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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D. C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                                  to                                 

Commission File Number 001-07349

Ball Corporation

State of Indiana

35-0160610

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

9200 West 108th Circle

Westminster, Colorado

80021

(Address of registrant’s principal executive office)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (303) 469-3131

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, without par value

BLL

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). YES  NO 

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $26.5 billion based upon the closing market price and common shares outstanding as of June 30, 2021.

Number of shares and rights outstanding as of the latest practicable date.

Class

Outstanding at February 14, 2022

Common Stock, without par value

321,495,737 shares

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

1.

Proxy statement to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2021, to the extent indicated in Part III.

Ball Corporation

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the year ended December 31, 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Number

PART I.

Item 1.

Business

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

12

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

22

Item 2.

Properties

22

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

24

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

24

PART II.

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases

24

Item 6.

[Reserved]

25

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

26

Forward-Looking Statements

36

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

36

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

38

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID 238)

38

Consolidated Statements of Earnings for the Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

40

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Earnings (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

41

Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2021 and 2020

42

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

43

Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019

44

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

45

Note 1, Critical and Significant Accounting Policies

45

Note 2, Accounting Pronouncements

55

Note 3, Business Segment Information

55

Note 4, Acquisitions and Dispositions

58

Note 5, Revenue from Contracts with Customers

59

Note 6, Business Consolidation and Other Activities

60

Note 7, Supplemental Cash Flow Statement Disclosures

63

Note 8, Receivables, Net

63

Note 9, Inventories, Net

64

Note 10, Property, Plant and Equipment, Net

64

Note 11, Goodwill

65

Note 12, Intangibles Assets, Net

65

Note 13, Other Assets

66

Note 14, Leases

66

Note 15, Debt and Interest Costs

68

Note 16, Taxes on Income

69

Note 17, Employee Benefit Obligations

73

Note 18, Shareholders’ Equity

82

Note 19, Stock-Based Compensation Programs

84

Note 20, Earnings Per Share

85

Note 21, Financial Instruments and Risk Management

86

Note 22, Contingencies

91

Note 23, Indemnifications and Guarantees

93

PART I.

Item 1. Business

Ball Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries (collectively, Ball, the company, we or our) is one of the world’s leading suppliers of aluminum packaging for the beverage, personal care and household products industries. The company was organized in 1880 and incorporated in the state of Indiana, United States of America (U.S.), in 1922. Our sustainable, aluminum packaging products are produced for a variety of end uses and are manufactured in facilities around the world. We also provide aerospace and other technologies and services to governmental and commercial customers within our aerospace segment. In 2021, our total consolidated net sales were $13.8 billion. Our packaging businesses were responsible for 86 percent of our net sales, with the remaining 14 percent contributed by our aerospace business.

Our largest product line is aluminum beverage containers and we also produce extruded aluminum aerosol containers, recloseable aluminum bottles across multiple consumer categories, aluminum slugs and aluminum cups.

We sell our aluminum packaging products globally to large multinational beverage, personal care and household products companies with which we have developed long-term relationships. This is evidenced by our high customer retention and large number of long-term supply contracts. While we have a diversified customer base, we sell a significant portion of our packaging products to major companies and brands, as well as to numerous regional customers. Our significant customers include top consumer packaging and beverage companies.

Our aerospace business is a leader in delivering solutions ranging from entire missions to contributing component level expertise through the design, development and manufacture of innovative systems for intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance, civil, commercial and national security aerospace markets. It produces spacecraft, instruments and sensors, radio frequency systems and components, data exploitation solutions and a variety of advanced technologies and products that enable weather prediction and climate change monitoring as well as deep space missions.

We are headquartered in Westminster, Colorado, and our stock is listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol BLL. We intend to change the company’s ticker symbol from BLL to BALL immediately following our annual shareholders’ meeting in April 2022. A public press release will be issued 10 days prior to the actual change date.

Our Strategy

Our Drive for 10 vision defines our overall business strategy. At its highest level, Drive for 10 is a mindset around perfection, with a greater sense of urgency around our future success. Launched in 2011, Drive for 10 encompasses five strategic levers that are key to growing our businesses and achieving long-term success. These five levers are:

Maximizing value in our existing businesses
Expanding into new products and capabilities
Aligning ourselves with the right customers and markets
Broadening our geographic reach and
Leveraging our know-how and technological expertise to provide a competitive advantage

We also maintain a clear and disciplined financial strategy focused on improving shareholder returns by:

Seeking to deliver comparable diluted earnings per share growth of 10 percent to 15 percent per annum over the long-term
Maximizing cash flow generation
Increasing Economic Value Added (EVA®) dollars

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The cash generated by our businesses is used primarily: (1) to finance the company’s operations, (2) to fund growth capital investments, (3) to service the company’s debt and (4) to return value to our shareholders via stock buybacks and dividend payments. From time to time, we have evaluated and expect to continue to evaluate possible transactions that we believe will benefit the company and our shareholders, which may include strategic acquisitions, divestitures of parts of our company or equity investments. At any time, we may be engaged in discussions or negotiations with respect to possible transactions or may have entered into non-binding letters of intent. There can be no assurance if or when we will enter into any such transactions or the terms of such transactions. The compensation of many of our employees is tied directly to the company’s performance through our EVA®-based incentive programs.

Sustainability

At Ball Corporation, we believe in our people, our culture and our ability to deliver value to our stakeholders. Like uncompromising integrity and customer focus, sustainability is part of our Drive for 10 vision and has been a part of who we are since our founding in 1880.

Our triple bottom-line approach to sustainability – environmental, economic and social – has evolved over the years and is the lens through which we conduct business at every level of our organization today. Sustainability is a key part of our business strategy, and it influences how we manage and operate our businesses, serve our customers, care for the environment and our communities, secure profits and drive long-term prosperity.

We focus our sustainability efforts on product stewardship, operational excellence, human capital management, including diversity and inclusion, and community engagement. In our manufacturing operations around the world, we work on continuous improvement of employee safety and engagement, energy and water efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste reduction and recycling. Our commitment extends beyond our walls.

Today’s consumers are acutely aware of the plastic pollution crisis, and they are choosing brands based on their sustainability credentials. Customers understand this growing concern for the environment and their unique position in impacting the environment, especially through the packaging materials they use. Infinitely recyclable and economically valuable aluminum unlocks the full potential of packaging to help customers convey values and purpose to consumers. We are committed to doing what we can to move toward a truly circular economy, where materials can be – and actually are – used again and again.

Aluminum cans, bottles and now cups are an increasingly attractive option for sustainability-conscious brands and consumers who want to do the right thing for the environment. Unlike plastic, glass, cartons or compostable containers, aluminum containers are designed to be recycled again and again without losing quality, and are in high demand across industries and applications, pushing aluminum collection, sorting and recycling rates to the highest of any beverage packaging material. That’s why 75 percent of all aluminum ever produced is still in use today.

Aluminum beverage packaging is the leader in real recycling, where the package is collected and then transformed into an item of equal value (product-to-product or material-to-material recycling). In the case of aluminum cans, bottles or cups which are monomaterial, the aluminum can be recycled and made back into the same product in as little as 60 days. In contrast, only 10 percent of all plastic ever produced has been recycled and is mostly only downcycled. Down-cycled products, including but not limited to when plastic is converted to become part of a sneaker or fibers in a carpet, are not sustainable because eventually those products end up in landfills. Real recycling happens when the value of the product being recycled is maintained from one use to another.

Because recycling aluminum saves resources and uses significantly less energy than primary aluminum production, we are innovating and collaborating with our customers, supply chain, and other public and private partners to establish and financially support initiatives to increase recycling rates around the world. For example, we work together to create effective collection and recycling systems and educate consumers about the sustainability benefits of aluminum packaging. During 2021, the company proactively engaged with global regulators and legislators to raise awareness of the importance of recycling and infrastructure investment to improve global recycling rates. As part of this proactive engagement, the company also published the 50 States of Recycling Report, which is available at www.ball.com/realcircularity.

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Our aerospace business plays a role in sustainability as well. More and more, our systems are measuring key elements of the physical environment and supporting environmental monitoring and operational weather forecasting programs, as well as providing environmental intelligence on weather, the Earth's climate system, precipitation, drought, air pollution, vegetation and biodiversity measurements. The data captured through Ball-built instruments and satellites enable an enhanced understanding of the Earth’s ecosystem and the stratospheric ozone layer and severe storm tracking, and better enabling effective management of natural resources, including helping experts to make routine drought assessments and fire prevention plans.

At Ball, our sustained long-term success depends not only on our products and our operations, but on an engaged workforce. We continue to invest in recruiting to ensure we have the right people with the right skills in the right roles, and in developing our employees at every level and providing them with opportunities to advance their careers. We also are committed to embracing diversity and providing an inclusive environment where employees can thrive. A focus on diversity among individuals and teams helps to unleash ideas and fuel innovation, which drives growth and economic value throughout our global organization.

A healthy and sustainable business also depends on thriving communities. Ball’s commitment to the communities where we live and operate is an integral part of our corporate culture, as we continue to support organizations, programs and civic initiatives that advance sustainable livelihoods. Community engagement is how our company and our employees enrich the places where we live and work beyond providing jobs, benefits and paying local taxes. Through the Ball Foundation, corporate giving, employee giving and volunteerism, we invest in the future of the communities that sustain us. In 2021, Ball and its employees donated over $5 million supporting more than 2,900 non-profits and logged more than 24,000 hours of volunteer service to non-profit organizations centered on building sustainable communities through recycling, education, and disaster preparedness and relief initiatives.

The company’s focus towards sustainability has been recognized by external organizations. Ball was recognized in the Top 1 Percent of Industry and received the Gold Class and Industry Mover Award by S&P Global in The Sustainability Yearbook 2022.

Human Capital and Employees

Ball Corporation’s people are its greatest asset and we are proud to outline the material aspects of our human capital program. At the end of 2021, the company and its subsidiaries employed approximately 24,300 employees, including approximately 11,900 employees in the U.S. Details of collective bargaining agreements are included within Item 1A, Risk Factors, of this annual report.

Our Culture

Embracing our rich 142-year history, we “know who we are”, a company that respects and values each of our employees and their collective desire to deliver value to all our stakeholders. We embrace our diversity and are “one Ball” in valuing:

Uncompromising integrity;
Being close to our customers;
Behaving like owners;
Focusing on attention to detail; and
Being innovative.

Diversity and Inclusion

Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) is embedded in our Drive for 10 vision and is key to the sustained success of our business. We established a dedicated D&I function in 2015 to build on our longstanding commitment to D&I across the company and included D&I as an integral part of our goals for sustainability. Over the past six years, we have made meaningful progress on D&I, which has been recognized by external organizations, including Forbes, which recognized Ball among the “America’s Best Employers for Diversity” in 2020, and the Human Rights Campaign Foundation, which listed Ball among the “Best Places to Work for LGBTQ Equality” in 2021 and 2022 and awarded Ball with a perfect score on its Corporate Equality Index list in 2021 and 2022. Our dedicated D&I function reports directly to our CEO, and we understand that the key to success is shared accountability rather than designating a single owner for this critical area.

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Our focus to date has been on providing unconscious bias training for our global workforce, expanding our Ball Network and Interest Groups (BNIs) in terms of quantity and geography, and increasing awareness about the importance of D&I and each employee’s role in ensuring that we have a culture where people can bring their authentic selves to work and thrive. While we are proud of our progress, we know there is more work to do.

As we move forward, we are accelerating our D&I efforts with a greater sense of urgency. In June 2020, we instituted a new global cloud-based human capital management platform that will – among many other talent-focused features – enable us to more fully understand employee demographics and identify how we can better enhance our diversity around the world. We continue to evolve our talent acquisition process and focus on diversity for internships, candidate slates, interview panels, talent reviews and succession planning. Each of our business segment leaders has committed to help drive further D&I progress during 2022 and beyond. Currently, 62 percent of our board of directors are either gender or ethnically diverse, including five female board members, and 30 percent of our company’s executive leadership team are either gender or ethnically diverse.

Talent

We seek to attract, develop and retain the best talent throughout the company. During the past decade, we established and expanded our talent management organization with dedicated talent acquisition and development functions that have implemented rigorous hiring and development processes, including standardized assessments for candidate selection, and an embedded “Inspire, Connect, Achieve” leadership framework, which details clear behaviors that we expect from our people leaders to ensure they align with our culture. We have also strengthened our succession planning through a holistic approach to developing key managers that includes challenging assignments, formal development plans and professional coaching.

Training and Development

Our global human capital management platform enables rigorous identification, analysis and development of talent around the world. In conjunction with that platform, the company utilizes an approach to performance management focused on development and continuous improvement. This approach emphasizes ongoing performance conversations between managers and employees and a focus on mitigating bias in performance conversations, resulting in an enhanced employee developmental experience and data points for our talent discussions. Additionally, all employees have access to create a personal development plan and we have resources to support employees in their personal and professional development, including:

Continuous education through various tuition reimbursement programs, apprenticeship and instructional programs;
A learning management platform that has had significant employee utilization;
Monthly global leadership panel discussions and breakout groups focused on real-time topics, such as supporting team wellbeing, working through stressful times, setting individual development goals, maximizing team performance, sharing practical steps to better enable our collective focus on D&I and sharing other best practice leadership behaviors
A new LinkedIn Learning platform for all corporate and packaging employees who work in an office setting;
Leadership and personal development coaching opportunities through a partnership with BetterUp;
On-going education for people leaders around our Inspire, Connect, and Achieve leadership behaviors;
Annual compliance, antitrust, bribery, corruption and business code of conduct and ethics training for key management level, sales and supply chain employees.

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Employee Engagement

As part of our Drive for 10 vision, we seek to ensure that everyone at Ball is motivated to perform their best work every day. To further that objective, our engagement approach focuses on clear communication and recognition. We communicate through quarterly employee town hall meetings, at both the corporate and operating division levels, with business and market updates and information on production, safety, quality and other operating metrics. We also communicate company information through news releases, executive communications, internal management information bulletins, digital signage and our weekly Ball eNews through the new BallConnect intranet, which are available to all employees. We have many recognition-oriented awards throughout our company, including our corporate and divisional awards of excellence. We conduct regular company-wide engagement surveys, as well as periodic pulse surveys, which have generally indicated high levels of engagement and trust in Ball’s leadership, key strategies and initiatives.

Total Rewards

We have steadily upgraded our total rewards function over the past decade with the objective of acquiring, rewarding and retaining the best talent by providing total rewards that are competitive and performance based. Our compensation programs, including our long-standing EVA® based incentive plans, reflect our commitment to reward performance that drives shareholder value. Total direct compensation is positioned in a competitive range of the applicable market median in each jurisdiction, differentiated based on tenure, skills and performance, and designed to attract and retain the best talent.

Health, Safety and Wellness

The health, safety and wellness of each of our employees has been one of Ball’s top priorities for many years. Our environmental, health and safety function and our operations executives partner to consistently reinforce policies and procedures that are designed to reduce workplace risks and ensure safe methods of plant production, including through regular training and reporting on injuries and lost-time incidents. Over the past 15 years, we have sponsored a variety of health and wellness programs designed to enhance the physical and mental well-being of our employees around the world. During 2020, the company expanded access to its existing Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to our entire global workforce. The EAP provides employees and their families access to mental health, stress management and support resources during these difficult times.

Since the onset of the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, nearly all of our businesses have been deemed essential by the governments where we operate, and our production facilities have operated continuously. During this time, we have put employee health and well-being front and center, and we have adjusted our approach to how work gets done accordingly. Our guiding principles throughout the pandemic have been safety, flexibility and empathy. Ball has implemented rigorous safety protocols in all its locations, including face coverings, social distancing, contact tracing, employee testing and enhanced cleaning. Most office-based roles have transitioned to a flexible working environment, and our IT systems have been flexed to support more virtual meetings and remote collaboration. We are actively preparing for a more flexible approach to traditional office roles after the pandemic ends.

Finally, despite the effects of the pandemic and in direct support of our growing businesses, Ball increased its net employee headcount by approximately 2,800 employees during 2021. Additional information on our human capital programs can be found in the Ball Corporation Sustainability Report, which is available at www.ball.com/sustainability.

Our Reportable Segments

Ball Corporation reports its financial performance in four reportable segments: (1) beverage packaging, North and Central America; (2) beverage packaging, Europe, Middle East and Africa (beverage packaging, EMEA); (3) beverage packaging, South America and (4) aerospace. Ball also has investments in the U.S., Guatemala, Panama and Vietnam that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting and, accordingly, those results are not included in segment sales or earnings. Additional financial information related to each of our segments is included in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (annual report).

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Beverage Packaging, North and Central America, Segment

Beverage packaging, North and Central America, is Ball’s largest segment, accounting for 42 percent of consolidated net sales in 2021. Aluminum beverage containers are primarily sold under multi-year supply contracts to fillers of carbonated soft drinks, beer, energy drinks and other beverages.

Aluminum beverage containers and ends are produced at 20 manufacturing facilities in the U.S., one in Canada and two in Mexico. The beverage packaging, North and Central America, segment also includes interests in four investments that are accounted for using the equity method. In 2021, the company began production in its new plants in Glendale, Arizona, Pittston, Pennsylvania, and Bowling Green, Kentucky. The company has announced plans to expand its network to include new plants in North Las Vegas, Nevada, and Concord, North Carolina.

According to publicly available information and company estimates, the North American beverage container industry represents approximately 133 billion units. Six companies manufacture substantially all of the aluminum beverage containers in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Ball shipped approximately 54 billion aluminum beverage containers in North and Central America in 2021, which represented approximately 41 percent of the aggregate shipments in these countries. Historically, sales volumes of metal beverage containers in North America tend to be highest during the period from April through September. All of the beverage containers produced by Ball in the U.S., Canada and Mexico are made of aluminum. In North and Central America, a diverse base of no less than ten global suppliers provides almost all of our aluminum can and end sheet requirements.

Beverage containers are sold based on price, quality, service, innovation and sustainability in a highly competitive market, which is relatively capital intensive and characterized by facilities that run more or less continuously in order to operate profitably. In addition, the aluminum beverage container competes aggressively with other packaging materials which include meaningful industry positions by the glass bottle in the packaged beer industry and the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle in the carbonated soft drink and water industries.

We limit our exposure to changes in the cost of aluminum as a result of the inclusion of provisions in most of our aluminum beverage container sales contracts to pass through aluminum price changes, as well as through the use of derivative instruments.

Beverage Packaging, EMEA, Segment

The beverage packaging, EMEA, segment accounted for 25 percent of Ball’s consolidated net sales in 2021. Our EMEA region operations include 17 facilities throughout Europe, three facilities in Russia and one facility each in Cairo, Egypt, and Manisa, Turkey. For the countries in which we operate, the beverage container market is approximately 93 billion containers, and we are the largest producer with an estimated 41 percent of shipments in this region. The regions served by our beverage packaging, EMEA, segment, including Russia, Egypt and Turkey, are highly regional in terms of sales growth rates and packaging mix. Four companies manufacture substantially all of the metal beverage containers in EMEA. Our EMEA beverage facilities shipped 38 billion beverage containers in 2021, the vast majority of which were made from aluminum. As of December 31, 2021, all of the beverage containers produced by the company’s beverage packaging, EMEA, segment are now made of aluminum. The company has announced plans to construct additional plants in Pilsen, Czech Republic, Ulyanovsk, Russia, and Northamptonshire, U.K.

Historically, sales volumes of metal beverage containers in EMEA tend to be highest during the period from May through August, with a smaller increase in demand leading up to the winter holiday season in the U.K. offset by much lower demand in Russia. Much like in other parts of the world, the aluminum beverage container competes aggressively with other packaging materials used by the beer and carbonated soft drink industries. The glass bottle is heavily utilized in the packaged beer industry, while the PET container is utilized in the carbonated soft drink, beer, juice and water industries. These trends are evolving, however, as customers respond to consumer demand, and regulators and non-governmental organizations press for more sustainable packaging in the wake of the plastic pollution crisis. More and more brands are choosing aluminum beverage packaging because of its infinite recyclability and other sustainability credentials. The overall recycling rate for aluminum beverage cans in the European Union, Switzerland, Norway and Iceland increased to a new record level of approximately 75 percent in 2017.

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Raw material supply contracts in this region generally have longer term agreements. Six aluminum suppliers provide almost all of our aluminum can and end sheet requirements. Aluminum is traded primarily in U.S. dollars, while the functional currencies of our EMEA operations are various other currencies. The company minimizes its exchange rate risk using derivative and supply contracts in local currencies. We limit our exposure to changes in the cost of aluminum as a result of the inclusion of provisions in most of our aluminum beverage container sales contracts to pass through aluminum price changes, as well as through the use of derivative instruments.

Beverage Packaging, South America, Segment

The beverage packaging, South America, segment accounted for 15 percent of Ball’s consolidated net sales in 2021. Our operations consist of 13 facilities—10 in Brazil and one each in Argentina, Chile and Paraguay. For the countries where we operate, the South American beverage container market is approximately 42 billion containers, and we are the largest producer in this region with an estimated 48 percent of South American shipments in 2021. Four companies currently manufacture substantially all of the aluminum beverage containers in Brazil.

The company’s South American beverage facilities shipped approximately 20 billion aluminum beverage containers in 2021. Historically, sales volumes of beverage containers in South America tend to be highest during the period from September through December. In South America, two suppliers provide virtually all our aluminum can and end sheet requirements with certain requirements also being imported from Asia.

To support long-term contracted volume growth and can-filling investments across South America, the previously announced multi-line facility in Frutal, Brazil, recently began production in 2021, and additional investments across our existing South American footprint continue.

We limit our exposure to changes in the cost of aluminum as a result of the inclusion of provisions in most of our aluminum beverage container sales contracts to pass through aluminum price changes, as well as through the use of derivative instruments.

Aerospace Segment

Ball’s aerospace segment, which accounted for 14 percent of consolidated net sales in 2021, includes national defense hardware, antenna and video tactical solutions, civil and operational space hardware and systems engineering services. The segment develops spacecraft, sensors and instruments, radio frequency systems and other advanced technologies for the civil, commercial and national security aerospace markets. The majority of the aerospace business involves work under contracts, generally from one to five years in duration, as a prime contractor or subcontractor for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other U.S. government agencies. The company competes against both large and small prime contractors and subcontractors for these contracts. Contracts funded by the various agencies of the federal government represented 97 percent of segment sales in 2021.

Intense competition and long operating cycles are key characteristics of both the company’s business and the aerospace and defense industry. It is common in the aerospace and defense industry for work on major programs to be shared among a number of companies. A company competing to be a prime contractor may, upon ultimate award of the contract to a competitor, become a subcontractor for the ultimate prime contracting company. It is not unusual to compete for a contract award with a peer company and, simultaneously, perform as a supplier to or a customer of that same competitor on other contracts, or vice versa.

Geopolitical events and shifting executive and legislative branch priorities have resulted in an increase in opportunities over the past decade in areas matching our aerospace segment’s core capabilities in space hardware. The businesses include hardware and services sold primarily to U.S. customers, with emphasis on space science and exploration, climate monitoring, weather prediction, environmental and earth sciences, and defense and intelligence applications. Major activities frequently involve the design, manufacture and testing of satellites, remote sensors and ground station control hardware and software, as well as related services such as launch vehicle integration and satellite operations.

Other hardware activities include target identification, warning and attitude control systems and components; cryogenic systems for reactant storage, and associated sensor cooling devices; star trackers, which are general-purpose stellar attitude sensors; and fast-steering mirrors.

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Backlog represents the estimated transaction prices on performance obligations to our customers for which work remains to be performed. Backlog in the aerospace segment was $2.5 billion and $2.4 billion at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and consisted of the aggregate contract value of firm orders, excluding amounts previously recognized as revenue. The 2021 backlog includes $1.3 billion expected to be recognized in revenues during 2022, with the remainder expected to be recognized in revenues in the years thereafter. Amounts included in backlog for certain firm government orders, which are subject to annual funding, were $1 billion and $1.5 billion at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Year-over-year comparisons of backlog are not necessarily indicative of the trend of future operations, revenues and earnings due to the nature of varying delivery and milestone schedules on contracts, funding of programs and the uncertainty of timing of future contract awards. Uncertainties in the federal government budgeting process could delay the funding, or even result in cancellation of certain programs currently in our reported backlog.

Other

Other consists of a non-reportable operating segment (beverage packaging, other) that manufactures and sells aluminum beverage containers in India, Saudi Arabia and Myanmar; a non-reportable segment that manufactures and sells extruded aluminum aerosol containers, recloseable aluminum bottles across multiple consumer categories and slugs (aerosol packaging); a non-reportable operating segment that manufactures and sells aluminum cups (aluminum cups); undistributed corporate expenses; intercompany eliminations and other business activities.

Beverage Packaging, Other

Our aluminum beverage packaging operations in the beverage packaging, other, segment consist of four aluminum manufacturing facilities – two in India and one each in Saudi Arabia and Myanmar. Our aluminum can and end sheet requirements are provided by several suppliers. Our manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia, Ball United Arab Can Manufacturing Company, is an investment 51 percent owned by Ball and consolidated in our results. Additionally, Ball has ownership interests in equity method investments in Vietnam. During 2021, Ball sold its minority-owned investment in South Korea. For additional details, refer to Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report

Aerosol Packaging

Our aluminum aerosol packaging operations manufacture and sell extruded aluminum aerosol containers, recloseable aluminum bottles across multiple consumer categories, and aluminum slugs, which represented less than 5 percent of Ball’s consolidated net sales in 2021. In 2020, Ball acquired an aluminum aerosol packaging business in Itupeva, Brazil, and in 2019, Ball sold its steel aerosol packaging business in Argentina. There are 9 manufacturing facilities that manufacture these products – four in Europe and one each in the U.S., Canada, Brazil, Mexico and India. The aerosol packaging market in these countries shipped approximately 5.8 billion aluminum aerosol units in 2021 and we are one of the major producers in this combined area with shipments of 1.3 billion aluminum aerosol packaging containers, representing approximately 22 percent of total shipments in these markets. Our aluminum aerosol requirements are provided by several suppliers. In 2021, our aerosol business operations launched a new extruded, recloseable aluminum bottle line to provide a circular solution to plastic bottle pollution in personal care and other product categories.

Aluminum Cups

The Ball aluminum cups business serves the growing demand for innovative, sustainable beverage packaging among customers and consumers. Aligned with our Drive for 10 vision, the aluminum cups business leverages our years of experience and specialized expertise to provide another environmentally friendly offering to our industry-leading portfolio of aluminum packages. Sturdy, durable and cool to the touch, the infinitely recyclable Ball aluminum cup is produced at a dedicated manufacturing facility in Rome, Georgia. Ball plans to introduce additional offerings to round out its cups portfolio and intends to expand adoption of the cups to drinking establishments, parks and recreation, colleges and universities, hospitality, restaurants, retail, business and industry.

Patents

In the opinion of the company’s management, none of our active patents or groups of patents is material to the successful operation of our business as a whole. We manage our intellectual property portfolio to obtain the durations necessary to achieve our business objectives.

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Research and Development

Research and development (R&D) efforts in our packaging segments are primarily directed toward packaging innovation, specifically the development of new features, sizes, shapes and types of containers, as well as new uses for existing containers. Other R&D efforts in these segments seek to improve manufacturing efficiencies and the overall sustainability of our products. Our packaging R&D activities are primarily conducted in a technical center located in Westminster, Colorado.

In our aerospace business, we continue to focus our R&D activities on the design, development and manufacture of innovative aerospace products and systems. This includes the production of spacecraft, instruments and sensors, radio frequency and system components, data exploitation solutions and a variety of advanced aerospace technologies and products that enable deep space missions. Our aerospace R&D activities are conducted at various locations in the U.S.

Additional information regarding company R&D activity is contained in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report, as well as in Item 2, Properties.

Where to Find More Information

Ball Corporation is subject to the reporting and other information requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). Reports and other information filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) pursuant to the Exchange Act may be inspected and copied at the public reference facility maintained by the SEC in Washington, D.C. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov containing our reports, proxy materials and other items. The company also maintains a website at www.ball.com/investors on which it provides a link to access Ball’s SEC reports free of charge, under the link “Financials.”

The company has established written Ball Corporation Corporate Governance Guidelines; a Ball Corporation Executive Officers and Board of Directors Business Ethics Statement; a Business Ethics Code of Conduct; and charters for its Audit Committee, Nominating/Corporate Governance Committee, Human Resources Committee and Finance Committee. These documents are available on the company’s website at www.ball.com/investors, under the link “Corporate Governance.” A copy may also be obtained upon request from the company’s corporate secretary. The company’s sustainability report and updates on Ball’s progress are available at www.ball.com/sustainability.

The company intends to post on its website the nature of any amendments to the company’s codes of ethics that apply to executive officers and directors, including the chief executive officer, chief financial officer and controller, and the nature of any waiver or implied waiver from any code of ethics granted by the company to any executive officer or director. These postings will appear on the company’s website at www.ball.com/investors, under the link “Corporate Governance.”

Nothing on our website, including postings to the “Corporate Governance” and “Financials” pages, or the Ball Corporation Sustainability Report, or sections thereof, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this annual report.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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General Risks

If we do not effectively manage change and growth, our business could be adversely affected.

Our future revenue and operating results will depend on our ability to effectively manage the anticipated growth of our business. We have experienced significant growth in demand for our products and services in recent years and are expanding our operations, increasing our headcount and expanding into new product offerings. This growth has increased and may continue to constrain our ability to fully supply our customers’ requirements. It has also placed significant demands on our management as well as our financial and operational resources, and continued growth presents several challenges, including:

expanding manufacturing capacity, maintaining quality and increasing production;
identifying, attracting and retaining qualified personnel;
developing and retaining our global sales, marketing and administrative infrastructure and capabilities;
increasing our regulatory compliance capabilities, particularly in new lines of business;
building out our expertise in a number of disciplines, including marketing, licensing, and merchandising; and
implementing appropriate operational, financial and IT systems and internal controls.

Our business, operating results and financial condition are subject to particular risks in certain regions of the world.

We may experience an operating loss in one or more regions of the world for one or more periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition. Moreover, overcapacity, which often leads to lower prices, may develop over time in certain regions in which we operate even if demand continues to grow. More generally, supply and demand fluctuations could make it difficult for us to forecast and meet certain customers’ needs. Our ability to manage such operational fluctuations and to maintain adequate long-term strategies in the face of such developments will be critical to our continued growth and profitability.

The loss of a key customer, or a reduction in its requirements, could have a significant negative impact on our sales.

We sell a majority of our packaging products to a relatively limited number of major beverage, personal care and household product companies, some of which operate in multiple geographical markets we serve.

Although the majority of our customer contracts are long-term, these contracts, unless they are renewed, expire in accordance with their respective terms and are terminable under certain circumstances, such as our failure to meet quality, volume or market pricing requirements. Because we depend on a relatively limited number of major customers, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected by the loss of any of these customers, a reduction in the purchasing levels of these customers, a strike or work stoppage by a significant number of these customers’ employees or an adverse change in the terms of the supply agreements with these customers.

The primary customers for our aerospace segment are U.S. government agencies or their prime contractors. Our contracts with these customers are subject to several risks, including funding cuts and delays, technical uncertainties, budget changes, government shutdowns, competitive activity and changes in scope.

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We have a significant level of debt that could have important consequences for our business and any investment in our securities.

The company had $7.8 billion of interest-bearing debt at December 31, 2021. Such indebtedness could have significant consequences for our business and any investment in our securities, including:

increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry or competitive developments;
requiring more of our cash flows from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thus limiting our cash flow available to fund our operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities or the return of cash to our shareholders;
restricting us from making additional acquisitions;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes; and
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who may be less leveraged and who, therefore, may be able to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploiting.

We face competitive risks from many sources that may negatively impact our profitability.

Competition within the packaging and aerospace industries is intense. Increases in productivity, combined with potential surplus capacity in the industry, have maintained competitive pricing pressures. The principal methods of competition in the general packaging industry are price, innovation, sustainability, service and quality. In the aerospace industry, they are technical capability, cost and schedule. Some of our competitors may have greater financial, technical and marketing resources, and some may currently have excess capacity. Our current or potential competitors may offer products at a lower price or products that are deemed superior to ours. The global economic environment has resulted in reductions in demand for our products in some instances, which, in turn, could increase these competitive pressures.

We are subject to competition from alternative products, which could result in lower profits and reduced cash flows.

Our aluminum packaging products are subject to significant competition from substitute products, particularly plastic carbonated soft drink bottles made from PET, single serve beer bottles and other beverage containers made of glass, cardboard or other materials. Competition from plastic carbonated soft drink bottles is particularly intense in the U.S. and Europe. Certain of our aerospace products are also subject to competition from alternative products and solutions. There can be no assurance that our products will successfully compete against alternative products, which could result in a reduction in our profits or cash flows.

Our packaging businesses have a narrow product range, and our business would suffer if usage of our products decreased or if decreases occur in the demand for the beverages and other goods filled in our products.

The majority of our consolidated net sales were from the sale of beverage containers, and we expect to derive a significant portion of our future revenues and cash flows from the sale of beverage containers. Our business would suffer if the use of beverage containers decreased. Accordingly, broad acceptance by consumers of aluminum containers for a wide variety of beverages is critical to our future success. If demand for glass and PET bottles increases relative to aluminum containers, or the demand for aluminum containers does not develop as expected, our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

14

Our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations are subject to risks resulting from broader geographic operations.

We derived approximately 47 percent of our consolidated net sales from outside of the U.S. for the year ended December 31, 2021. The sizeable scope of operations inside and outside of the U.S. may lead to more volatile financial results and make it more difficult for us to manage our business. Reasons for this include, but are not limited to, the following:

political and economic instability;
governments’ restrictive trade policies;
the imposition or rescission of duties, taxes or government royalties;
exchange rate risks;
inflation of direct input costs;
virus and disease outbreaks and responses thereto;
difficulties in enforcement of contractual obligations and intellectual property rights; and
the geographic, language and cultural differences between personnel in different areas of the world.

We are exposed to exchange rate fluctuations.

The company’s financial results are exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations and a significant proportion of assets, liabilities and earnings denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies. The company presents its financial statements in U.S. dollars and has a significant proportion of its net assets, debt and income in non-U.S. dollar currencies, primarily the euro, as well as the Russian ruble and other emerging market currencies. The company’s financial results and capital ratios are therefore sensitive to movements in currency exchange rates.

We manage our exposure to currency fluctuations, particularly our exposure to fluctuations in the euro to U.S. dollar exchange rate to attempt to mitigate the effect of cash flow and earnings volatility associated with exchange rate changes. We primarily use forward contracts and options to manage our currency exposures and, as a result, we experience gains and losses on these derivative positions which are offset, in part, by the impact of currency fluctuations on existing assets and liabilities.

We are vulnerable to fluctuations and disruptions in the supply and price of raw materials.

We purchase aluminum and other raw materials and packaging supplies, including dunnage, from several sources. While all such materials and supplies are available from independent suppliers, they are subject to fluctuations in price and availability attributable to a number of factors, including general economic conditions, commodity price fluctuations (particularly aluminum on the London Metal Exchange), the demand by other industries for the same raw materials and the availability of complementary and substitute materials. Although we enter into commodities purchase agreements from time to time and sometimes use derivative instruments to seek to manage our risk, we cannot ensure that our current suppliers of raw materials will be able to supply us with sufficient quantities at reasonable prices. Economic, financial, and operational factors, including strikes or labor shortages, as well as governmental action, could impact our suppliers, thereby causing supply shortages. Increases in raw material costs, including potential increases due to tariffs, sanctions, or other trade actions, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Global supply chain disruptions can negatively impact our results. In the Americas, Europe and Asia, some contracts do not allow us to pass along increased raw material costs and we generally use derivative agreements to seek to manage this risk. Our hedging procedures may be insufficient and our results could be materially impacted if costs of materials increase. Due to the fixed-price contracts, increased prices could decrease our sales volume over time. The delayed timing in recovering the pass-through of increasing raw material costs may also impact our short-term profitability and certain costs due to price increases or supply chain inefficiencies may be unrecoverable, which would also impact our profitability. In addition, in view of recent increases in our raw material and other production costs, we initiated a comprehensive cost pass-through program across all our businesses last year, which is ongoing, to seek to recover from our customers the full amount of those cost increases over time.

15

We use estimates in accounting for many of our programs in our aerospace business, and changes in our estimates could adversely affect our future financial results.

We account for sales and profits on a portion of long-term contracts in our aerospace business in accordance with the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, using the cost-to-cost method to account for updates in estimates. The percentage-of-completion method of accounting involves the use of various estimating techniques to project revenues and costs at completion and various assumptions and projections related to the outcome of future events, including the quantity and timing of product deliveries, future labor performance and rates, and material and overhead costs. These assumptions involve various levels of expected performance improvements. Under the cost-to-cost method, the impact of updates in our estimates related to units shipped to date or progress made to date is recognized immediately.

Given the significance of the judgments and estimates described above, it is likely that we could record materially different amounts if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances or estimates were to change.

Our backlog includes both cost-type and fixed-price contracts. Cost-type contracts generally have lower profit margins than fixed-price contracts. Our earnings and margins may vary depending on the types of government contracts undertaken, the nature of the work performed under those contracts, the costs incurred in performing the work, the achievement of other performance objectives and their impact on our ability to receive fees. The fixed-price contracts could subject us to losses if we have cost overruns or if increases in our costs exceed the applicable escalation rate.

Net earnings and net assets could be materially affected by an impairment of goodwill.

We have a significant amount of goodwill recorded on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021. We are required at least annually to test the recoverability of goodwill. The recoverability test of goodwill is based on the current fair value of our identified reporting units. Fair value measurement requires assumptions and estimates of many critical factors, including revenue and market growth, operating cash flows and discount rates. If general market conditions deteriorate in portions of our business, we could experience a significant decline in the fair value of our reporting units. This decline could lead to an impairment of all or a significant portion of the goodwill balance, which could materially affect our U.S. GAAP net earnings and net assets.

If the investments in Ball’s pension plans, or in the multi-employer pension plans in which Ball participates, do not perform as expected, we may have to contribute additional amounts to the plans, which would otherwise be available for other general corporate purposes.

Ball maintains defined benefit pension plans covering substantially all of its employees in the United States and a significant number of United Kingdom deferred and retired participants, which are funded based on certain actuarial assumptions. The plans’ assets consist primarily of common stocks, fixed-income securities and, in the U.S., alternative investments. Market declines, longevity increases or legislative changes, such as the Pension Protection Act in the U.S., could result in a prospective decrease in our available cash flow and net earnings over time, and the recognition of an increase in our pension obligations could result in a reduction to our shareholders’ equity. Additional risks exist related to the company’s participation in multi-employer pension plans. Assets contributed to a multi-employer pension plan by one employer may be used to provide benefits to employees of other participating employers. If a participating employer in a multi-employer pension plan stops contributing to the plan, the unfunded obligations of the plan may be borne by the remaining participants. This could result in increases to our contributions to the plans as well as pension expense.

16

Restricted access to capital markets could adversely affect our short-term liquidity and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the notes issued pursuant to our bond indentures.

A reduction in global market liquidity could:

restrict our ability to fund working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures and other business activities;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including the credit risks stemming from the economic environment;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our businesses and the industries in which we operate;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions or exploiting business opportunities; and
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants in our debt, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds, dispose of assets, pay cash dividends or refinance debt maturities.

If market interest rates increase, our variable-rate debt will create higher debt service requirements, which adversely affects our cash flows. While we sometimes enter into agreements limiting our exposure, any such agreements may not offer complete protection from this risk.

The global credit, financial and economic environment could have a negative impact on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.

The overall credit, financial and economic environment could have significant negative effects on our operations, including:

the creditworthiness of customers, suppliers and counterparties could deteriorate resulting in a financial loss or a disruption in our supply of raw materials;
volatile market performance could affect the fair value of our pension assets, potentially requiring us to make significant additional contributions to our defined benefit pension plans to maintain prescribed funding levels;
a significant weakening of our financial position or operating results could result in noncompliance with our debt covenants; and
reduced cash flows from our operations could adversely affect our ability to execute our long-term strategy to increase liquidity, reduce debt, repurchase our stock and invest in our businesses.

Changes in U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) and SEC rules and regulations could materially impact our reported results.

U.S. GAAP and SEC accounting and reporting changes are common. These changes could have significant effects on our reported results when compared to prior periods and other companies and may even require us to retrospectively adjust prior periods. Additionally, material changes to the presentation of transactions in the consolidated financial statements could impact key ratios that analysts and credit rating agencies use to rate Ball and ultimately impact our ability to access the credit markets in an efficient manner.

A material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting could, if not remediated, result in material misstatements in our financial statements.

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act. A material weakness is defined as a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. If a material weakness is identified, management could conclude that internal control over financial reporting is not effective based on criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organization of the Treadway Commission in “Internal Control—An Integrated Framework (2013).” If a material weakness is identified, a remediation plan would be designed to address the material weakness. If remedial measures are insufficient to address the material weakness, or if additional material weaknesses in internal control are discovered or occur in the future, our consolidated financial statements may contain material misstatements and we could be required to restate our financial results. As of December 31, 2021, the company had no material weaknesses.

17

We face risks related to health epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which could adversely affect our business.

The circumstances of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and responses thereto continue to evolve. The products produced and services provided by Ball have been deemed essential and, as a result, relevant governments around the world have allowed our operations to continue through this crisis. Additionally, overall demand for our aluminum beverage cans has remained high and has increased during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 and its related variants could give rise to circumstances that cause one or more of the following risk factors to occur:

We could lose key customers, customers could become insolvent or have a reduction in demand for our products and services;
We could be subject to changes in laws and governmental regulations that adversely affect our business and operations;
We could be subject to adverse fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
We might lose key management and operating personnel;
We may be subject to disruptions in the supply or price of our raw materials;
We may face prolonged work stoppages at our facilities;
We may be impacted by government budget constraints or government shutdowns;
Our pension plan investments may not perform as expected, and we may be required to make additional contributions to our pension plans which would otherwise be available for other general corporate purposes;
Our access to capital markets may be restricted, which could adversely affect our short-term liquidity and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the notes issued pursuant to our bond indentures;
We may be subject to increased information technology (IT) security threats and reduced network access availability;
Our operations and those of our principal customers and suppliers could be designated as non-essential in key markets; and
A material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting or a material misstatement in our financial statements could occur.

Because the COVID-19 pandemic is far-reaching and its impacts cannot be completely anticipated, additional risks may arise that could materially impact the company’s financial results and liquidity.

The company has or may implement actions to minimize the risks and associated negative effects from COVID-19, which do not guarantee the prevention or mitigation of material impacts on our business. Some of these actions may include, and are not limited to:

Implementing alternative work arrangements including work from home;
Limiting or eliminating work-related travel;
Effecting a full or partial shut-down of operations;
Enhancing the cleaning and disinfecting of our physical locations;
Implementing health screening for employees and third parties who enter our facilities;
Adjusting inventory levels to mitigate potential supply disruptions;
Modifying payment terms with customers;
Providing additional health-related services to our employees;
Reducing compensation for our employees;
Reducing our workforce levels;
Modifying our debt arrangements; and
Adjusting contributions to defined benefit pension plans or income tax payments.

18

Governmental and regulatory risks

Changes in laws and governmental regulations may adversely affect our business and operations.

We and our customers and suppliers are subject to various federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations, which have been increasing in number and complexity. Each of our, and their, facilities is subject to federal, state, provincial and local licensing and regulation by health, environmental, workplace safety and other agencies in multiple jurisdictions. Requirements of worldwide governmental authorities with respect to manufacturing, manufacturing facility locations within the jurisdiction, product content and safety, climate change, workplace safety and health, environmental, expropriation of assets and other standards could adversely affect our ability to manufacture or sell our products, and the ability of our customers and suppliers to manufacture and sell their products. In addition, we face risks arising from compliance with and enforcement of numerous and complex federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations.

Enacted regulatory developments regarding the reporting and use of “conflict minerals” mined from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries could affect the sourcing, availability and price of minerals used in the manufacture of certain of our products. As a result, there may only be a limited pool of suppliers who provide conflict-free materials, and we cannot give assurance that we will be able to obtain such products in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. Also, because our supply chains are complex, we may face reputational challenges with our customers and other stakeholders if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origins of all materials used in the products that we sell. The compliance and reporting aspects of these regulations may result in incremental costs to the company. While deposit systems and other container-related legislation have been adopted in some jurisdictions, similar legislation has been defeated in public referenda and legislative bodies in many others. We anticipate that continuing efforts will be made to consider and adopt such legislation in the future. The packages we produce are widely used and perform well in U.S. states, Canadian provinces and European countries that have deposit systems, as well as in other countries worldwide.

Significant environmental, employment-related and other legislation and regulatory requirements exist and are also evolving. The compliance costs associated with current and proposed laws and potential regulations could be substantial, and any failure or alleged failure to comply with these laws or regulations could lead to litigation or governmental action, all of which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Our aerospace segment is subject to certain risks specific to that business.

In our aerospace business, U.S. government contracts are subject to reduction or modification in the event of changes in requirements, and the government may also terminate contracts at its convenience pursuant to standard termination provisions. In such instances, Ball may be entitled to reimbursement for allowable costs and profits on authorized work that has been performed through the date of termination.

In addition, budgetary constraints and government shutdowns may result in further reductions to projected spending levels by the U.S. government. In particular, government expenditures are subject to the potential for automatic reductions, generally referred to as “sequestration.” Sequestration may occur in any given year, resulting in significant additional reductions to spending by various U.S. government defense and aerospace agencies on both existing and new contracts, as well as the disruption of ongoing programs. Even if sequestration does not occur, we expect that budgetary constraints and ongoing concerns regarding the U.S. national debt will continue to place downward pressure on agency spending levels. Due to these and other factors, overall spending on various programs could decline, which could result in significant reductions to revenue, cash flows, net earnings and backlog primarily in our aerospace segment.

19

As a U.S. government contractor, we could be adversely affected by changes in regulations or any negative findings from a U.S. government audit or investigation.

Our aerospace business operates in a highly regulated environment and is routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. government and its agencies, such as the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) and Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). These agencies review performance under our contracts, our cost structure and our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards, as well as the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies. Business systems that are subject to review under the DoD Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) are purchasing, estimating, material management and accounting, as well as property and earned value management. Any costs ultimately found to be unallowable or improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed or must be refunded if already reimbursed. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties, sanctions or suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. government. Whether or not illegal activities are alleged, the U.S. government also has the ability to decrease or withhold certain payments when it deems systems subject to its review to be inadequate. If such actions were to result in suspension or debarment, this could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our business faces the potential of increased regulation on some of the raw materials utilized in our packaging operations.

Our operations are subject to federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations in multiple jurisdictions relating to some of the raw materials, including epoxy-based coatings utilized in our container making process. Epoxy-based coatings may contain Bisphenol-A (BPA). Scientific evidence evaluated by regulatory agencies in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand has consistently shown these coatings to be safe for food contact at current levels, and these regulatory agencies have stated that human exposure to BPA from epoxy-based container coatings is well below safe exposure limits set by government bodies worldwide. A significant change in these regulatory agency statements, adverse information concerning BPA or other chemicals present in our coatings, or rulings made within certain federal, state, provincial and local jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Ball recognizes that significant interest exists in non-epoxy based coatings, and we have been proactively working with coatings suppliers and our customers to transition to alternative coatings.

Earnings and cash flows can be impacted by changes in tax laws.

As a U.S.-based multinational business, the company is subject to income tax in the U.S. and numerous jurisdictions outside the U.S. The relevant tax rules and regulations are complex, often changing and, in some cases, are interdependent. If these or other tax rules and regulations should change, the company’s earnings and cash flows could be impacted.

The company’s worldwide provision for income taxes is determined, in part, through the use of significant estimates and judgments. Numerous transactions arise in the ordinary course of business where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. The company undergoes tax examinations by various worldwide tax authorities on a regular basis. While the company believes its estimates of its tax obligations are reasonable, the final outcome after the conclusion of any tax examinations and any litigation could be materially different from what has been reflected in the company’s historical financial statements.

Technological risks

Decreases in our ability to develop or apply new technology and know-how may affect our competitiveness.

Our success depends partially on our ability to improve production processes and services. We must also introduce new products and services to meet changing customer needs. If we are unable to implement better production processes or to develop new products through research and development or licensing of new technology, we may not be able to remain competitive with other manufacturers. As a result, our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations could be adversely affected.

20

Increased information technology (IT) security threats and more sophisticated and targeted computer crime could pose a risk to our systems, networks, products, solutions and services, as well as those of our suppliers and customers.

The company’s IT systems, or any third party’s system on which the company relies, as well as those of our suppliers and customers, could fail on their own accord or may be vulnerable to a variety of interruptions or shutdowns, including interruptions or shutdowns due to natural disasters, power outages or telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks or failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software or hardware. Increased global IT security threats and more sophisticated and targeted computer crime also pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data, as well as to the security and data of our suppliers and customers. As a provider of products and services to government and commercial customers, our aerospace business in particular may be the target of cyber-attacks, including attempts to gain unauthorized access to classified or sensitive information and networks. The company has a number of shared service centers where many of the company’s IT systems are concentrated and any disruption at such a location could impact the company’s business within the operating zones served by the impacted service center.

While we attempt to mitigate all of these risks to our networks, systems and data by employing a number of measures, including employee training, comprehensive monitoring of our networks and systems, and maintenance of backup and protective systems, our systems, networks, products, solutions and services remain potentially vulnerable to advanced persistent threats or other IT disruptions. Depending on their nature and scope, such threats could potentially lead to the compromise of confidential information, improper use of our systems and networks, manipulation and destruction of data, defective products, harm to individuals or property, contractual or regulatory actions and fines, penalties and potential liabilities, production downtimes and operational disruptions, which in turn could adversely affect our reputation, competitiveness and results of operations. Data privacy and protection laws are evolving and present increasing compliance challenges, which may increase our costs, affect our competitiveness and could expose us to substantial fines or other penalties. In addition, a security breach that involves classified or other sensitive government information could subject us to civil or criminal penalties and could result in the loss of our secure facility clearance and other accreditation, loss of our government contracts, loss of access to classified information or debarment as a government contractor.

Human capital risks

If we fail to retain key management and personnel, we may be unable to implement our key objectives.

We believe our future success depends, in part, on our experienced management team. Unforeseen losses of key members of our management team without appropriate succession and/or compensation planning could make it difficult for us to manage our business and meet our objectives.

Prolonged work stoppages at facilities with union employees could jeopardize our financial position.

As of December 31, 2021, 13 percent of our North American employees and 37 percent of our European employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements. These collective bargaining agreements have staggered expirations during the next several years. Although we consider our employee relations to be generally good, a prolonged work stoppage or strike at any facility with union employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations. In addition, we cannot ensure that upon the expiration of existing collective bargaining agreements, new agreements will be reached without union action or that any such new agreements will be on terms satisfactory to us.

Environmental risks

Adverse weather and climate changes may result in lower sales.

We manufacture packaging products primarily for beverages. Unseasonable weather can reduce demand for certain beverages packaged in our containers. Climate change and the increasing frequency of severe weather events could have various effects on the demand for our products, our supply chain and the costs of inputs to our production and delivery of products in different regions around the world. Our plants’ production may be prevented or curtailed due to severe or unanticipated weather and climate events.

21

Our business is subject to substantial environmental remediation and compliance costs.

Our operations are subject to federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations in multiple jurisdictions relating to environmental hazards, such as emissions to air, discharges to water, the handling and disposal of hazardous and solid wastes and the clean-up of hazardous substances. We have been designated, along with numerous other companies, as a potentially responsible party for the clean-up of several hazardous waste sites. Additionally, there is increased focus on the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental issues worldwide. We strive to mitigate such risks related to environmental issues, including through the purchase of renewable energy, the adoption of sustainable practices, and by positioning ourselves as a sustainability leader in our industry.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

There were no matters required to be reported under this item.

Item 2. Properties

The company’s properties described below are well maintained, and management considers them to be adequate and utilized for their intended purposes.

Ball’s corporate headquarters are located in Westminster, Colorado, U.S. and our aerospace segment management offices are located in Broomfield, Colorado, U.S. The operations of the aerospace segment occupy a variety of company-owned and leased facilities in Colorado, U.S., which comprise office, laboratory, research and development, engineering and test and manufacturing space. Other aerospace operations carry on business in smaller company owned and leased facilities in other U.S. locations outside of Colorado.

Ball’s manufacturing locations for significant packaging operations, which are owned or leased by the company, are set forth below. Facilities in the process of being constructed, or that have ceased production, have been excluded from the list. In addition to the facilities listed, the company leases other warehousing space.

Beverage packaging, North and Central America, locations:

Bowling Green, Kentucky
Conroe, Texas
Fairfield, California
Findlay, Ohio
Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin
Fort Worth, Texas
Glendale, Arizona
Golden, Colorado
Goodyear, Arizona
Kapolei, Hawaii
Kent, Washington
Monterrey, Mexico
Monticello, Indiana
Phoenix, Arizona
Pittston, Pennsylvania
Queretaro, Mexico
Rome, Georgia
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saratoga Springs, New York
Tampa, Florida
Wallkill, New York
Whitby, Ontario, Canada
Williamsburg, Virginia

22

Beverage packaging, EMEA, locations:

Argayash, Russia
Belgrade, Serbia
Bierne, France
Cabanillas del Campo, Spain
Cairo, Egypt
Ejpovice, Czech Republic
Fosie, Sweden
Fredericia, Denmark
Gelsenkirchen, Germany
La Selva, Spain
Lublin, Poland
Ludesch, Austria
Manisa, Turkey
Mantsala, Finland
Milton Keynes, United Kingdom
Mont, France
Naro Fominsk, Russia
Nogara, Italy
Vsevolozhsk, Russia
Wakefield, United Kingdom
Waterford, Ireland
Widnau, Switzerland

Beverage packaging, South America, locations:

Aguas Claras, Brazil
Asuncion, Paraguay
Brasilia, Brazil
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Extrema, Brazil
Frutal, Brazil
Jacarei, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Manaus, Brazil
Pouso Alegre, Brazil
Recife, Brazil
Santa Cruz, Brazil
Santiago, Chile
Tres Rios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Beverage packaging, Other, locations:

Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Mumbai, India
Sri City, India
Yangon, Myanmar

Aerosol packaging locations:

Ahmedabad, India
Beaurepaire, France
Bellegarde, France
Devizes, United Kingdom
Itupeva, Brazil
San Luis Potosí, Mexico
Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
Velim, Czech Republic
Verona, Virginia

Aluminum cups location:

Rome, Georgia

23

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Details of the company’s legal proceedings are included in Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

Part II.

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Ball Corporation common stock (BLL) is listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange. There were 6,330 common shareholders of record on February 14, 2022. We intend to change the company’s ticker symbol from BLL to BALL immediately following our annual shareholders’ meeting in April 2022. A public press release will be issued 10 days prior to the actual change date.

Common Stock Repurchases

The following table summarizes the company’s repurchases of its common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2021.

Purchases of Securities

($ in millions)

  

Total

Number of

Shares

Purchased

(a)

    

Average
Price
Paid per
Share

    

Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs (a)

    

Maximum Number of
Shares that May Yet
Be Purchased Under
the Plans or Programs
(b)

October 1 to October 31, 2021

1,163,215

$

90.93

1,163,215

31,183,521

November 1 to November 30, 2021

1,683,252

93.32

1,683,252

29,500,269

December 1 to December 31, 2021

1,459,760

92.81

1,459,760

28,040,509

Total

4,306,227

92.50

4,306,227

(a)

Includes any open market purchases (on a trade-date basis), share repurchase agreements and/or shares retained by the company to settle employee withholding tax liabilities.

(b)

The company has an ongoing repurchase program for which 50 million shares were authorized for repurchase by Ball’s Board of Directors.

Shareholder Return Performance

The line graph below compares the annual percentage change in Ball Corporation’s cumulative total shareholder return on its common stock with the cumulative total return of the Dow Jones Containers & Packaging Index and the S&P Composite 500 Stock Index for the five-year period ended December 31, 2021. The graph assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2016, and that all dividends were reinvested. The Dow Jones Containers & Packaging Index total return has been weighted by market capitalization.

24

TOTAL RETURN TO STOCKHOLDERS

(Assumes $100 investment on 12/31/16)

Graphic

Total Return Analysis

12/31/2016

12/31/2017

12/31/2018

12/31/2019

12/31/2020

12/31/2021

BLL

$

100.00

$

101.78

$

124.83

$

177.05

$

257.07

$

267.67

S&P 500

100.00

119.42

111.97

144.31

167.77

212.89

DJ US Containers & Packaging

100.00

116.71

93.19

117.03

138.49

150.75

Source: Bloomberg L.P.® Charts

Item 6.  [Reserved]

Removing and reserving Item 6 of Part II.

25

Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Management’s discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (annual report), which include additional information about our accounting policies, practices and the transactions underlying our financial results. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes, including various claims and contingencies related to lawsuits, taxes, environmental and other matters arising during the normal course of business. We apply our best judgment, our knowledge of existing facts and circumstances and actions that we may undertake in the future in determining the estimates that affect our consolidated financial statements. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis using our historical experience, as well as other factors we believe appropriate under the circumstances, such as current economic conditions, and adjust or revise our estimates as circumstances change. As future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, actual results may differ from these estimates. Ball Corporation and its subsidiaries are referred to collectively as “Ball Corporation,” “Ball,” “the company,” “we” or “our” in the following discussion and analysis.

OVERVIEW

Business Overview and Industry Trends

Ball Corporation is one of the world’s leading aluminum packaging suppliers. Our packaging products are produced for a variety of end uses, are manufactured in facilities around the world and are competitive with other substrates, such as plastics and glass. In the aluminum packaging industry, sales and earnings can be increased by reducing costs, increasing prices, developing new products, expanding volumes and making strategic acquisitions. We also provide aerospace and other technologies and services to governmental and commercial customers, including national defense hardware, antenna and video tactical solutions, civil and operational space hardware and system engineering services.

We sell our aluminum packaging products mainly to large, multinational beverage, personal care and household products companies with which we have developed long-term relationships. This is evidenced by our high customer retention and our large number of long-term supply contracts. While we have a diversified customer base, we sell a significant portion of our packaging products to major companies and brands, as well as to numerous regional customers. The overall global aluminum beverage and aerosol container industries are growing and are expected to continue to grow in the medium to long term. The primary customers for the products and services provided by our aerospace segment are U.S. government agencies or their prime contractors.

We purchase our raw materials from relatively few suppliers. We also have exposure to inflation, in particular the rising costs of raw materials, as well as other direct cost inputs. We mitigate our exposure to the changes in the costs of aluminum through the inclusion of provisions in contracts covering the majority of our volumes to pass through aluminum price changes, as well as through the use of derivative instruments. The pass-through provisions generally result in proportional increases or decreases in sales and costs with a greatly reduced impact, if any, on net earnings. Because of our customer and supplier concentration, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by the loss, insolvency or bankruptcy of a major customer or supplier or a change in a supply agreement with a major customer or supplier, although our contract provisions generally mitigate the risk of customer loss, and our long-term relationships represent a known, stable customer base.

The majority of our aerospace business involves work under contracts, generally from one to five years in duration, as a prime contractor or subcontractor for various U.S. government agencies. Intense competition and long operating cycles are key characteristics of the company’s aerospace and defense industry where it is common for work on major programs to be shared among a number of companies. A company competing to be a prime contractor may, upon ultimate award of the contract to a competitor, become a subcontractor for the ultimate prime contracting company.

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Corporate Strategy

Our Drive for 10 vision encompasses five strategic levers that are key to growing our business and achieving long-term success. Since launching Drive for 10 in 2011, we have made progress on each of the levers as follows:

Maximizing value in our existing businesses by expanding specialty container production across our global plant network to meet current demand, improving efficiencies and amplifying our sustainability credentials through Aluminum Stewardship Initiative certification in our global aluminum container and end facilities in North America, South America and Europe; leveraging plant floor and integrated planning systems to reduce costs and manage contractual provisions across our diverse customer base; successfully acquiring and integrating a large global aluminum beverage business and regional aluminum aerosol facility while also divesting underperforming assets; and in the aluminum aerosol business, installing new extruded aluminum aerosol lines in our European, Mexican and Indian facilities while also implementing cost-out and value-in initiatives across all of our businesses;

Expanding further into new products and capabilities through commercializing our new lightweight, infinitely recyclable aluminum cup and providing next-generation extruded aluminum aerosol packaging that utilizes proprietary technology to significantly lightweight the can; and successfully introducing new specialty beverage cans and aluminum bottle-shaping technology;

Aligning ourselves with the right customers and markets by investing capital to meet continued growth for specialty beverage containers throughout our global network, which represent approximately 50 percent of our global beverage packaging mix; aligning with growing beverage categories and other new beverage producers who continue to use aluminum beverage containers to grow their business; and in our aluminum cup business, establishing partnerships with restaurants and event venues and utilizing online platforms and North American retailers to provide infinitely recyclable aluminum cups directly to consumers.

Broadening our geographic reach with our acquisition of Rexam and our new investments in beverage manufacturing facilities in the United States, Brazil, Paraguay, Spain, Mexico, Myanmar and Panama, as well as extruded aluminum aerosol manufacturing facilities in India and Brazil, and the successful start-up of our aluminum cups business in the U.S.; and

Leveraging our technological expertise in packaging innovation, including the introduction of our new proprietary, brandable lightweight aluminum cup and providing next-generation aluminum bottle-shaping technologies and the increased production of lightweight ReAl® containers, which utilize technology that increases the strength of aluminum used in the manufacturing process while lightweighting the can by up to 30 percent over a standard aluminum aerosol can, as well as our investment in cyber, data analytics methane monitoring, 5G and LIDAR capabilities to further enhance our aerospace technical expertise across a broader customer portfolio.

These ongoing business developments help us stay close to our customers while expanding and/or sustaining our industry positions and global reach with major beverage, personal care, household products and aerospace customers. In order to successfully execute our strategy and reach our goals, we realize the importance of excelling in the following areas: customer focus, operational excellence, innovation and business development, people and culture focus and sustainability.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Management’s discussion and analysis for our results of operations on a consolidated and segment basis include a quantification of factors that had a material impact. Other factors that did not have a material impact, but that are significant to understand the results, are qualitatively described.

Refer to Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed on February 17, 2021, for a comparison of our 2020 results of operations to the 2019 results.

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

The ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) had a significant effect upon the global business environment during the year ended December 31, 2021. Ball provides key products and services to the consumer beverage and household markets and the U.S. aerospace markets and, consequently, the operations of Ball and of its principal customers and suppliers have been designated as essential across our key markets. This designation allowed Ball to operate its manufacturing facilities throughout 2021, and it is expected that Ball will continue to operate its facilities without disruption in the foreseeable future. However, jurisdictions around the globe have issued stay-at-home orders and mandated operational closures of non-essential businesses and other restrictions, which have impacted certain of our customers by constraining some supply of products to certain consumers. The risks that COVID-19 and its related variants continue to present to Ball’s business have been outlined in Item 1. Risk Factors and Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

Consolidated Sales and Earnings

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net sales

$

13,811

$

11,781

$

11,474

Net earnings attributable to Ball Corporation

878

585

566

Net earnings attributable to Ball Corporation as a % of net sales

6

%  

5

%  

5

%

Sales in 2021 were $2,030 million higher compared to 2020 primarily as a result of increased sales volumes, pass through of higher aluminum prices, improved price/mix and favorable exchange rates.

Net earnings attributable to Ball Corporation in 2021 were $293 million higher than 2020 primarily due to increased sales volumes and favorable price/mix in our beverage packaging, North and Central America, segment, lower business consolidation and other activities, lower total interest expense, and higher earnings from equity in results of affiliates, partially offset by the tax effect of higher earnings and higher personnel, startup, and other costs to support growth investments, and the timing of contractual non-aluminum input cost recovery.

Cost of Sales (Excluding Depreciation and Amortization)

Cost of sales, excluding depreciation and amortization, was $11,085 million in 2021 compared to $9,323 million in 2020. These amounts represented 80 percent and 79 percent of consolidated net sales for the years ended 2021 and 2020, respectively. The increase year-over-year is primarily due to general inflationary cost pressures from limited supply of raw materials and global supply chain transportation disruptions. To mitigate these recent cost trends, we have established a commercial cost recovery program that is designed to help us recover a significant portion of those cost increases that fall outside our normal customer contracts.

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization expense was $700 million in 2021 compared to $668 million in 2020. These amounts represented 5 percent and 6 percent of consolidated net sales for the years ended 2021 and 2020, respectively. Amortization expense in 2021 and 2020 included $152 million and $150 million, respectively, for the amortization of acquired Rexam intangibles.

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Selling, General and Administrative

Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses were $593 million in 2021 compared to $525 million in 2020. These amounts represented 4 percent of consolidated net sales for 2021 and 2020, respectively. The increase in SG&A expenses was primarily due to higher personnel and other costs to support growth investments.

Business Consolidation Costs and Other Activities

Business consolidation costs and other activities were $142 million in 2021 compared to $262 million in 2020. These amounts represented 1 percent and 2 percent of consolidated net sales for 2021 and 2020, respectively. The amounts in 2021 included a non-cash pension settlement charge of $135 million and gains resulting from Brazilian indirect tax rulings of $22 million. The charges in 2020 included a non-cash pension settlement charge of $120 million, a non-cash impairment charge of $62 million related to the goodwill of our beverage packaging, other, reporting unit, an adjustment of $15 million to the selling price of the company’s former steel food and steel aerosol business and a $23 million write-off of the potential future consideration related to the 2019 sale of the company’s former China beverage packaging business.

Interest Expense

Total interest expense was $283 million in 2021 compared to $316 million in 2020. Interest expense, excluding the effect of debt refinancing and other costs, as a percentage of average borrowings decreased by approximately 10 basis points from 3.5 percent 2020 to 3.4 percent in 2021 due to the drop in global interest rates.

Tax Provision

The company’s effective tax rate is affected by recurring items such as income earned in non-U.S. jurisdictions with tax rates that differ from the U.S. tax rate and by discrete items that may occur in any given year but are not consistent from year to year.

The 2021 effective income tax rate was 15.5 percent compared to 14.4 percent for 2020. As compared with the statutory U.S. federal income tax rate of 21 percent, the 2021 effective rate was reduced by 3.2 percent for the impact of non-U.S. rate differences including tax holidays, by 5.0 percent for the impact of the U.S. R&D credit, and by 1.9 percent for the change in uncertain tax positions including interest and penalties. These reductions were partially offset by an increase of 1.8 percent for the GILTI inclusion. While these items are expected to recur, the potential magnitude of each item is uncertain.

The 2021 effective income tax rate was also increased by 4.3 percent for enacted changes in tax laws and rates. Similar impacts may occur in future periods, but given their inherent uncertainty, the company is unable to reasonably estimate their potential future impacts.

Further details of taxes on income, including impacts of the U.S. tax reform, are provided in Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

RESULTS OF BUSINESS SEGMENTS

Segment Results

Ball’s operations are organized and reviewed by management along its product lines and geographical areas, and its operating results are presented in the four reportable segments discussed below.

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Beverage Packaging, North and Central America

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net sales

$

5,856

$

5,076

$

4,758

Comparable operating earnings

681

683

555

Comparable operating earnings as a % of segment net sales

12

%  

13

%  

12

%

Segment sales in 2021 were $780 million higher compared to 2020 primarily due to 4 percent volume growth, the pass through of higher aluminum prices and improved price/mix.

Comparable operating earnings in 2021 were $2 million lower compared to 2020 primarily due to the timing of contractual non-aluminum input cost recovery, startup costs associated with three new multi-line manufacturing plants and operational inefficiencies from persistent supply chain disruptions, partially offset by higher specialty volumes and improved customer contractual terms.

Beverage Packaging, EMEA

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net sales

$

3,509

$

2,945

$

2,857

Comparable operating earnings

452

354

351

Comparable operating earnings as a % of segment net sales

13

%  

12

%  

12

%

Segment sales in 2021 were $564 million higher compared to 2020 primarily due to 8 percent volume growth, the pass through of higher aluminum prices and favorable exchange rates.

Comparable operating earnings in 2021 were $98 million higher compared to 2020 primarily due to higher sales volumes and favorable mix.

Beverage Packaging, South America

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net sales

$

2,016

$

1,695

$

1,670

Comparable operating earnings

348

280

288

Comparable operating earnings as a % of segment net sales

17

%  

17

%  

17

%

Segment sales in 2021 were $321 million higher compared to 2020 primarily due to 3 percent volume growth and the pass through of higher aluminum prices.

Comparable operating earnings in 2021 were $68 million higher compared to 2020 primarily related to higher sales volumes and favorable mix.

Aerospace

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

2021

    

2020

    

2019

 

Net sales

$

1,911

$

1,741

$

1,479

Comparable operating earnings

169

153

140

Comparable operating earnings as a % of segment net sales

9

%  

9

%  

9

%

30

Segment sales in 2021 were $170 million higher compared to 2020, and comparable operating earnings were $16 million higher, primarily due to the company’s new program wins, backlog growth and related backlog liquidation through contract performance.

Sales to the U.S. government, either directly as a prime contractor or indirectly as a subcontractor, represented 97 percent of segment sales in both 2021 and 2020. The aerospace contract mix in 2021 consisted of 47 percent cost-type contracts, which are billed at our costs plus an agreed-upon and/or earned profit component, and 50 percent fixed-price contracts. The remaining sales were for time and materials contracts.

Backlog for the aerospace segment at December 31, 2021 and 2020, was $2.5 billion and $2.4 billion, respectively. The actual amount of funding received in the future may be higher or lower than our estimate of potential contract value. The segment has numerous outstanding bids for future contract awards. The backlog at December 31, 2021, consisted of 40 percent cost-type contracts. Comparisons of backlog are not necessarily indicative of the trend of future operations due to the nature of varying delivery and milestone schedules on contracts, funding of programs and the uncertainty of timing of future contract awards.

Management Performance Measures

Management internally uses various measures to evaluate company performance, including comparable operating earnings (earnings before interest, taxes and business consolidation and other non-comparable costs); comparable net earnings (earnings before business consolidation costs and other non-comparable costs after tax); comparable diluted earnings per share (comparable net earnings divided by diluted weighted average shares outstanding); return on average invested capital (net operating earnings after tax over the relevant performance period divided by average invested capital over the same period); economic value added (EVA®) dollars (net operating earnings after tax less a capital charge on average invested capital employed); earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT); earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA); and diluted earnings per share. In addition, management uses operating cash flows as a measure to evaluate the company’s liquidity. We believe this information is also useful to investors as it provides insight into the earnings and cash flow criteria that management uses to make strategic decisions. These financial measures may be adjusted at times for items that affect comparability between periods such as business consolidation costs and gains or losses on acquisitions and dispositions.

Nonfinancial measures in the packaging businesses include production efficiency and spoilage rates; quality control figures; environmental, health and safety statistics; production and sales volume data; asset utilization rates; and measures of sustainability. Additional measures used to evaluate financial performance in the aerospace segment include contract revenue realization, award and incentive fees realized, proposal win rates and backlog. References to volume data represent units shipped.

Many of the above noted financial measurements are presented on a non-U.S. GAAP basis and should be considered in connection with the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report. Non-U.S. GAAP measures should not be considered in isolation, nor should they not be considered superior to, or a substitute for, financial measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. A presentation of earnings in accordance with U.S. GAAP is available in Item 8 of this annual report.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

For information regarding the company’s critical and significant accounting policies, as well as recent accounting pronouncements, see Note 1 and Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

The company considers certain accounting estimates to be critical, as their application is made in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and have had, or are reasonably likely to have, a material impact on the financial condition or results of operations. Detailed below is a discussion of why, to the extent the estimate is material, these estimates are subject to uncertainty and the sensitivity of the reported amounts to the methods, assumptions, and estimates underlying the estimate’s calculation.

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Revenue Recognition in the Aerospace Segment

Sales under fixed-price long-term contracts in the aerospace segment are primarily recognized using percentage-of-completion accounting under the cost-to-cost method. The company believes the accounting estimates related to revenue recognition in its aerospace segment are critical accounting estimates because they are highly reliant upon estimation throughout the segment’s contracts with its customers. The recognition of revenue requires significant estimation on the part of management, including estimating techniques to project revenues and costs at completion and various assumptions and projections related to the outcome of future events, and evaluation of estimates of total contract revenue, total contract cost, and extent of progress toward completion. Aside from estimation of total contract cost and progress towards completion, total revenues in our aerospace segment are subject to uncertainty due to the total amount that will be paid by the customer giving rise to variable consideration. The primary types of variable consideration present in the company’s contracts are cost reimbursements, performance award fees, incremental funding and finalization of government rates. The company’s accounting policy around revenue recognition in its aerospace segment and further details of estimates used in revenue recognition in its aerospace segment can be found in Note 1 and Note 5, respectively, to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

Defined Benefit Pension Plans

The company has defined benefit plans which require management to make assumptions relating to the long-term rate of return on plan assets, discount rates used to determine the present value of future obligations and expenses, salary inflation rates, mortality rates and other assumptions. The company believes the accounting estimates related to its pension plans are critical accounting estimates because several of the company’s defined benefit plans have significant asset and liability balances, and because the assumptions used are highly susceptible to change from period to period based on the performance of plan assets, actuarial valuations, market conditions and contracted benefit changes. These assumptions do not change during the company’s fiscal year unless a remeasurement event occurs in one of the plans, such as a significant settlement. The assumptions used in accounting for the company’s defined benefit plans and how they have changed over time, as well as the sensitivity of the plans to changes in their related assumptions, can be found in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Cash Flows and Capital Expenditures

Our primary sources of liquidity are cash provided by operating activities and external borrowings. We believe that cash flows from operating activities and cash provided by short-term, long-term and committed revolver borrowings, when necessary, will be sufficient to meet our ongoing operating requirements, scheduled principal and interest payments on debt, dividend payments, anticipated share repurchases and anticipated capital expenditures. The following table summarizes our cash flows:

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

Cash flows provided by (used in) operating activities

$

1,760

$

1,432

$

1,548

Cash flows provided by (used in) investing activities

(1,639)

(1,181)

(422)

Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities

(894)

(602)

(46)

Cash flows provided by operating activities were $1,760 million in 2021, primarily driven by net earnings, depreciation and amortization of $700 million, business consolidation and other costs of $142 million and working capital inflows of $120 million, partially offset by pension contributions of $207 million. In comparison to the same period in 2020, and after adjusting for the impact of capital expenditures, our working capital movements reflect an increase in days sales outstanding of 11 days in 2021, an increase in inventory days on hand of 5 days in 2021 and an increase in days payable outstanding of 19 days in 2021, all of which reflect increased aluminum prices during 2021.

Cash outflows from investing activities were $1,639 million in 2021 predominantly driven by $1.7 billion in capital expenditures, partially offset by $110 million received for the sale of our minority-owned investment in South Korea.

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Cash outflows from financing activities were $894 million in 2021, primarily driven by net share purchases of $719 million, the repayment of $748 million of 5% senior notes and common stock dividends of $229 million, partially offset by the issuance of $850 million of 3.125% senior notes.

We have entered into several regional committed and uncommitted accounts receivable factoring programs with various financial institutions for certain of our accounts receivable. Programs accounted for as true sales of the receivables, without recourse to Ball, had combined limits of approximately $1.7 billion and $1.6 billion at December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, respectively. A total of $308 million and $232 million were available for sale under these programs at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

As of December 31, 2021, approximately $499 million of our cash was held outside of the U.S. In the event we need to utilize any of the cash held outside of the U.S. for purposes within the U.S., there are no material legal or other economic restrictions regarding the repatriation of cash from any of the countries outside the U.S. where we have cash. The company believes its U.S. operating cash flows, cash on hand, as well as availability under its long-term, revolving credit facilities, uncommitted short-term credit facilities and committed and uncommitted accounts receivable factoring programs will be sufficient to meet the cash requirements of the U.S. portion of our ongoing operations, scheduled principal and interest payments on U.S. debt, dividend payments, capital expenditures and other U.S. cash requirements. If non-U.S. funds are needed for our U.S. cash requirements and we are unable to provide the funds through intercompany financing arrangements, we would be required to repatriate funds from non-U.S. locations where the company has previously asserted indefinite reinvestment of funds outside the U.S.

Based on its indefinite reinvestment assertion, the company has not provided deferred taxes on earnings in certain non-U.S. subsidiaries because such earnings are intended to be indefinitely reinvested in its international operations. It is not practical to estimate the additional taxes that might become payable if these earnings were remitted to the U.S.

Share Repurchases

The company’s share repurchases, net of issuances, totaled $719 million in 2021 and $75 million in 2020. The repurchases were completed using cash on hand, cash provided by operating activities, proceeds from the sale of businesses and available borrowings.

Debt Facilities and Refinancing

Given our cash flow projections and unused credit facilities that are available until March 2024, our liquidity is strong and is expected to meet our ongoing cash and debt service requirements. Total interest-bearing debt was $7.8 billion at both December 31, 2021 and 2020.

During 2021, Ball issued $850 million of 3.125% senior notes due in 2031 and redeemed the outstanding 5% senior notes due in March 2022 in the amount of $748 million.

At December 31, 2021, taking into account outstanding letters of credit, approximately $1.7 billion was available under the company’s long-term, multi-currency committed revolving credit facilities, which are available until March 2024. In addition to these facilities, the company had $1 billion of short-term uncommitted credit facilities available at December 31, 2021, of which $12 million was outstanding and due on demand.

While ongoing financial and economic conditions in certain areas may raise concerns about credit risk with counterparties to derivative transactions, the company mitigates its exposure by allocating the risk among various counterparties and limiting exposure to any one party. We also monitor the credit ratings of our suppliers, customers, lenders and counterparties on a regular basis.

Some of Ball’s loan agreements use the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) in determining interest rates. The company is currently evaluating the impact that the transition from its LIBOR-based interest rate loan agreements to Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) based interest rate agreements will have on its consolidated financial statements. Based on our most current understanding, the LIBOR to SOFR transition is not expected to have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

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We were in compliance with all loan agreements at December 31, 2021, and for all prior years presented, and we have met all debt payment obligations. The U.S. note agreements and bank credit agreement contain certain restrictions relating to dividends, investments, financial ratios, guarantees and the incurrence of additional indebtedness. The most restrictive of our debt covenants requires us to maintain a leverage ratio (as defined) of no greater than 5.0 times, which will change to 4.5 times as of December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2021, the company could borrow up to the limits available under its long-term multi-currency committed revolving facilities and short-term uncommitted credit facilities without violating any of its existing debt covenants. Additional details about our debt are available in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

Defined Benefit Pension Plans

The company closed its pension plans to all non-unionized new entrants in the United States effective for anyone hired after December 31, 2021. New employees will instead receive a non-elective 401(k) company contribution that is expected to approximate the legacy pension benefit. Anyone employed by Ball prior to that date is unaffected by this change.

Other Liquidity Measures

Given the on-going growth projects in our businesses being undertaken to support EVA-enchancing contacted volumes, in 2022, we expect capital expenditures to exceed $2 billion and we intend to return approximately $1.75 billion to shareholders in the form of stock repurchases and dividends. We further intend to utilize our operating cash flows to service debt requirements and, to the extent available, acquisitions that meet our rate of return criteria.

We have committed contracts to purchase raw materials and we align these purchase commitments with long-term sales contracts with our customers such that any commitment to purchase aluminum and other direct materials corresponds to a contractual sale. These aluminum purchase commitments include pass-through provisions which generally result in proportional changes in both sales and costs of sales.

The company’s growth plans will require significant capital expenditures over the next years. These capital expenditures will be funded by operating cash flows and external borrowings. Approximately $1.2 billion of capital expenditures were contractually committed as of December 31, 2021. Maturities for Ball’s long-term debt are disclosed in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report. Repayments of debt and other operational cash requirements will also be funded by operating cash flows and external borrowings. The company has no material off-balance sheet arrangements.

CONTINGENCIES, INDEMNIFICATIONS AND GUARANTEES

Details of the company’s contingencies, legal proceedings, indemnifications and guarantees are available in Note 22 and Note 23 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report. The company is routinely subject to litigation incident to operating its businesses and has been designated by various federal and state environmental agencies as a potentially responsible party, along with numerous other companies, for the clean-up of several hazardous waste sites, including in respect of sites related to alleged activities of certain former Rexam subsidiaries. The company believes the matters identified will not have a material adverse effect upon its liquidity, results of operations or financial condition.

Guaranteed Securities

The company’s senior notes are guaranteed on a full and unconditional, joint and several basis by the issuer of the company’s senior notes and the subsidiaries that guarantee the notes (the obligor group). The entities that comprise the obligor group are 100 percent owned by the company. As described in the supplemental indentures governing the company’s existing senior notes, the senior notes are guaranteed by any of the company’s domestic subsidiaries that guarantee any other indebtedness of the company.

The following summarized financial information relates to the obligor group as of and for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. Intercompany transactions, equity investments and other intercompany activity between obligor group subsidiaries have been eliminated from the summarized financial information. Investments in subsidiaries not forming part of the obligor group have also been eliminated.

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Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions)

2021

    

2020

Net sales

$

8,083

$

7,115

Gross profit (a)

910

935

Net earnings (loss)

432

528

Net earnings (loss) attributable to Ball Corporation

432

528

(a)Gross profit is shown after depreciation and amortization related to cost of sales of $210 million and $167 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

December 31,

($ in millions)

    

2021

    

2020

Current assets

$

2,575

$

2,211

Noncurrent assets

14,818

13,701

Current liabilities

5,067

3,704

Noncurrent liabilities

10,989

10,854

Included in the amounts disclosed in the tables above, at December 31, 2021 and 2020, the obligor group held receivables due from other subsidiary companies of $436 million and $221 million, respectively, long-term notes receivable due from other subsidiary companies of $9.2 billion in both years, payables due to other subsidiary companies of $2.0 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively, and long-term notes payable due to other subsidiary companies of $2.0 billion and $1.5 billion, respectively.

For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the obligor group recorded the following transactions with other subsidiary companies: sales to them of $803 million and $804 million, respectively, net credits from them of $18 million and $24 million, respectively, and net interest income from them of $337 million and $393 million, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the obligor group received dividends from other subsidiary companies of $269 million and $56 million, respectively.

A description of the terms and conditions of the company’s debt guarantees is located in Note 23 to the consolidated financial statements within Item 8 of this annual report.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This report contains "forward-looking" statements concerning future events and financial performance. Words such as "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "believes," and similar expressions typically identify forward-looking statements, which are generally any statements other than statements of historical fact. Such statements are based on current expectations or views of the future and are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied. You should therefore not place undue reliance upon any forward-looking statements and they should be read in conjunction with, and qualified in their entirety by, the cautionary statements referenced below. The company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Key factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual outcomes and results to be different are summarized in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including Exhibit 99 in our Form 10-K, which are available on our website and at www.sec.gov. Additional factors that might affect: a) our packaging segments include product capacity, supply, and demand constraints and fluctuations and changes in consumption patterns; availability/cost of raw materials, equipment, and logistics; competitive packaging, pricing and substitution; changes in climate and weather; footprint adjustments and other manufacturing changes, including the startup of new facilities and lines; failure to achieve synergies, productivity improvements or cost reductions; unfavorable mandatory deposit or packaging laws; customer and supplier consolidation; power and supply chain interruptions; changes in major customer or supplier contracts or loss of a major customer or supplier; inability to pass through increased costs; political instability and sanctions; currency controls; changes in currency exchange or non-U.S. tax rates; and tariffs, trade actions, or other governmental actions, including business restrictions and shelter-in-place orders in any country or jurisdiction affecting goods produced by us or in our supply chain, including imported raw materials; b) our aerospace segment include funding, authorization, availability and returns of government and commercial contracts; and delays, extensions and technical uncertainties affecting segment contracts; c) the company as a whole include those listed above plus: the extent to which sustainability-related opportunities arise and can be capitalized upon; changes in senior management, succession, and the ability to attract and retain skilled labor; regulatory actions or issues including those related to tax, ESG reporting, competition, environmental, health and workplace safety, including U.S. FDA and other actions or public concerns affecting products filled in our containers, or chemicals or substances used in raw materials or in the manufacturing process; technological developments and innovations; the ability to manage cyber threats; litigation; strikes; disease; pandemic; labor cost changes; inflation; rates of return on assets of the company's defined benefit retirement plans; pension changes; uncertainties surrounding geopolitical events and governmental policies, including policies, orders, and actions related to COVID-19; reduced cash flow; interest rates affecting our debt; and successful or unsuccessful joint ventures, acquisitions and divestitures, and their effects on our operating results and business generally.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Financial Instruments and Risk Management

The company employs established risk management policies and procedures which seek to reduce the company’s commercial risk exposure to fluctuations in commodity prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and prices of the company’s common stock with regard to common share repurchases and the company’s deferred compensation stock plan. However, there can be no assurance that these policies and procedures will be successful. Although the instruments utilized involve varying degrees of credit, market and interest risk, the counterparties to the agreements are expected to perform fully under the terms of the agreements. The company monitors counterparty credit risk, including lenders, on a regular basis, but Ball cannot be certain that all risks will be discerned or that its risk management policies and procedures will always be effective. Additionally, in the event of default under the company’s master derivative agreements, the non-defaulting party has the option to set off any amounts owed with regard to open derivative positions.

We have estimated our market risk exposure using sensitivity analysis. Market risk exposure has been defined as the changes in fair value of derivative instruments, financial instruments and commodity positions. To test the sensitivity of our market risk exposure, we have estimated the changes in fair value of market risk sensitive instruments assuming a hypothetical 10 percent adverse change in market prices or rates. The results of the sensitivity analyses are summarized below.

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Commodity Price Risk

Aluminum

We manage commodity price risk in connection with market price fluctuations of aluminum through two different methods. First, we enter into container sales contracts that include aluminum-based pricing terms that generally reflect the same price fluctuations included in commercial purchase contracts for aluminum sheet. The terms include fixed, floating or pass-through aluminum component pricing. Second, we use derivative instruments such as option and forward contracts as economic and cash flow hedges of commodity price risk where there are material differences between sales and purchase contracted pricing and volume.

Considering the effects of derivative instruments, the company’s ability to pass through certain raw material costs through contractual provisions, the market’s ability to accept price increases and the company’s commodity price exposures under its contract terms, a hypothetical 10 percent adverse change in the company’s aluminum prices would result in an estimated $4 million after-tax reduction in net earnings over a one-year period. Additionally, the company has currency exposures on raw materials and the effect of a 10 percent adverse change is included in the total currency exposure discussed below. Actual results may vary based on actual changes in market prices and rates.

Interest Rate Risk

Our objective in managing exposure to interest rate changes is to minimize the impact of interest rate changes on earnings and cash flows and to minimize our overall borrowing and receivables factoring costs. To achieve these objectives, we may use a variety of interest rate swaps, collars and options to manage our mix of floating and fixed-rate debt. Interest rate instruments held by the company at December 31, 2021, included pay-fixed interest rate swaps and options which effectively convert variable rate obligations to fixed-rate instruments.

Based on our interest rate exposure at December 31, 2021, assumed floating rate debt levels throughout the next 12 months and the effects of our existing derivative instruments, a 100-basis point increase in interest rates would result in an estimated $3 million after-tax reduction in net earnings over a one-year period. Actual results may vary based on actual changes in market prices and rates and the timing of these changes.

Currency Exchange Rate Risk

Our objective in managing exposure to currency fluctuations is to limit the exposure of cash flows and earnings from changes associated with currency exchange rate changes through the use of various derivative contracts. In addition, at times Ball manages earnings translation volatility through the use of currency option strategies, and the change in the fair value of those options is recorded in the company’s net earnings. Our currency translation risk results from the currencies in which we transact business. The company faces currency exposures in our global operations as a result of various factors including intercompany currency denominated loans, selling our products in various currencies, purchasing raw materials and equipment in various currencies and tax exposures not denominated in the functional currency. Sales contracts are negotiated with customers to reflect cost changes and, where there is not an exchange pass-through arrangement, the company may use forward and option contracts to manage significant currency exposures.

Considering the company’s derivative financial instruments outstanding at December 31, 2021, and the various currency exposures, a hypothetical 10 percent reduction (U.S. dollar strengthening) in currency exchange rates compared to the U.S. dollar would result in an estimated $13 million after-tax reduction in net earnings over a one-year period. This hypothetical adverse change in the U.S. dollar’s currency exchange rates would also increase our forecasted average debt balance by $227 million. Actual changes in market prices or rates may differ from hypothetical changes.

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Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Ball Corporation

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Ball Corporation and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related consolidated statements of earnings, of comprehensive earnings (loss), of shareholders' equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are

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recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Revenue Recognition - Estimated Costs at Completion for Aerospace Fixed-Price Contracts

As described in Notes 1 and 3 to the consolidated financial statements, net sales for the aerospace segment were $1.9 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, including sales under fixed-price long-term contracts, which are primarily recognized using percentage-of-completion accounting under the cost-to-cost method. The percentage-of-completion method of accounting involves the use of various estimating techniques to project revenues and costs at completion and various assumptions and projections related to the outcome of future events, including the quantity and timing of product deliveries, future labor performance and rates, and material and overhead costs. Throughout the period of contract performance, management regularly evaluates and, if necessary, revises its estimates of total contract revenue, total contract cost, and extent of progress toward completion.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to revenue recognition - estimated costs at completion for aerospace fixed-price contracts is a critical audit matter are the significant judgment by management when determining the estimated costs at completion for such contracts. This in turn led to a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and in evaluating the related audit evidence over management’s assumptions of estimated costs at completion for aerospace fixed-price contracts related to the availability and cost volatility of materials, subcontractor and vendor performance, and schedule and performance delays.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the accuracy of estimated costs at completion for aerospace fixed-price contracts. These procedures also included, among others, evaluating and testing management’s process for determining the estimated costs at completion for a sample of aerospace fixed-price contracts, including assessing the reasonableness of the significant assumptions related to each contract. Evaluating the reasonableness of management’s assumptions related to the availability and cost volatility of materials, subcontractor and vendor performance, and schedule and performance delays involved assessing the nature and status of the aerospace fixed-price contracts, performing retrospective reviews of the aerospace fixed-price contract estimates and changes in estimates over time, obtaining evidence to support estimated costs at completion, and assessing the reasonableness of factors considered and significant assumptions made by management in determining the estimated costs at completion used to recognize revenue.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Denver, Colorado

February 16, 2022

We have served as the Company’s auditor since at least 1962. We have not been able to determine the specific year we began serving as auditor of the Company.

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Consolidated Statements of Earnings

Ball Corporation

Years Ended December 31,

($ in millions, except per share amounts)

2021

2020

2019

Net sales

$

13,811

$

11,781

$

11,474

Costs and expenses

Cost of sales (excluding depreciation and amortization)

(11,085)

(9,323)

(9,203)

Depreciation and amortization

(700)

(668)

(678)

Selling, general and administrative

(593)

(525)

(417)

Business consolidation and other activities

(142)

(262)

(244)

(12,520)

(10,778)

(10,542)

Earnings before interest and taxes

1,291

1,003

932

Interest expense

(270)

(275)

(317)

Debt refinancing and other costs

(13)

(41)

(7)

Total interest expense

(283)

(316)

(324)

Earnings before taxes

1,008

687

608

Tax (provision) benefit

(156)

(99)

(71)

Equity in results of affiliates, net of tax