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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
                            or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission file number 1-11437
 
LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland 52-1893632
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
6801 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda,Maryland 20817
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(301) 897-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 par valueLMTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes
    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non–accelerated filer Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the last sales price of such stock, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, which was June 23, 2023, was approximately $115.2 billion.
There were 241,643,304 shares of our common stock, $1 par value per share, outstanding as of January 19, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Lockheed Martin Corporation’s 2024 Definitive Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10‑K. The 2024 Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.


Table of Contents

Lockheed Martin Corporation
Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2023
Table of Contents
 
PART I Page 
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 1C.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 4(a).
PART II
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
PART III
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
 



Table of Contents
PART I
ITEM  1.    Business
General
We are a global security and aerospace company principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. We also provide a broad range of management, engineering, technical, scientific, logistics, system integration and cybersecurity services. Our main areas of focus are in defense, space, intelligence, homeland security and information technology, including cybersecurity. We serve both U.S. and international customers with products and services that have defense, civil and commercial applications, with our principal customers being agencies of the U.S. Government.
We operate in a complex and evolving global security environment. Our strategy consists of the design and development of platforms and systems that meet the current needs of our customers and the future requirements of 21st Century Security. Our vision for 21st Century Security is to accelerate the adoption of advanced networking and leading-edge technologies into our national defense enterprise, while enhancing the performance and value of our platforms and products for our customers. The aim of 21st Century Security is to integrate new and existing systems across all domains with advanced, open-architecture networking and operational technologies to make defense forces more agile, adaptive and unpredictable.
Twenty-first Century Security is an overarching vision that guides our investment and strategy. We are also focused on four elements for potential growth in the near to mid-term: current programs of record, classified programs, hypersonics and new awards. We have multiple programs of record from each business segment that are entering growth stages, including the F-35 sustainment activity (Aeronautics); increased Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) production rates and increased demand for High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS®) and Guided Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (GMLRS) (Missiles and Fire Control); radar surveillance systems and CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopter (Rotary and Mission Systems); and the modernization and enhancements to the Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) (Space). We are engaged in significant classified development programs and pending successful achievement of the objectives within those programs, we expect to begin the transition from development to production over the next few years. We are currently performing on multiple hypersonics programs and following the successful completion of ongoing testing and evaluation activity, multiple programs are expected to enter early production phases through 2026. Finally, we are always in pursuit of new program awards to develop future platforms that enable us to continue to place security capability into the market and expand our global reach.
Key to enabling success of our strategy is developing differentiating technologies, forging strategic partnerships, including with commercial companies, executing on our multi-year business transformation initiative to enhance our digital infrastructure and increase efficiencies and collaboration throughout our business and maintaining fiscal discipline. Underpinning our ability to execute our strategy is our talent and culture. We invest substantially in our people to ensure that our workforce has the technical skills necessary to succeed, and we expect to continue to invest internally in innovative technologies that address rapidly evolving mission requirements for our customers. We also will continue to evaluate our portfolio and will make strategic acquisitions or divestitures, as appropriate, while deepening our connection to commercial industry through cooperative partnerships, joint ventures and equity investments.
Business Segments
We operate in four business segments: Aeronautics, Missiles and Fire Control (MFC), Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS) and Space. We organize our business segments based on the nature of the products and services offered.
Aeronautics
Aeronautics is engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration, sustainment, support and upgrade of advanced military aircraft, including combat and air mobility aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and related technologies. Aeronautics also has contracts with the U.S. Government for various classified programs. Aeronautics’ major programs include:
F-35 Lightning II - international multi-role, multi-variant, fifth generation stealth fighter;
C-130 Hercules - international tactical airlifter;
F-16 Fighting Falcon - combat-proven, international multi-role fighter; and
F-22 Raptor - air dominance and multi-role fifth generation stealth fighter.
The F-35 program is our largest program, generating 26% of our total consolidated net sales, as well as 64% of Aeronautics’ net sales in 2023. The F-35 program consists of multiple development, production and sustainment contracts. Development is focused on modernization of F-35’s capability and addressing emerging threats. Sustainment provides logistics
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and training support for the aircraft delivered to F-35 customers. For additional information on the F-35 program, see “Status of the F‑35 Program” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. See also Item 1A - Risk Factors for a discussion of risks related to the F-35 program.
In addition to the aircraft programs above, Aeronautics is involved in advanced development programs incorporating innovative design and rapid prototype applications. Our Advanced Development Programs (ADP) organization, also known as Skunk Works®, is focused on future systems, including unmanned and manned aerial systems and next generation capabilities for air dominance, hypersonics, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, situational awareness and air mobility. We continue to explore technology advancement and insertion into our existing aircraft. We also are involved in numerous network-enabled activities that allow separate systems to work together to increase effectiveness and we continue to invest in new technologies to maintain and enhance competitiveness in military aircraft design, development and production.
Missiles and Fire Control
MFC provides air and missile defense systems; tactical missiles and air-to-ground precision strike weapon systems; logistics; fire control systems; mission operations support, readiness, engineering support and integration services; manned and unmanned ground vehicles; and energy management solutions. MFC also has contracts with the U.S. Government for various classified programs. MFC’s major programs include:
The Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) air and missile defense programs. PAC-3 is an advanced defensive missile for the U.S. Army and international customers designed to intercept and eliminate incoming airborne threats using kinetic energy. THAAD is a transportable defensive missile system for the U.S. Government and international customers designed to engage targets both within and outside of the Earth’s atmosphere.
The Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), Precision Strike Missile (PrSM), Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM), Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM), and Hellfire tactical and strike missile programs. MLRS is a highly mobile, automatic system that fires surface-to-surface rockets and missiles from the M270 and High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) platforms produced for the U.S. Army and international customers and PrSM is the next generation of precision strike surface-to-surface weapon systems that is compatible with the MLRS family of launchers in support of the U.S. Army. JASSM is an air-to-ground missile launched from fixed-wing aircraft, which is produced for the U.S. Air Force and international customers. LRASM is a precision guided anti-ship missile derived from JASSM and designed to interdict a variety of surface threats at very long range and produced for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and international customers. Hellfire is an air-to-ground missile used on rotary and fixed-wing aircraft, which is produced for the U.S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps and international customers.
The Apache fire control system, Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (SNIPER®) and Infrared Search and Track (IRST21®) sensors and global sustainment programs. The Apache fire control system provides weapons-targeting capability for the Apache helicopter for the U.S. Army and international customers. SNIPER is a targeting system for several fixed-wing aircraft and is produced for the U.S. Air Force and international customers. IRST21 provides long-range infrared detection and tracking of airborne threats and is used on several fixed-wing aircraft. IRST21 is produced for the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the National Guard and international customers.
The Special Operations Forces Global Logistics Support Services (SOF GLSS) program, which provides logistics support services to the special operations forces of the U.S. military.
Hypersonics programs, which include several programs with the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army to design, develop and build hypersonic strike weapons.
The Javelin program, which is a one-person portable and platform-employable anti-tank and multi-target precision weapon system. Javelin was developed and is currently produced for the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps by a joint venture between Lockheed Martin and RTX Corporation.

Rotary and Mission Systems
RMS designs, manufactures, services and supports various military and commercial helicopters, surface ships, sea and land-based missile defense systems, radar systems, laser systems, sea and air-based mission and combat systems, command and control mission solutions, cyber solutions, and simulation and training solutions. RMS also has contracts with the U.S. Government for various classified programs. RMS’ major programs include:
Sikorsky helicopter programs such as those related to the BLACK HAWK®, Seahawk® and CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopters which are in service with U.S. and foreign governments, the Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) utilized by the U.S. Air Force, and the VH-92A helicopter for the U.S. Marine One transport mission.
Integrated warfare systems and sensors (IWSS) programs such as Aegis Combat System (Aegis) programs that serve as an air and missile defense system for the U.S. Navy and international customers and is also a sea and land-based element of the U.S. missile defense system, and the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and Multi-Mission Surface Combatant (MMSC)
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programs to provide surface combatant ships for the U.S. Navy and international customers that are designed to operate in shallow waters and the open ocean.
Command, control, communications, computers, cyber, combat systems, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C6ISR) programs such as the Command, Control, Battle Management and Communications (C2BMC) program to provide an air operations center for the Ballistic Missile Defense System for the U.S. Government, undersea combat systems programs largely serving the U.S. Navy, and Australia's Joint Air Battle Management System (AIR 6500).
Training and logistics solutions (TLS) programs such as those providing sustainment services and programs that provide simulators and associated training to U.S. military and foreign government customers.
Space
Space is engaged in the research and design, development, engineering and production of satellites, space transportation systems, and strategic, advanced strike, and defensive systems. Space provides network-enabled situational awareness and integrates complex space and ground global systems to help our customers gather, analyze and securely distribute critical intelligence data. Space is also responsible for various classified systems and services in support of vital national security systems. Space’s major programs include:
The Next Generation Overhead Persistent Infrared (Next Gen OPIR) system, which provides the U.S. Space Force with enhanced worldwide missile warning capabilities.
The Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM), a program with the U.S. Navy for the only submarine-launched intercontinental ballistic missile currently in production in the U.S.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), a spacecraft for NASA utilizing new technology for human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit.
Next Generation Interceptor (NGI), a program with the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) utilizing next generation propulsion and sensors to provide homeland missile defense.
Global Positioning System (GPS) III, a program to modernize the GPS satellite system for the U.S. Space Force.
Hypersonics programs, which include several programs with the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy to design, develop and build hypersonic strike weapons.
The Transport Layer program, a small satellite program designed to support resilient space communications for the Space Development Agency.
Intellectual Property
We routinely apply for and own a substantial number of U.S. and foreign patents and trademarks related to the products and services we provide. We also develop and own other intellectual property, including copyrights, trade secrets and research, development and engineering know-how, that contributes significantly to our business. In addition, we license intellectual property to and from third parties. The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) provide the U.S. Government certain rights in intellectual property, including patents, developed by us and our subcontractors and suppliers in performance of government contracts or with government funding. The U.S. Government may use or authorize others, including competitors, to use such intellectual property. See the discussion of matters related to our intellectual property in Item 1A - Risk Factors. Non-U.S. governments also may have certain rights in patents and other intellectual property developed in performance of our contracts for them. Although our intellectual property rights in the aggregate are important to the operation of our business, we do not believe that any existing patent, license or other intellectual property right is of such importance that its loss or termination would have a material adverse effect on our business taken as a whole.
Research and Development
We conduct research and development (R&D) activities using our own funds (referred to as company-funded R&D or independent research and development (IR&D)) and under contractual arrangements with our customers (referred to as customer-funded R&D) to enhance existing products and services and to develop future technologies. R&D costs include basic research, applied research, concept formulation studies, design, development, and related test activities. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” (under the caption “Research and development and similar costs”) included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Raw Materials, Suppliers and Seasonality
Some of our products require relatively scarce raw materials, such as rare earth minerals. Other important materials and components, on which certain of our products rely, include aluminum, titanium, carbon fiber and advanced microelectronics, such as semiconductors. We rely on other companies to provide materials, components and products and to perform a portion of
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the services that are provided to our customers under the terms of most of our contracts. Although long-term agreements have historically helped enable a continued supply of these materials, the lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chain challenges, supplier disputes, regulatory restrictions, and inflationary pressures have caused certain parts’ shortages, extended lead times and pricing escalations affecting certain sources of supply. We continue working to minimize the impact of supply chain challenges on us but many of the challenges are industry wide or caused by geopolitical events and general economic conditions that are outside of our control. These supplier disruptions have resulted in delays and increased costs and have adversely affected our program performance and operating results. These dynamics are expected to continue in 2024. For more information on the risks related to our suppliers and raw materials, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
No material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal. Various factors, however, can affect the distribution of our sales between accounting periods, including the timing of government awards, the availability of government funding, product deliveries and customer acceptance.
Human Capital Resources
Due to the specialized nature of our business, our performance depends on identifying, attracting, developing, motivating and retaining a highly skilled workforce with the requisite skills and, in many cases, security clearances, in multiple areas, including engineering, science, manufacturing, information technology, cybersecurity, business development and strategy and management. Our human capital management strategy, which we refer to as our people strategy, is tightly aligned with our business needs and technology strategy. During 2023, our human capital efforts were focused on continuing to accelerate the transformation of our technology for workforce management through investments in upgraded systems and processes. We also focused on increasing our ability to meet the quickly changing needs of the business, all while maintaining a respectful, supportive and inclusive working environment and culture. We use a variety of human capital measures in managing our business, including: workforce demographics and metrics in relation to representation, attrition, hiring, promotions and leadership; and talent management metrics, including retention rates of top talent.
Workforce Demographics
As of December 31, 2023, we had a highly skilled workforce made up of approximately 122,000 employees, including approximately 65,000 engineers, scientists and information technology professionals. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 93% of our workforce was located in the U.S. and approximately 19% of our employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements with various unions. A number of our existing collective bargaining agreements expire in any given year. Historically, we have been successful in renegotiating expiring agreements without any material disruption of operating activities, and management considers employee and union relations to be good. This has continued to be the case in 2023.
Diversity and Inclusion
Diversity and inclusion is a business imperative for us, as we believe that it is key to our future success. We have focused our diversity and inclusion initiatives on employee recruitment, including active engagement and outreach with minority-serving institutions, employee training and development, such as efforts focused on expanding the diverse talent pipeline, and employee engagement, including through participation in our Business Resource Groups. Our Business Resource Groups are voluntary, employee-led groups that are open to all employees while being aligned to demographic categories that we annually report on to the U.S. Government, including race/ethnicity, gender, disability and veteran status. The categories have been expanded to gain a deeper understanding of our workforce to include military service, sexual-orientation and gender identity which are not part of our annual government submission. The Business Resource Groups foster a diverse and inclusive workplace aligned with our organizational mission, values, goals and business practices and drive awareness and change within our organization. Through these and other focused efforts, including workforce availability, we have improved the diversity of our overall U.S. workforce and within leadership positions, specifically in the representation of women, people of color and people with disabilities. Additionally, veteran representation in our workforce remains outstanding, at almost four times the current annual national percentage of veterans in the civilian workforce.
Employee Profile (as of December 31, 2023):
Women(a)
People of Color(a)
Veterans(a)
People with Disabilities(a)
Overall23%32%21%12%
Executives(b)
25%17%21%13%
(a)Based on employees who self-identify. Includes only U.S. employees and expatriates except for data relating to women, which also includes local country nationals. Excludes casual workers, interns/co-ops and employees of certain subsidiaries and joint ventures.
(b)Executive is defined as director-level (one level below vice president) or higher.
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Talent Acquisition, Retention and Development
We strive to hire, develop and retain the top talent in the industry. During 2023, we hired nearly 15,000 employees. An integral part of our people strategy is early career hiring through college and intern pipelines, particularly in technical fields and critical skills areas. During the 2022-2023 academic year, we hired a record 6,000 college hires and interns. In addition to efforts focused on recruitment, we also monitor employee attrition across a broad array of categories and segments of the population, including with respect to diversity and top talent. Critical to attracting and retaining top talent is employee satisfaction, and we regularly conduct employee engagement surveys to gauge employee satisfaction and to understand the effectiveness of our people strategy and assess employee’s intent to stay. We attract and reward our employees by providing market competitive compensation and benefits, including incentives and recognition plans that extend to non-represented employees of all levels in our organization and encourage excellence through our pay-for-performance philosophy. We have a hybrid workforce model that encourages flexible working arrangements for employees and teams who can meet our customer commitments remotely, which has helped recruit and retain talent. In addition, we invest in the development of our employees through training, apprenticeship programs, security clearance sponsorship, leadership development plans and offering tuition assistance programs for continuing education or industry certifications. We believe this employee development makes us more competitive and also assists with leadership succession planning throughout the corporation.

Employee Safety and Health
Through our safety and health program we seek to optimize our operations with targeted safety, health and wellness opportunities designed to provide safe work conditions, and a healthy work environment, promote workforce resiliency and enhance business value. As part of this program, we track employee health and safety measures, including quarterly and yearly targets related to the number of injury and illness incidents that occur at work, those incidents that result in days lost, and the number of days lost due to workplace injuries and illness.

For information on the risks related to our human capital resources, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Competition
We compete with many different companies in the defense and aerospace industry. The Boeing Company, General Dynamics, L3Harris Technologies, Northrop Grumman, and RTX Corporation are some of our primary competitors. Key characteristics of our industry include long operating cycles and intense competition, which is evident through the number of competitors bidding on program opportunities and the existence of bid protests (competitor protests of U.S. Government procurement awards).
We often collaborate with our competitors through teaming arrangements in efforts to provide our customers with the best mix of capabilities to address specific requirements. Additionally, a company competing to be a prime contractor may, upon ultimate award of the contract to another competitor, serve as a subcontractor to the ultimate prime contracting company. It is not unusual to compete for a contract award with a peer company and, simultaneously, perform as a supplier to or a customer of that same competitor on other contracts.
Our broad portfolio of products and services competes domestically and internationally against products and services of the companies listed above, numerous smaller competitors and startups, and increasingly, non-traditional and non-U.S. defense contractors. In some areas of our business, customer requirements are changing to encourage or facilitate expanded competition. Principal factors of competition include: the technical excellence, reliability, safety and cost competitiveness of our products and services to the customer; technical and management capability; the ability to innovate and develop new products and technologies that improve mission performance and adapt to dynamic threats; successful program execution and on-time delivery of complex, integrated systems; the reputation and customer confidence derived from past performance; our demonstrated ability to execute and perform against contract requirements and successfully manage customer relationships; and our global footprint and accessibility to customers.
The competition for international sales for most of our products and services is subject to U.S. Government stipulations (e.g., export restrictions, market access, technology transfer, industrial cooperation and contracting practices). We compete against U.S. and non-U.S. companies (or teams) for contract awards by international governments. International competitions are also subject to different laws or contracting practices of international governments, which affects how we structure our bid for the procurement. In many international procurements, the purchasing government’s relationship with the U.S. and its industrial cooperation programs designed to enhance local industry are important factors in determining the outcome of a competition. It is common for international customers to require contractors to comply with their industrial cooperation regulations, sometimes referred to as offset requirements, and we have entered into foreign offset agreements as part of securing
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some international business. For more information concerning our international business, see “International Business” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Technological advances in such areas as additive manufacturing, data analytics, digital engineering, artificial intelligence, advanced materials, autonomy and robotics, and new business models such as commercial access to space, are enabling new factors of competition for both traditional and non-traditional competitors.
Regulatory Matters
Our business is heavily regulated. We contract with numerous U.S. Government agencies and entities, principally all branches of the U.S. military and NASA. We also contract with similar government authorities in other countries, either under the foreign military sales (FMS) program, contracted through the U.S. Government, or as a direct sale with the foreign government authority, which regulates these sales in a manner similar to the U.S. Government.
Government Contracts
We must comply with, and are affected by, laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government and other governments’ contracts, including foreign governments. These laws and regulations, among other things:
require certification and disclosure of all cost or pricing data in connection with certain types of contract negotiations;
impose specific and unique cost accounting practices that may differ from U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP);
impose acquisition regulations, which may change or be replaced over time, that define which costs can be charged to the U.S. Government, how and when costs can be charged, and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under certain U.S. Government and foreign contracts;
require specific security controls to protect U.S. Government controlled unclassified information and that our suppliers that have access to this type of information comply with cyber security regulations;
restrict the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the export of certain products, services and technical data;
prohibit the acquisition from or use by contractors of materials, products or services procured from certain countries or entities located outside the United States (e.g., the prohibition on the acquisition of sensitive materials from non-allied foreign nations and prohibition on the acquisition and use of certain telecommunications and video surveillance services or equipment); and
require the review and approval of contractor business systems, including accounting systems, estimating systems, earned value management systems for managing cost and schedule performance on certain complex programs, purchasing systems, material management and accounting systems for planning, controlling and accounting for the acquisition, use, issuing and disposition of material, and property management systems.
The U.S. Government and in limited cases certain other governments may terminate any of our government contracts and subcontracts either at their convenience or for default based on our performance. If a contract is terminated for convenience, we generally are protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contract and profit on those costs. If a contract is terminated for default, we generally are entitled to payment for our work that has been accepted by the U.S. Government or other governments; however, the U.S. Government and other governments could make claims to reduce our recovery or recoup its procurement costs and could assess other special penalties. For more information regarding the U.S. Government’s and other governments’ right to terminate our contracts and the risks of doing work internationally, see Item 1A - Risk Factors. For more information regarding government contracting laws and regulations, see Item 1A - Risk Factors as well as “Critical Accounting Policies - Contract Accounting / Sales Recognition” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Additionally, our programs for the U.S. Government often operate for periods of time under undefinitized contract actions (UCAs), which means that we begin performing our obligations before the terms, specifications or price are finally agreed to between the parties. Although in most cases we historically have reached mutual agreement to definitize our UCAs, the U.S. Government has the ability to unilaterally definitize contracts and has done so in the past. Absent a successful appeal of such action, the unilateral definitization of the contract obligates us to perform under terms and conditions imposed by the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government’s power to unilaterally definitize a contract can affect our ability to negotiate mutually agreeable contract terms and, if a contract is unilaterally imposed upon us, it may negatively affect our expected profit and cash flows on a program or impose burdensome terms.
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Classified Contracts
A portion of our business is classified by the U.S. Government and cannot be specifically described. The operating results of classified contracts are included in our consolidated financial statements. The business risks and capital requirements associated with classified contracts historically have not differed materially from those of our other U.S. Government contracts. However, under certain classified fixed price development and production contracts, we are unable to insure risk of loss to government property because of the classified nature of the contracts and the inability to disclose classified information necessary for underwriting and claims to commercial insurers. Our internal controls addressing the financial reporting of classified contracts are consistent with our internal controls for our non-classified contracts.
Commercial Aircraft
Our commercial aircraft products are required to comply with U.S. and international regulations governing production and quality systems, airworthiness and installation approvals, repair procedures and continuing operational safety.
Environmental
Our operations are subject to and affected by various federal, state, local and foreign environmental protection laws and regulations regarding the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise regulating the protection of the environment. As a result of these environmental protection laws, we are involved in environmental remediation at some of our current and former facilities and at third-party-owned sites where we have been designated a potentially responsible party as a result of our prior activities and those of our predecessor companies. Although the extent of our financial exposure cannot in all cases be reasonably estimated, the costs of environmental compliance have not had, and we do not expect that these costs will have, a material adverse effect on our earnings, financial position and cash flow, primarily because substantially all of our environmental costs are allowable in establishing the price of our products and services under our contracts with the U.S. Government. For information regarding these matters, including current estimates of the amounts that we believe are required for remediation or cleanup to the extent that they are probable and estimable, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and “Note 14 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. See also the discussion of environmental matters in Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Climate and Sustainability Reporting and Regulation
There is an increasing global regulatory focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impacts relating to climate change. Various jurisdictions around the world in which we operate, including the U.S., the European Union, the United Kingdom, Australia and certain U.S. States, have adopted or proposed laws related to climate and sustainability reporting. These and future laws, regulations or policies in response to concerns over GHG emissions such as carbon taxes, mandatory reporting and disclosure obligations, including environmental requirements for certain federal contractors and subcontractors and the SEC’s proposed climate-related disclosure rule, and changes in procurement policies, including the use of environmental goals in proposal evaluation, could significantly increase our operational and compliance burdens and costs. We monitor developments in climate-change related regulation for their potential effect on us and also have a comprehensive sustainability program that seeks to mitigate our impact on the environment, including targets to reduce our GHG emissions. For more information on the risk of climate-change related regulation, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Other Applicable Regulations
Our businesses and operations are subject to both U.S. and non-U.S. government laws, regulations and procurement policies and practices, including regulations relating to product testing, import-export controls, technology transfer restrictions, foreign investment, tariffs, taxation, repatriation of earnings, sanctions, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Control Reform Act of 2018.
Available Information
We are a Maryland corporation formed in 1995 by combining the businesses of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta Corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 6801 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20817. Our telephone number is (301) 897-6000 and our website address is www.lockheedmartin.com.
We make our website content available for information purposes only. It should not be relied upon for investment purposes, nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K (Form 10-K).
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Throughout this Form 10-K, we incorporate by reference information from parts of other documents filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC allows us to disclose important information by referring to it in this manner.
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements for our annual stockholders’ meetings and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website, www.lockheedmartin.com/investor, as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file the material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of our annual report will be made available, free of charge, upon written request. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC registrants, including Lockheed Martin Corporation.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Form 10-K contains statements that, to the extent they are not recitations of historical fact, constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws and are based on our current expectations and assumptions. The words “believe,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “project,” “intend,” “expect,” “plan,” “outlook,” “scheduled,” “forecast” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties.
Statements and assumptions with respect to future sales, income and cash flows, growth, program performance, the outcome of litigation, anticipated pension cost and funding, environmental remediation cost estimates, planned acquisitions or dispositions of assets, or the anticipated consequences are examples of forward-looking statements. Numerous factors, including the risk factors described in the following section, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements.
Our actual financial results likely will be different from any projections due to the inherent nature of projections. Given these uncertainties, forward-looking statements should not be relied on in making investment decisions. The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K speak only as of the date of its filing. Except where required by applicable law, we expressly disclaim a duty to provide updates to forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to reflect subsequent events, changed circumstances, changes in expectations, or the estimates and assumptions associated with them. The forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K are intended to be subject to the safe harbor protection provided by the federal securities laws.

ITEM 1A.    Risk Factors
An investment in our common stock or debt securities involves risks and uncertainties. While we seek to identify, manage and mitigate risks to our business, risk and uncertainty cannot be eliminated or necessarily predicted. The outcome of one or more of these risks could have a material effect on our operating results, financial position, or cash flows. You should carefully consider the following factors, in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before deciding to trade in our common stock or debt securities.
Risks Related to our Reliance on Government Contracts, our Industry and the Economy

We depend heavily on contracts with the U.S. Government for a substantial portion of our business. Changes in the U.S. Government’s priorities, or delays or reductions in spending could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We derived 73% of our total consolidated net sales from the U.S. Government in 2023, including 64% from the Department of Defense (DoD). We expect to continue to derive most of our sales from work performed under U.S. Government contracts. A reduction in overall U.S. defense spending, on an absolute or inflation-adjusted basis, because of shifting priorities, budget compromises or otherwise could adversely affect our business. Budget uncertainty, the potential for U.S. Government shutdowns, the use of continuing resolutions, and the federal debt ceiling can adversely affect our industry and the funding for our programs. If appropriations are delayed or a government shutdown were to occur and continue for an extended period of time, we could be at risk of reduced orders, program cancellations and other disruptions and nonpayment. When the U.S. Government operates under a continuing resolution, new contract and program starts are restricted and funding for our programs may be unavailable, reduced or delayed.
Our contracts with the U.S. Government are conditioned upon the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. Congress usually appropriates funds on a fiscal year (FY) basis even though contract performance may extend over many years. Consequently, contracts are often partially funded initially, and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations over time. To the extent we incur costs in excess of funds obligated on a contract or in advance of a contract
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award or contract definitization, we are at risk of not being reimbursed for those costs unless and until additional funds are obligated under the contract or the contract is successfully awarded, definitized and funded, which could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Failure to fund or the termination of significant programs or contracts by the U.S. Government could adversely affect our business and financial performance. DoD’s changes in funding priorities also could reduce opportunities in existing programs and in future programs or initiatives where we intend to compete and where we have made investments. While we would expect to compete and be well positioned as the incumbent on existing programs, we may not be successful and, even if we are successful, the replacement programs may be funded at lower levels or result in lower margins. In addition, our ability to grow in key areas such as hypersonics programs, classified programs and next-generation franchise programs will be affected by the overall budget environment and whether development programs transition to production and the timing of such transition, all of which are dependent on U.S. Government authorization and funding.
The F-35 program comprises a material portion of our revenue and reductions or delays in funding for this program and risks related to performance, schedule, cost and requirements of the program could adversely affect our performance.
The F-35 program, which consists of multiple development, production and sustainment contracts, is our largest program and represented 26% of our total consolidated net sales in 2023. A decision by the U.S. Government, international partners, or FMS customer countries to cut spending on this program or reduce or delay planned orders would have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations. Given the size and complexity of the F-35 program, we anticipate that there will be continual reviews related to aircraft performance, program and delivery schedule, cost, and requirements as part of the DoD, Congressional, and international countries’ oversight and budgeting processes. Challenges and risks associated with this program include supplier performance, software development, definitizing and receiving funding for contracts on a timely basis, execution of future flight tests and findings resulting from testing and operating the aircraft, the level of cost associated with life cycle operations, sustainment and potential contractual obligations, inflation-related cost pressures and the ability to improve affordability. See also the “Status of the F-35 Program” in Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a discussion of the current program status and specific challenges and risks, including with respect to Technology Refresh 3 (TR-3) configuration development and deliveries.

We also may not be successful in making hardware upgrades and other modernization capabilities in a timely manner, including as a result of dependencies on suppliers, which could increase costs and create schedule delays. Our ability to capture and retain future F-35 growth in development, production and sustainment is dependent on the success of our efforts to achieve F-35 sustainment performance, customer affordability, supply chain improvements, continued reliability improvements and other efficiencies, some of which are outside our control. See also the Risk Factor below captioned “We are heavily dependent on suppliers and if our subcontractors or other suppliers or teaming agreement or joint venture partners fail to perform their obligations, our performance and ability to win future business could be adversely affected” for further discussion.

We are subject to extensive procurement laws and regulations, including those that enable the U.S. Government to terminate contracts for convenience. Our business and reputation could be adversely affected if we or those we do business with fail to comply with these laws and regulations.
We must comply with extensive laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and impose certain risks and costs on our business. A violation of these laws and regulations by us, our employees, others working on our behalf, a supplier or a joint venture partner could harm our reputation and result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the termination of our contracts, suspension or debarment from bidding on or being awarded contracts, loss of our ability to export products or perform services and civil or criminal investigations or proceedings. From time to time, the U.S. Government has proposed contract terms, imposed internal policies, or taken positions that represent fundamental changes from historical practices or that we believe are inconsistent with the FAR or other laws and regulations and that could adversely affect our business. In addition, costs to comply with new government regulations can increase our costs, reduce our margins and adversely affect our competitiveness. Also, a portion of our contracts are classified by the U.S. Government, which imposes security requirements that limit our ability to discuss our performance on these contracts, including any specific risks, disputes and claims.

Contract Termination. The U.S. Government may terminate any of our government contracts at its convenience or for default based on our performance, either of which could adversely affect our business and financial performance. Generally, prime contractors have similar termination rights under subcontracts related to government contracts. If a contract is terminated for convenience, we generally are protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contract and profit on those costs. However, to the extent insufficient funds have been appropriated by the U.S. Government to cover our costs upon a termination for convenience, the U.S. Government may assert that it is not required to appropriate additional funding. If a contract is terminated for default, the U.S. Government could make claims to reduce our recovery or recoup its procurement costs and could assess other special penalties, exposing us to liability and adversely affecting our ability to compete for future
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contracts and orders. In addition, the U.S. Government could terminate a prime contract under which we are a subcontractor, notwithstanding the fact that our performance and the quality of the products or services we delivered were consistent with our contractual obligations as a subcontractor.

Undefinitized Contract Action (UCA). When operating under a undefinitized contract action (UCA), which is when we begin performing our obligations before the terms, specifications or price are finally agreed to between the parties, the U.S. Government has the right to unilaterally definitize contracts, which it has exercised in the past and which, absent a successful appeal, obligates us to perform under terms and conditions imposed by the U.S. Government. This can affect our ability to negotiate mutually agreeable contract terms. If a contract is unilaterally imposed upon us, it may negatively affect our expected profit and cash flows on a program or impose burdensome terms.

Bid Protests. U.S Government procurement laws permit legal challenges, referred to as bid protests, to the terms of a contract solicitation or the award of a contract. We may encounter bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards seeking to overturn the award. Unsuccessful bidders also may protest with the goal of being awarded a subcontract for a portion of the work in return for withdrawing the protest. Bid protests can result in significant expenses to us, contract modifications or even loss of the contract award and the resolution can extend the time until contract activity can begin and delay the recognition of sales and defer underlying cash flows and adversely affect our operating results. Our efforts to protest or challenge any bids for contracts that were not awarded to us also may be unsuccessful.

Competition and changing procurement policies could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and our competitors may have more extensive or more specialized, engineering, technical, marketing and servicing capabilities than we do in certain areas. Our competitors may develop new technologies, products or services that could replace our current offerings. Additionally, if competitors can offer lower cost services and products, or provide services or products more quickly, at equivalent or in some cases even reduced capabilities, we may lose new business opportunities or contract recompetes, which could adversely affect our future results. We are facing increased competition from startups and non-traditional defense contractors, which may have a lower cost structure or be able to move quickly in addition to being favored, in certain cases, by procurement policy. Furthermore, acquisitions in our industry, including vertical integration, also could result in increased competition or limit our access to certain suppliers without appropriate remedies to protect our interests.

A substantial portion of our business is awarded through competitive bidding. The U.S. Government increasingly has relied on competitive contract award types, including indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity and other multi-award contracts, which have the potential to create pricing pressure and to increase our costs by requiring us to submit multiple bids and proposals. Multi-award contracts require us to make sustained efforts to obtain task orders under the contract. Additionally, procurements that do not evaluate whether the cost assumptions in the bids are realistic can lead to bidders taking aggressive pricing positions, which could result in the winner realizing a loss upon contract award or an increased risk of lower margins or realizing a loss over the term of the contract. Competitors may be willing to accept more risk or lower profitability in competing for contracts than we are. The U.S. Government also may not award us large competitive contracts that we otherwise might have won in an effort to maintain a broad industrial base.

U.S. Government procurement policies and procedures and the application thereof are regularly changing and such changes could adversely affect our profitability or the ability to win new business. For example, an increase in the use of contract structures that shift risk to the contractor, such as fixed-price development contracts and incentive-based fee arrangements, or the U.S Government using different award fee criteria than historically used (such as the evaluation of environmental factors) could adversely affect our profit rates or make it more difficult to win new contracts. The DoD is increasingly pursuing rapid acquisition pathways and procedures for new technologies, including through so called “other transaction authority” agreements (OTAs). OTAs are exempt from many traditional procurement laws, including the FAR, and an OTA award may be subject, in certain cases, to the condition that a significant portion of the work under the OTA is performed by a non-traditional defense contractor or that a portion of the cost of the protype project is funded by non-governmental sources. Changes in regulations or interpretations of what are allowable costs under our government contracts could adversely impact our profitability and changes in contract financing policy for fixed-price contracts, such as changes in performance and progress payments policies, could significantly affect the timing of our cash flows.

Our profitability and cash flow may vary based on the mix of our contracts and programs, our performance, and our ability to control costs.
Our profitability and cash flow may vary materially depending on the types of government contracts undertaken, the nature of products produced or services performed under those contracts, the costs incurred in performing the work, the achievement of other performance objectives and the stage of performance at which the right to receive fees is determined, particularly under award and incentive-fee contracts. Failure to perform to customer expectations and contract requirements may result in reduced fees or losses and may adversely affect our financial performance.
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Contract types primarily include fixed-price and cost-reimbursable contracts. Cost-reimbursable contracts provide for the payment of allowable costs incurred during performance of the contract plus a fee up to a ceiling based on the amount that has been funded. Cost, schedule or technical performance issues with respect to cost-reimbursable contracts could result in reduced fees, lower profit rates, or program cancellation. Fixed-price contracts are predominantly either firm fixed-price (FFP) contracts or fixed-price incentive (FPI) contracts. Under FFP contracts, we receive a fixed price irrespective of the actual costs we incur and therefore we carry the burden of any cost overruns. Under FPI contracts the U.S. Government is responsible for our costs up to a negotiated ceiling price and we generally share, based on a negotiated sharing formula, savings from cost underruns and expenses, up to the negotiated ceiling price, from cost overruns. We bear the risk for all cost overruns that exceed the negotiated ceiling price. Due to the fixed-price nature of the contracts, if our actual costs exceed our estimates, our margins and profits are reduced and we could incur a reach-forward loss. A reach-forward loss is when estimates of total costs to be incurred on a contract exceed total estimates of the transaction price. When this occurs, a provision for the entire loss is determined at the contract level and is recorded in the period in which the loss is evident.

Under both fixed-price and cost-reimbursable contracts, if we are unable to control costs, our operating results could be adversely affected. Costs to complete a contract may increase for many reasons, including technical and manufacturing challenges, schedule delays, workforce-related issues, inaccurate initial contract cost estimates, the timeliness and availability of materials from suppliers, internal and subcontractor performance or product quality issues, inability to meet cost reduction initiatives or achieve efficiencies from digital transformation, changing laws or regulations, inflation and natural disasters. Certain contracts may impose other risks, such as forfeiting fees, paying penalties, or providing replacement systems in the event of performance failure.

Contracts for development programs include complex design and technical requirements and are often contracted on a cost-reimbursable basis, however, some of our existing development programs are contracted on a fixed-price basis. In addition, we have certain contracts where we bid upfront on cost-reimbursable development work and the follow-on fixed-price production options in one submission. We expect we also will bid on similar programs in the future. Fixed-price development work or fixed-price production options, especially on competitively bid programs, is inherently riskier than cost-reimbursable work because the revenue is fixed, while the estimates of costs required to complete these contracts are subject to significant variability due to the nature of development programs. The technical complexity coupled with the fixed-price contract structure of certain of our ongoing development programs or new programs increases the risk that our costs will be greater than anticipated, resulting in reduced margins, operating profit, or reach-forward losses during the period of contract performance or upon contract award, all of which could be significant to our operating results, cash flows, or financial condition. Bidding upfront on fixed-price production options increases the risk that we may experience lower margins than expected, or a loss, on the production options because we must estimate the cost of producing a product before it has been developed. These risks may cause us not to bid on certain future programs, which could adversely affect our future growth prospects and financial performance. See Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details about losses incurred on certain programs, including fixed-price development programs.

Contracts for the transition from development to production (e.g., low rate initial production (LRIP) contracts) also create performance and financial risks to our business because of the challenge of starting and stabilizing a manufacturing production and test line while concurrently validating final design and managing change in requirements or capabilities requested by the customer.

Many of our contracts include multiple option years exercisable at the customer’s discretion, which carries risk. The customer may decline to exercise an option, or the customer may exercise an option on a contract for which we expect to incur a loss or perform at a low margin, either of which could adversely affect our financial results.

We are routinely subject to audit by our customers on government contracts and the results of those audits could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.
U.S. Government agencies, including the Defense Contract Audit Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency and various agency Inspectors General, routinely audit and investigate government contractors. These agencies review a contractor’s compliance with applicable laws, regulations and contract terms, regarding, among other things, contract pricing, contract performance, cost structure and business systems. U.S. Government audits and investigations often take years to complete, and many result in no adverse action against us. Like many U.S. Government contractors, we have received audit and investigative reports recommending the reduction of certain contract prices or that certain payments be repaid, delayed, or withheld, and may involve substantial amounts. Similarly, like other U.S. Government contractors, audits and investigations also occur related to cost reimbursements that are based upon our final allowable incurred costs for each year. We have unaudited or unsettled incurred cost claims related to past years, which limits our ability to issue final billings on contracts for which authorized and appropriated funds may be expiring or can result in delays in final billings and our ability to close out a contract.

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If an audit or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including reductions of the value of contracts, contract modifications or terminations, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, penalties, fines or suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. Government. Suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on us because of our dependence on contracts with the U.S. Government. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us. Similar government oversight and risks to our business and reputation exist in most other countries where we conduct business.

Other Risks Related to our Operations
We are heavily dependent on suppliers and if our subcontractors or other suppliers or teaming agreement or joint venture partners fail to perform their obligations, our performance and ability to win future business could be adversely affected.
We are the prime contractor on most of our contracts and rely on other companies to provide materials, major components and products, and to perform a portion of the services that are provided to our customers under the terms of most of our contracts. These arrangements may involve subcontracts, teaming arrangements, joint ventures, or supply agreements with other companies on which we rely (contracting parties) and, in many cases, our contracting parties in turn rely on lower-tier subcontractors. We sometimes have disputes with our contracting parties, including disputes regarding the cost, quality and timeliness of work performed, workshares, customer concerns about the other party’s performance, issues related to lower-tier subcontractor performance, our failure to issue or extend task orders, or our hiring the personnel of a subcontractor, teammate or joint venture partner or vice versa. We also could be adversely affected by actions or issues experienced by our contracting parties that are outside of our control, such as misconduct and reputational issues involving our contracting parties, which could subject us to liability or adversely affect our ability to compete for contract awards. The financial stability and viability of our contracting parties or lower-tier subcontractors have and in the future could adversely affect their ability to meet their performance obligation.

A failure by one or more of our contracting parties to provide the agreed-upon materials, components or products, or perform the agreed-upon services, on a timely basis, according to specifications, including compliance with regulatory requirements we flow down from our prime contracts, or at all, has and may adversely affect our ability to perform our obligations and require that we transition the work to other companies. Contracting party performance deficiencies may result in additional costs or delays in product deliveries and affect our operating results and could result in a customer terminating our contract for default or convenience. A default termination could expose us to liability and affect our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. A failure by our contracting parties to meet affordability targets could negatively affect our profitability, result in contract losses and affect our ability to win new business.

Additionally, we are affected by government procurement restrictions and issues affecting industry supply chains broadly. For example, U.S. Government statutes and regulations impose restrictions in the sourcing of items from specified countries. We seek to manage supply risk through long-term contracts, identifying domestic or other U.S. allied alternative sources of items and maintaining an acceptable level of our key materials in inventories. Advanced microelectronics, including semiconductors, underpin many of our current and future critical technologies and platforms, and global shortages of these products due to increased demand or other supply chain challenges could result in increased procurement lead times and increased costs and potential shortages, which could affect our performance. We also must comply with specific procurement requirements that can limit the number of eligible suppliers and a significant number of the components or supplies used are currently single or sole sourced. Because the identification and qualification of new or additional suppliers can take an extended period of time, issues with suppliers or trade actions that limit our ability to use certain suppliers, especially when single or sole sourced, can have an adverse impact on our business. Complying with U.S. Government contracting regulations that limit the source or manufacture of suppliers and impose stringent cybersecurity regulations also may create challenges for our supply chain and increase costs.

We remain heavily dependent on our supply chain for sourcing contractually compliant components, which is outside of our direct control and is multi-tiered. The future occurrence of non-compliant components in our programs could cause suspensions in product deliveries, remediation work on installed components, contract price adjustments and alternate supply sourcing, all of which could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop new technologies, products and services and efficiently produce and deliver existing products.
Many of the products and services we provide are highly engineered and involve sophisticated technologies with related complex manufacturing and systems integration processes. Our customers’ requirements change and evolve regularly. Accordingly, our future performance depends, in part, on our ability to adapt to changing customer needs rapidly, identify emerging technological trends, develop and manufacture innovative products and services efficiently and bring those offerings to market quickly at cost-effective prices. This includes efforts to provide mission solutions that integrate capabilities and resources across all forces and domains, which we refer to as joint all domain operations, and to implement emerging digital and network technologies and capabilities. Artificial intelligence technologies have rapidly developed and our business may be
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adversely affected if we cannot successfully integrate the technology into our internal business processes and product and service offerings in a timely, cost-effective, compliant and responsible manner. To advance our innovation and position us to meet our customers’ requirements, we make investments in emerging technologies that we believe are needed to keep pace with rapid industry innovation and seek to collaborate with commercial entities that we believe have complementary technologies to ours. These commercial entities may not be accustomed to government contracting and may be unwilling to agree to the government’s customary terms, including with respect to intellectual property, liability and indemnification term, which may prevent or lessen the benefit of collaboration. We may not be successful in identifying or developing emerging technologies and may spend significant resources on projects that ultimately are unsuccessful or yield a low return on the amount invested.

Our future success in delivering innovative and affordable solutions to our customers relies, in part, on our multi-year business transformation initiative that seeks to significantly enhance our digital infrastructure to increase efficiencies and collaboration throughout our business while reducing costs. This digital transformation effort requires substantial investment and if we are unable to successfully implement the strategy or do so in a timely manner, our results of operations and future competitiveness may be adversely affected.

If we fail in our development projects or if our new products or technologies fail to achieve customer acceptance or competitors develop more capable technologies or offerings, we may be unsuccessful in obtaining new contracts or winning all or a portion of next generation programs, including in key areas such as hypersonics and classified work, and this could adversely affect our future performance and financial results.

Geopolitical, macroeconomic and public health events and conditions could adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.

Geopolitical. Our business is highly sensitive to geopolitical and security issues, including foreign policy actions taken by governments such, as tariffs, sanctions, embargoes, export and import controls and other trade restrictions, which can affect the demand for our products and services, the ability to sell our products and services, and disrupt our supply chain, all of which could adversely affect our business.

Global conflicts, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, have significantly elevated global geopolitical tensions and security concerns. The conflict has resulted in increased demand for some of our products and services; however, if we are unable to increase production to meet demand on the timeframe expected by potential customers, whether it be from supply constraints, government funding or otherwise, then we may lose sales opportunities as they seek alternatives, even less capable ones, that may be able to be delivered more quickly. In addition, the U.S. Government and other nations have implemented broad economic sanctions and export controls targeting Russia, which, combined with the Ukraine conflict, has indirectly disrupted the global supply chain and increased pressures on certain resources. The Ukraine conflict also has increased the threat of malicious cyber activity from nation states and other actors.

China’s Ministry of Commerce announced in 2023 that it had added Lockheed Martin Corporation to its “unreliable entities list” in connection with certain foreign military sales by the U.S. Government to Taiwan involving our products and services, and that it would impose certain sanctions against us, including a fine equal to twice the value of the arms that we had sold to Taiwan since September 2020. In addition, China prohibited our CEO, COO and CFO from traveling or working in China. We will continue to follow official U.S. Government guidance as it relates to sales to Taiwan and do not currently expect a material impact to our business from these actions. In 2023, China also implemented broad-based export restrictions on certain minerals used in the production, among other things, of semiconductors and missile systems. If China were to further restrict the export of certain materials, take further actions to enforce the existing sanctions on us or impose additional sanctions, or impose sanctions on our suppliers, teammates or partners, our business could be adversely affected.

International sales also may be adversely affected by actions taken by the U.S. Government in the exercise of foreign policy, Congressional oversight or the financing of particular programs, including the prevention or imposition of conditions upon the sale and delivery of our products or the transfer of sensitive technology, the imposition of sanctions, or Congressional action to restrict sales of our products. For example, the U.S. Government has imposed certain sanctions on Türkish entities and persons, which has affected our ability to obtain certain U.S. export permits or authorizations necessary to perform under our existing contracts supporting the Türkish Utility Helicopter Program (TUHP), our work with Türkish industry and our opportunity for sales in Türkiye generally. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on TUHP. Our inability to perform under contracts with international customers as a result of actions taken by the U.S. Government has resulted and may in the future result in our inability to recover our costs and reach forward losses, claims and contract terminations by these customers and suppliers, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results.

Macroeconomic. Heightened levels of inflation and the potential worsening of macro-economic conditions, including slower growth or recession, changes to fiscal and monetary policy, tighter credit, higher interest rates and currency fluctuations, present a risk for us, our suppliers and the stability of the broader defense industrial base. If we are unable to successfully
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mitigate the impact of inflation, our profits, margins and cash flows, particularly for existing fixed-price contracts, may be adversely affected. Although we believe defense spending is more resilient to adverse macro-economic conditions than many other industrial sectors, our suppliers and other partners, many of which are more exposed to commercial markets or have fewer resources, may be adversely impacted to a more significant degree than we are by an economic downturn, which could affect their performance and adversely impact our operations. In addition, macroeconomic conditions could cause budgetary pressures for our government customers resulting in reductions or delays in spending, which could adversely impact our business. Higher interest rates increase the borrowing costs on new debt and could affect the fair value of our investments. Interest rates also impact our pension. For example, higher interest rates generally reduce the measure of our gross pension obligations while lower interest rates increase it.

Public health. We face a wide variety of risks related to public health crises, epidemics, pandemics or similar events, including COVID-19. If a new health epidemic or outbreak were to occur, we could experience broad and varied impacts similar to the impact of COVID-19, including adverse impacts to our workforce and supply chain, inflationary pressures and increased costs, schedule or production delays, market volatility and other financial impacts. If any of these were to occur, our future results and performance could be adversely impacted.

International sales may pose different economic, regulatory, competition and other risks.
International sales present risks that are different and potentially greater than those encountered in our U.S. business. In 2023, 26% of our total net sales were from international customers. International sales are subject to numerous political and economic factors, including changes in foreign national priorities, foreign government budgets, global economic conditions, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, the possibility of trade sanctions and other government actions, regulatory requirements, significant competition, taxation, and other risks associated with doing business outside the U.S. Sales of military products and services and any associated industrial development (offset) agreements are subject to U.S. export regulations and foreign policy, and there could be significant delays or other issues in reaching definitive agreements for announced programs. See the Risk Factor “Geopolitical, macroeconomic and public health events and conditions could adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.” Competition for international sales is intense, including from international manufacturers whose governments sometimes provide research and development assistance, marketing subsidies and other assistance for their products and services.
Our international business is conducted through foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government and by direct commercial sales (DCS) to international customers. FMS contracts with the U.S. Government are subject to the FAR and the DFARS. Because the U.S. Government functions as an intermediary in FMS sales, we are reliant on the capacity and speed of the DoD’s administration of requests from non-U.S. countries to convert requests to sales. In contrast, DCS transactions represent sales directly to international customers and are subject to U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including product testing, import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, investments, taxation, repatriation of earnings, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations, and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Control Reform Act of 2018. While we have extensive policies in place to comply with such laws and regulations, failure by us, our employees or others working on our behalf to comply with these laws and regulations could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities, including suspension, debarment from bidding for or performing government contracts, or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on us. We frequently team with international subcontractors and suppliers who also are exposed to similar risks.
We believe DCS transactions present a higher level of potential risks because they involve direct commercial relationships with parties with which we typically have less familiarity. Additionally, international procurement and local country rules and regulations, contract laws and judicial systems differ from those in the U.S. and, in some cases, may be less predictable than those in the U.S., which could impair our ability to enforce contracts and increase the risk of adverse or unpredictable outcomes, including the possibility that certain matters that would be considered civil matters in the U.S. are treated as criminal matters in other countries.
In conjunction with defense procurements, some international customers require contractors to comply with industrial cooperation regulations, including entering into industrial participation, industrial development or localization agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements (also known as offset contracts), as a condition to obtaining orders for our products and services. These offset agreements generally extend over several years and obligate the contractor to perform certain commitments, which may include in-country purchases, technology transfers, local manufacturing support, consulting support to in-country projects, investments in joint ventures and financial support projects, and preference for local suppliers or subcontractors. The customer’s expectations in respect of the scope of offset commitments can be substantial, including high-value content, and may exceed existing local technical capability. Failure to meet these commitments, which can be subjective and outside of our control, may result in significant penalties, and could lead to a reduction in sales to a country. Furthermore, some of our existing offset agreements are dependent upon the successful operation of joint ventures that we do not control and involve products and services that are outside of our core business, which may increase the risk of breaching our obligations,
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exposing us to compliance risks of the joint venture, and impairing our ability to recover our investment. For more information on our industrial development obligations, including the notional value of our remaining industrial development obligations and potential penalties for non-compliance, see “Contractual Commitments” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
We may be unable to benefit fully from or adequately protect our intellectual property rights or use third-party intellectual property, which could negatively affect our business.
We own a substantial number of U.S. and foreign patents and trademarks related to the products and services we provide. In addition to owning a large portfolio of patents and trademarks, we develop and own other intellectual property, including copyrights, trade secrets and research, development and engineering know-how, which contribute significantly to our business. We also license intellectual property to and from third parties. The FAR and DFARS provide that the U.S. Government obtains certain rights in intellectual property, including patents, developed by us and our subcontractors and suppliers in performance of government contracts or with government funding. The U.S. Government may use or authorize others, including competitors, to use such intellectual property. Non-U.S. governments also may have certain rights in patents and other intellectual property developed in performance of our contracts with these entities. The U.S. Government is pursuing aggressive positions regarding the types of intellectual property to which government use rights apply and when it is appropriate for the government to insist on broad use rights. The DoD is also implementing an overarching intellectual property acquisition policy that will require a greater focus and planning as to intellectual property rights for its programs, and we have no assurance as to the potential impacts of this policy or any associated regulatory changes on future acquisitions. The DoD’s efforts could affect our ability to protect and exploit our intellectual property and to leverage supplier intellectual property, for example, if we are unable to obtain necessary licenses from our suppliers to meet government requirements. Additionally, third parties may assert that our products or services infringe their intellectual property rights, which could result in costly and time-consuming disputes, subject us to damages and injunctions and adversely affect our ability to compete and perform on certain contracts.
Our business and financial performance depends on us identifying, attracting and retaining a highly skilled workforce.
Our performance is dependent upon us identifying, attracting, developing, motivating and retaining a highly skilled workforce with the requisite skills in multiple areas including: engineering, science, manufacturing, information technology, cybersecurity, business development and strategy and management. Due to the national security nature of our work, our performance is also dependent upon personnel who hold security clearances and receive substantial training to work on certain programs or tasks and can be difficult to replace on a timely basis if we experience unplanned attrition. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry as well as the market for individuals holding high-level security clearances is extremely competitive and not confined to our industry. For example, we compete with commercial technology companies outside of the aerospace and defense industry for qualified technical, cyber and scientific positions, which may not face the same type of cost pressures as a government contractor and which may be able to offer more flexible work arrangements given that certain of our employees must perform the majority of their work in a secure facility because of the need to access classified information. If we cannot adequately attract and retain personnel with the requisite skills or clearances in this competitive market, our performance and future prospects may be adversely affected.
Workforce dynamics are constantly evolving. If we do not manage changing workforce dynamics effectively, it could adversely affect our culture, reputation and operational flexibility. Beginning with the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant portion of our workforce began working remotely and we expect a significant portion to continue working remotely under our hybrid workforce model. If we are unable to effectively adapt to this hybrid work environment long term, then we may experience a less cohesive workforce, increased attrition, reduced program performance and less innovation.
It is also critical that we develop and train employees, hire new qualified personnel, and successfully manage the short and long-term transfer of critical knowledge and skills, including leadership development and succession planning throughout our business. While we have processes in place for management transition and the transfer of knowledge and skills, the loss of key personnel, coupled with an inability to adequately train other personnel, hire new personnel or transfer knowledge and skills, could significantly impact our ability to perform under our contracts and execute on new or growing programs.
Additionally, approximately 19% of our workforce is comprised of employees that are covered by collective bargaining agreements with various unions. If we encounter difficulties with renegotiations or renewals of collective bargaining arrangements or are unsuccessful in those efforts, we could incur additional costs and experience work stoppages. Union actions at suppliers also can affect us. Any delays or work stoppages could adversely affect our ability to perform under our contracts, which could negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
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Cyber-attacks and other security threats and disruptions could have a material adverse affect on our business.
As an aerospace and defense company, we face a multitude of security threats, including cybersecurity threats ranging from attacks common to most industries, such as ransomware and denial-of-service, to attacks from more advanced and persistent, highly organized adversaries, including nation state actors, which target the defense industrial base and other critical infrastructure sectors. The sophistication of the threats continue to evolve and grow, including the risk associated with the use of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence and quantum computing, for nefarious purposes. In addition to cybersecurity threats, we face threats to the security of our facilities and employees from terrorist acts, sabotage or other disruptions, any of which could adversely affect our business. The improper conduct of our employees or others working on behalf of us who have access to export controlled, classified or other sensitive information could also adversely affect our business and reputation. Our customers (including sites that we operate and manage for our customers), suppliers, subcontractors and joint venture partners, experience similar security threats.
If we are unable to protect sensitive information, including complying with evolving information security, data protection and privacy regulations, our customers or governmental authorities could investigate the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures; and could bring actions against us for noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations. Moreover, depending on the severity of an incident, our customers’ data, our employees’ data, our intellectual property (including trade secrets and research, development and engineering know-how), and other third-party data (such as subcontractors, suppliers and vendors) could be compromised, which could adversely affect our business. Products and services we provide to customers also carry cybersecurity risks, including risks that they could be breached or fail to detect, prevent or combat attacks, which could result in losses to our customers and claims against us, and could harm our relationships with our customers and financial results.
Given the persistence, sophistication, volume and novelty of threats we face, we may not be successful in preventing or mitigating an attack that could have a material adverse effect on us and the costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. The national security aspects of our business and much of the data we protect increase and create different risks relative to other industries. National security considerations may also preclude us from publicly disclosing a cybersecurity incident.
Our customers, suppliers, subcontractors, joint venture partners and acquired entities face similar security threats and an incident at one of these entities could adversely impact our business. These entities are typically outside our control and may have access to our information with varying levels of security and cybersecurity resources, expertise, safeguards and capabilities. Their relationships with government contractors, including us, may increase the risk that they are targeted by the same threats we face, however, they may not be as prepared for such threats. Adversaries actively seek to exploit security and cybersecurity weaknesses in our supply chain. Breaches in our multi-tiered supply chain, which is comprised of thousands of direct and indirect suppliers, has and could in the future compromise our data and adversely affect customer deliverables. We also must rely on our supply chain for adequately detecting and reporting cyber incidents, which could affect our ability to report or respond to cybersecurity incidents effectively or in a timely manner.
For information on our cybersecurity risk management, strategy and governance, see Item 1C. - Cybersecurity.
If we fail to successfully complete or manage acquisitions, divestitures, equity investments and other transactions or if acquired entities or equity investments fail to perform as expected, our financial results, business and future prospects could be harmed.
In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions, evaluate companies, and enter into agreements regarding possible acquisitions, joint ventures, other investments and divestitures. We seek to identify acquisition or investment opportunities that will expand or complement our existing products and services or customer base, at reasonable valuations. To be successful, we must conduct due diligence to identify valuation issues and potential loss contingencies or underlying risks, some of which are difficult to discover or assess prior to consummation of an acquisition or investment; negotiate transaction terms; complete and close complex transactions; integrate acquired companies and employees; and realize anticipated operating synergies efficiently and effectively. U.S. regulators have increased their scrutiny of mergers and acquisitions in recent years, which could continue to limit our ability to execute certain transactions that we might otherwise pursue.
Acquisition, divestiture, joint venture and investment transactions often require substantial management resources and have the potential to divert our attention from our existing business. Unidentified or identified but uncertain liabilities that are not covered by indemnification or other coverage could adversely affect our future financial results. This is particularly the case in respect of successor liability under procurement laws and regulations such as the False Claims Act or the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Act (formerly the Truth in Negotiations Act), anti-corruption, environmental, tax, import-export and technology transfer laws, which provide for civil and criminal penalties and the potential for debarment. We also may incur unanticipated
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costs or expenses, including post-closing asset impairment charges, expenses associated with eliminating duplicate facilities, employee retention, transaction-related or other litigation, and other liabilities. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Joint ventures and other noncontrolling investments operate under shared control with other parties. These investments typically face many of the same risks and uncertainties as we do, but may expose us to additional risks not present if we retained full control. A joint venture partner may have economic or other business interests that are inconsistent with ours and we may be unable to prevent strategic decisions that may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We also could be adversely affected by, or liable for, actions taken by these joint ventures that we do not control, including violations of anti-corruption, import and export, taxation and anti-boycott laws.
Depending on our rights and percentage of ownership, we may consolidate the financial results of such entities or account for our interests under the equity method. Under the equity method of accounting for nonconsolidated ventures and investments, we recognize our share of the operating profit or loss of these joint ventures in our results of operations. Our operating results are affected by the conduct and performance of businesses over which we do not exercise control and, as a result, we may not be successful in achieving the growth or other intended benefits of strategic investments.
We make investments in early-stage companies that we believe are advancing or developing new technologies applicable to our businesses. These investments are generally illiquid at the time of investment and typically we hold a non-controlling interest. We have and expect to continue to recognize gains or losses attributable to adjustments of the investments’ fair value, including impairments up to and including the full value of the investment, which events are generally outside of our control such as the success or failure of the company and market volatility.
Risks Related to Significant Contingencies, Uncertainties and Estimates, including Pension, Taxes, Environmental and Litigation Costs
Pension funding requirements and costs are dependent on return on pension assets and other economic and actuarial assumptions which if changed may cause our future earnings and cash flow to fluctuate significantly and affect the affordability of our products and services.
Many of our employees and retirees participate in defined benefit pension plans, retiree medical and life insurance plans, and other postemployment plans (collectively, postretirement benefit plans). The impact of these plans on our earnings may be volatile in that the amount of expense or income we record for our postretirement benefit plans may materially change from year to year because the calculations are sensitive to changes in several key economic assumptions, including interest rates and rates of return on plan assets, other actuarial assumptions, including participant longevity (also known as mortality), as well as the timing of cash funding. Changes in these factors, including actual returns on plan assets, may also affect our plan funding, cash flows and stockholders’ equity. We could be required to make pension contributions earlier and/or in excess than planned if our return on pension assets is less than our assumptions, which would reduce our free cash flow.
With regard to cash flow, we have made substantial cash contributions to our plans as required by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), as amended, and expect to make future contributions as required or when deemed prudent. We generally can recover a significant portion of these contributions related to our plans as allowable costs on our U.S. Government contracts, including FMS. However, there is a lag between the time when we contribute cash to our plans under pension funding rules and when we recover pension costs under U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), which can affect the timing of our cash flows. Our business segments’ results of operations include pension expense as calculated under CAS while our consolidated financial statements must present pension income or expense in accordance with U.S. GAAP Financial Accounting Standards (FAS); differences in these accounting rules may result in significant period adjustments referred to as our FAS/CAS pension adjustments.

In recent years, we have taken actions intended to mitigate the risk related to our defined benefit pension plans including pension risk transfer transactions whereby we purchase group annuity contracts (GACs) from insurance companies using assets from the pension trust. We expect to continue to evaluate such transactions in the future. Although under the majority of the GACs we have purchased we are relieved of all responsibility for the associated pension obligations, we have purchased and may in the future purchase GACs whereby the insurance company reimburses the pension plans but we remain responsible for paying benefits under the plans to covered retirees and beneficiaries and are subject to the risk that the insurance company will default on its obligations to reimburse the pension trusts. While we believe pension risk transfer transactions are beneficial; future transactions, depending on their size, could result in us making additional contributions to the pension trust and/or require us to recognize noncash settlement charges in earnings in the applicable reporting period.
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For more information on how these factors could impact earnings, financial position, cash flow and stockholders’ equity, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Postretirement Benefit Plans” in the MD&A and “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Our estimates and projections may prove to be inaccurate and certain of our assets may be at risk of future impairment.
The accounting for some of our most significant activities is based on judgments and estimates, which are complex and subject to many variables. For example, accounting for sales using the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method requires that we assess risks and make assumptions regarding future schedule, cost, technical and performance issues for thousands of contracts, many of which are long-term in nature. This process can be especially difficult when estimating costs for development programs because of the inherent uncertainty in developing a new product or technology. Because of the significance of the judgments and estimation processes involved in accounting for our contracts, materially different amounts or revenue and operating profit could be recorded if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates may adversely affect our future financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we initially allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses based on a preliminary assessment of the fair value of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. For significant acquisitions we may use a one-year measurement period to analyze and assess several factors used in establishing the asset and liability fair values as of the acquisition date which could result in adjustments to asset and liability balances.
We have $10.8 billion of goodwill assets recorded on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 from previous acquisitions, which represents approximately 21% of our total assets. These goodwill assets are subject to annual impairment testing and more frequent testing upon the occurrence of certain events or significant changes in circumstances that indicate goodwill may be impaired. If we experience changes or factors arise that negatively affect the expected cash flows of a reporting unit, we may be required to write off all or a portion of the reporting unit’s related goodwill assets.
Actual financial results could differ from our judgments and estimates. See “Critical Accounting Policies” in the MD&A and Results of Operations and “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a complete discussion of our significant accounting policies and use of estimates.
Changes in tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional tax liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.
Changes in U.S. (federal or state) or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including those with retroactive effect, could result in increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows. For example, beginning in 2022, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated the option to deduct research and development expenditures immediately in the year incurred and requires taxpayers to amortize such expenditures over five years for tax purposes (research and development capitalization). While the most significant impact of this provision was to cash tax liability for 2022, the tax year in which the provision took effect, the impact will continue over the five-year amortization period, but decline to an immaterial amount in year six.
The amount of net deferred tax assets will change periodically based on several factors, including the measurement of our postretirement benefit plan obligations, actual cash contributions to our postretirement benefit plans, change in the amount or reevaluation of uncertain tax positions, and future changes in tax laws. In addition, we are regularly under audit or examination by tax authorities, including foreign tax authorities. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could similarly result in unanticipated increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows.
Our business involves significant risks and uncertainties that may not be covered by indemnity or insurance.
A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing and manufacturing advanced defense and technology products and systems. New technologies may be untested or unproven. Failure of some of these products and services could result in extensive loss of life or property damage. Accordingly, we may incur liabilities that are unique to our products and services. In some but not all circumstances, we may be entitled to certain legal protections or indemnifications from our customers, either through U.S. Government indemnifications under Public Law 85-804, 10 U.S.C. 3861, the Commercial Space Launch Act or the Price-Anderson Act, qualification of our products and services by the Department of Homeland Security under the SAFETY Act provisions of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, contractual provisions or otherwise.
We seek to obtain insurance coverage from established and reputable insurance carriers to the extent available in order to cover these risks and liabilities. However, the amount of insurance coverage that we maintain or that is available to purchase in the market may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities. Insurance coverage is subject to the terms and conditions of the insurance contract and is further subject to any sublimits, exclusions, restrictions, or defenses, including standard exclusions for acts of war. Existing coverage is renewed annually and may be canceled pursuant to the terms of the policies while we remain
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exposed to the risk and it is not possible to obtain insurance to protect against all operational risks, natural hazards and liabilities. For example, we are limited in the amount of insurance we can obtain to cover unusually hazardous risks or certain natural hazards such as earthquakes, fires or extreme weather conditions, some of which may be exacerbated by climate change. We have significant operations in geographic areas prone to these risks, such as in California, Florida and Texas and certain of our properties have suffered damage from natural disasters in the past and may again in the future. We could incur significant costs to improve the climate resiliency of our infrastructure and supply chain and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate the effects of climate change. In addition, under certain classified fixed price development and production contracts, we are unable to insure risk of loss to government property because of the classified nature of the contracts and the inability to disclose classified information necessary for underwriting and claims to commercial insurers. Even if insurance coverage is available, we may not be able to obtain it in an amount, at a price or on terms acceptable to us. Some insurance providers may be unable or unwilling to provide us insurance given the nature of our business or products. Additionally, disputes with insurance carriers over coverage terms or the insolvency of one or more of our insurance carriers may significantly affect the amount or timing of our cash flows.
Substantial costs resulting from an accident; failure of or defect in our products or services; natural catastrophe or other incident; or liability arising from our products and services in excess of any legal protection, indemnity, and our insurance coverage (or for which indemnity or insurance is not available or not obtained) could adversely impact our financial condition, cash flows, and operating results. Any accident, failure of, or defect in our products or services, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively affect our reputation among our customers and the public and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively. It also could affect the cost and availability of adequate insurance in the future.
Environmental regulations, including in relation to climate change, could adversely affect our future earnings as well as the affordability of our products and services.
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign requirements for the protection of the environment, including those for discharge of hazardous materials and remediation of contaminated sites. Due in part to the complexity and pervasiveness of these requirements, we are a party to or have property subject to various lawsuits, proceedings, and remediation obligations. These types of matters could result in fines, penalties, cost reimbursements or contributions, compensatory or treble damages or non-monetary sanctions or relief. We have incurred and will continue to incur liabilities for environmental remediation at some of our current and former facilities and at third-party-owned sites where we have been designated a potentially responsible party as a result of our historical activities and those of our predecessor companies. Environmental remediation activities usually span many years, and the extent of financial exposure can be difficult to estimate. Among the variables management must assess in evaluating costs associated with these cases and remediation sites are the status of site assessment, extent of the contamination, impacts on natural resources, changing cost estimates, evolution of technologies used to remediate the site, continually evolving environmental standards, availability of insurance coverage and indemnification under existing agreements and cost allowability issues, including varying efforts by the U.S. Government to limit allowability of our costs in resolving liability at third-party-owned sites. Our environmental remediation related liabilities also could increase significantly because of acquisitions, stricter remediation standards for existing or newly regulated substances, changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and regulations, or the discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination. For information regarding these matters, including current estimates of the amounts that we believe are required for environmental remediation to the extent probable and estimable, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in the MD&A and “Note 14 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
We manage and have managed various U.S. Government-owned facilities on behalf of the U.S. Government. At such facilities, environmental compliance and remediation costs historically have been the responsibility of the U.S. Government. We have relied, and continue to rely with respect to past practices, on U.S. Government funding to pay at least a portion if not all of such costs, notwithstanding efforts by some U.S. Government representatives to limit the U.S. Government’s responsibility. Although the U.S. Government remains responsible for capital and operating costs associated with environmental compliance, responsibility for fines and penalties associated with environmental noncompliance typically is borne by either the U.S. Government or the contractor, depending on the contract and the relevant facts. Some environmental laws include criminal provisions. A conviction under environmental law could affect our ability to be awarded future or perform under existing U.S. Government contracts.
The increasing global regulatory focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impacts relating to climate change could result in laws, regulations or policies that significantly increase our direct and indirect operational and compliance burdens, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. These laws, regulations or policies could take many forms, including carbon taxes, cap and trade regimes, increased efficiency standards, GHG reduction commitments, incentives or mandates for particular types of energy or changes in procurement laws. Changes in government
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procurement laws that mandate or take into account climate change considerations, such as the contractor’s GHG emissions, GHG emission reduction targets, lower emission products or other climate risks, in evaluating bids could result in costly changes to our operations or affect our competitiveness on future bids, or our ability to bid at all. In addition to incurring direct costs to implement any climate-change related laws, regulations or policies, we may see indirect costs rise, such as increased energy or material costs, as a result of policies affecting other sectors of the economy. Although most of these increased costs likely would be recoverable through pricing, to the extent that the increase in our costs as a result of these policies are greater than our competitors we may be less competitive on future bids or the total increased cost in our industry’s products and services could result in lower demand from our customers. We monitor developments in climate change-related laws, regulations and policies for their potential effect on us, however, we currently are not able to accurately predict the materiality of any potential costs associated with such developments. In addition, climate change-related litigation and investigations have increased in recent years and any claims or investigations against us could be costly to defend and our business could be adversely affected by the outcome.
We are involved in several legal proceedings. We cannot predict the outcome of litigation and other contingencies with certainty.
Our business may be adversely affected by the outcome of legal proceedings and other contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty. As required by U.S. GAAP, we estimate loss contingencies and establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies where liability is deemed probable and reasonably estimable considering the facts and circumstances known to us at a particular point in time. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a liability or as a reserve against assets in our financial statements. For a description of our current legal proceedings, see Item 3 - Legal Proceedings, “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and “Note 14 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock
There can be no assurance that we will continue to increase our dividend or to repurchase shares of our common stock.
Cash dividend payments and share repurchases are subject to limitations under applicable laws and the discretion of our Board of Directors and are determined after considering then-existing conditions, including earnings, other operating results and capital requirements and cash deployment alternatives. Our payment of dividends and share repurchases could vary from historical practices or our stated expectations. Decreases in asset values or increases in liabilities, including liabilities associated with employee benefit plans and assets and liabilities associated with taxes, can reduce net earnings and stockholders’ equity. Under certain circumstances, a deficit in stockholders’ equity could limit our ability to pay dividends and make share repurchases under Maryland state law in the future. In addition, the timing and amount of share repurchases under Board of Directors approved share repurchase plans may differ from stated expectations and is within the discretion of management and will depend on many factors, including our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations in the future or to borrow money from available financing sources, our results of operations, capital requirements and applicable law.

ITEM 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 1C.    Cybersecurity

We believe cybersecurity is critical to advancing our 21st Century Security vision and enabling our digital transformation efforts. As an aerospace and defense company, we face a multitude of cybersecurity threats that range from attacks common to most industries, such as ransomware and denial-of-service, to attacks from more advanced and persistent, highly organized adversaries, including nation state actors, that target the defense industrial base and other critical infrastructure sectors. Our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and joint venture partners face similar cybersecurity threats, and a cybersecurity incident impacting us or any of these entities could materially adversely affect our operations, performance and results of operations. These cybersecurity threats and related risks make it imperative that we are a leader in the information security field, and we expend considerable resources on cybersecurity.
The Board of Directors oversees management’s processes for identifying and mitigating risks, including cybersecurity risks, to help align our risk exposure with our strategic objectives. Senior leadership, including our Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), regularly briefs the Board of Directors on our cybersecurity and information security posture and the Board of Directors is apprised of cybersecurity incidents deemed to have a moderate or higher business impact, even if immaterial to us. The Classified Business and Security Committee of the Board of Directors is briefed by senior leadership, as appropriate, on the
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cybersecurity of classified programs and the security of our classified business supply chain. Other than oversight of classified business cybersecurity, the full Board retains oversight of cybersecurity because of its importance to Lockheed Martin and the heightened risk in the aerospace and defense industry. In the event of an incident, we intend to follow our detailed incident response playbook, which outlines the steps to be followed from incident detection to mitigation, recovery and notification, including notifying functional areas (e.g. legal), as well as senior leadership and the Board, as appropriate.
Our corporate information security organization, led by our CISO, is responsible for our overall information security strategy, policy, security engineering, operations and cyber threat detection and response. The current CISO has extensive information technology and program management experience, and has served many years in our corporate information security organization. The corporate information security organization manages and continually enhances a robust enterprise security structure with the ultimate goal of preventing cybersecurity incidents to the extent feasible, while simultaneously increasing our system resilience in an effort to minimize the business impact should an incident occur. Central to this organization is our computer incident response team (CIRT), which is responsible for the protection, detection and response capabilities used in the defense of Lockheed Martin’s data and enterprise computing networks. Employees outside of our corporate information security organization also have a role in our cybersecurity defenses and they are immersed in a corporate culture supportive of security, which we believe improves our cybersecurity.
The corporate information security organization has implemented a governance structure and processes to assess, identify, manage and report cybersecurity risks. We also have a corporate-wide counterintelligence and insider threat detection program to proactively identify external and internal threats, and mitigate those threats in a timely manner. As a defense contractor, we must comply with extensive regulations, including requirements imposed by the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) related to adequately safeguarding controlled unclassified information (CUI) and reporting cybersecurity incidents to the DoD. We have implemented cybersecurity policies and frameworks based on industry and governmental standards to align closely with DoD requirements, instructions and guidance. Moreover, we continue to work with the DoD on assessing cybersecurity risk and on policies and practices aimed at mitigating these risks. For example, we have worked in collaboration with the other members of the defense industrial base to support DoD’s development of the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) program, DoD’s program to ensure members of the defense industrial base meet cybersecurity requirements for handling CUI and federal contract information. We believe we are well positioned to meet the requirements of the CMMC and are preparing for certification once the requirements are effective. In addition to following DoD guidance and implementing pre-existing third party frameworks, we have developed our own practices and frameworks, which we believe enhance our ability to identify and manage cybersecurity risks. For example, we use a proactive risk management strategy that we developed and implemented called the Intelligence Driven Defense® model that seeks to identify and prevent cybersecurity incidents by understanding the nature of adversaries and using this information to minimize the impact of an attack.
Third parties also play a role in our cybersecurity. We engage third-party services to conduct evaluations of our security controls, whether through penetration testing, independent audits or consulting on best practices to address new challenges. These evaluations include testing both the design and operational effectiveness of security controls. We also share and receive threat intelligence with our defense industrial base peers, government agencies, information sharing and analysis centers and cybersecurity associations.
Assessing, identifying and managing cybersecurity related risks are integrated into our overall enterprise risk management (ERM) process. Cybersecurity related risks are included in the risk universe that the ERM function evaluates to assess top risks to the enterprise on an annual basis. To the extent the ERM process identifies a heightened cybersecurity related risk, risk owners are assigned to develop risk mitigation plans, which are then tracked to completion. The ERM process’s annual risk assessment is presented to the Board of Directors.
We rely heavily on our supply chain to deliver our products and services to our customers, and a cybersecurity incident at a supplier, subcontractor or joint venture partner could materially adversely impact us. We assess third party cybersecurity controls through a cybersecurity questionnaire and include security and privacy addendums to our contracts where applicable. We also contractually flow cybersecurity regulatory requirements to our subcontractors as required by the DFARS and other government agency specific requirements. These contractual flow downs include the requirement that our subcontractors implement certain security controls, and that our subcontractors self-report the status of their implementation of these controls to the U.S. Government. These government contracting regulations may create challenges for our supply chain and increase costs. We also require that our subcontractors report cybersecurity incidents to us so that we can assess the impact of the incident on us. For select suppliers, we engage third-party cybersecurity monitoring and alerting services, and seek to work directly with those suppliers to address potential deficiencies identified. We also make available cybersecurity education and awareness materials and briefings to our suppliers.
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Notwithstanding the extensive approach we take to cybersecurity, we may not be successful in preventing or mitigating a cybersecurity incident that could have a material adverse effect on us. While Lockheed Martin maintains cybersecurity insurance, the costs related to cybersecurity threats or disruptions may not be fully insured. See Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for a discussion of cybersecurity risks.
ITEM 2.    Properties
At December 31, 2023, we owned or leased building space (including offices, manufacturing plants, warehouses, service centers, laboratories and other facilities) at 335 locations primarily in the U.S. Additionally, we manage or occupy 9 government-owned facilities under lease and other arrangements. At December 31, 2023, we had significant operations in the following locations:
Aeronautics - Palmdale, California; Marietta, Georgia; Greenville, South Carolina; and Fort Worth, Texas.
Missiles and Fire Control - Camden, Arkansas; Ocala and Orlando, Florida; Lexington, Kentucky; and Grand Prairie, Texas.
Rotary and Mission Systems - Stratford, Connecticut; Orlando, Florida; Moorestown/Mt. Laurel, New Jersey; Owego and Syracuse, New York; Manassas, Virginia; and Mielec, Poland.
Space - Huntsville, Alabama; Sunnyvale, California; Denver, Colorado; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
Corporate activities - Bethesda, Maryland.
The following is a summary of our square feet of floor space owned, leased, or utilized by business segment at December 31, 2023 (in millions):
OwnedLeasedGovernment-
Owned
Total
Aeronautics5.5 3.0 14.8 23.3 
Missiles and Fire Control7.8 2.6 2.0 12.4 
Rotary and Mission Systems10.8 4.7 0.2 15.7 
Space 9.3 3.0 0.1 12.4 
Corporate activities2.4 0.9 — 3.3 
Total35.8 14.2 17.1 67.1 
We believe our facilities are in good condition and adequate for their current use. We may add, improve, replace, or reduce facilities as considered appropriate to meet the needs of our operations.
ITEM 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are a party to litigation and other proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business, including matters arising under provisions relating to the protection of the environment, and are subject to contingencies related to certain businesses we previously owned. These types of matters could result in fines, penalties, cost reimbursements or contributions, compensatory or treble damages or non-monetary sanctions or relief. We believe the probability is remote that the outcome of each of these matters will have a material adverse effect on the corporation as a whole, notwithstanding that the unfavorable resolution of any matter may have a material effect on our net earnings and cash flows in any particular interim reporting period. We cannot predict the outcome of legal or other proceedings with certainty.
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign requirements for the protection of the environment, including those for discharge of hazardous materials and remediation of contaminated sites. Due in part to the complexity and pervasiveness of these requirements, we are a party to or have property subject to various lawsuits, proceedings and remediation obligations. The extent of our financial exposure cannot in all cases be reasonably estimated at this time.
For information regarding the matters discussed above, including current estimates of the amounts that we believe are required for remediation or clean-up to the extent estimable, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Note 14 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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ITEM 4(a).    Information about our Executive Officers
Our executive officers as of January 23, 2024 are listed below, with their ages on that date, positions and offices currently held, and principal occupation and business experience during at least the last five years. There are no family relationships among any of our executive officers and directors. All executive officers serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors.
Timothy S. Cahill (age 58), Executive Vice President – Missiles and Fire Control
Mr. Cahill has served as Executive Vice President for the Missiles and Fire Control (MFC) business segment, since November 2022. Mr. Cahill previously served as Senior Vice President of Global Business Development & Strategy (GBD&S) from March 2021 to October 2022. Prior to that, Mr. Cahill served as Senior Vice President Lockheed Martin International from October 2019 to March 2021; and as Vice President, Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Systems for MFC from January 2016 to October 2019.
Stephanie C. Hill (age 58), Executive Vice President – Rotary and Mission Systems
Ms. Hill has served as Executive Vice President of the Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS) business segment since June 2020. She previously served as Senior Vice President, Enterprise Business Transformation from June 2019 to June 2020. Prior to that, she was Deputy Executive Vice President of RMS from October 2018 to June 2019; and Senior Vice President for Corporate Strategy and Business Development from September 2017 to October 2018.
Maryanne R. Lavan (age 64), Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Ms. Lavan has served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since September 2010.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. (age 60), Executive Vice President – Space
Mr. Lightfoot has served as Executive Vice President of the Space business segment since January 2022. He previously served as Vice President, Operations for the Space business segment from June 2021 to December 2021. Prior to that, he served as Vice President, Strategy and Business Development of Space from May 2019 to June 2021. Prior to joining Lockheed Martin in 2019, Mr. Lightfoot served as President, LSINC Corporation, a provider of product development and engineering services, from May 2018 to May 2019. Prior to that, he was Associate Administrator at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), the agency’s highest-ranking civil service position, from March 2012 to April 2018.
Jesus Malave (age 55), Chief Financial Officer
Mr. Malave has served as Chief Financial Officer since January 31, 2022. Prior to joining Lockheed Martin in 2022, Mr. Malave served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of L3Harris Technologies, Inc. (L3Harris) from June 2019 to January 2022. Before joining L3Harris, Mr. Malave worked at United Technologies Corporation (UTC) as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of UTC’s Carrier Corporation from April 2018 to June 2019; and as Chief Financial Officer of UTC’s Aerospace Systems from January 2015 to April 2018.
H. Edward Paul, III (age 48), Vice President and Controller
Mr. Paul has served as Vice President and Controller since June 2022. Previously, he served as Vice President, Accounting from March 2015 to July 2023.
Maria A. Ricciardone (age 48), Vice President, Treasurer and Investor Relations

Ms. Ricciardone has served as Vice President, Treasurer and Investor Relations since January 1, 2024. She previously served as Vice President, Investor Relations from October 2022 to December 2023. Prior to joining Lockheed Martin in October 2022, she served as Vice President, Finance – FP&A and Global Components for Arrow Electronics from June 2019 to October 2022. Prior to that, she served as Vice President, Strategy and Investor Relations at Hubbell Incorporated from March 2015 to June 2019.

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Frank A. St. John (age 57), Chief Operating Officer
Mr. St. John has served as Chief Operating Officer since June 2020. He previously served as Executive Vice President of RMS from August 2019 to June 2020. Prior to that, he served as Executive Vice President of MFC from January 2018 to August 2019; and as Executive Vice President and Deputy Programs for MFC from June 2017 to January 2018.
James D. Taiclet (age 63), Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
Mr. Taiclet has served as Chairman since March 2021 and as President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Lockheed Martin since June 2020. He has served on the Lockheed Martin Board of Directors since January 2018. Previously, he was Chairman, President and CEO of American Tower Corporation from February 2004 to March 2020; and Executive Chairman from March 2020 to May 2020.
Gregory M. Ulmer (age 59), Executive Vice President – Aeronautics
Mr. Ulmer has served as Executive Vice President for the Aeronautics business segment since February 2021. He served as Vice President and General Manager, F-35 Lightning II Program from March 2018 to January 2021. Prior to that, he served as Vice President, F-35 Aircraft Production business unit from March 2016 to March 2018.

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PART II
 
ITEM 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
At January 19, 2024, we had 22,665 holders of record of our common stock, par value $1 per share. Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol LMT.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total return on a cumulative basis through December 31, 2023, assuming reinvestment of dividends, of $100 invested in Lockheed Martin common stock as of market close on December 31, 2018 to the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense Index.
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The S&P Aerospace & Defense Index comprises The Boeing Company, General Dynamics Corporation, Howmet Aerospace Inc., Huntington Ingalls Industries, L3Harris Technologies, Inc., Lockheed Martin Corporation, Northrop Grumman Corporation, RTX Corporation, Textron Inc. and Transdigm Group Inc. The stockholder return performance indicated on the graph is not a guarantee of future performance.
This graph is not deemed to be “filed” with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), and should not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.

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Purchases of Equity Securities
There were no sales of unregistered equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2023.
The following table provides information about our repurchases of our common stock that is registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the quarter ended December 31, 2023.
  Period (a)
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (b)
   (in millions)
September 25, 2023 – October 29, 2023
1,265,110 $446.24 1,264,627 $12,459 
October 30, 2023 – November 26, 2023
2,775,003 $447.82 2,774,470 $11,217 
November 27, 2023 – December 31, 2023
2,675,777 $446.97 2,669,558 $10,023 
Total (c)
6,715,890 $447.18 6,708,655  
(a)We close our books and records on the last Sunday of each month to align our financial closing with our business processes, except for the month of December, as our fiscal year ends on December 31. As a result, our fiscal months often differ from the calendar months. For example, November 27, 2023 was the first day of our December 2023 fiscal month.
(b)In 2010, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program pursuant to which we are authorized to repurchase our common stock in privately negotiated transactions or in the open market at prices per share not exceeding the then-current market prices. From time to time, our Board of Directors authorizes increases to our share repurchase program. On October 6, 2023, the Board of Directors authorized an increase to the program by $6.0 billion. The total remaining authorization for future common share repurchases under our share repurchase program was $10.0 billion as of December 31, 2023. Under the program, management has discretion to determine the dollar amount of shares to be repurchased and the timing of any repurchases in compliance with applicable law and regulation. This includes purchases pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 plans, including accelerated share repurchases. The program does not have an expiration date.
(c)During the fourth quarter of 2023, the total number of shares purchased included 7,235 shares that were transferred to us by employees in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted stock units. These purchases were made pursuant to a separate authorization by our Board of Directors and are not included within the share repurchase program described above.

ITEM 6.    [Reserved]





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ITEM 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. The MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The MD&A generally discusses 2023 and 2022 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022. Discussions of 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results or Operations” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC on January 26, 2023.
Business Overview
We are a global security and aerospace company principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. We also provide a broad range of management, engineering, technical, scientific, logistics, system integration and cybersecurity services. Our main areas of focus are in defense, space, intelligence, homeland security and information technology, including cybersecurity. We serve both U.S. and international customers with products and services that have defense, civil and commercial applications, with our principal customers being agencies of the U.S. Government. In 2023, 73% of our $67.6 billion in net sales were from the U.S. Government, either as a prime contractor or as a subcontractor (including 64% from the Department of Defense (DoD)), 26% were from international customers (including foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government) and 1% were from U.S. commercial and other customers.
We operate in four business segments: Aeronautics, Missiles and Fire Control (MFC), Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS) and Space. We organize our business segments based on the nature of the products and services offered.
We operate in a complex and evolving global security environment. Our strategy consists of the design and development of platforms and systems that meet the current needs of our customers and the future requirements of 21st Century Security. Our vision for 21st Century Security is to accelerate the adoption of advanced networking and leading-edge technologies into our national defense enterprise, while enhancing the performance and value of our platforms and products for our customers. The aim of 21st Century Security is to integrate new and existing systems across all domains with advanced, open-architecture networking and operational technologies to make defense forces more agile, adaptive and unpredictable.
Twenty-first Century Security is an overarching vision that guides our investment and strategy. We are also focused on four elements for potential growth in the near to mid-term: current programs of record, classified programs, hypersonics and new awards. We have multiple programs of record from each business segment that are entering growth stages, including the F-35 sustainment activity (Aeronautics); increased Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) production rates and increased demand for High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS®) and Guided Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (GMLRS) (Missiles and Fire Control); radar surveillance systems and CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopter (Rotary and Mission Systems); and the modernization and enhancements to the Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) (Space). We are engaged in significant classified development programs and pending successful achievement of the objectives within those programs, we expect to begin the transition from development to production over the next few years. We are currently performing on multiple hypersonics programs and following the successful completion of ongoing testing and evaluation activity, multiple programs are expected to enter early production phases through 2026. Finally, we are always in pursuit of new program awards to develop future platforms that enable us to continue to place security capability into the market and expand our global reach.
Key to enabling success of our strategy is developing differentiating technologies, forging strategic partnerships, including with commercial companies, executing on our multi-year business transformation initiative to enhance our digital infrastructure and increase efficiencies and collaboration throughout our business and maintaining fiscal discipline. Underpinning our ability to execute our strategy is our talent and culture. We invest substantially in our people to ensure that our workforce has the technical skills necessary to succeed, and we expect to continue to invest internally in innovative technologies that address rapidly evolving mission requirements for our customers. We also will continue to evaluate our portfolio and will make strategic acquisitions or divestitures, as appropriate, while deepening our connection to commercial industry through cooperative partnerships, joint ventures and equity investments.
Portfolio Shaping Activities
We continuously strive to strengthen our portfolio of products and services to meet the current and future needs of our customers. We accomplish this in part by our independent research and development activities and through acquisition, divestiture and internal realignment activities.
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We selectively pursue the acquisition of businesses, investments and ventures at attractive valuations that will expand or complement our current portfolio and allow access to new customers or technologies. We also may explore the divestiture of businesses, investments or ventures that no longer meet our needs or strategy or that could perform better outside of our organization or with a different owner. In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions, evaluate targets and enter into agreements regarding possible acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and equity investments.
U.S. Budget Environment
With nearly three quarters of our sales from the U.S. Government, U.S. Government spending levels, particularly defense spending, and timely funding thereof can affect our financial performance over the short and long term.
The President’s Fiscal Year (FY) 2024 budget request was submitted to Congress on March 9, 2023, initiating the FY 2024 defense authorization and appropriations legislative process. The request included $886 billion for National Defense, of which $842 billion is for the Department of Defense (DoD) base budget.
On June 3, 2023, the President signed H.R. 3746 “The Fiscal Responsibility Act” (FRA) into law. The legislation suspended the debt ceiling until January 1, 2025, and, among other provisions, capped national defense spending at $886 billion for FY 2024 (President’s Budget Request level) and $895 billion for FY 2025. Supplemental funding legislation is not subject to the budget caps. If a continuing resolution is enacted and still in effect and Congress does not pass all twelve defense and non-defense discretionary appropriations bills by April 30, 2024, the FRA will result in a decrease in government spending for FY 2024 by one percent from FY 2023 enacted levels.
The House and Senate continue the legislative process on the FY 2024 budget. On December 22, 2023, the President signed the FY 2024 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) into law. The NDAA authorizes funding at the FRA cap of $886 billion for National Defense.
On January 19, 2024, the President signed a continuing resolution that extends funding of four appropriations bills to March 1, 2024 and the remaining eight to March 8, 2024. This will provide Congress additional time to enact all twelve FY 2024 appropriations bills based on the overarching U.S. Government spending agreement reached by House and Senate leaders on January 7, 2024 which comports with the FRA cap of $886 billion for National Defense in FY 2024. Overall, congressional sentiment remains strong for supporting the National Defense Strategy and defense spending. However, the logistical and political challenges, especially in the U.S. House of Representatives, are complex and add funding risk.
Under the continuing resolution, funding at amounts consistent with appropriated levels for FY 2023 are available, subject to certain restrictions, but new contract and program starts are not authorized. We expect our key programs will continue to be supported and funded under the continuing resolution. However, during periods covered by continuing resolutions, we may experience delays in new awards of our products and services, and those delays may adversely affect our results of operations.
On October 20, 2023, the President submitted a $106 billion supplemental funding request to Congress for assistance to Ukraine, Israel and the Indo-Pacific; related U.S. restock of capacity transfers to Ukraine and Israel; and U.S. border security. Congress has not yet acted on this request, which is part of the broader debate on FY 2024 U.S. Government funding and border security policy. Supplemental and emergency funding are not subject to the FRA cap. If enacted, this would provide a partial relief valve for DoD funding limits under the FRA or other limiting scenarios such as a prolonged continuing resolution.
If Congress is not able to enact FY 2024 appropriations bills or extend the continuing resolution, the U.S. Government will enter a whole or partial shutdown. The impact of any government shutdown is uncertain. However, if a government shutdown were to occur and were to continue for an extended period, we could be at risk of reduced orders, program cancellations, schedule delays, production halts and other disruptions and nonpayment, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Further, if any one of the 12 appropriations bills is under a continuing resolution as of April 30, 2024, USG funding levels will reset to FY 2023 enacted levels minus 1% for the remainder of FY 2024 or until all 12 appropriations are enacted.
We anticipate the federal budget will continue to be subject to debate and compromise shaped by, among other things, heightened political tensions, the global security environment, inflationary pressures, and macroeconomic conditions. The result may be shifting funding priorities, which could have material impacts on defense spending broadly and our programs.
Geopolitical and Economic Environment
We operate in a complex and evolving global security environment and our business is affected by geopolitical issues. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine significantly elevated global geopolitical tensions and security concerns resulting in increased
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interest for certain of our products and services as countries seek to improve their security posture. In addition, security assistance provided by the U.S. Government and its allies to Ukraine has created U.S. Government and allied demand to replenish U.S. stockpiles, resulting in additional and potential future orders for our products, including for the ramp-up in production capacity for certain products. Although we received new orders in 2023 attributable to a response to the conflict and continue to expect to receive them over the next several years, given the long-cycle nature of our business and current industry capacity, the orders did not result in a significant increase in 2023 sales. We continue to work with the U.S. Government and our supply chain to evaluate increases in capacity at certain of our operations to anticipate potential demand and enable us to deliver critical capabilities.
Our business and financial performance is also affected by general economic conditions. Supply chain disruptions persist, and we continue to experience supply chain challenges, including supplier shortages and performance issues, which have delayed certain customer deliveries and adversely impacted our performance and our 2023 financial results. Although we continue working to minimize the impact of supply chain challenges, many of these challenges are industry wide or caused by geopolitical events that are outside of our control. In addition, heightened levels of inflation and the potential worsening of macro-economic conditions present risks for Lockheed Martin, our suppliers and the stability of the broader defense industrial base. Certain costs, including rising labor rates and supplier costs, on several of our programs have increased as a result of inflation, and put pressure on achieving our expected margins on the programs. In addition, some suppliers are reducing the typical duration of pricing validity in their proposals to us, which can be operationally challenging and increase the risk of cost volatility. If we continue to experience high rates of inflation, and we are unable to successfully mitigate the impact, our future profits, margins and cash flows, particularly for existing fixed-price contracts, may be adversely affected. Inflation and higher interest rates can also constrain the overall purchasing power of our customers for our products and services potentially impacting future orders. We remain committed to our ongoing efforts to increase the efficiency of our operations and improve the cost competitiveness and affordability of our products and services, which may, in part, offset cost increases from inflation.
International Business
A key component of our strategic plan is to grow our international sales. To accomplish this growth, we continue to focus on strengthening our relationships internationally through partnerships and joint technology efforts. Our international business is conducted either by foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government or by direct commercial sales (DCS) to international customers. In 2023, approximately 75% of our sales to international customers were FMS and about 25% were DCS. Additionally, in 2023, substantially all of our sales from international customers were in our Aeronautics, MFC and RMS business segments. Space’s sales from international customers were not material in 2023. See Item 1A - Risk Factors for a discussion of risks related to international sales.
In 2023, international customers accounted for 33% of Aeronautics’ net sales. There continues to be strong international interest in the F-35 program, which includes commitments from the U.S. Government and seven international partner countries and nine FMS customers, as well as expressions of interest from other countries. The U.S. Government and the partner countries continue to work together on the design, testing, production and sustainment of the F-35 program. Other areas of international expansion at our Aeronautics business segment include the F-16 and C-130J programs, which continue to draw interest from international customers for new aircraft.
In 2023, international customers accounted for 31% of MFC’s net sales. Our MFC business segment continues to generate significant international interest, most notably in the air and missile defense product line, which produces the PAC-3 and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) systems. Fifteen nations have chosen PAC-3 Cost Reduction Initiative (CRI) and PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) to provide missile defense capabilities. Additionally, we continue to see international demand for our tactical and strike missile products, where we received orders for precision fires systems from Germany and Taiwan and for Long Range Anti-Ship Missiles (LRASM) from Australia.
In 2023, international customers accounted for 31% of RMS’ net sales. Our RMS business segment continues to experience international interest in the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis) for which we perform activities in the development, production, modernization, ship integration, test and lifetime support for ships of international customers such as Japan, Spain, Republic of Korea and Australia. We have ongoing combat systems programs associated with different classes of surface combatant ships for customers in Canada, Chile and New Zealand. Our Multi-Mission Surface Combatant (MMSC) program will provide surface combatant ships for international customers, such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, designed to operate in shallow waters and the open ocean. In our training and logistics solutions portfolio, we have active programs and pursuits in the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Germany and France. We have active development, production and sustainment support of the S-70 Black Hawk and MH-60 Seahawk helicopters to international customers, including India, Philippines, Australia, Republic of Korea, Thailand, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Greece. Additionally, in December 2021, the Israeli Ministry of Defense signed a Letter of Offer and Acceptance (LOA) to procure 12 CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopters, with the first four awarded in 2022 and the remaining awarded in 2023.
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Commercial aircraft are sold to international customers to support search and rescue missions as well as VIP and offshore oil and gas transportation.
Status of the F-35 Program
The F-35 program primarily consists of production contracts, sustainment activities, and new development efforts. Production of the aircraft is expected to continue for many years given the U.S. Government’s current inventory objective of 2,456 aircraft for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Navy; commitments from our seven international partner countries and nine Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customers; as well as interest from other countries. We continue to see strong international demand for the F-35. The Government of Canada announced in January 2023 its commitment to purchase 88 F-35 aircraft. In February 2023, the Government of Singapore announced its intent to exercise an option to purchase an additional eight F-35 aircraft, increasing its total quantity to 12. In September 2023, the Israel Defense Ministry submitted an official letter of request to advance Israel’s procurement of a third F-35 squadron, increasing its total quantity of aircraft from 50 to 75. Also in September 2023, the U.S. Department of State formally approved the sale of up to 25 more F-35s to South Korea, beyond the currently approved purchase of 40 aircraft. In November 2023, the Government of Romania submitted an official letter of request for a Letter of Offer and Acceptance to the U.S. Government for 32 F-35 aircraft.
During 2023, we delivered 98 aircraft and had a backlog of 373 aircraft. Since program inception through the end of 2023, we delivered 992 production F-35 aircraft to U.S. and international customers, including 710 F-35A variants, 197 F-35B variants, and 85 F-35C variants, demonstrating the F-35 program’s continued progress and longevity.
Regarding the F-35 Technology Refresh 3 (TR-3) status, a second quarter 2024 customer acceptance of delivery software remains our target; however, we believe the third quarter 2024 may be a more likely scenario for TR-3 software acceptance. Additionally, we remain focused on receiving the necessary hardware from our suppliers to deliver this critical combat capability for the F-35.
Given the size and complexity of the F-35 program, we anticipate that there will be continual reviews related to aircraft performance, program, and delivery schedule, cost, and requirements as part of the DoD, Congressional, and international countries’ oversight, and budgeting processes. Areas of focus include our and our suppliers’ performance, software development (including, in particular, software maturation related to the TR-3 configuration), execution of future flight tests and findings resulting from testing and operating the aircraft, the level of cost associated with life cycle operations, sustainment and potential contractual obligations, inflation-related cost pressures, and the ability to improve affordability.
Backlog
At December 31, 2023, our backlog was $160.6 billion compared with $150.0 billion at December 31, 2022. Backlog is converted into sales in future periods as work is performed or deliveries are made. We expect to recognize approximately 36% of our backlog over the next 12 months and approximately 62% over the next 24 months as revenue, with the remainder recognized thereafter.
Our backlog includes both funded (firm orders for our products and services for which funding has been both authorized and appropriated by the customer) and unfunded (firm orders for which funding has not been appropriated) amounts. We do not include unexercised options or potential orders under indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) agreements in our backlog. If any of our contracts with firm orders were to be terminated, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the unfilled orders of such contracts. Funded backlog was $107.4 billion at December 31, 2023, as compared to $95.5 billion at December 31, 2022. For backlog related to each of our business segments, see below.

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Consolidated Results of Operations
Our operating cycle is primarily long-term and involves many types of contracts for the design, development and manufacture of products and related activities with varying delivery schedules. Consequently, the results of operations of a particular year, or year-to-year comparisons of sales and profits, may not be indicative of future operating results. The following discussions of comparative results should be reviewed in this context. All per share amounts cited in these discussions are presented on a “per diluted share” basis, unless otherwise noted. Our consolidated results of operations were as follows (in millions, except per share data):
202320222021
Net sales$67,571 $65,984 $67,044 
Cost of sales(59,092)(57,697)(57,983)
Gross profit8,479 8,287 9,061 
Other income, net28 61 62 
Operating profit8,507 8,348 9,123 
Interest expense(916)(623)(569)
Non-service FAS pension income (expense)443 (971)(1,292)
Other non-operating income (expense), net64 (74)288 
Earnings before income taxes8,098 6,680 7,550 
Income tax expense(1,178)(948)(1,235)
Net earnings$6,920 $5,732 $6,315 
Diluted earnings per common share$27.55 $21.66 $22.76 
Certain amounts reported in other income (expense), net, including our share of earnings or losses from equity method investees, are included in the operating profit of our business segments. Accordingly, such amounts are included in the discussion of our business segment results of operations.
Net Sales
We generate sales from the delivery of products and services to our customers. Our consolidated net sales were as follows (in millions):
202320222021
Products$56,265 $55,466 $56,435 
% of total net sales83.3 %84.1 %84.2 %
Services11,306 10,518 10,609 
% of total net sales16.7 %15.9 %15.8 %
Total net sales$67,571 $65,984 $67,044 
Substantially all of our contracts are accounted for using the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method. Under the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method, we record net sales on contracts over time based upon our progress towards completion on a particular contract, as well as our estimate of the profit to be earned at completion. The following discussion of material changes in our consolidated net sales should be read in tandem with the subsequent discussion of changes in our consolidated cost of sales and our business segment results of operations because changes in our sales are typically accompanied by a corresponding change in our cost of sales due to the nature of the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method.
Product Sales
Product sales increased $799 million, or 1%, in 2023 as compared to 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to higher product sales of approximately $940 million at Space mostly due to ramp up in the Next Generation Interceptor (NGI) development program and higher volume in the Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program.
Service Sales
Service sales increased $788 million, or 7%, in 2023 as compared to 2022. The increase in service sales was primarily due to higher sales of approximately $600 million at Aeronautics due to higher volume on F-35 sustainment contracts.
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Cost of Sales
Cost of sales, for both products and services, consist of materials, labor, subcontracting costs and an allocation of indirect costs (overhead and general and administrative), as well as the costs to fulfill our industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements, required under certain contracts with international customers. For each of our contracts, we monitor the nature and amount of costs at the contract level, which form the basis for estimating our total costs to complete the contract. Our consolidated cost of sales were as follows (in millions):
20232022
a
2021
a
Cost of sales – products$(50,206)$(49,357)$(50,017)
% of product sales89.2 %89.0 %88.6 %
Cost of sales – services(10,027)(9,252)(9,434)
% of service sales88.7 %88.0 %88.9 %
Severance and other charges(92)(100)(36)
Other unallocated, net1,233 1,012 1,504 
Total cost of sales$(59,092)$(57,697)$(57,983)
(a)Effective January 1, 2023, we reclassified intangible asset amortization expense out of the business segment operating profit and into the unallocated items line item to better align with how management views and manages the business. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the impact of this change on our current and prior period segment operating profit.
The following discussion of material changes in our consolidated cost of sales for products and services should be read in tandem with the preceding discussion of changes in our consolidated net sales and our business segment results of operations. Except for potential impacts to our programs resulting from supply chain disruptions and inflation, we have not identified any additional developing trends in cost of sales for products and services that would have a material impact on our future operations.
Product Costs
Product costs increased approximately $849 million, or 2%, in 2023 as compared to 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to higher product costs of $815 million at Space due to ramp up in the Next Generation Interceptor (NGI) development program and higher volume in the Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program.
Service Costs
Service costs increased approximately $775 million, or 8%, in 2023 compared to 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to higher service costs of approximately $570 million at Aeronautics due to higher volume on F-35 sustainment contracts.
Severance and other charges
During the fourth quarter of 2023, we recorded severance and other charges of $92 million ($73 million, or $0.30 per share, after-tax) associated with severance costs for the planned reduction of certain positions across the corporation and asset impairment charges. Upon separation, terminated employees will receive lump-sum severance payments primarily based on years of service, the majority of which are expected to be paid over the next several quarters. This action resulted from a review of our business segments and corporate functions and is intended to improve the efficiency of our operations.
During the fourth quarter of 2022, we recorded severance and other charges totaling $100 million ($79 million, or $0.31 per share, after-tax) related to actions at our RMS business segment, which include severance costs for reduction of positions and asset impairment charges. After a strategic review of RMS, these actions improved the efficiency of our operations and better aligned the organization and cost structure with changing economic conditions and changes in program lifecycles.
We generally can recover a portion of severance costs through the pricing of our products and services to the U.S. Government and other customers in future periods, which will be included in our operating results.
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Other Unallocated, Net
Other unallocated, net primarily includes the FAS/CAS pension operating adjustment (which represents the difference between total CAS pension cost recorded in our business segments’ results of operations and the service cost component of Financial Accounting Standards (FAS) pension expense), stock-based compensation expense, changes in the fair value of assets and liabilities for deferred compensation plans, intangible asset amortization expense and other corporate costs. These items are not allocated to the business segments and, therefore, are not allocated to cost of sales for products or services. Other unallocated, net reduced cost of sales by $1.2 billion in 2023, compared to $1.0 billion in 2022. There were lower losses from the changes in the fair value of assets and liabilities related to deferred compensation plans in 2023 compared to in 2022.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net primarily includes earnings generated by equity method investees. Other income, net in 2023 was $28 million, compared to $61 million in 2022. Other income, net in 2023 includes lower earnings generated by our equity method investment in United Launch Alliance (ULA) due to lower launch volume and an increase in new product development costs.
Interest Expense
Interest expense in 2023 was $916 million, compared to $623 million in 2022. The increase in interest expense in 2023 resulted primarily from the issuance of senior unsecured notes in May 2023 and October 2022. See “Capital Structure, Resources and Other” included within the “Liquidity and Cash Flows” discussion below and “Note 10 – Debt” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of our debt.
Non-Service FAS Pension Income (Expense)
Non-service FAS pension income was $443 million in 2023, compared to non-service FAS pension expense of $971 million in 2022. Non-service FAS pension expense in 2022 includes a noncash, non-operating pension settlement charge of $1.5 billion ($1.2 billion, or $4.33 per share, after-tax), related to the transfer of $4.3 billion of our gross defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company in the second quarter of 2022. See “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Other Non-operating Income (Expense), Net
Other non-operating income (expense), net primarily includes gains or losses related to changes in the fair value of early-stage company investments or gains or losses upon sale of these investments. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. Other non-operating income, net in 2023 was $64 million, compared to other non-operating expense, net of $74 million in 2022. Other non-operating income (expense), net in 2023 includes higher interest income as a result of the higher rate environment we are seeing on a macro-economic scale and lower losses related to fair value adjustments of early-stage company investments.
Income Tax Expense
Our effective income tax rate was 14.5% for 2023 and 14.2% for 2022. The rates for all periods benefited from research and development tax credits, tax deductions for foreign derived intangible income, dividends paid to our defined contribution plans with an employee stock ownership plan feature and employee equity awards.
Changes in U.S. (federal or state) or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application (including those with retroactive effect), such as the amortization for research or experimental expenditures, could significantly impact our provision for income taxes, the amount of taxes payable, our deferred tax asset and liability balances, and stockholders’ equity. In addition to future changes in tax laws, the amount of net deferred tax assets will change periodically based on several factors, including the measurement of our postretirement benefit plan obligations, actual cash contributions to our postretirement benefit plans and the change in the amount or reevaluation of uncertain tax positions.
On September 8, 2023, the IRS released Notice 2023-63 providing interim guidance on research and development capitalization. Based on our analysis, the Notice confirms that certain expenditures incurred in the performance of cost-type contracts are not required to be capitalized. As a result, there has been a decrease to our uncertain tax position. IRS indicated in the Notice that it intends to issue proposed regulations consistent with the guidance set forth in the Notice.

For the 2023 tax year, research and development capitalization resulted in a cash tax liability of approximately $560 million and our net deferred tax assets increased by a similar amount. While the largest impact of this provision was to the 2022
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cash tax liability, the impact will continue over the five-year amortization period, but will decrease over the period and be immaterial by 2027.

We are regularly under audit or examination by tax authorities, including foreign tax authorities (including in, amongst others, Australia, Canada, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United Kingdom). The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could similarly result in unanticipated increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows.

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has a framework to implement a global minimum corporate tax of 15% for companies with global revenues and profits above certain thresholds (referred to as Pillar 2), with certain aspects of Pillar 2 effective January 1, 2024 and other aspects effective January 1, 2025. While it is uncertain whether the U.S. will enact legislation to adopt Pillar 2, certain countries in which we operate have adopted legislation, and other countries are in the process of introducing legislation to implement Pillar 2. We do not expect Pillar 2 to have a material impact on our effective tax rate or our consolidated results of operation, financial position, and cash flows.
Net Earnings
We reported net earnings of $6.9 billion ($27.55 per share) in 2023 and $5.7 billion ($21.66 per share) in 2022. Net earnings and earnings per share in 2023 were affected by the factors mentioned above. Earnings per share also benefited from a net decrease of approximately 13.4 million weighted average common shares outstanding in 2023, compared to 2022. The reduction in weighted average common shares was a result of share repurchases, partially offset by share issuance under our stock-based awards and certain defined contribution plans.
Business Segment Results of Operations
We operate in four business segments: Aeronautics, MFC, RMS and Space. We organize our business segments based on the nature of products and services offered.
Net sales and operating profit of our business segments exclude intersegment sales, cost of sales and profit as these activities are eliminated in consolidation and thus are not included in management’s evaluation of performance of each segment. Business segment operating profit includes our share of earnings or losses from equity method investees as the operating activities of the equity method investees are closely aligned with the operations of our business segments.
Business segment operating profit excludes the FAS/CAS pension operating adjustment described below, a portion of corporate costs not considered allowable or allocable to contracts with the U.S. Government under the applicable U.S. Government cost accounting standards (CAS) or federal acquisition regulations (FAR), and other items not considered part of management’s evaluation of segment operating performance. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” for a discussion related to certain factors that may impact the comparability of net sales and operating profit of our business segments.
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Sales and operating profit for each of our business segments were as follows (in millions):
202320222021
Net sales
Aeronautics$27,474 $26,987 $26,748 
Missiles and Fire Control11,253 11,317 11,693 
Rotary and Mission Systems16,239 16,148 16,789 
Space12,605 11,532 11,814 
Total net sales$67,571 $65,984 $67,044 
Operating profit
Aeronautics$2,825 $2,867 $2,800 
Missiles and Fire Control1,541 1,637 1,650 
Rotary and Mission Systems1,865 1,906 2,030 
Space1,158 1,057 1,184 
Total business segment operating profit7,389 7,467 7,664 
Unallocated items
     FAS/CAS pension operating adjustment 1,660 1,709 1,960 
Intangible asset amortization expense(247)(248)(285)
     Severance and other charges (a)
(92)(100)(36)
Other, net (203)(480)(180)
Total unallocated, net1,118 881 1,459 
Total consolidated operating profit$8,507 $8,348 $9,123 
(a)See “Consolidated Results of Operations – Severance and Other Charges” discussion above for information on charges related to certain severance and other actions across our organization.

Effective January 1, 2023, we no longer consider amortization expense related to purchased intangible assets when evaluating the operating performance of our business segments. This change has been applied to the accompanying amounts above, including the amounts for 2022 and 2021. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the impact of this change on our current and prior period segment operating profit. We also included supplemental tables under the caption Pro Forma Business Segment Summary Operating Results in our earnings release included as exhibit 99.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 24, 2023, which provide unaudited pro forma financial information reflecting the impact of the change in presentation as-if it had been applicable for the quarters and year to date periods in 2022 and 2021. The supplemental tables, the earnings release and the Current Report on Form 8-K are not, and shall not be deemed to be, incorporated by reference herein.
Our business segments’ results of operations include pension expense only as calculated under U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), which we refer to as CAS pension cost. We recover CAS pension and other postretirement benefit plan cost through the pricing of our products and services on U.S. Government contracts and, therefore, recognize CAS pension cost in each of our business segment’s net sales and cost of sales. Our consolidated financial statements must present pension and other postretirement benefit plan income calculated in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards (FAS) requirements under U.S. GAAP. The operating portion of the total FAS/CAS pension adjustment represents the difference between the service cost component of FAS pension income (expense) and total CAS pension cost. The non-service FAS pension income (expense) components are included in non-service FAS pension income (expense) in our consolidated statements of earnings. As a result, to the extent that CAS pension cost exceeds the service cost component of FAS pension income (expense) we have a favorable FAS/CAS pension operating adjustment.
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The total FAS/CAS pension adjustments, including the service and non-service cost components of FAS pension income (expense) for our qualified defined benefit pension plans, were as follows (in millions):
202320222021
Total FAS income (expense) and CAS cost
FAS pension income (expense) $378 $(1,058)$(1,398)
Less: CAS pension cost1,725 1,796 2,066 
Total FAS/CAS pension adjustment$2,103 $738 $668 
Service and non-service cost reconciliation
FAS pension service cost$(65)$(87)$(106)
Less: CAS pension cost1,725 1,796 2,066 
Total FAS/CAS pension operating adjustment1,660 1,709 1,960 
Non-service FAS pension income (expense) 443 (971)(1,292)
Total FAS/CAS pension adjustment$2,103 $738 $668 
The total FAS/CAS pension adjustment in 2022 reflects a noncash, non-operating pension settlement charge of $1.5 billion ($1.2 billion, or $4.33 per share, after-tax) recognized in connection with the transfer of $4.3 billion of our gross defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company in the second quarter of 2022. The total FAS/CAS pension adjustment in 2021 reflects a noncash, non-operating pension settlement charge of $1.7 billion ($1.3 billion, or $4.72 per share, after-tax) recognized in connection with the transfer of $4.9 billion of our gross defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company in the third quarter of 2021. See “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following segment discussions also include information relating to backlog for each segment. Backlog was approximately $160.6 billion and $150.0 billion at December 31, 2023 and 2022. These amounts included both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding has been both authorized and appropriated by the customer) and unfunded backlog (firm orders for which funding has not yet been appropriated). Backlog does not include unexercised options or task orders to be issued under indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contracts. Funded backlog was approximately $107.4 billion at December 31, 2023, as compared to $95.5 billion at December 31, 2022. If any of our contracts with firm orders were to be terminated, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the unfilled orders of such contracts.
Management evaluates performance on our contracts by focusing on net sales and operating profit and not by type or amount of operating expense. Consequently, our discussion of business segment performance focuses on net sales and operating profit, consistent with our approach for managing the business. This approach is consistent throughout the life cycle of our contracts, as management assesses the bidding of each contract by focusing on net sales and operating profit and monitors performance on our contracts in a similar manner through their completion.
We regularly provide customers with reports of our costs as the contract progresses. The cost information in the reports is accumulated in a manner specified by the requirements of each contract. For example, cost data provided to a customer for a product would typically align to the subcomponents of that product (such as a wing-box on an aircraft) and for services would align to the type of work being performed (such as aircraft sustainment). Our contracts generally allow for the recovery of costs in the pricing of our products and services. Most of our contracts are bid and negotiated with our customers under circumstances in which we are required to disclose our estimated total costs to provide the product or service. This approach for negotiating contracts with our U.S. Government customers generally allows for recovery of our actual costs plus a reasonable profit margin. We also may enter into long-term supply contracts for certain materials or components to coincide with the production schedule of certain products and to ensure their availability at known unit prices.
Many of our contracts span several years and include highly complex technical requirements. At the outset of a contract, we identify and monitor risks to the achievement of the technical, schedule and cost aspects of the contract and assess the effects of those risks on our estimates of total costs to complete the contract. The estimates consider the technical requirements (e.g., a newly-developed product versus a mature product), the schedule and associated tasks (e.g., the number and type of milestone events) and costs (e.g., material, labor, subcontractor, overhead and the estimated costs to fulfill our industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements, required under certain contracts with international customers). The initial profit booking rate of each contract considers risks surrounding the ability to achieve the technical requirements, schedule and costs in the initial estimated total costs to complete the contract and variable considerations. Profit booking rates may increase during the performance of the contract if we successfully retire risks related to the technical,
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schedule and cost aspects of the contract, which decreases the estimated total costs to complete the contract. Conversely, our profit booking rates may decrease if the estimated total costs to complete the contract increase. All of the estimates are subject to change during the performance of the contract and may affect the profit booking rate. For further discussion on fixed-price contracts, see “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
We have a number of programs that are designated as classified by the U.S. Government which cannot be specifically described. The operating results of these classified programs are included in our consolidated and business segment results and are subjected to the same oversight and internal controls as our other programs.
Our net sales are primarily derived from long-term contracts for products and services provided to the U.S. Government as well as FMS contracted through the U.S. Government. We recognize revenue as performance obligations are satisfied and the customer obtains control of the products and services. For performance obligations to deliver products with continuous transfer of control to the customer, revenue is recognized based on the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation, generally using the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost measure of progress for our contracts because it best depicts the transfer of control to the customer as we incur costs on our contracts. For performance obligations in which control does not continuously transfer to the customer, we recognize revenue at the point in time in which each performance obligation is fully satisfied.
Changes in net sales and operating profit generally are expressed in terms of volume. Changes in volume refer to increases or decreases in sales or operating profit resulting from varying production activity levels, deliveries or service levels on individual contracts. Volume changes in segment operating profit are typically based on the current profit booking rate for a particular contract.
Comparability of our segment sales, operating profit and operating margin may be impacted favorably or unfavorably by changes in profit booking rates on our contracts. Increases in the profit booking rates, typically referred to as favorable profit adjustments, usually relate to revisions in the estimated total costs to fulfill the performance obligations that reflect improved conditions on a particular contract. Conversely, conditions on a particular contract may deteriorate, resulting in an increase in the estimated total costs to fulfill the performance obligations and a reduction in the profit booking rate and are typically referred to as unfavorable profit adjustments. Increases or decreases in profit booking rates are recognized in the current period they are determined and reflect the inception-to-date effect of such changes. Segment operating profit and margin may also be impacted favorably or unfavorably by other items, which may or may not impact sales. Favorable items may include the positive resolution of contractual matters, cost recoveries on severance and restructuring, insurance recoveries and gains on sales of assets. Unfavorable items may include the adverse resolution of contractual matters; supply chain disruptions; restructuring charges (except for significant severance actions, which are excluded from segment operating results); reserves for disputes; certain asset impairments; and losses on sales of certain assets.
Our consolidated net profit booking rate adjustments increased segment operating profit by approximately $1.6 billion in 2023 and $1.8 billion in 2022.
We may periodically experience performance issues and could record losses for certain programs. For further discussions, see “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.
Aeronautics
Our Aeronautics business segment is engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration, sustainment, support and upgrade of advanced military aircraft, including combat and air mobility aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and related technologies. Aeronautics’ major programs include the F-35 Lightning II, C‑130 Hercules, F-16 Fighting Falcon and F-22 Raptor. Aeronautics’ operating results included the following (in millions):
202320222021
Net sales$27,474 $26,987 $26,748 
Operating profit2,825 2,867 2,800 
Operating margin10.3 %10.6 %10.5 %
Backlog at year-end$60,156 $56,630 $49,118 
Aeronautics’ net sales in 2023 increased $487 million, or 2%, compared to 2022. Net sales increased by approximately $540 million for the ramp up on classified programs and $230 million on the F-16 program related to the ramp up in
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production. These increases were partially offset by lower net sales of $400 million on the F-35 program due to lower volume on production contracts partially offset by higher volume on sustainment and development contracts.
Aeronautics’ operating profit in 2023 decreased $42 million, or 1%, compared to 2022. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower operating profit of $100 million on the F-22 program due to lower net favorable profit adjustments and $95 million on the F-35 program due to lower net favorable profit adjustments on production contracts. These decreases were partially offset by higher operating profit of $115 million on classified programs due to higher net favorable profit adjustments and the impact of the higher sales as discussed above. Total net profit booking rate adjustments were $180 million lower in 2023 compared to 2022.
Backlog
Backlog increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to higher orders on classified and C-130 programs.
Missiles and Fire Control
Our MFC business segment provides air and missile defense systems; tactical missiles and air-to-ground precision strike weapon systems; logistics; fire control systems; mission operations support, readiness, engineering support and integration services; manned and unmanned ground vehicles; and energy management solutions. MFC’s major programs include PAC‑3, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), Precision Strike Missile (PrSM), Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM), Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM), Hellfire, Apache fire control system, Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (SNIPER®), Infrared Search and Track (IRST21®), Special Operations Forces Global Logistics Support Services (SOF GLSS), hypersonics programs and Javelin. MFC’s operating results included the following (in millions):
202320222021
Net sales$11,253 $11,317 $11,693 
Operating profit1,541 1,637 1,650 
Operating margin13.7 %14.5 %14.1 %
Backlog at year-end$32,229 $28,735 $27,021 
MFC’s net sales in 2023 decreased $64 million, or 1% compared to 2022. Net sales decreased $165 million for integrated air and missile defense programs due primarily to supplier cost timing on PAC-3 and $115 million for sensors and global sustainment programs due primarily to the absence in 2023 of the impact of a favorable profit adjustment on an international program in 2022. These decreases were partially offset by higher net sales of $145 million for tactical and strike missile programs primarily due to production ramp up on JASSM, LRASM, and precision fires programs.
MFC’s operating profit in 2023 decreased $96 million, or 6%, compared to 2022. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower operating profit for tactical and strike missile programs due to $45 million of losses recognized on a classified program. Total net profit booking rate adjustments were $95 million lower in 2023 compared to 2022.
Backlog
Backlog increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to higher orders on PAC-3, LRASM, JASSM and Guided Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (GMLRS) programs.
Rotary and Mission Systems
RMS designs, manufactures, services and supports various military and commercial helicopters, surface ships, sea and land-based missile defense systems, radar systems, laser systems, sea and air-based mission and combat systems, command and control mission solutions, cyber solutions, and simulation and training solutions. RMS’ major programs include Aegis Combat System, Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), Multi-Mission Surface Combatant (MMSC), Black Hawk and Seahawk helicopters,
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CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopter, Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH), VH-92A helicopter, and the C2BMC program. RMS’ operating results included the following (in millions):
202320222021
Net sales$16,239 $16,148 $16,789 
Operating profit1,865 1,906 2,030 
Operating margin11.5 %11.8 %12.1 %
Backlog at year-end$37,726 $34,949 $33,700 
RMS’ net sales in 2023 increased $91 million, or 1%, compared to 2022. Higher net sales of $265 million on IWSS programs due to higher volume on the Aegis program and new program ramp ups within the radar and laser systems portfolios were partially offset by lower net sales of $55 million for Sikorsky helicopter programs due to lower Black Hawk production volume.
RMS’ operating profit in 2023 decreased $41 million, or 2%, compared to 2022. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower operating profit for Sikorsky helicopter programs primarily due to an unfavorable profit adjustment of $100 million in the second quarter of 2023 on the Canadian Maritime Helicopter Program (CMHP) and lower Black Hawk production volume. This decrease was partially offset by higher operating profit for IWSS programs primarily due to a favorable profit adjustment of $65 million in the second quarter of 2023 on an international surveillance and control program, along with higher volume on the Aegis program. Total net profit booking rate adjustments were $100 million lower in 2023 compared to 2022.
Backlog
Backlog increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to higher orders on Sikorsky programs.
Space
Our Space business segment is engaged in the research and design, development, engineering and production of satellites, space transportation systems, and strategic, advanced strike and defensive systems. Space provides network-enabled situational awareness and integrates complex space and ground global systems to help our customers gather, analyze, and securely distribute critical intelligence data. Space is also responsible for various classified systems and services in support of vital national security systems. Space’s major programs include the Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM), Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), Next Generation Overhead Persistent Infrared (Next Gen OPIR) system, Global Positioning System (GPS) III, hypersonics and transport layer programs and Next Generation Interceptor (NGI). Operating profit for our Space business segment includes our share of earnings for our investment in ULA, which provides expendable launch services to the U.S. Government and commercial customers. Space’s operating results included the following (in millions):
202320222021
Net sales$12,605 $11,532 $11,814 
Operating profit1,158 1,057 1,184 
Operating margin9.2 %9.2 %10.0 %
Backlog at year-end$30,456 $29,684 $25,516 
Space’s net sales in 2023 increased $1.1 billion, or 9%, compared to 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to higher net sales of $620 million for strategic and missile defense programs due to ramp up in the NGI development program and higher volume in the FBM program; and higher net sales of $225 million for national security space programs due to development ramp up on Transport Layer and classified programs.
Space’s operating profit in 2023 increased $101 million, or 10%, compared to 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to higher operating profit of $140 million for national security space programs due to the absence of unfavorable profit adjustments in 2023 on a ground solutions program and higher net favorable profit adjustments in classified programs. This increase was partially offset by $80 million of lower equity earnings resulting from lower launch volume and an increase in new product development costs at ULA. Total net profit booking rate adjustments were $150 million higher in 2023 compared to 2022.
Equity earnings
Total equity earnings (primarily ULA) represented approximately $20 million and $100 million, or 2% and 9%, of Space’s operating profit during 2023 and 2022.
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Backlog
Backlog increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due higher orders for strategic and missile defense programs for NGI development, hypersonics, and Mk21A, partially offset by reductions in the National Security Space portfolio for classified and Next Gen OPIR programs.
Liquidity and Cash Flows
As of December 31, 2023, we had cash and cash equivalents of $1.4 billion. Our principal source of liquidity is our cash from operations. However, we also have access to credit markets, if needed, for liquidity or general corporate purposes, including share repurchases. This access includes our $3.0 billion revolving credit facility or the ability to issue commercial paper and letters of credit to support customer advance payments and for other trade finance purposes such as guaranteeing our performance on particular contracts. We believe our cash and cash equivalents, our expected cash flow generated from operations and our access to credit markets will be sufficient to meet our cash requirements and cash deployment plans over the next twelve months and beyond based on our current business plans.
Cash received from customers, either from the payment of invoices for work performed or for advances from non-U.S. government customers in excess of costs incurred, is our primary source of cash from operations. We generally do not begin work on contracts until funding is appropriated by the customer. However, from time to time, we fund customer programs ourselves pending government appropriations. If we incur costs in excess of funds obligated on the contract or in advance of a contract award, this negatively affects our cash flows and we may be at risk for reimbursement of the excess costs.
Billing timetables and payment terms on our contracts vary based on a number of factors, including the contract type. We generally bill and collect cash more frequently under cost-reimbursable contracts, which represented approximately 41% of the sales we recorded in 2023, as we are authorized to bill as the costs are incurred. A number of our fixed-price contracts may provide for performance-based payments, which allow us to bill and collect cash as we perform on the contract. The amount of performance-based payments and the related milestones are encompassed in the negotiation of each contract. The timing of such payments may differ from the timing of the costs incurred related to our contract performance, thereby affecting our cash flows.
The U.S. Government has indicated that it would consider progress payments as the baseline for negotiating payment terms on fixed-price contracts, rather than performance-based payments. In contrast to negotiated performance-based payment terms, progress payment provisions correspond to a percentage of the amount of costs incurred during the performance of the contract and are invoiced regularly as costs are incurred. Our cash flows may be affected if the U.S. Government changes its payment policies. The U.S. Government from time to time withholds payments on certain of our billings based on contract terms or regulatory provisions. Ultimately, the impact of policy changes or withholding payments may delay the receipt of cash, but the cumulative amount of cash collected during the life of the contract should not vary. Additionally, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we accelerated payments to the supply chain with a focus on small and at-risk businesses. We will continue to evaluate the use of accelerated payments on an as needed basis.
We have a balanced cash deployment strategy to invest in our business and key technologies to provide our customers with enhanced capabilities, enhance stockholder value, and position ourselves to take advantage of new business opportunities when they arise. Consistent with that strategy, we have continued to invest in our business and technologies through capital expenditures, independent research and development, and selective business acquisitions and investments.
We continue to return cash to stockholders through dividends and share repurchases. In October 2023, the Board of Directors authorized a fourth quarter dividend payment of $3.15 per share, representing an increase of $0.15 per share over the prior quarterly dividend payment. The Board of Directors also authorized an increase of $6.0 billion to our share repurchase program. As of December 31, 2023, the total remaining authorization for future common share repurchases under our program was $10.0 billion. We expect to fund these future repurchases through a combination of cash on hand and debt. The stock repurchase program does not have an expiration date and may be amended or terminated by the Board of Directors at any time. The amount of shares ultimately purchased and the timing of purchases are at the discretion of management and subject to compliance with applicable law and regulation.
We continue to actively manage our debt levels, including maturities and interest rates. We also actively manage our pension obligations and expect to continue to opportunistically manage our pension liabilities through the purchase of group annuity contracts or other actions for portions of our outstanding defined benefit pension obligations using assets from the pension trust. See “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. Future pension risk transfer transactions could be significant and result in us making additional
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contributions to the pension trust and/or require us to recognize noncash, non-operating pension settlement charges in earnings in the applicable reporting period.
The following table provides a summary of our cash flow information followed by a discussion of the key elements (in millions):
202320222021
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year$2,547 $3,604 $3,160 
Operating activities
Net earnings6,920 5,732 6,315 
Noncash adjustments1,289 2,455 3,109 
Changes in working capital317 (733)
Other, net(606)348 (212)
Net cash provided by operating activities7,920 7,802 9,221 
Net cash used for investing activities(1,694)(1,789)(1,161)
Net cash used for financing activities(7,331)(7,070)(7,616)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents(1,105)(1,057)444 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year$1,442 $2,547 $3,604 
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities increased $118 million in 2023 compared to 2022. The increase was primarily due to the timing of production and billing cycles impacting receivables (primarily the F-35 program at Aeronautics) and contract assets (primarily IWSS programs at RMS), partially offset by timing of cash payments for accounts payable across the company. Our federal and foreign income tax payments, net of refunds, were $1.8 billion in 2023, compared to $1.6 billion in 2022.
Non-GAAP Financial Measure - Free Cash Flow
Free cash flow is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as cash from operations less capital expenditures. Our capital expenditures are comprised of equipment and facilities infrastructure and information technology (inclusive of costs for the development or purchase of internal-use software that are capitalized). We use free cash flow to evaluate our business performance and overall liquidity, as well as a performance goal in our annual and long-term incentive plans. We believe free cash flow is a useful measure for investors because it represents the amount of cash generated from operations after reinvesting in the business and that may be available to return to stockholders and creditors (through dividends, stock repurchases and debt repayments) or available to fund acquisitions and other investments. The entire amount of free cash flow is not necessarily available for discretionary expenditures, however, because it does not account for certain mandatory expenditures, such as the repayment of maturing debt and pension contributions. While management believes that free cash flow as a non-GAAP financial measure may be useful in evaluating our financial performance, it should be considered supplemental to, and not a substitute for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.
The following table reconciles net cash provided by operating activities to free cash flow (in millions):
202320222021
Cash from operations$7,920 $7,802 $9,221 
Capital expenditures(1,691)(1,670)(1,522)
Free cash flow$6,229 $6,132 $7,699 
Investing Activities
Cash flows related to investing activities primarily include capital expenditures and payments for acquisitions and divestitures of businesses and investments. The majority of our capital expenditures are for equipment and facilities infrastructure that generally are incurred to support new and existing programs across all of our business segments. We also
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incur capital expenditures for information technology to support programs and general enterprise information technology infrastructure, inclusive of costs for the development or purchase of internal-use software.
Net cash used for investing activities decreased $95 million in 2023 compared to 2022.
Financing Activities
Net cash used for financing activities increased $261 million in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to lower proceeds from issuance of long-term debt, partially offset by lower repayments of long-term debt and decreased repurchases of common stock.
We paid dividends totaling $3.1 billion ($12.15 per share) in 2023 and $3.0 billion ($11.40 per share) in 2022. We paid quarterly dividends of $3.00 per share during each of the first three quarters of 2023 and $3.15 per share during the fourth quarter of 2023; $2.80 per share during each of the first three quarters of 2022 and $3.00 per share during the fourth quarter of 2022.
During 2023, we paid $6.0 billion to repurchase 13.4 million shares of our common stock. See “Note 12 – Stockholders’ Equity” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. During 2022, we paid $7.9 billion to repurchase 18.3 million shares of our common stock.
During 2023, we received net proceeds of $2.0 billion from issuance of senior unsecured notes. In May 2022, we received net proceeds of $2.3 billion from issuance of senior unsecured notes and used the net proceeds from the offering to redeem all of the outstanding $500 million Notes due 2023, $750 million Notes due 2025 and used the remaining balance of the net proceeds to redeem $1.0 billion of our outstanding $2.0 billion Notes due 2026. In October 2022, we received net proceeds of $3.9 billion from issuance of senior unsecured notes and used the net proceeds from the offering to enter into an accelerated share repurchase (ASR) agreement to repurchase $4.0 billion of our common stock. See “Note 10 – Debt” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
During 2023, we repaid $115 million of long-term notes with a fixed interest rate of 7.00% according to their scheduled maturities.

Capital Structure, Resources and Other
At December 31, 2023, we held cash and cash equivalents of $1.4 billion that were generally available to fund ordinary business operations without significant legal, regulatory, or other restrictions.
Our total outstanding short-term and long-term debt, net of unamortized discounts and issuance costs, was $17.5 billion as of December 31, 2023 and is in the form of publicly-issued notes that bear interest at fixed rates. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all covenants contained in our debt and credit agreements. See “Note 10 – Debt included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on our long-term debt and revolving credit facilities.
We actively seek to finance our business in a manner that preserves financial flexibility while minimizing borrowing costs to the extent practicable. We review changes in financial market and economic conditions to manage the types, amounts and maturities of our indebtedness. We may at times refinance existing indebtedness, vary our mix of variable-rate and fixed-rate debt or seek alternative financing sources for our cash and operational needs.
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Contractual Commitments
At December 31, 2023, we had contractual commitments to repay debt, make payments under operating leases, settle obligations related to agreements to purchase goods and services and settle tax and other liabilities. Financing lease obligations were not material. Payments due under these obligations and commitments are as follows (in millions):
TotalDue Within
 1 Year
Total debt$18,723 $168 
Interest payments15,849 857 
Other liabilities 2,372 233 
Operating lease obligations1,306 339 
Purchase obligations:
Operating activities63,438 29,041 
Capital expenditures1,011 641 
Total contractual cash obligations$102,699 $31,279 
The table above includes debt presented gross of any unamortized discounts and issuance costs, but excludes the net unfunded obligation and estimated minimum funding requirements related to our qualified defined benefit pension plans. For additional information about obligations and our future minimum contribution requirements for these plans, see “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Amounts related to other liabilities represent the contractual obligations for certain long-term liabilities recorded as of December 31, 2023. Such amounts mainly include expected payments under non-qualified pension plans, environmental liabilities and deferred compensation plans.
Purchase obligations related to operating activities include agreements and contracts that give the supplier recourse to us for cancellation or nonperformance under the contract or contain terms that would subject us to liquidated damages. Such agreements and contracts may, for example, be related to direct materials, obligations to subcontractors and outsourcing arrangements. Total purchase obligations for operating activities in the preceding table include approximately $57.3 billion related to contractual commitments entered into as a result of contracts we have with our U.S. Government customers. The U.S. Government generally would be required to pay us for any costs we incur relative to these commitments if they were to terminate the related contracts “for convenience” under the FAR, subject to available funding. This also would be true in cases where we perform subcontract work for a prime contractor under a U.S. Government contract. The termination for convenience language also may be included in contracts with foreign, state and local governments. We also have contracts with customers that do not include termination for convenience provisions, including contracts with commercial customers.
The majority of our capital expenditures for 2023 and those planned for 2024 are for equipment, facilities infrastructure and information technology. The amounts above in the table represent the portion of expected capital expenditures to be incurred in 2024 and beyond that have been obligated under contracts as of December 31, 2023 and not necessarily total capital expenditures for future periods. Expenditures for equipment and facilities infrastructure are generally incurred to support new and existing programs across all of our business segments. For example, we have projects underway at Aeronautics to support classified development programs and at RMS to support our Sikorsky helicopter programs; and we have projects underway to modernize certain of our facilities. We also incur capital expenditures for information technology to support programs and general enterprise information technology infrastructure, inclusive of costs for the development or purchase of internal-use software.
We also may enter into industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements, as a condition to obtaining orders for our products and services from certain customers in foreign countries. These agreements are designed to enhance the social and economic environment of the foreign country by requiring the contractor to promote investment in the country. Offset agreements may be satisfied through activities that do not require us to use cash, including transferring technology, providing manufacturing and other consulting support to in-country projects and the purchase by third parties (e.g., our vendors) of supplies from in-country vendors. These agreements also may be satisfied through our use of cash for such activities as purchasing supplies from in-country vendors, providing financial support for in-country projects, establishment of joint ventures with local companies and building or leasing facilities for in-country operations. We typically do not commit to offset agreements until orders for our products or services are definitive. The amounts ultimately applied against our offset agreements are based on negotiations with the customer and typically require cash outlays that represent only a fraction of the original amount in the offset agreement. Satisfaction of our offset obligations are included in the estimates of our total costs to complete the contract and may impact our sales, profitability and cash flows. Our ability to recover investments on our consolidated balance sheet that we make to satisfy offset obligations is generally dependent upon the successful operation of
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ventures that we do not control and may involve products and services that are dissimilar to our business activities. At December 31, 2023, the notional value of remaining obligations under our outstanding offset agreements totaled approximately $21.3 billion, which primarily relate to our Aeronautics, MFC and RMS business segments, most of which extend through 2044. To the extent we have entered into purchase or other obligations at December 31, 2023 that also satisfy offset agreements, those amounts are included in the contractual commitments table above. Offset programs usually extend over several years and may provide for penalties, estimated at approximately $2.3 billion at December 31, 2023, in the event we fail to perform in accordance with offset requirements. While historically we have not been required to pay material penalties, resolution of offset requirements are often the result of negotiations and subjective judgments.
We have entered into standby letters of credit and surety bonds issued on our behalf by financial institutions, and we have directly issued guarantees to third parties primarily relating to advances received from customers and the guarantee of future performance on certain contracts. Letters of credit and surety bonds generally are available for draw down in the event we do not perform. In some cases, we may guarantee the contractual performance of third parties such as joint venture partners. At December 31, 2023, we had the following outstanding letters of credit, surety bonds and third-party guarantees (in millions):
Total      
Commitment
Less Than
1 Year  
Standby letters of credit (a)
$2,546 $1,234 
Surety bonds354 354 
Third-party Guarantees1,000 229 
Total commitments$3,900 $1,817 
(a)Approximately $861 million of standby letters of credit in the “Less Than 1 Year” category are expected to renew for additional periods until completion of the contractual obligation.
At December 31, 2023, third-party guarantees totaled $1.0 billion, of which approximately 75% related to guarantees of contractual performance of joint ventures to which we currently are or previously were a party. These amounts represent our estimate of the maximum amounts we would expect to incur upon the contractual non-performance of the joint venture, joint venture partners or divested businesses. Generally, we also have cross-indemnities in place that may enable us to recover amounts that may be paid on behalf of a joint venture partner.
In determining our exposures, we evaluate the reputation, performance on contractual obligations, technical capabilities and credit quality of our current and former joint venture partners and the transferee under novation agreements, all of which include a guarantee as required by the FAR. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, there were no material amounts recorded in our financial statements related to third-party guarantees or novation agreements.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements. We employ judgment in making our estimates in consideration of historical experience, currently available information and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from our estimates and assumptions, and any such differences could be material to our consolidated financial statements. We believe the following accounting policies are critical to the understanding of our consolidated financial statements and require the use of significant management judgment in their application. For a summary of our significant accounting policies, see “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Contract Accounting / Sales Recognition
The majority of our net sales are generated from long-term contracts with the U.S. Government and international customers (including FMS contracted through the U.S. Government) for the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. We recognize revenue as performance obligations are satisfied and the customer obtains control of the products and services. Substantially all of our revenue is recognized over time as we perform under the contract because control of the work in process transfers continuously to the customer. For performance obligations to deliver products with continuous control to the customer, revenue is recognized based on the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation, generally using the percentage of completion cost-to-cost measure of progress.
Significant estimates and assumptions are made in estimating contract sales, costs, and profit. We estimate profit as the difference between estimated revenues and total estimated costs to complete the contract. We also estimate variable
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consideration at the most likely amount, which is included in the transaction price to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. All of the estimates require significant judgement and are subject to change during the performance of the contract and may affect the profit booking rate. When estimates of total costs to be incurred on a contract exceed total estimates of the transaction price, a provision for the entire loss is determined at the contract level and is recorded in the period in which the loss is evident, which we refer to as a reach-forward loss.
Comparability of our segment sales, operating profit and operating margin may be impacted favorably or unfavorably by changes in profit booking rates on our contracts. Segment operating profit and margin may also be impacted favorably or unfavorably by other items, which may or may not impact sales. Favorable items may include the positive resolution of contractual matters, cost recoveries on severance and restructuring, insurance recoveries and gains on sales of assets. Unfavorable items may include the adverse resolution of contractual matters; supply chain disruptions; restructuring charges (except for significant severance actions, which are excluded from segment operating results); reserves for disputes; certain asset impairments; and losses on sales of certain assets.
For the impacts of changes in estimates and assumptions on our consolidated financial statements, see “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other Contract Accounting Considerations
The majority of our sales are driven by pricing based on costs incurred to produce products or perform services under contracts with the U.S. Government. Cost-based pricing is determined under the FAR. The FAR provides guidance on the types of costs that are allowable in establishing prices for goods and services under U.S. Government contracts. For example, costs such as those related to charitable contributions, interest expense and certain advertising and public relations activities are unallowable and, therefore, not recoverable through sales. In addition, we may enter into advance agreements with the U.S. Government that address the subjects of allowability and allocability of costs to contracts for specific matters. For example, most of the environmental costs we incur for environmental remediation related to sites operated in prior years are allocated to our current operations as general and administrative costs under FAR provisions and supporting advance agreements reached with the U.S. Government.
We closely monitor compliance with and the consistent application of our critical accounting policies related to contract accounting. Costs incurred and allocated to contracts are reviewed for compliance with U.S. Government regulations by our personnel and are subject to audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.
Postretirement Benefit Plans
Overview
Many of our employees and retirees participate in qualified and nonqualified defined benefit pension plans, retiree medical and life insurance plans and other postemployment plans (collectively, postretirement benefit plans - see “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). The majority of our accrued benefit obligations relate to our qualified defined benefit pension and retiree medical and life insurance plans. We recognize on a plan-by-plan basis the net funded status of these postretirement benefit plans under GAAP as either an asset or a liability on our consolidated balance sheets. The GAAP funded status represents the difference between the fair value of each plan’s assets and the benefit obligation of the plan. The GAAP benefit obligation represents the present value of the estimated future benefits we currently expect to pay to plan participants based on past service. The qualified defined benefit pension plans for salaried employees are fully frozen effective January 1, 2020 and our salaried employees participate in a defined contribution retirement savings plan.
Similar to recent years, we continue to take actions to mitigate the effect of our defined benefit pension plans on our financial results by reducing the size and volatility of our pension obligations. From December 2018 and inclusive of the transactions described in “Note 11 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, we, through our master retirement trust, have transferred approximately $15.9 billion related to our outstanding defined benefit pension obligations to third party insurance companies. This has eliminated pension plan volatility for approximately 109,000 retirees and beneficiaries and reduced our annually required Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC) premiums by approximately $79 million per year.
We expect to continue to look for opportunities to manage our pension liabilities through additional pension risk transfer transactions in future years. Future transactions could result in a noncash settlement charge to earnings, which could be material to a reporting period.
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Notwithstanding these actions, the impact of our postretirement benefit plans on our earnings may be volatile in that the amount of expense we record and the funded status for our postretirement benefit plans may materially change from year to year because the calculations are sensitive to changes in several key economic assumptions, including interest rates, actual rates of return on plan assets and other actuarial assumptions including participant longevity, as well as the timing of cash funding.

Actuarial Assumptions
The benefit obligations and assets of our postretirement benefit plans are measured at the end of each year, or more frequently, upon the occurrence of certain events such as a significant plan amendment (including in connection with a pension risk transfer transaction), settlement, or curtailment. The amounts we record are measured using actuarial valuations, which are dependent upon key assumptions such as discount rates, the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, and participant longevity. The assumptions we make affect both the calculation of the benefit obligations as of the measurement date and the calculation of FAS expense in subsequent periods. When reassessing these assumptions, we consider past and current market conditions and make judgments about future market trends. We also consider factors such as the timing and amounts of expected contributions to the plans and benefit payments to plan participants.
We continue to use a single weighted average discount rate approach when calculating our consolidated benefit obligations related to our defined benefit pension plans resulting in 5.00% at December 31, 2023, compared to 5.25% at December 31, 2022. We utilized a single weighted average discount rate of 5.00% when calculating our benefit obligations related to our retiree medical and life insurance plans at December 31, 2023, compared to 5.25% at December 31, 2022. We evaluate several data points in order to arrive at an appropriate single weighted average discount rate, including results from cash flow models, quoted rates from long-term bond indices and changes in long-term bond rates over the past year. As part of our evaluation, we calculate the approximate average yields on corporate bonds rated AA or better selected to match our projected postretirement benefit plan cash flows. The decrease in the discount rate from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023 resulted in an increase in the projected benefit obligations of our qualified defined benefit pension plans of approximately $765 million at December 31, 2023.
We utilized an expected long-term rate of return on plan assets of 6.50% at both December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022. The long-term rate of return assumption represents the expected long-term rate of return on the funds invested or to be invested, to provide for the benefits included in the benefit obligations. This assumption is based on several factors including historical market index returns, the anticipated long-term allocation of plan assets, the historical return data for the trust funds, plan expenses and the potential to outperform market index returns. The difference between the long-term rate of return on plan assets assumption we select and the actual return on plan assets in any given year could be impacted by the timing of market returns, in addition to the timing of benefit payments and significant contributions. Additionally, the difference between the expected and actual return affects both the funded status of our benefit plans and the calculation of FAS pension expense in subsequent periods. Although the actual return in any specific year likely will differ from the assumption, the average expected return over a long-term future horizon should be approximately equal to the assumption. Any variance in a particular year should not, by itself, suggest that the assumption should be changed. Patterns of variances are reviewed over time, and then combined with expectations for the future. As a result, changes in this assumption are less frequent than changes in the discount rate. The actual investment return for our qualified defined benefit plans during 2023 was approximately 7.00%.
Our stockholders’ equity has been reduced cumulatively by $8.7 billion from the annual year-end measurements of the funded status of postretirement benefit plans. The cumulative noncash, after-tax reduction primarily represents net actuarial losses resulting from changes in discount rates, investment experience, and updated longevity. A market-related value of our plan assets, determined using actual asset gains or losses over the prior three-year period, is used to calculate the amount of deferred asset gains or losses to be amortized. These cumulative actuarial losses will be amortized to expense using the corridor method, where gains and losses are recognized to the extent they exceed 10% of the greater of plan assets or benefit obligations, over an average period of approximately twenty years as of December 31, 2023. During 2023, $149 million of these amounts, along with amortization of net prior service credit, were recognized as a component of postretirement benefit plan expense.
The discount rate and long-term rate of return on plan assets assumptions we select at the end of each year are based on our best estimates and judgment. A change of plus or minus 25 basis points in the 5.00% discount rate assumption at December 31, 2023, with all other assumptions held constant, would have decreased or increased the amount of the qualified pension benefit obligation we recorded at the end of 2023 by approximately $765 million, which would result in an after-tax increase or decrease in stockholders’ equity at the end of the year of approximately $600 million. If the 5.00% discount rate at December 31, 2023 that was used to compute the expected 2024 FAS pension income for our qualified defined benefit pension plans had been 25 basis points higher or lower, with all other assumptions held constant, the amount of FAS pension income projected for 2024 would change approximately $5 million. If the 6.50% expected long-term rate of return on plan assets assumption at December 31, 2023 that was used to compute the expected 2024 FAS pension income for our qualified defined benefit pension plans had been 25 basis points higher or lower, with all other assumptions held constant, the amount of FAS
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pension income projected for 2024 would be higher or lower by approximately $60 million. Each year, differences between the actual and expected long-term rate of return on plan assets impacts the measurement of the following year’s FAS pension income. Every 100 basis points increase (decrease) in return during 2023 between our actual rate of return of approximately 7.00% and our expected long-term rate of return increased (decreased) 2024 expected FAS pension income by approximately $10 million.
Funding Considerations
We made no contributions in 2023 and 2022 to our qualified defined benefit pension plans. Funding of our qualified defined benefit pension plans is determined in a manner consistent with CAS and in accordance with the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), as amended, along with consideration of CAS and Internal Revenue Code rules. Our goal has been to fund each of our qualified defined benefit pension plans to a level of at least 80% as determined in accordance with ERISA; which may require the use of different assumptions, such as the discount rate and longevity, than used under GAAP. All of our qualified defined benefit pension plans had an ERISA funded status of at least 80% as of both December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Contributions to our defined benefit pension plans are recovered over time through the pricing of our products and services on U.S. Government contracts, including FMS, and are recognized in our cost of sales and net sales. CAS govern the extent to which our pension costs are allocable to and recoverable under contracts with the U.S. Government, including FMS. Pension cost recoveries under CAS occur in different periods from when pension contributions are made in accordance with ERISA.
We recovered $1.7 billion in 2023 and $1.8 billion in 2022 as CAS pension costs. Amounts contributed in excess of the CAS pension costs recovered under U.S. Government contracts are considered to be prepayment credits under the CAS rules. Our prepayment credits were approximately $2.9 billion and $4.3 billion at December 31, 2023 and 2022. The prepayment credit balance will increase or decrease based on our actual investment return on plan assets.
Environmental Matters
We are a party to various agreements, proceedings and potential proceedings for environmental remediation issues, including matters at various sites where we have been designated a potentially responsible party (PRP). We also are involved in environmental remediation activities at sites where formal agreements either do not exist or do not quantify the extent and timing of our obligations. Environmental remediation activities usually span many years, which makes estimating the costs more judgmental due to, for example, changing remediation technologies. To determine the costs related to clean up sites, we have to assess the extent of contamination, effects on natural resources, the appropriate technology to be used to accomplish the remediation, and evolving environmental standards.

We perform quarterly reviews of environmental remediation sites and record liabilities and receivables in the period it becomes probable that the liabilities have been incurred and the amounts can be reasonably estimated (see the discussion under “Environmental Matters” in “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” and “Note 14 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). We consider the above factors in our quarterly estimates of the timing and amount of any future costs that may be required for environmental remediation activities, which result in the calculation of a range of estimates for each particular environmental remediation site. We do not discount the recorded liabilities, as the amount and timing of future cash payments are not fixed or cannot be reliably determined. Given the required level of judgment and estimation, it is likely that materially different amounts could be recorded if different assumptions were used or if circumstances were to change (e.g., a change in environmental standards or a change in our estimate of the extent of contamination).
Under agreements reached with the U.S. Government, most of the amounts we spend for environmental remediation are allocated to our operations as general and administrative costs. Under existing U.S. Government regulations, these and other environmental expenditures relating to our U.S. Government business, after deducting any recoveries received from insurance or other PRPs, are allowable in establishing prices of our products and services. As a result, most of the expenditures we incur are included in our net sales and cost of sales according to U.S. Government agreement or regulation, regardless of the contract form (e.g. cost-reimbursable, fixed-price). We continually evaluate the recoverability of our assets for the portion of environmental costs that are probable of future recovery by assessing, among other factors, U.S. Government regulations, our U.S. Government business base and contract mix, our history of receiving reimbursement of such costs, and efforts by some U.S. Government representatives to limit such reimbursement.
As disclosed above, we may record changes in the amount of environmental remediation liabilities as a result of our quarterly reviews of the status of our environmental remediation sites, which would result in a change to the corresponding amount that is probable of future recovery and a charge to earnings. For example, if we were to determine that the liabilities
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should be increased by $100 million, the corresponding amount that is probable of future recovery would be increased by approximately $89 million, with the remainder recorded as a charge to earnings. This allocation is determined annually, based upon our existing and projected business activities with the U.S. Government.
We cannot reasonably determine the extent of our financial exposure at all environmental remediation sites with which we are involved. There are a number of former operating facilities we are monitoring or investigating for potential future environmental remediation. In some cases, although a loss may be probable, it is not possible at this time to reasonably estimate the amount of any obligation for remediation activities because of uncertainties (e.g., assessing the extent of the contamination). During any particular quarter, such uncertainties may be resolved, allowing us to estimate and recognize the initial liability to remediate a particular former operating site. The amount of the liability could be material. Upon recognition of the liability, a portion will be recognized as a receivable with the remainder charged to earnings, which may have a material effect in any particular interim reporting period.
If we are ultimately found to have liability at those sites where we have been designated a PRP, we expect that the actual costs of environmental remediation will be shared with other liable PRPs. Generally, PRPs that are ultimately determined to be responsible parties are strictly liable for site remediation and usually agree among themselves to share, on an allocated basis, the costs and expenses for environmental investigation and remediation. Under existing environmental laws, responsible parties are jointly and severally liable and, therefore, we are potentially liable for the full cost of funding such remediation. In the unlikely event that we were required to fund the entire cost of such remediation, the statutory framework provides that we may pursue rights of cost recovery or contribution from the other PRPs. The amounts we record do not reflect the fact that we may recover some of the environmental costs we have incurred through insurance or from other PRPs, which we are required to pursue by agreement and U.S. Government regulation.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
The assets and liabilities of acquired businesses are recorded under the acquisition method of accounting at their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. Goodwill represents costs in excess of fair values assigned to the underlying identifiable net assets of acquired businesses. Intangible assets from acquired businesses are recognized at fair value on the acquisition date and consist of customer programs, trademarks, customer relationships, technology and other intangible assets. Customer programs include values assigned to major programs of acquired businesses and represent the aggregate value associated with the customer relationships, contracts, technology and trademarks underlying the associated program. Intangible assets are amortized over a period of expected cash flows used to measure fair value, which typically ranges from five to 20 years.
Our goodwill balance was $10.8 billion at both December 31, 2023 and 2022. We perform an impairment test of our goodwill at least annually in the fourth quarter or more frequently whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may be impaired. Such events or changes in circumstances may include a significant deterioration in overall economic conditions, changes in the business climate of our industry, a decline in our market capitalization, operating performance indicators, competition, reorganizations of our business, U.S. Government budget restrictions or the disposal of all or a portion of a reporting unit. Our goodwill has been allocated to and is tested for impairment at a level referred to as the reporting unit, which is our business segment level or a level below the business segment. The level at which we test goodwill for impairment requires us to determine whether the operations below the business segment constitute a self-sustaining business for which discrete financial information is available and segment management regularly reviews the operating results.

We may use both qualitative and quantitative approaches when testing goodwill for impairment. For selected reporting units where we use the qualitative approach, we perform a qualitative evaluation of events and circumstances impacting the reporting unit to determine the likelihood of goodwill impairment. Based on that qualitative evaluation, if we determine it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, no further evaluation is necessary. Otherwise, we perform a quantitative impairment test. We perform quantitative tests for most reporting units at least once every three years. However, for certain reporting units we may perform a quantitative impairment test every year.
To perform the quantitative impairment test, we compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill of the reporting unit is not impaired. If the carrying value of the reporting unit, including goodwill, exceeds its fair value, a goodwill impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. We generally estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using a combination of a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis and market-based valuation methodologies such as comparable public company trading values and values observed in recent business acquisitions. Determining fair value requires the exercise of significant judgments, including the amount and timing of expected future cash flows, long-term growth rates, discount rates and relevant comparable public company earnings multiples and relevant transaction multiples. The cash flows employed in the DCF analysis are based on our best estimate of future sales, earnings and cash flows after considering factors such as general market conditions, U.S. Government budgets, existing firm orders, expected future orders, contracts with suppliers, labor agreements, changes in
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working capital, long term business plans and recent operating performance. The discount rates utilized in the DCF analysis are based on the respective reporting unit’s weighted average cost of capital, which takes into account the relative weights of each component of capital structure (equity and debt) and represents the expected cost of new capital, adjusted as appropriate to consider the risk inherent in future cash flows of the respective reporting unit. The carrying value of each reporting unit includes the assets and liabilities employed in its operations, goodwill and allocations of amounts held at the business segment and corporate levels.
In the fourth quarter of 2023, we performed our annual goodwill impairment test for each of our reporting units. Impairment assessments inherently involve management judgments regarding a number of assumptions such as those described above. Due to the many variables inherent in the estimation of a reporting unit’s fair value and the relative size of our recorded goodwill, differences in assumptions could have a material effect on the estimated fair value of one or more of our reporting units and could result in a goodwill impairment charge in a future period. Additionally, acquired intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are not amortized, but are subject to annual impairment testing or more frequently if events or change in circumstance indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. This testing compares carrying value to fair value and, when appropriate, the carrying value of these assets is reduced to fair value. In the fourth quarter of 2023, we performed our annual impairment tests, and the results of those tests indicated no impairment existed.
Finite-lived intangibles are amortized to expense over their applicable useful lives, ranging from five to 20 years, based on the nature of the asset and the underlying pattern of economic benefit as reflected by future net cash inflows. We perform an impairment test of finite-lived intangibles whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate their carrying value may be impaired. If events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of a finite-lived intangible may be impaired, the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset group would be compared to the asset group’s carrying value. If the asset group’s carrying amount exceed the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows, we would determine the fair value of the asset group and record an impairment loss in net earnings.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (under the caption “Recent Accounting Pronouncements”).
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ITEM 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We maintain active relationships with a broad and diverse group of U.S. and international financial institutions. We believe that they provide us with sufficient access to the general and trade credit we require to conduct our business. We closely monitor the financial market environment and actively manage counterparty exposure to minimize the potential impact from adverse developments with any single credit provider while ensuring availability of, and access to, sufficient credit resources.
Our main exposure to market risk relates to interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and market prices on certain equity securities. Our financial instruments that are subject to interest rate risk principally include fixed-rate long-term debt and commercial paper, if issued. The estimated fair value of our outstanding debt was $18.5 billion at December 31, 2023 and the outstanding principal amount of debt, including short-term and long-term debt, was $18.7 billion, excluding unamortized discounts and issuance costs of $1.3 billion. A 10% change in the level of interest rates would not have a material impact on the fair value of our outstanding debt at December 31, 2023.
We use derivative instruments principally to reduce our exposure to market risks from changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. We do not enter into or hold derivative instruments for speculative trading purposes. We transact business globally and are subject to risks associated with changing foreign currency exchange rates. We enter into foreign currency hedges such as forward and option contracts that change in value as foreign currency exchange rates change. Our most significant foreign currency exposures relate to the British pound sterling, the euro, the Canadian dollar, the Australian dollar, the Norwegian kroner and the Polish zloty. These contracts hedge forecasted foreign currency transactions in order to minimize fluctuations in our earnings and cash flows associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We designate foreign currency hedges as cash flow hedges. We also are exposed to the impact of interest rate changes primarily through our borrowing activities. For