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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from   ___________ to ___________               
Commission File Number 001-05224
STANLEY BLACK & DECKER, INC.
(Exact Name Of Registrant As Specified In Its Charter)
Connecticut 06-0548860
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1000 STANLEY DRIVE
NEW BRITAIN, CT 06053
(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)

                Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code 860 225-5111

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title Of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name Of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock$2.50 Par Value per ShareSWKNew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant To Section 12(g) Of The Act:
None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.        Yes  ¨    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    
Yes  þ    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large Accelerated Filerþ  Accelerated Filer¨
Non-Accelerated Filer
¨  
  Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  þ

As of July 1, 2022, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $15.9 billion based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date. On February 13, 2023, the registrant had 153,023,886 shares of common stock outstanding. 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2023 annual meeting of shareholders (the "2023 Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2023 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
SIGNATURES
EX-4.5
EX-10.17(b)
EX-10.17(c)
EX-10.17(d)
EX-10.17(e)
EX-10.21
EX-21
EX-23
EX-24
EX-31.1(a)
EX-31.1(b)
EX-32.1
EX-32.2

2


FORM 10-K
PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. ("the Company") was founded in 1843 by Frederick T. Stanley and incorporated in Connecticut in 1852. In March 2010, the Company completed a merger with The Black & Decker Corporation (“Black & Decker”), a company founded by S. Duncan Black and Alonzo G. Decker and incorporated in Maryland in 1910. At that time, the Company changed its name from The Stanley Works to Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. The Company’s principal executive office is located at 1000 Stanley Drive, New Britain, Connecticut 06053 and its telephone number is (860) 225-5111.
The Company is a global provider of hand tools, power tools, outdoor products and related accessories, as well as a leading provider of engineered fastening solutions and attachment tools for infrastructure applications, with 2022 consolidated annual revenues of $16.9 billion. Approximately 63% of the Company’s 2022 revenues were generated in the United States, with the remainder largely from Europe (15%), emerging markets (12%) and Canada (5%).
The Company continues to execute a business strategy that involves organic growth in excess of the market and industry, geographic and customer diversification to foster sustainable revenue, earnings and cash flow growth over the long term. Over the past two years, the Company has focused the portfolio on its leading positions in the Tools & Outdoor and Industrial businesses.
Leveraging the benefits of a more focused portfolio, the Company initiated a business transformation that includes reinvestment for faster growth as well as the $2.0 billion Global Cost Reduction Program through 2025. The Company’s primary areas of strategic focus are as follows:
Continuing to advance innovation, electrification and global market penetration to achieve organic revenue growth of 2 to 3 times the market;
Streamlining and simplifying the organization, as well as shifting resources to prioritize investments believed to have a positive and more direct impact to customers;
Accelerating the operations and supply chain transformation to improve fill rates and better match the needs of its customers while improving adjusted gross margins back to historical 35%+ levels; and
Prioritizing cash flow generation and inventory optimization.
During this period, the focus for capital deployment will be on debt reduction, internal investment and shareholder return through dividends.
The Company has focused its portfolio through a series of acquisitions and divestitures. In August 2022, the Company sold its Oil & Gas business comprised of the pipeline services and equipment businesses. In July 2022, the Company sold its Convergent Security Solutions ("CSS") business comprised of the commercial electronic security and healthcare businesses for net proceeds of $3.1 billion and its Mechanical Access Solutions ("MAS") business comprised of the automatic doors business for net proceeds of $922 million. These businesses were part of the previously reported Security segment. These divestitures are part of the Company's strategic commitment to simplify and streamline its portfolio to focus on the core Tools & Outdoor and Industrial businesses.
In November 2020, the Company sold its commercial electronic security businesses in five countries in Europe and emerging markets within the Security segment. In October 2020, the Company sold a product line in Oil & Gas within the Industrial segment.
The Company has also divested several smaller businesses in recent years that allowed the Company to invest in other areas that fit its long-term strategy.
In recent years, the Company completed the acquisitions of the remaining 80 percent ownership stake of MTD Holdings Inc. ("MTD") for $1.5 billion, Excel Industries ("Excel") for $374 million, and Consolidated Aerospace Manufacturing, LLC ("CAM") for $1.4 billion. The MTD acquisition expanded the Company's presence in the $25 billion and growing outdoor category, with strong brands and growth opportunities. Excel was a strategically important bolt-on acquisition that bolstered the Company's presence in the independent dealer network. The CAM acquisition further diversified the Company's presence in the industrial markets and expanded its portfolio of specialty fasteners in the aerospace and defense markets.
Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, and Note T, Divestitures, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 for further discussion.
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The Company’s business strategy is interdependent with its social responsibility strategy that encompasses workforce upskilling, product innovation, and environmental preservation, including mitigating the impacts of climate change. These are core business areas that ensure the long-term viability of the Company, its customers, suppliers, employee base, and communities. In 2017, the Company established an environmental, social, and corporate governance ("ESG") strategy to drive positive impact for people, products, and the planet.
The recent portfolio transformation prompted the Company to re-baseline its ESG data and update its ESG targets to align with the more focused Company, while maintaining continuity with the legacy ESG pillars of people, products, and planet. The updated strategy and targets will be described in more detail within the Company’s ESG report to be released in 2023. The Company's renewed ESG priorities are as follows:
Supporting the long-term viability of the skilled trades that the Company serves and which are integral to thriving economic communities by focusing philanthropic efforts on growing these trades;
Driving responsible product innovation by considering sustainability throughout all aspects of the product lifecycle, including material procurement from supply chain partners, product design, manufacturing, distribution and transportation, product use, product service, and end-of-life; and
Improving the sustainability of its operations by reducing carbon emissions, waste to landfill, and water use in water-stressed and scarce areas.
Refer to the "Human Capital Management" section in this Item 1 below for additional information regarding the Company's commitment to supporting its employees and improving diversity, equity and inclusion.

Description of the Business
The Company’s operations are classified into two reportable business segments: Tools & Outdoor and Industrial. Both reportable segments have significant international operations and are exposed to translational and transactional impacts from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
Additional information regarding the Company’s business segments and geographic areas is incorporated herein by reference to the material captioned “Business Segment Results” in Item 7 and Note P, Business Segments and Geographic Areas, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
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Tools & Outdoor
The Tools & Outdoor segment is comprised of the Power Tools Group ("PTG"), Hand Tools, Accessories & Storage ("HTAS"), and Outdoor Power Equipment ("Outdoor") businesses. Annual revenues in the Tools & Outdoor segment were $14.4 billion in 2022, representing 85% of the Company’s total revenues. The segment is a worldwide leader in the tools and outdoor markets and carries iconic brands in the industry, including DEWALT®, CRAFTSMAN®, STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER® and CUB CADET®.
The PTG business includes both professional and consumer products. Professional products include professional grade corded and cordless electric power tools and equipment including drills, impact wrenches and drivers, grinders, saws, routers and sanders, as well as pneumatic tools and fasteners including nail guns, nails, staplers and staples, and concrete and masonry anchors. Consumer products include corded and cordless electric power tools sold primarily under the BLACK+DECKER® brand, and home products such as hand-held vacuums, paint tools and cleaning appliances.
The HTAS business sells hand tools, power tool accessories and storage products. Hand tools include measuring, leveling and layout tools, planes, hammers, demolition tools, clamps, vises, knives, saws, chisels and industrial and automotive tools. Power tool accessories include drill bits, screwdriver bits, router bits, abrasives, saw blades and threading products. Storage products include tool boxes, sawhorses, medical cabinets and engineered storage solution products.
The Outdoor business primarily sells corded and cordless electric lawn and garden products, including hedge trimmers, string trimmers, lawn mowers, pressure washers and related accessories, and gas powered lawn and garden products, including lawn tractors, zero turn ride on mowers, walk behind mowers, snow blowers, residential robotic mowers, utility terrain vehicles (UTVs), hand-held outdoor power equipment, garden tools, and parts and accessories to professionals and consumers under the DEWALT®, CUB CADET®, BLACK+DECKER®, CRAFTSMAN®, TROY-BILT®, and HUSTLER® brand names.
The segment sells its products to professional end users, distributors, independent dealers, retail consumers and industrial customers in a wide variety of industries and geographies. The majority of sales are distributed through retailers, including home centers, mass merchants, hardware stores, and retail lumber yards, as well as third-party distributors, independent dealers, and a direct sales force.
Industrial
The Industrial segment is comprised of the Engineered Fastening and Infrastructure businesses. Annual revenues in the Industrial segment were $2.5 billion in 2022, representing 15% of the Company’s total revenues.
The Engineered Fastening business primarily sells highly engineered components such as fasteners, fittings and various engineered products, which are designed for specific application across multiple verticals. The product lines include externally threaded fasteners, blind rivets and tools, blind inserts and tools, drawn arc weld studs and systems, engineered plastic and mechanical fasteners, self-piercing riveting systems, precision nut running systems, micro fasteners, high-strength structural fasteners, axel swage, latches, heat shields, pins, and couplings. The business sells to customers in the automotive, manufacturing, electronics, construction, and aerospace industries, amongst others, and its products are distributed through a direct sales force and, to a lesser extent, third-party distributors.
The Infrastructure business sells hydraulic tools and high quality, performance-driven heavy equipment attachment tools for off-highway applications. The products and services are primarily distributed through a direct sales force and, to a lesser extent, third-party distributors.
Other Information
Competition
The Company competes on the basis of its reputation for product quality, its well-known brands, its commitment to customer service, its strong customer relationships, the breadth of its product lines, its innovative products and customer value propositions.
The Company encounters active competition in the Tools & Outdoor and Industrial segments from both larger and smaller companies that offer the same or similar products and services or that produce different products appropriate for the same uses. Certain large customers offer private label brands (“house brands”) that compete across a wide spectrum of the Company’s Tools & Outdoor segment product offerings.
Major Customers
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A significant portion of the Company’s Tools & Outdoor products are sold to home centers and mass merchants in the U.S. and Europe. A consolidation of retailers both in North America and abroad has occurred over time. While this consolidation and the domestic and international expansion of these large retailers have provided the Company with opportunities for growth, the increasing size and importance of individual customers creates a certain degree of exposure to potential sales volume loss. Lowe's accounted for approximately 15%, 15% and 17% of the Company's consolidated net sales in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, while The Home Depot accounted for approximately 13%, 15% and 14% of the Company's consolidated net sales in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. No other customer exceeded 10% of the Company's consolidated net sales in 2022, 2021 or 2020.

Working Capital

The Company continues to practice the operating principles encompassed by Operations Excellence, one element of the SBD Operating Model, which work in concert: sales and operations planning, operational lean, complexity reduction, global supply management, order-to-cash excellence, and upskilling the Company's workforce. The Company develops standardized business processes and system platforms to reduce costs and provide scalability. Working capital turns were 3.5 at the end of 2022, down 1.7 turns from 2021, as the Company focuses on optimizing inventory levels following the increased supply chain constraints and a consumer-driven slowdown in 2022 demand. As a result of this focus, inventory as of December 31, 2022 was $5.9 billion, down $775 million from its peak at the end of the second quarter of 2022. The Company plans to continue leveraging Operations Excellence to generate ongoing improvements in working capital turns, cycle times, complexity reduction and customer service levels.
Raw Materials
The Company’s products are manufactured using resins, ferrous and non-ferrous metals including, but not limited to, steel, zinc, copper, brass, aluminum and nickel. The Company also purchases components such as batteries, motors, engines, transmissions, and electronic components to use in manufacturing and assembly operations along with resin-based molded parts. The raw materials required are procured globally and generally available from multiple sources at competitive prices. As part of the Company's Enterprise Risk Management, the Company has implemented a supplier risk mitigation strategy in order to identify and address any potential supply disruption or material scarcity issues associated with commodities, components, finished goods and critical services. The Company does not anticipate difficulties in obtaining supplies for any raw materials used in its production processes and has taken proactive measures to secure energy supply in its European factories to insulate the Company's production from supply constraints in the region.
Patents and Trademarks
No business segment is solely dependent, to any significant degree, on patents, licenses, franchises or concessions, and the loss of one or several of these patents, licenses, franchises or concessions would not have a material adverse effect on any of the Company's businesses. The Company owns numerous patents, none of which individually are material to the Company's operations as a whole. These patents expire at various times over the next 20 years. The Company holds licenses, franchises and concessions, none of which individually or in the aggregate are material to the Company's operations as a whole. These licenses, franchises and concessions vary in duration, but generally run from one to 40 years.
The Company has numerous trademarks that are used in its businesses worldwide. In the Tools & Outdoor segment, significant trademarks include STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER®, DEWALT®, FLEXVOLT®, IRWIN®, LENOX®, CRAFTSMAN®, PORTER-CABLE®, BOSTITCH®, FATMAX®, Powers®, Guaranteed Tough®, MAC TOOLS®, PROTO®, Vidmar®, FACOM®, Expert®, LISTA®, MTD®, CUB CADET®, TROY-BILT®, HUSTLER®, and the yellow & black color scheme for power tools and accessories. Significant trademarks in the Industrial segment include STANLEY®, NELSON®, LaBounty®, Dubuis®, CribMaster®, POP®, Avdel®, Tucker®, NPR®, Spiralock®, PALADIN®, CAM®, Bristol Industries®, Voss™, Aerofit™, EA Patten™, Integra®, Optia®, PENGO® and STANLEY® Assembly Technologies. The terms of these trademarks typically vary from 10 to 20 years, with most trademarks being renewable indefinitely for like terms.
Governmental Regulations
The Company's operations are subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations, both within and outside the U.S., in areas such as environmental protection, international trade, data privacy, tax, consumer protection, government contracts, climate change and others. The Company is subject to import and export controls, tariffs, and other trade-related regulations and restrictions in the countries in which it has operations or otherwise does business. These controls, tariffs, regulations, and restrictions have had, and may continue to have, a material impact on the Company's business, including its ability to sell products and to manufacture or source components. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors in Part I of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding various laws and regulations that affect the Company's business operations.
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The Company is also subject to various environmental laws and regulations in the U.S. and foreign countries where it has operations. In the normal course of business, the Company is involved in various legal proceedings relating to environmental issues. The Company’s policy is to accrue environmental investigatory and remediation costs for identified sites when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. In the event that no amount in the range of probable loss is considered most likely, the minimum loss in the range is accrued. The amount of liability recorded is based on an evaluation of currently available facts with respect to each individual site and includes such factors as existing technology, presently enacted laws and regulations, and prior experience in remediation of contaminated sites. The liabilities recorded do not take into account any claims for recoveries from insurance or third parties. As assessments and remediation progress at individual sites, the amounts recorded are reviewed periodically and adjusted to reflect additional technical and legal information that becomes available. As of December 31, 2022 and January 1, 2022, the Company had reserves of $129.3 million and $159.1 million, respectively, for remediation activities associated with Company-owned properties, as well as for Superfund sites, for losses that are probable and estimable. Of the 2022 amount, $39.4 million is classified as current and $89.9 million as long-term, which is expected to be paid over the estimated remediation period. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has recorded $16.4 million in other assets related to funding by the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") and monies received have been placed in trust in accordance with the Consent Decree associated with the West Coast Loading Corporation ("WCLC") proceedings, as further discussed in Note S, Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Accordingly, the Company's net cash obligation as of December 31, 2022 associated with the aforementioned remediation activities is $112.9 million. The range of environmental remediation costs that is reasonably possible is $58.5 million to $220.1 million, which is subject to change in the near term. The Company may be liable for environmental remediation of sites it no longer owns. Liabilities have been recorded on those sites in accordance with the Company's policy.
The amount recorded for identified contingent liabilities is based on estimates. Amounts recorded are reviewed periodically and adjusted to reflect additional technical and legal information that becomes available. Actual costs to be incurred in future periods may vary from the estimates, given the inherent uncertainties in evaluating certain exposures. Subject to the imprecision in estimating future contingent liability costs, the Company does not expect that any sum it may have to pay in connection with these matters in excess of the amounts recorded will have a materially adverse effect on its financial position, results of operations or liquidity. Additional information regarding environmental matters is available in Note S, Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
Compliance with government regulations, including environmental and climate change regulations, has not had, and based on current information and the applicable laws and regulations currently in effect, is not expected to have a material effect on the Company's capital expenditures, results of operations or competitive position. However, laws and regulations may be changed, accelerated or adopted that impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements upon the Company and which could negatively impact its operating results and financial condition.
Human Capital Management
Stanley Black & Decker has a strategic vision to grow as an employer of choice with leading market positions in each of its major categories. The Company’s human capital management fuels every part of the path to this vision. It begins with its Purpose (why we do what we do), Values (intrinsically what we prioritize), Leadership Principles (how we lead), Focus Forward Priorities (what we work on), Operating Model (how we work), and Key Performance Indicators (how we measure success).
To achieve this vision, the Company will be focusing intently on its Focus Forward strategy, which details the long-term focus areas that will guide the journey forward. The priorities include a strong foundation of People & Culture, with Talent Attraction, Development, and Retention being core focus areas. The Company’s People & Culture foundation is something that everyone is responsible for – especially people managers. The Company’s goal is to continue to create an environment where its employees are included and can thrive. The Company remains fully committed to its key priorities of: Health & Safety; Diversity, Equity & Inclusion; Environmental & Social Responsibility; and Integrity & Compliance.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company had approximately 54,200 employees in 59 countries. Approximately 35% of total employees were employed in the U.S. In addition, the Company had approximately 5,700 temporary contractors globally, primarily in operations. The workforce is comprised of approximately 72% hourly-paid employees, principally in manufacturing and distribution centers, and 28% salaried employees. There were approximately 1,000 U.S. employees covered by collective bargaining agreements dispersed among 9 different local labor unions, and a majority of European employees are represented by Works Councils. Two U.S. collective bargaining agreements are scheduled for renegotiation in the next 12 months. The Company strives to maintain a positive relationship with all its employees, as well as the unions and Works Councils representing them, where applicable.

Talent Attraction, Development, and Retention
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Attraction
In 2022, the Company invested in expanding its employer of choice branding and building out a global talent acquisition center of excellence. Examples of branding investments include expanding the launch of an app-based technology that allows colleagues to share curated news about the Company externally. Examples of recruiting investments include hiring dedicated talent acquisition resources within the regions to better focus on skill shortages locally.
The Company also has placed an emphasis on university recruiting at historically black colleges and universities and professional associations, such as the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, to expand its reach to identify diverse candidates. Approximately 39% of global new hires in 2022 were women versus 37% in 2021, and in the U.S. approximately 39% of new employees were racially or ethnically diverse versus 45% in 2021.
Development
Talent development is a key enabler of the People & Culture pillar of the Company's Focus Forward strategy. A key part of development is leader and performance feedback. Throughout 2022, the Talent Development team began planning the Company’s annual feedback process in its new Human Capital Management tool, which has a targeted implementation date by the end of 2023. Lifelong learning is supported internally through Stanley Black & Decker University and externally with third-party partners. The Company offers over 50,000 training courses to its colleagues, and employees attended more than 40,000 hours of online voluntary learning in 2022. Additionally, the Company focuses on leadership development anchored around its Leadership Principles and Values, while promoting leadership habits and behaviors that highlight the importance of attributes like empathy, inclusivity and listening.
In 2022, the Company invested in development and talent initiatives for its operations workforce through dedicated operations-focused Workforce Readiness enablement programs. These programs had a dedicated focus on upskilling initiatives, and with future career opportunities across its operations workforce, the Company is educating and developing the workforce together with advancements in manufacturing capabilities. The Company utilized AI-based video technology to help its operations employees learn on-the-job training. In 2022, the Company had 12,932 users with 3,142 published videos and 172,465 workflow views to assist operations employees with on-the-job training.
Retention
The Company monitors organizational health through a variety of channels including employee opinion surveys, townhalls, roundtables, listening sessions, and an internal communications and social collaboration platform called Workplace. The Company’s Human Resources ("HR") data team shared an interactive cloud-based organizational portal that provides certain leaders with over 30 metrics related to headcount, hiring, and retention to enhance insight from people data and add new dimensions of forward-looking, predictive capability. This data will be available to all people leaders for their direct and indirect teams as the Company launches its new Human Capital Management tool by the end of 2023.
Compensation
Compensation and benefits are globally managed and tailored by country to maintain market competitiveness, and effectively attract, retain, and reward employees. The Company’s portfolio of programs is designed in the context of its compensation philosophy underpinned by the tenets of competitive pay, pay for performance, alignment with shareholder interests, and the Company's intent to provide fair and equitable pay supporting an inclusive culture. In addition to standard compensation and benefits packages, a sizable portion of managers and select individual contributors receive annual incentives contingent on achievement of business objectives, and all employees are generally eligible for special recognition awards.
Diversity, Equity & Inclusion
The Company is committed to building and nurturing an inclusive culture of passion and belonging where employees feel valued and heard, and are positioned to succeed. As of December 31, 2022, the Company's Board of Directors (the “Board”) is comprised of 33% women versus 36% in 2021, 17% racially or ethnically diverse directors versus 9% in 2021, and 17% that are of a diverse national origin versus 9% in 2021. The Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and his direct staff are comprised of 42% women leaders, versus 36% in 2021, and 25% racially or ethnically diverse leaders versus 36% in 2021. Women represent approximately 35% of the Company's global workforce versus 33% in 2021. In the U.S., approximately 35% of employees are racially or ethnically diverse versus 34% in 2021. A copy of the Company's most recently filed Equal Employment Opportunity report to the U.S. government (EEO-1) can be found on the Company’s website.
The Chief Diversity Officer (“CDO”), with the support of a dedicated team of diversity, equity, and inclusion (“DEI”) professionals, promotes a broad approach to DEI with the goal of accelerating Company performance, optimizing organizational culture, enhancing transparency, and strengthening accountability. The Company is continuing to execute initiatives across the global workforce designed to foster an inclusive workplace and facilitate equitable career development opportunities.
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Management monitors hiring, retention, promotion and continued progress toward achieving the Company's DEI goals. DEI reviews are regularly completed by management to increase diverse representation at all levels of the organization by 1) creating consistent visibility to employee demographic data and trends, 2) highlighting women and racially diverse talent, and 3) increasing leadership accountability for creating a diverse and inclusive workplace.
The Company provides training and guidance to employees including inclusive workforce modules. An internal knowledge library of DEI resources is available on the Company intranet. Mentorship programs cultivate talent at the Company by pairing women, people of color, early career talent and DEI leadership development program participants with the Company’s leaders to influence leadership growth and mentor allyship.
The Company has nine Employee Resource Groups ("ERGs") and two regional inclusion councils. These ERGs are formed around various dimensions of diversity and are open to all employees. The ERGs include Abilities (visible and invisible abilities), African Ancestry, Asian Heritage, Hispanic/Latino/Latinx, Developing Professionals, Pride & Allies (LGBTQ+), Veterans, Women, and Working Parents. Company executives and leaders actively participate, sponsor and engage with the ERGs. The CEO and direct staff also provide executive sponsorship and support for one or more ERGs, which serves as one of the cornerstones for inclusion and engagement of talent at scale.
The Company launched a racial equity roadmap in 2020 with ten actions to confront racism and social injustice throughout its communities and across the world, which includes specific goals across culture, career, and community focus areas. Each of the ten items were initiated in 2021 and the focus continued in 2022. The Company prioritizes investing in its communities by supporting individuals and organizations that advance DEI goals across regions in which it operates. There is a wide array of program offerings provided through the Company's DEI external partnership network. Offerings span across multiple demographics (African American, Asian, Hispanic/Latino/Latinx, Disabilities, Women, LGBTQ+) and levels of participation range from early in career through executive level. Through the RISE (Reach. Inspire. Support. Engage.) Community program, the Company provides scholar students access to expanded experiential learning beyond their classrooms. The Company’s mission is to help its RISE scholars discover their passions, expose them to business, technology, STEM career opportunities and help to develop them as leaders.
The Company is a signatory of the Paradigm for Parity coalition, which is committed to addressing the gender gap in corporate leadership. The Company also participates in the Business Roundtable, where many of the largest U.S.-based employers are committed to building a more inclusive environment. The Company was also among the signatories of the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion initiative.

Employee Wellness, Health and Safety
The Company is committed to providing competitive benefits to attract and retain talent, which vary by country, including benefits and programs to support the broad wellness of its employees’ healthy lifestyles, mental health, and retirement readiness. The Company also supports its employees and promotes work/life balance through benefits such as paid parental leave, paid time off, flexible work arrangements and virtual/hybrid working model policies.
In 2022, the Company continued its commitment to navigating through the COVID-19 pandemic with employee health and safety as a non-negotiable, foundational priority. Guided by the Company's Chief Medical Officer, the Company transitioned away from a one-size-fits-all approach to COVID-19 prevention, given the great variability throughout the world in the state of the pandemic. With agility, the Company began the process of transitioning to a future state in which it stands ready with the right tools to re-introduce mitigation strategies where needed, while continuing these mitigation methods in areas of high risk. The Company foresees a future in which it will continue to monitor COVID-19 and any future risks with strategies in place to ensure business continuity and employee health.
The Company’s Environmental, Health and Safety (“EHS”) Management System Plan describes the core elements of EHS responsibility and accountability, including policies and procedures that are designed in alignment with global standards, the Company’s Code of Business Ethics, applicable laws and individual facility needs. EHS requirements apply to all employees and operating locations worldwide, including all manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, laboratories, field service centers, retail locations, office locations and mobile units, as well as to the Company's subsidiaries and joint ventures (in which the Company exercises decision-making control over operations). Legal requirements and responses may vary in the different countries in which the Company’s facilities are located.

Governance and Oversight
The CEO and the management Executive Committee are entrusted with developing and advancing the Company’s human capital strategy which is reviewed annually with periodic updates on progress with the Board. The Chief Human Resources Officer (“CHRO”), who reports directly to the CEO, is charged with the development and stewardship of this strategy on an enterprise-wide basis. This incorporates a broad range of dimensions, including culture, values, labor and employee relations, leadership expectations and capabilities, talent development, performance management and total rewards. Each year, the Company conducts an extensive talent review with its CEO where the leadership team, key talent, and succession plans are
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reviewed. Afterwards, the CEO or CHRO leads a talent review with the Compensation & Talent Development Committee of the Board and the entire membership of the Board, at least annually.
Refer to Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance of the Registrant in Part III of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding the Company's Executive Officers.
Code of Business Ethics, Workplace Harassment Prevention, and Managing Unconscious Bias training, among others, are provided to employees and the content is regularly reviewed and updated. All employees have access to the INTEGRITY@SBD platform where support, guidance and resources are available. Employees are encouraged to raise any concerns through multiple channels, including through the confidential Integrity Helpline, without fear of retaliation or retribution.
Additional information regarding the Company's Human Capital programs and initiatives is available in the Company's Environmental, Social and Governance Report located under the "Impact" heading of the Company’s website. The information on the Company’s website is not, and is not intended to be, part of this Form 10-K and is not incorporated into this report by reference.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs, which are classified in Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A"), were $357.4 million, $276.3 million and $200.0 million for fiscal years 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company continues to invest in its innovation model with both breakthrough and core innovations and places an emphasis on electrification.
Available Information
The Company’s website is located at http://www.stanleyblackanddecker.com. This URL is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. It is not intended to be an active hyperlink to the Company's website. The information on the Company's website is not, and is not intended to be, part of this Form 10-K and is not incorporated into this report by reference. The Company makes its Forms 10-K, 10-Q, 8-K and amendments to each available free of charge on its website as soon as reasonably practicable after filing them with, or furnishing them to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The Company’s business, operations and financial condition are subject to various risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those risks set forth under the heading entitled "Cautionary Statements Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995" in Item 7, and in other documents that the Company files with the SEC, before making any investment decision with respect to its securities. If any of the risks or uncertainties actually occur or develop, the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could change. Under these circumstances, the trading prices of the Company’s securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment in the Company’s securities.

Strategic Risks

The successful execution of the Company’s business strategy depends on its ability to recruit, retain, train, motivate, and develop employees and execute effective succession planning.

The success of the Company’s efforts to grow its business depends on the contributions and abilities of key executives and management personnel, its sales force and other personnel, including the ability of its sales force to adapt to any changes made in the sales organization and achieve adequate customer coverage. The Company must therefore continue to recruit, retain, train and motivate management, sales and other personnel sufficiently to maintain its current business and support its projected growth. In addition, the Company must invest heavily in reskilling and upskilling its employees, including placing an emphasis on lifelong learning. Additionally, any unplanned turnover or inability to attract and retain key employees could have a negative effect on the Company’s results of operations.

A shortage of key employees might jeopardize the Company’s ability to implement its business strategy, and changes in the key management team can result in loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge, departure of other key employees, disruptions to the Company’s operations and inefficiency during transitional periods. The Company’s reputation, business, revenue and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected if it is unable to recruit, retain, train, motivate, and develop employees and successfully execute organizational change and management transitions at leadership levels.

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The Company’s acquisitions, exiting of businesses, divestitures, strategic investments and alliances and joint ventures, as well as general business reorganizations, may result in financial results that are different than expected and certain risks for its business and operations.

As part of the Company's strategy, it may acquire businesses or assets, divest businesses or assets, enter into strategic alliances and joint ventures, and make investments to further its business (collectively, “business combinations and investment transactions”), and also handle any post-closing issues, such as integration and transition services. For example, in 2022, the Company completed the divestitures of its Security and Oil & Gas businesses. The Company may make additional divestitures or pursue acquisitions in the future.

Risks associated with business combinations and investment transactions include the following, any of which could adversely affect the Company's financial results, including its effective tax rate:
the failure to identify the most suitable candidates for acquisitions and to close on such acquisitions within desired time frames and at a reasonable cost;
difficulty in finding buyers or alternative exit strategies on acceptable terms in a timely manner, or disposing of a business at a price or on terms that are less desirable than the Company had anticipated;
the ability to conduct and evaluate the results of due diligence with respect to business combinations and investment transactions;
the failure to identify significant issues with a target company’s product quality, financial disclosures, accounting practices or internal control deficiencies or the factors necessary to estimate reasonably accurate costs, timing and other matters, and the failure to identify, or accurately assess the risks of, historical practices of target companies that would create liability or other exposures for the Company if they continue post-completion or as a result of successor liability;
the difficulties and cost in obtaining any necessary regulatory or government approvals on acceptable terms and any delay from the inability to satisfy pre-closing conditions;
the anticipated additional revenues from the acquired companies do not materialize, despite extensive due diligence;
the acquired businesses may lose market acceptance or profitability;
the impact of divestitures on the Company's revenue growth may be larger than projected, as the Company may experience greater dis-synergies than expected;
the diversion of Company management’s attention and other resources;
incurring significant restructuring charges and amortization expense, assuming liabilities, ongoing or new lawsuits related to the transaction or otherwise or pre-closing regulatory violations of the acquired business, potential impairment of acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, and increasing the Company's expenses and working capital requirements;
continued financial involvement in a divested business, such as through continuing equity ownership, guarantees, indemnities or other financial obligations; and
the loss of key personnel, distributors, clients or customers of acquired companies.

In addition, the current and the proposed changes to the U.S. and foreign regulatory approval process and requirements in connection with an acquisition or divestiture may jeopardize, delay or reduce the anticipated benefits of the transaction to the Company. Failure to effectively integrate acquired companies, strategic investments and alliances, consummate or manage any future acquisitions, exit businesses or consummate divestitures, or general business reorganizations, and mitigate the related risks, may adversely affect the Company’s existing businesses and harm its operational results due to large write-offs, significant restructuring costs, contingent liabilities, substantial depreciation, and/or adverse tax or other consequences. The Company cannot ensure that such integrations and reorganizations will be successfully completed or that all of the planned synergies and other benefits will be realized.

Business and Operational Risks

The Company’s business is subject to risks associated with sourcing, manufacturing and maintaining appropriate inventory levels.

The Company imports large quantities of finished goods, component parts and raw materials. Lead times for these items vary significantly and may be further impacted by global shortages of critical components. Global supply chain constraints in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic limited the Company's visibility into availability and lead times for products and their component parts and raw materials but such constraints have softened in the second half of 2022. In addition, the Company’s ability to import these items in a timely and cost-effective manner may be affected by conditions at ports or issues that otherwise affect transportation and warehousing providers, such as fluctuations in freight costs, port and shipping capacity, labor disputes and shortages, severe weather due to climate change or increased homeland security requirements in the U.S. and other countries. In 2022 and 2021, the Company experienced significantly higher freight costs compared to freight costs incurred in 2020. These issues have delayed, and could delay in the future, importation of products or require the Company to
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locate alternative ports or warehousing providers to avoid disruption to customers. These alternatives may not be available on short notice or could result in higher transit costs, which could have an adverse impact on the Company’s business and financial condition.

The Company also relies on its ability to maintain inventory levels appropriate to meet consumer and customer demand. During the second half of 2020 and during 2021, the Company experienced higher than historical customer demand and increased supply chain constraints, resulting in historically high inventory levels. As consumer and DIY demand softened in the second quarter of 2022, the Company’s inventory levels peaked in the first half of the year. The Company is actively addressing this dynamic through the Global Cost Reduction Program implemented in the third quarter of 2022, which includes an initiative to reduce inventory levels by curtailing production and by reducing complexity through SKU rationalization. This initiative resulted in $775 million of inventory reduction in the second half of 2022. However, any failure to achieve SKU rationalization efforts in an efficient manner or reduce inventory levels, or otherwise maintain appropriate inventory levels to meet consumer and customer demand, may expose the Company to risks of excess inventory and less marketable or obsolete inventory and could require the Company to sell excess or obsolete inventory at a discount, which could result in inventory write-offs that would negatively impact the Company’s revenues and profit margin.

Substantially all of the Company's import operations are subject to customs requirements and to tariffs and quotas set by governments through mutual agreements, bilateral actions or, in some cases unilateral action. In addition, the countries in which the Company’s products and materials are manufactured or imported from (including importation into the United States of the Company's products manufactured overseas) may from time to time impose additional quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions on its imports (including restrictions on manufacturing operations) or adversely modify existing restrictions. In recent years, changes in U.S. policy regarding international trade, including import and export regulation and international trade agreements, have negatively impacted the Company’s business. For example, in 2018 the United States imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum as well as on goods imported from China and certain other countries, which resulted in retaliatory tariffs by China and other countries. Similar U.S. actions and any corresponding retaliatory efforts, could result in an increase in supply chain costs that the Company may not be able to offset or otherwise adversely impact the Company’s results of operations. Imports are also subject to unpredictable foreign currency changes which may increase the Company’s cost of goods sold. Adverse changes in these import costs and restrictions, or failure by the Company’s suppliers to comply with customs regulations or similar laws, could harm the Company’s business.

The Company’s operations are also subject to the effects of international trade agreements and regulations such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, and the activities and regulations of the World Trade Organization. Although these trade agreements generally have positive effects on trade liberalization, sourcing flexibility and cost of goods by reducing or eliminating the duties and/or quotas assessed on products manufactured in a particular country, trade agreements can also impose requirements that adversely affect the Company’s business, such as setting quotas on products that may be imported from a particular country into key markets including the U.S. or the European Union ("EU"), or making it easier for other companies to compete, by eliminating restrictions on products from countries where the Company’s competitors source products.

In addition, the Company has a number of key suppliers in South Korea, China and Taiwan. Any future tensions or conflicts in such regions could cause material disruptions in the Company's supply chain which could, in turn, cause product shortages, delays in delivery and/or increases in the Company's cost incurred to produce and deliver products to its customers.

The Company also relies on its suppliers to provide high quality products and to comply with applicable laws. The Company’s ability to find qualified suppliers who meet its standards, including a majority having carbon emission reduction targets, and supply products in a timely, cost-effective and efficient manner is a significant challenge with the increasing demand from customers, especially with respect to goods sourced from outside the U.S. For certain products, the Company may rely on one or very few suppliers. A supplier’s failure to meet the Company’s standards, provide products in a timely, cost-effective and efficient manner, or comply with applicable laws is beyond the Company’s control. These issues could have a material negative impact on the Company's business and profitability. Poor quality or an insecure supply chain, may also adversely affect the reliability and reputation of the Company.

The effects of climate change, such as extreme weather conditions, could also place capacity constraints on the Company’s supply chain. For example, steel and copper are critical to the design of the Company's products and some countries, including Chile and Australia, where steel and copper are sourced from have experienced and are expected to continue to experience severe weather due to climate change. A severe weather event in these countries could cause disruptions in the Company's supply chain which could, in turn, cause product shortages, delays in delivery and/or increases in the Company's cost incurred to produce and deliver products to its customers.

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Changes in customer preferences, the inability to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with large customers, inventory reductions by customers, and the inability to penetrate new channels of distribution could adversely affect the Company’s business.

The Company has certain significant customers, particularly home centers and major retailers. In 2022, the two largest customers comprised approximately 28% of consolidated net sales, with U.S. and international mass merchants and home centers collectively comprising approximately 41% of consolidated net sales. The loss or material reduction of business, the lack of success of sales initiatives, or changes in customer preferences or loyalties for the Company’s products, related to any such significant customer could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations and cash flows. In addition, the Company’s major customers are volume purchasers, a few of which are much larger than the Company, and have strong bargaining power with suppliers. This factor limits the ability to recover cost increases through higher selling prices. Furthermore, unanticipated inventory adjustments by these customers can have a negative impact on the Company's net sales.

In times of tough economic conditions, the Company has experienced significant distributor inventory corrections reflecting de-stocking of the supply chain associated with difficult credit markets. Such distributor de-stocking exacerbated sales volume declines pertaining to weak end user demand and the broader economic recession. The Company’s results may be adversely impacted in future periods by such customer inventory adjustments. Further, the inability to continue to penetrate new channels of distribution may have a negative impact on the Company’s future results.

The Company faces active global competition and if it does not compete effectively, its business may suffer.

The Company faces active competition and resulting pricing pressures. The Company’s products compete on the basis of, among other things, its reputation for product quality, its well-known brands, price, innovation and customer service capabilities. The Company competes with both larger and smaller companies that offer the same or similar products and services or that produce different products appropriate for the same uses. These companies are often located in countries such as China, Taiwan and India where labor and other production costs are substantially lower than in the U.S., Canada and Western Europe. Also, certain large customers offer house brands that compete with some of the Company’s product offerings as a lower-cost alternative. To remain profitable and maintain or grow market share, the Company must maintain a competitive cost structure, develop new products and services, lead product innovation, respond to competitor innovations and enhance its existing products in a timely manner. The Company also competes for labor, particularly in its manufacturing facilities, which can drive higher labor costs and adversely impact its ability to efficiently operate. Any failure to attract and retain employees at the Company’s manufacturing facilities or in other parts of the Company’s operations may adversely affect its business and ability to meet customer demand, which in turn could adversely affect the Company’s liquidity and results of operations. The Company may not be able to compete effectively on all of these fronts and with all of its competitors, and the failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on its sales and profit margins.

Operations Excellence, one element of the SBD Operating Model, is a continuous operational improvement process applied to many aspects of the Company’s business such as procurement, quality in manufacturing, maximizing customer fill rates, integrating acquisitions and other key business processes. In the event the Company is not successful in effectively applying the Operations Excellence principles to its key business processes, including those of acquired businesses, its ability to compete and future earnings could be adversely affected.

In addition, the Company may have to reduce prices on its products and services, or make other concessions, to stay competitive. Price reductions taken by the Company in response to customer and competitive pressures, as well as price reductions and promotional actions taken to drive demand that may not result in anticipated sales levels, could also negatively impact its business. The Company engages in restructuring actions, sometimes entailing shifts of production to low-cost countries, as part of its efforts to maintain a competitive cost structure. If the Company does not execute restructuring actions well, its ability to meet customer demand may decline, or earnings may otherwise be adversely impacted. Similarly, if such efforts to reform the cost structure are delayed relative to competitors or other market factors, the Company may lose market share and profits.

Customer consolidation could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.

A significant portion of the Company’s products are sold through home centers and mass merchant distribution channels in the U.S. and Europe. A consolidation of retailers in both North America and abroad has occurred over time and the increasing size and importance of individual customers creates risk of exposure to potential volume loss. The loss of certain larger home centers as customers would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.

Low demand for new products and the inability to develop and introduce new products at favorable margins could adversely impact the Company’s performance and prospects for future growth.
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The Company’s competitive advantage is due in part to its ability to develop and introduce new products in a timely manner at favorable margins. The uncertainties associated with developing and introducing new products, such as market demand, the unavailability of raw materials necessary for production of the Company's products and costs of development and production, may impede the successful development and introduction of new products on a consistent basis. Introduction of new technology may result in higher costs to the Company than that of the technology replaced. That increase in costs, which may continue indefinitely or until increased demand and greater availability in the sources of the new technology drive down its cost, could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations. Market acceptance of the new products introduced in recent years and scheduled for introduction in future years may not meet sales expectations due to various factors, such as the failure to accurately predict market demand, end-user preferences, evolving industry standards, or the emergence of new or disruptive technologies. Moreover, the ultimate success and profitability of the new products may depend on the Company’s ability to resolve technical and technological challenges in a timely and cost-effective manner, and to achieve manufacturing efficiencies. The Company’s investments in productive capacity and commitments to fund advertising and product promotions in connection with these new products could erode profits if those expectations are not met.

The pace of technological change continues to accelerate and the Company's ability to react effectively to such change may present significant competitive risks.

The Company's future growth rate depends upon a number of factors, including its ability to (i) identify and evolve with emerging technological and broader industry trends in its target end-markets; (ii) defend its market share against an ever-expanding number of competitors, including many new and non-traditional competitors; (iii) monitor disruptive technologies and business models; and (iv) attract, develop, and retain individuals with the requisite technical expertise and understanding of customers’ needs to develop new technologies and introduce new products.

To remain competitive, the Company will need to stay abreast of new technologies, require its employees to continue to learn and adapt to new technologies and be able to integrate them into current and future business models, products, services and processes and also guard against existing and new competitors disrupting the marketplace using such technologies. For example, changing market trends, such as increased consumer demand for energy efficient products and technologies in response to climate change, require the Company to develop and adopt new innovations focused on electrification. The Company may not adequately meet these demands or develop and adapt to the applicable new technologies focused on electrification, which could adversely affect the Company’s reputation and the consumer and customer demand for the Company’s products. The failure of the Company's technologies or products to gain market acceptance due to more attractive offerings by its competitors or the failure to address any of the above factors could negatively impact revenues and adversely affect its competitive standing and prospects.

The Company has significant operations outside of the United States, which are subject to political, legal, economic and other risks arising from operating outside of the United States.

The Company generates a significant portion of its total revenue outside of the United States. Business operations outside of the United States are subject to political, economic and other risks inherent in operating in certain countries, such as:

the difficulty of enforcing agreements and protecting assets through legal systems outside the U.S. including intellectual property rights, which may not be recognized, and which the Company may not be able to protect outside the U.S. to the same extent as under U.S. law;
managing widespread operations and enforcing internal policies and procedures such as compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and sanctions regulations;
trade protection measures and import or export licensing requirements including those related to the U.S.'s relationship with China;
the application of certain labor regulations outside of the United States;
compliance with a wide variety of non-U.S. laws and regulations;
instability or changes in the general political and economic conditions in the countries where the Company operates (such as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine);
the threat of nationalization and expropriation;
increased costs and risks of doing business and managing a workforce in a wide variety of jurisdictions;
the increased possibility of cyber threats in certain jurisdictions;
government controls limiting importation of goods;
government controls limiting payments to suppliers for imported goods;
limitations on, or impacts from, the repatriation of foreign earnings; and
exposure to wage, price and capital controls.

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Changes in the political or economic environments in the countries in which the Company operates could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Additionally, the Company is subject to complex U.S., foreign and other local laws and regulations that are applicable to its operations abroad, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, the UK Bribery Act of 2010 and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws. Although the Company has implemented internal controls, policies and procedures and employee training and compliance programs to deter prohibited practices, such measures may not be effective in preventing employees, contractors or agents from violating or circumventing such internal policies and violating applicable laws and regulations. Any determination that the Company has violated anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws or sanctions regulations could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results and financial condition. Compliance with international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to the Company’s international operations increases the cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. Violations of such laws and regulations may result in severe fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, administrative remedies or restrictions on business conduct, and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s reputation, its ability to attract and retain employees, its business, operating results and financial condition.

The continuing adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including new variants, could have a materially negative impact on the Company’s business, operations, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

The COVID-19 pandemic, including new variants, and the responses of governments, consumers and other businesses have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the Company’s business, financial condition, workforce and operations and the operations of its customers, distributors, suppliers and contractors. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic include, but are not limited to:

restrictions on the Company's access to its manufacturing facilities and on its support operations or workforce, and similar limitations for its distributors and suppliers;
shifts and volatility in consumer spending and purchasing behaviors (such as the higher than usual customer demand for the Company’s products that occurred during the second half of 2020 and during 2021) that may hinder its ability to meet customer demand or may hinder its production capacity or supply chain;
disruptions in commerce, including with respect to financial and other economic activities, services, travel and supply chains, and impacts on third parties with which the Company does business, which has, and may in the future result in, disruptions in the Company's supply chain, the inability of customers or suppliers to meet their obligations to the Company, loss or disruption of essential manufacturing and supply elements, operational delays, and increases in the cost of freight and labor;
modifications to the Company’s business practices, including with respect to employee travel, employee work locations, restrictions on in-person meetings and events, and government-mandated vaccine protocols or policies;
deteriorating economic conditions, such as economic slowdowns or recessions or significant disruptions or volatility in financial markets; and
delays or modifications to the Company's strategic plans and other initiatives, including as a result of temporary and permanent cost-reduction measures such as adjustments to its supply chain and manufacturing labor base to match the demand environment or reductions in staffing, compensation and benefits, both of which the Company implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and may continue or occur in the future.

The degree to which COVID-19 and related responses continue to affect the Company’s business, liquidity, results and operations will depend on future developments, which continue to be highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. These uncertainties, include, but are not limited to, the duration of the outbreak, the severity of any resurgence in cases, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact and the availability and effectiveness of vaccines and other treatments.

Any future global and national health concerns could lead to further and/or increased volatility in global capital and credit markets. A sustained downturn in customer demand or other economic conditions could result in material charges related to bad debt or inventory write-offs, restructuring charges, or impairments of long-lived assets, including both tangible and intangible assets. Furthermore, a sustained downturn in financial markets and asset values could adversely affect the Company’s cost of capital, liquidity and access to capital markets, in addition to potentially increasing its pension funding obligations to ensure its pension plans continue to be adequately funded.

The Company’s success depends on its ability to improve productivity and streamline operations to control or reduce costs.

The Company is committed to continuous productivity improvement and evaluating opportunities to reduce fixed costs, simplify or improve processes, and eliminate excess capacity. The Company has undertaken restructuring and cost-reduction actions, the savings of which may be mitigated by many factors, including economic weakness, inflation, competitive pressures, higher labor costs and decisions to increase costs in areas such as sales promotion or research and development above levels that were otherwise assumed.
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In the third quarter of 2022, the Company initiated a supply chain transformation aiming to improve fill rates and better match the needs of its customers, while improving gross margins. This transformation will involve significant investment from the Company over the next two to three years, and the success and anticipated cost savings from this transformation are not assured. Failure to achieve, or delays in achieving, projected levels of efficiencies and cost savings from this transformation and other restructuring or cost reduction actions introduced by the Company, significant increases in the costs related to such actions, or unanticipated inefficiencies resulting from this transformation and other manufacturing and administrative reorganization actions in progress or contemplated, could adversely affect the anticipated cost savings.

A material disruption of the Company's operations, particularly at its manufacturing facilities or within its information technology infrastructure, could adversely affect business.

The Company's facilities, supply chains, distribution systems, and information technology systems are subject to catastrophic loss due to natural disasters or other disruptions, including hurricanes and floods, power outages, fires, explosions, terrorism, equipment failures, sabotage, cyber incidents, any potential effects of climate change and adverse weather conditions, labor disputes, critical supply failure, inaccurate downtime forecast, political disruption, public health crises, like a regional or global pandemic, and other reasons, which can result in undesirable consequences, including financial losses and damaged relationships with customers. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted, and may continue to disrupt, the Company's supply chain, distribution channels, production facilities, operations and customer demand, which has negatively impacted its operations and adversely affected its business and could continue to do so. The Company employs information technology systems and networks to support the business and relies on them to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities. Disruptions to its information technology infrastructure from system failures, shutdowns, power outages, telecommunication or utility failures, cybersecurity incidents, and other events, including disruptions at its cloud computing, server, systems and other third party IT service providers, could interfere with its operations, interrupt production and shipments, damage customer and business partner relationships, and negatively impact its reputation.

The development of technology products and services presents security and safety risks.

An increasing number of the Company's products, services, and technologies are delivered with Internet of Things (IoT) capabilities and the accompanying interconnected device networks, which include sensors, data and advanced computing capabilities. The Company has developed product software designs that it believes are less susceptible to cyber-attacks, but despite these efforts, if products and services that include IoT solutions do not work as intended or are compromised, the possible consequences include financial loss, reputational damage, exposure to legal claims or enforcement actions, theft of intellectual property, and diminution in the value of the Company's investment in research, development and engineering, which in turn could adversely affect its competitiveness and results of operations.

Industry and Economic Risks

The Company’s results of operations could be negatively impacted by inflationary or deflationary economic conditions which could affect the ability to obtain raw materials, component parts, freight, energy, labor and sourced finished goods in a timely and cost-effective manner, as well as lead to changes in interest rate environments which impact its cost of funds, the general strength of the economy and demand for its products in the market.

The Company’s products are manufactured using both ferrous and non-ferrous metals including, but not limited to, steel, zinc, copper, brass, aluminum, and nickel. Additionally, the Company uses other commodity-based materials for components and packaging including, but not limited to, plastics, resins, wood and corrugated products. The Company’s cost base also reflects significant elements for freight, energy and labor. The Company also sources certain finished goods directly from vendors. If the Company is unable to mitigate inflationary increases through various customer pricing actions and cost reduction initiatives, its profitability may be adversely affected.

Conversely, in the event there is deflation, the Company may experience pressure from its customers to reduce prices, and there can be no assurance that the Company would be able to reduce its cost base (through negotiations with suppliers or other measures) to offset any such price concessions which could adversely impact results of operations and cash flows.

Further, as a result of inflationary or deflationary economic conditions, the Company believes it is possible that a limited number of suppliers may either cease operations or require additional financial assistance from the Company in order to fulfill their obligations. In a limited number of circumstances, the magnitude of the Company’s purchases of certain items is of such significance that a change in established relationships with suppliers or increase in the costs of purchased raw materials, component parts or finished goods could result in manufacturing interruptions, delays, inefficiencies or an inability to market
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products. Changes in value-added tax rebates, currently available to the Company or to its suppliers, could also increase the costs of the Company’s manufactured products, as well as purchased products and components, and could adversely affect the Company’s results.

In addition, many of the Company’s products incorporate battery technology. As the world moves towards a lower-carbon economy and as other industries begin to adopt similar battery technology for use in their products or increase their current consumption of battery technology, the increased demand could place capacity constraints on the Company’s supply chain. In addition, increased demand for battery technology may also increase the costs to the Company for both the battery cells as well as the underlying raw materials such as cobalt and lithium, among others. If the Company is unable to mitigate any possible supply constraints or related increased costs or drive alternative technology through innovation, its profitably and financial results could be negatively impacted.

Uncertainty about the financial stability of economies outside the U.S. could have a significant adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company generates approximately 37% of its revenues outside the U.S., including 15% from Europe and 12% from various emerging market countries. Each of the Company’s segments generates sales in these marketplaces. While the Company believes any downturn in the European or emerging marketplaces might be offset to some degree by the relative stability in North America, the Company’s future growth, profitability and financial liquidity could be affected, in several ways, including, but not limited to, the following:

depressed consumer and business confidence may decrease demand for products and services;
customers may implement cost reduction initiatives or delay purchases to address inventory levels;
significant declines of foreign currency values in countries where the Company operates could impact both the revenue growth and overall profitability in those geographies;
a devaluation of foreign currencies could have an effect on the credit worthiness (as well as the availability of funds) of customers in those regions impacting the collectability of receivables;
a devaluation of foreign currencies could have an adverse effect on the value of financial assets of the Company in the effected countries; and
the impact of an event or changes to political and economic conditions (individual country default, Brexit, or break up of the Euro) could have an adverse impact on the global credit markets and global liquidity potentially impacting the Company’s ability to access these credit markets and to raise capital or disrupt global energy supply or supply chains.

The Company is exposed to market risk from changes in foreign currency exchange rates which could negatively impact profitability.

The Company manufactures and sells its products in many countries throughout the world. As a result, there is exposure to foreign currency risk as the Company enters into transactions and makes investments denominated in multiple currencies. The Company’s predominant currency exposures are related to the Euro, Canadian Dollar, British Pound, Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real, Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”) and the Taiwan Dollar. In preparing its financial statements, for foreign operations with functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar, asset and liability accounts are translated at current exchange rates, while income and expenses are translated using average exchange rates. With respect to the effects on translated earnings, if the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to local currencies, the Company’s earnings could be negatively impacted. Although the Company utilizes risk management tools, including hedging, as it deems appropriate, to mitigate a portion of potential market fluctuations in foreign currencies, there can be no assurance that such measures will result in all market fluctuation exposure being eliminated. The Company generally does not hedge the translation of its non-U.S. dollar earnings in foreign subsidiaries but may choose to do so in certain instances.

The Company sources many products from China and other low-cost countries for resale in other regions. To the extent the RMB or other currencies appreciate, the Company may experience cost increases on such purchases. The Company may not be successful at implementing customer pricing or other actions in an effort to mitigate the related cost increases and thus its profitability may be adversely impacted.

Financing Risks

The Company has incurred, and may incur in the future, significant indebtedness, and may in the future issue additional equity or debt securities, including in connection with mergers or acquisitions, which may impact the manner in which it conducts business or the Company’s access to external sources of liquidity. The potential issuance of such securities may limit the Company’s ability to implement elements of its business strategy and may have a dilutive effect on earnings.
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As described in Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, the Company has a five-year $2.5 billion committed credit facility, a $1.5 billion syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement, and a $0.5 billion revolving credit loan. No amounts were outstanding against any of these facilities on December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $7.5 billion of indebtedness, including $5.4 billion of principal and $2.1 billion of commercial paper borrowings.

The instruments and agreements governing certain of the Company’s current indebtedness contain requirements or restrictive covenants that include, among other things:

a limitation on creating liens on certain property of the Company and its subsidiaries;
a restriction on entering into certain sale-leaseback transactions;
customary events of default, including repayment of all amounts outstanding in the event of the occurrence and continuance of an event of default; and
maintenance of a specified financial ratio.

Specifically, the Company has an interest coverage covenant that must be maintained to permit continued access to its committed revolving credit facilities. The interest coverage ratio tested for covenant compliance compares adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization to adjusted Interest Expense ("Adjusted EBITDA"/"Adjusted Interest Expense"); such adjustments to interest or EBITDA include, but are not limited to, removal of non-cash interest expense and stock-based compensation expense. During 2022, the interest coverage ratio must not be less than 3.5 times and is computed quarterly, on a rolling twelve months (last twelve months) basis. Under this covenant definition, the interest coverage ratio was 8.6 times EBITDA or higher in each of the 2022 quarterly measurement periods.

In February 2023, the Company entered into amendments to its credit facilities described above to: (a) amend the definition of Adjusted EBITDA to allow for additional adjustment addbacks, not to exceed $500 million in the aggregate, for amounts incurred during each four fiscal quarter period beginning with the period ending in the third quarter of 2023 through the period ending in the second quarter of 2024, and (b) amend the minimum interest coverage ratio to not less than 1.5 to 1.0 times computed quarterly, on a rolling twelve months (last twelve months) basis, for the period from and including the third quarter of 2023 through the second quarter of 2024. The minimum interest coverage ratio will revert back to 3.5 times for periods after the second quarter of 2024. Management does not believe it is reasonably likely the Company will breach this covenant. Failure to maintain these ratios could adversely affect further access to liquidity.

Future instruments and agreements governing indebtedness may impose other restrictive conditions or covenants. Such covenants could restrict the Company in the manner in which it conducts business and operations as well as in the pursuit of its business strategy.

The Company is exposed to counterparty risk in its hedging arrangements.

From time to time, the Company enters into arrangements with financial institutions to hedge exposure to fluctuations in currency and interest rates, including forward contracts, options and swap agreements. The Company may incur significant losses from hedging activities due to factors such as demand volatility. The failure of one or more counterparties to the Company’s hedging arrangements to fulfill their obligations could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

Tight capital and credit markets or the failure to maintain credit ratings could adversely affect the Company by limiting the Company’s ability to borrow or otherwise access liquidity.

The Company’s long-term growth plans are dependent on, among other things, the availability of funding to support corporate initiatives and the ability to increase sales of existing product lines. While the Company has not encountered financing difficulties to date, the capital and credit markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruption in the past (including in connection with COVID-19) and may again in the future. Market conditions could make it more difficult for the Company to borrow or otherwise obtain the cash required for significant new corporate initiatives.

Furthermore, there could be a number of follow-on effects from a credit crisis on the Company’s businesses, including insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays; inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of the Company’s products and services and/or customer insolvencies.

In addition, the major rating agencies regularly evaluate the Company for purposes of assigning credit ratings. The Company’s ability to access the credit markets, and the cost of these borrowings, is affected by the strength of its credit ratings and current
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market conditions. Failure to maintain credit ratings that are acceptable to investors may adversely affect the cost and other terms upon which the Company is able to obtain financing, as well as its access to the capital markets.

Discontinuation, reform or replacement of the London Inter-bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and other benchmark rates, or uncertainty related to the potential for any of the foregoing, may adversely affect the Company.

Certain of the Company’s contracts and derivative financial instruments use short-term prevailing interest rates, including LIBOR, as a reference rate. In March 2021, UK Financial Conduct Authority announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021. Banks currently reporting information used to set U.S. dollar LIBOR are presently expected to stop doing so by mid-2023. In addition, other regulators have suggested reforming or replacing other benchmark rates. These may be replaced by the Secured Overnight Financing Rate or other benchmark rates over the next several years. The discontinuation, reform or replacement of LIBOR or any other benchmark rates may have an unpredictable impact on contractual mechanics in the credit markets or cause disruption to the broader financial markets. These changes, and related uncertainty as to the nature of such potential discontinuation, reform or replacement may create incremental uncertainty in obtaining financing or increase the cost of borrowing. At this time, the Company cannot predict the overall effect of the modification or discontinuation of LIBOR or the establishment of alternative benchmark rates.

The Company is exposed to credit risk on its accounts receivable.

The Company’s outstanding trade receivables are not generally covered by collateral or credit insurance. While the Company has procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on its trade and non-trade receivables, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit its credit risk and avoid losses, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and operating results.

If the Company were required to write-down all or part of its goodwill, indefinite-lived trade names, or other definite-lived intangible assets, its net income and net worth could be materially adversely affected.

As a result of the Black and Decker merger and other acquisitions, the Company has approximately $8.5 billion of goodwill, approximately $2.5 billion of indefinite-lived trade names and approximately $2.0 billion of net definite-lived intangible assets on December 31, 2022. The Company is required to periodically, at least annually, determine if its goodwill or indefinite-lived trade names have become impaired, in which case it would write down the impaired portion of the asset. The definite-lived intangible assets, including customer relationships, are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are evaluated for impairment when appropriate. Impairment of intangible assets may be triggered by developments outside of the Company’s control, such as worsening economic conditions, technological change, intensified competition or other factors, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

If the investments in employee benefit plans do not perform as expected, the Company may have to contribute additional amounts to these plans, which would otherwise be available to cover operating expenses or other business purposes.

The Company sponsors pension and other post-retirement defined benefit plans. The Company’s defined benefit plan assets are currently invested in equity securities, government and corporate bonds and other fixed income securities, money market instruments and insurance contracts. The Company’s funding policy is generally to contribute amounts determined annually on an actuarial basis to provide for current and future benefits in accordance with applicable law which require, among other things, that the Company make cash contributions to under-funded pension plans. During 2022, the Company made cash contributions to its defined benefit plans of approximately $32 million and expects to contribute $37 million to its defined benefit plans in 2023.

There can be no assurance that the value of the defined benefit plan assets, or the investment returns on those plan assets, will be sufficient in the future. It is therefore possible that the Company may be required to make higher cash contributions to the plans in future years which would reduce the cash available for other business purposes, and that the Company will have to recognize a significant pension liability adjustment which would decrease the net assets of the Company and result in higher expense in future years. The fair value of the defined benefit plan assets on December 31, 2022 was approximately $1.8 billion.


Legal, Tax, Regulatory and Compliance Risks

The Company’s brands are important assets of its businesses and violation of its trademark rights by imitators, or the failure of its licensees or vendors to comply with the Company’s product quality, manufacturing requirements, marketing
19


standards, and other requirements could negatively impact revenues and brand reputation. Any inability to protect the Company's other intellectual property rights could also reduce the value of its products and services or diminish its competitiveness.

The Company considers its intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, and licenses held, to be a significant part and valuable aspect of its business. The Company attempts to protect its intellectual property rights through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as licensing agreements and third-party nondisclosure and assignment agreements.

The Company’s trademarks have a reputation for quality and value and are important to the Company's success and competitive position. Unauthorized use of the Company’s trademark rights may not only erode sales of the Company’s products, but may also cause significant damage to its brand name and reputation, interfere with its ability to effectively represent the Company to its customers, contractors, suppliers, and/or licensees, and increase litigation costs. Similarly, failure by licensees or vendors to adhere to the Company’s standards of quality and other contractual requirements could result in loss of revenue, increased litigation, and/or damage to the Company’s reputation and business. There can be no assurance that the Company’s ongoing efforts to protect its brand and trademark rights and ensure compliance with its licensing and vendor agreements will prevent all violations.

In addition, the Company's ability to compete could be negatively impacted by its failure to obtain and adequately protect its intellectual property and preserve its associated intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trade secrets, and licenses, as well as its products and any new features of its products or processes. The Company's patent applications may not be approved and any patents owned could be challenged, invalidated or designed around by third parties. In addition, the Company's patents may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide meaningful protection or commercial advantage.

Cybersecurity incidents could disrupt business operations, result in the loss of critical and confidential information, and adversely impact the Company's reputation and results of operations.

Global cybersecurity threats and incidents can range from uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to
information technology ("IT") systems to sophisticated and targeted measures known as advanced persistent threats, directed at the Company, its products, its customers and/or its third-party service providers, including cloud providers. While the Company has experienced, and expects to continue to experience, these types of threats and incidents, none of them to date have been material to the Company. The Company deploys measures which align to industry accepted frameworks to deter, prevent, detect, respond to, and mitigate these threats. The Company has invested and continues to invest in risk management and information security and data privacy measures in order to protect its systems and data, including employee training, organizational investments, incident response plans, table top exercises and technical defenses. The cost and operational consequences of implementing, maintaining and enhancing these measures could increase significantly to overcome increasingly intense, complex, and sophisticated global cyber threats.

Despite these efforts, cybersecurity incidents (against the Company or parties with whom the Company contracts), depending on their nature and scope, could potentially result in the misappropriation, destruction, corruption or unavailability of critical data and confidential or proprietary information (the Company's or that of third parties) and the disruption of business operations. The potential consequences of a material cybersecurity incident and its effects include financial loss, reputational damage, litigation with third parties, theft of intellectual property, fines levied by the Federal Trade Commission or other government agencies, diminution in the value of the Company's investment in research, development and engineering, and increased cybersecurity protection and remediation costs due to the increasing sophistication and proliferation of threats, which in turn could adversely affect its competitiveness and results of operations.

In addition, cybersecurity laws and regulations continue to evolve, and are increasingly demanding, both in the U.S. and globally, which adds compliance complexity and may increase costs of compliance and expose the Company to reputational damage or litigation, monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions or fines in one or more jurisdictions. While the Company carries cyber insurance, it cannot be certain that coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to the Company on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim.

The report, rumor or assumption regarding a potential breach may have similar results, even if no breach has been attempted or occurred. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results and financial condition.

The Company is exposed to risks related to compliance with data privacy laws.
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To conduct its operations, the Company regularly moves data across national borders, and consequently is subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations in the United States and abroad regarding privacy, data protection and data security. The scope of the laws that may be applicable to the Company is often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in May 2018, greatly increased the jurisdictional reach of European Union law and added a broad array of requirements for handling personal data, including the public disclosure of significant data breaches. Similarly, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which became effective in January 2020, provided, among other things, a new private right of action for data breaches, required companies that process information on California residents to make new disclosures to consumers about their data collection, use and sharing practices, and provided consumers with additional rights. The California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, which became effective on January 1, 2023, amends and expands the CCPA, creating new industry requirements, consumer privacy rights and enforcement mechanisms. Virginia and Colorado have also passed robust privacy laws that come into effect on January 1, 2023 and July 1, 2023, respectively. The Company's reputation and brand and its ability to attract new customers could also be adversely impacted if the Company fails, or is perceived to have failed, to properly respond to security breaches of its or third party’s information technology systems. Such failure to properly respond could also result in similar exposure to liability.

Additionally, other countries have enacted or are enacting data localization laws that require data to stay within their borders. In many cases, these laws and regulations apply not only to transfers between unrelated third parties but also to transfers between the Company and its subsidiaries.

All of these evolving compliance and operational requirements impose significant costs that are likely to increase over time. Privacy laws that may be implemented in the future, and court decisions impacting activities across borders, including the Schrems II decision invalidating the EU - U.S. Privacy Shield, will continue to require changes to certain business practices, thereby increasing costs, or may result in negative publicity, require significant management time and attention, and may subject the Company to remedies that may harm its business, including fines or demands or orders that the Company modify or cease existing business practices.

Significant judgment and certain estimates are required in determining the Company’s worldwide provision for income taxes. Future tax law changes and audit results may materially increase the Company’s prospective income tax expense.

The Company is subject to income taxation in the U.S. as well as numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the Company’s worldwide income tax provision and accordingly there are many transactions and computations for which the final income tax determination is uncertain. The Company considers many factors when evaluating and estimating its tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments, and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes. The Company periodically assesses its liabilities and contingencies for all tax years still subject to audit based on the most currently available information, which involves inherent uncertainty. The Company is routinely audited by income tax authorities in many tax jurisdictions. Although management believes the recorded tax estimates are reasonable, the ultimate outcome of any audit (or related litigation) could differ materially from amounts reflected in the Company’s income tax accruals. Additionally, the global income tax provision can be materially impacted due to foreign currency fluctuations against the U.S. dollar since a significant amount of the Company’s earnings are generated outside the United States. Lastly, it is possible that future income tax legislation, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) Global Minimum Tax, may be enacted that could have a material impact on the Company’s worldwide income tax provision, cash tax liability, and effective tax rate beginning with the period that such legislation becomes enacted. The OECD Global Minimum Tax is expected to require multi-national corporations with revenue in excess of €750 million to pay an effective tax rate of at least 15% in each jurisdiction in which they operate effective with the 2024 tax year.

Climate change and climate change legislation or regulations may adversely affect the Company's business.

The effects of climate change, such as severe weather, including droughts and water scarcity, could impact the Company’s business, disrupt the Company’s operations by impacting the availability and costs of materials needed for manufacturing and increase insurance and other operating costs. There may be operational risk due to the significant impact climate change could pose to employees’ lives, the Company’s supply chain, or electrical power availability from climate-related weather events. The Company also faces risks related to the transition to a lower-carbon economy, such as its ability to successfully adopt new technology, meet market-driven demands for carbon neutral and renewable energy technology, or to comply with more stringent and increasingly complex environmental regulations or requirements for the Company's manufacturing facilities and business operations, increased prices related to freight and shipping costs and other permitting requirements.

There continues to be a lack of consistent climate legislation, which creates economic and regulatory uncertainty. Increased public awareness and concern regarding global climate change may result in more international, regional and/or federal requirements or other stakeholder expectations that could mandate more restrictive or expansive standards, more prescriptive reporting of environmental, social and governance metrics than the voluntary commitments the Company adopted, or require
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related changes on a more accelerated time frame than the Company anticipates. A number of governmental bodies have finalized, proposed or are contemplating legislative and regulatory changes in response to the potential effect of climate change. Such legislation or regulation has and potentially could include provisions for a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits or a carbon tax or require increased measurement of metrics and disclosure, among other provisions. The Company currently purchases renewable energy certificates (“RECs”) to mitigate the potential impact of carbon tax and is also assessing expanding its use of solar panels as an alternative energy source. If carbon tax legislation is changed or adopted, the Company may not be able to mitigate the future impact of carbon tax through the purchase of RECs and the use of solar panels or other measures. The Company may also face reputational risks and risks to the Company's investor confidence and market share if the Company is unable to make progress on the Company's voluntary environmental goals or is unable to keep apace with the progress made by the Company's peers. If environmental laws or regulations are either changed or adopted and impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements on the Company, they may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, access to credit, capital expenditures, operating results and financial condition.

The Company’s failure to continue to successfully avoid, manage, defend, litigate and accrue for claims and litigation could negatively impact its results of operations or cash flows.

The Company is exposed to and becomes involved in various litigation matters arising out of the ordinary routine conduct of its business, including, from time to time, actual or threatened litigation relating to such items as commercial transactions, product liability, workers compensation, arrangements between the Company and its distributors, franchisees or vendors, intellectual property claims and regulatory actions.

In addition, the Company is subject to environmental laws in each jurisdiction in which business is conducted. Some of the Company’s products incorporate substances that are regulated in some jurisdictions in which it conducts manufacturing operations. The Company has been, and could be in the future, subject to liability if it does not comply with these regulations. In addition, the Company is currently being, and may in the future be, held responsible for remedial investigations and clean-up costs resulting from the discharge of hazardous substances into the environment, including sites that have never been owned or operated by the Company but at which it has been identified as a potentially responsible party under federal and state environmental laws and regulations. Changes in environmental and other laws and regulations in both domestic and foreign jurisdictions could adversely affect the Company’s operations due to increased costs of compliance and potential liability for non-compliance.

The Company manufactures products and performs various services that create exposure to product and professional liability claims and litigation. The failure of the Company’s products and services to be properly manufactured, configured, installed, designed or delivered, resulting in personal injuries, property damage or business interruption could subject the Company to claims for damages. The Company has and is currently defending product liability claims, some of which have resulted in settlements or monetary judgments against the Company. The costs associated with defending ongoing or future product liability claims and payment of damages could be substantial. The Company’s reputation could also be adversely affected by such claims, whether or not successful.

There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to continue to successfully avoid, manage and defend such matters. In addition, given the inherent uncertainties in evaluating certain exposures, actual costs to be incurred in future periods may vary from the Company’s estimates for such contingent liabilities.

The Company’s products could be recalled.

The Company maintains an awareness of and responsibility for the potential health and safety impacts on its customers. The Company's product development processes include tollgates for product safety review, and extensive testing is conducted on product safety. Safety reviews are performed at various product development milestones, including a review of product labeling and marking to ensure safety and operational hazards are identified for the customer.

Despite safety and quality reviews, the Consumer Product Safety Commission or other applicable regulatory bodies may require, or the Company may voluntarily institute, the recall, repair or replacement of the Company’s products if those products are found not to be in compliance with applicable standards or regulations. A recall could increase the Company's costs and adversely impact its reputation.

The Company’s sales to government customers exposes it to business volatility and risks, including government budgeting cycles and appropriations, procurement regulations, governmental policy shifts, early termination of contracts, audits, investigations, sanctions and penalties.

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The Company derives a portion of its revenues from contracts with the U.S. government, state and local governments and foreign governments. Government contractors must comply with specific procurement regulations and other requirements. These requirements, although customary in government contracts, could impact the Company’s performance and compliance costs, including limiting or delaying the Company’s ability to share information with its business partners, customers and investors, which may negatively impact the Company’s business and reputation.

The U.S. government may demand contract terms that are less favorable than standard arrangements with private sector customers and may have statutory, contractual or other legal rights to terminate contracts with the Company. For example, the U.S. government may have contract clauses that permit it to terminate any of the Company’s government contracts and subcontracts at its convenience, and procurement regulations permit termination for default based on the Company’s performance. In addition, changes in U.S. government budgetary priorities could lead to changes in the procurement environment, affecting availability of government contracting or funding opportunities. Changes in government procurement policy, priorities, regulations, technology initiatives and requirements, and/or contract award criteria may negatively impact the Company’s potential for growth in the government sector. Changes in government cybersecurity and system requirements could negatively impact the Company’s eligibility for the award of future contracts, negatively impacting the Company’s business and reputation.

Government contracts laws and regulations impose certain risks, and government contracts are generally subject to audits, investigations and approval of policies, procedures and internal controls for compliance with procurement regulations and applicable law. If violations of law are found, they could result in civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, refund of a portion of fees received, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from future government business. Each of these factors could negatively impact the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition, and reputation.

Other Risks

The Company’s results of operations and earnings may not meet guidance or expectations.

The Company’s results of operations and earnings may not meet guidance or expectations. The Company may provide public guidance on expected results of operations for future periods. This guidance is comprised of forward-looking statements subject to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties described in this Form 10-K and in the Company’s other public filings and public statements, and is based necessarily on assumptions the Company makes at the time it provides such guidance. The Company’s guidance may not always be accurate. The Company may also choose to withdraw guidance, as it did in response to the uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, or lower guidance in future periods. If, in the future, the Company’s results of operations for a particular period do not meet its guidance or the expectations of investment analysts, the Company reduces its guidance for future periods, or the Company withdraws guidance, the market price of the Company’s common stock could decline significantly.

If the Company is unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timeliness of its financial reporting may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and the trading price of its common stock.

As a public company, the Company is required to design and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that the Company evaluate and determine the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting and provide a management report on the internal control over financial reporting, which must be attested to by the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm. If the Company is unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, its ability to record, process and report financial information timely and accurately could be adversely affected, which could subject the Company to litigation or investigations, require management resources, increase costs, negatively affect investor confidence and adversely impact its stock price.

Subsequent to the filing of its 2020 Form 10-K, the Company received comments from the SEC Staff regarding its accounting for equity units issued in May 2017 and November 2019 (the “Equity Units”). Upon further reflection of the comments received by the Staff and the nature of the Equity Units, the Company determined that errors were made in its original accounting conclusions resulting from material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting for such instruments. During the first quarter of fiscal 2022, the Company successfully completed the testing necessary to conclude that the material weaknesses have been remediated. If in the future the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is determined to be not effective, resulting in a material weakness, investor perceptions regarding the reliability of the Company’s financial statements may be adversely affected which could cause a decline in the market price of its stock and otherwise negatively affect the Company’s financial condition.
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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2022, the Company and its subsidiaries owned or leased significant facilities used for manufacturing, distribution and sales offices in 21 states and 22 countries. The Company leases its corporate headquarters in New Britain, Connecticut. The Company has 121 facilities including its corporate headquarters that are larger than 100,000 square feet, as follows:
OwnedLeasedTotal
Tools & Outdoor524496
Industrial15722
Corporate 213
Total6952121
The combined size of these facilities is approximately 34 million square feet. The buildings are in good condition, suitable for their intended use, adequate to support the Company’s operations, and generally fully utilized.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
As previously disclosed, the Company has identified that certain expenses it incurred in previous years constituted undisclosed perquisites. The Company has voluntarily disclosed this information to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and is cooperating with the SEC’s investigation of this matter.
Also, the Company has identified certain transactions relating to its international operations that may raise compliance questions under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and has voluntarily disclosed this information to the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and the SEC. The Company is cooperating with both agencies in their investigations.
The Company is committed to upholding the highest standards of corporate governance and is continuously focused on ensuring the effectiveness of its policies, procedures, and controls. The Company is in the process, with the assistance of professional advisors, of reviewing and further enhancing relevant policies, procedures, and controls.
Currently, the Company does not believe that these matters will have a material impact on its financial condition or results of operations, although it is possible that a loss related to these matters may be incurred. Given the ongoing nature of these matters, management cannot predict the duration, scope, or outcome of the SEC’s and DOJ’s investigations or estimate the potential magnitude of any such loss or range of loss, or the cost of the ongoing investigations. Any determination that the Company’s expense and perquisite reporting practices were not in compliance with existing laws or regulations or that certain transactions relating to the Company’s international operations were not in compliance with the FCPA could result in the imposition of fines, civil or criminal penalties, equitable remedies, including disgorgement, injunctive relief, or other sanctions against the Company. The Company also may become a party to litigation or other legal proceedings over these matters.
In addition to the matters above, in the normal course of business, the Company is involved in various lawsuits and claims, including product liability, environmental, intellectual property, contract and commercial, advertising, employment and distributor claims, and administrative proceedings. The Company does not expect that the resolution of these matters occurring in the normal course of business will have a materially adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company’s common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) under the abbreviated ticker symbol “SWK”, and is a component of the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Composite Stock Price Index. The Company increased its annual dividend per common share by $0.20 in 2022 compared to 2021 and intends to continue to pay quarterly dividends in 2023. In July 2022, the Company raised the quarterly dividend per common share, its 55th consecutive increase, which extended its record for the longest, consecutive quarterly and annual dividend payments among industrial companies. As of February 1, 2023, there were 8,519 holders of record of the Company’s common stock. Information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K concerning securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans can be found under Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about the Company’s purchases of equity securities that are registered by the Company pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the three months ended December 31, 2022:
 
2022Total Number Of Common Shares Purchased
(a)
Average Price Paid Per Common Share  Total Number Of Common Shares Purchased As Part Of A Publicly Announced Plan
or Program
(In Millions)
Maximum Number Of Common Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under The Program
(b)
October 2 - November 52,824 $76.43   — 20 
November 6 - December 315,211 81.85   — 20 
December 4 - December 3136,412 79.20   — 20 
Total54,447 $79.79   — 20 
 
(a)Shares of common stock in this column were deemed surrendered to the Company by participants in various benefit plans of the Company to satisfy the participants’ taxes related to vesting or delivery of time-vesting restricted share units under those plans.
(b)On April 21, 2022, the Board approved a share repurchase program of up to 20 million shares of the Company’s common stock (the “April 2022 Program”). The April 2022 Program does not have an expiration date. The Company may repurchase shares under the April 2022 Program through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or share repurchase programs, including one or more accelerated share repurchase programs (under which an initial payment for the entire repurchase amount may be made at the inception of the program). Such repurchases may be funded from cash on hand, short-term borrowings or other sources of cash at the Company’s discretion, and the Company is under no obligation to repurchase any shares pursuant to the repurchase program. The currently authorized shares available for repurchase under the April 2022 Program do not include approximately 3.6 million shares reserved and authorized for purchase under the Company’s approved repurchase program in place prior to the April 2022 Program relating to a forward share purchase contract entered into in March 2015.

Stock Performance Graph

The following line graph compares the yearly percentage change in the Company’s cumulative total shareholder return for the last five years to that of the S&P 500 Index, S&P 500 Capital Goods Index and S&P 500 Industrials Index. Following the recent portfolio transformation, the Company has elected to replace the S&P 500 Industrials Index with the S&P 500 Capital Goods Index which it believes is a more appropriate comparison. The S&P 500 Capital Goods Index represents a more focused group of 45 companies across major industrial manufacturing categories that carry similar operational characteristics to the Company.
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swk-20221231_g1.jpg
THE POINTS IN THE ABOVE TABLE ARE AS FOLLOWS:201720182019202020212022
Stanley Black & Decker$100.00 $71.32 $101.54 $111.32 $119.46 $49.06 
S&P 500 Index$100.00 $94.79 $126.03 $148.81 $191.48 $156.77 
S&P 500 Capital Goods Index$100.00 $83.26 $110.83 $117.67 $139.93 $139.55 
S&P 500 Industrials Index$100.00 $96.19 $128.70 $158.11 $202.22 $162.96 
The comparison assumes $100 invested at the closing price on December 30, 2017 in the Company’s common stock, S&P 500 Index, S&P 500 Capital Goods Index, and S&P 500 Industrials Index. Total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.  

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ITEM 6. REMOVED AND RESERVED
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The financial and business analysis below provides information which the Company believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of its consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. This financial and business analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes. All references to “Notes” in this Item 7 refer to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following discussion and certain other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain statements reflecting the Company’s views about its future performance that constitute “forward-looking statements” under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the industry and markets in which the Company operates as well as management’s beliefs and assumptions. Any statements contained herein (including without limitation statements to the effect that the Company or its management “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “plans” and similar expressions) that are not statements of historical fact should be considered forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. There are a number of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. These factors include, without limitation, those set forth, or incorporated by reference, below under the heading “Cautionary Statements Under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act Of 1995.” The Company does not intend to update publicly any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Strategic Objectives
The Company continues to execute a business strategy that involves organic growth in excess of the market and industry, geographic and customer diversification to foster sustainable revenue, earnings and cash flow growth over the long term. Over the past two years, the Company has focused the portfolio on its leading positions in the Tools & Outdoor and Industrial businesses. Leveraging the benefits of a more focused portfolio, the Company initiated a business transformation that includes reinvestment for faster growth as well as a $2.0 billion Global Cost Reduction Program through 2025. The Company’s primary areas of strategic focus are as follows:
Continuing to advance innovation, electrification and global market penetration to achieve organic revenue growth of 2 to 3 times the market;
Streamlining and simplifying the organization, as well as shifting resources to prioritize investments believed to have a positive and more direct impact to customers;
Accelerating the operations and supply chain transformation to improve fill rates and better match the needs of its customers while improving adjusted gross margins back to historical 35%+ levels; and
Prioritizing cash flow generation and inventory optimization.
The Company also remains focused on leveraging its SBD Operating Model to deliver success. The latest evolution of the SBD Operating Model builds on the strength of the Company's past while embracing changes in the external environment to ensure the Company has the right skillsets, incorporates technology advances in all areas, maintains operational excellence, drives efficiency in business processes and resiliency into its culture, delivers extreme innovation and ensures the customer experience is world class. The SBD Operating Model underpins the Company's ability to deliver above-market organic growth with margin expansion, maintain efficient levels of selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") and deliver top-quartile asset efficiency.
The Company's business transformation is intended to drive strong financial performance over the long term, including:
Organic revenue growth at 2 to 3 times the market;
35%+ adjusted gross margins;
Free cash flow equal to, or exceeding, net income; and
Cash Flow Return On Investment ("CFROI") between 12-15%.


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In terms of capital allocation, the Company remains committed, over time, to returning excess capital to shareholders through a strong and growing dividend as well as opportunistically repurchasing shares. In the near term, the Company intends to direct any capital in excess of the quarterly dividend on its common share toward debt reduction and internal investments.

Share Repurchases And Other Securities
During the first quarter of 2022, the Company repurchased 12,645,371 shares of its common stock for approximately $2.3 billion through a combination of an accelerated share repurchase ("ASR") and open market share repurchases. The ASR terms provided for an initial delivery of 85% of the total notional share equivalent at execution, or 10,756,770 shares. The final delivery of the remaining shares totaling 3,211,317 under the ASR was completed during the second quarter of 2022.
Refer to Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion.
In addition, on April 23, 2021, the Board of Directors approved repurchases by the Company of its outstanding securities, other than its common stock up to an aggregate amount of $3.0 billion. No repurchases have been executed pursuant to this authorization to date.

Divestitures
On August 19, 2022, the Company sold its Oil & Gas business comprised of the pipeline services and equipment businesses to Pipeline Technique Limited.
On July 22, 2022, the Company sold its Convergent Security Solutions ("CSS") business comprised of the commercial electronic security and healthcare businesses to Securitas AB for net proceeds of $3.1 billion.
On July 5, 2022, the Company sold its Mechanical Access Solutions ("MAS") business comprised of the automatic doors business to Allegion plc for net proceeds of $922.2 million.
Proceeds from the sale of these businesses were used to repay borrowings made in the first quarter of 2022 to fund the Company's share repurchase program previously discussed. The use of proceeds to support a share repurchase program is consistent with the Company's long-term capital allocation strategy.
The Company has also divested several smaller businesses in recent years that allowed the Company to invest in other areas that fit into its long-term strategy.
Refer to Note T, Divestitures, for further discussion of the Company's divestitures.
Acquisitions and Investments
On December 1, 2021, the Company acquired the remaining 80 percent ownership stake in MTD Holdings Inc. ("MTD"), a privately held global designer, manufacturer and distributor of lawn tractors, zero turn ride on mowers, walk behind mowers, snow blowers, residential robotic mowers, hand-held outdoor power equipment and garden tools for both residential and professional consumers under well-known brands like CUB CADET® and TROY-BILT®. The Company previously acquired a 20 percent interest in MTD in January 2019.
On November 12, 2021, the Company acquired Excel Industries ("Excel"), a leading designer and manufacturer of premium commercial and residential turf-care equipment under the HUSTLER® brand. This was a strategically important bolt-on acquisition that bolstered the Company's presence in the independent dealer network.
The combination of MTD, Excel and the Company's existing outdoor strategic business unit in Tools & Outdoor created a global leader in the $25 billion and growing outdoor category, with strong brands and growth opportunities. As part of the integration of these businesses into the Tools & Outdoor segment, the Company designed, developed and manufactured battery and electric-powered solutions for professional and residential users. This positioned the combined businesses to be a leader in outdoor power equipment as preferences shift from gas powered equipment toward electrified solutions.
On February 24, 2020, the Company acquired Consolidated Aerospace Manufacturing, LLC ("CAM"), an industry-leading manufacturer of specialty fasteners and components for the aerospace and defense markets. The acquisition further diversified the Company's presence in the industrial markets and expanded its portfolio of specialty fasteners in the aerospace and defense markets.
Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, for further discussion.

Global Cost Reduction Program
During 2022, the Company advanced a series of initiatives designed to generate cost savings by resizing the organization and reducing inventory with the ultimate objective of driving long-term growth, improving profitability and generating strong cash flow. These initiatives are expected to optimize the cost base as well as provide a platform to fund investments to accelerate growth in the core businesses. The Company realized approximately $200 million of pre-tax savings during the second half of
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2022 from its leaner organizational structure, as well as enhanced cost controls, and believes that it remains on track to generate additional pre-tax savings of approximately $1 billion by the end of 2023 and grow to approximately $2 billion by 2025 from these initiatives. In addition, the Company reduced inventory by $775 million during the second half of 2022 and expects further inventory and working capital reductions to support free cash flow generation in 2023.

The program consists of an SG&A reduction of $500 million and a supply chain transformation expected to deliver $1.5 billion of cumulative cost savings to achieve projected 35%+ adjusted gross margins. The $500 million in SG&A savings is expected to be generated by simplifying the corporate structure, optimizing organizational spans and layers and reducing indirect spend and is expected to be achieved by the end of 2023. These savings are intended to fund $300 million to $500 million of innovation and commercial investments over the next three years to accelerate organic growth. The charges associated with the SG&A savings are reflected in the 2022 acquisition-related and other charges detailed below.

The supply chain transformation consists of:
Leveraging strategic sourcing and contract manufacturing;
Consolidating facilities and optimizing the distribution network;
Executing the SBD Operating Model to deliver operational excellence through efficiency, simplified organizational design and inventory optimization; and
Platforming products and implementing initiatives to drive a SKU reduction.
The cash investment required over the next two to three years to achieve the $1.5 billion of cumulative supply chain cost savings is expected to be approximately $0.9 billion to $1.0 billion, of which approximately 40% is expected to be capital expenditures. The Company will continue prioritizing capital expenditures consistent with its existing approach and expects total capital expenditures, inclusive of the supply chain transformation, to approximate 3.0% to 3.5% of net sales annually.

Driving Further Profitable Growth by Fully Leveraging the Company's Core Franchises

Each of the Company's franchises share common attributes: they have world-class brands and attractive growth characteristics, they are scalable and defensible, they can differentiate through innovation, and they are powered by the SBD Operating Model.
The Tools & Outdoor business is the tool company to own, with strong brands, proven innovation, global scale, and a broad offering of power tools, hand tools, outdoor products, accessories, and storage and digital products across many channels in both developed and developing markets.
The Engineered Fastening business within the Industrial segment is a highly profitable, GDP+ growth business offering highly engineered, value-added innovative solutions with recurring revenue attributes and global scale.
Management recognizes that the core franchises described above are important foundations that have a proven track record of providing strong cash flow and growth prospects. Management is committed to growing these businesses through accelerating investments into innovative product development, brand support, commercial activation, and accelerating the operations and supply chain transformation to improve fill rates and better serve the Company's customers, while improving global cost competitiveness.
Continuing to Invest in the Stanley Black & Decker Brands
The Company has a strong portfolio of brands associated with high-quality products including STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER®, DEWALT®, FLEXVOLT®, IRWIN®, LENOX®, CRAFTSMAN®, PORTER-CABLE®, BOSTITCH®, PROTO®, MAC TOOLS®, FACOM®, Powers®, LISTA®, Vidmar®, GQ® and through the 2021 acquisitions of MTD and Excel added CUB CADET®, TROY-BILT® and HUSTLER® in the Americas. Among the Company's most valuable assets, STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER®, DEWALT®, and CUB CADET® are recognized as four of the world's great brands, while CRAFTSMAN® is recognized as a premier American brand.

During 2022, the National Collegiate Athletic Association sponsorship delivered DEWALT® to an estimated 269+ million viewers through TV-visible branding at 25 colleges and universities across five Division 1 conferences (Atlantic Coast Conference, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12 and Mountain West).

The Company also announced its “Official Tools Partner of NASCAR” and “Official Tools" of all NASCAR-owned and operated tracks and announced that CRAFTSMAN® would return as the title sponsor of the NASCAR CRAFTSMAN® Truck Series starting in 2023.

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The CRAFTSMAN® brand continued to have prominent signage in Major League Baseball ("MLB") with six team partnerships in the league. The Company has also maintained long-standing NASCAR and NHRA racing sponsorships, which provided brand exposure during nearly 60 events in 2022 with the DEWALT®, CRAFTSMAN®, and MAC TOOLS® brands.

In 2022, the McLaren team sported the DEWALT® logo prominently on the team’s cars, fire suits, and equipment during the Formula 1 season. The Company also advertises in the English Premier League, which is the number one soccer league in the world, featuring STANLEY®, BLACK+DECKER® and DEWALT® brands to a global audience. The Company continued its sponsorship of one of the world’s most popular football clubs, FC Barcelona ("FCB"), sponsoring both the Men’s and Women’s first teams, which includes team and player image rights, hospitality assets and stadium signage.

The above marketing initiatives highlight the Company's strong emphasis on brand building and commercial support, which has resulted in more than 300 billion global brand impressions from digital and traditional advertising and strong brand awareness. Allocating brand and advertising spend judiciously will continue to be the Company’s focus. Among the goals: placing end-user data and insights at the core of product commercialization, generating demand and brand loyalty through promotional support, in-market execution and salesforce effectiveness, evolving proven marketing programs that tie trusted global brands with societal purpose and tapping into technologies to build meaningful 1:1 experiences with customers, consumers, employees and shareholders in line with the Company’s mission and vision.
The SBD Operating Model
Over the past 15 years, the Company has successfully leveraged its proven and continually evolving operating model to focus the organization to target asset efficiency, above-market organic growth and expanding operating margins. In its first evolution, the Stanley Fulfillment System ("SFS") focused on streamlining operations, which helped reduce lead times, realize synergies during acquisition integrations, and mitigate material and energy price inflation. In 2015, the Company launched a refreshed and revitalized SFS operating system, entitled SFS 2.0, to drive from a more programmatic growth mentality to a true organic growth culture by more deeply embedding breakthrough innovation and commercial excellence into its businesses, and at the same time, becoming a significantly more digitally-enabled enterprise. The latest evolution occurred in 2020, when the Company launched the SBD Operating Model, which recognized the changing dynamics of the world in which the Company operates, including the acceleration of technological change, geopolitical instability and the changing nature of work.

At the center of the model is the concept of the interrelationship between people and technology. The remaining four categories are focused on: Innovation; Operations Excellence; Functional Excellence; and Extraordinary Customer Experience. Each of these elements co-exists synergistically with the others in a systems-based approach.

The Company has made a significant commitment to the SBD Operating Model and management believes that its success will be characterized by asset efficiency, organic revenue growth 2 to 3 times the market in the long-term as well as expanded adjusted operating margin rates over the next 3 to 5 years as the Company leverages the growth and pursues structural cost reductions.


Segments
The Company’s operations are classified into two reportable business segments: Tools & Outdoor and Industrial.
Tools & Outdoor
The Tools & Outdoor segment is comprised of the Power Tools Group ("PTG"), Hand Tools, Accessories & Storage ("HTAS"), and Outdoor Power Equipment ("Outdoor") businesses.
The PTG business includes both professional and consumer products. Professional products include professional grade corded and cordless electric power tools and equipment including drills, impact wrenches and drivers, grinders, saws, routers and sanders, as well as pneumatic tools and fasteners including nail guns, nails, staplers and staples, and concrete and masonry anchors. Consumer products include corded and cordless electric power tools sold primarily under the BLACK+DECKER® brand, and home products such as hand-held vacuums, paint tools and cleaning appliances.
The HTAS business sells hand tools, power tool accessories and storage products. Hand tools include measuring, leveling and layout tools, planes, hammers, demolition tools, clamps, vises, knives, saws, chisels and industrial and automotive tools. Power tool accessories include drill bits, screwdriver bits, router bits, abrasives, saw blades and threading products. Storage products include tool boxes, sawhorses, medical cabinets and engineered storage solution products.
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The Outdoor business primarily sells corded and cordless electric lawn and garden products, including hedge trimmers, string trimmers, lawn mowers, pressure washers and related accessories, and gas powered lawn and garden products, including lawn tractors, zero turn ride on mowers, walk behind mowers, snow blowers, residential robotic mowers, utility terrain vehicles (UTVs), hand-held outdoor power equipment, garden tools, and parts and accessories to professionals and consumers under the DEWALT®, CUB CADET®, BLACK+DECKER®, CRAFTSMAN®, TROY-BILT®, and HUSTLER® brand names.
Industrial
The Industrial segment is comprised of the Engineered Fastening and Infrastructure businesses.
The Engineered Fastening business primarily sells highly engineered components such as fasteners, fittings and various engineered products, which are designed for specific application across multiple verticals. The product lines include externally threaded fasteners, blind rivets and tools, blind inserts and tools, drawn arc weld studs and systems, engineered plastic and mechanical fasteners, self-piercing riveting systems, precision nut running systems, micro fasteners, high-strength structural fasteners, axel swage, latches, heat shields, pins, and couplings.
The Infrastructure business sells hydraulic tools and high quality, performance-driven heavy equipment attachment tools for off-highway applications.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Company’s results represent continuing operations and as a result of the divestitures of the Company’s CSS and MAS businesses, as described in further detail under the heading “Divestitures” in this Item 7 above, exclude the commercial electronic security, healthcare, and automatic doors businesses. These divestitures represent a single plan to exit the Security segment and are considered a strategic shift that will have a major effect on the Company's operations and financial results. Therefore, the operating results of these businesses have been classified as discontinued operations. The divestiture of the Oil & Gas business did not qualify for discontinued operations and therefore, its results are included in the Company's continuing operations within the Industrial segment for all periods presented through the date of sale in the third quarter of 2022.
Certain Items Impacting Earnings and Non-GAAP Financial Measures
The Company has provided a discussion of its results both inclusive and exclusive of acquisition-related and other charges. The results and measures, including gross profit, SG&A, Other, net, and segment profit (including Corporate Overhead), on a basis excluding acquisition-related and other charges, free cash flow, CFROI and organic growth are Non-GAAP financial measures. The Company considers the use of Non-GAAP financial measures relevant to aid analysis and understanding of the Company’s results and business trends aside from the material impact of these items and ensures appropriate comparability to operating results of prior periods. Supplemental Non-GAAP information should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the related GAAP financial measures. Non-GAAP financial measures presented herein may differ from similar measures used by other companies.

With the exception of forecasted free cash flow included in 2023 Outlook as discussed below, the Non-GAAP financial measures of gross profit, SG&A, Other, net, and segment profit (including Corporate Overhead), presented on a basis excluding acquisition-related and other charges, as well as free cash flow and organic growth are defined and reconciled to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures below. Due to high variability and difficulty in predicting items that impact cash flow from operations, a reconciliation of forecasted free cash flow to its most directly comparable GAAP estimate has been omitted. The Company believes such a reconciliation would also imply a degree of precision that is inappropriate for this forward-looking measure.

The Company’s operating results at the consolidated level as discussed below include and exclude acquisition-related and other charges impacting gross profit, SG&A, and Other, net. The Company’s business segment results as discussed below include and exclude acquisition-related and other charges impacting gross profit and SG&A. The acquisition-related and other charges amounts for the year-to-date periods of 2022, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:

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2022
 GAAP
Acquisition-
Related Charges & Other
Non-GAAP
Gross profit$4,284.1 $127.4 $4,411.5 
Selling, general and administrative1
3,370.0 (180.3)3,189.7 
Operating profit914.1 307.7 1,221.8 
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity interest37.9 642.2 680.1 
Income taxes on continuing operations(132.4)84.0 (48.4)
Net Earnings from Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners - Diluted165.5 558.2 723.7 
Diluted earnings per share of common stock - Continuing operations$1.06 $3.56 $4.62 
1Includes provision for credit losses

The Acquisition-Related Charges and Other in the table above relate to the following:

Charges reducing Gross profit primarily pertaining to inventory step-up charges;
Charges in SG&A primarily related to integration-related costs and a voluntary retirement program;
Other charges included in Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity interest consisting of:
$16.9 million in Other, net primarily related to a voluntary retirement program and deal costs;
$8.4 million net loss relating to the sale of the Oil & Gas business;
$168.4 million asset impairment charge related to the Oil & Gas business; and
$140.8 million of restructuring charges primarily pertaining to severance and related costs; and
Income taxes on continuing operations include the tax effect on the above net charges.

2021
 GAAP
Acquisition-
Related Charges & Other
Non-GAAP
Gross profit$5,092.2 $39.0 $5,131.2 
Selling, general and administrative1
3,193.1 (183.6)3,009.5 
Operating profit1,899.1 222.6 2,121.7 
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity interest1,586.9 193.9 1,780.8 
Income taxes on continuing operations55.1 64.1 119.2 
Share of net earnings of equity method investment19.0 11.2 30.2 
Net Earnings from Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners - Diluted1,539.6 141.0 1,680.6 
Diluted earnings per share of common stock - Continuing operations$9.33 $0.85 $10.18 
1Includes provision for credit losses

The Acquisition-Related Charges and Other in the table above relate to the following:

Charges reducing Gross profit pertaining to inventory step-up charges and facility-related costs;
Charges in SG&A primarily related to a non-cash fair-value adjustment and functional transformation initiatives;
Other charges included in Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity interest consisting of:
$24.2 million in Other, net primarily related to deal transaction costs;
$0.6 million net loss pertaining to divested businesses;
$14.5 million of restructuring charges pertaining to severance and facility closures; and
$68.0 million gain recognized on the MTD equity method investment upon acquisition;
Income taxes on continuing operations include the tax effect on the above net charges; and
An after-tax, pre-acquisition charge related to the Company's share of MTD's net earnings related primarily to a one-time retroactive duty on imports of a specific component.


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2020
 GAAP
Acquisition-
Related Charges & Other
Non-GAAP
Gross profit$4,318.1 $59.0 $4,377.1 
Selling, general and administrative1
2,579.3 (114.8)2,464.5 
Operating profit1,738.8 173.8 1,912.6 
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity interest1,183.7 313.5 1,497.2 
Income taxes on continuing operations38.0 189.6 227.6 
Share of net earnings of equity method investment9.1 9.8 18.9 
Net Earnings from Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners - Diluted1,131.5 145.8 1,277.3 
Diluted earnings per share of common stock - Continuing operations$6.97 $0.82 $7.79 
1Includes provision for credit losses

The Acquisition-Related Charges and Other in the table above relate to the following:

Charges reducing Gross profit pertaining to inventory step-up charges, a cost reduction program and facility-related costs;
Charges in SG&A primarily for a cost reduction program and margin resiliency initiatives;
Other charges included in Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and equity interest consisting of:
$5.8 million in Other, net primarily related to a cost reduction program, loss on interest rate swaps in connection with the extinguishment of debt, and deal transactions costs, partially offset by a release of a contingent consideration liability relating to the CAM acquisition;
$13.5 million net loss pertaining to divested businesses;
$73.5 million of restructuring charges pertaining to severance and facility closures; and
$46.9 million charge related to a loss on the extinguishment of debt;
Income taxes on continuing operations include the tax effect on the above net charges, as well as a one-time tax benefit of $118.8 million associated with a supply chain reorganization; and
An after-tax, pre-acquisition charge related to the Company's share of MTD's net earnings related primarily to restructuring charges.

Below is a summary of the Company’s operating results at the consolidated level, followed by an overview of business segment performance. Organic growth is utilized to describe the Company's results excluding the impacts of foreign currency fluctuations, acquisitions during their initial 12 months of ownership, and divestitures.
Consolidated Results

Net Sales: Net sales were $16.947 billion in 2022 compared to $15.281 billion in 2021, representing an increase of 11% driven by a 7% increase in price and a 17% increase from acquisitions, partially offset by a 10% decrease in volume and a 3% decrease from foreign currency. Tools & Outdoor net sales increased 13% compared to 2021 due to a 7% increase in price and a 21% increase from acquisitions, partially offset by a 12% decrease in volume and a 3% decrease from foreign currency. Industrial net sales increased 2% compared to 2021 primarily due to a 1% increase in volume and an 8% increase in price, partially offset by a 5% decrease from foreign currency and a 2% decrease from the Oil & Gas divestiture.

Net sales were $15.281 billion in 2021 compared to $12.750 billion in 2020, representing an increase of 20% with organic growth of 17%, driven by a 14% increase in volume and 3% increase in price, 2% increases from both acquisitions and foreign currency, partially offset by a 1% decrease from divestitures. Tools & Storage net sales increased 24% compared to 2020 due to a 17% increase in volume, a 3% increase in price and 2% increases from both acquisitions and foreign currency. Industrial net sales increased 5% compared to 2020 primarily due to a 2% increase in volume, a 1% increase in price, and 1% increases from both acquisitions and foreign currency.

Gross Profit: The Company reported gross profit of $4.284 billion, or 25.3% of net sales, in 2022 compared to $5.092 billion, or 33.3% of net sales, in 2021. Acquisition-related and other charges, which reduced gross profit, were $127.4 million in 2022 and $39.0 million in 2021. Excluding these charges, gross profit was 26.0% of net sales in 2022 compared to 33.6% in 2021, as
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price realization was more than offset by commodity inflation, higher supply chain costs, including the impact of planned production curtailments, and lower volume.

The Company reported gross profit of $5.092 billion, or 33.3% of net sales, in 2021 compared to $4.318 billion, or 33.9% of net sales, in 2020. Acquisition-related and other charges, which reduced gross profit, were $39.0 million in 2021 and $59.0 million in 2020. Excluding these charges, gross profit was 33.6% of net sales in 2021 compared to 34.3% in 2020, as higher volume, productivity, price realization, and mix benefits from innovation were more than offset primarily by commodity inflation and higher supply chain costs to serve demand.

SG&A Expenses: Selling, general and administrative expenses, inclusive of the provision for credit losses, were $3.370 billion, or 19.9% of net sales, in 2022 compared to $3.193 billion, or 20.9% of net sales, in 2021. Within SG&A, acquisition-related and other charges totaled $180.3 million in 2022 and $183.6 million in 2021. Excluding these charges, SG&A was 18.8% of net sales in 2022 compared to 19.7% in 2021 due to the successful implementation of cost control actions.

SG&A expenses were $3.193 billion, or 20.9% of net sales, in 2021 compared to $2.579 billion, or 20.2% of net sales, in 2020. Within SG&A, acquisition-related and other charges totaled $183.6 million in 2021 and $114.8 million in 2020. Excluding these charges, SG&A was 19.7% of net sales in 2021 compared to 19.3% in 2020, reflecting growth investments deployed across the businesses in 2021.

Distribution center costs (i.e. warehousing and fulfillment facility and associated labor costs) are classified within SG&A. This classification may differ from other companies who may report such expenses within cost of sales. Due to diversity in practice, to the extent the classification of these distribution costs differs from other companies, the Company’s gross margins may not be comparable. Such distribution costs classified in SG&A amounted to $498.7 million, $416.1 million and $346.9 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.

Other, net: Other, net totaled $274.8 million, $189.5 million, and $215.7 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges, Other, net totaled $257.9 million, $165.3 million, and $209.9 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. The increase in 2022 was primarily due to higher intangible asset amortization due to the MTD and Excel acquisitions and appreciation of investments in 2021. The year-over-year decrease in 2021 was primarily due to appreciation of investments.

Loss on Sales of Businesses: During 2022, the Company reported an $8.4 million net loss primarily related to the divestiture of the Oil & Gas business. During 2021, the Company reported a $0.6 million net loss on divestitures. During 2020, the Company reported a $13.5 million net loss primarily relating to the sale of a product line within Oil & Gas.

Gain on equity method investment: Upon the acquisition of MTD in the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company recognized a $68.0 million gain on its previously held equity method investment. Refer to Note E, Acquisitions and Investments, for further discussion.

Asset Impairment Charge: During 2022, the Company recorded an impairment loss of $168.4 million related to the Oil & Gas business. Refer to Footnote T, Divestitures, for additional information on the divestiture of the Oil & Gas business.

Loss on Debt Extinguishment: During the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company extinguished $1.154 billion of its notes payable and recognized a $46.9 million loss primarily due to a make-whole premium payment.

Interest, net: Net interest expense in 2022 was $283.8 million compared to $175.6 million in 2021 and $205.2 million in 2020. The 2022 increase was primarily driven by higher U.S. interest rates and higher average balances relating to the Company's commercial paper borrowings, as well as the $1.0 billion issuance of debt in the first quarter of 2022, partially offset by higher interest income due to an increase in rates. The decrease in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily driven by lower U.S. interest rates on commercial paper borrowings and lower interest expense related to the extinguishment of notes payable in the fourth quarter of 2020, partially offset by lower interest income due to a decline in rates.

Income Taxes: The Company's effective tax rate on continuing operations was (349.3)% in 2022, 3.5% in 2021, and 3.2% in 2020. Excluding the impact of acquisition-related and other charges, the effective tax rate in 2022 on continuing operations was (7.1)%. This effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to the continued reorganization of the supply chain, tax on foreign earnings at tax rates different than the U.S. tax rate, and the recognition of previously unrecognized foreign deferred tax assets, offset by U.S. tax on foreign earnings and the remeasurement of uncertain tax position reserves.

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Excluding the impact of acquisition-related and other charges, the effective tax rate on continuing operations in 2021 was 6.7%. This effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to a benefit associated with the Company's supply chain reorganization, tax on foreign earnings, the remeasurement of uncertain tax position reserves, the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities due to foreign corporate income tax rate changes, and the tax benefit of equity-based compensation.

Excluding the one-time tax benefit of $118.8 million recorded in 2020 to reverse a deferred tax liability previously established related to certain unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries not permanently reinvested as a result of initiating a supply chain reorganization and the impact of acquisition-related and other charges, the effective tax rate on continuing operations in 2020 was 15.2%. This effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily due to tax on foreign earnings at tax rates different than the U.S. rate, the remeasurement of uncertain tax position reserves, the tax benefit of equity compensation, and tax benefits arising from an increase in deferred tax assets associated with the Company’s supply chain reorganization and partial realignment of the Company's legal structure.

Business Segment Results
The Company’s reportable segments represent businesses that have similar products, services and end markets, among other factors. The Company utilizes segment profit which is defined as net sales minus cost of sales and SG&A inclusive of the provision for credit losses (aside from corporate overhead expense), and segment profit as a percentage of net sales to assess the profitability of each segment.
The Company’s operations are classified into two reportable business segments: Tools & Outdoor and Industrial.
Tools & Outdoor:
(Millions of Dollars)202220212020
Net sales$14,424 $12,817 $10,330 
Segment profit$972 $1,985 $1,820 
% of Net sales6.7 %15.5 %17.6 %
Tools & Outdoor net sales increased $1.606 billion, or 13%, in 2022 compared to 2021 due to a 7% increase in price and a 21% increase from acquisitions, partially offset by a 12% decrease in volume and a 3% decrease from foreign currency. The overall 5% organic decline was a result of lower consumer and DIY market demand. Organic revenue in emerging markets increased 1% and declined in both Europe and North America by 6%.

Segment profit amounted to $971.9 million, or 6.7% of net sales, in 2022 compared to $1,985.4 million, or 15.5% of net sales, in 2021. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $235.4 million and $178.4 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively, segment profit amounted to 8.4% of net sales in 2022 compared to 16.9% in 2021, as the benefit from price realization was more than offset by commodity inflation, higher supply chain costs, production curtailment costs and lower volume.

Tools & Outdoor net sales increased $2.488 billion, or 24%, in 2021 compared to 2020 due to a 17% increase in volume, a 3% increase in price and 2% increases from both acquisitions and foreign currency. The 20% organic growth was driven by stronger volumes due to the consumer reconnection with the home and garden, e-commerce and strong professional demand as well as price.

Segment profit amounted to $1.985 billion, or 15.5% of net sales, in 2021 compared to $1.820 billion, or 17.6% of net sales, in 2020. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $178.4 million and $46.4 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively, segment profit amounted to 16.9% of net sales in 2021 compared to 18.1% in 2020, as volume and price benefits were more than offset by inflation, higher pandemic-related supply chain costs and growth investments.
Industrial:
(Millions of Dollars)202220212020
Net sales$2,523 $2,463 $2,353 
Segment profit$236 $257 $221 
% of Net sales9.4 %10.4 %9.4 %
Industrial net sales increased $60.3 million, or 2%, in 2022 compared to 2021, due to a 1% increase in volume and an 8% increase in price, partially offset by a 5% decrease from foreign currency and a 2% decrease from the Oil & Gas divestiture. Engineered Fastening organic revenues increased 7% driven by growth in the aerospace, automotive, and industrial markets.
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Infrastructure organic revenues were up 14% with Attachment Tools providing 17% growth, which was partially offset by an organic decline in Oil & Gas, prior to its divestiture.

Segment profit totaled $236.2 million, or 9.4% of net sales, in 2022 compared to $256.6 million, or 10.4% of net sales, in 2021. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $7.8 million and $13.1 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively, segment profit amounted to 9.7% of net sales in 2022 compared to 10.9% in 2021, as volume growth and price realization were more than offset by commodity inflation, higher supply chain costs and adverse mix.

Industrial net sales increased $110.4 million, or 5%, in 2021 compared to 2020, due to a 2% increase in volume, a 1% increase in price, and 1% increases from both acquisitions and foreign currency. Engineered Fastening organic revenues increased 5% for the full year, as general industrial growth and a strong first half in automotive more than offset the market-driven aerospace declines. Infrastructure organic revenues were down 1% as mid-teen growth in Attachment Tools was more than offset by lower pipeline activity in Oil & Gas.

Segment profit totaled $256.6 million, or 10.4% of net sales, in 2021 compared to $220.6 million, or 9.4% of net sales, in 2020. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges of $13.1 million and $67.1 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively, segment profit amounted to 10.9% of net sales in 2021 compared to 12.2% in 2020, as volume, price and productivity were more than offset by commodity inflation, growth investments and unfavorable mix.

Corporate Overhead & Other

Corporate Overhead & Other includes the results of the commercial electronic security business in five countries in Europe and emerging markets through its disposition in the fourth quarter of 2020 as well as the corporate overhead element of SG&A, which is not allocated to the business segments. Corporate Overhead & Other amounted to $294.0 million, $342.9 million, and $302.1 million in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Excluding acquisition-related and other charges, Corporate Overhead & Other was $229.5 million, $311.8 million and $241.8 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. The year-over-year decrease in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily due to lower employee-related costs. The year-over-year increase in 2021 compared to 2020 was driven by functional investments.


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RESTRUCTURING ACTIVITIES
A summary of the restructuring reserve activity from January 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 is as follows:
(Millions of Dollars)January 1, 2022Net AdditionsUsageCurrencyDecember 31, 2022
Severance and related costs$28.2 $125.9 $(98.7)$1.6 $57.0 
Facility closures and asset impairments3.5 14.9 (13.2)0.1 5.3 
Total$31.7 $140.8 $(111.9)$1.7 $62.3 

During 2022, the Company recognized net restructuring charges of $141 million, primarily related to severance and related costs. The Company expects to achieve annual net cost savings of approximately $300 million by the end of 2023 related to the restructuring costs incurred during 2022. The majority of the $62 million of reserves remaining as of December 31, 2022 is expected to be utilized within the next twelve months.

During 2021, the Company recognized net restructuring charges of $15 million, primarily related to facility closures and asset impairments. The Company estimates that these actions resulted in net cost savings of approximately $24 million in 2022.

During 2020, the Company recognized net restructuring charges of $74 million, primarily related to severance costs associated with a cost reduction program announced in the second quarter of 2020. The Company estimates that these actions resulted in annual net cost savings of approximately $125 million in 2021.

Segments: The $141 million of net restructuring charges in 2022 includes: $81 million pertaining to the Tools & Outdoor segment; $26 million pertaining to the Industrial segment; and $34 million pertaining to Corporate.

The anticipated annual net cost savings of approximately $300 million related to the 2022 restructuring actions include: $184 million in the Tools & Outdoor segment; $36 million in the Industrial segment; and $80 million in Corporate.

2023 OUTLOOK

This outlook discussion is intended to provide broad insight into the Company's near-term earnings and cash flow generation prospects. The Company expects 2023 diluted earnings per share to approximate ($1.65) to $0.85 on a GAAP basis ($0.00 to $2.00 excluding acquisition-related and other charges). The band reflects the wider range of 2023 demand possibilities and destocking scenarios with an earnings per share loss expected in the first half of 2023 as the Company prioritizes free cash flow generation. Free cash flow is expected to approximate $0.5 billion to $1.0 billion, significantly ahead of net income, as the Company focuses on serving its customers while leveraging the SBD Operating Model to drive working capital efficiency.

The difference between 2023 diluted earnings per share outlook and the diluted earnings per share range, excluding charges, is approximately $1.15 to $1.65, consisting of acquisition-related charges and other charges primarily due to supply chain transformation under the Global Cost Reduction Program.

FINANCIAL CONDITION
Liquidity, Sources and Uses of Capital: The Company’s primary sources of liquidity are cash flows generated from operations and available lines of credit under various credit facilities.

Operating Activities: Cash flows used in operations were $1.460 billion in 2022 compared to cash provided by operations of $663.1 million in 2021. The year-over-year decrease was mainly attributable to lower accounts payable balances, lower earnings from continuing operations, and higher inventory balances. During the second half of 2020 and during 2021, the Company experienced higher than historical customer demand and increased supply chain constraints, resulting in historically high inventory levels. As consumer and DIY demand softened in the second quarter of 2022, the Company’s inventory levels peaked in the first half of the year. As previously discussed, the Company is focused on reducing inventory levels as evidenced by a decline of $775 million during the second half of 2022.

In 2021, cash flows provided by operations were $663.1 million compared to $2.022 billion in 2020. The year-over-year decrease was mainly attributable to higher inventory levels to meet anticipated demand within the Tools & Outdoor segment, coupled with longer lead times related to the challenged global supply chain.

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Free Cash Flow and CFROI: Free cash flow, as defined in the table below, was an outflow of $1.990 billion in 2022 compared to inflows of $144 million and $1.674 billion in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The decrease in free cash flow in 2022 was primarily due to the same factors discussed above in operating activities. The Company has implemented significant actions throughout 2022 to further reduce inventory and working capital, and support strong free cash flow generation in 2023. CFROI, one of the Company's long-term financial measures, is computed as cash from operations plus after-tax interest expense, divided by the two-point average of debt and equity. Management considers free cash flow and CFROI important indicators of its liquidity and capital efficiency, as well as its ability to fund future growth and provide dividends to shareowners, and is useful information for investors. Free cash flow and cash from operations used in CFROI do not include deductions for mandatory debt service, other borrowing activity, discretionary dividends on the Company’s common and preferred stock and business acquisitions, among other items.

(Millions of Dollars)202220212020
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities$(1,460)$663 $2,022 
Less: capital and software expenditures(530)(519)(348)
Free cash flow$(1,990)$144 $1,674 
Investing Activities: Cash flows provided by investing activities totaled $3.573 billion in 2022 primarily due to proceeds from the Security and Oil & Gas divestitures, net of cash sold, of $4.147 billion, partially offset by capital and software expenditures of $530 million.

Cash flows used in investing activities in 2021 totaled $2.624 billion, driven by business acquisitions of $2.044 billion, net of cash acquired, primarily related to the MTD and Excel acquisitions, and capital and software expenditures of $519 million.

Cash flows used in investing activities in 2020 totaled $1.577 billion, driven by business acquisitions of $1.324 billion, net of cash acquired, primarily related to the CAM acquisition, and capital and software expenditures of $348 million.

Financing Activities: Cash flows used in financing activities totaled $1.971 billion in 2022 primarily driven by share repurchases of $2.323 billion, credit facility repayments of $2.5 billion, the redemption and conversion of preferred stock for $750 million, cash dividend payments on common stock of $466 million, and net repayments of short-term commercial paper borrowings of $138 million, partially offset by $2.5 billion from credit facility borrowings, net proceeds from debt issuances of $993 million and proceeds from the issuance of remarketed Series D Preferred Stock of $750 million.

Cash flows provided by financing activities totaled $919 million in 2021 primarily driven by net short-term commercial paper borrowings of $2.225 billion and $131 million of proceeds from issuances of common stock, partially offset by the redemption and conversion of preferred stock for $750 million, cash dividend payments on common stock of $475 million, and $75 million related to the termination of interest rate swaps.

Cash flows provided by financing activities totaled $616 million in 2020 primarily driven by net proceeds from debt issuances of $2.223 billion, proceeds from the issuance of the remarketed Series C Preferred Stock of $750 million and $147 million of proceeds from issuances of common stock, partially offset by payments on long-term debt of $1.154 billion, cash dividend payments of $432 million, net repayments of short-term commercial paper borrowings of $343 million, and a $250 million Craftsman deferred purchase price payment.

Fluctuations in foreign currency rates negatively impacted cash by $32 million and $62 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively, due to the strengthening of the U.S. Dollar against other currencies. Fluctuations in foreign currency rates positively impacted cash by $23 million in 2020 due to the weakening of the U.S. dollar against other currencies.

Refer to Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements, and Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion regarding the Company's debt and equity arrangements.
Credit Ratings and Liquidity:
The Company maintains strong investment grade credit ratings from the major U.S. rating agencies on its senior unsecured debt (S&P A, Fitch BBB+, Moody's Baa2), as well as its commercial paper program (S&P A-1, Fitch F2, Moody's P-2). Standard & Poor's, Moody's Corporation ("Moody's") and Fitch changed the Company's outlook from "stable" to "negative" during 2022 and Moody’s downgraded the Company's senior unsecured debt credit rating to Baa2 from the previous rating of Baa1 in the fourth quarter of 2022. In February 2023, Fitch downgraded the Company's senior unsecured debt credit rating to BBB+ from the previous rating of A-. Failure to maintain strong investment grade rating levels could adversely affect the Company’s cost
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of funds, liquidity and access to capital markets, but would not have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to access its existing committed credit facilities.

Cash and cash equivalents totaled $396 million as of December 31, 2022, which was primarily held in foreign jurisdictions. As of January 1, 2022, cash and cash equivalents totaled $142 million, which was primarily held in the U.S.

As a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Act"), the Company's tax liability related to the one-time transition tax associated with unremitted foreign earnings and profits totaled $242 million at December 31, 2022. The Act permits a U.S. company to elect to pay the net tax liability interest-free over a period of up to eight years. See the Contractual Obligations table below for the estimated amounts due by period. The Company has considered the implications of paying the required one-time transition tax, and believes it will not have a material impact on its liquidity.

The Company has a $3.5 billion commercial paper program which includes Euro denominated borrowings in addition to U.S. Dollars. As of December 31, 2022 and January 1, 2022, the Company had commercial paper borrowings outstanding of $2.1 billion and $2.2 billion, respectively.

The Company has a five-year $2.5 billion committed credit facility (the “5-Year Credit Agreement”). Borrowings under the 5-Year Credit Agreement may be made in U.S. Dollars, Euros or Pounds Sterling. A sub-limit amount of $814.3 million is designated for swing line advances which may be drawn in Euros pursuant to the terms of the 5-Year Credit Agreement. Borrowings bear interest at a floating rate plus an applicable margin dependent upon the denomination of the borrowing and specific terms of the 5-Year Credit Agreement. The Company must repay all advances under the 5-Year Credit Agreement by the earlier of September 8, 2026 or upon termination. The 5-Year Credit Agreement is designated to be a liquidity back-stop for the Company's $3.5 billion U.S. Dollar and Euro commercial paper program. As of December 31, 2022, and January 1, 2022, the Company had not drawn on its five-year committed credit facility.

In September 2022, the Company terminated its 364-Day $1.0 billion committed credit facility (the "364-Day Credit Agreement"), dated September 2021. There were no outstanding borrowings under the 364-Day Credit Agreement upon termination and as of January 1, 2022. Contemporaneously, the Company entered into a $1.5 billion syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement (the “Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement”) which is a revolving credit loan. Borrowings under the Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement may be made in U.S. Dollars or Euros and bear interest at a floating rate plus an applicable margin dependent upon the denomination of the borrowing and pursuant to the terms of the Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement. The Company must repay all advances under the Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement by the earlier of September 6, 2023 or upon termination. The Company may, however, convert all advances outstanding upon termination into a term loan that shall be repaid in full no later than the first anniversary of the termination date provided that the Company, among other things, pays a fee to the administrative agent for the account of each lender. The Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement serves as part of the liquidity back-stop for the Company’s $3.5 billion U.S. Dollar and Euro commercial paper program. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had not drawn on its Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement.
In September 2022, the Company terminated its second 364-Day $1.0 billion committed credit facility (the "Second 364-Day Credit Agreement"), dated November 2021, and replaced it with a $0.5 billion revolving credit loan (the "Club 364-Day Credit Agreement"). There were no outstanding borrowings under the Second 364-Day Credit Agreement upon termination and as of January 1, 2022. Borrowings under the Club 364-Day Credit Agreement may be made in U.S. Dollars and Euros and bear interest at a floating rate plus an applicable margin dependent upon the denomination of the borrowing and pursuant to the terms of the Club 364-Day Credit Agreement. The Company must repay all advances under the Club 364-Day Credit Agreement by the earlier of September 6, 2023 or upon termination. The Company may, however, convert all advances outstanding upon termination into a term loan that shall be repaid in full no later than the first anniversary of the termination date provided that the Company, among other things, pays a fee to the administrative agent for the account of each lender. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had not drawn on its Club 364-Day Credit Agreement.
In August 2022, the Company paid $2.5 billion to settle the outstanding amount of its third 364-Day committed credit facility (the "Third 364-Day Credit Agreement"), dated January 2022, using proceeds from the sales of the Security and Oil & Gas businesses and subsequently terminated the agreement. There were no outstanding borrowings under the Third 364-Day Credit Agreement upon termination. The Company did not incur any termination penalties in connection with the termination.
In addition, the Company has other short-term lines of credit that are primarily uncommitted, with numerous banks, aggregating $282 million, of which approximately $192 million was available at December 31, 2022. The $90 million of the short-term credit lines was utilized primarily pertaining to outstanding letters of credit for which there are no required or reported debt balances. Short-term arrangements are reviewed annually for renewal.

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At December 31, 2022, the aggregate amount of short-term and long-term committed and uncommitted lines of credit was approximately $4.8 billion. In addition, at December 31, 2022, $2.1 billion was recorded as short-term commercial paper borrowings. The weighted-average interest rates on U.S. dollar denominated short-term borrowings for the years ended December 31, 2022 and January 1, 2022 were 2.3% and 0.1%, respectively. The weighted-average interest rate on Euro denominated short-term borrowings for the year ended January 1, 2022 was negative 0.5%. For the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company had not drawn on its Euro denominated short-term borrowings.
The Company has an interest coverage covenant that must be maintained to permit continued access to its committed credit facilities described above. The interest coverage ratio tested for covenant compliance compares adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization to adjusted Interest Expense ("Adjusted EBITDA"/"Adjusted Interest Expense"). In February 2023, the Company entered into amendments to its 5-Year Credit Agreement, Syndicated 364-Day Credit Agreement, and Club 364-Day Credit Agreement to: (a) amend the definition of Adjusted EBITDA to allow for additional adjustment addbacks, not to exceed $500 million in the aggregate, for amounts incurred during each four fiscal quarter period beginning with the period ending in the third quarter of 2023 through the period ending in the second quarter of 2024, and (b) amend the minimum interest coverage ratio from 3.5 times to not less than 1.5 to 1.0 times computed quarterly, on a rolling twelve months (last twelve months) basis, for the period from and including the third quarter of 2023 through the second quarter of 2024. The minimum interest coverage ratio will revert back to 3.5 times for periods after the second quarter of 2024.
In February 2022, the Company issued $500.0 million of senior unsecured term notes maturing February 24, 2025 ("2025 Term Notes") and $500.0 million of senior unsecured term notes maturing May 15, 2032 (“2032 Term Notes”). The 2025 Term Notes will accrue interest at a fixed rate of 2.3% per annum and the 2032 Term Notes at a fixed rate of 3.0% per annum, with interest payable semi-annually in arrears, and rank equally in right of payment with all of the Company's existing and future unsecured unsubordinated debt. The Company received total net proceeds from this offering of approximately $993 million, net of approximately $7 million of underwriting expenses and other fees associated with the transaction. The Company used the net proceeds from the offering for general corporate purposes, including repayment of indebtedness under the commercial paper facilities.
In November 2019, the Company issued 7,500,000 Equity Units with a total notional value of $750 million ("2019 Equity Units"). Each unit had a stated amount of $100 and initially consisted of a three-year forward stock purchase contract ("2022 Purchase Contracts") for the purchase of a variable number of shares of common stock, on November 15, 2022, for a price of $100 per share, and a 10% beneficial ownership interest in one share of 0% Series D Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock, without par, with a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share ("Series D Preferred Stock").

In November 2022, the Company generated cash proceeds of $750 million from the successful remarketing of the Series D Preferred Stock (the "Remarketed Series D Preferred Stock"), as described more fully in Note J, Capital Stock. Upon completion of the remarketing, the holders of the 2019 Equity Units received 4,723,500 common shares and the Company issued 750,000 shares of Remarketed Series D Preferred Stock. Holders of the Remarketed Series D Preferred Stock were entitled to receive cumulative dividends, if declared by the Board of Directors, at an initial fixed rate equal to 7.5% per annum of the $1,000 per share liquidation preference (equivalent to $75.00 per annum per share). On November 15, 2022, the Company informed holders that it would redeem all outstanding shares of the Remarketed Series D Preferred Stock on December 22, 2022 (the “Redemption Date”) at $1,007.71 per share in cash, which was equal to 100% of the liquidation preference of a share of Remarketed Series D Preferred Stock, plus accumulated and unpaid dividends to, but excluding, the Redemption Date. In December 2022, the Company redeemed the Remarketed Series D Preferred Stock, paying $750 million in cash.

In March 2015, the Company entered into a forward share purchase contract with a financial institution counterparty for 3,645,510 shares of common stock. The contract obligates the Company to pay $350 million, plus an additional amount related to the forward component of the contract. In November 2022, the Company amended the settlement date to November 2024, or earlier at the Company's option.

Refer to Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements, and Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion regarding the Company's debt and equity arrangements.
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Contractual Obligations: The following table summarizes the Company’s significant contractual and other obligations that impact its liquidity:
Payments Due by Period
(Millions of Dollars)Total20232024-20252026-2027Thereafter
Long-term debt (a)$5,405 $$502 $552 $4,350 
Interest payments on long-term debt (b)3,228 192 373 327 2,336 
Short-term borrowings2,103 2,103 — — — 
Lease obligations490 116 165 107 102 
Inventory purchase commitments (c)771 765 — — 
Deferred compensation25 22 
Marketing commitments82 45 30 — 
Forward stock purchase contract (d)350 — 350 — — 
Pension funding obligations (e)37 37 — — — 
U.S. income tax (f)242 65 175 — 
Supplier agreements (g)339 142 187 10 — 
Derivatives (h)16 16 — — — 
Total contractual cash obligations$13,088 $3,483 $1,789 $1,006 $6,810 
 
(a)Future payments on long-term debt encompass all payments related to aggregate debt maturities, excluding certain fair value adjustments included in long-term debt, as discussed further in Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements.
(b)Future interest payments on long-term debt reflect the applicable interest rate in effect at December 31, 2022.
(c)Inventory purchase commitments primarily consist of open purchase orders to purchase raw materials, components, and sourced products.
(d)In March 2015, the Company entered into a forward share purchase contract with a financial institution counterparty which obligates the Company to pay $350 million, plus an additional amount related to the forward component of the contract. In November 2022, the Company amended the settlement date to November 2024, or earlier at the Company's option. See Note J, Capital Stock, for further discussion.
(e)This amount principally represents contributions either required by regulations or laws or, with respect to unfunded plans, necessary to fund current benefits. The Company has not presented estimated pension and post-retirement funding beyond 2023 as funding can vary significantly from year to year based upon changes in the fair value of the plan assets, actuarial assumptions, and curtailment/settlement actions.
(f)Income tax liability for the one-time deemed repatriation tax on unremitted foreign earnings and profits.
(g)Supplier agreements with long-term minimum material purchase requirements and freight forwarding arrangements.
(h)Future cash flows on derivative instruments reflect the fair value and accrued interest as of December 31, 2022. The ultimate cash flows on these instruments will differ, perhaps significantly, based on applicable market interest and foreign currency rates at their maturity.

To the extent the Company can reliably determine when payments will occur, the related amounts will be included in the table above. However, due to the high degree of uncertainty regarding the timing of potential future cash flows associated with the contingent consideration liability related to the Craftsman acquisition and the unrecognized tax liabilities of $269 million and $552 million, respectively, at December 31, 2022, the Company is unable to make a reliable estimate of when (if at all) these amounts may be paid. Refer to Note M, Fair Value Measurements, and Note Q, Income Taxes, for further discussion.

Payments of the above contractual and other obligations (with the exception of payments related to debt principal, the forward stock purchase contract, and tax obligations) will typically generate a cash tax benefit such that the net cash outflow will be lower than the gross amounts summarized above.

Other Significant Commercial Commitments:
Amount of Commitment Expirations Per Period
(Millions of Dollars)Total20232024-20252026-2027Thereafter
U.S. lines of credit$4,500 $2,000 $— $2,500 $— 
Short-term borrowings, long-term debt and lines of credit are explained in detail within Note H, Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements.
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MARKET RISK
Market risk is the potential economic loss that may result from adverse changes in the fair value of financial instruments, currencies, commodities and other items traded in global markets. The Company is exposed to market risk from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, stock prices, bond prices and commodity prices, amongst others.
Exposure to foreign currency risk results because the Company, through its global businesses, enters into transactions and makes investments denominated in multiple currencies. The Company’s predominant currency exposures are related to the Euro, Canadian Dollar, British Pound, Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real, Chinese Renminbi and the Taiwan Dollar. Certain cross-currency trade flows arising from both trade and affiliate sales and purchases are consolidated and netted prior to obtaining risk protection through the use of various derivative financial instruments which may include: purchased basket options, purchased options, collars, cross-currency swaps and currency forwards. The Company is thus able to capitalize on its global positioning by taking advantage of naturally offsetting exposures and portfolio efficiencies to reduce the cost of purchasing derivative protection. At times, the Company also enters into foreign exchange derivative contracts to reduce the earnings and cash flow impacts of non-functional currency denominated receivables and payables, primarily for affiliate transactions. Gains and losses from these hedging instruments offset the gains or losses on the underlying net exposures. Management determines the nature and extent of currency hedging activities, and in certain cases, may elect to allow certain currency exposures to remain un-hedged. The Company may also enter into cross-currency swaps and forward contracts to hedge the net investments in certain subsidiaries and better match the cash flows of operations to debt service requirements. Management estimates the foreign currency impact from its derivative financial instruments outstanding at the end of 2022 would have been an incremental pre-tax loss of approximately $32 million based on a hypothetical 10% adverse movement in all net derivative currency positions. The Company follows risk management policies in executing derivative financial instrument transactions, and does not use such instruments for speculative purposes. The Company generally does not hedge the translation of its non-U.S. dollar earnings in foreign subsidiaries, but may choose to do so in certain instances in future periods.
As mentioned above, the Company routinely has cross-border trade and affiliate flows that cause an impact on earnings from foreign exchange rate movements. The Company is also exposed to currency fluctuation volatility from the translation of foreign earnings into U.S. dollars and the economic impact of foreign currency volatility on monetary assets held in foreign currencies. It is more difficult to quantify the transactional effects from currency fluctuations than the translational effects. Aside from the use of derivative instruments, which may be used to mitigate some of the exposure, transactional effects can potentially be influenced by actions the Company may take. For example, if an exposure occurs from a European entity sourcing product from a U.S. supplier it may be possible to change to a European supplier. Management estimates the combined translational and transactional impact, on pre-tax earnings, of a 10% overall movement in exchange rates is approximately $244 million, or approximately $1.23 per diluted share. In 2022, translational and transactional foreign currency fluctuations negatively impacted pre-tax earnings from continuing operations by approximately $144 million, or approximately $0.73 per diluted share.
The Company’s exposure to interest rate risk results from its outstanding debt and derivative obligations, short-term investments, and derivative financial instruments employed in the management of its debt portfolio. The debt portfolio including both trade and affiliate debt, is managed to achieve capital structure targets and reduce the overall cost of borrowing by leveraging, as appropriate, a combination of fixed and floating rate debt as well as interest rate swaps, and cross-currency swaps.
The Company’s primary exposure to interest rate risk comes from its commercial paper program in which the pricing is partially based on short-term U.S. interest rates. At December 31, 2022, the impact of a hypothetical 10% increase in the interest rates associated with the Company’s outstanding commercial paper borrowings would have been an incremental pre-tax loss of approximately $10 million.
The Company has exposure to commodity prices in many businesses, particularly brass, nickel, resin, aluminum, copper, zinc, steel, and energy used in the production of finished goods. Generally, commodity price exposures are not hedged with derivative financial instruments, but instead are actively managed through customer product and service pricing actions, procurement-driven cost reduction initiatives and other productivity improvement projects.
The Company has $95.6 million of liabilities as of December 31, 2022 pertaining to unfunded defined contribution plans for certain U.S. employees for which there is mark-to-market exposure.
The assets held by the Company’s defined benefit plans are exposed to fluctuations in the market value of securities, primarily global stocks and fixed-income securities. The Company employs diversified asset allocations to help mitigate this risk. The Company's investment strategy for pension assets focuses on a liability-matching approach with gradual de-risking taking place over a period of many years to effectively manage portfolio risk. The Company utilizes the current funded status to transition the portfolio toward investments that better match the duration and cash flow attributes of the underlying liabilities. In 2022,
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investment losses resulted in a decrease of $560 million to pension plan assets. In 2021 and 2020, investment returns on pension plan assets resulted in increases of $81 million and $280 million, respectively. The funded status percentage (total plan assets divided by total projected benefit obligation) of all global pension plans was 87% in both 2022 and 2021 and 80% in 2020. The overall funded position remained consistent in 2022 compared to 2021 as the actual investment losses on pension plan assets during the year were offset by decreases in the benefit plan obligations primarily driven by increases in the discount rate. These factors will both negatively impact net periodic benefit expense in 2023. The Company expects funding obligations on its defined benefit plans to be approximately $37 million in 2023. Management has worked to minimize this exposure by freezing and terminating defined benefit plans where appropriate. Refer to Note L, Employee Benefit Plans, for further discussion regarding the Company's pension plans.
The Company has access to financial resources and borrowing capabilities around the world. There are no instruments within the debt structure that would accelerate payment requirements solely due to a change in credit rating.
The Company’s existing credit facilities and sources of liquidity, including expected operating cash flows, are considered more than adequate to conduct business as normal. The Company believes that its strong financial position, expected operating cash flows, committed long-term credit facilities and borrowing capacity, and ability to access equity markets, provide the financial flexibility necessary to continue its record of annual dividend payments, to invest in the routine needs of its businesses, and to fund other initiatives encompassed by its business strategy and maintain its strong investment grade credit ratings.
OTHER MATTERS
Employee Stock Ownership Plan ("ESOP") As detailed in Note L, Employee Benefit Plans, the Company has an ESOP under which the ongoing U.S. Core and 401(k) defined contribution plans have been funded. Overall ESOP expense was affected by the market value of the Company’s stock on the monthly dates when shares were released, among other factors. The Company’s net ESOP activity resulted in expense of $61.1 million, $59.1 million, and $4.4 million in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. U.S. defined contribution retirement plan expense increased in 2021 as all remaining unallocated shares in the ESOP were released in the first quarter of 2020. In addition, employer contributions to the plan were suspended for the last three quarters of 2020.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES — Preparation of the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements are described in Note A, Significant Accounting Policies. Management believes the most complex and sensitive judgments, because of their significance to the Consolidated Financial Statements, result primarily from the need to make estimates about the effects of matters with inherent uncertainty. The most significant areas involving management estimates are described below. Actual results in these areas could differ from management’s estimates.
GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS — The Company acquires businesses in purchase transactions that result in the recognition of goodwill and intangible assets. The determination of the value of intangible assets requires management to make estimates and assumptions. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 350-20, Goodwill, acquired goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized but are subject to impairment testing at least annually or when an event occurs or circumstances change that indicate it is more likely than not an impairment exists. Definite-lived intangible assets are amortized and are tested for impairment when an event occurs or circumstances change that indicate it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. Goodwill represents costs in excess of fair values assigned to the underlying net assets of acquired businesses. At December 31, 2022, the Company reported $8.503 billion of goodwill, $2.516 billion of indefinite-lived trade names and $1.959 billion of net definite-lived intangibles.
Management tests goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is an operating segment as defined in ASC 280, Segment Reporting, or one level below an operating segment (component level) as determined by the availability of discrete financial information that is regularly reviewed by operating segment management or an aggregate of component levels of an operating segment having similar economic characteristics. If the carrying value of a reporting unit (including the value of goodwill) is greater than its estimated fair value, an impairment charge would be recorded for the amount that the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeded its fair value.
As required by the Company’s policy, goodwill was tested for impairment in the third quarter of 2022. In accordance with Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2011-08, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Testing Goodwill for Impairment, companies are permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test. Impairment tests are completed separately with respect to the goodwill of each of the Company’s reporting units. For its annual impairment testing performed in the third quarter of 2022, the Company applied a
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quantitative test for all of its reporting units using a discounted cash flow valuation model. Based on the results of the Company’s annual impairment testing, it was determined that the fair value of each of its reporting units is in excess of its carrying amount.
With respect to the quantitative tests, the key assumptions applied to the cash flow projections were discount rates, which ranged from 9.5% to 10.0%, near-term revenue growth rates over the next six years, which represented cumulative annual growth rates ranging from approximately 5% to 6%, and perpetual growth rates of 3%. These assumptions contemplated business, market and overall economic conditions. Based on the results of this testing, the Company determined that the fair value for each of the reporting units exceeded its carrying amount in excess of 25%. Furthermore, management performed sensitivity analyses on the estimated fair values from the discounted cash flow valuation models utilizing more conservative assumptions that reflect reasonably likely future changes in the discount rate and perpetual growth rate. The discount rate was increased by 100 basis points with no impairment indicated. The perpetual growth rate was decreased by 150 basis points with no impairment indicated.
The Company also tested its indefinite-lived trade names for impairment during the third quarter of 2022 utilizing a discounted cash flow model. The key assumptions used included discount rates, royalty rates, and perpetual growth rates applied to the projected sales. The Company determined that the fair values of its indefinite-lived trade names exceeded their respective carrying amounts.
In the event that future operating results of any of the Company's reporting units or indefinite-lived trade names do not meet current expectations, management, based upon conditions at the time, would consider taking restructuring or other strategic actions, as necessary, to maximize revenue growth and profitability. A thorough analysis of all the facts and circumstances existing at that time would need to be performed to determine if recording an impairment loss would be appropriate.
DEFINED BENEFIT OBLIGATIONS — The valuation of pension and other postretirement benefits costs and obligations is dependent on various assumptions. These assumptions, which are updated annually, include discount rates, expected return on plan assets, future salary increase rates, and health care cost trend rates. The Company considers current market conditions, including interest rates, to establish these assumptions. Discount rates are developed considering the yields available on high-quality fixed income investments with maturities corresponding to the duration of the related benefit obligations. The Company’s weighted-average discount rates used to determine benefit obligations at December 31, 2022 for the United States and international pension plans were 5.36% and 4.70%, respectively. The Company’s weighted-average discount rates used to determine benefit obligations at January 1, 2022 for the United States and international pension plans were 2.80% and 1.78%, respectively. As discussed further in Note L, Employee Benefit Plans, the Company develops the expected return on plan assets considering various factors, which include its targeted asset allocation percentages, historic returns, and expected future returns. The Company’s expected rate of return assumptions for the United States and international pension plans were 4.69% and 3.41%, respectively, at December 31, 2022. The Company will use a 6.03% weighted-average expected rate of return assumption to determine the 2023 net periodic benefit cost. A 25 basis point reduction in the expected rate of return assumption would increase 2023 net periodic benefit cost by approximately $4 million on a pre-tax basis.
The Company believes that the assumptions used are appropriate; however, differences in actual experience or changes in the assumptions may materially affect the Company’s financial position or results of operations. To the extent that actual (newly measured) results differ from the actuarial assumptions, the difference is recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss, and, if in excess of a specified corridor, amortized over future periods. The expected return on plan assets is determined using the expected rate of return and the fair value of plan assets. Accordingly, market fluctuations in the fair value of plan assets can affect the net periodic benefit cost in the following year. The projected benefit obligation for defined benefit plans exceeded the fair value of plan assets by $307 million at December 31, 2022. A 25 basis point reduction in the discount rate would have increased the projected benefit obligation by approximately $50 million at December 31, 2022. The primary Black & Decker U.S. pension and post employment benefit plans were curtailed in late 2010, as well as the only material Black & Decker international plan, and in their place the Company implemented defined contribution benefit plans. The vast majority of the projected benefit obligation pertains to plans that have been frozen; the remaining defined benefit plans that are not frozen are predominantly small domestic union plans and those that are statutorily mandated in certain international jurisdictions. The Company recognized approximately $1 million of defined benefit plan expense in 2022, which may fluctuate in future years depending upon various factors including future discount rates and actual returns on plan assets.
ENVIRONMENTAL — The Company incurs costs related to environmental issues as a result of various laws and regulations governing current operations as well as the remediation of previously contaminated sites. The Company’s policy is to accrue environmental investigatory and remediation costs for identified sites when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The amount of liability recorded is based on an evaluation of currently available facts with respect to each individual site and includes such factors as existing technology, presently enacted laws and regulations, and prior experience in remediation of contaminated sites. The liabilities recorded do not take into account any
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claims for recoveries from insurance or third parties. As assessments and remediation progress at individual sites, the amounts recorded are reviewed periodically and adjusted to reflect additional technical and legal information that becomes available.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company had reserves of $129 million for remediation activities associated with Company-owned properties as well as for Superfund sites, for losses that are probable and estimable. The range of environmental remediation costs that is reasonably possible is $59 million to $220 million which is subject to change in the near term. The Company may be liable for environmental remediation of sites it no longer owns. Liabilities have been recorded on those sites in accordance with this policy.
INCOME TAXES — The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Any changes in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

The Company records net deferred tax assets to the extent that it is more likely than not that these assets will be realized. In making this determination, management considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing temporary differences, estimates of future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and the realizability of net operating loss carryforwards. In the event that it is determined that an asset is not more likely that not to be realized, a valuation allowance is recorded against the asset. Valuation allowances related to deferred tax assets can be impacted by changes to tax laws, changes to statutory tax rates and future taxable income levels. In the event the Company were to determine that it would not be able to realize all or a portion of its deferred tax assets in the future, the unrealizable amount would be charged to earnings in the period in which that determination is made. Conversely, if the Company were to determine that it would be able to realize deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net carrying amounts, it would decrease the recorded valuation allowance through a favorable adjustment to earnings in the period that the determination was made.
The Company records uncertain tax positions in accordance with ASC 740, which requires a two-step process. First, management determines whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position and second, for those tax positions that meet the more likely than not threshold, management recognizes the largest amount of the tax benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related taxing authority. The Company maintains an accounting policy of recording interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as a component of Income taxes in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company is subject to income tax in a number of locations, including many state and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required when calculating the worldwide provision for income taxes. Many factors are considered when evaluating and estimating the Company's tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments, and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes. It is reasonably possible that the amount of the unrecognized benefit with respect to certain of the Company's unrecognized tax positions will significantly increase or decrease within the next twelve months. These changes may be the result of settlements of ongoing audits, litigation, or other proceedings with taxing authorities. The Company periodically assesses its liabilities and contingencies for all tax years still subject to audit based on the most current available information, which involves inherent uncertainty.
Additional information regarding income taxes is available in Note Q, Income Taxes.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS UNDER THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION
REFORM ACT OF 1995
This document contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of federal and state securities laws, including, but not limited to, any projections or guidance of earnings, revenue or other financial items; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations; any statements concerning proposed new products, services or developments; any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance; any statements of belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Forward-looking statements may include, among others, the words “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “intend,” “continue,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate” or any other similar words.
Although the Company believes that the expectations reflected in any of its forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in any of its forward-looking statements. The Company's future financial condition and results of operations, as well as any forward-looking statements, are subject to change and to inherent risks and uncertainties, such as those disclosed or incorporated by reference in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Important factors that could cause the Company's actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in its forward-looking statements include, among others, the following: (i) successfully developing, marketing and achieving sales from new products and services and the continued acceptance of current products and services; (ii) macroeconomic factors, including global and regional business conditions (such as Brexit), commodity prices, inflation and deflation, and currency exchange rates; (iii) laws, regulations and governmental policies affecting the Company's activities in the countries where it does business, including those related to tariffs, taxation, data privacy, anti-bribery, anti-corruption, government contracts and trade controls such as section 301 tariffs and section 232 steel and aluminum tariffs; (iv) the economic, political, cultural and legal environment of emerging markets, particularly Latin America, Russia, China and Turkey; (v) realizing the anticipated benefits of mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic alliances or divestitures, including the divestitures of the Security and Oil & Gas businesses; (vi) pricing pressure and other changes within competitive markets; (vii) availability and price of raw materials, component parts, freight, energy, labor and sourced finished goods; (viii) the impact the tightened credit markets and any discontinuation, reform or replacement of LIBOR and other benchmark rates may have on the Company or its customers or suppliers; (ix) the extent to which the Company has to write off accounts receivable or assets or experiences supply chain disruptions in connection with bankruptcy filings by customers or suppliers; (x) the Company's ability to identify and effectively execute productivity improvements and cost reductions; (xi) potential business and distribution disruptions, including those related to physical security threats, information technology or cyber-attacks, epidemics, pandemics, sanctions, political unrest, war, terrorism or natural disasters; (xii) the continued consolidation of customers, particularly in consumer channels and the Company’s continued reliance on significant customers; (xiii) managing franchisee relationships; (xiv) the impact of poor weather conditions and climate change; (xv) maintaining or improving production rates in the Company's manufacturing facilities, responding to significant changes in customer preferences, product demand and fulfilling demand for new and existing products, and learning, adapting and integrating new technologies into products, services and processes; (xvi) changes in the competitive landscape in the Company's markets; (xvii) the Company's non-U.S. operations, including sales to non-U.S. customers; (xviii) the impact from demand changes within world-wide markets associated with homebuilding and remodeling; (xix) potential adverse developments in new or pending litigation and/or government investigations; (xx) the incurrence of debt and changes in the Company's ability to obtain debt on commercially reasonable terms and at competitive rates; (xxi) substantial pension and other postretirement benefit obligations; (xxii) potential regulatory liabilities, including environmental, privacy, data breach, workers compensation and product liabilities; (xxiii) attracting and retaining key employees, managing a workforce in many jurisdictions, labor shortages, work stoppages or other labor disruptions; (xxiv) the Company's ability to keep abreast with the pace of technological change; (xxv) changes in accounting estimates; (xxvi) the Company’s ability to protect its intellectual property rights and associated reputational impacts; (xxvii) the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and (xxviii) the Company’s ability to implement, and achieve the expected benefits (including cost savings and reduction in working capital) from its Global Cost Reduction Program including: continuing to advance innovation, electrification and global market penetration to achieve organic revenue growth of 2-3 times the market; streamlining and simplifying the organization, as well as shifting resources to prioritize investments believed to have a positive and more direct impact to customers; accelerating the operations and supply chain transformation to improve fill rates and better match the needs of its customers while improving adjusted gross margins back to historical 35%+ levels; prioritizing cash flow generation and inventory optimization; leveraging strategic sourcing and contract manufacturing; consolidating facilities and optimizing the distribution network; executing the SBD Operating Model to deliver operational excellence through efficiency, simplified organizational design and inventory optimization; and platforming products.
Additional factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements are set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including under the headings “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes.
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Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date hereof, and forward-looking statements in documents that are incorporated by reference herein speak only as of the date of those documents. The Company does not undertake any obligation or intention to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of future events or circumstances, new information or otherwise, except as required by law.
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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The Company incorporates by reference the material captioned “Market Risk” in Item 7 and in Note I, Financial Instruments, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
See Item 15 for an index to Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedule. Such Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedule are incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
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ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
The management of Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. (the “Company”) is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.
Management has assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022. In making its assessment, management has utilized the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013 Framework). Management concluded that based on its assessment, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2022. Ernst & Young LLP, the auditor of the financial statements included in this annual report, has issued an attestation report on the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting, a copy of which appears on page 62.
Under the supervision and with the participation of management, including the Company’s President and Chief Executive Officer and its Interim Chief Financial Officer, the Company has, pursuant to Rule 13a-15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of its disclosure controls and procedures (as defined under Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act). Based upon that evaluation, the Company’s President and Chief Executive Officer and its Interim Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of December 31, 2022, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
Remediation of Previously Reported Material Weaknesses
To address the previously reported material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting described in Part II, Item 9A of the Company's 2021 Form 10-K, the Company enhanced and revised the design of existing controls and procedures to properly account for financial instruments with debt- and equity-like features, including the impact to the calculation of earnings per share. During the first quarter of fiscal 2022, the Company successfully completed the testing necessary to conclude that the material weaknesses have been remediated.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2022 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
None.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
Not applicable.
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PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF THE REGISTRANT
The information required by this Item, except for certain information with respect to the Company’s Code of Business Ethics, the identification of the executive officers of the Company and any material changes to the procedures by which shareholders may recommend nominees to the Company’s Board of Directors, as set forth below, is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth in the section of the Company’s definitive proxy statement (which will be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act within 120 days after the close of the Company’s fiscal year) under the headings “Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports,” “Information Concerning Nominees for Election as Directors,” and “Board of Directors".

Available on the Company's website at http://www.stanleyblackanddecker.com under the “Impact” heading is the Code of Business Ethics applicable to all of its directors and officers, including the President and Chief Executive Officer, Interim Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Accounting Officer, and employees worldwide, as well as the Supplemental Code of Ethics for CEO and Senior Financial Officers, applicable to the Company’s President and Chief Executive Officer, and all senior financial officers, including the Interim Chief Financial Officer and Chief Accounting Officer. The Company intends to post on its website required information regarding any amendment to, or waiver from, the Code of Business Ethics or the Code of Ethics for CEO and Senior Financial Officers that applies to the Company's President and Chief Executive Officer and senior financial officers within four business days after any such amendment or waiver.

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The following is a list of the executive officers of the Company as of February 23, 2023:
 
Name and AgeOfficeDate Elected to Office as an Executive Officer
Donald Allan, Jr. (58)
President & Chief Executive Officer since July 2022. President & Chief Financial Officer (2021); Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (2016); Senior Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (2010); Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (2009); Vice President & Corporate Controller (2002); Corporate Controller (2000); Assistant Controller (1999).
10/24/2006
Corbin B. Walburger (52)Interim Chief Financial Officer since July 2022. Vice President of Corporate Business Development (2008); Vice President and Associate in Investment Banking Division, Goldman Sachs (1999); Financial Analyst, Goldman Sachs (1995).7/1/2022
Scot D. Greulach (40)Chief Accounting Officer since October 2022. Business Unit Controller for Stanley Industrial (2021); Director – Corporate and Technical Accounting (2018); Director – Statutory Reporting and Tax Compliance (2017); Director – External Reporting (2014); Senior Manager – External Reporting (2012).10/1/2022
Janet M. Link (53)Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since July 2017. Executive Vice President, General Counsel, JC Penney Company, Inc. (2015); Vice President, Deputy General Counsel, JC Penney Company, Inc. (2014); Vice President, Deputy General Counsel, Clear Channel Companies (2013).7/19/2017
Robert H. Raff (56)
Interim Co-President & Chief Commercial Officer, Tools & Outdoor since July 2022. Head of Outdoor Integration (2021); President, Stanley Security (2016); President, Stanley Electronic Security North America (2015); President, North America Sales, Construction & DIY (2010); President, Stanley National Hardware (2007); Vice President of Latin America, Construction & DIY (2005); General Manager, Construction & DIY (2002).
4/19/2018
Graham N. Robinson (54)Senior Vice President & President, Stanley Industrial since April 2020. President, Honeywell Industrial Safety (Honeywell International) (2018); President, Honeywell Sensing and Internet of Things (Honeywell International) (2016); Chief Marketing Officer and Vice President, Global Strategy & Marketing, Automation and Control Solutions (Honeywell International) (2014).4/17/2020
John H. Wyatt (64)Interim Co-President & Senior Vice President, Tools & Outdoor since July 2022. Senior Vice President & President, Stanley Outdoor (2021); Senior Vice President & President, Stanley Outdoor and Aerospace (2020); President, Stanley Engineered Fastening (2016); President, Global Sales & Marketing - Global Tools & Storage (2014); President, Construction & DIY, Europe and ANZ (2012); President, Construction & DIY, EMEA (2010); President-Europe, Middle East, and Africa, Power Tools and Accessories, The Black & Decker Corporation (2008); Vice President-Consumer Products (Europe, Middle East and Africa), The Black & Decker Corporation (2006).3/12/2010
John T. Lucas (63)Chief Human Resources Officer since January 2023. Founder & Principal, True North Human Capital Consulting, LLC (2019); Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (2015); Senior Vice President, Human Resources & Communications, Lockheed Martin Corporation (2009).1/30/2023

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ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth under the sections entitled "Compensation Discussion & Analysis" and “2022 Executive Compensation Program” of the Company’s definitive proxy statement, which will be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information required by Item 403 of Regulation S-K is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth under the sections entitled "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners," "Security Ownership of Directors and Officers," "Compensation Discussion & Analysis" and “2022 Executive Compensation Program” of the Company’s definitive proxy statement, which will be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION
Compensation plans under which the Company’s equity securities are authorized for issuance at December 31, 2022 follow:
 
(A)(B)(C)
Plan CategoryNumber of securities to be
issued upon exercise of
outstanding options, warrants and rights
 Weighted-average exercise
price of outstanding options, warrants and rights
 Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under equity
compensation plans
(excluding securities
reflected in column (A))
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders7,289,358 
(1)
$140.22 
(2)
9,655,464 
(3)
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders (4)
— 
  
— 
  
— 
  
Total7,289,358 
  
$140.22 
  
9,655,464 
 
(1)Consists of 5,281,713 shares underlying outstanding stock options (whether vested or unvested) with a weighted-average exercise price of $140.22 and a weighted-average term of 6.54 years; 1,873,031 shares underlying time-vesting restricted stock units that have not yet vested and the maximum number of shares that will be issued pursuant to outstanding performance awards if all established goals are met; and 134,614 of shares earned but for which participants elected deferral of delivery. All stock-based compensation plans are discussed in Note J, Capital Stock, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
(2)There is no cost to the recipient for shares issued pursuant to time-vesting restricted stock units or performance awards. Because there is no strike price applicable to these stock awards they are excluded from the weighted-average exercise price which pertains solely to outstanding stock options.
(3)Consists of 1,251,699 of shares available for purchase under the employee stock purchase plan ("ESPP") at the election of employees and 8,403,765 securities available for future grants by the Board of Directors under stock-based compensation plans. On February 16, 2022, the Board of Directors adopted the 2022 Omnibus Award Plan (the "2022 Plan") and authorized the issuance of 9,800,000 shares of the Company's common stock in connection with awards pursuant to the 2022 Plan. No further awards will be issued under the Company's 2018 Omnibus Award Plan.
(4)U.S. non-highly compensated employees are eligible to contribute from 1% to 25% of their salary to a qualified tax deferred savings plan as described in the Employee Stock Ownership Plan ("ESOP") section of Note L, Employee Benefit Plans, of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. The Company contributes an amount equal to one half of the employee contribution up to the first 7% of salary. There is a non-qualified tax deferred savings plan for highly compensated salaried employees which mirrors certain qualified plan provisions, but was not specifically approved by security holders. Eligible highly compensated salaried U.S. employees are eligible to contribute from 1% to 50% of their salary to the non-qualified tax deferred savings plan. The same matching arrangement was provided for highly compensated salaried employees in the non-qualified plan, to the extent the match was not fully met in the qualified plan, except that the arrangement for these employees is outside of the ESOP, and is not funded in advance of distributions. Effective January 1, 2019, the Company, at its discretion, will determine whether matching and core contributions will be made for the non-qualified tax deferred savings plan for a particular year. If the Company decides to make matching contributions for a year, it will make contributions, in an amount determined at its discretion, that may constitute part or all of or more than the matching contributions that would have been made pursuant to the provisions of the Stanley Black & Decker Supplemental Retirement Account Plan that were
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in effect prior to 2019. For both qualified and non-qualified plans, the investment of the employee’s contribution and the Company’s matching contribution is controlled by the employee and may include an election to invest in Company stock. Shares of the Company’s common stock may be issued at the time of a distribution from the qualified plan. The number of securities remaining available for issuance under the plans at December 31, 2022 is not determinable, since the plans do not authorize a maximum number of securities.
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ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information required by Items 404 and 407(a) of Regulation S-K is incorporated by reference to the information set forth under the sections entitled "Corporate Governance," "Director Independence" and "Related Person Transactions" of the Company’s definitive proxy statement, which will be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
The information required by Item 9(e) of Schedule 14A is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth under the section entitled “Fees of Independent Auditors” of the Company’s definitive proxy statement, which will be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

PART IV
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
(a) Index to documents filed as part of this report:
1. and 2. Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedule.
The response to this portion of Item 15 is submitted as a separate section of this report beginning with an index thereto on page 55.
3. Exhibits
See Exhibit Index in this Form 10-K on page 119.
(b) See Exhibit Index in this Form 10-K on page 119.
(c) The response in this portion of Item 15 is submitted as a separate section of this Form 10-K with an index thereto beginning on page 55.
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FORM 10-K
ITEM 15(a) (1) AND (2)
STANLEY BLACK & DECKER, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
 
Schedule II — Valuation and Qualifying Accounts is included in Item 15 (page 58).
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting (page 59).
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID: 00042) — Financial Statement Opinion (page 60).
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm  — Internal Control Opinion (page 62).
Consolidated Statements of Operations — fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, January 1, 2022, and January 2, 2021 (page 63).
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income — fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, January 1, 2022, and January 2, 2021 (page 64).
Consolidated Balance Sheets — December 31, 2022 and January 1, 2022 (page 65).
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows — fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, January 1, 2022, and January 2, 2021 (page 66).
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareowners’ Equity — fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, January 1, 2022, and January 2, 2021 (page 68).
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (page 69).
Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited) (page 117).
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (Exhibit 23).
All other schedules are omitted because either they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or the notes thereto.

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ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY
Not applicable.

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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Company has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
STANLEY BLACK & DECKER, INC.
By:/s/ Donald Allan, Jr.
 Donald Allan, Jr., President and Chief Executive Officer
Date:February 23, 2023
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Company and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature  Title  Date 
/s/ Donald Allan, Jr.  President and Chief Executive Officer  February 23, 2023