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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________ to ___________
 
Commission file number 001-36583
ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
 (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 94-3021850
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
32000 Aurora Road, Suite B
Solon, Ohio 44139
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 440.715.1300
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per shareEFOIThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933. Yes ¨No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Date File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 ¨
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer 
 þ
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No þ




The aggregate market value of the Company’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the Company was approximately $2.2 million as of June 30, 2023, the last day of the Company’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, when the last reported sales price was $1.81 per share.
Number of the registrant’s shares of common stock outstanding as of March 18, 2024: 4,443,130.




DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission relative to the registrant’s 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 PART IPage
   
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 PART II 
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
ITEM 6.[RESERVED]
ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
ITEM 9.CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
ITEM 9A.CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
ITEM 9B.OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 9C.DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
 PART III 
ITEM 10.DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
ITEM 11.EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
ITEM 12.SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
ITEM 13.CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
ITEM 14.PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
 PART IV 
ITEM 15.EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
ITEM 16.FORM 10-K SUMMARY
 SIGNATURES
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PART I
Forward-Looking Statements
Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “Energy Focus,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” or “the Company” refer to Energy Focus, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiary for the applicable periods, considered as a single enterprise.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”) includes statements that express our opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believes,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “feels,” “seeks,” “forecasts,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could” or “would” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this Annual Report and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs, or current expectations concerning, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth, strategies, capital expenditures, and the industry in which we operate.
By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Although we base these forward-looking statements on assumptions that we believe are reasonable when made in light of the information currently available to us, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry developments may differ materially from statements made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and industry developments are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report, those results or developments may not be indicative of results or developments in subsequent periods.
We believe that important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the risks and uncertainties outlined under “Risk Factors” under Item 1A of this Annual Report and other matters described in this Annual Report and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) generally. Some of these factors include:
our need for and ability to obtain additional financing in the near term, on acceptable terms or at all, to continue our operations;
our ability to maintain compliance with the continued listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”);
our ability to refinance or extend maturing debt on acceptable terms or at all;
our ability to continue as a going concern for a reasonable period of time;
our ability to realize synergies with our strategic investor;
instability in the U.S. and global economies and business interruptions experienced by us, our customers and our suppliers, particularly in light of supply chain constraints and other long-term impacts of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic;
the competitiveness and market acceptance of our light-emitting diode (“LED”) lighting and control technologies and products;
our ability to compete effectively against companies with lower prices or cost structures, greater resources, or more rapid development capabilities, and new competitors in our target markets;
our ability to extend our product portfolio into new applications and end markets;
our ability to increase demand in our targeted markets and to manage sales cycles that are difficult to predict and may span several quarters;
the timing of large customer orders, significant expenses and fluctuations between demand and capacity as we manage inventory and invest in growth opportunities;
our ability to successfully scale our network of sales representatives, agents, distributors and other channel partners to compete with the sales reach of larger, established competitors;
our ability to implement plans to increase sales and control expenses;
our reliance on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our revenue, and our ability to maintain or grow such sales levels;
our ability to add new customers to reduce customer concentration;
our ability to attract and retain a new chief financial officer;
our ability to manage the size of our workforce while continuing to attract, develop and retain qualified personnel, and to do so in a timely manner;
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our ability to diversify our reliance on a limited number of third-party suppliers and development partners, our ability to manage third-party product development and obtain critical components and finished products on acceptable terms and of acceptable quality despite ongoing global supply chain challenges, and the impact of our fluctuating demand on the stability of such suppliers;
our ability to timely, efficiently and cost-effectively transport products from our third-party suppliers by ocean marine and other logistics channels despite global supply chain and logistics disruptions;
the impact of any type of legal inquiry, claim or dispute;
the macro-economic conditions, including rising interest rates and recessionary trends, in the United States and in other markets in which we operate or secure products, which could affect our ability to obtain raw materials, component parts, freight, energy, labor, and sourced finished goods in a timely and cost-effective manner;
our dependence on military maritime customers and on the levels and timing of government funding available to such customers, as well as the funding resources of our other customers in the public sector and commercial markets;
business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions such as war and terrorism, natural disasters, including earthquakes, typhoons, floods and fires, or from health epidemics or pandemics or other contagious outbreaks;
our ability to respond to new lighting and control technologies and market trends;
our ability to fulfill our warranty obligations with safe and reliable products;
any delays we may encounter in making new products available or fulfilling customer specifications;
any flaws or defects in our products or in the manner in which they are used or installed;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and other confidential information, and manage infringement claims by others;
our compliance with government contracting laws and regulations, through both direct and indirect sale channels, as well as other laws, such as those relating to the environment and health and safety;
risks inherent in international markets, such as economic and political uncertainty, changing regulatory and tax requirements and currency fluctuations, including tariffs and other potential barriers to international trade; and
our ability to maintain effective internal controls and otherwise comply with our obligations as a public company.

In light of the foregoing, we caution you not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement that we make in this Annual Report speaks only as of the date of such statement, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or to publicly announce the results of any revision to any of those statements to reflect future events or developments, except as required by law. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data. Furthermore, new risks and uncertainties arise from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us.
Energy Focus®, Intellitube®, RedCap®, and EnFocus™ are our registered trademarks. We may also refer to trademarks of other corporations and organizations in this document.
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Energy Focus engages primarily in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing and sale of energy-efficient lighting systems and controls. We develop, market and sell high quality light-emitting diode (“LED”) lighting and controls products in the commercial market and military maritime market (“MMM”). Our mission is to enable our customers to run their facilities, offices and homes with greater energy efficiency, productivity, and human health and wellness through advanced LED retrofit solutions. Our goal is to be a market leader for the most demanding applications where performance, quality, value, environmental impact and health are considered paramount. We specialize in energy-efficient LED lighting retrofit product, replacing fluorescent, high-intensity discharge (“HID”) lighting and other types of lamps in institutional buildings for primarily indoor lighting applications with our innovative, high-quality commercial and military-grade tubular LED (“TLED”) products, as well as other LED and lighting control products for commercial and consumer applications. We are also evaluating adjacent technologies including Gallium Nitride (“GaN”) based power supplies and opportunities for energy solutions products that support sustainability in our existing channels.

The LED lighting industry has changed dramatically over the past several years due to increasing competition and price erosion. We have been experiencing these industry forces in both our military and commercial business since 2016, when we once commanded significant price premiums for our flicker-free TLEDs with industry leading warranties. In more recent years, we have focused on redesigning our products for lower costs and consolidated our supply chain for stronger purchasing power in an effort to price our products more competitively while not impacting the performance and quality. Despite these efforts, our legacy products continue to face extreme price competition and a convergence of product functionality in the marketplace, and we have shifted to diversifying our supply chain in an effort to increase value and remain competitive. These trends are not unique to Energy Focus as evidenced by the increasing number of industry peers facing challenges, exiting LED lighting, selling assets and even going out of business.

In addition to continuously pursuing cost reductions, our strategy to combat these trends is to innovate both our technology and product offerings with differentiated products and solutions that offer greater, distinct value. Specific examples of these products we have developed include the RedCap®, our patented emergency backup battery integrated TLED, EnFocus™, our unique dimmable/color-tunable lighting and powerline control platform that we launched in 2020, and the second generation of EnFocus™ powerline control switches and circadian lighting system. We are looking forward to continually supporting the growth of our existing EnFocus™ product line which is particularly attractive for its ease of install and ease of use in spaces with transient occupation. The Company have enhanced the performance of our RedCap® product by providing a more user-friendly experience in 2023. We continue to evaluate our sales strategy and believe our go-to-market strategy that focuses more on direct-sales marketing, selectively expanding our channel partner network to cover territories across the country, and listening to the voice of the customer will lead to better and more impactful product development efforts that we believe will eventually translate into larger addressable markets and greater sales growth for us.

Throughout 2023, the Company continued to make significant cost cutting efforts to address operational expenses while maintaining customer satisfaction and delivering goods on-time. Investments into Energy Focus have contributed to the ability of the Company to continue to not only provide quality products and services, but to both expand and rationalize product offerings.

It is our belief that the continued dramatic rightsizing efforts undertaken in 2022 and 2023, along with reorganization of the sales team and ongoing development of innovative, high-value products and an expanded distribution network, will over time result in improved sales and bottom-line performance for the Company.

In 2023, we recommitted to building upon the transformation activities that sought to stabilize and regrow our business. These efforts include the following key developments that occurred during 2023:
On June 28, 2023, we accepted the resignation of four members of the Board of Directors (the “Board”): Jennifer Cheng, Brian Lagarto, Jeffery Parker, and Stephen Socolof. Their terms as directors would have otherwise expired at the 2024 annual meeting of Shareholders of the Company. The resignations did not involve any disagreement with the Company. On July 2, 2023, the remaining members of the Board unanimously appointed the following four new members to the Board: Kin-Fu Chen, Shou-Jang Lee, Jason Tien-Chia Tsai, and Chiao Chieh (Jay) Huang, each of the new members of the Board of Directors is an independent director under the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq.

On August 24, 2023, the Board approved the termination of the Company’s chief executive officer and appointed Chiao Chieh (Jay) Huang to serve as the Company’s new chief executive officer. In line with this decision, Mr. Huang
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will discontinue his role as Chairman of the Board and the Board has appointed Kin-Fu Chen as the Chairman of the Board.

In 2023, we carefully researched and analyzed our historical sales data and the current market landscape regarding our pricing position and general sales strategy. We acknowledged the presence of increased competition in the MMM sales space, both with respect to pricing and the number of competitors. Following our assessment, we made changes that positively affected our position within this space and are directly reflected in our Q4 2023 performance.

Beginning in July 2022, we reduced our warehouse square footage, and undertook an inventory reduction project throughout 2022 focused on reducing our highly reserved commercial finished good inventory.

The Company has aggressively re-evaluated operating expenses, and reduced our workforce significantly throughout the year to manage fixed costs.

During 2023, we thoroughly reviewed and adjusted our commercial pricing position as well as our strategic relationships and partnerships within the commercial LED market space. We believe our new pricing position will give us a greater advantage than previously held against the competition and offer a more attractive entry point for our end customer base.
We will seek to remain agile as an organization to respond to potential or continuing weakness in the macroeconomic environment and in the meantime seek to expand sales channels and enter new markets that we believe will provide additional growth opportunities. We plan to achieve profitability through developing and launching new, innovative products, such as our EnFocusTM powerline control systems, our Redcap® emergency battery backup tubular LEDs, evaluating new growth opportunities such as GaN-based power supply circuitry and other energy solution products, as well as executing on our multi-channel sales strategy that targets key verticals, such as government, healthcare, education and commercial and industrial, complemented by our marketing outreach campaigns and expanding channel partnerships. We also plan to continue to develop advanced lighting and lighting control applications built upon the EnFocusTM platform that aim to serve the commercial markets. In addition, we intend to continue to apply rigorous financial discipline in our organizational structure, decision-making, business processes and policies, strategic sourcing activities and supply chain practices to help accelerate our path towards profitability.
Our Corporate Structure and History
Fiberstars, Inc. was founded in 1985 in California, and reincorporated in Delaware in November 2006. In May 2007, Fiberstars, Inc. merged with Energy Focus, Inc. (the “Company”), also a Delaware corporation, with the Company as the surviving entity after the merger. We established an international branch which we may refer to as our “Taiwan branch” or “Taipei office” in Taipei, Taiwan in 2023.

Our Industry
We develop advanced LED lighting and controls retrofit technologies solutions that enable our customers to run their facilities with greater energy efficiency, productivity and human wellness. We aim to be the human wellness lighting and LED technology market leader by providing high-quality, energy-efficient, “flicker-free,” long-life LED lamps and retrofit products, as well as lighting controls, to replace existing linear fluorescent, incandescent, HID lamps and fixtures.
We believe these applications represent a significant portion of the LED lighting market and energy savings potential for our targeted commercial, industrial and MMM markets.
LED lighting, and particularly LED retrofit of fluorescent and incandescent lights in existing buildings, represents a large and growing market. A 2020 report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (“DOE”), entitled “Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications,” reports that from 2016 to 2018, installations of LED products have increased in all applications, increasing LED penetration to 30% of all general illumination lighting. In 2019, Navigant Research published a report that concluded that LED lighting had at least matched conventional lighting technologies on a range of features, including energy efficiency, lifetime, versatility and color quality, while becoming increasingly cost competitive. This same 2019 report forecasts that installed penetration of LED lamps and luminaires will increase dramatically through 2035, reaching about 84%. The increasing demand for LED lighting is being driven by energy and cost savings, environmental considerations and human health.
Energy consumption can be reduced by over 50% by replacing fluorescent tubes with LED tubes and by another 20-30% (70% to 80% in total) by utilizing smart lighting technologies, including dimmable TLEDs with ambient light and occupancy sensors. For this reason, building codes are increasingly requiring not only LEDs, but dimmable LEDs. Governments around the world
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are implementing regulations and standards that incentivize the use of LED lighting, both smart and conventional, to reduce energy consumption and, therefore, carbon dioxide emissions. Our new product research and development investments since 2019 have been focusing on advanced and smart lighting technologies to capitalize on these trends, and EnFocus™ represents such a control platform that we aim to expand in terms of functionalities, applications and intelligence, going forward.
There is also a growing awareness of the effects of both visible and non-visible light on human health and well-being. Energy Focus has been a leader in flicker-free technology and one of the first to obtain Underwriters Laboratories (“UL®”) certification at less than 1% optical flicker. Flicker, which is the modulation of the intensity of LED light at the frequency of the power supply, is well known to cause headaches, eye strain, fatigue, mood triggers and other health issues as well as interfering with electronic equipment such as barcode scanners. Energy Focus is continually evaluating additional human wellness lighting and control solutions inspired by emerging health and wellness benefits.
Smart, or connected, lighting is disrupting the LED industry and providing new opportunities for growth. The DOE defines connected lighting as an LED-based lighting system with integrated sensors and controllers that are networked (either wired or wireless), enabling lighting products within the system to communicate with each other and transmit data. In addition to enabling the intensity and correlated color temperature (“CCT”) of lights to respond to ambient light, time of day and the activities of building occupants, connectivity enables building automation functions that extend well beyond lighting. The interference of blue light with human circadian rhythms is well known. This can be alleviated by circadian lighting, or controlled lighting that is able to change the intensity or CCT of the LEDs depending on the time of day in order to emulate natural light. Since lighting fixtures are ubiquitous throughout buildings, the lighting infrastructure is an ideal vehicle to retrofit these and other smart or connected lighting capabilities into existing buildings, and also to design these capabilities into new construction.
From the customer feedback we have been receiving, we believe that the overall smart lighting market is still largely underdeveloped due to the cost and complexity for installations of related technologies today in the marketplace, representing significant potential for solutions that could meet customer needs and could also be affordable, easy to install and secure. Much of this interest and demand has been muted from 2020 through 2022 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which we believe has primarily delayed, rather than reduced, our opportunity in the smart lighting marketplace. We believe our EnFocus™ lighting platform could effectively address the unmet needs for circadian and smart lighting, particularly for existing buildings that have limited economical options or IT expertise to implement otherwise complex lighting control systems.
While we believe the LED lighting and smart lighting market is large, growing and under-penetrated, it has also been characterized in recent years by intensifying competition, market leadership changes and aggressive pricing tactics on differentiated products. Our strategy to overcome these challenges is to develop advanced, impactful and customer-centric technologies and products, while also innovating on our core products to increase value and remain competitive. In addition, we focus on executing our multi-channel sales strategy combined with a growing sales representative network to drive effective and frequent communication with customers in order to better understand and serve their needs. By understanding the voice of the customer and by incorporating rapidly evolving technologies surrounding LED and smart lighting, we believe that we will continue to be able to develop solutions that better address customers’ needs with unique and novel product offerings, such as EnFocus™, our dimmable and tunable lighting and control platform, that deliver substantial value to our customers and accelerate LED and smart lighting adoptions.
Our Products 
We design, develop, manufacture and market a wide variety of LED lighting technologies and solutions to serve our primary end user markets, including the following: 
Commercial products to serve our targeted commercial markets:
RedCap® emergency battery backup TLEDs;
EnFocus™ powerline lighting control platform including dimming (“DM”) and color tuning (“DCT”);
LED retrofit solutions for existing luminaires, including replacement TLEDs for linear fluorescent lamps, downlights, and retrofit kits for low-bay, high-bay and office applications; and
Industrial grade LED Dock lights.

MMM LED lighting products to serve the U.S. Navy and allied foreign navies:
Military-grade Intellitube® retrofit TLED and the Invisitube™ ultra-low EMI TLED; and
Military-grade fixtures, including LED globe lights, berth lights; high-bay fixtures and LED retrofit kits.
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Our LED products are more energy-efficient than traditional lighting products, such as fluorescent, incandescent and HID lamps, and we believe they can improve the overall sustainability profile of our customers by providing financial, environmental and human health benefits, including achieving significant long-term energy and maintenance cost savings, reducing carbon emission, substantially reducing retrofit waste and enhancing the health and productivity of building occupants.
The key features of our products are as follows: 
Many of our products make use of proprietary or patented optical and electronics delivery systems that enable high efficiencies with superior lighting qualities, and proven records of extremely high product reliability;
Our products have exceptionally long life, with the majority of our TLED sales providing a 10-year warranty;
Our products have extremely low flicker, including our 500D series TLED products, which were the first in the lighting industry to be certified by UL® as “low optical flicker, less than 1%”;
Most of our products meet the lighting efficiency standards mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007; and
Most of our products qualify for federal and state tax and rebate incentives for commercial consumers available in certain states.
Our product development capabilities, which we believe provide a strategic competitive advantage, include the following: 
A long research, engineering, and market developmental history, with broad and intimate understanding of lighting technologies and LED lighting applications;
Strong and lean team of experienced, cross-disciplinary engineers;
Concentration on developing and providing high-quality, price competitive LED lamps and related technologies to replace fluorescent and HID lamps and fixtures for commercial markets;
Providing high quality and high performing LED lighting products with a proven history of reliability;
Emphasis on proprietary and patent-pending technologies surrounding LED lighting; and
A deep understanding of LED lighting product applications in existing MMM, government, commercial and residential building markets. 
As we seek to develop new LED lighting solutions, we expect to continue our investments in smart lighting and wellness lighting research and development, as well as channel partnerships. Lighting controls, including dimming, sensor and daylighting technologies, can yield significant energy savings and human health benefits. We believe that the controllability of LED technology and our ability and plan to integrate more occupancy sensing and other controls into our existing products will allow us to further differentiate our LED solutions and provide greater non-energy benefits to our customers.
Sales and Marketing 
Our innovative technologies and high-quality performance associated with LED lighting require a continued focus on educating our channel partners as well as end-users regarding the benefits and unique value propositions of our technologies and products. Our primary target customers for our LED lighting and controls systems are enterprise end-users, as well as contractors or ESCOs that could incorporate our products into their projects. We also sell through lighting agencies that represent our products as a complement to our direct sales effort. We have in-house commercial sales personnel and external sales agencies representing Energy Focus products. We aim to continue to expand the coverage of our in-house sales team to eventually cover all geographic regions across the United States. Our MMM sales strategy leverages our brand and past performance and focuses on education about our products as well as ease of procurement.
We focus on industry verticals where the economic and non-economic benefits such as health and safety, as well as technical specifications, of our high-quality lighting product offerings are most compelling. Our LED lighting products fall into two broad market categories, commercial markets, which tend to focus on quality, efficacy, total cost of ownership and return on investment, and MMM which require more rigorous military specifications for durability and dependability. We also entered consumer markets during fiscal year 2021. We expect that our multi-channel sales strategy will continue to evolve and expand in the future.
With the introduction of our military-grade Intellitube® product in 2011, which replaced two-foot fluorescent lamps on U.S. Navy ships, military sales have represented the majority of our overall sales. Since 2019, we have been focusing on improving the design of our MMM products to significantly reduce product costs while maintaining the required performance. These efforts helped offset some of the weakness experienced in our commercial business due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, though sales levels were challenged as the amounts and timing of military funding fluctuated. While we continue to aggressively pursue growth on the commercial side of our business due to its much larger potential and size, the MMM
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business does offer us the opportunity to not just maintain our reputable foothold in this space but continue to grow and position ourselves for an even brighter future within MMM.

We launched our first commercial LED lighting products in 2010. Since then, we have been building and expanding our commercial and industrial market presence where the economic and non-energy benefits and technical specifications of our high-quality lighting product offerings are compelling, particularly for mission-critical facilities in the enterprise verticals such as healthcare, eldercare, education and the commercial and industrial space. For example: 
Given the 24/7 lighting requirements of hospital systems, we believe that our LED solutions offer the proven quality, performance, long lifetime, return on investment and low flicker lightning that is particularly attractive to this target market. Since 2015, we have been the primary LED lighting supplier and partner for a major northeast Ohio hospital system and, as a result of our continued success, we have been able to leverage this relationship to expand into more hospital systems across the country.
As we advocate for the benefits of low-flicker LED lighting in schools, both in terms of energy-efficiency and in creating a healthy and effective learning environment, we continue to receive orders to retrofit school districts, colleges and universities.
Low and high bay applications are generally used in commercial and industrial markets to provide light to large open areas like big-box retail stores, warehouses and manufacturing facilities. In the past few years, technological and cost improvements have allowed LED low and high bay applications to be more competitive, and we believe we have attractive product offerings in this space that enable energy and maintenance cost savings.
In addition to our direct and indirect sales force, we have also re-evaluated our own e-commerce websites. At our current scale, we have returned to our core sales channels to commercial and military customers, but will continue to evaluate additional channels from time-to-time. We believe that our renewed and continuing focus on multi-disciplinary technology innovation and engineering designs to both expand product features and benefits, while lowering product costs of ownership, will continue to enhance the overall competitiveness of our LED lighting and provide us with the strategic advantage and flexibility to expand our distribution channels.
Concentration of Sales 
In 2023, two customers accounted for 48% of net sales, with sales to our primary distributor and shipbuilder for the U.S. Navy accounting for approximately 35% and sales to a shipbuilder for the U.S. Navy accounting for approximately 13%. When sales to our primary distributor for the U.S. Navy are combined with sales to shipbuilders for the U.S. Navy, total net sales of products for the U.S. Navy comprised approximately 70% of net sales for the same period.
In 2022, two customers accounted for 27% of net sales, with sales to our primary distributor for the U.S. Navy accounting for approximately 13% of net sales, and sales to a regional commercial lighting retrofit company accounting for approximately 14% of net sales. When sales to our primary distributor for the U.S. Navy are combined with sales to shipbuilders for the U.S. Navy, total net sales of products for the U.S. Navy comprised approximately 30% of net sales for the same period.
Competition 
Our LED lighting products compete against a variety of lighting products, including conventional light sources such as compact fluorescent lamps and HID lamps, as well as other TLEDs and integrated LED luminaire products. Our ability to compete depends substantially upon the superior performance, incremental benefits and lower total cost of ownership of our products. Principal competitors in our markets include large lamp manufacturers and lighting fixture companies based in the United States, as well as TLED and LED replacement fixture manufacturers mostly based in Asia, whose financial resources may substantially exceed ours and whose cost structure as a percentage of sales may be well below ours. These competitors may introduce new or improved products that may reduce or eliminate some of the competitive advantage of our products and may have substantially lower pricing. We anticipate that the competition for our products will also come from new technologies that offer increased energy efficiency, lower initial costs, lower maintenance costs, or advanced features. We compete with LED systems produced by large lighting companies such as Signify Lighting, Osram Sylvania and GE Lighting, as well as smaller manufacturers or distributors such as LED Smart, Revolution Lighting Technologies, Orion Energy Systems, and Keystone Technologies. Some of these competitors offer products with performance characteristics similar to those of our products.
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Manufacturing and Suppliers
We produce our lighting products and systems through a combination of internal manufacturing and assembly at our Solon, Ohio facility, and sourced finished goods, manufactured to our specifications. Our internal lighting system manufacturing consists primarily of final assembly, testing, and quality control. We have worked with several vendors to design custom components to meet our specific needs. Our quality assurance program provides for testing of all sub-assemblies at key stages in the assembly process, as well as testing of finished products produced both internally and sourced through third parties. Additionally, we are 9001-2015 ISO certified.
Manufacturing costs are managed through the balance of internal production and outsourced production for certain parts and components, as well as finished goods in specific product lines, to a small number of vendors in various locations throughout the world, primarily in the United States, Malaysia, Taiwan, and China. In some cases, we rely upon a single supplier to source certain components, sub-assemblies, or finished goods. We continually attempt to improve our global supply chain practices to satisfy client demands in terms of quality and volumes, while controlling our costs and achieving targeted gross margins, and this includes the evaluation of additional outsourcing or further insourcing of internal production where cost, quality and performance can be maintained or improved. A 2021 DOE report entitled, “2020 LED Manufacturing Supply Chain”, indicated that most of the world’s LED lamp production and a significant portion of LED luminaire manufacturing takes place in China with virtually no LED lamp manufacturing taking place in the United States today.
Our supplier concentration is heavily focused within Asia. As a result of the continued macroeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, throughout 2022 and 2023, we experienced logistics constraints with higher cost comparing to pre-COVID-19 that impacted our inventory purchasing strategy and increased our transportation costs, in continued efforts to manage longer lead times in obtaining components.
No offshore supplier accounted for more than 10% of our total expenditures for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023. At December 31, 2023, two offshore suppliers accounted for approximately 16% and 57% (a related party, See Note 13, “Related Party Transactions”) of our trade accounts payable balance, respectively.
One offshore supplier accounted for approximately 16% of our total expenditures for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022. At December 31, 2022, this same offshore supplier accounted for approximately 36% of our trade accounts payable balance.
Product Development 
Product development has been a key area of operating focus and competitive differentiation for us in designing and developing industry leading LED lighting. Gross product development expenses for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were $0.6 million and $1.5 million, respectively. We believe that our customer-centric product development efforts represent a better leverage on our R&D investments and aim to continue to focus on developmental projects that could produce more impactful and differentiated products and solutions in a timelier manner for faster customer adoption.
Intellectual Property 
We have a policy of seeking to protect our intellectual property through patents, license agreements, trademark registrations, confidential disclosure agreements, and trade secrets as management deems appropriate. Certain of our patents are key to our current product lines. Additionally, we have various pending U.S. patent applications, and various pending Patent Cooperation Treaty patent applications filed with the World Intellectual Property Organization that serve as the basis for national patent filings in countries of interest. Our over 50 issued patents expire at various times through May 2040. Generally, the term of patent protection is twenty years from the earliest effective filing date of the patent application. There can be no assurance; however, that our issued patents are valid or that any patents applied for will be issued, and that our competitors or clients will not copy aspects of our lighting systems or obtain information that we regard as proprietary. There can also be no assurance that others will not independently develop products similar to ours. The laws of some foreign countries in which we manufacture, sell or may sell our products do not protect proprietary rights to products to the same extent as the laws of the United States. 
Insurance 
All of our properties and equipment are covered by insurance and we believe that such insurance is adequate. In addition, we maintain general liability, product recall and workers’ compensation insurance in amounts we believe to be consistent with our risk of loss and industry practice.
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Regulatory Compliance
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from direct and indirect sales to U.S., state, local and foreign governments and their respective agencies. Contracts with government customers are subject to various procurement laws and regulations, business prerequisites to qualify for such contracts, accounting procedures, intellectual property processes, and contract provisions relating to their formation, administration and performance, which may provide for various rights and remedies in favor of the governments that are not typically applicable to or found in commercial contracts.
In addition, although not legally required to do so, we strive to obtain certification for substantially all our products. In the United States, we seek certification on substantially all of our products from UL®, Intertek Testing Services (“ETL®”), or DesignLights Consortium (“DLC™”). Where appropriate in jurisdictions outside the United States, we seek to obtain other similar national or regional certifications for our products. Although we believe that our broad knowledge and experience with electrical codes and safety standards have facilitated certification approvals, we cannot ensure that we will be able to obtain any such certifications for our new products or that, if certification standards are amended, we will be able to maintain such certifications for our existing products.
Human Capital 
As of December 31, 2023, we had 13 full-time employees and one part-time employee, all of whom were based in the United States, and no part-time employees. We had one temporary contractor as of December 31, 2023. None of our employees or contractors are subject to collective bargaining agreements and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good. We encourage and support the growth and development of our employees. Continual learning and career development is advanced through ongoing performance and development conversations with employees and reimbursement is available to employees from time to time for seminars, conferences, formal education, and other training events employees attend in connection with their job duties.
Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our current and future employees. The principal purposes of our annual bonus plan and equity incentive plan are to attract, retain and motivate employees through the granting of long-term incentive compensation awards.
Business Segments
We currently operate in a single business segment that includes the marketing and sale of commercial and MMM lighting products and controls. Please refer to Note 12, “Product and Geographic Information,” included in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for additional information.
Available Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 32000 Aurora Road, Suite B, Solon, Ohio 44139. Our telephone number is 440.715.1300. Our website address is www.energyfocus.com. We are providing the address to our website solely for the information of investors. The information on our website is not a part of, nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, our annual proxy statement, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains these reports at www.sec.gov.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks Associated with Our Business
If we are unable to attract or retain qualified personnel, our business and product development efforts could be harmed.
We are highly dependent on our senior management and other key personnel due to our very lean organizational structure. Our future success will depend on our ability to attract, retain, develop and motivate qualified executive, technical, sales, marketing, operating, financial and management personnel, for whom competition is very intense. As we attempt to sustain and re-grow our business, it could be especially difficult to attract, retain and adequately compensate qualified personnel, especially in light of our lean cost structure and the tightening of the labor market, which has led to increased competition for employees. The loss of, or failure to attract, hire, and retain any such persons could delay product development cycles, disrupt our operations, increase our costs, or otherwise harm our business or results of operations. We also do not maintain “key person” insurance policies on any of our officers or our other employees, nor have employment contracts.
We rely on equity and debt financing to operate our business and will require additional financing in the near term, which we may not be able to raise on favorable terms or at all, and our failure to obtain funding when needed may force us to delay, scale back or eliminate our business plan or even discontinue or curtail our operations.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we reported a net loss of $4.3 million and are dependent upon the availability of financing in order to continue our business.
In the year ended December 31, 2023, financing activity to sustain ongoing losses has included (1) selling an aggregate of approximately $6.1 million common stock through several private placement transactions (Please see Note 9 of our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report.) and (2) converting approximately $1.7 million of outstanding promissory notes into common stock.

In the year ended December 31, 2022, financing activity to sustain ongoing losses included converting approximately $303 thousand of outstanding bridge financing into common stock, the issue and sale of approximately $1.5 million of unsecured bridge financing from October to December 2022, the issue and sale of approximately $3.2 million of common stock and warrants to purchase common stock in June 2022, and the offer and sale of $2.0 million of unsecured bridge debt financing in April 2022.

In August, 2020, we entered into two Credit Facilities secured by our assets and were subject to customary affirmative and negative operating covenants and events of defaults that restrict indebtedness, liens, corporate transactions, dividends, and affiliate transactions, among others. The Receivables Facility capacity was $2.5 million, and the Inventory Facility capacity was initially $3.0 million and increased to $3.5 million in April 2021. As of December 31, 2022, we had cash of approximately $52 thousand and had debt balances of $1.4 million and $1.0 million under the Inventory Facility and the Receivables Facility, respectively. In January 2023, we amended the Inventory Facility, reducing the maximum availability to $500 thousand, reducing monthly fees and paying down an aggregate of $1 million in January and February 2023. In February 2023, we agreed to terminate the Receivables Facility. In September 2023, we paid down the remaining balance under the Inventory Facility. As a result, there were no Inventory Facility and Receivables Facility as of December 31, 2023.
We may not generate sufficient cash flows from our operations or be able to borrow sufficient funds to sustain our operations. As such, we will likely need additional external financing during 2024 and will continue to review and pursue external funding sources including, but not limited to, the following:
obtaining financing from traditional or non-traditional investment capital organizations or individuals;
obtaining funding from the sale of our common stock or other equity or debt instruments; and
obtaining debt financing with lending terms that more closely match our business model and capital needs.
There can be no assurance that we will obtain funding on acceptable terms, in a timely fashion, or at all. Obtaining additional financing contains risks, including:
additional equity financing may not be available to us on satisfactory terms and any equity we are able to issue could lead to dilution for current stockholders and have rights, preferences and privileges senior to our common stock;
loans or other debt instruments may have terms or conditions, such as interest rates, restrictive covenants and control or revocation provisions, which are not acceptable to management or our Board of Directors; and
the current environment in the capital markets combined with our capital constraints may prevent us from being able to obtain adequate debt financing.
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If we fail to obtain the required additional financing to sustain our business before we are able to produce levels of revenue to meet our financial needs, we will need to delay, scale back or eliminate our business plan and further reduce our operating costs and headcount, each of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, future prospects, and financial condition. A lack of additional financing could also result in our inability to continue as a going concern and force us to sell certain assets or discontinue or curtail our operations and, as a result, investors in the Company could lose their entire investment.
Our independent registered public accounting firm’s opinion on our audited financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, included in this Annual Report, contains a modification relating to our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our independent registered public accounting firm’s opinion on our audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 includes a modification stating that our losses and negative cash flows from operations and uncertainty in generating sufficient cash to meet our obligations and sustain our operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
While we continue to pursue funding sources and transactions that could raise capital, there can be no assurances that we will be successful in these efforts or will be able to resolve our liquidity issues or eliminate our operating losses. If we are unable to generate enough cash or obtain sufficient additional funding, we would need to scale back or significantly adjust our business plan, further reduce our operating costs and headcount, or discontinue or curtail our operations. Accordingly, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, and we may be unable to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to continue as a going concern, we may have to liquidate our assets and may receive less than the value at which those assets are carried on our audited consolidated financial statements, and it is likely that investors will lose all or a part of their investment. Our financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
We have a history of operating losses and will incur losses in the future as we continue our efforts to grow sales and streamline our operations at a profitable level.
We have incurred substantial losses in the past and reported net losses from operations of $4.3 million and $10.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $153.3 million and cash of approximately $2.0 million, compared to an accumulated deficit of $149.0 million and cash of approximately $0.1 million as of December 31, 2022.
In order for us to operate our business profitably, we need to grow our sales, maintain cost control discipline while balancing development of our product pipeline and potential long-term revenue growth, continue our efforts to reduce product cost, drive further operating efficiencies and develop and execute a strategic product pipeline for profitable and compelling MMM and LED lighting and control products. There is a risk that our strategy to return to profitability may not be as successful as we envision, or occur as quickly as we expect. We might require additional financing in the near-term and, if our operations do not achieve, or we experience an unanticipated delay in achieving, our intended level and pace of profitability, we will continue to need additional funding, none of which may be available on favorable terms or at all and could require us to sell certain assets or discontinue or curtail our operations.
While we are attempting to diversify our customer base, we have historically derived a significant portion of our revenue from a few customers, and the loss of one of these customers, or a reduction in their demand for our products, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Historically our customer base has been highly concentrated and a few customers have represented a substantial portion of our net sales. In 2023, two customers accounted for 48% of net sales. Total sales to our primary distributor to the U.S. Navy, combined with sales to shipbuilders for the U.S. Navy represented 70% of net sales in 2023. In 2022, two customers accounted for 27% of net sales. Total sales to our primary distributor to the U.S. Navy combined with sales to shipbuilders for the U.S. Navy represented 30% of net sales in 2022.
We generally do not have long-term contracts with our customers that commit them to purchase any minimum amount of our products or require them to continue to do business with us. We could lose business from any one of our significant customers for a variety of reasons, many of which are outside of our control, including ongoing long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in levels of government funding and rebate programs, our inability to comply with government contracting laws and regulations, changes in customers’ procurement strategies or their lighting retrofit plans, changes in product specifications, additional competitors entering particular markets, our failure to keep pace with technological advances and cost reductions, and damage to our professional reputation, among others.
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We are attempting to expand and diversify our customer base and reduce the dependence on one or a few customers, through the addition of sales representatives and other potential sales channels, but we cannot provide any assurance that our efforts will be successful. We anticipate that a limited number of customers could continue to comprise a substantial portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future. If we continue to do business with our significant customers, our concentration can cause variability in our results because we cannot control the timing or amounts of their purchases. A significant customer could cease to do or drastically reduce its business with us with little or no notice, which could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows in particular periods.
Historically, we have experienced long sales-cycles, as well as slow ramp-up by new customers to purchase large amounts of LED products from us. Given the fiercely competitive lighting market in which we operate, we are constantly trying to balance pricing with the quality-premium our products command both in brand reputation and performance. As a result, adding new customers could generally be a slow process, and increasing new customers’ sales to more significant levels usually takes a long period of time. As we continue to develop more customer-centric new products such as EnFocus™ and GaN-based power supply circuitry, we hope to both add new customers more quickly and have our customers scale their purchasing levels more quickly. However, there is no guarantee of faster customer acceptance or performance of these new products or any other that has been or is being developed.
If critical components and finished products that we develop with and purchase from a small number of third-party development partners and suppliers become unavailable or increase in price, or if our development partners, suppliers or delivery channels fail to meet our requirements for quality, quantity, and timeliness, our revenue and reputation in the marketplace could be harmed, which would damage our business.
In an effort to reduce research and development and manufacturing costs, we have outsourced the research, development and production of certain parts and components, as well as finished goods in our product lines, to a small number of vendors in various locations throughout the world, primarily in the United States, Malaysia, Taiwan and China. We generally purchase these sole or limited source items with purchase orders, and we have limited guaranteed supply arrangements with such suppliers. While we believe alternative sources for these components and products are available, we select suppliers based on their expected ability to provide quality products at a cost-effective price, to meet our specifications, and to deliver within scheduled time frames. We do not control the time and resources that these suppliers devote to our business, and we cannot be sure that these suppliers will perform their obligations to us. If our ability to manage third-party product development efforts are unsuccessful or our suppliers fail to perform their obligations in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, we may suffer lost or delayed sales, increased costs of goods sold, reductions in revenue or margin, and damage to our reputation in the market, all of which would adversely affect our business. As demand for our products fluctuates, which fluctuations can be hard to predict, we may not need a sustained level of inventory, which may cause financial hardship for our suppliers or they may need to divert production capacity elsewhere. In the past, we have had to purchase quantities of certain components that are critical to our product manufacturing and were in excess of our estimated near-term requirements as a result of supplier delivery constraints and concerns over component availability, and we may need to do so in the future. As a result, we have had, and may need to continue, to devote additional working capital to support a large amount of component and raw material inventory that may not be used over a reasonable period to produce saleable products, and we may be required to increase our excess and obsolete inventory reserves to provide for these excess quantities, particularly if demand for our products does not meet our expectations.
We may be vulnerable to unanticipated product development delays, price increases and payment term changes. Significant increases in the prices of sourced components and products and shipping costs, could cause our product prices to increase, which may reduce demand for our products or make us more susceptible to competition. Furthermore, in the event that we are unable to pass along increases in operating costs to our customers, margins and profitability may be adversely affected. Accordingly, the loss of all or one of these suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our operations until such time as an alternative supplier could be found.
Additionally, consolidation in the lighting industry could result in one or more current suppliers being acquired by a competitor, rendering us unable to continue purchasing key components and products at competitive prices.
We also may be subject to various import duties and tariffs applicable to materials manufactured in foreign countries and may be affected by various other import and export restrictions, as well as other considerations or developments impacting upon international trade, including economic or political instability, tariffs, shipping delays and product quotas. These international trade factors will, under certain circumstances, have an impact on the cost of components, which will have an impact on the cost to us of the manufactured product and the wholesale and retail prices of our products.
We rely on arrangements with independent shipping companies for the delivery of our products from vendors abroad. The failure or inability of these shipping companies to deliver products or the unavailability of shipping or port services, even
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temporarily, could have a material adverse effect on our business. We may also be adversely affected by an increase in freight surcharges due to global logistics capacity constraints, rising fuel costs and added security costs.
If we are unable to implement plans to increase sales and control expenses to manage future growth effectively, our profitability goals and liquidity will be adversely affected.
Our ability to achieve our desired growth depends on the adoption of high-quality LED lighting and controls within the general lighting market and our ability to affect and adapt to these rates of adoption. The pace of continued growth in these markets is uncertain, and in order to grow our sales, we may need to:
manage organizational complexity and ensure effective and timely communication;
expand the skills and capabilities of our current management, engineering and sales teams;
add experienced senior level managers;
attract, retain and adequately compensate qualified employees;
adequately maintain and adjust the operational and financial controls that support our business;
expand research and development, sales and marketing, technical support, distribution capabilities, manufacturing planning or administrative functions and capabilities;
maintain or establish additional manufacturing facilities and equipment, as well as secure sufficient third-party manufacturing resources, to adequately meet customer demand or lower manufacturing costs; and
manage an increasingly complex supply chain to maintain a sufficient supply of materials and deliver on time to our manufacturing facilities.
These efforts to grow our business, both in terms of size and in diversity of customer bases served, may put a significant strain on our resources. We have implemented comprehensive cost-saving initiatives to reduce our net loss and mitigate doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. These initiatives have improved efficiency and streamlined our operations, but we continue to operate at a loss and may need additional funding or further cost-cutting to manage liquidity.
Our possible future growth may exceed our current capacity and require rapid expansion in certain functional areas. We may lack sufficient funding to appropriately expand or incur significant expenses as we attempt to scale our resources and make investments in our business that we believe are necessary to achieve short-term and long-term growth goals. Such investments take time to become fully operational, and we may not be able to expand quickly enough to exploit targeted market opportunities. In addition to our own manufacturing capacity, we are increasingly utilizing contract manufacturers and original design manufacturers (“ODMs”) to produce our products for us. There are also inherent execution risks in expanding product lines and production capacity, whether through our facilities or that of a third-party manufacturer, that could increase costs and reduce our operating results, including design and construction cost overruns, poor production process yields and reduced quality control. If we are unable to fund any necessary expansion or manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to adequately meet demand, our expenses could increase without a proportionate increase in revenue, our margins could decrease, and our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our results of operations, financial condition and business could be harmed if we are unable to balance customer demand and capacity.
As our customer base and customer demand for our products changes and as we launch new products, we must be able to adjust our production capacity to meet demand. We are continually taking steps to address our manufacturing capacity needs for our products. If we are not able to increase or decrease our production capacity at our targeted rate or if there are unforeseen costs associated with adjusting our capacity levels or there are unanticipated interruptions in our global supply chain or logistics from such possibilities as long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, geopolitical tension as the military conflict in Ukraine and the Middle East, shifting workforces, or energy policies, we may not be able to achieve our financial targets. In addition, as we introduce new products and further refine existing products, we must balance the production and inventory of prior generation products with the production and inventory of new products, whether manufactured by us or our contract manufacturers, to maintain a product mix that will satisfy customer demand and mitigate the risk of incurring cost write-downs on the previous generation products, related raw materials and tooling.
If customer demand does not materialize at the rate forecasted, we may not be able to scale back our manufacturing expenses or overhead costs to correspond to the demand. This could result in lower margins, write-downs of our inventory and adversely impact our business and results of operations. Additionally, if product demand decreases or we fail to forecast demand accurately, our results may be adversely impacted due to higher costs resulting from lower factory utilization, causing higher fixed costs per unit produced. In addition, our efforts to improve quoted delivery lead-time performance may result in corresponding reductions in order backlog. A decline in backlog levels could result in more variability and less predictability in our quarter-to-quarter net sales and operating results.
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If we are not able to compete effectively against companies with lower cost structures or greater resources, or new competitors who enter our target markets, our sales will be adversely affected.
The lighting industry is highly competitive. In the high-performance lighting markets in which we sell our advanced lighting systems, our products compete with lighting products utilizing traditional lighting technology provided by many vendors. Our higher quality and value advanced lighting and control systems also face competition from lower quality, commodity lighting products when customers may be overly purchase-price sensitive. For sales of MMM products, we compete with a small number of qualified military lighting lamp and fixture suppliers. In certain commercial applications, we typically compete with LED systems produced by large lighting companies. Our primary competitors include Signify, Osram Sylvania, LED Smart, Revolution Lighting Technologies, Orion Energy Systems, and Keystone Technologies. Some of these competitors offer products with performance characteristics similar to those of our products. Many of our competitors are larger, more established companies with greater resources to devote to research and development, manufacturing and marketing, as well as greater brand recognition. In addition, larger competitors who purchase greater unit volumes from component suppliers may be able to negotiate lower costs, thereby enabling them to offer lower pricing to end customers. Moreover, the relatively low barriers to entry into the lighting industry and the limited proprietary nature of many lighting products also permit new competitors to enter the industry easily and with lower costs. 
In each of our markets, we also anticipate the possibility that LED component manufacturers, including those that currently supply us with LEDs, may seek to compete with us. Our competitors’ lighting technologies and products may be more readily accepted by customers than our products will be. Moreover, if one or more of our competitors or suppliers were to merge, the change in the competitive landscape could adversely affect our competitive position. Additionally, to the extent that competition in our markets intensifies, we may be required to further reduce our prices in order to remain competitive. If we do not compete effectively, or if we reduce our prices without making commensurate reductions in our costs, our net sales, margins, and profitability and our future prospects for success may be harmed.
We work with independent agents and sales representatives for a portion of our net sales, and the failure to incentivize, retain and manage our relationships with these third parties, or the termination of these relationships, could cause our net sales to decline and harm our business.
In the past, we pursued an agency-driven sales channel strategy in order to expand our market presence throughout the United States. As a result, at that time, we had increased our reliance on independent sales agent channels to market and sell our LED lighting and control products. In addition, these parties provide technical sales support to end-users. The current agreements with our agents are generally non-exclusive on the agents’ product portfolio, meaning they can sell our competitors’ products. Any such agreements we enter into in the future may be on similar terms. Our agents may not be motivated to or successfully pursue the sales opportunities available to them, or they may prefer to sell or be more familiar with the products of our competitors. If our agents do not achieve our sales objectives or these relationships take significant time to develop, our revenue may decline, fail to grow or not increase as rapidly as we intend in order to achieve profitability and grow our business. We improved and continued to maintain our agency relationships that were both mutually beneficial and strategically important. Although we believe that our agency strategy will increase the role of independent agents and sales representatives over time, direct sales using internal sales personnel still account for a substantial portion of our sales, and our agency plans may take longer to contribute significantly to our operating results.
Furthermore, our agency agreements are generally short-term and can be cancelled by either party without significant financial consequence. The termination of or the inability to negotiate extensions of these contracts on acceptable terms could adversely impact sales of our products. Additionally, we cannot be certain that we or end-users will be satisfied by their performance. If these agents significantly change their terms with us, or change their end-user relationships, there could be an impact on our net sales and profits.
If our LED lighting and control technology products fail to gain widespread market acceptance or we are unable to respond effectively as new technologies and market trends emerge, our competitive position and our ability to generate revenue, and profits may be harmed.
To be successful in our respective markets for LED lighting and control technology products, we depend on continued market acceptance of our existing LED lighting and control technology, including in the consumer and commercial markets. Potential customers may be reluctant to adopt LED lighting products as an alternative to traditional lighting technology because of their higher initial costs or perceived risks relating to their novelty, reliability, usefulness, quality and cost-effectiveness when compared to other established lighting sources available in the market. Changes in economic and market conditions may also make traditional lighting technologies more appealing. For example, declining energy prices in certain regions or countries may favor existing lighting technologies that are less energy-efficient, reducing the rate of adoption for LED lighting products in those areas. Notwithstanding continued performance improvements and cost reductions of LED lighting technologies, limited
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customer awareness of the benefits of LED lighting products, lack of widely accepted standards governing LED lighting products and customer unwillingness to adopt LED lighting products could significantly limit the demand for LED lighting products. Even potential customers that are inclined to adopt energy-efficient lighting technology may defer investment as LED lighting products continue to experience rapid technological advances. Any of the foregoing could adversely impact our results of operations and limit our market opportunities.
In addition, we will need to keep pace with rapid changes in LED lighting and control technology, changing customer requirements, new product introductions and cost reductions by competitors and evolving industry standards, any of which could render our existing products obsolete if we fail to respond in a timely manner. The development, introduction, and acceptance of new, re-designed or reduced cost products incorporating advanced technology is a complex process subject to numerous uncertainties, including:
available funding to sustain adequate development efforts;
achievement of technology breakthroughs required to make commercially viable devices, and in turn, protecting those breakthroughs through intellectual property;
the accuracy of our predictions for market requirements;
our ability to predict, influence, or react to evolving standards;
acceptance of our new product designs;
acceptance of new technologies in certain markets;
the combination of other desired technological advances with lighting products, such as controls;
the availability of qualified research and development personnel;
our timely completion of product designs and development;
our ability to develop repeatable processes to manufacture new products in sufficient quantities, with the desired specifications, and at competitive costs;
our ability to effectively transfer products and technology from development to manufacturing; and
market acceptance of our products.
We could experience delays in the introduction of these products. We could also devote substantial resources to the development of new technologies or products that are ultimately not successful.
If effective new sources of light, other than LEDs, are discovered and commercialized, our current products and technologies could become less competitive or obsolete. If others develop innovative proprietary lighting technology that is superior to ours, or if we fail to accurately anticipate technology, pricing and market trends, address market saturation and customer confusion, respond on a timely basis with our own development of new and reliable products and enhancements to existing products, and achieve broad market acceptance of these products and enhancements, our competitive position may be harmed and we may not achieve sufficient growth in our net sales to attain or sustain profitability.
Our operating results may fluctuate due to factors that are difficult to forecast and not within our control.
Our past operating results may not be accurate indicators of future performance, and you should not rely on such results to predict our future performance. Our operating results have fluctuated significantly in the past and could fluctuate in the future. Factors that may contribute to fluctuations include:
changes in aggregate capital spending, cyclicality and other economic conditions, including inflationary pressures, or domestic and international demand in the industries;
the timing of large customer orders to which we may have limited visibility and cannot control;
competition for our products, including the entry of new competitors and significant declines in competitive pricing;
our ability to effectively manage our working capital;
our ability to generate increased demand in our current and targeted markets, particularly those in which we have limited experience;
our ability to satisfy customer demands in a timely and cost-effective manner;
pricing and availability of labor and materials;
quality testing and reliability of new products;
our inability to adjust certain fixed costs and expenses for changes in demand and the timing and significance of expenditures that may be incurred to facilitate our growth;
macroeconomic, geopolitical and health concerns, including long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic;
seasonal fluctuations in demand and our revenue; and
disruption in component supply from foreign vendors.
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Depressed general economic conditions may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our business is sensitive to changes in general economic conditions, both inside and outside the United States. Slow growth in the economy or an economic downturn, particularly one affecting construction and building renovation, or that causes end-users to reduce or delay their purchases of lighting products, services, or retrofit activities, would have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. LED lighting retrofit projects, in particular, tend to require a significant capital commitment, which is offset by cost savings achieved over time. As such, a lack of available capital, whether due to economic factors or conditions in the equity or debt markets, could have the effect of reducing demand for our products. A decrease in demand could adversely affect our ability to meet our working capital requirements and growth objectives, or could otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Customers may be unable to obtain financing to make purchases from us.
Some of our customers require financing in order to purchase our products, and the initial investment is higher than that which is required with traditional lighting products. The potential cost or inability of these customers to access the capital needed to finance purchases of our products and meet their payment obligations to us could adversely impact the appeal of our products relative to those with lower upfront costs and have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations. There can be no assurance that third-party finance companies will provide capital to our customers.
A significant portion of our business is dependent upon the existence of government funding, which may not be available into the future and could result in a reduction in sales and harm to our business.
Some of our customers are dependent on governmental funding, including U.S. and foreign allied navies and U.S. military bases. If any of these customers or potential customers abandon, curtail, or delay planned LED lighting retrofit projects as a result of the levels of funding available to them or changes in budget priorities, it would adversely affect our opportunities to generate product sales.
Our products could contain defects, or they may be installed or operated incorrectly, which could reduce sales of those products or result in claims against us.
Despite product testing, defects may be found in our existing or future products. This could result in, among other things, a delay in the recognition or loss of net sales, the write-down or destruction of existing inventory, insurance recoveries that fail to cover the full costs associated with product recalls or other claims, significant warranty, support, and repair costs, diversion of the attention of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts, and damage to our relationships with our customers. The occurrence of these problems could also result in reputational and brand damage or the delay or loss of market acceptance of our lighting products and would likely harm our business. In addition, our customers may specify quality, performance, and reliability standards that we must meet. If our products do not meet these standards, we may be required to replace or rework the products. In some cases, our products may contain undetected defects or flaws that only become evident after shipment. Even if our products meet standard specifications, our customers may attempt to use our products in applications for which they were not designed or in products that were not designed or manufactured properly, resulting in product failures and creating customer satisfaction issues.
Some of our products use line voltages (such as 120- or 240-volts AC), which involve enhanced risk of electrical shock, injury or death in the event of a short circuit or other malfunction. Defects, integration issues or other performance problems in our lighting products could result in personal injury or financial or other damages to end-users or could damage market acceptance of our products. Our customers and end-users could also seek damages from us for their losses. A product liability claim brought against us, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time consuming and costly to defend and the adverse publicity generated by such a claim against us or others in our industry could negatively impact our reputation.
We provide warranty periods generally ranging from one to ten years on our LED lighting products. Although we believe our reserves are appropriate, we are making projections about the future reliability of new products and technologies, and we may experience increased variability in warranty claims. Increased warranty claims could result in significant losses due to a rise in warranty expense and costs associated with customer support.
Our industry is characterized by vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights and positions, which may result in protracted and expensive litigation. We have engaged in litigation in the past and litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation may also be necessary to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity by others. Additionally, we could be required to defend against individuals and groups who have been purchasing intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies like ours. Litigation could delay development or sales
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efforts and an adverse outcome in litigation, or any similar proceedings, could subject us to significant liabilities, require us to license disputed rights from others or require us to cease marketing or using certain products or technologies. We may not be able to obtain any licenses on acceptable terms, if at all, and may attempt to redesign those products that contain allegedly infringing intellectual property, which may not be possible. We also may have to indemnify certain customers if it is determined that we have infringed upon or misappropriated another party’s intellectual property. The costs of addressing any intellectual property litigation claim, including legal fees and expenses and the diversion of management resources, regardless of whether the claim is valid, could be significant and could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
From time to time, we have been and may in the future be subject to claims or allegations that we infringe upon or have misappropriated the intellectual property of third parties. Defending against such claims is costly and intellectual property litigation often involves complex questions of fact and law, with unpredictable results. We may be forced to acquire rights to such third-party intellectual property on unfavorable terms (if rights are made available at all), pay damages, modify accused products to be non-infringing, or stop selling the applicable product altogether.
We may be subject to confidential information theft or misuse, which could harm our business and results of operations.
We face attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to our information technology systems on which we maintain proprietary and other confidential information. Our security measures may be breached as the result of industrial or other espionage actions of outside parties, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, and as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our systems. In addition, these same risks to our information technology systems also apply to the third-party service providers’ information technology systems utilized by the Company. Additionally, outside parties may attempt to access our confidential information through other means, for example by fraudulently inducing our employees to disclose confidential information. We actively seek to prevent, detect and investigate any unauthorized access, which occasionally occurs despite our best efforts. We might be unaware of any such access or unable to determine its magnitude and effects. The theft, corruption or unauthorized use or publication of our trade secrets and other confidential business information as a result of such an incident could adversely affect our competitive position and the value of our investment in research and development could be reduced. Our business could be subject to significant disruption, widespread negative publicity and a loss of customers, and we could suffer legal liabilities and monetary or other losses.
We have international operations and are subject to risks associated with operating in international markets.
We outsource the production of certain parts and components, as well as finished goods in certain product lines, to a small number of vendors in various locations outside of the United States, including Malaysia, Taiwan and China. Although we do not currently generate significant sales from customers outside the United States, we are targeting foreign allied navies as a potential opportunity to generate additional sales of our MMM products as well as a limited number of foreign geographic markets which we expect to expand over time.
International business operations are subject to inherent risks, including, among others: 
difficulty in enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through foreign legal systems;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, tariffs, and other trade barriers, restrictions or disruptions;
potentially adverse tax consequences;
localized impacts of epidemics, pandemics or other contagious outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;
the burdens of compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, similar anti-bribery laws in other countries, and a wide variety of other laws;
import and export license requirements and restrictions of the United States and each other country in which we operate;
exposure to different legal standards and reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
currency fluctuations and restrictions; and
political, social, and economic instability, including war and the threat of war, acts of terrorism, pandemics, boycotts, curtailment of trade, or other business restrictions. 
If we do not anticipate and effectively manage these risks, these factors may have a material adverse impact on our business operations.
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Risks Associated with Legal and Regulatory Matters
We may be subject to legal claims against us or claims by us that could have a significant impact on our resulting financial performance.
At any given time, we may be subject to litigation or claims related to our products, intellectual property, suppliers, customers, employees, shareholders, distributors, sales representatives and sales of our assets, among other things, the disposition of which may have an adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, or results of operations. The outcome of litigation is difficult to assess or quantify. Lawsuits can result in the payment of substantial damages by defendants. If we are required to pay substantial damages and expenses as a result of these or other types of lawsuits, our business and results of operations would be adversely affected. Regardless of whether any claims against us are valid or whether we are liable, claims may be expensive to defend and may divert time and money away from our operations. Insurance may not be available at all or in sufficient amounts to cover any liabilities with respect to these or other matters. A judgment or other liability in excess of our insurance coverage for any claims could adversely affect our business and the results of our operations.
Our business may suffer if we fail to comply with government contracting laws and regulations.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from direct and indirect sales to U.S., state, local and foreign governments and their respective agencies. Contracts with government customers are subject to various procurement laws and regulations, business prerequisites to qualify for such contracts, accounting procedures, intellectual property processes, and contract provisions relating to their formation, administration and performance, which may provide for various rights and remedies in favor of the governments that are not typically applicable to or found in commercial contracts. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations, or provisions in our government contracts could result in litigation, the imposition of various civil and criminal penalties, termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, or suspension from future government contracting. If our government contracts are terminated, if we are suspended from government work, or if our ability to compete for new contracts is adversely affected, our business could suffer due to, among other factors, lost sales, the costs of any government action or penalties, damages to our reputation and the inability to recover our investment in developing and marketing products for MMM use.
If we are unable to obtain and adequately protect our intellectual property rights or are subject to claims that our products infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, our ability to commercialize our products could be substantially limited.
We consider our technology and processes proprietary. If we are not able to adequately protect or enforce the proprietary aspects of our technology, competitors may utilize our proprietary technology. As a result, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. We protect our technology through a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, and similar means. Despite our efforts, other parties may attempt to disclose, obtain, or use our technologies. Our competitors may also be able to independently develop products that are substantially equivalent or superior to our products or slightly modify our products. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights as fully as do the laws of the United States. As a result, we may not be able to protect our proprietary rights adequately in the United States or abroad. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that we will be issued patents for which we have applied or obtain additional patents, or that we will be able to obtain licenses to patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties that we may need to support our business in the future. The inability to obtain certain patents or rights to third-party patents and other intellectual property rights in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations by third parties, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

Our products are largely depending on the application of our technology. From time to time, third parties holding similar technologies and intellectual property rights, including companies, competitors, patent holding companies, customers and/or non-practicing entities, may assert intellectual property claims against us.
Although we believe that our products do not infringe upon the intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot be certain that our operations do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate intellectual property rights or other rights held by third parties, and there may be third-party intellectual property rights or other rights that are infringed by our products without our awareness. We may be from time to time in the future subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights or other rights of third parties, some even without merit. If we are forced to defend against any infringement or misappropriation claims, whether they are with or without merit, are settled out of court, or are determined in our favor, we may be required to expend significant time and financial resources on the defense of such claims. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, such a claim could adversely impact our brand and business. Any such assertions may require us to enter into
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royalty arrangement or result in us being unable to use certain intellectual property. Infringement assertions by third parties may involve patent holding companies or other patent owners who have no relevant product revenue, and therefore our own issued and pending patents may provide little or no deterrence to these patent owners in bringing intellectual property right claims against us. Furthermore, any adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay damages, potentially including treble damages and attorney’s fees, if are found to have willfully infringed a party’s intellectual property; case making, licensing or using our solutions that are alleged to infringe or misappropriate the intellectual property of others; expend additional development resources to redesign our solutions’ enter into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies or works; and to indemnify our partners, customers and other third parties. Any of these events could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we were found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property or relevant contents, and we may incur licensing or usage fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. As a result, our reputation may be harmed and our business and financial performance may be materially and adversely affected.
The ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
We have significant U.S. net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards (the “Tax Attributes”). Under federal tax laws, we can carry forward and use our Tax Attributes to reduce our future U.S. taxable income and tax liabilities until such Tax Attributes expire in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “IRC”). Section 382 and Section 383 of the IRC provide an annual limitation on our ability to utilize our Tax Attributes, as well as certain built-in-losses, against future U.S. taxable income in the event of a change in ownership, as defined under the IRC. Share issuances in connection with our past financing transactions or other future changes in our stock ownership, which may be beyond our control, could result in changes in ownership for purposes of the IRC. Such changes in ownership could further limit our ability to use our Tax Attributes. Accordingly, any such occurrences could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
The cost of compliance with environmental, health, safety, and other laws and regulations could adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
We are subject to a broad range of environmental, health, safety, and other laws and regulations. These laws and regulations impose increasingly stringent environmental, health, and safety protection standards and permit requirements regarding, among other things, air emissions, wastewater storage, treatment, and discharges, the use and handling of hazardous or toxic materials, waste disposal practices, the remediation of environmental contamination, and working conditions for our employees. Some environmental laws, such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, the Clean Water Act, and comparable laws in U.S. states and other jurisdictions world-wide, impose joint and several liability for the cost of environmental remediation, natural resource damages, third-party claims, and other expenses, without regard to the fault or the legality of the original conduct, on those persons who contributed to the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. We may also be affected by future laws or regulations, including those imposed in response to energy, climate change, geopolitical, or similar concerns. These laws may impact the sourcing of raw materials and the manufacture and distribution of our products and place restrictions and other requirements on the products that we can sell in certain geographical locations.
We may be exposed to certain regulatory and financial risks related to climate change.
Growing concerns about climate change may result in the imposition of additional regulations or restrictions to which we may
become subject. A number of governments or governmental bodies have introduced or are contemplating regulatory changes in
response to climate change. The outcome of new legislation or regulation in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate may result in new or additional requirements, fees or restrictions on certain activities. Compliance with these climate change initiatives may also result in additional costs to us, including, among other things, increased production costs, additional taxes, reduced emission allowances or additional restrictions on production or operations. Any adopted future climate change regulations could also negatively impact our ability to compete with companies situated in areas not subject to such limitations. We may not be able to recover the cost of compliance with new or more stringent laws and regulations, which could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flow or financial condition.

Our net sales might be adversely impacted if our lighting systems do not meet certain certification and compliance standards.
We are required to comply with certain legal requirements governing the materials in our products. Although we are not aware of any efforts to amend any existing legal requirements or implement new legal requirements in a manner with which we cannot comply, our net sales might be adversely affected if such an amendment or implementation were to occur.
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Moreover, although not legally required to do so, we strive to obtain certification for substantially all our products. In the United States, we seek certification on substantially all of our products from UL®, ETL®, or DLC™. Where appropriate in jurisdictions outside the United States, we seek to obtain other similar national or regional certifications for our products. Although we believe that our broad knowledge and experience with electrical codes and safety standards have facilitated certification approvals, we cannot ensure that we will be able to obtain any such certifications for our new products or that, if certification standards are amended, we will be able to maintain such certifications for our existing products. Moreover, although we are not aware of any effort to amend any existing certification standard or implement a new certification standard in a manner that would render us unable to maintain certification for our existing products or obtain ratification for new products, our net sales might be adversely affected if such an amendment or implementation were to occur.
We rely heavily on information technology in our operations and any material failure, weakness, interruption or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We rely heavily on our information technology systems, including our enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) and customer relationship management (“CRM”) software, across our operations and corporate functions, including for management of our supply chain, payment of obligations, data warehousing to support analytics, finance systems, accounting systems, and other various processes and procedures, some of which are handled by third parties, as well as lead generation, customer tracking, customer sourcing, etc. We also rely heavily on remote communication tools such as Microsoft Teams and Zoom to accommodate remote work environment and external meetings.
Our ability to efficiently and effectively manage our business depends significantly on the reliability and capacity of these systems. Our business and results of operations may be adversely affected if we experience system usage problems. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, maintenance problems, system conversions, back-up failures, problems or lack of resources for upgrading or transitioning to new platforms or damage or interruption from circumstances beyond our control, including, without limitation, fire, natural disasters, power outages, systems failure, security breaches, cyber-attacks, viruses or human error could result in, among other things, transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, loss of data, inability to generate timely SEC reports, loss of sales and customers and reduced efficiency in our operations. Additionally, we and our customers could suffer financial and reputational harm if customer or Company proprietary information is compromised by such events. Remediation of such problems could result in significant unplanned capital investments and any damage or interruption could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Associated with an Investment in Our Common Stock
Our failure to comply with the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could adversely affect the price of our common stock and its liquidity.

We have a history of failing to comply with the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq, although we have successfully cured all the pre-existed deficiency, we may not be able to cure any deficiency timely in the future. On August 23, 2022, we received a letter from the Nasdaq Listing Qualifications Staff (the “Staff”) notifying us that we are not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) (the “Bid Price Rule”), because the closing bid price for our common stock was below the minimum $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we were provided an initial period of 180 calendar days, or until February 20, 2023, to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule. During the initial compliance period, our common stock continued to trade on the Nasdaq Capital Market, but did not satisfy the Bid Price Rule.
On November 16, 2022, we received a letter from the Staff notifying us that we were no longer in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1), which requires listed companies to maintain stockholders’ equity of at least $2.5 million if they do not meet the alternative compliance standards relating to the market value of listed securities or net income from continuing operations (the “Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule”). Our Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2022 filed on November 10, 2022 reflected that our stockholders’ equity as of September 30, 2022 was $1.5 million. Based on our timely submission of our plan to regain compliance (the “Plan”), Nasdaq granted us an extension through May 15, 2023 to regain compliance with the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule.
On February 21, 2023, we received written notification (the “Bid Price Notification”) from the Staff stating that we had not regained compliance with the Bid Price Rule and our common stock is subject to delisting from Nasdaq. On February 24, 2023, we submitted a request for a hearing before the Nasdaq Hearings Panel (the “Panel”) to appeal the delisting (the “Appeal”). Under Nasdaq rules, the delisting of the Company’s common stock was stayed during the pendency of the Appeal and, during such time, the Company’s common stock continued to be listed on Nasdaq.

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On March 28, 2023, the Company received written notification (the “Additional Staff Determination”) from the Staff stating that (i) following the Bid Price Notification, and in accordance with Listing Rule 5810(c)(2)(A), Nasdaq is no longer permitted to consider the stockholders’ equity compliance plan, (ii) the Additional Staff Determination serves as an additional basis for delisting the Company’s common stock from Nasdaq and (iii) the Panel will consider the Additional Staff Determination in rendering a determination regarding the continued listing of the Company’s common stock on Nasdaq.

On April 6, 2023, the Company participated in the Appeal before the Panel. The Company provided an update to the Panel on the Company’s substantial progress made towards the previously submitted Plan during the three months ended March 31, 2023, and requested the Panel grant the Company an exception to (1) re-allow the previously granted exception until May 15, 2023 for the Company to regain compliance with the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule and (2) grant an exception allowing the Company up to 180 days following the Bid Price Notification to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule by effecting a reverse stock split following stockholder approval at the Company’s 2023 annual meeting of stockholders. On May 1, 2023, the Panel granted the Company’s request (the “Panel Decision”) to continue the Company’s listing on Nasdaq, subject to the following conditions: (1) on or before May 15, 2023, the Company shall file with the SEC its quarterly report for the three months ended March 31, 2023 demonstrating compliance with the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule and (2) on or before July 7, 2023, the Company shall demonstrate compliance with the Bid Price Rule.

On July 27, 2023, the Company received written notification from the Staff stating that the Company has regained compliance with the Bid Price Rule and the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule, as required by the Panel Decision. Pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5815(d)(4)(B), the Company will be subject to a mandatory panel monitor for a period of one year from July 27, 2023 (the “Monitoring Period”). If, within the Monitoring Period, the Staff finds the Company again out of compliance with the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule, notwithstanding Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(2), the Company will not be permitted to provide the Staff with a plan of compliance with respect to that deficiency and the Staff will not be permitted to grant additional time for the Company to regain compliance with respect to that deficiency, nor will the Company be afforded an applicable cure or compliance period pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3). Instead, the Staff will issue a delist determination letter and the Company will have an opportunity to request a new hearing with the initial Panel or a newly convened hearings panel if the initial Panel is unavailable. The Company will have the opportunity to respond and present to the Panel as provided by Nasdaq Listing Rule 5815(d)(4)(C). The Company’s common stock may be at that time delisted from Nasdaq.

As of the date of this Annual Report, the Company believes it has maintained compliance with the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule for continued listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market. To become compliant with the Bid Price Rule, the Company effected a 1-for-7 reverse stock split to increase the per share trading price of the common stock effective on June 16, 2023 (See Note 9, “Stockholders’ Equity”).

However, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to maintain compliance with the Minimum Stockholders’ Equity Rule, Bid Price Rule, or other Nasdaq listing requirements. If the Company fails to maintain compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing standards in accordance with the Panel’s decision, the Company’s common stock will be subject to delisting from Nasdaq.

As a “thinly-traded” stock with a relatively small public float, the market price of our common stock is highly volatile and may decline regardless of our operating performance.
Our common stock is “thinly-traded” and we have a relatively small public float, which increases volatility in the share price and makes it difficult for investors to buy or sell shares in the public market without materially affecting our share price. Throughout the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, our market price has ranged from a low of $0.28 to a high of $4.63 and continues to experience significant volatility. Broad market and industry factors also may adversely affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. Factors that could cause wide fluctuations in our stock price may include, among other things:
actual or anticipated variations in our financial condition and operating results;
general economic conditions and trends;
addition or loss of significant customers and the timing of significant customer purchases;
our ability to effectively implement our growth plans, including new products, and the significance and timing of associated expenses;
unanticipated impairments and other changes that reduce our earnings;
overall conditions or trends in our industry;
the entry or exit of new competitors into our target markets;
any litigation or legal claims;
the terms and amount of any additional financing that we may obtain, if any;
unfavorable publicity;
additions or departures of key personnel;
geopolitical changes, global health concerns and macroeconomic changes;
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changes in the estimates of our operating results or changes in recommendations by any securities or industry analysts that elect to follow our common stock;
market expectations following periods of rapid growth;
the potential impact of increased volatility due to elevated trading on the price of our stock;
industry-wide news events that may affect market perceptions of the value of our stock; and
sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders, including sales by our directors and officers.
Because our common stock is thinly-traded, investors seeking to buy or sell a certain quantity of our shares in the public market may be unable to do so within one or more trading days and it may be difficult for stockholders to sell all of their shares in the market at any given time at prevailing prices. Any attempts to buy or sell a significant quantity of our shares could materially affect our share price. In addition, because our common stock is thinly-traded and we have a relatively small public float, the market price of our shares may be disproportionately affected by any news, commentary or rumors regarding us or our industry, regardless of the source or veracity, which could also result in increased volatility.
In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities litigation has often been instituted against these companies. Volatility in the market price of our shares could also increase the likelihood of regulatory scrutiny. Securities litigation, if instituted against us, or any regulatory inquiries or actions that we face could result in substantial costs, diversion of our management’s attention and resources and unfavorable publicity, regardless of the merits of any claims made against us or the ultimate outcome of any such litigation or action.
We could issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock without stockholder approval, or new securities with terms or rights superior to those of our existing shareholders, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We expect to require additional financing to fund future operations, including our research, development, sales and marketing activities. We are authorized to issue 50,000,000 shares of common stock of which 4,443,130 shares were issued and outstanding as of March 18, 2024, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, of which 876,447 were issued and outstanding as of March 18, 2024. Our Board of Directors has the authority, without action or vote of our shareholders, to issue authorized but unissued shares of common and preferred stock subject to Nasdaq’s rules. Additionally, if we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, the percentage ownership of our current shareholders will be reduced, and, if the equity securities issued are preferred shares, the holders of the new preferred shares may have rights superior to those of our existing shareholders, which could adversely affect rights of our existing shareholders and the market price of our common stock. In addition, in order to raise additional capital or acquire businesses in the future, we may need to issue securities that are convertible or exchangeable for shares of our common or preferred stock. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt securities, the holders of those debt securities would have some rights senior to those of our existing shareholders, and the terms of these debt securities could impose restrictions on operations and create a significant interest expense for us which could have a materially adverse effect on our business. Any such issuances could be made at a price that reflects a discount to the then-current trading price of our common stock. These issuances could be dilutive to our existing shareholders and cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
The exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock or the conversion of shares of our Series A Preferred Stock (as defined below) into shares of common stock may dilute the ownership interest of our investors.
In connection with past financing activity, we have issued convertible preferred stock and warrants to purchase our common stock. The exercise of some or all of the outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock or the conversion of some or all of the outstanding Series A Preferred Stock may dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders. Any sales of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of the warrants or conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the anticipated exercise of the warrants or conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock could depress the price of our common stock, which in turn may result in the value of our common stock declining significantly.
We have never paid dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid dividends on our common stock, nor do we anticipate paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operations and expansion of our business. Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon our earnings, financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, a capital structure strategy and other factors as deemed necessary by our Board of Directors.
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The elimination of monetary liability against our directors under Delaware law and the existence of indemnification rights held by our directors and officers may result in substantial expenditures by the Company and may discourage lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Our Certificate of Incorporation eliminates the personal liability of our directors to the Company and our shareholders for damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the extent permissible under Delaware law. Further, our Bylaws provide that we are obligated to indemnify any of our directors or officers to the fullest extent authorized by Delaware law and, subject to certain conditions, advance the expenses incurred by any director or officer in defending any action, suit or proceeding prior to its final disposition. Those indemnification obligations could result in the Company incurring substantial expenditures to cover the cost of settlement or damage awards against our directors or officers, which we may be unable to recoup. These provisions and resultant costs may also discourage us from bringing a lawsuit against any of our current or former directors or officers for breaches of their fiduciary duties, and may similarly discourage the filing of derivative litigation by our shareholders against our directors and officers even though such actions, if successful, might otherwise benefit us or our shareholders.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Governance

Cybersecurity is an integral part of the Board’s risk analysis and discussions with management. At least annually, the full Board is updated on the Company’s cybersecurity risks and risk mitigation strategy by our Director of Operations & Information Technology, who is responsible for management of our Information Technology program. The Board also receives ad hoc updates, as needed, about material changes to the Company’s cybersecurity program and/or the cybersecurity landscape, including briefings on major legislative and regulatory developments, from our Director of Operations & Information Technology.
Our Director of Operations & Information Technology regularly evaluates the Company’s cybersecurity risk profile and leads the development of strategies to mitigate risks and address cybersecurity issues that may arise, in consultation with members of our senior management team. Our Director of Operations & Information Technology has approximately 20 years of experience in his field, and Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Concentration in Information Systems Security and an MBA in Business Analytics.
We have formal policies and procedures that address cybersecurity incident response and disaster recovery from interference with our critical applications. The Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan, designed for our business environment, features the Director of IT and Operations as the incident coordinator. In the event of any suspicious activity or security breach, Energy Focus swiftly conducts an assessment to gauge the severity and scope of the incident, employing thorough investigation techniques to identify the root cause and affected systems. Immediate containment measures are then executed to prevent further unauthorized access or damage. Throughout the incident response process, transparent and timely communication is upheld with internal stakeholders and relevant external parties, ensuring alignment, and understanding of response efforts. Following successful mitigation and restoration of normal operations, Energy Focus conducts a comprehensive post-incident review to glean insights and lessons learned. These findings inform ongoing enhancements to our cybersecurity protocols, further bolstering our resilience against future threats. The incident coordinator oversees the detection, containment, and recovery procedures outlined in the plan. Effective communication protocols ensure timely notification to both internal and external stakeholders. Regular training sessions bolster staff preparedness, while post-incident reviews facilitate continuous improvement. Appendices offer essential contact information and tools necessary for incident response.
Cybersecurity user awareness training is mandatory for all new hires and for existing employees on an annual basis to help protect our employees and the Company against cybersecurity threats. This annual training is customized to address specific cybersecurity challenges and scenarios that we may face within the real estate investment industry. Novel cybersecurity threats to the Company that are identified by our Information Technology team are communicated to all employees by email, as needed, in an effort to promote awareness and protect the Company from cyber-attacks.
Risk Management and Strategy

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We maintain an Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) program to identify and respond to the most critical risks to our business, including cybersecurity risks. Risks and vulnerabilities from our increased reliance on information technology systems are assessed at least annually as part of our ERM program. In response to such assessments, controls are embedded into our processes and technology by our Director of Operations & Information Technology to seek to mitigate risks to our systems and processes from cybersecurity incidents. We continuously evaluate if we have adequate controls in place utilizing a risk-based approach that aligns with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (NIST).
Our information technology department diligently monitors our daily operations, overseeing the security of our computer networks through implemented systems and processes aimed at safeguarding sensitive data. Utilizing encryption and authentication technologies, we fortify our systems against unauthorized access and data loss. This proactive approach ensures the integrity and confidentiality of our data, mitigating potential risks posed by cyber threats.
In assessing cybersecurity risks, we adopt a risk-based approach, particularly concerning third-party vendors integral to our operations. Vendors meeting specific criteria, including ownership and operation of information technology networks critical to our operations, undergo evaluation across various domains such as data security and operations management. Effective communication channels with these vendors are maintained to enable timely notification of any cybersecurity incidents that could impact our company.
Although risks from cybersecurity threats have to date not materially affected, and we do not believe they are reasonably likely to materially affect, us, our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, like other companies in our industry, we could, from time to time, experience threats and security incidents related to our and our third-party vendors’ information systems. For more information, please see Item 1A. Risk Factors - Increased Information Technology (“IT”) security threats and more sophisticated computer crime could pose a risk to our systems, networks, and services.
Our Director of Operations & Information Technology regularly evaluates the Company’s cybersecurity risk profile and leads the development of strategies to mitigate risks and address cybersecurity issues that may arise, in consultation with members of our senior management team. Our Director of Operations & Information Technology has approximately 20 years of experience in his field, and our Director of Operations & Information Technology holds certifications in cybersecurity from accredited information technology certification providers.
We have formal policies and procedures that address cybersecurity incident response and disaster recovery from interference with our critical applications. Our Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan provides a documented framework for responding to cybersecurity incidents in coordination across multiple departments. In the event of such an incident, our Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (“CIRT”), which is comprised of our Director of Operations & Information Technology, Director of Risk Management and representatives from Risk Management, Legal and Financial Reporting, would respond to such incident in accordance with our Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan. Any cybersecurity incident that meets certain criteria will be communicated by the CIRT to senior management and the Board in a timely manner, and will be evaluated by our Executive Management Team, comprised of certain executives, to assess the impact of the incident on the Company, considering qualitative and quantitative factors. In conducting this assessment and responding to an incident, the CIRT and Executive Management Team may utilize the services of third-party consultants.
Cybersecurity user awareness training is mandatory for all new hires and for existing employees on an annual basis to help protect our employees and the Company against cybersecurity threats. This annual training is customized to address specific cybersecurity challenges and scenarios that we may face within the real estate investment industry. Novel cybersecurity threats to the Company that are identified by our Information Technology team are communicated to all employees by email, as needed, in an effort to promote awareness and protect the Company from cyber-attacks.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES 
Our principal executive offices and our manufacturing facility are located in an approximately 62,000 square foot facility in Solon, Ohio, under a lease agreement expiring on June 30, 2027. We believe this facility is adequate to support our current operations.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 
From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings arising from the normal course of business. See Note 15, “Legal Matters,” to our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report.
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ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES 
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information 
Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EFOI.” 
Shareholders
There were approximately 90 holders of record of our common stock as of March 7, 2024, however, a large number of our stockholders hold their stock in “street name” in brokerage accounts. Therefore, they do not appear on the stockholder list maintained by our transfer agent.
Dividends
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends, and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the near future.
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes thereto, included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report.
Overview
Energy Focus, Inc. engages primarily in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing and sale of energy-efficient lighting systems and controls. We develop, market and sell high quality light-emitting diode (“LED”) lighting and controls products in the commercial market and military maritime market (“MMM”). Our mission is to enable our customers to run their facilities with greater energy efficiency, productivity, and human health and wellness through advanced LED retrofit solutions. Our goal is to be a market leader for the most demanding applications where performance, quality, value, environmental impact and health are considered paramount. We specialize in energy efficient LED lighting retrofit product replacing fluorescent, high-intensity discharge lighting and other types of lamps in institutional buildings for primarily indoor lighting applications with our innovative, high-quality commercial and military-grade tubular LED (“TLED”) products, as well as other LED and lighting control products for commercial and consumer applications. We are also evaluating adjacent technologies, including Gallium Nitride (“GaN”) based power supplies and additional market opportunities for energy solution products that support sustainability in our existing channels.
The LED lighting industry has changed dramatically over the past several years due to increasing competition and price erosion. We have been experiencing these industry forces in both our military and commercial business since 2016, when we once commanded significant price premiums for our flicker-free TLEDs with industry leading warranties. In more recent years, we have focused on redesigning our products for lower costs and consolidated our supply chain for stronger purchasing power in an effort to price our products more competitively while not impacting the performance and quality. Despite these efforts, our legacy products continue to face extreme price competition and a convergence of product functionality in the marketplace, and we have shifted to diversifying our supply chain in an effort to increase value and remain competitive. These trends are not unique to Energy Focus as evidenced by the increasing number of industry peers facing challenges, exiting LED lighting, selling assets and even going out of business.
In addition to continuously pursuing cost reductions, our strategy to combat these trends is to innovate both our technology and product offerings with differentiated products and solutions that offer greater, distinct value. Specific examples of these products we have developed include the RedCap®, our patented emergency backup battery integrated TLED, EnFocus™, our unique dimmable/color-tunable lighting and powerline control platform that we launched in 2020, and the second generation of EnFocus™ powerline control switches and circadian lighting system. We are looking forward to the continued support and growth of our existing EnFocus™ product line which is particularly attractive for its ease of install and ease of use in spaces with transient occupation. The Company have enhanced the performance of our RedCap® product providing a more user- friendly experience in 2023. We continue to evaluate our sales strategy and believe our go-to-market strategy that focuses more on direct-sales marketing, selectively expanding our channel partner network to cover territories across the country, and listening to the voice of the customer, will lead to better and more impactful product development efforts that we believe will eventually translate into larger addressable markets and greater sales growth for us.
Throughout 2023, the Company continued to make significant cost cutting efforts to address operational expenses while maintaining customer satisfaction and delivering goods on-time. Investments into Energy Focus have contributed to the ability of the Company to continue to not only provide quality products and services, but to both expand and rationalize product offerings.
It is our belief that the continued dramatic rightsizing efforts undertaken in 2022 and 2023, along with reorganization of the sales team and ongoing development of innovative, high-value products and an expanded distribution network, will over time result in improved sales and bottom-line performance for the Company.
During 2022 and into 2023, our MMM business continued to face challenges resulting from the delayed availability of government funding and the timing of U.S. Navy awards, with several anticipated projects facing repeated and ongoing delays. This sector also maintains very long sales cycles. The timeline between bid to order can often take at least six months, and many MMM products are built-to-order with resultant lead times before orders become revenue. We continue to pursue opportunities from the U.S. Navy and the government sector to minimize such volatility. Previously in our MMM business, significant efforts undertaken to reduce costs in our product offerings have positioned us to be more competitive along with improved production efficiencies. Such efforts allowed us to continue to win bids and proposals that helped grow our MMM sales pipeline in the second half of 2023. While we continue to aggressively seek to increase sales of our commercial products,
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the MMM business offers us continued sales opportunities, in addition to validating our product quality and strengthening our brand trust in the marketplace. During 2023, we thoroughly reviewed and adjusted our commercial pricing position as well as our strategic relationships and partnerships within the commercial LED market space. We believe our new pricing position will give us a greater advantage than previously held against the competition and offer a more attractive entry point for our end customer base. We are pleased to see a growth during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 in quotation opportunities in both MMM and commercial product lines.
Meanwhile, we continue to seek additional external funding alternatives and sources to support our growth strategies, plans and initiatives. The recent strategic investments in 2023 by Sander Electronics, Inc. (“Sander”), a shareholder of the Company, contributed meaningful external capital, as well as presented synergistic opportunities to improve and diversify our supply chain and product offerings. We plan to achieve profitability through increasing sales in our innovative products such as EnFocusTM powerline control technology and further leveraging our unique and proprietary technology such as RedCap®, as well as executing on our multi-channel sales strategy that targets key verticals, such as government, healthcare, education and commercial and industrial, complemented by our marketing outreach campaigns and expanding channel partnerships. We also plan to continue to develop advanced lighting and lighting control applications built upon the EnFocusTM platform that aim to serve the commercial market. We are also evaluating adjacent technologies including ruggedized industrial retrofit lighting applications and GaN-based power supplies and other market opportunities in energy solutions products that support sustainability in our existing channels. In addition, we intend to continue to apply rigorous financial discipline to our organizational structure, business processes and policies, strategic sourcing activities and supply chain practices to help accelerate our path towards profitability.
The EnFocus™ platform offers two immediately available product lines: EnFocus™ DM, which provides a dimmable lighting solution, and EnFocus™ DCT, which provides both a dimmable and color tunable lighting solution. EnFocus™ enables buildings to have dimmable, color tunable and circadian-ready lighting using existing wiring, without requiring laying additional data cables or any wireless communication systems, through a relatively simple upgrade with EnFocus™ switches and LED lamps, a far more secure, affordable and environmentally sustainable solution compared with replacing an entire luminaire and incorporating additional wired or wireless communication.
Despite continuing progress on cost reduction throughout 2023 and 2022, the Company’s results reflect the challenges due to long and unpredictable sales cycles, unexpected delays in MMM and commercial customer retrofit budgets and project starts, and supply chain issues. There has also been continuing aggressive price competition in the lighting industry. We continued to incur losses and we have a substantial accumulated deficit, which continues to raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern at December 31, 2023.
On June 28, 2023, the Company received notices of resignation from the following four members of the Board of Directors: Jennifer Cheng, Brian Lagarto, Jeffery Parker, and Stephen Socolof. Their terms as directors would have otherwise expired at the 2024 annual meeting of stockholders of the Company. These resignations did not involve any disagreement with the Company.
On July 2, 2023, the remaining members of the Board of Directors unanimously appointed the following four new members to the Board of Directors: Kin-Fu Chen, Shou-Jang Lee, Jason Tien-Chia Tsai, and Chiao Chieh (Jay) Huang. The Board of Directors affirmatively determined that, at the time of his appointment, each of the new members of the Board of Directors is an independent director under the corporate governance standards of the Nasdaq.
On August 24, 2023, the Board of Directors approved the termination of the Company’s chief executive officer and appointed Chiao Chieh (Jay) Huang to serve as the Company’s new chief executive officer. In line with this decision, Mr. Huang discontinued his role as Chairman of the Board. As part of this transition, the Board appointed Kin-Fu Chen as the Chairman of the Board.
Our Business Strategy
Demand-oriented Approach
In order to deepen our relationships with customers, we are in the process of re-establishing our service model, aiming to provide richer and more targeted customer service. We believe that by increasing opportunities for interaction with our customers, we can better understand their needs, thereby enhancing their loyalty to our brand.
To ensure that EFOI’s products, pricing, and customer service lifecycle are better aligned, we are building a comprehensive value model to ensure consistency in the products and services we provide throughout the customer journey. We have begun an in-depth analysis of our current and past top 10 customers over the last five years to identify the core factors that make them
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loyal customers. By analyzing this data, we hope to reveal the key elements that enhance customer stickiness, providing them with more reasons and value to stay with us. In particular, we are actively focusing on customers with high loyalty to better meet their needs. This is not only an acknowledgment of our products but also a validation of the quality of our service.
Supply-oriented Approach
EFOI is committed to adopting three main sustainable economy strategies: “Green Supply Chain”, “Green Product”, and “Green Manufacturing”, aiming to promote sustainability throughout the entire value chain. The Company is working closely with its supply chain partners to optimize recycling mechanisms and strengthen packaging design, integrating sustainable economy principles into the core of supply chain management.
Guided by the vision of “transcending traditional corporate social responsibility and creating shared value”, EFOI’s team is focusing on stakeholders, aiming to achieve a “dual profit engine” effect by combining financial performance and Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) practices. This strategy not only aligns with the Company’s responsibility and sustainability goals but is also expected to enhance overall performance and market competitiveness. EFOI's operational team's new strategy focuses on integrating environmental and economic benefits, aiming to create a win-win situation that benefits the company, society, and the environment.
Under the premise of a similar industrial environment and familiar relationships, our professional skills complement those of our supply chain partners. This foundation of cooperation enables us to more easily achieve common goals of cost reduction, profit sharing, and exploring new business opportunities. This not only strengthens our cooperative relationship but also lays a solid foundation for our joint efforts towards a better future.
Financial-oriented Approach
The Company applies strategic financial management in the below perspective.
Control and Monitoring of Assets and Liabilities
Assets: Regularly evaluate all assets, especially inventory, to ensure they remain in optimal condition in terms of value and performance. Minimize or mitigate the impact of inefficient and aging assets, focusing on assets with high efficiency and return.
Liabilities: Ensure a robust liability structure, optimize the cost of liabilities, and seek lower interest rates and more favorable repayment terms. Regularly review the liability situation to ensure the company’s level of liabilities remains within a safe range.

Structured Profitability
Revenue Growth: Develop diversified revenue streams, reduce dependency on single business or market, continuously optimize products and services, and enhance market competitiveness.
Cost Control: Strictly control operating costs, seek opportunities to reduce costs, and ensure the efficient use of resources to optimize operations.
Cash Flow Management: Establish a sound accounts receivable and payable management system to ensure timely collection of receivables and reasonable arrangement of payments. Maintain sufficient cash reserves to cope with potential funding shortages.


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Results of operations 
The following table sets forth the percentage of net sales represented by certain items reflected on our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the following periods:
 20232022
Net sales100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of sales96.1 105.3 
Gross profit (loss)3.9 (5.3)
Operating expenses:  
Product development10.3 25.0 
Selling, general, and administrative63.1 119.8 
Loss on impairment— 5.6 
Total operating expenses73.4 150.4 
Loss from operations(69.5)(155.7)
Other expenses:  
Interest income(57)(57) 
Interest expenses380 954 
Other income(0.5)(0.5)
Other expenses, net0.5 0.9 
Net loss before income taxes(68.5)(172.2)
Benefit from income taxes0.1 0.2 
Net loss(75.1)%(172.3)%
Net sales
A further breakdown of our net sales by product line is as follows (in thousands):
 20232022
Commercial products$1,593 $3,746 
MMM products4,124 2,222 
Total net sales$5,717 $5,968 
Our net sales of $5.7 million in 2023 decreased 4.2% compared to 2022, mainly driven by an increase of 85.6% in MMM sales and a decrease of 57.5% in commercial sales. The increase in net MMM product sales in 2023 as compared to 2022 was mainly due to an increased military sales pipeline during the year and our strategic focus on our loyal military customers. Net sales of our commercial products decreased in 2023 due to limited product availability impacts from supply chain constraints, our inventory reduction project, increased competition, and continuing fluctuations in the timing, pace, and size of commercial projects.
Gross profit (loss)
Gross profit was $0.2 million, or 3.9% of net sales, for 2023, compared with gross loss of $(0.3) million, or (5.3)% of net sales for 2022. The increase in gross margin resulted from our cost reduction plan related to a cut down of headcounts and was driven primarily by a reduction of scrap, freight in and out variances, which were partially offset by an increased cost of material and temporary labor.

In 2022, significant amounts of previously reserved inventories were scrapped over the course of the year. Freight and logistics expenses were notably higher at the beginning of 2022 as national imports faced backlogs at the ports.

Beginning in the second quarter of 2023, the Company terminated several employees, and the result was a significant reduction in payroll-related expenses. Due to the termination of employees, the need for temporary workers was increased.
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Operating expenses 
Product development 
Product development expenses include salaries and related benefits, product testing and related costs, travel, supplies, as well as overhead items, such as depreciation and facilities costs. Product development costs are expensed as they are incurred.
Gross product development expenses were $0.6 million in 2023, a decrease of 60.6%, compared to $1.5 million in 2022. The $0.9 million decrease primarily resulted from lower payroll-related expenses due to a reduction in headcounts of $0.8 million and lower product development and testing cost of $0.1 million. Beginning in the second quarter of 2023, the Company terminated several employees, and the result was a significant reduction in payroll-related expenses.
Selling, general, and administrative

Selling, general, and administrative expenses were $3.6 million, or 63.1% of net sales, in 2023, compared to $7.1 million, or 119.8% of net sales, in 2022. The year-over-year $3.5 million decrease is comprised of a combination of a $2.1 million decrease from a reduction in headcount for salaries, severance, and commissions, a $0.5 million decrease from trade show, marketing, and travel expenses, a $0.2 million decrease from a reduction of software costs, a $0.2 million from reduced recruiting and relocation expenses, a $0.2 million decrease from consultant and professional fees, and remaining from a decrease of all other general expenses.
Loss on impairment
No loss on impairment was recorded in 2023. As a result of the Company’s impairment analysis, in the third quarter of 2022, a loss on impairment of $76 thousand was recorded on the write-off of the UV-Robots. An additional $262 thousand loss on impairment was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2022, which consisted of tooling, equipment, software, hardware, and construction-in-progress.
Other expenses (income)
Interest expenses (income)
We incurred $380 thousand in interest expenses and $57 thousand in interest income in 2023. Interest expenses primarily related to the interest on borrowings and non-cash amortization of fees related to the Credit Facilities and promissory notes in the principal amount of $2.0 million (the “2022 Streeterville Note”), that the Company issued to Streeterville Capital, LLC (“Streeterville”) pursuant to separate note purchase agreements. Interest income primarily related to the gain recognized through the pay-off of the Credit Facilities to Crossroads Financial Group, LLC.
In 2022, we incurred $954 thousand in interest expense, primarily related to the interest on borrowings and non-cash amortization of fees related to the Credit Facilities, interest on promissory notes in the principal amounts of $1.7 million (the “ 2021 Streeterville Note”) and $2 million (the “2022 Streeterville Note”) the Company sold and issued to Streeterville pursuant to separate note purchase agreements, and interest on the short-term bridge financing in the aggregate principal amount of $1.45 million pursuant to promissory notes sold and issued by us to certain private parties, including one of our directors.
Other income and expenses
We recognized other income of $30 thousand each in 2023 and 2022. Other income in 2023 and 2022 primarily consisted of tax refunds and miscellaneous adjustments from accounts receivable, respectively.
We recognized other expenses of $26 thousand in 2023, compared to other expenses of $56 thousand in 2022. Other expenses in 2023 and 2022 primarily consisted of bank and collateral management fees.
Provision for income taxes 
For each of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our effective tax rate was 0.0%. In 2023, our effective tax rate was lower than the statutory rate due to an increase in the valuation allowance as a result of the $6.3 million additional federal net
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operating loss we recognized for the year. In 2022, our effective tax rate was lower than the statutory rate due to an increase in the valuation allowance as a result of the $9.2 million additional federal net operating loss we recognized for the year.
Deferred income tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. In considering the need for a valuation allowance, we assess all evidence, both positive and negative, available to determine whether all or some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Such evidence includes, but is not limited to, recent earnings history, projections of future income or loss, reversal patterns of existing taxable and deductible temporary differences, and tax planning strategies. We have recorded a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We had no net deferred liabilities at December 31, 2023 or 2022. We will continue to evaluate the need for a valuation allowance on a quarterly basis.
At December 31, 2023, we had net operating loss carry-forwards of approximately $138.7 million for federal income tax purposes ($48.0 million for state and local income tax purposes). However, due to changes in our capital structure, approximately $84.30 million of the $138.7 million is available after the application of IRC Section 382 limitations. As a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), net operating loss carry-forwards generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 can only offset 80% of taxable income. These net operating loss carry-forwards can no longer be carried back, but they can be carried forward indefinitely. The $6.3 million and $9.2 million in federal net operating losses generated in December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, will be subject to the new limitations under the Tax Act. If not utilized, the carry-forwards generated prior to December 31, 2017 of $0.9 million will begin to expire in 2024 for federal purposes and have begun to expire for state and local purposes. Please refer to Note 11, “Income Taxes,” included in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report for further information.
Net loss
Net loss was $4.3 million for 2023. This compares with a net loss of $10.3 million for 2022, mainly driven by reduction of cost of goods sold, product development, selling, general, and administrative expenses as well as interest expenses.

Financial condition
At December 31, 2023, we had $2.0 million in cash and a total of $1.3 million of debt, net of discounts and unamortized debt costs, related to the 2022 Streeterville Note outstanding. We have historically incurred substantial losses, and as of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $153.3 million. Additionally, our sales have been concentrated among a few major customers and for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, two customers accounted for approximately 48% of net sales.
In 2023 and 2022, we recommitted to building upon the transformation activities started during 2019 that sought to stabilize and regrow our business. These efforts include the following key developments that occurred during 2023 and 2022:
We continued development of the second generation of EnFocus™ powerline control switches and circadian lighting system for commercial markets, which as a result of supply chain challenges we now plan to reintroduce in 2024. EnFocus™ powerline control enables buildings to have dimmable, color tunable and circadian-ready lighting using existing wiring, without requiring laying additional cables or any wireless communication systems, through a relatively simple upgrade with EnFocus™ switches and EnFocus™ LED lamps. This upgrade offers a simpler, more secure, affordable and environmentally sustainable solution compared with replacing entire luminaire fixtures and incorporating additional wired or wireless communication.
We reinvested in our MMM sales channel and are pursuing existing and new sales opportunities, though the sales cycles for what are frequently made-to-order products are longer than commercial offerings.
Beginning in July 2022, we reduced our warehouse square footage, and undertook an inventory reduction project throughout 2022 focused on reducing our highly reserved commercial finished good inventory.
The Company has aggressively re-evaluated operating expenses, and reduced its workforce significantly throughout 2022 and into 2023 to manage fixed costs.
We continued to seek additional external funding alternatives and sources to support our growth strategies, plans and initiatives. In September 2023, we entered into a security purchase agreement, pursuant to which we raised aggregate gross proceeds of $1.8 million. Please refer to Note 9 included under Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report for the details.
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During 2022 and into 2023, we redoubled our cost control efforts to streamline our operations by closely managing all spending done throughout the Company, while carefully investing in new products and strategies that sought to reenergize sales.
We will seek to remain agile as an organization to respond to potential or continuing weakness in the macroeconomic environment and in the meantime seek to expand sales channels and enter new markets that we believe will provide additional growth opportunities. We plan to achieve profitability through developing and launching new, innovative products, such as our EnFocusTM powerline control systems, our Redcap® emergency battery backup tubular TLEDs, evaluating new growth opportunities such as GaN-based power supply circuitry and other energy solution products, as well as executing on our multi-channel sales strategy that targets key verticals, such as government, healthcare, education and commercial and industrial, complemented by our marketing outreach campaigns and expanding channel partnerships. We also plan to continue to develop advanced lighting and lighting control applications built upon the EnFocusTM platform that aim to serve the commercial markets. In addition, we intend to continue to apply rigorous financial discipline in our organizational structure, decision-making, business processes and policies, strategic sourcing activities and supply chain practices to help accelerate our path towards profitability.
Liquidity and capital resources
Cash
At December 31, 2023, our cash balance was $2.0 million, compared to $52 thousand at December 31, 2022.
The following is a summary of cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities, as reflected in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (in thousands):
 20232022
Net cash used in operating activities$(2,439)$(6,713)
Net cash used in investing activities$(69)$(16)
Proceeds from the issuance of common stock and warrants$6,079 $3,500 
Costs related to reverse stock-split(16)— 
Offering costs paid on the issuance of common stock and warrants— (334)
Principal payments under finance lease obligations— (1)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and purchases through employee stock purchase plan— 
Payments on the 2022 Streeterville Note(625)— 
Payments for deferred financing costs— (114)
Payments on the 2021 Streeterville Note— (1,640)
Proceeds from the 2022 Streeterville Note— 2,000 
Proceeds from related party promissory notes payable— 800 
Proceeds from promissory notes payable— 650 
Net payments on credit line borrowings - Credit Facilities(1,402)(768)
Advanced capital contribution450 — 
Net cash provided by financing activities$4,486 $4,099 
Net cash used in operating activities
Net cash used in operating activities of $2.4 million in 2023 resulted primarily from the net loss incurred of $4.3 million, adjusted for non-cash items, including: depreciation and amortization of $0.3 million, stock-based compensation, net of $44 thousand, non-favorable provisions from inventory of $25 thousand and from accounts receivable of $6 thousand, and favorable provisions from warranty of $33 thousand and gain from paid-off of Credit Facilities of $40 thousand. We used $1.1 million through the timing of collection of accounts receivable, $0.2 million for prepayments to vendors, and $47 thousand through a decrease of other accrued liabilities. We generated $0.6 million in cash for an increase in accounts payable due to the timing of inventory receipts and payments, $0.5 million from the change in prepaid and other current assets, and $1.0 million in inventory as we sold off a substantial portion of the stock on hand.
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Net cash used in operating activities of $6.7 million in 2022 resulted primarily from the net loss incurred of $10.3 million, adjusted for non-cash items, including: depreciation and amortization of $0.5 million, stock-based compensation, net of $0.1 million, and non-favorable provisions from inventory of $32 thousand and a loss on impairment of property and equipment of $0.3 million, and favorable provisions from warranty of $0.1 million. We used $0.6 million through a decrease of other accrued liabilities and $0.3 million from changes in deferred revenue. We generated $0.8 million through the timing of collection of accounts receivable, $0.2 million from the change in prepaid and other current assets, $0.1 million for short-term deposits, and $2.4 million in inventory as we sold off a substantial portion of the stock on hand.
Cash used in investing activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $69 thousand in 2023, primarily from the acquisition of property and equipment.
Net cash used in investing activities was $16 thousand in 2022, primarily from the acquisition of property and equipment and partially offset by the proceeds from the sale of property and equipment.
Cash provided by financing activities
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 of $4.5 million primarily resulted from the proceeds from the issuance of common stock and warrants of $6.1 million and advanced capital contribution of $0.5 million. The increases in cash were partially offset by payments on the 2022 Streeterville Note of $0.6 million and Credit Facilities of $1.4 million.
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 of $4.1 million primarily resulted from the proceeds from the issuance of common stock and warrants of $3.5 million, proceeds from promissory notes payable of $0.7 million, related party promissory notes payable of $0.8 million, and the issuance of the 2022 Streeterville Note provided net proceeds of $2.0 million. The increases in cash were partially offset by payments on the 2021 Streeterville Note of $1.6 million, Credit Facilities of $0.8 million, and the deferred financing cost of $0.1 million.
Off-balance sheet arrangements
We had no off-balance sheet arrangements during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Contractual and other obligations
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $0.5 million in outstanding purchase commitments for inventory, of which the majority is expected to ship in the first quarter of 2024. We have 49% of the outstanding purchase commitments with a related party.
There have been no other material changes to our contractual and other obligations as compared to those included in our 2022 Annual Report.
Critical accounting policies and estimates 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingencies, and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses in the financial statements. Material differences may result in the amount and timing of net sales and expenses if different judgments or different estimates were utilized. Critical accounting policies, judgments, and estimates that we believe have the most significant impact on our financial statements are set forth below:
revenue recognition,
allowances for doubtful accounts, returns and discounts,
impairment of long-lived assets,
valuation of inventories,
accounting for income taxes,
share-based compensation, and
leases.
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Recently adopted accounting guidance
For information on recently adopted accounting guidance, please refer to Note 2, “Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” included under Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
As a “smaller reporting company” as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, 17 CFR § 229.10(f)(1), the Company is not required to provide this information.
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID 1808)
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Stockholders and Board of Directors
Energy Focus, Inc.
Solon, Ohio
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Energy Focus, Inc. (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity (deficit), and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes and Schedule II (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Continuation as a Going Concern

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has experienced recurring losses from operations and negative cash flows from operations that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to these matters are also described in the notes. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Reserves for Excess, Obsolete and Slow-Moving Inventories

Description of the Matter

As described in Notes 2 and 4 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company assesses the valuation of inventories each reporting period based on the lower of cost or net realizable value. The Company establishes reserves for excess, obsolete and slow-moving inventories after evaluation of historical sales, current economic trends, forecasted sales, product lifecycles and current inventory levels. The assessment is both quantitative and qualitative. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had inventories of $4.4 million, net of reserves for excess, obsolete and slow-moving inventories.
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Auditing management's estimates for excess, obsolete and slow-moving inventories required subjective auditor judgment and evaluation of the reasonableness of significant assumptions used in developing the reserves as detailed above, as well as the inputs and related calculations related to historical sales and on-hand inventories.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit

We obtained an understanding and evaluated the design of internal controls over the Company's reserves for excess, obsolete and slow-moving inventories, including management's assessment of the assumptions and data underlying the reserve calculation.

Our substantive audit procedures included, among others, testing the logic and integrity of calculations within management's analysis; testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data used, including inventory quantities, carrying costs and the estimate of net realizable value by product; and evaluating the reasonableness of management's assumptions related to demand forecasts, estimated reserve percentages and qualitative considerations involving, among others, the implications of new or revised operational strategies. Evaluating the reasonableness of management's assumptions involved (i) comparing historical sales by product, used as a basis for future demand, to audited sales subledgers on a sample basis, (ii) holding discussions with senior management to determine whether strategic or operational changes in the business were consistent with the projections of future demand that were utilized as the basis for the reserves recorded, and (iii) corroborating management's qualitative considerations of future demand through review of unfulfilled customer purchase orders as of year-end on a sample basis.

/s/ GBQ Partners, LLC

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2019.

Columbus, Ohio
March 22, 2024
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
AS OF DECEMBER 31,
(amounts in thousands except share data)
 20232022
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash $2,030 $52 
Trade accounts receivable, less allowances of $20 and $26, respectively
1,570 445 
Trade accounts receivable - related party202  
Inventories, net4,439 5,476 
Prepayments to vendors792 592 
Prepaid and other current assets156 232 
Receivable for claimed Employee Retention Tax Credit 445 
Total current assets9,189 7,242 
Property and equipment, net112 76 
Operating lease, right-of-use asset899 1,180 
Total assets$10,200 $8,498 
LIABILITIES  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$1,624 $2,204 
Accounts payable - related party2,146  
Accrued liabilities110 145 
Accrued legal and professional fees64  
Accrued payroll and related benefits199 261 
Accrued sales commissions62 76 
Accrued warranty reserve150 183 
Operating lease liabilities223 198 
Promissory notes payable, net of discounts and loan origination fees1,323 2,618 
Advanced capital contribution450  
Related party promissory notes payable 814 
Credit line borrowings, net of loan origination fees 1,447 
Total current liabilities6,351 7,946 
(continued on the following page)
 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
AS OF DECEMBER 31,
(amounts in thousands except share data)
 20232022
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion798 1,029 
Total liabilities7,149 8,975 
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share:
Authorized: 5,000,000 shares (3,300,000 shares designated as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock) at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
Issued and outstanding: 876,447 shares at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
  
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share:
Authorized: 50,000,000 shares at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
Issued and outstanding: 4,348,690 shares at December 31, 2023 and 1,406,920* shares at December 31, 2022
 1 
Additional paid-in capital156,369 148,545 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss (3)(3)
Accumulated deficit(153,315)(149,020)
Total stockholders' equity (deficit)3,051 (477)
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity (deficit) $10,200 $8,498 
*Shares outstanding for prior periods have been restated for the 1-for-7 reverse stock split effective June 16, 2023.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(amounts in thousands except per share data) 
 20232022
Net sales$5,717 $5,968 
Cost of sales5,494 6,286 
Gross profit (loss)223 (318)
Operating expenses:  
Product development587 1,491 
Selling, general, and administrative3,607 7,148 
Loss on impairment 338 
Total operating expenses4,194 8,977 
Loss from operations(3,971)(9,295)
Other expenses (income):  
Interest income(57) 
Interest expense380 954 
Other income(30)(30)
Other expenses26 56 
Loss from operations before income taxes(4,290)(10,275)
Provision for income taxes3 4 
Net loss$(4,293)$(10,279)
Net loss per common stock basic and diluted:  
Net loss$(1.32)$(8.88)
Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding:  
Basic and diluted*3,241 1,158 
* Shares outstanding for prior periods have been restated for the 1-for-7 reverse stock split effective June 16, 2023.
 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(amounts in thousands)
 
 20232022
Net loss$(4,293)$(10,279)
Other comprehensive loss:  
Foreign currency translation adjustments  
Comprehensive loss$(4,293)$(10,279)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022
(amounts in thousands) 
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 Preferred StockCommon StockAccumulated
Deficit
 
 SharesAmountShares*AmountTotal
Balance at December 31, 2021876 $ 910 $ $144,953 $(3)$(138,741)$6,209 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock option and stock purchase plans— — 7 — 6 — — 6 
Issuance of common stock and warrants— — 187 1 3,499 — — 3,500 
Offering costs on issuance of common stock and warrants— — — — (334)— — (334)
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise of warrants— — 209 — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 117 — — 117 
Stock issued in exchange transactions— — 94 — 304 — — 304 
Net loss— — — — — — (10,279)(10,279)
Balance at December 31, 2022876 $ 1,407 $1 $148,545 $(3)$(149,020)$(477)
Issuance of common stock— — 2,477 1 6,078 — — 6,079 
Stock issued in exchange transactions— — 465 — 1,716 — — 1,716 
Par value adjustment due to reverse stock split— — — (2)2 — —  
Reduction in equity due to costs from reverse stock split— — — — (16)— — (16)
Stock-based compensation— — — — 44 — — 44 
Impact of adoption of ASU 2016-13 - CECL— — — — — — (2)(2)
Net loss— — — — — — (4,293)(4,293)
Balance at December 31, 2023876 $ 4,349 $ $156,369 $(3)$(153,315)$3,051 
    
*Shares outstanding for prior periods have been restated for the 1-for-7 reverse stock split effective June 16, 2023.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(amounts in thousands) 
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 20232022
Cash flows from operating activities:  
Net loss$(4,293)$(10,279)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:  
Other income(40)(30)
Capitalized interest on promissory notes payable 40 
Depreciation33 159 
Stock-based compensation44 117 
Provision for doubtful accounts receivable6 14 
Provision for slow-moving and obsolete inventories25 32 
Provision for warranties(33)(111)
Amortization of loan discounts and origination fees225 364 
Loss on impairment 338 
Change in operating assets and liabilities:  
Accounts receivable(1,131)783 
Accounts receivable - related party(202) 
Inventories1,012 2,358 
Prepayments to vendors(200)120 
Prepaid and other assets521 247 
Accounts payable(580)(1)
Accounts payable- related party2,146  
Accrued and other liabilities(47)(584)
Right of use assets and lease liabilities 75 (12)
Deferred revenue (268)
Total adjustments1,854 3,566 
Net cash used in operating activities(2,439)(6,713)
Cash flows from investing activities:  
Acquisitions of property and equipment(69)(41)
Proceeds from the sale of property and equipment 25 
Net cash used in investing activities(69)(16)
Cash flows from financing activities:  
Proceeds from the issuance of common stock and warrants6,079 3,500 
Costs related to reverse stock-split(16) 
Offering costs paid on the issuance of common stock and warrants (334)
Principal payments under finance lease obligations (1)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and purchases through employee stock purchase plan 6 
Payments on the 2021 Streeterville Note (1,640)
Payments on the 2022 Streeterville Note(625) 
Proceeds from the 2022 Streeterville Note 2,000 
Proceeds from related party promissory notes payable 800 
Proceeds from promissory notes payable 650 
Payments for deferred financing costs (114)
Net payments on credit line borrowings - Credit Facilities(1,402)(768)
Advanced capital contribution450  
Net cash provided by financing activities4,486 4,099 
(continued on the following page)
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (CONTINUED)
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31,
(amounts in thousands)
 
 20232022
Net increase (decrease) in cash1,978 (2,630)
Cash, beginning of year52 2,682 
Cash, end of year$2,030 $52 
Supplemental information:  
Cash paid in year for interest$380 $364 
Cash paid in year for income taxes$ $1 
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Debt-to-equity exchange transactions$1,716 $304 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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ENERGY FOCUS, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

NOTE 1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS
Energy Focus, Inc. engages primarily in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing and sale of energy-efficient lighting systems and controls. We develop, market and sell high quality light-emitting diode (“LED”) lighting and controls products in the commercial market and military maritime market (“MMM”). Our mission is to enable our customers to run their facilities with greater energy efficiency and productivity, and increased human health and wellness through advanced LED retrofit solutions. Our goal is to be the human wellness lighting and LED technology and market leader for the most demanding applications where performance, quality, value, environmental impact and health are considered paramount. We specialize in LED lighting retrofit by replacing fluorescent, high-intensity discharge lighting and other types of lamps in institutional buildings for primarily indoor lighting applications with