10-K 1 wab1231201510k.htm 10-K 10-K

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ý
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
OR
¨
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from             to
Commission file number 033-90866
WESTINGHOUSE AIR BRAKE TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
 
 
 
 
Delaware
25-1615902
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
1001 Air Brake Avenue
Wilmerding, Pennsylvania 15148
(412) 825-1000
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(Registrant’s telephone number)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
     Title of Class      
    Name of Exchange on which registered     
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files)    Yes  ý    No   ¨.
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ý.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer  ý    Accelerated filer  ¨    Non-accelerated filer  ¨    Smaller reporting company  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý.
The registrant estimates that as of June 30, 2015, the aggregate market value of the voting shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $8.8 billion based on the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange for such stock.
As of February 16, 2016, 91,930,671 shares of Common Stock of the registrant were issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the registrant’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 11, 2016 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.



2


PART I
Item  1.
BUSINESS
General
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation, doing business as Wabtec Corporation, is a Delaware corporation with headquarters at 1001 Air Brake Avenue in Wilmerding, Pennsylvania. Our telephone number is 412-825-1000, and our website is located at www.wabtec.com. All references to “we”, “our”, “us”, the “Company” and “Wabtec” refer to Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation and its subsidiaries. Westinghouse Air Brake Company (“WABCO”) was formed in 1990 when it acquired certain assets and operations from American Standard, Inc., now known as Trane (“Trane”). In 1999, WABCO merged with MotivePower Industries, Inc. (“MotivePower”) and adopted the name Wabtec.
Today, Wabtec is one of the world’s largest providers of value-added, technology-based equipment and services for the global rail industry. We believe we hold approximately a 50% market share in North America for our primary braking-related equipment and a leading position in North America for most of our other product lines. Our highly engineered products, which are intended to enhance safety, improve productivity and reduce maintenance costs for customers, can be found on virtually all U.S. locomotives, freight cars, subway cars and buses, and on many of these vehicles around the world. In 2015, the Company had sales of approximately $3.3 billion and net income of about $398.6 million. In 2015, sales of aftermarket parts and services represented about 62% of total sales, while sales to customers outside of the U.S. accounted for about 47% of total sales.
Industry Overview
The Company primarily serves the worldwide freight rail and passenger transit industries. As such, our operating results are largely dependent on the level of activity, financial condition and capital spending plans of the global railroad and transit industries. Many factors influence these industries, including general economic conditions; traffic volumes, as measured by freight tonnage and passenger ridership; government spending on public transportation; and investment in new technologies by freight rail and passenger transit systems.
According to a recent study by UNIFE, the Association of the European Rail Industry, the accessible global market for railway products and services is more than $100 billion, and it is expected to grow at about 2.7% annually through 2019. The three largest markets, which represent about 75% of the total market, are Europe, Asia-Pacific and North America. UNIFE projects the overall market to remain stable through 2020 as emerging markets show above-average growth due to overall economic growth and trends such as urbanization and increasing mobility, deregulation, investments in new technologies, energy and environmental issues, and increasing government support; while developed markets grow at a slower pace. UNIFE projects growth in all major product segments, with rail control and services expected to grow the fastest, at about 3% each.
By using various industry publications and market studies, we estimate that the global installed base of locomotives is about 110,000 units, with about 35% in Asia-Pacific, about 25% in Russia-CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and about 20% in North America.  We estimate the global installed base of freight cars is about 5.2 million units, with about 30% each in Russia-CIS and North America, and about 20% in Asia-Pacific.  We estimate the global installed base of transit cars is about 330,000 units, with about 55% in Asia-Pacific, about 20% in Europe and about 10% in Russia.
In North America, railroads carry about 40% of intercity freight, as measured by ton-miles, which is more than any other mode of transportation. They are an integral part of the continent’s economy and transportation system, serving nearly every industrial, wholesale and retail sector. Through direct ownership and operating partnerships, U.S. railroads are part of an integrated network that includes railroads in Canada and Mexico, forming what is regarded as the world’s most-efficient and lowest-cost freight rail service. There are more than 500 railroads operating in North America, with the largest railroads, referred to as “Class I,” accounting for more than 90% of the industry’s revenues. The railroads carry a wide variety of commodities and goods, including coal, metals, minerals, chemicals, grain, and petroleum.  These commodities represent about 55% of total rail carloadings, with intermodal carloads accounting for the rest. Intermodal traffic—the movement of trailers or containers by rail in combination with another mode of transportation—has been the railroads’ fastest-growing market segment in the past 10 years. Railroads operate in a competitive environment, especially with the trucking industry, and are always seeking ways to improve safety, cost and reliability. New technologies offered by Wabtec and others in the industry can provide some of these benefits. Demand for our freight related products and services in North America is driven by a number of factors, including rail traffic, and production of new locomotives and new freight cars.  In 2015, the Association of American Railroads (“AAR”) reported total carloads decreased 2.2%, as a 2.1% increase in intermodal traffic was more than offset by a 5.8% decrease in commodities carloads. Generally, a decrease in carloads reflects a slowing economy.  Deliveries of new locomotives were about 1,200 units in 2015, compared to about 1,500 in 2014, and the average of about 1,200 in the past 10 years.  Deliveries of new freight cars were about 82,000 units in 2015, compared to about 67,000 in 2014 and the average of about 50,000 in the past 10 years.

3


In the U.S., the passenger transit industry is dependent largely on funding from federal, state and local governments, and from fare box revenues. The New York City region is the largest passenger transit market in the U.S., but most major cities also offer either rail or bus transit services. Demand for North American passenger transit products is driven by a number of factors, including government funding, deliveries of new subway cars and buses, and ridership. The U.S. federal government provides money to local transit authorities, primarily to fund the purchase of new equipment and infrastructure for their transit systems. In 2015, the U.S. Congress passed a five-year transportation funding bill that includes transit spending of about $11.8 billion in fiscal 2016, an increase of about 10% compared to the prior year.  The number of new transit cars delivered in 2015 was about 850, compared to about the same in 2014. The number of new buses delivered in 2015 was about 4,600 compared to about the same in 2014. In the past 10 years, the average number of new transit cars delivered annually is about 800, and the average number of new buses delivered annually is about 4,700. Public transit ridership provides fare box revenues to transit authorities, which use these funds, along with state and local money, primarily for equipment and system maintenance. Based on preliminary figures from the American Public Transportation Association, ridership on U.S. transit vehicles decreased about 1.0% in 2015.
Outside of North America, countries such as Australia, Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa have been investing capital to expand and improve both their freight and passenger rail systems. Throughout the world, some government-owned railroads are being sold to private owners, who often look to improve the efficiency of the rail system by investing in new equipment and new technologies. According to UNIFE, emerging markets are expected to grow at above-average rates as global trade creates increases in freight volumes and urbanization leads to increased demand for efficient mass-transportation systems. As this growth occurs, Wabtec expects to have additional opportunities to provide products and services in these markets.
In Europe, the majority of the rail system serves the passenger transit market, which is expected to continue growing as energy and environmental factors encourage investment in public mass transit. France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy are the largest transit markets, representing about two-thirds of passenger traffic in the European Union. UNIFE projected the Western European rail market to grow at about 2.0% annually in the next few years, with the United Kingdom and France expected to invest in new rolling stock.  According to the UK’s Office of Rail Regulation, passenger rail usage has steadily increased in the past decade, with the Office reporting a 1.4% increase in second quarter ridership in its most recent quarterly report.  For the same time period, the Office also reported a decrease of 16.5% in freight volume, driven by a reduction in coal shipments.  Germany has the largest rail network in Europe.  About 75% of freight traffic in Europe is hauled by truck, while rail accounts for about 20%. The largest freight markets in Europe are Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom. In the first nine months of 2015, The Federal Statistical Office of Germany reported a 2.1% decrease in freight volumes compared to the same period in 2014. For the first six months of 2015, SNCF (French national railway) reported an increase of 4.0% in revenue for local and regional ridership, and flat freight-related revenue.  We estimate that the European rail market consists of about 11,000 locomotives, about 750,000 freight cars and about 72,000 passenger transit cars.
The Asia/Pacific market is now the second-largest geographic segment, according to UNIFE. This market consists primarily of China, India and Australia. Growth has been driven by the continued urbanization of China and India, and by investments in freight rail infrastructure to serve the mining and natural resources markets in those countries. We estimate that this market consists of 35,000 locomotives and about 1.0 million freight cars. China is expected to increase spending on rail infrastructure and equipment, as it resumes investment in high-speed rail programs. In its most recent report, the Indian government reported that in the first six months of its fiscal 2015, freight rail volume increased about 26% and earnings from passenger rail traffic increased about 8.5%. India is expected to increase spending significantly in future years as it seeks to modernize its rail system; for example, it recently awarded a 1,000-unit locomotive order to a U.S. manufacturer.
Other key geographic markets include Russia-CIS, South Africa, and Brazil.  With about 1.5 million freight cars and about 28,000 locomotives, Russia-CIS is among the largest freight rail markets in the world, and it’s expected to invest significantly in new rolling stock and infrastructure.  Russian Railways, a state-owned company, provides both freight and passenger transportation.  In 2015, Russian Railways announced a decrease of 1.2% in freight loadings and a decrease of 4.4% in passenger ridership.  South Africa, in 2012, announced a major program to invest in its freight rail and passenger transit infrastructure during the next 20 years.  As part of this program, PRASA, the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa, plans to purchase about 3,600 new transit cars and about 1,000 new locomotives.  Brazil has also been investing in its passenger transport systems in advance of hosting the 2016 Olympics.
Business Segments and Products
We provide our products and services through two principal business segments, the Freight Segment and the Transit Segment, both of which have different market characteristics and business drivers.
The Freight Segment primarily manufactures and services components for new and existing locomotive and freight cars, supplies railway electronics, positive train control equipment, signal design and engineering services, builds switcher

4


locomotives, rebuilds freight locomotives and provides heat exchangers and cooling systems for rail and other industrial markets. Customers include large, publicly traded railroads, leasing companies, manufacturers of original equipment such as locomotives and freight cars, and utilities. As discussed previously, demand in the freight market is primarily driven by rail traffic, and deliveries of new locomotives and freight cars. In 2015, the Freight Segment accounted for 62% of our total sales, with about 81% of its sales in North America and the remainder to international customers. In 2015, slightly more than half of the Freight Segment’s sales were in aftermarket.
The Transit Segment primarily manufactures and services components for new and existing passenger transit vehicles, typically subway cars and buses, builds new commuter locomotives and refurbishes subway cars. Customers include public transit authorities and municipalities, leasing companies, and manufacturers of subway cars and buses around the world. As discussed previously, demand in the transit market is primarily driven by government funding at all levels and passenger ridership. In 2015, the Transit Segment accounted for 38% of our total sales, with about 39% of its sales in North America and the remainder to international customers. About two-thirds of the Transit Segment’s sales are in the aftermarket with the remainder in the original equipment market.
Following is a summary of our leading product lines in both aftermarket and original equipment across both of our business segments:
Specialty Products & Electronics:
Positive Train Control equipment and electronically controlled pneumatic braking products
Railway electronics, including event recorders, monitoring equipment and end of train devices
Signal design and engineering services
Freight car truck components
Draft gears, couplers and slack adjusters
Air compressors and dryers
Heat exchangers and cooling products for locomotives and power generation equipment
Track and switch products
Brake Products:
Railway braking equipment and related components for Freight and Transit applications
Friction products, including brake shoes and pads
Remanufacturing, Overhaul and Build:
New commuter and switcher locomotives
Transit car and locomotive overhaul and refurbishment
Transit Products:
Door and window assemblies for buses and subway cars
Accessibility lifts and ramps for buses and subway cars
Traction motors
We have become a leader in the rail industry by capitalizing on the strength of our existing products, technological capabilities and new product innovation, and by our ability to harden products to protect them from severe conditions, including extreme temperatures and high-vibration environments. Supported by our technical staff of over 1,500 engineers and specialists, we have extensive experience in a broad range of product lines, which enables us to provide comprehensive, systems-based solutions for our customers.
Over the past several years, we introduced a number of significant new products, including electronic braking equipment and train control equipment that encompasses onboard digital data and global positioning communication protocols. In 2007, for example, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) approved the use of our Electronic Train Management System®, which offers safety benefits to the rail industry. In 2008, the U.S. federal government enacted a rail safety bill that mandates the use of Positive Train Control (“PTC”) technology, which includes on-board locomotive computer and related software, on a majority of the locomotives and track in the U.S. With our Electronic Train Management System®, we are the leading supplier of this on-board train control equipment, and we are working with the U.S. Class I railroads, commuter rail authorities and other industry suppliers to implement this technology.  The rail safety bill included a deadline of December 31, 2015 for PTC

5


implementation, but the deadline has been extended until the end of 2018. The deadline extension is expected to affect the rate of industry spending on this technology.  In 2015, Wabtec recorded about $400 million of revenue from freight and transit PTC projects.
For additional information on our business segments, see Note 20 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
Competitive Strengths
Our key strengths include:
Leading market positions in core products. Dating back to 1869 and George Westinghouse’s invention of the air brake, we are an established leader in the development and manufacture of pneumatic braking equipment for freight and passenger transit vehicles. We have leveraged our leading position by focusing on research and engineering to expand beyond pneumatic braking components to supplying integrated parts and assemblies for the locomotive through the end of the train. We are a recognized leader in the development and production of electronic recording, measuring and communications systems, positive train control equipment, highly engineered compressors and heat exchangers for locomotives, and a leading manufacturer of freight car components, including electronic braking equipment, draft gears, trucks, brake shoes and electronic end-of-train devices. We are also a leading provider of braking equipment, door assemblies, lifts and ramps, couplers and current collection equipment for passenger transit vehicles.
Breadth of product offering with a stable mix of original equipment market (OEM) and aftermarket business. Our product portfolio is one of the broadest in the rail industry, as we offer a wide selection of quality parts, components and assemblies across the entire train. We provide our products in both the original equipment market and the aftermarket. Our substantial installed base of products with end-users such as the railroads and the passenger transit authorities is a significant competitive advantage for providing products and services to the aftermarket because these customers often look to purchase safety- and performance-related replacement parts from the original equipment components supplier. In addition, as OEMs and railroad operators attempt to modernize fleets with new products designed to improve and maintain safety and efficiency, these products must be designed to be interoperable with existing equipment. On average, over the last several years, more than 60% of our total net sales have come from our aftermarket products and services business.
Leading design and engineering capabilities. We believe a hallmark of our relationship with our customers has been our leading design and engineering practice, which has, in our opinion, assisted in the improvement and modernization of global railway equipment. We believe both our customers and the government authorities value our technological capabilities and commitment to innovation, as we seek not only to enhance the efficiency and profitability of our customers, but also to improve the overall safety of the railways through continuous improvement of product performance. The Company has an established record of product improvements and new product development. We have assembled a wide range of patented products, which we believe provides us with a competitive advantage. Wabtec currently owns 2,312 active patents worldwide and 621 U.S. patents. During the last three years, we have filed for more than 403 patents worldwide in support of our new and evolving product lines.
Experience with industry regulatory requirements. The freight rail and passenger transit industries are governed by various government agencies and regulators in each country and region. These groups mandate rigorous manufacturer certification, new product testing and approval processes that we believe are difficult for new entrants to meet cost-effectively and efficiently without the scale and extensive experience we possess.
Experienced management team and the Wabtec Performance System. The Company has implemented numerous initiatives that enable us to manage successfully through cycles in the rail supply market. For example, the Wabtec Performance System (WPS), an ongoing program that focuses on lean manufacturing principles and continuous improvement across all aspects of our business, has been a part of the Company’s culture for more than 20 years. As a result, our management team has improved our cost structure, operating leverage and financial flexibility, and placed the Company in an excellent position to benefit from growth opportunities.
Business strategy
Using WPS, we strive to generate sufficient cash to invest in our growth strategies and to build on what we consider to be a leading position as a low-cost producer in the industry while maintaining world-class product quality, technology and customer responsiveness. Through WPS and employee-directed initiatives such as Kaizen, a Japanese-developed team concept, we continuously strive to improve quality, delivery and productivity, and to reduce costs. These efforts enable us to streamline processes, improve product reliability and customer satisfaction, reduce product cycle times and respond more rapidly to market developments. Over time, these lean initiatives have enabled us to increase operating margins, improve cash flow and strengthen our ability to invest in the following growth strategies:

6


Expand globally and into new product markets. We believe that international markets represent a significant opportunity for future growth. In 2015, sales to non-U.S. customers were $1.6 billion, including export sales from the Company’s U.S. operations of $508.4 million. We intend to increase our existing international sales through strategic acquisitions, direct sales of products through our existing subsidiaries and licensees, and joint ventures with railway suppliers which have a strong presence in their local markets. We are specifically targeting markets that operate significant fleets of U.S.-style locomotives and freight cars, including Australia, Brazil, China, India, Russia, South Africa, and other select areas within Europe and South America. In addition, we have opportunities to increase the sale of certain products that we currently manufacture for the rail industry into other industrial markets, such as mining, off-highway and energy. These products include heat exchangers and friction materials.
Expand aftermarket sales. Historically, aftermarket sales are less cyclical than OEM sales because a certain level of aftermarket maintenance and service work must be performed, even during an industry slowdown. In 2015, Wabtec’s aftermarket sales and services represented approximately 62% of the Company’s total sales across both of our business segments. Wabtec provides aftermarket parts and services for its components, and the Company is seeking to expand this business with customers who currently perform the work in-house. In this way, we expect to take advantage of the rail industry trend toward outsourcing, as railroads and transit authorities focus on their core function of transporting goods and people.
Accelerate new product development. We continue to emphasize research and development funding to create new and improved products. We are focusing on technological advances, especially in the areas of electronics, braking products and other on-board equipment, as a means of new product growth. We seek to provide customers with incremental technological advances that offer immediate benefits with cost-effective investments.
Seek acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances. We invest in acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances using a disciplined, selective approach and rigorous financial criteria. These transactions are expected to meet the financial criteria and contribute to our growth strategies of global expansion, new products and expanding aftermarket sales. All of these expansion strategies will help Wabtec to grow profitably, expand geographically, and dampen the impact from potential cycles in the North American rail industry.
Recent Acquisitions and Joint Ventures
Wabtec has completed certain significant acquisitions in support of its growth strategies mentioned above:
On October 30, 2015, the Company acquired Relay Monitoring Systems PTY Ltd. (“RMS”), an Australian manufacturer of electrical protection and control products for a purchase price of approximately $18.7 million, net of cash acquired. 
On October 8, 2015, the Company acquired Track IQ, an Australian based manufacturer of wayside censor systems for the global rail industry for a purchase price of approximately $9.1 million, net of cash acquired.
On June 17, 2015 , the Company acquired Metalocaucho ("MTC"), a manufacturer of transit products, primarily rubber components for suspension and vibration control systems, for a purchase price of approximately $23.4 million, net of cash acquired.
On February 4, 2015, the Company acquired Railroad Controls L.P. (“RCL”), a U.S. based provider of railway signal construction services for a purchase price of approximately $78.0 million, net of cash acquired.  
On September 3, 2014, the Company acquired C2CE Pty Ltd. (“C2CE”), a leading provider of railway signal design services in Australia, for a purchase price of approximately $25.5 million, net of cash acquired.
On August 21, 2014, the Company acquired Dia-Frag, a leading manufacturer of friction products in Brazil, for a purchase price of approximately $70.6 million, net of cash acquired.
On June 6, 2014, the Company acquired Fandstan Electric Group Ltd. (“Fandstan”), a leading rail and industrial equipment manufacturer for a variety of markets, including rail and tram transportation, industrial and energy, for a purchase price of approximately $199.4 million, net of cash acquired.  
Backlog
The Company’s backlog was about $2.1 billion at December 31, 2015. For 2015, about 62% of total sales came from aftermarket orders, which typically carry lead times of less than 30 days, and are not recorded in backlog for a significant period of time.
The Company’s contracts are subject to standard industry cancellation provisions, including cancellations on short notice or upon completion of designated stages. Substantial scope-of-work adjustments are common. For these and other

7


reasons, completion of the Company’s backlog may be delayed or cancelled. The railroad industry, in general, has historically been subject to fluctuations due to overall economic conditions and the level of use of alternative modes of transportation.
The backlog of firm customer orders as of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, and the expected year of completion are as follows:
 
 
Total
 
Expected Delivery
 
Total
 
Expected Delivery
 
 
Backlog
 
 
 
Other
 
Backlog
 
 
 
Other
In thousands
 
12/31/2015
 
2016
 
Years
 
12/31/2014
 
2015
 
Years
Freight Segment
 
$
671,910

 
$
585,981

 
$
85,929

 
$
977,759

 
$
843,681

 
$
134,078

Transit Segment
 
1,474,974

 
621,736

 
853,238

 
1,344,222

 
659,211

 
685,011

Total
 
$
2,146,884

 
$
1,207,717

 
$
939,167

 
$
2,321,981

 
$
1,502,892

 
$
819,089

Engineering and Development
To execute our strategy to develop new products, we invest in a variety of engineering and development activities. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, we invested about $71.2 million, $61.9 million and $46.3 million, respectively, on product development and improvement activities. The engineering resources of the Company are allocated between research and development activities and the execution of original equipment customer contracts.
Our engineering and development program includes investment in train control and new braking technologies, with an emphasis on applying electronics to traditional pneumatic equipment. Electronic braking has been used in the transit industry for years, and freight railroads are conducting pilot programs to test its reliability and benefits. Freight railroads have generally been slower to accept the technology due to issues over interoperability, connectivity and durability. We are proceeding with efforts to enhance the major components for existing hard-wired braking equipment and development of new electronic technologies for the freight railroads. We are also investing in technology, such as advanced cooling systems that enable lower emissions from diesel engines used in rail and other industrial markets.  Sometimes we conduct specific research projects in conjunction with universities, customers and other industry suppliers.
We use our Product Development System (PDS) to develop and monitor new product programs. The system requires the product development team to follow consistent steps throughout the development process, from concept to launch, to ensure the product will meet customer expectations and internal profitability targets.
Intellectual Property
We have 2,312 active patents worldwide. We also rely on a combination of trade secrets and other intellectual property laws, nondisclosure agreements and other protective measures to establish and protect our proprietary rights in our intellectual property.
Certain trademarks, among them the name WABCO®, were acquired or licensed from American Standard Inc., now known as Trane, in 1990 at the time of our acquisition of the North American operations of the Railway Products Group of Trane. Other trademarks have been developed through the normal course of business, or acquired as a part of our ongoing merger and acquisition program.
We have entered into a variety of license agreements as licensor and licensee. We do not believe that any single license agreement is of material importance to our business or either of our business segments as a whole.
We have issued licenses to the two sole suppliers of railway air brakes and related products in Japan, Nabtesco and Mitsubishi Electric Company. The licensees pay annual license fees to us and also assist us by acting as liaisons with key Japanese passenger transit vehicle builders for projects in North America. We believe that our relationships with these licensees have been beneficial to our core transit business and customer relationships in North America.
Customers
Our customers include railroads and passenger transit authorities throughout North America, as well as in the United Kingdom, Australia, Europe, Asia, South Africa and South America; manufacturers of transportation equipment, such as locomotives, freight cars, subway vehicles and buses; and lessors of such equipment.
Top customers can change from year to year. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, our top five customers accounted for 22% of net sales: The BNSF Railway, CSX Corporation, General Electric Transportation, Trinity Industries, and Union Pacific Corporation. No one customer represents 10% or more of consolidated sales. We believe that we have strong relationships with all of our key customers.


8


Competition
We believe that we hold approximately a 50% market share in North America for our primary braking-related equipment and a leading market position in North America for most of our other product lines. On a global basis, our market shares are smaller. We operate in a highly competitive marketplace. Price competition is strong because we have a relatively small number of customers and they are very cost-conscious. In addition to price, competition is based on product performance and technological leadership, quality, reliability of delivery, and customer service and support.
Our principal competitors vary across product lines. Within North America, New York Air Brake Company, a subsidiary of the German air brake producer Knorr-Bremse AG (“Knorr”) and Amsted Rail Company, Inc., a subsidiary of Amsted Industries Corporation, are our principal overall OEM competitors. Our competition for locomotive, freight and passenger transit service and repair is mostly from the railroads’ and passenger transit authorities’ in-house operations, Electro-Motive Diesel, a division of Caterpillar, GE Transportation Systems, and New York Air Brake/Knorr. We believe our key strengths, which include leading market positions in core products, breadth of product offering with a stable mix of OEM and aftermarket business, leading design and engineering capabilities, significant barriers to entry and an experienced management team, enable us to compete effectively in this marketplace. Outside of North America, no individual company is our principal competitor in all of our operating locations. The largest competitors for Brake and Transit products are Faiveley Transport and Knorr. In addition, our competitors often include smaller, local suppliers in most international markets.
Employees
At December 31, 2015, we had approximately 13,000 full-time employees, approximately 30% of whom were unionized. A majority of the employees subject to collective bargaining agreements are outside North America and these agreements are generally effective from 2016 through 2018. Agreements expiring at various times during 2016 cover approximately 26% of the Company’s workforce. We consider our relations with employees and union representatives to be good, but cannot assure that future contract negotiations will be favorable to us.
Regulation
In the course of our operations, we are subject to various regulations of governments and other agencies in the U.S. and around the world. These entities typically govern equipment and safety standards for freight rail and passenger transit rolling stock, oversee a wide variety of rules and regulations governing safety and design of equipment, and evaluate certification and qualification requirements for suppliers.  New products generally must undergo testing and approval processes that are rigorous and lengthy. As a result of these regulations and requirements, we must usually obtain and maintain certifications in a variety of jurisdictions and countries.  The governing bodies include:  FRA and AAR in the U.S., the International Union of Railways (“UIC”) and the European Railway Agency in Europe, the Federal Agency of Railway Transport in Russia, the Agencia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres in Brazil, the National Railway Administration, formerly the Ministry of Railway in China, and the Ministry of Railways in India.
Effects of Seasonality
Our business is not typically seasonal, although the third quarter results may be affected by vacation and scheduled plant shutdowns at several of our major customers during this period.
Environmental Matters
Information on environmental matters is included in Note 19 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
Available Information
We maintain an Internet site at www.wabtec.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as well as the annual report to stockholders and other information, are available free of charge on this site. The Internet site and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K. The following are also available free of charge on this site and are available in print to any shareholder who requests them: Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, the charters of our Audit, Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees, our Code of Conduct, which is applicable to all employees, our Code of Ethics for Senior Officers, which is applicable to all of our executive officers, our Policies on Related Party Transactions and Conflict Minerals, and our Sustainability Report.

9


Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Prolonged unfavorable economic and market conditions could adversely affect our business.
Unfavorable general economic and market conditions in the United States and internationally could have a negative impact on our sales and operations. To the extent that these factors result in continued instability of capital markets, shortages of raw materials or component parts, longer sales cycles, deferral or delay of customer orders or an inability to market our products effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We are dependent upon key customers.
We rely on several key customers who represent a significant portion of our business. Our top customers can change from year to year. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, our top five customers accounted for 22% of our net sales. While we believe our relationships with our customers are generally good, our top customers could choose to reduce or terminate their relationships with us. In addition, many of our customers place orders for products on an as-needed basis and operate in cyclical industries. As a result, their order levels have varied from period to period in the past and may vary significantly in the future. Such customer orders are dependent upon their markets and customers, and may be subject to delays and cancellations. As a result of our dependence on our key customers, we could experience a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition if we lost any one or more of our key customers or if there is a reduction in their demand for our products.
Our business operates in a highly competitive industry.
We operate in a competitive marketplace and face substantial competition from a limited number of established competitors in the United States and abroad, some of which may have greater financial resources than we do. Price competition is strong and, coupled with the existence of a number of cost conscious customers, has historically limited our ability to increase prices. In addition to price, competition is based on product performance and technological leadership, quality, reliability of delivery and customer service and support. There can be no assurance that competition in one or more of our markets will not adversely affect us and our results of operations.
We intend to pursue acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances that involve a number of inherent risks, any of which may cause us not to realize anticipated benefits.
One aspect of our business strategy is to selectively pursue acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances that we believe will improve our market position, and provide opportunities to realize operating synergies. These transactions involve inherent risks and uncertainties, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition including:
difficulties in achieving identified financial and operating synergies, including the integration of operations, services and products;
diversion of Management’s attention from other business concerns;
the assumption of unknown liabilities; and
unanticipated changes in the market conditions, business and economic factors affecting such an acquisition.
We cannot assure that we will be able to consummate any future acquisitions, joint ventures or other business combinations. If we are unable to identify suitable acquisition candidates or to consummate strategic acquisitions, we may be unable to fully implement our business strategy, and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected as a result. In addition, our ability to engage in strategic acquisitions will be dependent on our ability to raise substantial capital, and we may not be able to raise the funds necessary to implement our acquisition strategy on terms satisfactory to us, if at all.
As we introduce new products and services, a failure to predict and react to consumer demand could adversely affect our business.
We have dedicated significant resources to the development, manufacturing and marketing of new products. Decisions to develop and market new transportation products are typically made without firm indications of customer acceptance. Moreover, by their nature, new products may require alteration of existing business methods or threaten to displace existing equipment in which our customers may have a substantial capital investment. There can be no assurance that any new products that we develop will gain widespread acceptance in the marketplace or that such products will be able to compete successfully with other new products or services that may be introduced by competitors. In addition, we may incur additional warranty or other costs as new products are tested and used by customers.

10


A portion of our sales are related to delivering products and services to help our U.S. railroad and transit customers meet the Positive Train Control (PTC) mandate from the U.S. federal government, which requires the use of on-board locomotive computers and software by the end of 2018.
For the year ended December 31, 2015, we had sales of about $400 million related to PTC. In 2015, the industry's PTC deadline was extended by three years, which could change the timing of our revenues and could cause us to reassess the staffing, resources and assets deployed in delivering Positive Train Control services.
Our revenues are subject to cyclical variations in the railway and passenger transit markets and changes in government spending.
The railway industry historically has been subject to significant fluctuations due to overall economic conditions, the use of alternate methods of transportation and the levels of federal, state and local government spending on railroad transit projects. In economic downturns, railroads have deferred, and may defer, certain expenditures in order to conserve cash in the short term. Reductions in freight traffic may reduce demand for our replacement products.
The passenger transit railroad industry is also cyclical. New passenger transit car orders vary from year to year and are influenced greatly by major replacement programs and by the construction or expansion of transit systems by transit authorities. A substantial portion of our net sales have been, and we expect that a material portion of our future net sales will be, derived from contracts with metropolitan transit and commuter rail authorities and Amtrak. To the extent that future funding for proposed public projects is curtailed or withdrawn altogether as a result of changes in political, economic, fiscal or other conditions beyond our control, such projects may be delayed or cancelled, resulting in a potential loss of business for us, including transit aftermarket and new transit car orders. There can be no assurance that economic conditions will be favorable or that there will not be significant fluctuations adversely affecting the industry as a whole and, as a result, us.
Our backlog is not necessarily indicative of the level of our future revenues.
Our backlog represents future production and estimated potential revenue attributable to firm contracts with, or written orders from, our customers for delivery in various periods.  Instability in the global economy, negative conditions in the global credit markets, volatility in the industries that our products serve, changes in legislative policy, adverse changes in the financial condition of our customers, adverse changes in the availability of raw materials and supplies, or un-remedied contract breaches could possibly lead to contract termination or cancellations of orders in our backlog or request for deferred deliveries of our backlog orders, each of which could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations.
A growing portion of our sales may be derived from our international operations, which exposes us to certain risks inherent in doing business on an international level.
In fiscal year 2015, approximately 47% of our consolidated net sales were to customers outside of the U.S. and we intend to continue to expand our international operations in the future. We currently conduct our international operations through a variety of wholly and majority-owned subsidiaries and joint ventures in Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Macedonia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. As a result, we are subject to various risks, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on those operations and on our business as a whole, including:
lack of complete operating control;
lack of local business experience;
currency exchange fluctuations and devaluations;
foreign trade restrictions and exchange controls;
difficulty enforcing agreements and intellectual property rights;
the potential for nationalization of enterprises; and
economic, political and social instability and possible terrorist attacks against American interests.
In addition, certain jurisdictions have laws that limit the ability of non-U.S. subsidiaries and their affiliates to pay dividends and repatriate cash flows.
We may incur increased costs due to fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.
In the ordinary course of business, we are exposed to increases in interest rates that may adversely affect funding costs associated with variable-rate debt and changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We may seek to minimize these risks through the use of interest rate swap contracts and currency hedging agreements. There can be no assurance that any of these measures will be effective. Any material changes in interest or exchange rates could result in material losses to us.

11


We may have liability arising from asbestos litigation.
Claims have been filed against the Company and certain of its affiliates in various jurisdictions across the United States by persons alleging bodily injury as a result of exposure to asbestos-containing products. Most of these claims have been made against our wholly owned subsidiary, Railroad Friction Products Corporation (RFPC), and are based on a product sold by RFPC prior to the time that the Company acquired any interest in RFPC.
Most of these claims, including all of the RFPC claims, are submitted to insurance carriers for defense and indemnity or to non-affiliated companies that retain the liabilities for the asbestos-containing products at issue. We cannot, however, assure that all these claims will be fully covered by insurance or that the indemnitors or insurers will remain financially viable. Our ultimate legal and financial liability with respect to these claims, as is the case with most other pending litigation, cannot be estimated.
We are subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations.
We are subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations governing discharges to air and water, the handling, storage and disposal of hazardous or solid waste materials and the remediation of contamination associated with releases of hazardous substances. We believe our operations currently comply in all material respects with all of the various environmental laws and regulations applicable to our business; however, there can be no assurance that environmental requirements will not change in the future or that we will not incur significant costs to comply with such requirements.
Future climate change regulation could result in increased operating costs, affect the demand for our products or affect the ability of our critical suppliers to meet our needs.
The Company has followed the current debate over climate change and the related policy discussion and prospective legislation. The potential challenges for the Company that climate change policy and legislation may pose have been reviewed by the Company. Any such challenges are heavily dependent on the nature and degree of climate change legislation and the extent to which it applies to our industry. At this time, the Company cannot predict the ultimate impact of climate change and climate change legislation on the Company’s operations. Further, when or if these impacts may occur cannot be assessed until scientific analysis and legislative policy are more developed and specific legislative proposals begin to take shape. Any laws or regulations that may be adopted to restrict or reduce emissions of greenhouse gas could require us to incur increased operating costs, and could have an adverse effect on demand for our products. In addition, the price and availability of certain of the raw materials that we use could vary in the future as a result of environmental laws and regulations affecting our suppliers. An increase in the price of our raw materials or a decline in their availability could adversely affect our operating margins or result in reduced demand for our products.
Our manufacturer’s warranties or product liability may expose us to potentially significant claims.
We warrant the workmanship and materials of many of our products. Accordingly, we are subject to a risk of product liability or warranty claims in the event that the failure of any of our products results in personal injury or death, or does not conform to our customers’ specifications. In addition, in recent years, we have introduced a number of new products for which we do not have a history of warranty experience. Although we have not had any material product liability or warranty claims made against us and we currently maintain liability insurance coverage, we cannot assure that product liability claims, if made, would not exceed our insurance coverage limits or that insurance will continue to be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. The possibility exists for these types of warranty claims to result in costly product recalls, significant repair costs and damage to our reputation.
Labor disputes may have a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability.
We collectively bargain with labor unions that represent approximately 30% of our employees. Our current collective bargaining agreements are generally effective from 2016 through 2018. Agreements expiring at various times during 2016 cover approximately 26% of the Company’s workforce. Failure to reach an agreement could result in strikes or other labor protests which could disrupt our operations. If we were to experience a strike or work stoppage, it would be difficult for us to find a sufficient number of employees with the necessary skills to replace these employees. We cannot assure that we will reach any such agreement or that we will not encounter strikes or other types of conflicts with the labor unions of our personnel. Such labor disputes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, could cause us to lose revenues and customers and might have permanent effects on our business.
From time to time we are engaged in contractual disputes with our customers.
From time to time, we are engaged in contractual disputes with our customers regarding routine delivery and performance issues as well as adjustments for design changes and related extra work. These disputes are generally resolved in

12


the ordinary course of business without having a material adverse impact on us although we cannot guarantee that this will continue to occur.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health.
At December 31, 2015, we had total debt of $695.7 million. If it becomes necessary to access our available borrowing capacity under our 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement, the $445.0 million currently borrowed under this facility and the $250.0 million 4.375% senior notes, being indebted could have important consequences to us. For example, it could:
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industries in which we operate;
place us at a disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt; and
limit our ability to borrow additional funds.
The indenture for our $250 million 4.375% senior notes due in 2023 and our 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement contain various covenants that limit our Management’s discretion in the operation of our businesses.
The indenture governing the notes and our credit agreement contain various covenants that limit our Management’s discretion.
The 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement limits the Company’s ability to declare or pay cash dividends and prohibits the Company from declaring or making other distributions, subject to certain exceptions. The 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement contains various other covenants and restrictions including the following limitations: incurrence of additional indebtedness; mergers, consolidations and sales of assets and acquisitions; additional liens; sale and leasebacks; permissible investments, loans and advances; certain debt payments; capital expenditures; and imposes a minimum interest expense coverage ratio and a maximum debt to cash flow ratio.
The indenture under which the senior notes were issued contains covenants and restrictions which limit among other things, the following: the incurrence of indebtedness, payment of dividends and certain distributions, sale of assets, change in control, mergers and consolidations and the incurrence of liens.
The integration of our recently completed acquisitions may not result in anticipated improvements in market position or the realization of anticipated operating synergies or may take longer to realize than expected.
In 2014 and 2015, we completed multiple acquisitions with a combined investment of $424.7 million. Although we believe that the acquisitions will improve our market position and realize positive operating results, including operating synergies, operating expense reductions and overhead cost savings, we cannot be assured that these improvements will be obtained or the timing of such improvements. The management and acquisition of businesses involves substantial risks, any of which may result in a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, including:
the uncertainty that an acquired business will achieve anticipated operating results;
significant expenses to integrate;
diversion of Management’s attention;
departure of key personnel from the acquired business;
effectively managing entrepreneurial spirit and decision-making;
integration of different information systems;
unanticipated costs and exposure to unforeseen liabilities; and
impairment of assets.

Item 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.


13


Item 2.
PROPERTIES
Facilities
The following table provides certain summary information about the principal facilities owned or leased by the Company as of December 31, 2015. The Company believes that its facilities and equipment are generally in good condition and that, together with scheduled capital improvements, they are adequate for its present and immediately projected needs. Leases on the facilities are long-term and generally include options to renew. The Company’s corporate headquarters are located at the Wilmerding, PA site.
 
Location
 
 
Primary Use
 
 
Segment
 
 
Own/Lease
 
 
Approximate
Square Feet
 
Domestic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rothbury, MI
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse/Office
 
Freight
 
Own
 
500,000

 
 
Wilmerding, PA
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Freight
 
Own
 
365,000

 
(1
)
Lexington, TN
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
170,000

 
 
Jackson, TN
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
150,000

 
 
Berwick, PA
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse
 
Freight
 
Own
 
150,000

 
 
Chicago, IL
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Freight
 
Own
 
123,140

 
 
Greensburg, PA
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
113,000

 
 
Chillicothe, OH
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Freight
 
Own
 
104,000

 
 
Warren, OH
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
102,650

 
 
Coshocton, OH
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse/Office
 
Freight
 
Own
 
83,000

 
 
Germantown, MD
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
80,000

 
 
Delray Beach, FL
 
Warehouse
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
125,888

 
 
Kansas City, MO
 
Service Center
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
95,900

 
 
Pittsburgh, PA
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
90,000

 
 
Strongsville, OH
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse/Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
80,000

 
 
Columbia, SC
 
Service Center
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
71,400

 
 
Jacksonville, FL
 
Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
59,518

 
 
Bensenville, IL
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse/Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
58,230

 
 
Cedar Rapids, IA
 
Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
36,568

 
 
Jacksonville, FL
 
Warehouse
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
30,000

 
 
Clarksburg, MD
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
22,443

 
 
Carson City, NV
 
Service Center
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
22,000

 
 
Salem, OH
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
20,000

 
 
Boise, ID
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Own
 
326,000

 
 
Maxton, NC
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Own
 
105,000

 
 
Willits, CA
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Own
 
70,000

 
 
Brenham, TX
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
144,671

 
 
Wytheville, VA
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
82,400

 
 
Piedmont, SC
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
47,000

 
 
Spartanburg, SC
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
183,600

 
 
Buffalo Grove, IL
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
115,570

 
 
Cleveland, OH
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
87,407

 
 
San Fernando, CA
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
65,347

 
 
Plattsburgh, NY
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
64,000

 
 
Moorpark, CA
 
Office/Warehouse
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
45,916

 
 
Cleveland, OH
 
Manufacturing/Warehouse/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
43,643

 
 

14


Location
 
 
Primary Use
 
 
Segment
 
 
Own/Lease
 
 
Approximate
Square Feet
 
Export, PA
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
34,000

 
 
Elmsford, NY
 
Service Center
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
28,000

 
 
Greer, SC
 
Warehouse
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
20,000

 
 
International
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wallaceburg (Ontario), Canada
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
126,000

 
 
San Luis Potosi, Mexico
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Freight
 
Own
 
73,100

 
 
East Beijing, Hebei Province, China
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
64,702

 
 
Daye City, Hebei Province, China
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Own
 
59,147

 
 
Barneveld, Netherlands
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Freight
 
Own
 
53,443

 
 
Northampton, UK
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
300,000

 
 
Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, China
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
290,550

 
 
Lincolnshire, UK
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
149,468

 
 
London (Ontario), Canada
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
103,540

 
 
Stoney Creek (Ontario), Canada
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
47,940

 
 
Kolkata, India
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
36,965

 
 
Belo Horizonte, Brazil
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
33,992

 
 
Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
33,992

 
 
Lachine (Quebec), Canada
 
Service Center
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
25,455

 
 
Mulgrave, Australia
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Freight
 
Lease
 
21,528

 
 
Doncaster, UK
 
Manufacturing/Service
 
Freight/Transit
 
Own
 
330,000

 
 
Kilmarnock, UK
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Own
 
107,975

 
 
Loughborough, UK
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Lease
 
245,245

 
 
Kempton Park, South Africa
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Lease
 
156,077

 
 
Wetherill Park, Australia
 
Manufacturing
 
Freight/Transit
 
Lease
 
70,600

 
 
Monte Alto, Brazil
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
244,081

 
 
Schuttorf, Germany
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
189,445

 
 
Chard, UK
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
141,610

 
 
Avellino, Italy
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
132,495

 
 
Tianjin, Hebebi Province, China
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
87,672

 
 
Recklinghausen, Germany
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Own
 
86,390

 
 
Sable-sur-Sarthe, France
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Own
 
51,667

 
 
Utrecht, The Netherlands
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Own
 
48,438

 
 
Katy Wroclawskie, Poland
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
31,484

 
 
Soria, Spain
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Own
 
31,000

 
 
Burton on Trent, UK
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
253,453

 
 
Camisano, Italy
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
136,465

 
 
San Luis Potosi, Mexico
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
112,825

 
 
St. Laurent (Quebec), Canada
 
Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
38,926

 
 
Gipuzkoa, Spain
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
37,049

 
 
Chard, UK
 
Manufacturing/Office
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
35,282

 
 
Hangzhou City, Hunan Province, China
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
31,032

 
 
Sassuolo, Italy
 
Manufacturing
 
Transit
 
Lease
 
30,000

 
 

15



 
(1)
Approximately 250,000 square feet are currently used in connection with the Company’s corporate and manufacturing operations. The remainder is leased to third parties.

Item  3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information with respect to legal proceedings is included in Note 19 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report and incorporate by reference herein.

Item  4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

16


EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following table provides information on our executive officers. They are elected periodically by our Board of Directors and serve at its discretion.
Officers
 
Age
 
Position
Albert J. Neupaver
 
65
 
Executive Chairman
Raymond T. Betler
 
60
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Patrick D. Dugan
 
49
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
R. Mark Cox
 
48
 
Senior Vice President, Corporate Development
David L. DeNinno
 
60
 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Scott E. Wahlstrom
 
52
 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources
Robert Bourg
 
54
 
Vice President and Group Executive
Karl-Heinz Colmer
 
59
 
Vice President and Group Executive
Michael E. Fetsko
 
50
 
Vice President and Group Executive
John A. Mastalerz
 
49
 
Vice President of Finance, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer
David Meyer
 
45
 
Vice President and Group Executive
Timothy R. Wesley
 
54
 
Vice President, Investor Relations and Corporate Communications

Albert J. Neupaver was named Executive Chairman of the Company in May 2014. Previously, Mr. Neupaver served as Chairman and CEO from May 2013 to May 2014 and as the Company’s President and CEO from February 2006 to May 2013.  Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Neupaver served in various positions at AMETEK, Inc., a leading global manufacturer of electronic instruments and electric motors. Most recently he served as President of its Electromechanical Group for nine years.
Raymond T. Betler was named President and Chief Executive Officer in May 2014. Previously, Mr. Betler was President and Chief Operating Officer since May 2013 and the Company’s Chief Operating Officer since December 2010.  Prior to that, he served as Vice President, Group Executive of the Company since August 2008. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Betler served in various positions of increasing responsibility at Bombardier Transportation since 1979. Most recently, Mr. Betler served as President, Total Transit Systems from 2004 until 2008 and before that as President, London Underground Projects from 2002 to 2004.
Patrick D. Dugan was named Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer effective January 2014.  Previously, Mr. Dugan was Senior Vice President, Finance and Corporate Controller from January 2012 until November 2013.   He originally joined Wabtec in 2003 as Vice President, Corporate Controller. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Dugan served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of CWI International, Inc. from December 1996 to November 2003. Prior to 1996, Mr. Dugan was a Manager with PricewaterhouseCoopers.
R. Mark Cox was named Senior Vice President, Corporate Development in January 2012, and has been with Wabtec since September 2006 as Vice President, Corporate Development. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Cox served as Director of Business Development for the Electrical Group of Eaton Corporation since 2002. Prior to joining Eaton, Mr. Cox was an investment banker with UBS Warburg, Prudential and Stephens.
David L. DeNinno was named Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of the Company in February 2012. Previously, Mr. DeNinno served as a partner at K&L Gates LLP since May 2011 and prior to that with Reed Smith LLP.
Scott E. Wahlstrom was named Senior Vice President, Human Resources in January 2012. Mr. Wahlstrom has been Vice President, Human Resources, since November 1999. Previously, Mr. Wahlstrom was Vice President, Human Resources & Administration of MotivePower Industries, Inc. from August 1996 until November 1999.
Robert Bourg was named Vice President and Group Executive in February 2012.  Prior to that, he was Vice President Rail Electronics from May 2010.  Previously, he was Vice President and General Manager of Wabtec Railway Electronics from May 2006 to May 2010.  Prior to that, he held various senior management positions within Wabtec since he was hired in August 1992.
Karl-Heinz Colmer was named Vice President and Group Executive in February 2012.  Mr. Colmer served as Managing Director of Friction Products from January 2009 until February 2012.  Prior to that position, Mr. Colmer served as Managing Director of Becorit GmbH since 2006 after joining Wabtec.   Prior to joining Wabtec Mr. Colmer served in various management roles with BBA PLC.

17


Michael E. Fetsko was named Vice President and Group Executive in January 2014.  Mr Fetsko joined Wabtec in July of 2011 as Vice President, Freight Pneumatics. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Fetsko served in various executive management roles with Bombardier Transportation.
John A. Mastalerz was named Vice President of Finance, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer in January 2016.  Mr. Mastalerz served as Vice President and Corporate Controller from January 2014 to January 2016. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Mastalerz served in various executive management roles with the H.J. Heinz Company from January 2001 to December 2013, most recently as Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer.  Prior to 2001, Mr. Mastalerz was a Senior Manager with PricewaterhouseCoopers.
David Meyer was named Vice President and Group Executive in February 2012.  Mr. Meyer served as Vice President, Freight Car Products from April 2007 until February 2012.  Prior to this position, Mr. Meyer served in several Vice President and General Manager roles within Wabtec since 2003 and joined Wabtec as a Product Line Manager in 1999.  Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Meyer served in various management roles with Eaton Corporation.
Timothy R. Wesley was named Vice President, Investor Relations and Corporate Communications in November 1999. Previously, Mr. Wesley was Vice President, Investor and Public Relations of MotivePower Industries, Inc. from August 1996 until November 1999.

18


PART II
Item  5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Common Stock of the Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “WAB”. As of February 16, 2016, there were 91,930,671 shares of Common Stock outstanding held by 513 holders of record. On May 14, 2013, our stockholders approved an amendment to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of our common stock to 200.0 million shares.  The high and low sales price of the shares and dividends declared per share were as follows:
2015
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends
First Quarter
 
$
97.16

 
$
81.21

 
$
0.060

Second Quarter
 
$
105.10

 
$
93.49

 
$
0.060

Third Quarter
 
$
103.07

 
$
87.95

 
$
0.080

Fourth Quarter
 
$
94.61

 
$
67.96

 
$
0.080

2014
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends
First Quarter
 
$
82.42

 
$
69.55

 
$
0.040

Second Quarter
 
$
83.77

 
$
69.45

 
$
0.040

Third Quarter
 
$
87.14

 
$
78.51

 
$
0.060

Fourth Quarter
 
$
92.20

 
$
70.20

 
$
0.060


The Company’s 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement restricts the ability to make dividend payments, with certain exceptions. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and see Note 9 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
At the close of business on February 16, 2016, the Company’s Common Stock traded at $67.49 per share.
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference to any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that Wabtec specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing. The graph below compares the total stockholder return through December 31, 2015, of Wabtec’s common stock to, (i) the S&P 500, (ii) our former peer group of manufacturing companies which consisted of the following publicly traded companies: The Greenbrier Companies, L.B. Foster, Trinity Industries and Freight Car America; and (iii) our new peer group of manufacturing companies which consists of the following publicly traded companies: The Greenbrier Companies, Trinity Industries, AMETEK, Regal Beloit, Harsco, Valmont, Lincoln Electric, Kennametal, Pall, Crane, Donaldson, WABCO, ITT, Briggs & Stratton, IDEX, Woodward, Titan Wheel, Actuant and Koppers.  The peer group was revised to better match the operations and products of Wabtec.

19


On November 9, 2015, the Board of Directors amended its stock repurchase authorization to $350 million of the Company’s outstanding shares. This new stock repurchase authorization supersedes the previous authorization of $200 million of which about $100.0 million remained. Through December 31, 2015, 4,042,123 shares have been repurchased under the new authorization totaling $316.7 million leaving $33.3 million remaining under the authorization. All purchases were made on the open market.
On February 9, 2016 the Board of Directors amended its stock repurchase authorization to $350 million of the Company's outstanding shares. This new stock repurchase authorization supersedes the previous authorization of $350 million of which $33.3 million remained.
The Company intends to purchase shares on the open market or in negotiated or block trades. No time limit was set for the completion of the programs which conform to the requirements under the 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement, as well as the senior notes currently outstanding.
During the first and second quarters of 2015, no shares were repurchased. During the third quarter of 2015, the Company repurchased 237,027 shares at an average price of $94.23 per share. During the fourth quarter of 2015, 4,652,000 shares were repurchased at an average price of $78.56 per share. All purchases were on the open market.

During the first quarter of 2014, the Company repurchased 27,500 shares at an average price of $78.22 per share. During the second quarters of 2014, the Company repurchased 194,700 shares at an average price of $74.33 per share. During the third quarter of 2014, the Company repurchased 124,600 shares at an average price of $81.33 per share. During the fourth quarter of 2014, no shares were repurchased. All purchases were on the open market.



20


Item 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table shows selected consolidated financial information of the Company and has been derived from audited financial statements. This financial information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company and the Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
In thousands, except per share amounts
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Income Statement Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
3,307,998

 
$
3,044,454

 
$
2,566,392

 
$
2,391,122

 
$
1,967,637

Gross profit
 
1,047,816

 
935,982

 
764,027

 
694,567

 
570,424

Operating expenses
 
(440,249
)
 
(408,873
)
 
(326,717
)
 
(302,288
)
 
(299,723
)
Income from operations
 
$
607,567

 
$
527,109

 
$
437,310

 
$
392,279

 
$
270,701

Interest expense, net
 
$
(16,888
)
 
$
(17,574
)
 
$
(15,341
)
 
$
(14,251
)
 
$
(15,007
)
Other (expense) income, net
 
(5,311
)
 
(1,680
)
 
(882
)
 
(670
)
 
(380
)
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders
 
$
398,628

 
$
351,680

 
$
292,235

 
$
251,732

 
$
170,149

Diluted Earnings per Common Share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders (1)
 
$
4.10

 
$
3.62

 
$
3.01

 
$
2.60

 
$
1.76

Cash dividends declared per share (1)
 
$
0.28

 
$
0.20

 
$
0.13

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.04

Fully diluted shares outstanding (1)
 
97,006

 
96,885

 
96,832

 
96,742

 
96,657

Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
3,300,335

 
$
3,303,841

 
$
2,821,997

 
$
2,351,542

 
$
2,158,953

Cash
 
226,191

 
425,849

 
285,760

 
215,766

 
285,615

Total debt
 
695,727

 
521,195

 
450,709

 
317,896

 
395,873

Shareholder' equity
 
1,701,339

 
1,808,298

 
1,587,167

 
1,282,017

 
1,047,644


(1)
Information above for net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders, cash dividends declared per share and fully diluted shares outstanding for all periods presented reflects the two-for-one split of the Company’s common stock, which occurred on May 14, 2013.


21


Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OVERVIEW
Wabtec is one of the world’s largest providers of value-added, technology-based products and services for the global rail industry. Our products are found on virtually all U.S. locomotives, freight cars and passenger transit vehicles, as well as in more than 100 countries throughout the world. Our products enhance safety, improve productivity and reduce maintenance costs for customers, and many of our core products and services are essential in the safe and efficient operation of freight rail and passenger transit vehicles. Wabtec is a global company with operations in 20 countries. In 2015, about 47% of the Company’s revenues came from customers outside the U.S.
Management Review and Future Outlook
Wabtec’s long-term financial goals are to generate cash flow from operations in excess of net income, maintain a strong credit profile while minimizing our overall cost of capital, increase margins through strict attention to cost controls and implementation of the Wabtec Performance System, and increase revenues through a focused growth strategy, including global and market expansion, new products and technologies, aftermarket products and services, and acquisitions. In addition, Management evaluates the Company’s current operational performance through measures such as quality and on-time delivery.
The Company monitors a variety of factors and statistics to gauge market activity. Freight rail markets around the world are driven primarily by overall economic conditions and activity, while Transit markets are driven primarily by government funding and passenger ridership.  Changes in these market drivers can cause fluctuations in demand for Wabtec’s product and services.  In its 2014 - 2019 study, UNIFE projected annual growth of about 2.7% in the worldwide rail supply market over the next several years, with the highest expected growth rates in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America.
In North America, the AAR compiles statistics that gauge the level of activity in the freight rail industry, including revenue ton-miles and carloadings, which are generally referred to as “rail traffic”.  Based on changes in rail traffic trends, railroads can increase or decrease purchases of new locomotives and freight cars.  In 2015, North American carloadings decreased 2.2%, including a 5.8% decrease in commodity carloadings and a 2.1% increase in intermodal carloadings. Deliveries of new locomotives decreased 20%, and deliveries of new freight cars increased 22%. In 2016, we expect locomotive and freight car deliveries to be lower than in 2015. UNIFE projected an annual growth rate of about 3.0% in North America, but the actual figure depends on the growth of the economy.
In North America, the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) compiles ridership statistics and trends.  Based on preliminary figures for 2015, ridership decreased about 1.0% in the U.S. and about 1.0% in Canada.  Ridership provides fare box revenues to transit authorities, which use these funds, along with state and local money, primarily, for equipment maintenance.  In 2015, the U.S. Congress passed a new, five-year transportation funding bill, which includes an increase in spending of about 10.0% in the first year, and smaller increases in future years.  A majority of the money that transit agencies spend to purchase new equipment or infrastructure comes from the federal government.
Wabtec continues to expand its presence in freight rail and passenger transit markets outside the U.S., particularly in Europe, Asia-Pacific and South America. To gauge activity in these markets, we monitor trends in rail traffic and the spending plans of our customers.  In Europe, the majority of the rail system serves the passenger transit market, which is larger than the transit market in the U.S., our presence in the U.K., Germany and Italy has positioned the Company to take advantage of this market. UNIFE projected the Western European rail market to grow annually by about 2.0% in the next few years, with the United Kingdom and France expected to invest in new rolling stock.  UNIFE projected the market in Asia-Pacific, the world’s second largest according to the study, to grow annually by about 4.0%, primarily reflecting strong spending in China in recent years.  Other growth markets around the world, according to UNIFE, include Latin America, projected to grow at about 5.0%; and the Commonwealth of Independent States, projected to grow at about 1.0%.  Actual growth rates will be affected by the general global economic conditions and specific economic conditions in each market. Through wholly owned subsidiaries and joint ventures, Wabtec has a presence in every key freight rail and passenger transit market around the world.
In 2016 and beyond, general economic and market conditions in the United States and internationally will have an impact on our sales and operations. To the extent that these factors cause instability of capital markets, shortages of raw materials or component parts, longer sales cycles, deferral or delay of customer orders or an inability to market our products effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, we face risks associated with our four-point growth strategy including the level of investment that customers are willing to make in new technologies

22


developed by the industry and the Company, and risks inherent in global expansion. When necessary, we will modify our financial and operating strategies to reflect changes in market conditions and risks.
PROPOSED TRANSACTION WITH FAIVELEY TRANSPORT S.A.
On July 27, 2015, the Company announced plans to acquire Faiveley Transport S.A. ("Faiveley Transport"), a leading global provider of value-added, integrated systems and services for the railway industry with annual sales of about $1.2 billion and more than 5,700 employees in 24 countries.  Faiveley Transport supplies railway manufacturers, operators and maintenance providers with a range of valued-added, technology-based systems and services in Energy & Comfort (air conditioning, power collectors and converters, and passenger information), Access & Mobility (passenger access systems and platform doors), and Brakes & Safety (braking systems and couplers).
The transaction has been structured in three steps:
Wabtec made an irrevocable offer to the owners of approximately 51% of Faiveley Transport’s shares for a purchase price of €100 per share, payable 25% in cash and 75% in Wabtec preferred stock.  The preferred stock will have a 1% annual dividend or, if greater, the annual dividend assuming full conversion into common shares, and must be converted after three years into Wabtec common shares at an implied ratio of one Faiveley Transport common share for 1.125 Wabtec common shares. Shareholders owning 51% of Faiveley Transport have entered into exclusive discussions with Wabtec.
Upon completion of required labor group consultations, on October 6, 2015, the 51% shareholders entered into a definitive share purchase agreement and Faiveley Transport entered into an acquisition agreement with Wabtec.
Upon completing the share purchase, Wabtec will commence a tender offer for the remaining publicly traded Faiveley Transport shares. The public shareholders will have the option to elect to receive €100 per share in cash or Wabtec preferred stock. The preferred stock portion of the consideration is subject to a cap of 75% of Faiveley Transport’s common shares.  Wabtec intends to delist Faiveley Transport from Euronext after the tender offer if minority interests represent less than 5%.
The total purchase price offered is about $1.8 billion, including assumed debt.  Wabtec plans to fund the cash portion of the transaction with cash on hand, existing credit facilities and potentially other credit and debt financing.  Prior to December 31, 2015, Wabtec set aside €186.9 million as an escrow deposit for the Faiveley Transport purchase. The combination of Wabtec and Faiveley Transport would create one of the world’s largest public rail equipment companies, with revenues of about $4.5 billion and a presence in all key freight rail and passenger transit geographies worldwide. 
Closing of the transaction is subject to various conditions, including completion of regulatory requirements. These steps are currently on-going and the timing of completion is unknown.


23


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table shows our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years indicated.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
In thousands
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net sales
 
$
3,307,998

 
$
3,044,454

 
$
2,566,392

Cost of sales
 
(2,260,182
)
 
(2,108,472
)
 
(1,802,365
)
Gross profit
 
1,047,816

 
935,982

 
764,027

Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
(347,373
)
 
(324,539
)
 
(262,718
)
Engineering expenses
 
(71,213
)
 
(61,886
)
 
(46,289
)
Amortization expense
 
(21,663
)
 
(22,448
)
 
(17,710
)
Total operating expenses
 
(440,249
)
 
(408,873
)
 
(326,717
)
Income from operations
 
607,567

 
527,109

 
437,310

Interest expense, net
 
(16,888
)
 
(17,574
)
 
(15,341
)
Other (expense) income, net
 
(5,311
)
 
(1,680
)
 
(882
)
Income from operations before income taxes
 
585,368

 
507,855

 
421,087

Income tax expense
 
(186,740
)
 
(156,175
)
 
(128,852
)
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders
 
$
398,628

 
$
351,680

 
$
292,235


2015 COMPARED TO 2014
The following table summarizes the results of operations for the period:
 
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percent
In thousands
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Freight Segment
 
$
2,054,715

 
$
1,731,477

 
18.7
 %
Transit Segment
 
1,253,283

 
1,312,977

 
(4.5
)%
Net sales
 
3,307,998

 
3,044,454

 
8.7
 %
Income from operations
 
607,567

 
527,109

 
15.3
 %
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders
 
$
398,628

 
$
351,680

 
13.3
 %

The following table shows the major components of the change in sales in 2015 from 2014:
 
 
Freight
 
Transit
 
 
In thousands
 
Segment
 
Segment
 
Total
2014 Net Sales
 
$
1,731,477

 
$
1,312,977

 
$
3,044,454

Acquisitions
 
145,529

 
117,291

 
262,820

Change in Sales by Product Line:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Specialty Products & Electronics
 
145,680

 
10,776

 
156,456

Remanufacturing, Overhaul & Build
 
80,443

 
(53,883
)
 
26,560

Brake Products
 
18,905

 
(23,094
)
 
(4,189
)
Other Transit Products
 

 
(10,408
)
 
(10,408
)
Other
 
(17,764
)
 
1,894

 
(15,870
)
Foreign exchange
 
(49,555
)
 
(102,270
)
 
(151,825
)
2015 Net Sales
 
$
2,054,715

 
$
1,253,283

 
$
3,307,998


Net sales increased by $263.5 million to $3,308.0 million in 2015 from $3,044.5 million in 2014. The increase is primarily due to a $156.5 million increase for Specialty Products and Electronics sales from higher demand for freight original equipment products and aftermarket electronic and PTC electronic products. Acquisitions increased sales $262.8 million and unfavorable foreign exchange decreased sales $151.8 million.
Freight Segment sales increased by $323.2 million, or 18.7%, primarily due to a $145.7 million increase for Specialty Products and Electronics sales from higher demand for freight original equipment rail products, PTC electronics, and aftermarket rail products and $80.4 million for Remanufacturing, Overhaul and Build products due to higher demand for aftermarket locomotive builds. Acquisitions increased sales by $145.5 million and unfavorable foreign exchange decreased sales by $49.6 million.

24


Transit Segment sales decreased by $59.7 million, or 4.5%, due to a decrease of $102.3 million related to unfavorable foreign exchange, a $53.9 million decrease in Remanufacturing, Overhaul and Build from lower demand for original transit locomotive because a multi-year project was substantially completed in 2014, and a $23.1 million decrease for Brake Products from lower demand for braking products in Europe and braking systems in North America. These decreases were partially offset by $117.3 million in sales from acquisitions.
Cost of Sales and Gross Profit The following table shows the major components of cost of sales for the periods indicated:
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2015
In thousands
Freight
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Transit
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Total
 
Percentage of
Sales
Material
$
854,728

 
41.6
%
 
$
531,152

 
42.4
%
 
$
1,385,880

 
41.9
%
Labor
219,495

 
10.7
%
 
156,357

 
12.5
%
 
375,852

 
11.4
%
Overhead
282,132

 
13.7
%
 
182,501

 
14.6
%
 
464,633

 
14.0
%
Other/Warranty
5,926

 
0.3
%
 
27,891

 
2.2
%
 
33,817

 
1.0
%
Total cost of sales
$
1,362,281

 
66.3
%
 
$
897,901

 
71.7
%
 
$
2,260,182

 
68.3
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2014
In thousands
Freight
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Transit
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Total
 
Percentage of
Sales
Material
$
730,395

 
42.2
%
 
$
586,571

 
44.7
%
 
$
1,316,966

 
43.3
%
Labor
178,309

 
10.3
%
 
165,260

 
12.6
%
 
343,569

 
11.3
%
Overhead
228,147

 
13.2
%
 
196,481

 
15.0
%
 
424,628

 
13.9
%
Other/Warranty
1,691

 
0.1
%
 
21,618

 
1.6
%
 
23,309

 
0.8
%
Total cost of sales
$
1,138,542

 
65.8
%
 
$
969,930

 
73.9
%
 
$
2,108,472

 
69.3
%
Cost of Sales increased by $151.7 million to $2,260.2 million in 2015 compared to $2,108.5 million in the same period of 2014.  For the twelve months ended 2015, cost of sales as a percentage of sales was 68.3% compared to 69.3% in the same period of 2014. The decrease of cost of sales as a percentage of sales is due to lower material costs primarily due to lower original equipment transit locomotive sales and higher specialty product and electronics sales.
Freight Segment cost of sales increased 0.5% as a percentage of sales to 66.3% in 2015 compared to 65.8% for the same period of 2014. The increase is primarily related to slightly lower margins related to recent acquisitions, and cost overruns on a project nearing completion, partially offset by higher Specialty Products and Electronics sales.
Transit Segment cost of sales decreased 2.2% as a percentage of sales to 71.7% in 2015 compared to 73.9% for the same period in 2014. The decrease in 2015 is primarily due to lower material costs associated with lower original equipment locomotive sales and lower original equipment and aftermarket brake product sales which carry higher raw material content, partially offset by additional costs incurred on the closeout of several projects.
Included in cost of sales is warranty expense. The provision for warranty expense is generally established for specific losses, along with historical estimates of customer claims as a percentage of sales, which can cause variability in warranty expense between quarters. Warranty expense for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015 increased $1.3 million to $35.4 million from $34.1 million in 2014 primarily due to increased sales. 
Gross profit for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015 increased $111.8 million to $1,047.8 million from $936.0 million for the twelve months ended December 2014 and the gross profit margin increased 100 basis points to 31.7% from 30.7% at December 31, 2014. These increases are due to higher sales volume, favorable sales mix, and the reasons discussed above.





25


Operating expenses The following table shows our operating expenses:
 
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
Percentage of
 
 
 
Percentage of
In thousands
 
2015
 
Sales
 
2014
 
Sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
$
347,373

 
10.5
%
 
$
324,539

 
10.7
%
Engineering expenses
 
71,213

 
2.2
%
 
61,886

 
2.0
%
Amortization expense
 
21,663

 
0.7
%
 
22,448

 
0.7
%
Total operating expenses
 
$
440,249

 
13.4
%
 
$
408,873

 
13.4
%

Total operating expenses were 13.4% for both the years ending December 31 2015, and 2014.  Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $22.8 million, or 7.0%, primarily due to $24.7 million of expenses from acquisitions partially offset by lower incentive and non-cash compensation expense and the effects of foreign exchange.  Engineering expense increased by $9.3 million, or 15.1%, primarily due to $3.5 million of expenses from acquisitions.  The remainder of the increase can be attributed to the company concentrating resources on new product development, specifically in the electronics market.  Costs related to engineering for specific customer contracts are included in cost of sales.  Amortization expense decreased $0.8 million due to lower amortization of intangibles associated with acquisitions.
The following table shows our segment operating expenses:
 
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percent
In thousands
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Freight Segment
 
$
208,773

 
$
188,929

 
10.5
%
Transit Segment
 
205,415

 
196,776

 
4.4
%
Corporate
 
26,061

 
23,168

 
12.5
%
Total operating expenses
 
$
440,249

 
$
408,873

 
7.7
%

Freight Segment operating expenses increased $19.8 million, or 10.5%, in 2015 but decreased 70 basis points to 10.2% of sales.  The increase primarily relates to $8.4 million of incremental operating expenses from acquisitions and $7.9 million for engineering attributable to the Company concentrating resources on new product development.    
Transit Segment operating expenses increased $8.6 million, or 4.4%, in 2015 and increased 140 basis points to 16.4% of sales.  The increase is primarily related to $19.8 million of incremental operating expenses related to acquisitions.  This increase is partially offset by lower operating expenses due to foreign exchange. 
Corporate non-allocated operating expenses increased $2.9 million in 2015 primarily due to higher administrative and transaction costs associated with growing our business.
Income from operations Income from operations totaled $607.6 million or 18.4% of sales in 2015 compared to $527.1 million or 17.3% of sales in 2014. Income from operations increased due to higher sales volume, partially offset by increased operating expenses discussed above.
Interest expense, net Overall interest expense, net, decreased $0.7 million in 2015 due to lower average debt balances.
Other expense, net Other expense, net, increased $3.6 million to $5.3 million for 2015, compared to 2014 primarily due to foreign exchange adjustments.  
Income taxes The effective income tax rate was 31.9% and 30.8% in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The increase in the effective rate is primarily the result of a higher earnings mix in higher tax rate jurisdictions.
Net income Net income for 2015 increased 13.3% or $46.9 million to $398.6 million, compared to 2014. The increase in net income is due to the reasons discussed above.




26


2014 COMPARED TO 2013
The following table summarizes the results of operations for the period:
 
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percent
In thousands
 
2014
 
2013
 
Change
Freight Segment
 
$
1,731,477

 
$
1,398,103

 
23.8
%
Transit Segment
 
1,312,977

 
1,168,289

 
12.4
%
Net sales
 
3,044,454

 
2,566,392

 
18.6
%
Income from operations
 
527,109

 
437,310

 
20.5
%
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders
 
$
351,680

 
$
292,235

 
20.3
%

The following table shows the major components of the change in sales in 2014 from 2013:
 
 
Freight
 
Transit
 
 
In thousands
 
Segment
 
Segment
 
Total
2013 Net Sales
 
$
1,398,103

 
$
1,168,289

 
$
2,566,392

Acquisition
 
93,259

 
136,121

 
229,380

Change in Sales by Product Line:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Specialty Products & Electronics
 
184,504

 
210

 
184,714

Brake Products
 
55,483

 
28,705

 
84,188

Remanufacturing, Overhaul & Build
 
(13,844
)
 
(39,894
)
 
(53,738
)
Other Transit Products
 

 
(2,212
)
 
(2,212
)
Other
 
26,205

 
(1,636
)
 
24,569

Foreign exchange
 
(12,233
)
 
23,394

 
11,161

2014 Net Sales
 
$
1,731,477

 
$
1,312,977

 
$
3,044,454


Net sales increased by $478.1 million to $3,044.5 million in 2014 from $2,566.4 million in 2013. The increase is due to sales related to acquisitions of $229.4 million, $184.7 million for Specialty Products and Electronics sales from higher demand for freight original equipment products and aftermarket electronic products, and $84.2 million for Brake Products sales due to higher demand for original equipment products for freight customers and aftermarket brakes from certain transit authorities.  The increases were partially offset by lower sales for original equipment locomotives.  Favorable foreign exchange increased sales $11.2 million.
Freight Segment sales increased by $333.4 million, or 23.8%, primarily due to a $184.5 million for Specialty Products and Electronics sales from higher demand for freight original equipment rail products, positive train control electronics, and aftermarket rail products, acquisitions of $93.3 million, and $55.5 million for Brake Products due to higher demand for original equipment brakes.  Unfavorable foreign exchange decreased sales $12.2 million.
Transit Segment sales increased by $144.7 million, or 12.4%, due to acquisitions of $136.1 million and $28.7 million from increased demand for aftermarket brakes from certain transit authorities.  These increases were partially offset by $39.9 million in lower sales for original equipment transit locomotives.  Favorable foreign exchange increased net sales $23.4 million.

27


Cost of Sales and Gross Profit The following table shows the major components of cost of sales for the periods indicated:
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2014
In thousands
Freight
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Transit
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Total
 
Percentage of
Sales
Material
$
730,395

 
42.2
%
 
$
586,571

 
44.7
%
 
$
1,316,966

 
43.3
%
Labor
178,309

 
10.3
%
 
165,260

 
12.6
%
 
343,569

 
11.3
%
Overhead
228,147

 
13.2
%
 
196,481

 
15.0
%
 
424,628

 
13.9
%
Other/Warranty
1,691

 
0.1
%
 
21,618

 
1.6
%
 
23,309

 
0.8
%
Total cost of sales
$
1,138,542

 
65.8
%
 
$
969,930

 
73.9
%
 
$
2,108,472

 
69.3
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2013
In thousands
Freight
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Transit
 
Percentage of
Sales
 
Total
 
Percentage of
Sales
Material
$
558,548

 
40.0
%
 
$
536,766

 
45.9
%
 
$
1,095,314

 
42.7
%
Labor
154,324

 
11.0
%
 
145,608

 
12.5
%
 
299,932

 
11.7
%
Overhead
199,755

 
14.3
%
 
179,851

 
15.4
%
 
379,606

 
14.8
%
Other/Warranty
8,975

 
0.6
%
 
18,538

 
1.6
%
 
27,513

 
1.1
%
Total cost of sales
$
921,602

 
65.9
%
 
$
880,763

 
75.4
%
 
$
1,802,365

 
70.3
%
Cost of Sales increased by $306.1 million to $2,108.5 million in 2014 from $1,802.4 million in 2013.  Cost of sales, as a percentage of sales was 69.3% in 2014 and 70.2% in 2013.
Raw material costs were approximately 43% as a percentage of sales in 2014 and 2013. Labor costs decreased to approximately 11% as a percentage of sales in 2014 from 12% in 2013. Overhead costs as a percentage of sales decreased to approximately 14% in 2014 from 15% in 2013. Freight Segment raw material costs increased as a percentage of sales to approximately 42% in 2014 from 40% in 2013 due to the higher mix of revenue generated from freight and transit original equipment sales and aftermarket services, which have a higher raw material component as cost of sales. Freight Segment labor costs decreased from approximately 10% as a percentage of sales in 2014 from 11% in 2013, and overhead costs as a percentage of sales were approximately 13% in 2014 and 14% in 2013. Transit Segment raw material costs decreased as a percentage of sales to approximately 45% in 2014 from 46% in 2013, primarily due to lower original equipment locomotive sales, which have a higher raw material component. Transit Segment labor costs increased as a percentage of sales to approximately 13% in 2014 from 12% in 2013, and overhead costs remained unchanged at 15% for both 2014 and 2013. In general, overhead costs vary as a percentage of sales depending on product mix and changes in sales volume.
Included in cost of sales is warranty expense. The provision for warranty expense is generally established for specific losses, along with historical estimates of customer claims as a percentage of sales, which can cause variability in warranty expense between quarters. Warranty expense was $11.1 million higher in 2014 compared to 2013 due to increased sales.  As a percentage of sales, warranty expense was 0.6% in 2014 and 0.9% in 2013.
Gross profit increased to $936.0 million in 2014 compared to $764.0 million in 2013, due to higher sales volume and the reasons discussed above.  For 2014 and 2013, gross profit, as a percentage of sales, was 30.7% and 29.8%, respectively.
Operating expenses The following table shows our operating expenses:
 
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
Percentage of
 
 
 
Percentage of
In thousands
 
2014
 
Sales
 
2013
 
Sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
$
324,539

 
10.7
%
 
$
262,718

 
10.2
%
Engineering expenses
 
61,886

 
2.0
%
 
46,289

 
1.8
%
Amortization expense
 
22,448

 
0.7
%
 
17,710

 
0.7
%
Total operating expenses
 
$
408,873

 
13.4
%
 
$
326,717

 
12.7
%

Total operating expenses were 13.4% and 12.7% of sales for the years ending December 31 2014, and 2013, respectively.  Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $61.8 million, or 23.5%, primarily due to $30.1 million of expenses from acquisitions and $9.2 million of expenses related to higher incentive and non-cash compensation expense.  In addition, selling, general and administrative expenses increased to support higher sales volumes.  Engineering expense

28


increased by $15.6 million, or 33.7%, primarily due to $7.5 million of expenses from acquisitions.  The remainder of the increase can be attributed to the company concentrating resources on new product development, specifically in the electronics market.  Costs related to engineering for specific customer contracts are included in cost of sales.  Amortization expense increased $4.7 million due to amortization of intangibles associated with acquisitions.
The following table shows our segment operating expenses:
 
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percent
In thousands
 
2014
 
2013
 
Change
Freight Segment
 
$
188,929

 
$
158,128

 
19.5
%
Transit Segment
 
196,776

 
153,132

 
28.5
%
Corporate
 
23,168

 
15,457

 
49.9
%
Total operating expenses
 
$
408,873

 
$
326,717

 
25.1
%

Freight Segment operating expenses increased $30.8 million, or 19.5%, in 2014 but decreased 40 basis points to 10.9% of sales.  The increase primarily relates to $8.4 million of incremental operating expenses from acquisitions, $8.2 million in higher corporate allocations mainly due to increased incentive compensation expense, and $8.2 million for engineering attributable to the Company concentrating resources on new product development.    
Transit Segment operating expenses increased $43.6 million, or 28.5%, in 2014 and increased 190 basis points to 15.0% of sales.  The increase is primarily related to $33.9 million of incremental operating expenses related to acquisitions.  In addition, Transit Segment engineering expenses increased to support new product development.  
Corporate non-allocated operating expenses increased $7.7 million in 2014 primarily due to higher administrative costs associated with growing our business.
Income from operations Income from operations totaled $527.1 million or 17.3% of sales in 2014 compared to $437.3 million or 17.0% of sales in 2013. Income from operations increased due to higher sales volume, partially offset by increased operating expenses discussed above.
Interest expense, net Overall interest expense, net, increased $2.2 million in 2014 due to due to higher debt balances resulting from acquisitions, partially offset by lower average interest rates.
Other expense, net Other expense, net, increased $0.8 million to $1.7 million for 2014, compared to 2013.  
Income taxes The effective income tax rate was 30.8% and 30.6% in 2014 and 2013, respectively. In 2014, the positive effect of an increase in foreign income taxed at lower statutory rates was offset by tax reserves required for uncertain tax positions in several jurisdictions.  
Net income Net income for 2014 increased $59.4 million to $351.7 million, compared to 2013. The increase in net income is due to higher sales volume and lower effective tax rate, partially offset by higher operating expenses.

29


Liquidity and Capital Resources
Liquidity is provided by operating cash flow and borrowings under the Company’s unsecured credit facility with a consortium of commercial banks. The following is a summary of selected cash flow information and other relevant data:
 
 
For the year ended
December 31,
In thousands
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Cash provided by (used for):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
 
$
448,260

 
$
472,385

 
$
235,653

Investing activities
 
(380,136
)
 
(347,678
)
 
(258,692
)
Financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from debt
 
787,400

 
563,400

 
959,067

Payments of debt
 
(612,680
)
 
(493,819
)
 
(829,842
)
Stock repurchase
 
(387,787
)
 
(26,757
)
 
(32,998
)
Cash dividends
 
(26,963
)
 
(19,246
)
 
(12,644
)
Other
 
(8,884
)
 
1,928

 
9,431

 
Operating activities. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, cash provided by operations was $448.3 million, $472.4 million and $235.7 million, respectively. In comparison to 2014, cash provided by operations in 2015 decreased due to unfavorable working capital requirements partially offset by higher operating results. The unfavorable working capital requirements primarily related to an unfavorable change in accounts payable and accrued liabilities of $132.0 million and $86.9 million, respectively. These cash outflows were partially offset by a favorable change in accounts receivable of $38.9 million driven by collections due to achieving certain project related milestones and a favorable change in inventory of $84.2 million due to successful efforts to control the amount of inventory on hand.
In comparison to 2013, cash provided by operations in 2014 increased due to reduced working capital compared to the prior year, coupled with higher operating results. The major components of the higher cash inflows were as follows: a positive change in accounts receivable of $132.3 million as the number of days to collect cash decreased, a positive change in other accrued liabilities and customer deposits of $117.6 million, and a positive change in accrued income taxes due to payment timing.  These cash inflows were partially offset by the following cash outflows: an unfavorable change in accounts payable of $5.6 million due to payment timing, and an unfavorable change or increase of $90.1 million in inventory as the Company held more inventory to support the higher backlog of orders in 2015.
Investing activities. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, cash used in investing activities was $380.1 million, $347.7 million and $258.7 million, respectively. The major components of the cash outflow in 2015 were planned additions to property, plant, and equipment of $49.4 million for continued investments in our facilities and manufacturing processes and $129.6 million in net cash paid for acquisitions.  This compares to $47.7 million for property, plant, and equipment and $300.4 million in net cash paid for acquisitions in 2014.  Refer to Note 4 of the “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information on acquisitions.
Financing activities. In 2015, cash used for financing activities was $248.9 million, which included $787.4 million in proceeds from the revolving credit facility debt, $612.7 million of repayments of debt on the revolving credit facility, $27.0 million of dividend payments and $387.8 million of Wabtec stock repurchases. In 2014, cash provided by financing activities was $25.5 million, which included $563.4 million in proceeds from the revolving credit facility debt, $493.8 million of repayments of debt on the revolving credit facility, $19.2 million of dividend payments and $26.8 million of Wabtec stock repurchases.
The following table shows outstanding indebtedness at December 31, 2015 and 2014.
 
 
December 31,
In thousands
 
2015
 
2014
4.375% Senior Notes, due 2023
 
$
250,000

 
$
250,000

Revolving Credit Facility
 
445,000

 
270,000

Capital Leases
 
727

 
1,195

Total
 
695,727

 
521,195

Less - current portion
 
433

 
792

Long-term portion
 
$
695,294

 
$
520,403


Cash balances at December 31, 2015 and 2014 were $226.2 million and $425.8 million, respectively.

30


2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement
On December 19, 2013, the Company amended its existing revolving credit facility with a consortium of commercial banks. This “2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement” provides the company with a $800.0 million, five- year revolving credit facility. The Company incurred approximately $1.0 million of deferred financing cost related to the 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement. The facility expires on December 19, 2018. The 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement borrowings bear variable interest rates indexed as described below. At December 31, 2015, the Company had available bank borrowing capacity, net of $21.9 million of letters of credit, of approximately $333.1 million, subject to certain financial covenant restrictions.
Under the 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement, the Company may elect a Base Rate of interest for U.S. Dollar denominated loans or, for certain currencies,  an interest rate based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) of interest, or other rates appropriate for such currencies  (in any case, “the Alternate Rate”). The Base Rate adjusts on a daily basis and is the greater of the Federal Funds Effective Rate plus 0.5% per annum, the PNC, N.A. prime rate or the Daily LIBOR Rate plus 100 basis points, plus a margin that ranges from 0 basis points to 75 basis points . The Alternate Rate is based on the quoted rates specific to the applicable currency, plus a margin that ranges from 75 basis points to 175 basis points. Both the Base Rate and Alternate Rate margins are dependent on the Company’s consolidated total indebtedness to cash flow ratios. The initial Base Rate margin is 0 basis points and the Alternate Rate margin is 75 basis points.
At December 31, 2015, the weighted average interest rate on the Company’s variable rate debt was 1.10%.  On January 12, 2012, the Company entered into a forward starting interest rate swap agreement with a notional value of $150.0 million. The effective date of the interest rate swap agreement is July 31, 2013, and the termination date is November 7, 2016. The impact of the interest rate swap agreement converts a portion of the Company’s outstanding debt from a variable rate to a fixed-rate borrowing. During the term of the interest rate swap agreement the interest rate on the notional value will be fixed at 1.415% plus the Alternate Rate margin. On June 5, 2014, the Company entered into a forward starting interest rate swap agreement with a notional value of $150.0 million.  The effective date of the interest rate swap agreement is November 7, 2016, and the termination date is December 19, 2018.  The impact of the interest rate swap agreement converts a portion of the Company’s outstanding debt from a variable rate to a fixed-rate borrowing.  During the term of the interest rate swap agreement the interest rate on the notional value will be fixed at 2.56% plus the Alternate Rate margin.  As for these agreements, the Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties.  However, since only the cash interest payments are exchanged, exposure is significantly less than the notional amount.  The counterparties are large financial institutions with an excellent credit rating and history of performance.  The Company currently believes the risk of nonperformance is negligible.

The 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement limits the Company’s ability to declare or pay cash dividends and prohibits the Company from declaring or making other distributions, subject to certain exceptions. The 2013 Refinancing Credit Agreement contains various other covenants and restrictions including the following limitations: incurrence of additional indebtedness; mergers, consolidations, sales of assets and acquisitions; additional liens; sale and leasebacks; permissible investments, loans and advances; certain debt payments; and imposes a minimum interest expense coverage ratio of 3.0 and a maximum debt to cash flow ratio of 3.25. The Company does not expect that these measurements will limit the Company in executing it's operating activities. See Note 9 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
2011 Refinancing Credit Agreement
On November 7, 2011, the Company refinanced its existing revolving credit and term loan facility with a consortium of commercial banks. This “2011 Refinancing Credit Agreement” provided the Company with a $600.0 million, five-year revolving credit facility. The Company incurred approximately $1.9 million of deferred financing cost related to the 2011 Refinancing Credit Agreement. The facility was set to expire on November 7, 2016.
Under the 2011 Refinancing Credit Agreement, the Company may have elected a Base Rate of interest or an interest rate based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) of interest (“the Alternate Rate”). The Base Rate adjusted on a daily basis and was the greater of the Federal Funds Effective Rate plus 0.5% per annum, the PNC, N.A. prime rate or the Daily LIBOR Rate plus 100 basis points plus a margin that ranged from 0 basis points to 0.75 basis points. The Alternate Rate was based on quoted LIBOR rates plus a margin that ranged from 0.75 basis points to 175 basis points. Both the Base Rate and Alternate Rate margins were dependent on the Company’s consolidated total indebtedness to cash flow ratios. The current Base Rate margin was 0 basis points and the Alternate Rate margin was 100 basis points.



31


4.375% Senior Notes Due August 2023
In August 31, 2013, the Company issued $250.0 million of Senior Notes due in 2023 (“the 2013 Notes”).   Interest on the 2013 Notes accrues at a rate of 4.375% per annum and is payable semi-annually on February 15 and August 15 of each year.  The proceeds were used to repay debt outstanding under the Company’s existing credit agreement, and for general corporate purposes.  The principal balance is due in full at maturity.  The Company incurred $2.6 million of deferred financing costs related to the issuance of the 2013 Notes.  
The 2013 Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company and rank pari passu with all existing and future senior debt and senior to all existing and future subordinated indebtedness of the Company. The indenture under which the 2013 Notes were issued contains covenants and restrictions which limit among other things, the following: the incurrence of indebtedness, payment of dividends and certain distributions, sale of assets, change in control, mergers and consolidations and the incurrence of liens.
The Company is in compliance with the restrictions and covenants in the indenture under which the 2013 Notes were issued and expects that these restrictions and covenants will not be any type of limiting factor in executing our operating activities.
6.875% Senior Notes Due August 2013
In August 31, 2003, the Company issued $150.0 million of Senior Notes due in 2013 (“the 2003 Notes”). The 2003 Notes were issued at par. Interest on the 2003 Notes accrued at a rate of 6.875% per annum and was payable semi-annually on January 31 and July 31 of each year. The proceeds were used to repay debt outstanding under the Company’s existing credit agreement and for general corporate purposes. The Company paid off the 2003 Notes, which matured on July 31, 2013 utilizing available capacity under it's 2011 Refinancing Credit Agreement.

32


Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company is obligated to make future payments under various contracts such as debt agreements, lease agreements and have certain contingent commitments such as debt guarantees. The Company has grouped these contractual obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements into operating activities, financing activities, and investing activities in the same manner as they are classified in the Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows to provide a better understanding of the nature of the obligations and arrangements and to provide a basis for comparison to historical information. The table below provides a summary of contractual obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements as of December 31, 2015:
 
 
 
 
 
Less than
 
1 - 3
 
3 - 5
 
More than
In thousands
 
Total
 
1 year
 
years
 
years
 
5 years
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchase obligations (1)
 
$
118,032

 
$
44,441

 
$
50,146

 
$
21,634

 
$
1,811

Operating leases (2)
 
97,816

 
18,106

 
25,708

 
18,984

 
35,018

Pension benefit payments (3)
 
112,206

 
10,338

 
21,655

 
22,353

 
57,860

Postretirement benefit payments (4)
 
12,222

 
1,378

 
2,550

 
2,476

 
5,818

Financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest payments (5)
 
99,254

 
15,910

 
31,809

 
21,912

 
29,623

Long-term debt (6)
 
695,727

 
464

 
445,196

 
40

 
250,027

Dividends to shareholders (7)
 
29,388

 
29,388

 

 

 

Investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital projects (8)
 
62,356

 
62,356

 

 

 

Other:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Standby letters of credit (9)
 
54,261

 
39,679

 
7,410

 
1,808

 
5,364

Total
 
$
1,281,262

 
$
222,060

 
$
584,474

 
$
89,207

 
$
385,521

 
(1)
Purchase obligations represent non-cancelable contractual obligations at December 31, 2015.  In addition, the Company had $254.3 million of open purchase orders for which the related goods or services had not been received.  Although open purchase orders are considered enforceable and legally binding, their terms generally allow us the option to cancel, reschedule and adjust our requirements based on our business needs prior to the delivery of goods or performance of services.
(2)
Future minimum payments for operating leases are disclosed by year in Note 15 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
(3)
Annual payments to participants are expected to continue into the foreseeable future at the amounts or ranges noted. Pension benefit payments are based on actuarial estimates using current assumptions for discount rates, expected return on long-term assets and rate of compensation increases. The Company expects to contribute about $6.2 million to pension plan investments in 2016. See further disclosure in Note 10 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
(4)
Annual payments to participants are expected to continue into the foreseeable future at the amounts or ranges noted. Postretirement payments are based on actuarial estimates using current assumptions for discount rates and health care costs. See further disclosure in Note 10 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
(5)
Interest payments are payable February and August of each year at 4.375% of $250 million Senior Notes due in 2023. Interest payments for the Revolving Credit Facility and Capital Leases are based on contractual terms and the Company’s current interest rates.
(6)
Scheduled principal repayments of outstanding loan balances are disclosed in Note 9 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
(7)
Shareholder dividends are subject to approval by the Company’s Board of Directors, currently at an annual rate of approximately $29.4 million.
(8)
The annual capital expenditure budget is subject to approval by the Board of Directors. The 2016 budget amount was approved at the December 2015 Board of Directors meeting.
(9)
The $54.3 million of standby letters of credit is comprised of $53.8 million in outstanding letters of credit for performance and bid bond purposes and $0.5 million in interest, which expire in various dates through 2050. Amounts include interest payments based on contractual terms and the Company’s current interest rate.
The above table does not reflect uncertain tax positions of $10.6 million, the timing of which are uncertain except for $2.1 million that may become payable during 2016. Refer to Note 11 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information on uncertain tax positions.

33


Obligations for operating activities. The Company has entered into $118.0 million of material long-term non-cancelable materials and supply purchase obligations. Operating leases represent multi-year obligations for rental of facilities and equipment. Estimated pension funding and post-retirement benefit payments are based on actuarial estimates using current assumptions for discount rates, expected return on long-term assets, rate of compensation increases and health care cost trend rates. Benefits paid for pension obligations were $11.7 million and $12.7 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Benefits paid for post-retirement plans were $1.6 million and $1.0 million in 2015 and in 2014, respectively.
Obligations for financing activities. Cash requirements for financing activities consist primarily of long-term debt repayments, interest payments and dividend payments to shareholders. The Company has historically paid quarterly dividends to shareholders, subject to quarterly approval by our Board of Directors, currently at a rate of approximately $29.4 million annually.
The Company arranges for performance bonds to be issued by third party insurance companies to support certain long term customer contracts. At December 31, 2015 initial value of performance bonds issued on the Company’s behalf is about $203.4 million.
Obligations for investing activities. The Company typically spends approximately $50 million to $75 million a year for capital expenditures, primarily related to facility expansion efficiency and modernization, health and safety, and environmental control. The Company expects annual capital expenditures in the future will be within this range.
Forward Looking Statements
We believe that all statements other than statements of historical facts included in this report, including certain statements under “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” may constitute forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. Although we believe that our assumptions made in connection with the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure that our assumptions and expectations are correct.
These forward-looking statements are subject to various risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, including, among other things:
Economic and industry conditions
prolonged unfavorable economic and industry conditions in the markets served by us, including North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Asia, and South Africa;
decline in demand for freight cars, locomotives, passenger transit cars, buses and related products and services;
reliance on major original equipment manufacturer customers;
original equipment manufacturers’ program delays;
demand for services in the freight and passenger rail industry;
demand for our products and services;
orders either being delayed, canceled, not returning to historical levels, or reduced or any combination of the foregoing;
consolidations in the rail industry;
continued outsourcing by our customers; industry demand for faster and more efficient braking equipment;
fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates; or
availability of credit;
Operating factors
supply disruptions;
technical difficulties;
changes in operating conditions and costs;
increases in raw material costs;
successful introduction of new products;
performance under material long-term contracts;
labor relations;
completion and integration of acquisitions; or
the development and use of new technology;


34


Competitive factors
the actions of competitors;
Political/governmental factors
political stability in relevant areas of the world;
future regulation/deregulation of our customers and/or the rail industry;
levels of governmental funding on transit projects, including for some of our customers;
political developments and laws and regulations, including those related to Positive Train Control;
federal and state income tax legislation; or
the outcome of our existing or any future legal proceedings, including litigation involving our principal customers and any litigation with respect to environmental, asbestos-related matters and pension liabilities; and
Transaction or commercial factors
the outcome of negotiations with partners, governments, suppliers, customers or others.
Statements in this 10-K apply only as of the date on which such statements are made, and we undertake no obligation to update any statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles requires Management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions regarding uncertainties that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Areas of uncertainty that require judgments, estimates and assumptions include the accounting for allowance for doubtful accounts, inventories, the testing of goodwill and other intangibles for impairment, warranty reserves, pensions and other postretirement benefits, stock based compensation and tax matters. Management uses historical experience and all available information to make these judgments and estimates, and actual results will inevitably differ from those estimates and assumptions that are used to prepare the Company’s financial statements at any given time. Despite these inherent limitations, Management believes that Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) and the financial statements and related footnotes provide a meaningful and fair perspective of the Company. A discussion of the judgments and uncertainties associated with accounting for derivatives and environmental matters can be found in Notes 3 and 19, respectively, in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
A summary of the Company’s significant accounting policies is included in Note 3 in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report and is incorporated by reference herein. Management believes that the application of these policies on a consistent basis enables the Company to provide the users of the financial statements with useful and reliable information about the Company’s operating results and financial condition.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts:
Description The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts to cover anticipated losses on uncollectible accounts receivable.
Judgments and Uncertainties  The allowance for doubtful accounts receivable reflects our best estimate of probable losses inherent in our receivable portfolio determined on the basis of historical experience, specific allowances for known troubled accounts and other currently available evidence.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions  If our estimates regarding the collectability of troubled accounts, and/or our actual losses within our receivable portfolio exceed our historical experience, we may be exposed to the expense of increasing our allowance for doubtful accounts.




35


Inventories:
Description Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market and are reviewed to ensure that an adequate provision is recognized for excess, slow moving and obsolete inventories.
Judgments and Uncertainties Cost is determined under the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Inventory costs include material, labor and overhead. The Company compares inventory components to prior year sales history and current backlog and anticipated future requirements. To the extent that inventory parts exceed estimated usage and demand, a reserve is recognized to reduce the carrying value of inventory. Also, specific reserves are established for known inventory obsolescence.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If the market value of our products were to decrease due to changing market conditions, the Company could be at risk of incurring write-downs to adjust inventory value to a market value lower than stated cost. If our estimates regarding sales and backlog requirements are inaccurate, we may be exposed to the expense of increasing our reserves for slow moving and obsolete inventory.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangibles:
Description Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles are required to be tested for impairment at least annually. The Company performs its annual impairment test during the fourth quarter and more frequently when indicators of impairment are present. The Company reviews goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. The evaluation of impairment involves comparing the current fair value of the business to the recorded value (including goodwill).
Judgments and Uncertainties A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the impairment test, including the identification of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance, Wabtec specific events and share price trends and making the assessment on whether each relevant factor will impact the impairment test positively or negatively and the magnitude of any such amount.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Management considers historical experience and all available information at the time the fair values of its reporting units are estimated. However, actual amounts realized may differ from those used to evaluate the impairment of goodwill. If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be exposed to impairment losses that could be material to our results of operations. For example, based on the last quantitative analysis performed as of October 1, 2013, a decline in the terminal growth rate greater than 50 basis points would decrease fair market value by $175.2 million, or an increase in the weighted-average cost of capital by 100 basis points would result in a decrease in fair market value by $482.9 million. Even with such changes the fair value of the reporting units would be greater than their net book values, necessitating no Step 2 calculations. See Note 3 in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report for additional discussion regarding impairment testing.
Warranty Reserves:
Description The Company provides warranty reserves to cover expected costs from repairing or replacing products with durability, quality or workmanship issues occurring during established warranty periods.
Judgments and Uncertainties In general, reserves are provided for as a percentage of sales, based on historical experience. In addition, specific reserves are established for known warranty issues and their estimable losses.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If actual results are not consistent with the assumptions and judgments used to calculate our warranty liability, the Company may be at risk of realizing material gains or losses.
Accounting for Pensions and Postretirement Benefits:
Description The Company provides pension and postretirement benefits for its employees.  These amounts are determined using actuarial methodologies and incorporate significant assumptions, including the rate used to discount the future estimated liability, the long-term rate of return on plan assets and several assumptions relating to the employee workforce (salary increases, medical costs, retirement age and mortality).
Judgments and Uncertainties Significant judgments and estimates are used in determining the liabilities and expenses for pensions and other postretirement benefits. The rate used to discount future estimated liabilities is determined considering the rates available at year-end on debt instruments that could be used to settle the obligations of the plan. The long-term rate of

36


return is estimated by considering historical returns and expected returns on current and projected asset allocations and is generally applied to a five-year average market value of assets.  The differences between actual and expected asset returns are recognized in expense using the normal amortization of gains and losses per ASC 715.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If assumptions used in determining the pension and other postretirement benefits change significantly, these costs can fluctuate materially from period to period. The key assumptions in determining the pension and other postretirement expense and obligation include the discount rate, expected return on assets and health care cost trend rate. For example, a 1% decrease or increase in the discount rate used in determining the pension and postretirement expense would increase expense $2.0 million or decrease expense $2.3 million, respectively. A 1% decrease or increase in the discount rate used in determining the pension and postretirement obligation would increase the obligation $34.7 million or decrease the obligation $42.6 million, respectively. A 1% decrease or increase in the expected return on assets used in determining the pension expense would increase or decrease expense $2.1 million, respectively. If the actual asset values at December 31, 2015 had been 1% lower, the amortization of losses in the following year would decrease $0.1 million. A 1% decrease or increase in the health care cost trend rate used in determining the postretirement expense would increase the expense $0.04 million or decrease expense $0.02 million. A 1% decrease or increase in the health care cost trend rate used in determining the postretirement obligation would increase or decrease the obligation $0.3 million, respectively.
Stock-based Compensation:
Description The Company has issued incentive stock units to eligible employees that vest upon attainment of certain cumulative three-year performance goals. The program is structured as a rolling three-year plan; each year starts a new three-year performance cycle with the most recently commenced cycle being 2013-2015. No incentive stock units will vest for performance below the three-year cumulative threshold.  The Company utilizes an economic profit measure for this performance goal.  Economic profit is a measure of the extent to which the Company produces financial results in excess of its cost of capital.  Based on the Company’s achievement of the threshold and three-year cumulative performance, the stock units vested can range from 0% to 200% of the shares granted.
Judgments and Uncertainties Significant judgments and estimates are used in determining the estimated three-year performance, which is then used to estimate the total shares expected to vest over the three year vesting cycle and corresponding expense based on the grant date fair value of the award.  When determining the estimated three-year performance, the Company utilizes a combination of historical actual results, budgeted results and forecasts.  In the initial grant year of a performance cycle, the Company estimates the three-year performance at 100%.  As actual performance results for a cycle begin to accumulate and the Company completes its budgeting and forecasting cycles the performance estimates are updated.  These judgments and estimates are reviewed and updated on a quarterly basis.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If assumptions used in determining the estimated three-year performance change significantly, stock-based compensation expense related to the unvested incentive stock awards can fluctuate materially from period to period.  For example a 10% decrease or increase in the estimated vesting percentage for incentive stock awards would decrease or increase stock-based compensation expense by approximately $1.4 million and $1.4 million, respectively.
Income Taxes:
Description Wabtec records an estimated liability or benefit for income and other taxes based on what it determines will likely be paid in various tax jurisdictions in which it operates in accordance with ASC 740-10 Accounting for Income Taxes and Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes.
Judgments and Uncertainties The estimate of our tax obligations are uncertain because Management must use judgment to estimate the exposures associated with our various filing positions, as well as realization of our deferred tax assets. ASC 740-10 establishes a recognition and measurement threshold to determine the amount of tax benefit that should be recognized related to uncertain tax positions.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Management uses its best judgment in the determination of these amounts. However, the liabilities ultimately realized and paid are dependent on various matters including the resolution of the tax audits in the various affected tax jurisdictions and may differ from the amounts recorded. An adjustment to the estimated liability would be recorded through income in the period in which it becomes probable that the amount of the actual liability differs from the recorded amount. A deferred tax valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

37


Revenue Recognition:
Description Revenue is recognized in accordance with ASC-605 “Revenue Recognition.” The Company recognizes revenues on long-term contracts based on the percentage of completion method of accounting. The units-of-delivery method or other input-based or output-based measures, as appropriate, are used to measure the progress toward completion of individual contracts. Contract revenues and cost estimates are reviewed and revised at a minimum quarterly and adjustments are reflected in the accounting period as such amounts are determined. Certain pre-production costs relating to long term production and supply contracts have been deferred and will be recognized over the life of the contracts.
Judgments and Uncertainties Revenue is recognized when products have been shipped to the respective customers, title has passed and the price for the product has been determined. Contract accounting involves a judgmental process of estimating the total sales and costs for each contract, which results in the development of estimated profit margin percentages. For each contract with revenue recognized using the percentage of completion method, the amount reported as revenues is determined by calculating cost incurred to date as a percentage of the total expected contract costs to determine the percentage of total contract revenue to be recognized in the current period. Due to the size, duration and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of total sales and costs through completion is complicated and subject to many variables. Total contract sales estimates are based on negotiated contract prices and quantities, modified by our assumptions regarding contract options, change orders, and price adjustment clauses (such as inflation or index-based clauses). Total contract cost estimates are largely based on negotiated or estimated purchase contract terms, historical performance trends, business base and other economic projections. Factors that influence these estimates include inflationary trends, technical and schedule risk, internal and subcontractor performance trends, business volume assumptions, asset utilization, and anticipated labor agreements. For long-term contracts, revenues and cost estimates are reviewed and revised quarterly at a minimum and adjustments are reflected in the accounting period as such amounts are determined. Pre-production costs are recognized over the expected life of the contract usually based on the Company’s progress toward the estimated number of units expected to be delivered under the production or supply contract.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Should market conditions and customer demands dictate changes to our standard shipping terms, the Company may be impacted by longer than typical revenue recognition cycles. The development of expected contract costs and contract profit margin percentages involves procedures and personnel in all areas that provide financial or production information on the status of contracts. Due to the significance of judgment in the estimation process, it is likely that materially different revenue amounts could be recorded if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in underlying assumptions/estimates, supplier performance, or circumstances may adversely or positively affect financial performance in future periods. If the combined profit margin for all contracts recognized on the percentage of completion method during 2015 had been estimated to be higher or lower by 1%, it would have increased or decreased revenue and gross profit for the year by approximately $12.2 million. A few of our contracts are expected to be completed in a loss position. Provisions are made currently for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts. A charge to expense for unrecognized portions of pre-production costs could be realized if the Company’s estimate of the number of units to be delivered changes or the underlying contract is cancelled.
 
Item 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Interest Rate Risk
In the ordinary course of business, Wabtec is exposed to risks that increases in interest rates may adversely affect funding costs associated with its variable-rate debt. The Company’s variable rate debt represents 42% and 23% of total long-term debt at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. On an annual basis a 1% change in the interest rate for variable rate debt at December 31, 2015 would increase or decrease interest expense by about $3.0 million.
To reduce the impact of interest rate changes on a portion of this variable-rate debt, the Company entered into interest rate swap agreements which effectively converted a portion of the debt from a variable to a fixed-rate borrowing during the term of the swap contracts. Refer to “Financial Derivatives and Hedging Activities” in Note 3 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report for additional information regarding interest rate risk.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
The Company is subject to certain risks associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates to the extent our operations are conducted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. For the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 53% of Wabtec’s net sales were in the United States, 11% in the United Kingdom, 6% in Canada, 6% in Mexico, 3% in Australia, 3% in Brazil, 3% in Germany, 3% in China, and 12% in other international locations. (See Note 20 of “Notes in Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report). To reduce the impact of changes in currency exchange rates,

38


the Company has periodically entered into foreign currency forward contracts. Refer to “Financial Derivatives and Hedging Activities” in Note 3 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report for more information regarding foreign currency exchange risk.
Our market risk exposure is not substantially different from our exposure at December 31, 2014.
Item 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Financial statements and supplementary data are set forth in Item 15 of Part IV hereof.
Item  9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
There have been no disagreements with our independent registered public accountants.
Item  9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Wabtec’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer have evaluated the effectiveness of Wabtec’s “disclosure controls and procedures,” (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(e)) as of December 31, 2015. Based upon their evaluation, the principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that Wabtec’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by Wabtec in the reports filed or submitted by it under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by Wabtec in such reports is accumulated and communicated to Wabtec’s Management, including its principal executive officer and