indebtedness, which had a balance of $100,524,000 at December 31, 2010.  The Company had previously recorded impairment charges which reduced the carrying amount of this project of $47,074,000 in 2010 and $67,826,000 in 2009.

The Company did not have any major real estate sales during 2011 and 2010; revenues and other income for 2009 include real estate sales of $12,422,000.  Revenues and other income in 2010 include a gain of $1,200,000 for the favorable settlement of an insurance claim and a lawsuit, and in 2009 include $962,000 of income related to the accounting for the mark-to-market value of an interest rate derivative relating to the Myrtle Beach project’s debt obligation.

Other operating expenses also include impairment charges for real estate projects of $2,357,000 and $3,646,000 in 2010 and 2009, respectively.  In 2009 other operating expenses also include a charge of $1,444,000 representing the net book value of land and buildings that was contributed to a local municipality and $1,787,000 for the periodic net settlement amount for the interest rate derivative.

 
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Residential property sales volume, prices and new building starts have declined significantly in many U.S. markets, including markets in which the Company has real estate projects.  The slowdown in residential sales has been exacerbated by the turmoil in the mortgage lending and credit markets during the past few years, which has resulted in stricter lending standards and reduced liquidity for prospective home buyers.  The Company has deferred its development plans for certain of its real estate development projects, and is not actively soliciting bids for its fully developed projects.  The Company intends to wait for market conditions to improve before marketing certain of its projects for sale.

Medical Product Development

A summary of results of operations for Sangart for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 378     $ 123     $ 5,147  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Salaries and incentive compensation
    12,415       9,710       9,641  
Depreciation and amortization
    845       870       836  
Selling, general and other expenses
    29,814       14,986       18,488  
      43,074       25,566       28,965  
 
                       
Loss before income taxes
  $ (42,696 )   $ (25,443 )   $ (23,818 )

Revenues and other income for 2009 include $5,000,000 of insurance proceeds received upon the death of Sangart’s former chief executive officer.  Sangart’s selling, general and other expenses include research and development costs of $22,130,000, $5,428,000 and $3,487,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.  The increase in research and development costs in 2011 primarily related to preparation for and commencement of a larger Phase 2 clinical study of MP4OX in trauma patients, as well as $10,000,000 related to a new patent license.

Sangart’s results reflect charges (reductions) to selling, general and other expenses of $(4,447,000), $261,000 and $3,102,000 in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, related to share-based awards previously granted to a former officer.  The fair value of these share-based awards increased during 2009 and 2010 but declined during 2011; accordingly, in 2011 Sangart reduced the liability and credited selling, general and other expenses.  Salaries and incentive compensation expense increased in 2011 principally due to higher headcount.

Selling, general and other expenses in 2010 reflect $859,000 of lower professional fees, $734,000 of decreased costs for severance and $700,000 of greater royalty expense than for 2009.  Selling, general and other expenses for 2009 included $1,892,000 of charges for manufacturing facility design costs that Sangart did not expect to use.

Sangart is a development stage company that does not have any revenues from product sales.  During 2010, Sangart completed a Phase 2 proof of concept clinical trial of MP4OX in trauma patients in Europe and South Africa.  Study results were considered to be successful and supported the conduct of a larger Phase 2 clinical study in trauma patients, which commenced in the second quarter of 2011.  If this larger Phase 2 study were to be successful, Sangart would have to conduct Phase 3 clinical studies in trauma patients.  Completing these studies will take several years at substantial cost, and until they are successfully completed, if ever, Sangart will not be able to request marketing approval and generate revenues from sales in the trauma market.  Sangart also recently commenced a Phase 1b clinical study involving its MP4CO product to treat sickle cell disease patients.  If this Phase 1b study were to be successful, Sangart would have to conduct Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical studies in sickle cell disease patients, at substantial cost, prior to requesting marketing approval for the product.  The Company is unable to predict when, if ever, it will report operating profits for this segment.

 
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Other Operations

A summary of results of operations for other operations for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income
  $ 69,038     $ 67,119     $ 51,764  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Interest
    1       12       31  
Salaries and incentive compensation
    8,930       8,445       8,339  
Depreciation and amortization
    5,605       4,094       4,840  
Selling, general and other expenses
    78,876       72,055       64,988  
      93,412       84,606       78,198  
                         
Loss before income taxes
  $ (24,374 )   $ (17,487 )   $ (26,434 )

Other income for 2011 and 2010 includes $5,366,000 and $11,143,000, respectively, with respect to government grants to reimburse the Company for certain of its prior expenditures related to energy projects, which were fully expensed as incurred.  The change in revenues and other income for 2011 and 2010 also reflects $14,592,000 and $2,834,000, respectively, of increased revenues at the winery operations.   The change in revenues and other income for 2011 also reflect $4,540,000 of less income from a property rental business and $2,303,000 less income from purchased delinquent credit card receivables.

Selling, general and other expenses include $33,606,000, $26,776,000 and $23,546,000 for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, related to the investigation and evaluation of energy projects (principally professional fees and other costs).  Selling, general and other expenses for 2010 also reflect $4,326,000 for other operations’ portion of a settlement charge in connection with the termination and settlement of the Company’s frozen defined benefit pension plan, and a $3,000,000 charge for a settlement with certain insurance companies.  The change in selling, general and other expenses for 2011 and 2010 as compared to the prior year also reflects $12,152,000 and $2,102,000, respectively, of greater costs at the winery operations, and for 2011 $1,412,000 of lower costs at the property rental business.  Selling, general and other expenses also include charges of $1,513,000 and $4,712,000 for 2010 and 2009, respectively, at the winery operations to reduce the carrying amount of wine inventory.

Corporate

A summary of results of operations for corporate for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 is as follows (in thousands):

 
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2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Revenues and other income (including net
                 
securities gains (losses))
  $ 906,480     $ 744,337     $ 98,815  
                         
Expenses:
                       
Interest
    111,672       121,285       125,724  
Salaries and incentive compensation
    41,425