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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from            to            

 

Commission file number 1-39686 (Apartment Income REIT Corp.)

Commission file number 0-24497 (AIMCO Properties, L.P.)

 

APARTMENT INCOME REIT CORP.

AIMCO PROPERTIES, L.P.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Maryland (Apartment Income REIT Corp.)

 

84-1299717

Delaware (AIMCO Properties, L.P.)

 

84-1275621

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

4582 South Ulster Street, Suite 1700

Denver, Colorado

 

80237

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (303) 757-8101

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Class A Common Stock (Apartment Income REIT Corp.)

 

AIRC

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None (Apartment Income REIT Corp.)

Partnership Common Units (AIMCO Properties, L.P.)

(title of each class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


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Apartment Income REIT Corp.:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock of Apartment Income REIT Corp. held by non-affiliates of Apartment Income REIT Corp. was approximately $5.6 billion based upon the closing price of $37.95 on December 15, 2020, which was the initial trading date of the registrant’s common stock on the New York Stock Exchange.

 

As of March 5, 2021, there were 148,985,740 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Portions of Part III will be incorporated by reference in accordance with Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

On December 15, 2020, Apartment Investment and Management Company (“Aimco”) completed the previously announced separation of its business into two, separate and distinct, publicly traded companies, Apartment Income REIT Corp. (“AIR”) and Aimco (the “Separation”).

Notwithstanding the legal form of the Separation, for accounting and financial reporting purposes, Aimco is presented as being spun-off from AIR (as it relates to Aimco subsequent to the Separation, the “Spinnee”). This presentation is in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, and is due primarily to the relative significance of AIR’s business, as measured in terms of revenue, net income, assets, and other relevant indicators, as compared to Aimco before the Separation. Therefore, AIR is considered the divesting entity and treated as the accounting spinnor, and Aimco is presented as the predecessor (“AIR’s Predecessor”) for AIR’s financial statements. Unless otherwise stated, financial results prior to the Separation on December 15, 2020 include the financial results of AIR’s predecessor. The Separation is more fully described in Part I, Item 1. Business.

This filing combines the Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, of AIR, AIMCO Properties L.P. (“AIR Operating Partnership”), and their consolidated subsidiaries. The AIR Operating Partnership’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the AIR Operating Partnership and its consolidated subsidiaries. Except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to AIR, the AIR Operating Partnership and their consolidated subsidiaries, collectively.

AIR, a Maryland corporation, is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust. AIR, through wholly-owned subsidiaries, is the general and special limited partner of the AIR Operating Partnership. As of December 31, 2020, AIR owned approximately 93.5% of the legal interest in the common partnership units of the AIR Operating Partnership and 94.9% of the economic interest in the AIR Operating Partnership. The remaining 6.5% legal interest is owned by third-party limited partners. As the sole general partner of the AIR Operating Partnership, AIR has exclusive control of the AIR Operating Partnership’s day-to-day management.

The AIR Operating Partnership holds all of AIR’s assets and manages the daily operations of AIR’s business. Pursuant to the AIR Operating Partnership agreement, AIR is required to contribute to the AIR Operating Partnership all proceeds from the offerings of its securities. In exchange for the contribution of such proceeds, AIR receives additional interests in the AIR Operating Partnership with similar terms (e.g., if AIR contributes proceeds of a stock offering, AIR receives partnership units with terms substantially similar to the stock issued by AIR).

We believe combining the periodic reports of AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership into this single report provides the following benefits:

 

We present our business as a whole, in the same manner our management views and operates the business;

 

We eliminate duplicative disclosure and provide a more streamlined and readable presentation because a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership; and

 

We save time and cost through the preparation of a single combined report rather than two separate reports.

We operate AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership as one enterprise, the management of AIR directs the management and operations of the AIR Operating Partnership, and the members of the Board of Directors of AIR are identical to those of the AIR Operating Partnership’s general partner.

We believe it is important to understand the few differences between AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership in the context of how AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership operate as a consolidated company. AIR has no assets or liabilities other than its investment in the AIR Operating Partnership. Also, AIR is a corporation that issues publicly traded equity from time to time, whereas the AIR Operating Partnership is a partnership that has no publicly traded equity. Except for the net proceeds from stock offerings by AIR, which are contributed to the AIR Operating Partnership in exchange for additional limited partnership interests (of a similar type and in an amount equal to the shares of stock sold in the offering), the AIR Operating Partnership generates all remaining capital required by its business. These sources include the AIR Operating Partnership’s working capital, net cash provided by operating activities, borrowings under its revolving credit facility, the issuance of debt and equity securities, including additional partnership units, and proceeds received from the sale of apartment communities.

Equity, partners’ capital, and noncontrolling interests are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of AIR and those of the AIR Operating Partnership. Interests in the AIR Operating Partnership held by entities other than AIR, which we refer to as OP Units, are classified within partners’ capital in the AIR Operating Partnership’s financial statements and as noncontrolling interests in AIR’s financial statements.


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To help investors understand the differences between AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership, this report provides separate consolidated financial statements for AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership; a single set of consolidated notes to such financial statements that includes separate discussions of each entity’s stockholders’ equity or partners’ capital, and earnings per share or earnings per unit, as applicable; and a combined Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section that includes discrete information related to each entity, where appropriate.

This report also includes separate Part II, Item 9A. Controls and Procedures sections and separate Exhibits 31 and 32 certifications for AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership in order to establish that the requisite certifications have been made and that AIR and the AIR Operating Partnership are both compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and 18 U.S.C. §1350.

 

 


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APARTMENT INCOME REIT CORP.

AIMCO PROPERTIES, L.P.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

 

 

 

Item

 

Page

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

1.

Business

2

 

 

 

1A.

Risk Factors

9

 

 

 

1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

20

 

 

 

2.

Properties

21

 

 

 

3.

Legal Proceedings

21

 

 

 

4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

21

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

22

 

 

 

6.

Selected Financial Data

25

 

 

 

7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

26

 

 

 

7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

44

 

 

 

8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

45

 

 

 

9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

45

 

 

 

9A.

Controls and Procedures

45

 

 

 

9B.

Other Information

50

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

51

 

 

 

11.

Executive Compensation

51

 

 

 

12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

51

 

 

 

13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

51

 

 

 

14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

51

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

52

 

 

 

16.

Form 10-K Summary

55

 

 


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements in certain circumstances. Certain information included in this Annual Report contains or may contain information that is forward-looking, within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including, without limitation, statements regarding: the ongoing relationship between AIR and Aimco following the Separation; the payment of dividends and distributions in the future; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including our ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rental rate and property operating results; the effect of acquisitions and dispositions; expectations regarding sales of our apartment communities and the use of proceeds thereof; the availability and cost of corporate debt; our ability to comply with debt covenants, including financial coverage ratios; risks related to the provision of property management services to Aimco and our ability to collect property management related fees; and risks related to the inability to fully collect the notes receivable due from Aimco.

These forward-looking statements are based on management’s judgment as of this date, which is subject to risks and uncertainties. Risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations include, but are not limited to: the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on AIR’s business and on the global and U.S. economies generally, and the ongoing, dynamic and uncertain nature and duration of the pandemic, all of which heightens the impact of the other risks and factors described herein, and the impact on entities in which AIR holds a partial interest, and the impact of the lockdowns on AIR’s residents, commercial tenants, and operations; real estate and operating risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in the markets in which we operate and competition for residents in such markets; national and local economic conditions, including the pace of job growth and the level of unemployment; the amount, location, and quality of competitive new housing supply; the timing and effects of acquisitions and dispositions; changes in operating costs, including energy costs; negative economic conditions in our geographies of operation; loss of key personnel; AIR’s ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rental rate, and property operating results; expectations regarding sales of apartment communities and the use of proceeds thereof; insurance risks, including the cost of insurance, and natural disasters and severe weather such as hurricanes; financing risks, including the availability and cost of financing; the risk that cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; the risk that earnings may not be sufficient to maintain compliance with debt covenants, including financial coverage ratios; legal and regulatory risks, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending claims and any adverse outcomes; the terms of laws and governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those laws and regulations; possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines, or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of apartment communities presently or previously owned by Aimco; the relationship between AIR and Aimco (the “Separate Entities”) after the Separation; the ability and willingness of the Separate Entities and their subsidiaries to meet and/or perform their obligations under any contractual arrangements that are entered into among the parties in connection with the Separation and any of their obligations to indemnify, defend, and hold the other party harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities; and the ability to achieve some or all the benefits that we expect to achieve from the Separation; and such other risks and uncertainties described from time to time in filings by the Separate Entities with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

In addition, our current and continuing qualification as a real estate investment trust involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Code, through actual operating results, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership.

Readers should carefully review AIR’s financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” described in Item 1A of this Annual Report and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

As used herein and except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Apartment Income REIT Corp. (“AIR”), AIMCO Properties, L.P. (“AIR Operating Partnership”) and their consolidated subsidiaries, collectively.

Certain financial and operating measures found herein and used by management are not defined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). These measures are defined and reconciled to the most comparable GAAP measures under the Non-GAAP Measures heading and include: NAREIT Funds from Operations, Pro forma Funds from Operations, and the measures used to compute our leverage ratios.

1


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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

The Company

On December 15, 2020, Apartment Income REIT Corp. (“AIR”) was created when Apartment Investment and Management Company (“Aimco”) completed the separation, which was effected by way of a pro rata distribution, in which stockholders received one share of AIR common stock for every one share of Aimco common stock held as of the close of business on December 5, 2020. AIMCO Properties, L.P. (“AIR Operating Partnership”) also completed the separation, through a pro rata distribution of all of the outstanding common limited partnership units of Aimco OP L.P. (“Aimco Operating Partnership,” and such units, “Aimco OP Units”) to holders of AIR Operating Partnership common limited partnership units and AIR Operating Partnership Class I High Performance partnership units as of the close of business on December 5, 2020. The transactions described in this paragraph are collectively referred to as the “Separation.”

AIR is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (“REIT”). AIR owns, through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, all of the common equity, the general partner interest, and special limited partner interest in AIMCO Properties, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership originally incorporated on May 16, 1994. AIR Operating Partnership conducts all of the business of AIR, which is focused on the ownership of stabilized multi-family properties located in top markets including eight important geographic concentrations: Boston; Philadelphia; Greater Washington, D.C.; Miami; Denver; the San Francisco Bay Area; Los Angeles; and San Diego.

Please refer to Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for discussion regarding our segments.

Business Overview

Our business activities are defined by a commitment to our core values of integrity, respect, collaboration, performance, and a focus on our customers. These values and our corporate mission, “to consistently provide quality apartment homes in a respectful environment delivered by a team of people who care,” shape our culture. In all of our interactions with residents, teammates, business partners, lenders, and equity holders, we aim to be the best owner and operator of apartment communities, inspired by a talented team committed to exceptional customer service, strong financial performance, and outstanding corporate citizenship.

Our principal financial objective is to be a low-cost and efficient way to invest in U.S. multi-family real estate. Many of our investors focus on multiples of Funds From Operations (“FFO”) as defined by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”), referred to herein as “NAREIT FFO.” These investors also focus on NAREIT FFO, as adjusted for non-cash, unusual or non-recurring items. We refer to this metric as Pro forma Funds From Operations (“Pro forma FFO”) and use it as a secondary measure of operational performance.

The general strategy that we have designed and chosen for AIR is simple:

 

Provide a transparent, efficient, and low risk way to invest in multi-family properties;

 

Combine a narrow focus on allocating capital only to stabilized apartment communities with best-in class operations, and do so with costs for corporate overhead less than 15 basis points of the gross asset value of our investment assets;

 

Reduce risk by maintaining low leverage, the quality of the real estate, and the diversification of the portfolio; and

 

Measure success in Pro forma FFO per share with a high quality of earnings confirmed by cash dividends.

The results from the execution of our strategy are discussed in the Executive Overview in Item 7.

Our business is organized around four areas of strategic focus: operational excellence; portfolio management; balance sheet; and team and culture.

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Operational Excellence

We own and operate a portfolio of stabilized apartment communities, diversified by both geography and price point. As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio included 99 apartment communities with 26,592 apartment homes in which we held an average ownership of approximately 94%.

To manage our property operations efficiently and to increase the benefits from our local management expertise, we give direct responsibility for operations within each area to area operations leaders with regular oversight by senior management. To enable the area operations leaders to focus on sales and service, as well as to improve financial control and budgeting, we have dedicated area financial officers who support the operations leaders. Additionally, with the exception of routine maintenance and purchases and installation of equipment, we have specialized teams that manage capital spending at our communities.

We seek to improve our property operations by: focusing on retention by delivering world-class customer service; taking advantage of advances in technology; increasing automation; centralizing operational tasks where efficient to do so; standardizing business processes, operational measurements, and internal reporting; and enhancing financial controls over field operations. We focus on the following areas:

 

Customer Satisfaction. Our operating culture is focused on our residents and providing them with a high level of service in a clean, safe, and respectful living environment. We regularly monitor and evaluate our performance by providing customers with numerous opportunities to grade our work. In 2020, we received 58,000 customer grades averaging 4.3 on a five-point scale. We use this customer feedback as a daily management tool. We also publish these customer evaluations online as important and credible information for prospective customers. We have automated certain aspects of our on-site operations to enable current and future residents to interact with us using methods that are efficient and effective for them, such as using artificial intelligence to handle common customer inquiries and the execution of new and renewal leases. In addition, we emphasize the quality of our on-site teammates through recruiting, training, and retention programs, which, with continuous and real-time customer feedback, contributes to improved customer service. We believe that greater customer satisfaction leads to higher resident retention and increased occupancy rates, which in turn leads to increased revenue and reduced costs.

 

Resident Selection and Retention. In our apartment communities, we believe that one’s neighbors are a meaningful part of the customer experience, together with the location of the community and the physical quality of the apartment homes. Part of our property operations strategy is to focus on attracting and retaining stable, credit-worthy residents, and actively cultivating a sense of community among residents so that they are likely to live with us longer. We have explicit criteria for resident selection, which we apply to new and renewal leases, including creditworthiness and behavior in accordance with our apartment community standards, and our written “Good Neighbor Commitment.” Our focus on resident selection and retention led to 42% of our apartment homes turning over, an improvement (reduction) of approximately 80 basis points from 2019.

 

Revenue Management and Ancillary Services. We have a centralized revenue management system that leverages people, processes, and technology to work in partnership with our local property management teams to develop rental rate pricing. We seek to increase Free Cash Flow (“FCF”), which we define as net operating income less Capital Replacements, by optimizing the balance between rental and occupancy rates, as well as taking into consideration costs such as preparing an apartment home for a new resident. We are focused on careful measurements of on-site operations, as we believe that timely and accurate collection of apartment community performance and resident profile data allows us to maximize FCF through better property management and leasing decisions. We seek to maximize profit by performing timely data analysis of new and renewal pricing for each apartment home, thereby enabling us to adjust rents quickly in response to changes in supply and demand and minimize vacancy time. We also generate incremental revenue by providing or facilitating the provision of services to our residents, including, at certain apartment communities, telecommunications services, parking options, package lockers, and storage space rental.

 

Controlling Expenses. Innovation is the foundation of our cost control efforts. Innovative activities we have undertaken include: moving administrative tasks to our shared service center, which reduces costs and allows site teams to focus on sales and service; taking advantage of economies of scale at the corporate level through electronic procurement, which reduces complexity and increases purchasing volume discounts; focusing on life cycle costs by investing in more durable, longer-lived materials, which reduce turn times and costs; and leveraging technology through such items as smart home capabilities, website design, and package lockers, which meet today’s customer preference for self-service. Additionally, our efforts to maximize resident retention through our resident selection process described above has resulted in reduced turn costs. These and other innovations contributed to a growth rate in controllable operating expense, which we define as property expenses less taxes, insurance, and utility expenses, compounding for the past 13 years at an annual rate of negative 0.2%. Our 2020 controllable operating expenses were down 110 basis points compared to 2019.

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Improving and Maintaining Apartment Community Quality. We believe that the physical condition and amenities of our apartment communities are important factors in our ability to maintain and increase rental rates. We invest in the maintenance and improvement of our communities primarily through: Capital Replacements, which are capital additions made to replace the portion of an apartment community consumed during our ownership; Capital Improvements, which extend the useful life of a community from its condition at our date of purchase; Capital Enhancements, which may include kitchen and bath remodeling, energy conservation projects, and investments in longer-lived materials as described above, all of which do not significantly disrupt property operations; and Initial Capital Expenditures, which are capital additions contemplated in the underwriting of an acquired asset. During 2020, we invested $1,211 per apartment home in Capital Replacements, $402 per apartment home in Capital Improvements, and $1,003 per apartment home in Capital Enhancements. We also invested a total of $8.3 million in Initial Capital Expenditures, which were planned as part of our initial investment in communities acquired.

Portfolio Management

Our portfolio management strategy involves the allocation of investment capital to enhance rent growth and increase long-term capital values through portfolio design, focusing on properties with high land value located in submarkets with outsized growth prospects. We plan to maintain a dynamic capital allocation and market selection process, expecting over time to reallocate our investment in jurisdictions with high unfunded public liabilities to locations with lower public tax burdens, including the southeastern United States. We target geographic diversification in our portfolio in order to reduce the volatility of our rental revenue by avoiding undue concentration in any particular market. This submarket strategy reflects targeted exposure across suburban and urban formats as well as across the spectrum of price points and community types.

Our portfolio of apartment communities is diversified across “A,” “B,” and “C+” price points, averaging “B/B+” in quality, and is also diversified across several of the largest markets in the United States. Please refer to the Executive Overview section in Item 7 for a description of our portfolio quality ratings. As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio was allocated about one-half to “A” rated properties, and about one-half to “B” and “C+” rated properties.

We expect to improve the quality of our portfolio through our relationship with Aimco by leasing certain properties to Aimco for development or redevelopment and lease-up in accordance with the master leasing agreement entered into at the time of the Separation. Commencing on January 1, 2021, we had leased four redevelopment properties to Aimco, resulting in $25.3 million of expected 2021 lease payments.

We will also improve the quality of our portfolio by allocating investment capital to enhance rent growth and increase long-term capital values through routine investments in property upgrades (such as upgrading kitchens, bathrooms and other interior design aspects) and through portfolio design, emphasizing land value as well as location and submarket.

As part of our portfolio strategy, we may seek to sell communities with lower expected FCF internal rates of return and reinvest the proceeds from such sales in accretive uses such as capital enhancements, share repurchases, and selective acquisitions of stabilized communities with projected FCF internal rates of return higher than expected from the communities being sold. When the cost of capital is favorable, we will look to grow through the acquisition of stabilized apartment communities that we believe we can operate better than their previous owners. Through this disciplined approach to capital allocation, we expect to increase the quality and expected growth rate of our portfolio.

Balance Sheet

We seek to increase financial returns by using leverage with appropriate caution. We limit risk through our balance sheet structure, employing low leverage, primarily non-recourse and long-dated property debt; and we build financial flexibility by maintaining ample unused and available credit; holding properties with substantial value unencumbered by property debt; maintaining an investment grade credit rating; and using partners’ capital when it enhances financial returns or reduces investment risk.

Our leverage includes our share of the long-term non-recourse, property debt encumbering our apartment communities, together with outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility, our term loan, and our preferred equity. We have notes receivable from Aimco with an aggregate principal amount of $534 million. The notes receivable will mature on January 31, 2024, and are secured by a pool of properties owned by Aimco. We consider the notes receivable a reduction of leverage as their proceeds are expected to be used to repay outstanding debt.

Our current target leverage ratios are Net Leverage to adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization for real estate (“Adjusted EBITDAre”), below 6.0x and Adjusted EBITDAre to Adjusted Interest Expense and Preferred Dividends greater than 2.5x. Our ratios, on an annualized current quarter basis, as of December 31, 2020, were 7.5x and 3.7x, respectively. Our leverage to Adjusted EBITDAre ratio is higher than our target stated in September 2020 due to a $45 million reduction in pro forma property net operating income (“NOI”), due primarily to the impacts of COVID-19 and the related governmental response, and due also to an increase in leverage of approximately $440 million. Of this total,

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approximately $240 million is due to an increase in Aimco’s initial capitalization; $135 million is due to additional investment in properties owned by AIR; and $65 million due to our fourth quarter 2020 special cash dividend, which were funded through increased leverage.  

Please refer to the Leverage Ratios subsection to the Non-GAAP Measures section in Item 7 for additional information regarding our leverage ratios.

Our liquidity consists of cash balances and available capacity on our revolving credit facility. As of December 31, 2020, our share of cash and restricted cash, excluding amounts related to tenant security deposits, was $58.2 million and we had the capacity to borrow $310.7 million under our revolving credit facility.

We also manage our financial flexibility by maintaining an investment grade credit rating and holding communities that are unencumbered by property debt. AIR has been rated BBB by Standard & Poor’s, one level above AIR’s Predecessor’s rating prior to the Separation. As of December 31, 2020, we held unencumbered communities with an estimated fair market value of approximately $2.8 billion.

Please refer to the Executive Overview and Liquidity and Capital Resources sections in Item 7 for additional information regarding our balance sheet and liquidity.

Competition

In attracting and retaining residents to occupy our apartment communities, we compete with numerous other housing providers. Our apartment communities compete directly with other rental apartments, as well as condominiums and single-family homes that are available for rent or purchase in the markets in which our apartment communities are located. Principal factors of competition include rent or price charged, attractiveness of the location and apartment community, and the quality and breadth of services. The number of competitive apartment communities relative to demand in a particular area has a material effect on our ability to lease apartment homes at our apartment communities and on the rents we charge. In certain markets, there exists an oversupply of newly-constructed apartment homes, single-family homes, and condominiums relative to consumer demand, which affects the pricing and occupancy of our rental apartments.

We also compete with other real estate investors, including other apartment REITs, pension and investment funds, partnerships, and investment companies in acquiring, managing, obtaining financing for, and disposing of apartment communities. This competition affects our ability to acquire apartment communities we want to add to our portfolio and the price that we pay in such acquisitions; our ability to finance or refinance communities in our portfolio and the cost of such financing; and our ability to dispose of communities we no longer desire to retain in our portfolio and the timing and price available to us when we seek to dispose of such communities.

Taxation

AIR

AIR has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 2020, and intends to continue to operate in such a manner. AIR’s Predecessor also elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code. The Code imposes various requirements related to organizational structure, distribution levels, diversity of stock ownership, and certain restrictions with regard to owned assets and categories of income that must be met in order to continue to qualify as a REIT. If AIR continues to qualify for taxation as a REIT, AIR will generally not be subject to United States federal corporate income tax on its taxable income that is currently distributed to stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (at the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation.

Certain of our operations, or a portion thereof, including property management and risk management are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a subsidiary C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to facilitate our ability to offer certain services and activities to our residents and investment partners that cannot be offered directly by a REIT. We also use TRS entities to hold investments in certain apartment communities. During 2020, and consistent with AIR’s simplified business structure and strategy, we have elected to treat one of our taxable subsidiaries as a REIT. As a result, AIR will incur less income taxes on a consolidated basis, providing more cash for distributions and other corporate uses.

The AIR Operating Partnership

The AIR Operating Partnership, and prior to the Separation, the Aimco Operating Partnership, is treated as a “pass-through” entity for United States federal income tax purposes and is not subject to United States federal income taxation. Partners in the AIR Operating Partnership and the Aimco Operating Partnership, however, are subject to tax on their allocable share of

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partnership income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits, regardless of whether the partners receive any actual distributions of cash or other property from the AIR Operating Partnership or Aimco Operating Partnership during the taxable year. Generally, the characterization of any particular item is determined by the AIR Operating Partnership or the Aimco Operating Partnership rather than at the partner level, and the amount of a partner’s allocable share of such item is governed by the terms of the AIR Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement or the Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement. The AIR Operating Partnership and the Aimco Operating Partnership are subject to tax in certain states.

Regulation

General

Apartment communities and their owners are subject to various laws, ordinances, and regulations, including those related to real estate broker licensing and regulations relating to recreational facilities such as swimming pools, activity centers, and other common areas. Changes in laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on communities or increasing the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, as well as changes in laws affecting development, construction, and safety requirements, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which would adversely affect our net income and cash flows from operating activities. In addition, existing rent control laws, as well as future enactment of rent control or rent stabilization laws, or other laws regulating multi-family housing, including eviction moratoriums and other governmental regulation related to COVID-19, may reduce rental revenue or increase operating costs in particular markets.

Environmental

Various federal, state, and local laws subject apartment community owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials that may be present at an apartment community. These materials may include lead-based paint, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, and petroleum-based fuels. Such laws often impose liability without regard to fault or whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such materials. In connection with the ownership, operation, and management of apartment communities, we could potentially be liable for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our current communities, communities we acquire or manage in the future, or communities we previously owned or operated in the past. These and other risks related to environmental matters are described in more detail in Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Corporate Responsibility

Our corporate responsibility is an important part of our business. As with all other aspects of our business, our corporate responsibility program focuses on continuous improvement, to the benefit of our stockholders, our residents, our teammates, our communities, and the environment.

Insurance

Our primary lines of insurance coverage are property, general liability, and workers’ compensation. We believe that our insurance coverages adequately insure our apartment communities against the risk of loss attributable to fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, terrorism, and other perils, and adequately insure us against other risk. Our coverage includes deductibles, retentions, and limits that are customary in the industry. We have established loss prevention, loss mitigation, claims handling, and litigation management procedures to manage our exposure.

Employees

Team and Culture

Our team and culture are keys to our success. We are defined by a commitment to our mission, vision, and values. We strive to provide an exceptional living experience for residents and a great place to work for teammates, to be a good neighbor in the communities we serve, and a good steward for our investors. We are accountable to teammates in return for their hard and meaningful work of providing homes for others. We see our workforce as a team, and not employees only. Our view is relational, and not transactional, reflecting a longer view of the benefits of a cohesive and caring team.

Our intentional focus on a collaborative and productive culture based on respect for others and personal responsibility is reinforced by a preference for promotion from within. We focus on succession planning and talent development to produce a strong, stable team that is the enduring foundation of our success. The Compensation and Human Resources Committee of the Board of Directors is responsible for succession planning in all leadership positions, both in the short-term and the long-term, with particular focus on CEO succession.

Our teammates are passionate about what we do, both inside and outside of work. We believe in doing whatever it takes to make our residents feel at home. We look at career growth as a jungle gym as well as a ladder, with opportunities to learn and grow in a variety of ways. Approximately 75% of all open manager level positions were filled internally in 2020, compared to a

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target of 50%, and approximately half of all open positions were filled internally, compared to the target of 40%. We provide both formal and informal training and coaching for teammates at every level of the organization.  

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 900 teammates, of whom about 650 were at the apartment community level performing on-site functions or at our shared service center performing tasks that have been centralized there, with the balance managing corporate and area functions, including investment and debt transactions, legal, finance and accounting, information systems, human resources, and other support functions. As of December 31, 2020, unions represented approximately 50 of our teammates. We have never experienced a work stoppage and we believe we maintain satisfactory relations with our teammates.

We evaluate team engagement, retention, and efficiency and include those in our goals on which all teammates are compensated. Every teammate is surveyed via a third-party, confidential survey on his or her annual anniversary of employment. The teammate engagement score consists of the average of the responses to the questions that comprise the engagement index, on a scale of 1 to 5, for all teammates who complete the survey during the year. AIR’s overall teammate engagement score from the 2020 Annual Lifecycle Surveys was 4.42, compared to the target of 4.20. With respect to our on-site goal, our primary objective is to maintain a highly engaged, stable workforce at our communities, enhanced by innovations in efficiency, all of which further our strategic objective of maximizing NOI margins. Our on-site teammate engagement score was 4.50, up from 4.45 in 2019. On-site voluntary turnover was 15.8%, down from 19.4% in 2019 and on-site overall turnover was 25.0%, down from 27.7% in 2019.

We offer benefits reinforcing our value of caring for each other, including an opportunity to manage one’s life through flexible work schedules and “dress for your day,” paid time for parental leave, profit sharing, retirement plans for all teammates, financial support for our teammates who are becoming United States citizens, and a bonus structure at all levels of the organization. Consistent with the duration of our other leave policies, we also pay full compensation and benefits for teammates who are actively deployed by the United States military.

Our team is also focused on making a difference in our local communities through our philanthropic endeavor, AIR Gives. For over 15 years, we have provided the flexibility for teammates to support a nonprofit or initiative that means the most to them. Teammates have 15 hours of paid leave toward volunteering with a non-profit. Every hour volunteered also provides the teammate with charitable dollars to direct to a nonprofit of choice. Also, through AIR Gives, we award college scholarships to children of teammates. AIR Gives has supported over 625 students of our teammates with $1.25 million in scholarships since 2006. We also provide financial assistance to AIR teammates experiencing a financial emergency or going through crisis.

A critical element of our culture is a relentless focus on efficiency.  We continuously seek to reduce costs through the use of additional automation and continued technological investment. We expect this focus will enable our general and administrative expenses will be lower, as a percentage of gross asset value than our peers.

Our focus on our team and our culture is recognized externally, as well. Out of hundreds of participating companies in 2020, AIR’s Predecessor was one of only six recognized as a “Top Workplace” in Colorado for each of the past eight years, and was one of only two real estate companies to receive a BEST award from the Association for Talent Development in recognition of our company-wide success in talent development, marking its third consecutive year receiving this award based solely on survey responses from teammates.

COVID-19 and our Team

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and governmental lockdowns continued into the fourth quarter of 2020. In the first quarter, we formed a cross-functional committee to lead our efforts to adjust to the changing conditions in order to keep our team and our residents safe.

We continued our commitment to our teammates by allowing flexible work arrangements, undertook to pay all costs associated with COVID-19 testing and treatment, and continued clear and frequent communication. Any teammate diagnosed with COVID-19 or placed into quarantine by doctor’s orders receives paid time off during the quarantine period. On-site teammates who worked through the height of the pandemic received their quarterly bonus at target, regardless of whether the community met its goal.

Using our previous investment in technology and artificial intelligence, paired with policies providing flexibility, our team continued to lease apartments and fulfill service requests in a safe environment for both the team and our residents. Our top priority is the health and safety of our residents and teammates. Accordingly, we maintain enhanced cleaning procedures as well as physical distancing and remote working guidelines at our communities and corporate offices. Additionally, seeing residents as individuals, each impacted differently by the pandemic and lockdowns, our teammates have undertaken to speak to every resident in need, to listen, and to help each to solve his or her problems. We also seek to assist the broader communities where our residents and teammates live and work.

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Available Information

The combined Annual Reports on Form 10-K, the combined Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K filed by AIR, the AIR Operating Partnership, Aimco, or the Aimco Operating Partnership, and any amendments to any of those reports that were filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission are available free of charge through AIR’s website at www.aircommunities.com. The information contained on AIR’s website is not incorporated into this Annual Report.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risk factors noted in this section, and other factors noted throughout this Annual Report, describe certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

Risks Related to Our Business

Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions, health crises and dislocations in the credit markets could affect our ability to collect rents and late fees from tenants, and our ability to evict tenants, in addition to having other negative effects on our business, which in turn could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions, local, regional, national or international health crises and dislocations in the credit markets could negatively impact our tenants and our operations. For example, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global economic activity and caused significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets. The global impact of the outbreak has been rapidly evolving and many countries, including the United States, have reacted by instituting a wide variety of measures including states of emergency, mandatory quarantines, required business and school closures, implementing “shelter in place” orders, and restricting travel. In addition, many cities and states have enacted, or are considering enacting, exceptions to contractual obligations for residents and commercial tenants, including government mandated rent delays or other abatement measures or concessions or prohibitions on lease terminations or evictions. Many experts predict that the outbreak will trigger a period of material global economic slowdown or a global recession.

Factors that have negatively impacted, or would negatively impact, our operations or those of entities in which we hold a partial interest, during the COVID-19 pandemic or another health crisis, adverse economic or geopolitical event or dislocation in the credit market include:

 

our ability to collect rents and late fees on a timely basis or at all, without reductions or other concessions;

 

our ability to evict residents for non-payment and for other reasons;

 

our ability to ensure business continuity in the event our continuity of operations plan is not effective or improperly implemented or deployed during a disruption;

 

fluctuations in regional and local economies, local real estate conditions, and rental rates;

 

our ability to control incremental costs associated with COVID-19;

 

our ability to dispose of communities at all or on terms favorable to us;

 

our ability to collect payments of interest and principal on notes receivable when due; and

 

potential litigation relating to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Given the ongoing and dynamic nature of the circumstances surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, it is difficult to predict how significant the impact of this outbreak will be on the global economy, our residents and commercial tenants, our communities, and the operations of entities in which we hold a partial interest, or for how long disruptions are likely to continue. The extent of such impact will depend on developments, which are highly uncertain, rapidly evolving and cannot be predicted, including the ability to contain the virus, the duration of measures implemented, and the overall impact of these measures. Such developments, depending on their nature, duration, and intensity, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. The COVID-19 pandemic also may have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described below.

Failure to generate sufficient net operating income may adversely affect our liquidity, limit our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures, or adversely affect our ability to pay dividends or distributions.

Our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures on our communities depends on, among other things, our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments. If we are unable to fund capital expenditures on our communities, we may not be able to preserve the competitiveness of our communities, which could adversely affect their net operating income and long-term value.

Our ability to make payments to our investors depends on our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments and capital expenditure requirements. Our net operating income and liquidity may be adversely affected by events or conditions beyond our control, including:

 

the general economic climate;

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an inflationary environment in which the costs to operate and maintain our communities increase at a rate greater than our ability to increase rents, which we can only do upon renewal of existing leases or at the inception of new leases;

 

competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;

 

local conditions, such as loss of jobs, unemployment rates, or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;

 

changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;

 

changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multi-family housing; and

 

changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.

Competition could limit our ability to lease apartment homes or increase or maintain rents.

Our apartment communities and the apartment communities we manage compete for residents with other housing alternatives, including other rental apartments and condominiums, and, to a lesser degree, single-family homes that are available for rent, as well as new and existing condominiums and single-family homes for sale. Competitive residential housing, as well as household formation and job creation in a particular area, could adversely affect our ability to lease apartment homes and to increase or maintain rental rates.

Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we may not be able to sell apartment communities when appropriate.

Real estate investments are relatively illiquid and generally cannot be sold quickly. REIT tax rules also restrict our ability to sell apartment communities. Thus, we may not be able to change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other market conditions. Our ability to dispose of apartment communities in the future will depend on prevailing economic and market conditions, including the cost and availability of financing. This could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

If we are not successful in our acquisition of apartment communities, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

The selective acquisition of stabilized apartment communities when we have a favorable cost of capital (including the use of AIR Operating Partnership Common Units as an acquisition currency) is a component of our strategy. However, we may not be able to complete transactions successfully in the future. Although we seek to acquire apartment communities when such acquisitions increase our free cash flow internal rates of return and are accretive to net asset value, such transactions may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations. In particular, following acquisition, the value and operational performance of an apartment community may be diminished if obsolescence or neighborhood changes occur before we are able to sell the apartment community. This could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Potential liability or other expenditures associated with potential environmental contamination may be costly.

Various federal, state, and local laws subject apartment community owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials that may be present in the land or buildings of an apartment community. Potentially hazardous materials may include polychlorinated biphenyls, petroleum-based fuels, lead-based paint, or asbestos, among other materials. Such laws often impose liability without regard to fault or whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such materials. The presence of, or the failure to manage or remediate properly, these materials may adversely affect occupancy at such apartment communities as well as the ability to sell or finance such apartment communities. In addition, governmental agencies may bring claims for costs associated with investigation and remediation actions, damages to natural resources, and for potential fines or penalties in connection with such damage or with respect to the improper management of hazardous materials. Moreover, private plaintiffs may potentially make claims for investigation and remediation costs they incur or personal injury, disease, disability, or other infirmities related to the alleged presence of hazardous materials at an apartment community. In addition to potential environmental liabilities or costs associated with our current apartment communities, we may also be responsible for such liabilities or costs associated with communities we acquire or manage in the future, or apartment communities we no longer own or operate.

Rent control laws and other regulations that limit our ability to increase rental rates may negatively impact our rental income and profitability.

State and local governmental agencies may introduce rent control laws or other regulations that limit our ability to increase rental rates, which may affect our rental income. Especially in times of recession and economic slowdown, rent control initiatives can acquire significant political support. If rent controls unexpectedly became applicable to certain of our properties, our revenue from and the value of such properties could be adversely affected.

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Laws benefiting disabled persons may result in our incurrence of unanticipated expenses.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (“ADA”), all places intended to be used by the public are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (“FHAA”) requires apartment communities first occupied after March 13, 1991, to comply with design and construction requirements for disabled access. For those apartment communities receiving federal funds, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 also has requirements regarding disabled access. These and other federal, state, and local laws may require structural modifications to our apartment communities or changes in policy/practice, or affect renovations of the communities. Noncompliance with these laws could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants and also could result in an order to correct any non-complying feature, which could result in substantial capital expenditures. Although we believe that our apartment communities are substantially in compliance with present requirements, we may incur unanticipated expenses to comply with the ADA, the FHAA, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 in connection with the ongoing operation of our apartment communities and the apartment communities we manage.

Moisture infiltration and resulting mold remediation may be costly.

Although we are proactively engaged in managing moisture intrusion and preventing the presence of mold at our apartment communities, it is not unusual for periodic moisture intrusion to cause mold in isolated locations within an apartment community. We have implemented policies, procedures, and training, and include a detailed moisture intrusion and mold assessment during acquisition due diligence. We believe these measures will manage mold exposure at our apartment communities and will minimize the effects that mold may have on our residents. To date, we have not incurred any material costs or liabilities relating to claims of mold exposure or to abate mold conditions. We have only limited insurance coverage for property damage claims arising from the presence of mold and for personal injury claims related to mold exposure.

Although we are insured for certain risks, the cost of insurance, increased claims activity, or losses resulting from casualty events may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are insured for a portion of our consolidated apartment communities’ exposure to casualty losses resulting from fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, and other perils, which insurance is subject to deductibles and self-insurance retention. We recognize casualty losses or gains based on the net book value of the affected apartment community and the amount of any related insurance proceeds. In many instances, the actual cost to repair or replace the apartment community may exceed its net book value and any insurance proceeds. We recognize the uninsured portion of losses as casualty losses in the periods in which they are incurred. In addition, we are self-insured for a portion of our exposure to third-party claims related to our teammate health insurance plans, workers’ compensation coverage, and general liability exposure. With respect to our exposure to claims of third parties, we establish reserves at levels that reflect our known and estimated losses. The ultimate cost of losses and the impact of unforeseen events may vary materially from recorded reserves, and variances may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. We purchase insurance to reduce our exposure to losses and limit our financial losses on large individual risks. The availability and cost of insurance are determined by market conditions outside our control. Current market conditions are challenging with respect to capacity and price. No assurance can be made that we will be able to obtain and maintain insurance at the same levels and on the same terms as we do today. If we are not able to obtain or maintain insurance in amounts we consider appropriate for our business, or if the cost of obtaining such insurance increases materially, we may have to retain a larger portion of the potential loss associated with our exposures to risks.

Natural disasters and severe weather may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Natural disasters such as earthquakes and severe weather such as hurricanes may result in significant damage to our apartment communities. The extent of our casualty losses and loss in operating income in connection with such events is a function of the severity of the event and the total amount of exposure in the affected area. When we have geographic concentration of exposures, a single catastrophe (such as an earthquake) or destructive weather event (such as a hurricane) affecting a region may have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot accurately predict natural disasters or severe weather, or the number and type of such events that will affect us. As a result, our operating and financial results may vary significantly from one period to the next. Although we anticipate and plan for losses, there can be no assurance that our financial results will not be adversely affected by our exposure to losses arising from natural disasters or severe weather in the future that exceed our previous experience and assumptions.

We depend on our senior management.

Our success and our ability to implement and manage anticipated future growth depend, in large part, upon the efforts of our senior management team, who have extensive market knowledge and relationships, and exercise substantial influence over our operational, financing, acquisition, and disposition activity. Members of our senior management team have national or regional industry reputations that attract business and investment opportunities and assist us in negotiations with lenders, existing and potential tenants, and other industry participants. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team, or our inability to attract and retain similarly qualified personnel, could adversely affect our business, diminish our investment

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opportunities, and weaken our relationships with lenders, business partners, existing and prospective tenants, and industry participants, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, per share trading price of AIR Common Stock and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of significant disruptions or cyberattacks of our information technology systems or our failure to comply with laws, rules and regulations related to privacy and data protection.

Information technology, communication networks, and related systems are essential to the operation of our business. We use these systems to manage our resident and vendor relationships, internal communications, accounting and record-keeping systems, and many other key aspects of our business. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks, which also depend on the strength of our procedures and the effectiveness of our internal controls. Information security risks have generally increased in recent years due to the rise in new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyberattacks.

Despite system redundancy, risk transfer, insurance, indemnification, the implementation of security measures, required our teammate awareness training, and the existence of a disaster recovery plan for our internal information technology systems, our systems, and systems maintained by third-party vendors with which we do business are vulnerable to damage from any number of sources. We face risks associated with energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures, and cyberattacks and intrusions, such as computer viruses, malware, attachments to emails, intrusion, and unauthorized access, including from persons inside our organization or from persons outside our organization with access to our systems. We may also incur additional costs to remedy damages caused by such disruptions. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our systems and have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Any compromise of our security could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information (which may be confidential, proprietary, or commercially sensitive in nature), and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.

We also are subject to laws, rules, and regulations in the United States, such as the California Consumer Protection Act, or CCPA (which became effective on January 1, 2020), relating to the collection, use, and security of employee and other data. Evolving compliance and operational requirements under the CCPA and the privacy and data security laws of other jurisdictions in which we operate impose significant costs that are likely to increase over time. Our failure to comply with laws, rules, and regulations related to privacy and data protection could harm our business or reputation.

If Aimco is unable to successfully redevelop or develop new properties in a timely manner or at all or fails to perform under our agreements with it, it could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time, we may receive redeveloped or developed property from Aimco (including properties leased to Aimco through a Master Leasing Agreement following any development, redevelopment and/or lease-up thereof), with the option to pay a certain amount based on the difference between the then-current fair market value of the property less the fair market value of the property at lease inception (at a small discount thereto) once the applicable property has reached and maintained stabilization (so long as the fair market value of the property at stabilization is not less than the fair market value of such property at lease inception). We will initially depend on Aimco to provide us with the option to obtain newly redeveloped or developed properties. In addition to the risks associated with the ownership of real estate investments in general, there are significant risks to Aimco associated with Aimco’s redevelopment and development activities. If Aimco is unsuccessful in redeveloping or developing properties and fails to perform under our agreements with it, it could have an impact on our ability to grow our portfolio and to acquire stabilized properties at prices favorable to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

“Sale of assets” provisions, such as in our Master Leasing Agreement, may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing the sale of our properties.

Upon the occurrence of a sale of all or substantially all of our assets, as specified in our Master Leasing Agreement, Aimco will have the right to terminate the Master Leasing Agreement. The ability for Aimco to terminate the Master Leasing Agreement upon a sale of all or substantially all of our assets may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing the sale of our properties, even if the sale of our properties would be beneficial to our stockholders.

There may be, or there may be the appearance of, conflicts of interest in our relationship with Aimco.

There may be, or there may be the appearance of, conflicts of interest in our relationship with Aimco. The Separation was designed to minimize conflicts of interest between AIR and Aimco, however, there can be no assurance that such conflicts

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don’t exist.

Although each of AIR and Aimco have an independent board of directors and independent management and are incentivized to make decisions that are in the best interests of its respective business, Mr. Considine, along with Messrs. Miller and Stein, serve on both AIR’s and Aimco’s boards of directors. In addition, as part of the Separation, AIR and Aimco entered into the Employee Matters Agreement, which provides that Mr. Considine will continue to serve Aimco with specific responsibilities to support the establishment and growth of the Aimco business, reporting directly to the Aimco board of directors. Messrs. Considine, Miller, and Stein will recuse themselves from voting as members of either board of directors during the approval or disapproval of any transactions between the two companies.

The agreements between Aimco and us generally do not limit or restrict Aimco or its affiliates from engaging in any business or managing other entities that engage in business of the type conducted by us. Although AIR and Aimco do not generally engage in the same business, Aimco and its affiliates may in the future determine to manage apartment communities and other real estate assets, some of which may be in close proximity to certain of our apartment communities, or increase its ownership of stabilized apartment communities. Certain business opportunities appropriate for us may also in the future be appropriate for Aimco or its affiliates, and we may compete with Aimco for certain business opportunities. This may cause us to compete with Aimco for business opportunities or result in a change in our current business strategy.

Actual, potential, or perceived conflicts could give rise to investor dissatisfaction, settlements with stockholders, litigation or regulatory inquiries or enforcement actions. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and our reputation could be damaged if we fail, or appear to fail, to deal appropriately with one or more potential, actual or perceived conflicts of interest. Regulatory scrutiny of, or litigation in connection with, conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including causing a reluctance of counterparties to do business with us, a decrease in the prices of our equity securities, and a resulting increased risk of litigation and regulatory enforcement actions.

Our business could be negatively affected as a result of the actions of activist stockholders.

Publicly traded companies have increasingly become subject to campaigns by investors advocating corporate actions such as financial restructuring, increased borrowing, special dividends, stock repurchases, or even sales of assets or the entire company. Given our stockholder composition and other factors, it is possible our stockholders or future activist stockholders may attempt to effect such changes. Responding to proxy contests and other actions by such activist stockholders or others would be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations and divert the attention of our board of directors and senior management team from the pursuit of business strategies, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, perceived uncertainties as to our future direction as a result of stockholder activism or changes to the composition of the board of directors may lead to the perception of a change in the direction of the business, instability or lack of continuity, which may be exploited by our competitors, cause concern to our current or potential lenders, partners, or others with whom we do business, and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financing

Our debt financing could result in foreclosure of our apartment communities, prevent us from making distributions on our equity, or otherwise adversely affect our liquidity.

We have a revolving credit facility and a term loan credit facility, each of which may be secured by certain equity interests in subsidiaries of AIR. Over time, we may become party to one or more additional financing arrangements, including credit facilities or other bank debt, bonds, and mortgage financing. We also anticipate that certain of our subsidiaries will assume or retain a certain amount of existing secured property-level indebtedness related to the properties we own following the Separation.

In connection with such financing activities, we are subject to the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, and the risk that our indebtedness may not be refinanced or that the terms of any refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of then-existing indebtedness. If we fail to make required payments of principal and interest on our non-recourse debt, our lenders could foreclose on the apartment communities and other collateral securing such debt, which would result in the loss to us of income and asset value. The majority of our apartment communities are encumbered by debt. Our organizational documents do not limit the amount of debt that we may incur, and we have significant amounts of debt outstanding. Payments of principal and interest may leave us with insufficient cash resources to operate our communities or pay distributions required to maintain AIR’s qualification as a REIT.

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Disruptions in the financial markets could affect our ability to obtain financing and the cost of available financing and could adversely affect our liquidity.

Our ability to obtain financing and the cost of such financing depends on the overall condition of the United States credit markets. During periods of economic uncertainty, the United States credit markets may experience significant liquidity disruptions, which may cause the spreads on debt financings to widen considerably and make obtaining financing, both non-recourse property debt and corporate borrowings such as those under a credit facility, more difficult. In particular, apartment borrowers have benefited from the historic willingness of the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), to make substantial amounts of loans secured by multi-family properties, even in times of economic distress. These two lenders are federally chartered and subject to federal regulation, which is subject to change, making uncertain their prospects and ability to provide liquidity in a future downturn.

If our ability to obtain financing is adversely affected, we may be unable to satisfy scheduled maturities on existing financing through other sources of liquidity, which could result in lender foreclosure on the apartment communities securing such debt and loss of income and asset value, both of which would adversely affect our liquidity.

Increases in interest rates would increase our interest expense and reduce our profitability.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $630.1 million of variable-rate indebtedness outstanding. We estimate that a change in 30-day LIBOR of 100 basis points with constant credit risk spreads would reduce or increase interest expense by approximately $2.8 million and $5.1 million, respectively, on an annual basis.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $73.5 million in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, a portion of which bear interest at variable rates indexed to LIBOR-based rates, which may partially mitigate the effect of an increase in variable rates on our variable-rate indebtedness discussed above.

The potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.

In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. In 2018, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), as the alternative to LIBOR. Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement remains a question, and the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative reference rates or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Due to the broad use of LIBOR as a reference rate, all financial market participants, including us, are impacted by the risks associated with this transition. To the extent that any of our debt agreements contain variable-rate interest based, in part, on LIBOR, any of these proposals or consequences could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs, and as a result, our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

Covenant restrictions may limit our operations and impact our ability to make payments to our investors.

Some of our existing and/or future debt and other securities may contain covenants that restrict our operations and impact our ability to make distributions or other payments to our investors unless certain financial tests or other criteria are satisfied. For example, our credit facilities provide, among other things, that we may not make dividends or distributions to our investors during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount greater than 95% of our NAREIT FFO (as defined below) for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain our REIT status. AIR Operating Partnership’s outstanding preferred units prohibits the payment of dividends on AIR Common Stock or AIR Operating Partnership Common Units if we fail to pay the dividends to which the holders of the preferred units are entitled. In addition, our debt agreements contain other customary affirmative and negative covenants.

We may increase leverage, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our indebtedness.

We may decide to increase our leverage. Our board of directors will consider a number of factors when evaluating our level of indebtedness and when making decisions regarding the incurrence of new indebtedness, including the estimated market value of our assets and the ability of particular assets, and our company as a whole, to generate cash flow to cover the expected debt service. Although our credit facilities may limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness, our governing documents do not limit the amount of debt we may incur, and our board of directors may change our target debt levels at any time without the approval of our stockholders. We may incur additional indebtedness from time to time in the future to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our indebtedness could intensify.

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Risks Related to the Separation

We may be unable to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expect to achieve from the Separation.

Following the Separation, we and Aimco are two, focused and independent companies. We may not be able to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expect to achieve as a company independent from Aimco in the time we expect, if at all. For instance, it may take longer than anticipated for us to, or we may never, succeed in growing our business through the acquisition of new stabilized apartment communities or through our active management strategies.

The Separation could give rise to disputes or other unfavorable effects, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations.

In connection with the Separation, we entered into a Separation and Distribution Agreement with Aimco, effective as of December 15, 2020 (the “Separation Agreement”), which, among other things, contains the agreements among the parties regarding the principal transactions necessary to effect the Separation. It also sets forth other agreements that govern certain aspects of the parties’ ongoing relationship after the completion of the Separation. The Separation may lead to increased operating and other expenses, of both a nonrecurring and a recurring nature, and to changes to certain operations, which expenses or changes could arise pursuant to arrangements made between Aimco and us or could trigger contractual rights of, and obligations to, third parties. Disputes with third parties could also arise out of these transactions, and we could experience unfavorable reactions to the Separation from our teammates, lenders, ratings agencies, regulators or other interested parties. These increased expenses, changes to operations, disputes with third parties or other effects could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations. In addition, following the Separation, disputes with Aimco could arise in connection with each of the Separation Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement, the Property Management Agreements, the Master Services Agreement, the Master Leasing Agreement or other agreements.

Although we have endeavored to enter into agreements on market terms, our agreements with Aimco may not reflect terms that would have resulted from arm’s-length negotiations with unaffiliated third parties.

The agreements related to the Separation, including the Separation Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement, the Property Management Agreements, the Master Services Agreement, the Master Leasing Agreement, and certain other agreements were entered into in the context of the Separation while we were still controlled by Aimco. As a result, although we endeavored to enter into these agreements on market terms, they may not reflect terms that would have resulted from arm’s-length negotiations between unaffiliated third parties. The terms of the agreements entered into in the context of the Separation concern, among other things, allocation of assets and liabilities attributable to periods prior to the Separation and the rights and obligations, including certain indemnification obligations, of Aimco and us after the Separation, certain services provided by us to Aimco and by Aimco to us after the Separation, and Aimco’s lease from us of certain properties.

Risks Related to Tax Laws and Regulations

AIR may fail to qualify as a REIT.

If AIR fails to qualify as a REIT, AIR will not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to its stockholders in computing its taxable income and will be subject to United States federal income tax at regular corporate rates. This would substantially reduce our funds available for distribution to our investors. Unless entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, AIR also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to qualify as a REIT. In addition, AIR’s failure to qualify as a REIT may place us in default under our credit facilities.

We believe that AIR will operate in a manner that enables it to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Moreover, even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize our REIT status. AIR’s qualification as a REIT will depend on its satisfaction of certain asset, income, investment, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership, and other requirements on a continuing basis. AIR’s ability to satisfy the asset tests will depend upon our analysis of the fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we do not obtain independent appraisals. AIR’s compliance with the REIT annual income and quarterly asset requirements will also depend upon our ability to manage successfully the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Moreover, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT qualification requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or other issuers constitutes a violation of the REIT requirements. Moreover, future economic, market, legal, tax, or other considerations may cause AIR to fail to qualify as a REIT, or the board of directors of AIR may determine to revoke its REIT status.

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Furthermore, if Aimco fails to remain qualified as a REIT for its 2020 and 2021 taxable years, and AIR is deemed to be a “successor” of Aimco under Section 856 of the Code, then AIR may also fail to qualify as a REIT. There can be no assurance that Aimco will remain qualified as a REIT for its 2020 and 2021 taxable years.

REIT distribution requirements limit our available cash.

As a REIT, AIR is subject to annual distribution requirements. AIR Operating Partnership will pay distributions intended to enable AIR to satisfy its distribution requirements. This will limit the amount of cash available for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. AIR will generally be required to distribute annually at least 90% of its “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, in order for its distributed earnings not to be subject to United States federal corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to AIR’s stockholders to comply with the requirements applicable to REITs under the Code (which may be all cash or a combination of cash and stock satisfying the requirements of applicable law). However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell apartment communities or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.

AIR may be subject to federal, state, and local income taxes in certain circumstances.

Even as a REIT, AIR may be subject to United States federal income and excise taxes in various situations, such as on its undistributed income. AIR could also be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income on non-arm’s-length transactions between AIR and a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) and on any net income from sales of apartment communities that were held for sale primarily in the ordinary course. State and local tax laws may not conform to the United States federal income tax treatment, and AIR may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions in which AIR transacts business. Any taxes imposed on AIR would reduce our operating cash flow and net income and could negatively impact our ability to pay dividends and distributions.

Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

REITs are entitled to a United States federal tax deduction for dividends paid to their stockholders. As compared to other taxable corporations, this ability to reduce or eliminate the REIT’s taxable income by paying dividends to stockholders is a principal benefit of maintaining REIT status, generally resulting in a lower combined tax liability of the REIT and its stockholders as compared to that of the combined tax liability of other taxable corporations and their stockholders. Notwithstanding this combined benefit, dividends payable by REITs may result in marginally higher taxes to the stockholder.

C-corporations are generally required to pay United States federal income tax on earnings. After tax earnings are then available for stockholder dividends. The maximum United States federal tax rate applicable to income from “qualified dividends” payable to United States stockholders that are individuals, trusts, and estates is currently 20%, plus the 3.8% investment tax surcharge. While dividends payable by REITs are generally not eligible for the qualified dividend reduced rates, stockholders that are individuals, trusts, or estates, and meet certain requirements, may generally deduct 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary dividends from REITs. This deduction is available for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, and will generally cause the maximum tax rate for ordinary dividends from REITs to be 29.6%, plus the 3.8% investment tax surcharge. The more favorable tax rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts, and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the shares of non-REIT corporates that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including AIR Common Stock.

Complying with the REIT requirements may cause AIR to forgo otherwise attractive business opportunities.

To qualify as a REIT, AIR will need to continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of its income, the nature and diversification of its assets, the amounts distributed to AIR stockholders, and the ownership of AIR stock. As a result of these tests, AIR may be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when AIR does not have funds readily available for distribution, forgo otherwise attractive investment opportunities, liquidate assets in adverse market conditions, or contribute assets to a TRS that is subject to regular corporate federal income tax.

Changes to United States federal income tax laws could materially and adversely affect AIR and AIR’s stockholders.

The present United States federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial, or administrative action at any time, which could affect the United States federal income tax treatment of an investment in AIR Common Stock. The United States federal income tax rules dealing with REITs are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS, and the United States Treasury Department, which results in statutory changes as well as frequent revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect AIR and AIR’s stockholders. Revisions in federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could significantly and

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negatively affect AIR ability to qualify as a REIT and the tax considerations relevant to an investment in AIR Common Stock, or could cause AIR to change its investments and commitments.

Government housing regulations may limit the opportunities at some of our apartment communities and failure to comply with resident qualification requirements may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits, such as rental revenues paid by government agencies. Additionally, the government may cease to operate or reduce funding for government housing programs, which would result in a loss of benefits from those programs.

We may own equity interests in entities that own certain apartment communities that benefit from governmental programs intended to provide housing to people with low or moderate incomes. These programs, which are usually administered by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (“HUD”), or state housing finance agencies, typically provide one or more of the following: mortgage insurance; favorable financing terms; tax-exempt interest; historic or low-income housing tax credits; or rental assistance payments to the apartment community owners. As a condition of the receipt of assistance under these programs, the apartment communities must comply with various requirements, which typically limit rents to pre-approved amounts and limit our choice of residents to those with incomes at or below certain levels. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits. We will likely be required to obtain the approval of HUD in order to acquire or dispose of a significant interest in or manage a HUD-assisted apartment community. We may not always receive such approval.

Risks Related to AIR Common Stock

A trading market for the AIR Common Stock was initiated only recently following the Separation, and the market price and trading volume of AIR Common Stock may fluctuate widely.

An active trading market for the AIR Common Stock was initiated only recently following the Separation, which may affect your ability to sell your shares and could lead to our share price being depressed or more volatile.

For many reasons, including the risks identified in this Annual Report, the market price of AIR Common Stock following the Separation may be more volatile than the market price of Aimco Common Stock before the Separation. These factors may result in short-term or long-term negative pressure on the value of AIR Common Stock.

We cannot predict the prices at which AIR Common Stock may trade. The market price of AIR Common Stock may fluctuate significantly, depending upon many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to:

 

our financial condition and performance;

 

the financial condition of our tenants, including Aimco and its subsidiaries, including the extent of tenant bankruptcies or defaults;

 

our dividend policy;

 

a shift in our investor base;

 

the reputation of REITs and real estate investments generally and the attractiveness of REIT equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other REITs, and fixed-income securities;

 

uncertainty and volatility in the equity and credit markets;

 

fluctuation in interest rates;

 

our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other REITs;

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

our ability to obtain financing as needed;

 

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant investments, acquisitions or dispositions;

 

the failure of securities analysts to cover AIR Common Stock;

 

changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;

 

the operating performance and stock price of other REITs;

 

overall market fluctuations;

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a decline in the real estate markets;

 

general economic conditions and other external factors; and

 

all other risk factors addressed elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of AIR Common Stock.

We cannot guarantee the timing, amount, or payment of dividends on AIR Common Stock.

We are required to distribute annually to holders of AIR Common Stock at least 90% of our “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income (and may be all cash or a combination of cash and stock satisfying the requirements of applicable law). Our board of directors will determine the amount of, and declare, our dividends. Our board of directors’ decisions regarding the payment of dividends will depend on many factors, such as REIT distribution requirements, current market conditions, liquidity needs, and other uses of cash, such as for deleveraging and accretive investment activities, and other factors that it deems relevant. Our ability to pay dividends will depend on our ongoing ability to generate cash from operations and access the capital markets. We cannot guarantee that we will pay a dividend in the future.

Although unlikely to do so, we may choose to pay dividends in our own stock, in which case you could be required to pay income taxes in excess of the cash dividends you receive.

Although we have no plans to do so, we may choose to pay dividends in our own stock.   If we do effect taxable dividends that are payable in cash and shares of AIR Common Stock, the current tax law allows up to only 20% of such dividend to be paid in cash.  Taxable stockholders receiving such dividends are required to include the full amount of the dividend as ordinary income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, stockholders may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. If a U.S. Holder sells the stock that it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sale proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to certain Non-U.S. Holders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of AIR Common Stock to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of AIR Common Stock.

It is unclear whether and to what extent we will be able to pay taxable dividends in cash and stock in future years. Moreover, the IRS may impose additional requirements with respect to taxable cash/stock dividends, including on a retroactive basis, or assert that the requirements for such taxable cash/stock dividends have not been met.

Risks Related to AIR’s Corporate Structure

AIR and its subsidiaries may be prohibited from making distributions and other payments.

All of AIR’s apartment communities are owned by subsidiaries of AIR Operating Partnership, and all of AIR’s operations are conducted by subsidiaries of AIR. As a result, AIR depends on distributions and other payments from AIR Operating Partnership, and AIR Operating Partnership depends on distributions and payments from its subsidiaries in order to satisfy our financial obligations and make payments to our investors. The ability of AIR Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries to make such distributions and other payments depends on their earnings and cash flows and may be subject to statutory or contractual limitations. As an equity investor in the REIT subsidiaries, AIR Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries, our right to receive assets upon their liquidation or reorganization are effectively subordinated to the claims of their creditors and any holders of preferred equity senior to our equity investments. To the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiaries, our claims may still be subordinate to any security interest in or other lien on their assets and to any of their debt or other obligations that are senior to our claims.

Limits on ownership of shares specified in AIR’s charter may result in the loss of economic and voting rights by purchasers that violate those limits.

AIR’s charter provides for restrictions on ownership and transfer of AIR’s shares of capital stock, including, certain restrictions that, subject to certain exceptions, will prevent any person from beneficially or constructively owning more than (i) 8.7% (or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies, and the initial holder, Terry Considine), by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of AIR Common Stock, or (ii) 8.7% (or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies, and the initial holder, Terry Considine) in aggregate value of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of AIR capital stock, including AIR Common Stock and any AIR preferred stock. The charter also prohibits anyone from buying shares of AIR’s capital stock if the purchase would result in

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AIR losing its REIT status. This could happen if a transaction results in five or fewer individuals (applying certain attribution rules of the Code) owning 50% or more of the value of all of AIR’s shares of capital stock or in fewer than 100 persons owning all of AIR’s shares of capital stock.

In addition to the ownership limits described above, AIR’s charter prohibits any person from (i) beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock that would result in our being “closely held” under section 856(h) of the Code, (ii) transferring shares of our capital stock if such transfer would result in shares of our capital stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution), (iii) beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock to the extent such beneficial or constructive ownership in a tenant of AIR’s real property that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income derived by AIR from such tenant would cause AIR to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code, (iv) beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock if such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT, and (v) beneficially or constructively owning shares of stock to the extent such beneficial ownership of stock would result in us failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of section 897(h) of the Code.

If anyone acquires shares in excess of the ownership limits or in violation of the ownership requirements of the Code for REITs or the transfer restrictions in AIR’s charter:

 

the transfer will be considered null and void;

 

we will not reflect the transaction on AIR’s books;

 

we may institute legal action to enjoin the transaction;

 

we may demand repayment of any dividends received by the affected person on those shares;

 

we may redeem the shares;

 

the affected person will not have any voting rights for those shares; and

 

the shares (and all voting and dividend rights of the shares) will be held in trust for the benefit of one or more charitable organizations designated by AIR.

AIR may purchase the shares of capital stock held in trust at a price equal to the lesser of the price paid by the transferee of the shares or the then current market price. If the trust transfers any of the shares of capital stock, the affected person will receive the lesser of the price paid for the shares or the then current market price. An individual who acquires shares of capital stock that violate the above rules bears the risk that the individual:

 

may lose control over the power to dispose of such shares;

 

may not recognize profit from the sale of such shares if the market price of the shares increases;

 

may be required to recognize a loss from the sale of such shares if the market price decreases; and

 

may be required to repay to us any dividends received from us as a result of his or her ownership of the shares.

AIR’s charter may limit the ability of a third-party to acquire control of AIR.

The 8.7% and other ownership limits discussed above may have the effect of delaying or precluding acquisition by a third-party of control of AIR without the consent of AIR’s Board of Directors. AIR’s charter authorizes its Board of Directors to issue up to 1,022,175,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of 1,021,175,000 shares of common stock and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of December 31, 2020, 148,861,036 shares of common stock and 20 shares of preferred stock were outstanding. Under AIR’s charter, its Board of Directors has the authority to classify and reclassify any of AIR’s unissued shares of capital stock into shares of capital stock by setting or changing in any one or more respects the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting power restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, or terms or conditions of redemptions as the AIR Board of Directors may determine. The authorization and issuance of a new class of capital stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of AIR, where there is a difference of opinion between the AIR Board of Directors and others as to what is in AIR’s stockholders’ best interests. In addition, AIR’s charter will provide that AIR’s board of directors will initially be divided into three classes, denominated as Class I, Class II and Class III. Class I directors serve for a term expiring at the 2021 annual meeting of stockholders, and the initial Class II and III directors serve for a term expiring at the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders. From and including the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders, the AIR Board of Directors will no longer be classified, and each director shall be elected annually for a term of one year expiring at the next succeeding annual meeting. After the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders, the AIR Board cannot be classified without stockholder approval; that is, AIR has opted out of the provisions of Maryland law (known as the Maryland Unsolicited Takeover Act or MUTA) that allow for board classification without stockholder approval. The

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classification of our board of directors until the 2022 annual stockholder meeting may also have the effect of delaying or precluding acquisition by a third-party of control of AIR without the consent of the board of directors of AIR.

The Maryland General Corporation Law may limit the ability of a third-party to acquire control of AIR.

As a Maryland corporation, AIR is subject to various Maryland laws that may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire AIR and increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, where there is a difference of opinion between the AIR board of directors and others as to what is in AIR’s stockholders’ best interests. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Business Combination Act, restricts mergers and other business combination transactions between AIR and any person who acquires, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of shares of AIR’s stock representing 10% or more of the voting power without prior approval of the board of directors of AIR. Any such business combination transaction could not be completed until five years after the person acquired such voting power, and generally only with the approval of stockholders representing 80% of all votes entitled to be cast and 66-2/3% of the votes entitled to be cast, excluding the interested stockholder, or upon payment of a fair price.

The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, provides generally that a person who acquires shares of AIR’s capital stock representing 10% or more of the voting power in electing directors will have no voting rights unless approved by a vote of two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote. Additionally, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides, among other things, that the board of directors of AIR will have broad discretion in adopting stockholders’ rights plans and has the sole power to fix the record date, time, and place for special meetings of the stockholders. To date, AIR has not adopted a stockholders’ rights plan.

In addition, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides that a corporation that (x) has at least three directors who are not officers or teammates of the entity or related to an acquiring person and (y) has a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act, may elect in its charter or bylaws or by resolution of the board of directors to be subject to all or part of a special subtitle that provides that: (i) the corporation will have a staggered board of directors; (ii) any director may be removed only for cause and by the vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors generally, even if a lesser proportion is provided in the charter or bylaws; (iii) the number of directors may only be set by the board of directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws; (iv) vacancies may only be filled by the remaining directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws; and (v) the secretary of the corporation may call a special meeting of stockholders at the request of stockholders only on the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws. To date, AIR has not made any of the elections described in (i)-(v). Among other things, this means that because AIR has opted out of the provisions of MUTA that allow for board classification without stockholder approval, the AIR board cannot be classified after the 2022 annual stockholder meeting without stockholder approval.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Additional information about our consolidated real estate, including property debt, is contained in “Schedule III – Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our portfolio is diversified by price point and geography, with a mix of urban and suburban submarkets, and consists of market rate apartment communities in which we own a substantial interest. Our portfolio includes garden style, mid-rise, and high-rise apartment communities located in 12 states and the District of Columbia. Our portfolio strategy seeks predictable rent growth from a portfolio of apartment communities diversified among some of the largest markets in the United States. The following table sets forth information on the apartment communities in our portfolio as of December 31, 2020:

 

 

Number of

Apartment

Communities

 

 

Number of

Apartment

Homes

 

 

Average

Economic

Ownership

 

Bay Area

 

 

10

 

 

 

2,322

 

 

 

76

%

Boston

 

 

12

 

 

 

2,598

 

 

 

100

%

Denver

 

 

8

 

 

 

2,279

 

 

 

98

%

Greater Washington, D.C.

 

 

11

 

 

 

5,238

 

 

 

100

%

Los Angeles

 

 

13

 

 

 

4,347

 

 

 

80

%

Miami

 

 

6

 

 

 

2,091

 

 

 

100

%

Philadelphia

 

 

9

 

 

 

2,748

 

 

 

97

%

San Diego

 

 

8

 

 

 

2,281

 

 

 

92

%

Other markets

 

 

22

 

 

 

2,688

 

 

 

100

%

   Total portfolio (1)

 

 

99

 

 

 

26,592

 

 

 

94

%

(1)

Total portfolio represents the number of apartment communities we owned an equity interest in.

Our consolidated apartment communities contained, on average, 269 apartment homes, with the largest community containing 2,113 apartment homes. These apartment communities offer residents a range of amenities, including resort pools with cabanas, grills, clubhouses, spas, fitness centers, package lockers, dog parks, and large open spaces. Many of the apartment homes offer features such as granite countertops, wood flooring, stainless steel appliances, fireplaces, spacious closets, washer and dryer connections, balconies, and patios.

The majority of our consolidated apartment communities are encumbered by property debt. As of December 31, 2020, apartment communities in our portfolio were encumbered by, in aggregate, $3.6 billion of property debt with a weighted-average interest rate of 3.60% and a weighted-average maturity of 8.4 years. The apartment communities collateralizing this non-recourse property debt have an estimated aggregate fair value of $7.6 billion. As of December 31, 2020, we held unencumbered apartment communities with an estimated fair value of approximately $2.8 billion.

As further discussed in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we are engaged in discussions with regulatory agencies regarding environmental matters at two apartment communities we, or other entities, previously owned. Although the outcome of these matters is uncertain, we do not expect the resolution to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. For legal liabilities that relate to occurrences prior to the Separation, including environmental liabilities related to properties that were no longer owned by AIR’s Predecessor or AIR at the time of the Separation, pursuant to the terms of the Separation Agreement, the operating partnership of the Spinnee will be responsible for the first $17.5 million of such liabilities, in the aggregate, and AIR Operating Partnership will be responsible for any such liabilities in excess of $17.5 million.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

AIR

AIR’s Common Stock began “regular way” trading on the NYSE under the symbol “AIRC” on December 15, 2020.

On March 5, 2021, there were 148,985,740 shares of Common Stock outstanding, held by 753 stockholders of record. The number of holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares but whose shares are held of record by a broker or clearing agency, but does include each such broker or clearing agency as one record holder.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

From time to time, we may issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for OP Units, defined under The AIR Operating Partnership heading below. Such shares are issued based on an exchange ratio of one share for each common OP Unit. Please refer to Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion of such exchanges. We may also issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for limited partnership interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. During the three months ended December 31, 2020, we did not issue any shares of Common Stock in exchange for OP Units or limited partnership interests in consolidated real estate partnerships.

The AIR Operating Partnership

Interests in the AIR Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than AIR are referred to as OP Units. OP Units include common partnership units (“common OP Units”) and partnership preferred units (“preferred OP Units”). There is no public market for OP Units, and we have no intention of listing them on any securities exchange. In addition, the AIR Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement restricts the transferability of OP Units.

On March 5, 2021, there were 159,182,317 common partnership units and equivalents outstanding (148,985,740 of which were held by AIR) that were held by 2,311 unitholders of record.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

On December 15, 2020, we completed the Separation through a pro rata distribution, in which unitholders received one share of AIR common OP Units for every one share of Aimco common OP Units held as of the close of business on December 5, 2020.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

The AIR Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement generally provides that after holding common OP Units for one year, limited partners other than AIR have the right to redeem their common OP Units for cash or, at our election, shares of AIR Common Stock on a one-for-one basis (subject to customary antidilution adjustments). No OP Units were redeemed for shares of our Common Stock during the three months ended December 31, 2020.

The following table summarizes the AIR Operating Partnership’s repurchases, or redemptions in exchange for cash, of common OP Units for the three months ended December 31, 2020:

Fiscal period

 

Total

Number of

Units

Purchased

 

 

Average

Price Paid

per Unit

 

 

Total Number of

Units Purchased as Part

of Publicly Announced

Plans or Programs

 

Maximum Number

of Units that May Yet

Be Purchased Under

Plans or Programs

October 1 – October 31, 2020

 

 

2,682

 

 

$

35.01

 

 

N/A

 

N/A

November 1 – November 30, 2020

 

 

18,367

 

 

 

35.24

 

 

N/A

 

N/A

December 1 – December 31, 2020

 

 

4,284

 

 

 

35.27

 

 

N/A

 

N/A

   Total

 

 

25,333

 

 

$

35.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividend and Distribution Payments

As a REIT, AIR is required to distribute annually to holders of its Common Stock at least 90% of its “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which, as defined by the Code and United States Department of Treasury regulations, is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income. AIR’s Board of Directors determines and declares its dividends. In making a

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dividend determination, AIR’s Board of Directors considers a variety of factors, including: REIT distribution requirements; current market conditions; liquidity needs; and other uses of cash, such as for deleveraging and accretive investment activities.

On October 21, 2020, the Board of Directors of AIR’s Predecessor declared a special dividend on its Common Stock that consisted of $121.8 million in cash and 35.4 million shares of Common Stock. The special dividend was paid on November 30, 2020, to stockholders of record as of November 4, 2020. The special dividend amount of $0.82 per share included the regular quarterly cash dividend for the fourth quarter of 2020 and accelerated into 2020 what would have been AIR’s Predecessor’s first regular quarterly cash dividend for 2021.

Stockholders had the opportunity to elect to receive the special dividend in the form of all cash or in all stock, subject to proration if either option was oversubscribed. In order to neutralize the dilutive impact of the stock issued in the special dividend, the Board of Directors of AIR’s Predecessor also authorized a reverse stock split, in which every 1.23821 common share was combined into one common share, effective at the close of business on November 30, 2020. As a result, total shares outstanding following completion of both the special dividend and the reverse stock split remained unchanged from the total shares outstanding immediately prior to the dividend. Some stockholders may have more shares and some may have fewer based on their individual elections. The reverse split will ensure comparability of per share results before and after these transactions.

Stockholders that received such dividend or will receive any future dividends will be required to include the full amount of such dividends as ordinary income to the extent of AIR’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for United States federal income tax purposes for the year of such dividends, and may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. With respect to certain non-United States stockholders, AIR may be required to withhold United States tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in Common Stock.

The Board of Directors of the AIR Operating Partnership’s general partner determines and declares distributions on OP Units. AIR, through wholly-owned subsidiaries, is the general and special limited partner of the AIR Operating Partnership. As of December 31, 2020, AIR owned approximately 93.5% of the legal interest in the common partnership units of the AIR Operating Partnership and 94.9% of the economic interest in the AIR Operating Partnership. The AIR Operating Partnership holds all of AIR’s assets and manages the daily operations of AIR’s business. The distributions paid by the AIR Operating Partnership to AIR are used by AIR to fund the dividends paid to its stockholders. Accordingly, the per share dividends AIR pays to its stockholders generally equal the per unit distributions paid by the AIR Operating Partnership to holders of its common partnership units.

Our credit agreement includes customary covenants, including a restriction on dividends and other restricted payments, but permits dividends and distributions during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount of up to 95% of AIR’s funds from operations for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain AIR’s REIT status.

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Performance Graph

The following graph compares cumulative total returns for AIR’s Common Stock, the MSCI US REIT Index, the NAREIT Equity Apartment Index, and the Standard & Poor’s 400 Total Return Index (“S&P MidCap 400 Index”). The MSCI US REIT Index is published by Morgan Stanley Capital International Inc., a provider of equity indices. The NAREIT Equity Apartment Index is published by NAREIT, a representative of real estate investment trusts and publicly traded real estate companies with interests in United States real estate and capital markets. The MSCI US REIT Index reflects total shareholder return for a broad range of REITs and the NAREIT Equity Apartment Index provides a more direct multi-family peer comparison of total shareholder return. The indices are weighted for all companies that fit the definitional criteria of the particular index and are calculated to exclude companies as they are acquired and to add companies to the index calculation as they become publicly traded companies. All companies that fit the definitional criteria and existed at the point in time presented are included in the index calculations. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in AIR’s Common Stock and in each index on December 15, 2020, the day AIRC began trading “regular way,” and that all dividends paid have been reinvested. The historical information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index (1)

 

December 15, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2020

 

Apartment Income REIT Corp.

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

101.21

 

MSCI US REIT Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

100.33

 

NAREIT Equity Apartment Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

100.44

 

S&P MidCap 400 Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

100.92

 

(1)

Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence © 2021

The Performance Graph will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing by AIR under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that AIR specifically incorporates the same by reference.

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The information presented below includes the financial results of AIR’s predecessor for all periods prior to the December 15, 2020 Separation. This table should be read in conjunction with such financial statements, including the notes thereto, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included herein or in previous filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(dollar amounts in thousands, except per share data)

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020 (1)

 

 

2019

 

 

2018 (2)

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

OPERATING DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenues

 

$

719,556

 

 

$

770,602

 

 

$

840,247

 

 

$

877,824

 

 

$

872,404

 

Gain on dispositions of real estate and the Asset

   Management Business

 

$

119,215

 

 

$

503,168

 

 

$

677,463

 

 

$

300,849

 

 

$

400,156

 

Net (loss) income from continuing operations

 

$

(114,572

)

 

$

488,532

 

 

$

695,612

 

 

$

327,408

 

 

$

466,187

 

Net income from discontinued operations

 

$

11,228

 

 

$

19,495

 

 

$

20,991

 

 

$

19,671

 

 

$

17,086

 

Net (loss) income from continuing operations attributable to

   AIR/the AIR Operating Partnership per common

   share/unit – diluted (3)

 

$

(0.94

)

 

$

3.74

 

 

$

5.20

 

 

$

2.34

 

 

$

3.27

 

Net income from discontinued operations attributable to

   AIR/the AIR Operating Partnership per common

   share/unit – diluted (3)

 

$

0.09

 

 

$

0.16

 

 

$

0.17

 

 

$

0.16

 

 

$

0.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BALANCE SHEET INFORMATION:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

6,229,278

 

 

$

6,909,256

 

 

$

6,190,004

 

 

$

6,079,040

 

 

$

6,232,818

 

Total indebtedness

 

$

4,243,000

 

 

$

4,012,805