485BPOS 1 merged.htm VANGUARD TAX-MANAGED FUNDS 485B merged.htm - Generated by SEC Publisher for SEC Filing
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form N-1A
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 33-53683) UNDER  
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 [X]
PRE-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. [ ]
POST-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. 67 [X]
and
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 811-07175) UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT
OF 1940  
AMENDMENT NO. 70 [X]

 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds
  (Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Declaration of Trust)
 
  P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482
  (Address of Principal Executive Office)
 
  Registrant’s Telephone Number (610) 669-1000
 
  Anne E. Robinson, Esquire
  P.O. Box 876
  Valley Forge, PA 19482
 
Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:
It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)
[] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
[X] on April 25, 2018, pursuant to paragraph (b)
[ ] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[ ] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485
If appropriate, check the following box:
[ ] This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a
  previously filed post-effective amendment.

 


Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds®
Prospectus
 
April 25, 2018
 
Admiral™ Shares
Vanguard Tax-Managed Balanced Fund Admiral Shares (VTMFX)
Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Admiral Shares (VTCLX)
Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Admiral Shares (VTMSX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Funds through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard Fund Summaries   Investing With Vanguard 36
Tax-Managed Balanced Fund 1 Purchasing Shares 36
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund 6 Converting Shares 39
Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund 10 Redeeming Shares 40
Investing in Tax-Managed Funds 14 Exchanging Shares 44
More on the Funds 15 Frequent-Trading Limitations 44
The Funds and Vanguard 26 Other Rules You Should Know 46
Investment Advisor 26 Fund and Account Updates 51
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 27 Employer-Sponsored Plans 52
Share Price 30 Contacting Vanguard 53
Financial Highlights 32 Additional Information 54
    Glossary of Investment Terms 57

 


 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Balanced Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to provide a tax-efficient investment return consisting of federally tax-exempt income, long-term capital appreciation, and a modest amount of taxable current income.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees  
(Fees paid directly from your investment)  
 
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None
Purchase Fee None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None
Redemption Fee None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $10,000) $20/year
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees 0.08%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None
Other Expenses 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.09%
 
Example  

 

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the Fund provides a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$9 $29 $51 $115

 

1


 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 9% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund invests approximately 50% to 55% of its assets in municipal securities and the balance in common stocks. The fixed income portion of the Fund is concentrated in high-quality municipal securities with a dollar-weighted average maturity expected to be between 6 and 12 years. At least 75% of the municipal bonds purchased by the Fund will be rated in one of the top three credit-rating categories as determined by an independent bond-rating agency (e.g., Aaa, Aa, and A by Moody‘s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s) or AAA, AA, and A by Standard & Poor‘s) or, if unrated, determined to be of comparable quality by the advisor.

The Fund’s stock holdings are chosen from the stocks that pay lower dividends within the Russell 1000 Index—an index that is made up of stocks of large- and mid-capitalization U.S. companies. The Fund uses statistical methods to “sample” the Index, aiming to minimize taxable dividends while approximating the other characteristics of the Index. The intended result is a portfolio that will loosely track the total return performance of the Index, but with lower taxable income distributions.

Principal Risks

The Fund is subject to the risks associated with the stock and bond markets, any of which could cause an investor to lose money. However, because stock and bond prices can move in different directions or to different degrees, the Fund’s bond holdings may counteract some of the volatility experienced by the Fund’s stock holdings.

• With 50% to 55% of its assets in municipal securities, the Fund is proportionately subject to bond risks, including the following: interest rate risk, which is the chance that bond prices overall will decline because of rising interest rates; credit risk, which is the chance that a bond issuer will fail to pay interest or principal in a timely manner or that negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments will cause the price of that bond to decline; call risk, which is the chance that during periods of falling interest rates, issuers of callable bonds may call (redeem) securities with higher coupon rates or interest rates before their maturity dates, causing the Fund to lose any price appreciation above the bond’s call price and forcing it to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates that may result in a decline in the Fund’s income; income risk, which

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is the chance that the Fund’s income will decline because of falling interest rates; liquidity risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to sell a security in a timely manner at a desired price; manager risk, which is the chance that poor security selection will cause the Fund to underperform relevant benchmarks or other funds with a similar investment objective; and tax risk, which is the chance that all or a portion of the tax-exempt income from municipal bonds held by the Fund will be declared taxable, possibly with retroactive effect, because of unfavorable changes in tax laws, adverse interpretations by the Internal Revenue Service or state or local tax authorities, or noncompliant conduct of a bond issuer.

• With 45% to 50% of its assets in stocks, the Fund is proportionately subject to stock risks, including stock market risk and investment style risk. Stock market risk is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The benchmark index for the stock portion of the Fund tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, the Fund’s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector. Investment style risk is the chance that returns from large- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from the overall stock market. Large- and mid-cap stocks each tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than other segments of the stock market or the stock market in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years. Historically, mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than large-cap stocks because, among other things, mid-size companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Fund compare with those of relevant market indexes and a composite bond/stock index, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

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Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Tax-Managed Balanced Fund Admiral Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 10.46% (quarter ended September 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –9.01% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Tax-Managed Balanced Fund Admiral Shares      
Return Before Taxes 12.64% 8.93% 6.67%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 12.42 8.72 6.50
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 7.90 7.32 5.66
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)      
Russell 1000 Index 21.69% 15.71% 8.59%
Tax-Managed Balanced Composite Index 12.75 9.09 6.86
Bloomberg Barclays 1-15 Year Municipal Bond Index 4.33 2.46 3.99

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

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Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

James M. D’Arcy, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has managed the bond portion of the Fund since 2013.

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the stock portion of the Fund since 2016.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the stock portion of the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Admiral Shares is $10,000. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. The dividends that you receive from the Fund that are attributable to interest paid on the Fund‘s investments in municipal securities are generally expected to be exempt from federal income taxes. The Fund‘s other distributions are expected to be subject to federal, state, and/or local income taxes.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

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Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to provide a tax-efficient investment return consisting of long-term capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees  
(Fees paid directly from your investment)  
 
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None
Purchase Fee None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None
Redemption Fee None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $10,000) $20/year
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees 0.08%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None
Other Expenses 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.09%

 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$9 $29 $51 $115

 

6


 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 7% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund purchases stocks that pay lower dividends and are included in the Russell 1000 Index—an index that is made up of the stocks of large- and mid-capitalization U.S. companies. The Fund uses statistical methods to “sample” the Index, aiming to minimize taxable dividends while approximating the other characteristics of the Index. The expected result is a portfolio that will loosely track the total return performance of the Index, but with lower taxable income distributions.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s benchmark index tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, the Fund’s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from large- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from the overall stock market. Large- and mid-cap stocks each tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than other segments of the stock market or the stock market in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years. Historically, mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than large-cap stocks because, among other things, mid-size companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

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Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Admiral Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Admiral Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s benchmark index, which has investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Admiral Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 16.74% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –22.26% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017

  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Admiral Shares    
Return Before Taxes 22.40% 15.96% 8.74%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 21.91 15.50 8.38
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 13.03 12.82 7.09
Russell 1000 Index      
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes) 21.69% 15.71% 8.59%

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as

8


 

an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Admiral Shares is $10,000. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

9


 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to provide a tax-efficient investment return consisting of long-term capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees  
(Fees paid directly from your investment)  
 
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None
Purchase Fee None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None
Redemption Fee None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $10,000) $20/year
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees 0.08%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None
Other Expenses 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.09%

 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$9 $29 $51 $115

 

10


 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 37% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund purchases stocks included in the Standard & Poor‘s SmallCap 600 Index—an index that is made up of stocks of smaller U.S. companies—in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. To improve tax efficiency, the Fund may limit investments in Index securities that have undesirable tax characteristics and may continue to hold securities no longer included in the Index.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s benchmark index tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, the Fund’s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from small-capitalization stocks will trail returns from the overall stock market. Historically, small-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than the large-cap stocks that dominate the overall market, and they often perform quite differently. Small companies tend to have greater stock volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

11


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Admiral Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Admiral Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s benchmark index, which has investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Admiral Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 21.02% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –24.79% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017

  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Admiral Shares      
Return Before Taxes 13.05% 15.88% 10.39%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 12.73 15.56 10.14
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 7.60 12.77 8.54
S&P SmallCap 600 Index      
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes) 13.23% 15.99% 10.43%

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as

12


 

an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Admiral Shares is $10,000. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

13


 

Investing in Tax-Managed Funds

Most mutual funds seek to maximize pre-tax total returns, without regard to the personal tax consequences for investors. Yet most investors stand to lose a significant portion of their investment returns to federal, state, and local taxes. Fund dividends and short-term capital gains are now taxed at federal income tax rates as high as 40.8%; for long-term capital gains and certain qualified dividends, the rates can be up to 20%. The Funds offered in this prospectus aim to minimize the impact of taxes on investors’ total returns by operating in a tax-efficient manner. Each Fund uses the following tax-management techniques:

Lower turnover. Each Fund seeks to minimize turnover by employing an index-oriented approach to stock investing. Frequent trading—a hallmark of many actively managed funds—causes a fund to realize capital gains, which must then be distributed to shareholders, reducing after-tax returns.

A disciplined sell-selection method. When selling specific securities, each Fund will select a specific share lot—more often than not, the highest-cost shares—in order to minimize realized capital gains. In addition, the Fund may sell securities at a loss in order to offset realized capital gains that would otherwise have to be distributed to shareholders.

Bias against taxable dividend income. The Tax-Managed Balanced and Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Funds minimize taxable dividend income by focusing on the stocks that pay lower dividends in their shared benchmark index (the Russell 1000 Index). In addition, the bond portion of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is made up of municipal bonds, which generate federally tax-exempt dividends.

The Funds’ tax-management techniques may reduce an investor’s taxable income, but will not eliminate it. Because tax consequences are considered in managing the Funds, a Fund’s pre-tax performance may be lower than that of a similar fund that is not tax-managed.

14


 

More on the Funds

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol <FLAG> throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether a Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Funds’ Admiral Shares. A separate prospectus offers Institutional Shares for each Fund (other than the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund), which generally have an investment minimum of $5 million.

Both share classes offered by a Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that each Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Funds‘ board of trustees, which oversees each Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that each Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote.

15


 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund will invest all, or substantially all (but in no event less than 80%), of its assets in small-cap stocks, which include those stocks in the S&P SmallCap 600 Index. This policy may be changed only upon 60 days’ notice to shareholders. The Fund’s investment in small-cap stocks generally will be within the capitalization range of the companies included in the S&P SmallCap 600 Index ($96 million to $9.4 billion, as of December 31, 2017). In the future, the Index’s market capitalization range may be higher or lower, or the Fund’s investment may follow a different small-cap index universe. Such changes may occur at any time and without notice to Fund shareholders.

Market Exposure

The following grid shows, at a glance, the types of investments made by each Fund as its principal investment strategy, as well as the percentage of assets that each Fund expects to allocate to these investments. Market exposure is expected to play the most important role in achieving a Fund’s investment objective.

  Vanguard Fund  
  Tax-Managed Tax-Managed Tax-Managed
Market Exposure Balanced Capital Appreciation Small-Cap
Common stocks 45%–50% Large- 100% Large- and mid-cap 100% Small-cap U.S.
  and mid-cap U.S. U.S. companies companies
  companies    
Municipal bonds 50%–55% None None

 

U.S. Stocks

Each Fund invests in U.S. stocks as a principal investment strategy. The size of the companies on which the Funds focus differs with each Fund.


Each Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. Each Fund‘s benchmark index tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, each Fund‘s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

To illustrate the volatility of stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for the U.S. stock market over various periods as measured by the S&P 500 Index, a widely used barometer of U.S. stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note

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that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

U.S. Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1926–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 54.2% 28.6% 19.9% 17.9%
Worst –43.1 –12.4 –1.4 3.1
Average 12.0 10.1 10.3 11.0

 

The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1926 through 2017. You can see, for example, that although the average annual return on common stocks for all of the 5-year periods was 10.1%, average annual returns for individual 5-year periods ranged from –12.4% (from 1928 through 1932) to 28.6% (from 1995 through 1999). These average annual returns reflect past performance of common stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either the stock market as a whole or the Funds in particular.

Keep in mind that the S&P 500 Index holds mainly large-cap stocks. Historically, small-and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile than—and at times have performed quite differently from—large-cap stocks. This volatility is the result of several factors, including, but not limited to, less-certain growth and dividend prospects for smaller companies and greater sensitivity to changing economic conditions. The Tax-Managed Balanced and Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Funds hold mid-cap stocks in addition to large-cap stocks; the Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund holds small-cap stocks.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors.

The asset-weighted median market capitalization of each Fund’s stock holdings as of December 31, 2017, was:

  Asset-Weighted Median
Vanguard Fund Market Capitalization
Tax-Managed Balanced (stock portion) $77.2 billion
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation 76.1
Tax-Managed Small-Cap 1.8

 

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Each Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from the types of stocks in which the Fund invests will trail returns from the overall stock market. Specific types of stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than other segments of the stock market or the stock market in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

Municipal Securities

The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund invests 50% to 55% of its assets in municipal securities. These are bonds, notes, and other fixed income instruments issued by state and local governments and regional governmental authorities, which pay income that is exempt from federal taxes. There is no guarantee that all of the income from municipal bonds will remain exempt from federal, state, or local income taxes. Income from municipal bonds held by the Fund could be declared taxable, possibly with retroactive effect, because of unfavorable changes in tax laws, adverse interpretations by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or state or local tax authorities, or noncompliant conduct of a bond issuer.

The Fund focuses on high-quality municipal securities: At least 75% of the municipal bonds purchased by the Fund will be rated in one of the top three credit-rating categories as determined by an independent bond-rating agency (e.g., Aaa, Aa, and A by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s) or AAA, AA, and A by Standard & Poor’s) or, if unrated, determined to be of comparable quality by the advisor. The Fund may invest up to 20% of its municipal security assets in medium-grade quality bonds, as determined by an independent bond rating agency (e.g., Baa by Moody’s or BBB by Standard & Poor’s) or by the advisor. Up to 5% of the Fund’s municipal security assets may be invested in securities with lower credit ratings or, if unrated, determined to be of comparable quality by the advisor. The dollar-weighted average maturity of the Fund’s municipal securities holdings is expected to be between 6 and 12 years.

Plain Talk About Municipal Bonds
 
Municipal bonds are securities issued by state and local governments and
regional governmental authorities as a way of raising money for public
construction projects (e.g., highways, airports, or housing), for operating
expenses, or for loans to public institutions and facilities.

 

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The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to interest rate risk, which is the chance that bond prices overall will decline because of rising interest rates. Interest rate risk is moderate for intermediate-term bonds such as those purchased by the Fund. For the Fund overall, interest rate risk should range from low to moderate because it invests only a portion of its assets in bonds.

Although bonds are often thought to be less risky than stocks, there have been periods when bond prices have fallen significantly because of rising interest rates. For instance, prices of long-term bonds fell by almost 48% between December 1976 and September 1981.

To illustrate the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, the following table shows the effect of a 1% and a 2% change (both up and down) in interest rates on the values of three noncallable bonds (i.e., bonds that cannot be redeemed by the issuer) of different maturities, each with a face value of $1,000.

How Interest Rate Changes Affect the Value of a $1,000 Bond1    
  After a 1% After a 1% After a 2% After a 2%
Type of Bond (Maturity) Increase Decrease Increase Decrease
Short-Term (2.5 years) $977 $1,024 $954 $1,049
Intermediate-Term (10 years) 922 1,086 851 1,180
Long-Term (20 years) 874 1,150 769 1,328
1 Assuming a 4% coupon rate.        

 

These figures are for illustration only; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of the bond market as a whole or the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund in particular.

Plain Talk About Bonds and Interest Rates
 
As a rule, when interest rates rise, bond prices fall. The opposite is also true:
Bond prices go up when interest rates fall. Why do bond prices and interest rates
move in opposite directions? Let’s assume that you hold a bond offering a 4%
yield. A year later, interest rates are on the rise and bonds of comparable quality
and maturity are offered with a 5% yield. With higher-yielding bonds available,
you would have trouble selling your 4% bond for the price you paid—you would
probably have to lower your asking price. On the other hand, if interest rates were
falling and 3% bonds were being offered, you should be able to sell your 4% bond
for more than you paid.

 

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Changes in interest rates can affect bond income as well as bond prices.


The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to income risk, which is the chance that the Fund’s income will decline because of falling interest rates. A fund’s income declines when interest rates fall because the fund then must invest new cash flow and cash from maturing bonds in lower-yielding bonds. Income risk is generally higher for funds holding short-term bonds and lower for funds holding long-term bonds. For the Fund overall, income risk should range from low to moderate because it invests only a portion of its assets in bonds.

Plain Talk About Bond Maturities
 
A bond is issued with a specific maturity date—the date when the issuer must pay
back the bond’s principal (face value). Bond maturities range from less than 1 year
to more than 30 years. Typically, the longer a bond’s maturity, the more price risk
you, as a bond investor, will face as interest rates rise—but also the higher the
potential yield you could receive. Longer-term bonds are more suitable for
investors willing to take a greater risk of price fluctuations to get higher and more
stable interest income. Shorter-term bond investors should be willing to accept
lower yields and greater income variability in return for less fluctuation in the value
of their investment. The stated maturity of a bond may differ from the effective
maturity of a bond, which takes into consideration that an action such as a call or
refunding may cause bonds to be repaid before their stated maturity dates.

 


The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to credit risk, which is the chance that a bond issuer will fail to pay interest or principal in a timely manner or that negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments will cause the price of that bond to decline. Credit risk should be low for the Fund because it invests only a portion of its assets in bonds, most of which are considered to be of high quality.

Plain Talk About Credit Quality
 
A bond’s credit-quality rating is an assessment of the issuer’s ability to pay interest
on the bond and, ultimately, to repay the principal. The lower the credit quality, the
greater the chance—in Vanguard’s opinion—that the bond issuer will default, or fail
to meet its payment obligations. All things being equal, the lower a bond’s credit
quality, the higher its yield should be to compensate investors for assuming
additional risk.

 

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The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to call risk, which is the chance that during periods of falling interest rates, issuers of callable bonds may call (redeem) securities with higher coupon rates or interest rates before their maturity dates. The Fund would then lose any price appreciation above the bond’s call price and would be forced to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income. Such redemptions and subsequent reinvestments would also increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. Call risk is generally moderate for intermediate-term bonds such as those purchased by the Fund. For the Fund overall, call risk should range from low to moderate because it invests only a portion of its assets in bonds.

The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to extension risk. Extension risk is the chance that during periods of rising interest rates, certain debt securities will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated, and the value of those securities may fall. Extension risk should be low for the Fund because it invests only a portion of its assets in bonds.

The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund’s bond holdings help to reduce—but not eliminate—some of the stock market volatility experienced by the Fund. Likewise, changes in interest rates may not have as dramatic an effect on the Fund as they would on a fund made up entirely of bonds. The Fund’s balanced portfolio, in the long run, should result in less investment risk—and a lower investment return—than a fund investing exclusively in stocks.


The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to liquidity risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to sell a security in a timely manner at a desired price.

Municipal securities are traded via a network among dealers and brokers that connect buyers with sellers. Liquidity in the tax-exempt bond market has been reduced as a result of overall economic conditions and credit tightening. There may be little trading in the secondary market for particular bonds and other fixed income securities, which may make them more difficult to value or sell.

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Security Selection

Each Fund employs an index-oriented approach to stock investing, and the only stocks purchased by a Fund are those of issuers included in its benchmark index at the time of purchase. The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund selects municipal securities, however, based upon traditional active-management techniques. The following grid shows, at a glance, the types of stocks included in each Fund’s benchmark index.

Vanguard Fund Benchmark Index Types of Stocks
Tax-Managed Balanced (stock portion) Russell 1000 Large- and mid-cap
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Russell 1000 Large- and mid-cap
Tax-Managed Small-Cap S&P SmallCap 600 Small-cap

 


The bond portion of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is subject to manager risk, which is the chance that poor security selection will cause the Fund to underperform relevant benchmarks or other funds with a similar investment objective.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

Each Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Funds to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Funds will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

Each Fund may invest a small portion of its assets in equity futures (and, for the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund, fixed income futures), which are a type of derivative, and/or shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). These equity futures and ETFs typically provide returns similar to those of common stocks (and, for fixed income futures, bonds). Each Fund may purchase futures or ETFs when doing so will reduce the Fund’s transaction costs or provide flexibility for the Funds to seek better tax efficiency. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in ETF Shares of other Vanguard funds. Fund assets invested in ETF Shares are excluded when allocating to the Fund its share of the costs of Vanguard operations.

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Cash Management

Each Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, each Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Under normal circumstances, each Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with other positive cash flows. When this is not an option, each Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions, while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, a Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the

Investing With Vanguard section.

Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that each Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. A Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, a Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

Each Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund’s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund’s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case if the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

In addition, each Fund may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its normal investment policies and strategies—for instance, by allocating substantial assets to cash equivalent investments or other less volatile instruments—in response to adverse or unusual market, economic, political, or other conditions. In

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doing so, the Fund may succeed in avoiding losses but may otherwise fail to achieve its investment objective.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

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See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although the Funds generally seek to invest for the long term, each Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index-oriented fund sells securities in response to redemption requests or to changes in the composition of its target index. Turnover rates for large-cap stock index funds tend to be very low because large-cap indexes—such as the S&P 500 Index—typically do not change significantly from year to year. Turnover rates for mid-cap and small-cap stock index funds tend to be higher (although still relatively low, compared with actively managed stock funds) because the indexes they track are more likely to change as a result of companies merging, growing, or failing. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Funds. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that a Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund experienced higher portfolio turnover as a result of continued growth in the equity market and the Fund’s tax management technique of selling securities at a loss to offset realized capital gains that would otherwise have to be distributed to shareholders.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions, dealer markups, and other transaction costs will have on its return.
Also, funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains,
including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and
will be taxable to shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

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The Funds and Vanguard

Each Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.5 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Funds through its Equity Index and Fixed Income Groups. As of December 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.9 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Funds on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Funds.

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of each Fund’s average net assets as follows: for the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund, 0.01%; and for the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation and Tax-Managed Small-Cap Funds, 0.02%.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Funds‘ board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant

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change in a Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Funds‘ sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to a Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Funds have filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Funds may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved each Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended June 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are:

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1992; has managed investment portfolios since 1997; and has co-managed the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund, Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund, and the stock portion of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund since 2016. Education: B.S.B.A., Shippensburg University.

James M. D’Arcy, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has worked in investment management since 1996, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, has been with Vanguard since 2011, and has managed the bond portion of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund since 2013. Education: B.A., University of Colorado.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has worked in investment management since joining Vanguard in 2006 and has co-managed the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund, Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund, and the stock portion of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund since 2016. Education: B.S., King’s College; M.S., Saint Joseph’s University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Funds.

Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

Each Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December. Capital gains distributions, if any,

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generally occur annually in December. In addition, each Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income (other than dividends paid by the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund from interest received by the Fund on its investments in municipal securities, which are expected to be exempt from taxes). If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Although the Funds seek to minimize distributions of taxable capital gains, they may not always achieve this goal. Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Funds‘ normal investment activities and cash flows.

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• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you

complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund (except exempt-interest dividends from the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund) and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund’s income dividends from interest earned on municipal securities of a state or its political subdivisions are generally exempt from that state’s income taxes. Almost all states, however, tax interest earned on municipal securities of other states. Vanguard will annually provide you with information to help report your earnings by state from the Fund on your tax returns.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan),
you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund
makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

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General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.

• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Funds offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class of the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund and the Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. The NAV per share for the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, of the Fund by the number of Fund shares outstanding. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

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Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. Debt securities held by a fund are valued based on information furnished by an independent pricing service or market quotations. When a fund determines that pricing-service information or market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV. A fund may use fair-value pricing with respect to its fixed income securities on bond market holidays when the fund is open for business (such as Columbus Day and Veterans Day).

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report—along with each Fund’s financial statements—is included in the Funds‘ most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund as an example. The Fund
began fiscal year 2017 with a net asset value (share price) of $27.85 per share.
During the year, the Fund earned $0.622 per share from investment income
(interest and dividends) and $2.871 per share from investments that had
appreciated in value or that were sold for higher prices than the Fund paid for
them.
 
Shareholders received $0.613 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $30.73, reflecting earnings of $3.493
per share and distributions of $0.613 per share. This was an increase of $2.88 per
share (from $27.85 at the beginning of the year to $30.73 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 12.64% for the year.
 
As of December 31, 2017, the Fund had approximately $3.9 billion in net assets.
For the year, its expense ratio was 0.09% ($0.90 per $1,000 of net assets), and
its net investment income amounted to 2.11% of its average net assets. The
Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 9% of its net assets.

 

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Tax-Managed Balanced Fund          
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $27.85 $26.86 $26.79 $24.90 $22.25
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .6221 .595 .557 .547 .517
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 2.871 .989 .067 1.879 2.647
Total from Investment Operations 3.493 1.584 .624 2.426 3.164
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income2 (.613) (.594) (.554) (.536) (.514)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.613) (.594) (.554) (.536) (.514)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $30.73 $27.85 $26.86 $26.79 $24.90
Total Return3 12.64% 5.94% 2.35% 9.81% 14.34%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $3,930 $3,096 $2,478 $1,911 $1,401
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets 0.09% 0.09% 0.11% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.11% 2.20% 2.11% 2.15% 2.21%
Portfolio Turnover Rate 9%4 11%4 9% 8% 9%

 

 

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 For tax purposes, nontaxable dividends represent 61%, 57%, 62%, 64%, and 63% of dividends from net investment income. 3 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.

4 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

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Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Admiral Shares      
 
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $114.08 $103.75 $103.82 $93.70 $71.17
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 2.1661 2.004 1.764 1.633 1.414
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 23.211 10.332 (.082) 10.103 22.537
Total from Investment Operations 25.377 12.336 1.682 11.736 23.951
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (2.157) (2.006) (1.752) (1.616) (1.421)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (2.157) (2.006) (1.752) (1.616) (1.421)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $137.30 $114.08 $103.75 $103.82 $93.70
Total Return2 22.40% 12.01% 1.68% 12.52% 33.67%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $8,143 $6,793 $5,982 $5,760 $5,040
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets 0.09% 0.09% 0.11% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 1.73% 1.89% 1.69% 1.66% 1.71%
Portfolio Turnover Rate 7%3 8%3 10%3 6% 4%

 

 

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.

3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

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Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Admiral Shares        
 
 
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $55.16 $44.37 $45.78 $43.53 $31.16
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .6661 .558 .556 .463 .383
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 6.486 10.788 (1.406) 2.242 12.389
Total from Investment Operations 7.152 11.346 (.850) 2.705 12.772
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.664) (.556) (.560) (.455) (.402)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Return of Capital (.018)
Total Distributions (.682) (.556) (.560) (.455) (.402)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $61.63 $55.16 $44.37 $45.78 $43.53
Total Return2 13.05% 25.73% –1.85% 6.23% 41.00%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $5,428 $4,671 $3,419 $3,382 $3,143
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average          
Net Assets 0.09% 0.09% 0.11% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 1.17% 1.19% 1.21% 1.06% 1.05%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 37% 45% 33% 40% 31%

 

 

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.

3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Admiral Shares

To open and maintain an account. $10,000. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

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Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for Funds in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the net

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asset value (NAV) as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account falls on the last business day of the year, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you select the first of the month for automated withdrawals from your designated bank account, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Admiral Shares. Admiral Shares generally are not available for SIMPLE IRAs and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

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Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

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For a conversion request received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions to Institutional Shares

You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from Admiral Shares to Institutional Shares of the same Fund (if available), provided that your account meets all Institutional Shares’ eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares will not be automatically converted.

Mandatory Conversions to Admiral Shares

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for Institutional Shares, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to Admiral Shares. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular

40


 

schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and your fund account will also be assessed the $10 fee by redeeming additional fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the fee amount. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone

41


 

requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on the last day of the year and if that date is a holiday, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you designate the first of the month for automated withdrawals, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by a Fund within one business day of the trade

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date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Share certificates. Share certificates are no longer issued for Vanguard funds. Shares currently held in certificates cannot be redeemed, exchanged, converted, or transferred (reregistered) until you return the certificates (unsigned) to Vanguard by registered mail. For the correct address, see Contacting Vanguard.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 15-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee

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from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

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For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange

Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain

types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as

trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

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• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

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Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

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Written instructions also must generally include:

• An original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions may be acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

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Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Account Service Fee

Vanguard charges a $20 account service fee on fund accounts that have a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation. The account service fee applies to both retirement and nonretirement fund accounts and will be assessed on fund accounts in all Vanguard funds, regardless of the account minimum. The fee, which will be collected by redeeming fund shares in the amount of $20, will be deducted from a fund account only once per calendar year.

If you register on vanguard.com and elect to receive electronic delivery of statements, reports, and other materials for all of your fund accounts, the account service fee for balances below $10,000 will not be charged, so long as that election remains in effect.

The account service fee also does not apply to the following:

• Money market sweep accounts owned in connection with a Vanguard Brokerage Services® account.*

• Accounts held through intermediaries.*

• Accounts held by institutional clients.

• Accounts held by Voyager, Voyager Select, Flagship, and Flagship Select clients.

Eligibility is based on total household assets held at Vanguard, with a minimum of $50,000 to qualify for Vanguard Voyager Services®, $500,000 for Vanguard Voyager Select Services®, $1 million for Vanguard Flagship Services®, and $5 million for Vanguard Flagship Select Services. Vanguard determines eligibility by aggregating assets of all qualifying accounts held by the investor and immediate family members who reside at the same address. Aggregate assets include investments in Vanguard mutual funds, Vanguard ETFs®, certain annuities through Vanguard, the Vanguard 529 Plan, and certain small-business accounts. Assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which Vanguard provides recordkeeping services may be included in

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determining eligibility if the investor also has a personal account holding Vanguard mutual funds. Note that assets held in a Vanguard Brokerage Services account (other than Vanguard funds, including Vanguard ETFs) are not included when determining a household’s eligibility.

• Participant accounts in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans.** Please consult your enrollment materials for the rules that apply to your account.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

* Please note that intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services, may charge a separate fee.

** The following Vanguard fund accounts have alternative fee structures: SIMPLE

IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Low-Balance Accounts

Each Fund reserves the right to liquidate a fund account whose balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. This liquidation policy applies to nonretirement fund accounts and accounts that are held through intermediaries. Any such liquidation will be preceded by written notice to the investor.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

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Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

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Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds twice a year, in February and August. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Funds‘ Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Employer-Sponsored Plans

Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect a Fund as an investment option.

• If you have any questions about a Fund or Vanguard, including those about a Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.

• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.

• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.

Transactions

Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to a Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.

If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Participant Services 800-523-1188 For information and services for participants in employer-
(Text telephone for people with hearing sponsored plans
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102  
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies

 

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Vanguard Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the processing of your transaction.

Regular Mail (Individuals) The Vanguard Group    
  P.O. Box 1110    
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110    
Regular Mail (Institutions, Intermediaries, and The Vanguard Group    
Employer-Sponsored Plan Participants) P.O. Box 2900    
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900    
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail The Vanguard Group    
  455 Devon Park Drive    
  Wayne, PA 19087-1815    
Additional Information        
    Vanguard  
  Inception Newspaper Fund CUSIP
  Date Abbreviation Number Number
Tax-Managed Balanced Fund        
Admiral Shares 9/6/1994 TxMBal 103 921943304
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund        
Admiral Shares 11/12/2001 TxMCapAdml 5102 921943866
Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund        
Admiral Shares 3/25/1999 TxMSC 116 921943403

 

CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

The Products are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by Frank Russell Company (“Russell”). Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Products or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Products particularly or the ability of the Russell 1000 Index to track general stock market performance or a segment of the same. Russell’s publication of the Russell 1000 Index in no way

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suggests or implies an opinion by Russell as to the advisability of investment in any or all of the securities upon which the Russell 1000 Index is based. Russell’s only relationship to The Vanguard Group, Inc., is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of Russell and of the Russell 1000 Index, which is determined, composed, and calculated by Russell without regard to The Vanguard Group, Inc., or the Products. Russell is not responsible for and has not reviewed the Products nor any associated literature or publications and Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, as to their accuracy or completeness, or otherwise. Russell has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the Products.

Russell makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee as to the accuracy, completeness, reliability or otherwise of the Russell Indexes or any data included in the Russell Indexes. Russell does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Russell 1000 Index or any data included therein and Russell shall have no liability for any errors, omissions, or interruptions therein. Russell makes no warranty, express or implied, as to the use of or results to be obtained by The Vanguard Group, Inc., investors, owners of the products, or any other person or entity from the use of the Russell 1000 Index or any data included therein. Russell makes no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Russell 1000 Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall Russell have any liability for any special, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages (including lost profits), even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

Russell reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate, or in any way change the Russell Indexes. Russell has no obligation to take the needs of any particular fund or its participants or any other product or person into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating any of the Russell Indexes.

The “S&P SmallCap 600 Index” (the “Index”) is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“SPDJI”), and has been licensed for use by Vanguard. Standard & Poor’s® and S&P® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”); Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”); S&P® and S&P 500® are trademarks of S&P; and these trademarks have been licensed for use by SPDJI and sublicensed for certain purposes by Vanguard. Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by SPDJI, Dow Jones, S&P, or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund particularly or the ability of the S&P SmallCap 600 Index to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Vanguard with respect to the S&P SmallCap 600 Index is the licensing of the Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its licensors. The S&P SmallCap 600 Index is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to Vanguard or Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take the needs of Vanguard or the owners of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the S&P SmallCap 600 Index. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund or the timing of the issuance or sale of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund is to be converted into cash, surrendered or redeemed, as the case may be. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund. There is no assurance that investment products based on the S&P SmallCap 600 Index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment advisor. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY VANGUARD, OWNERS OF VANGUARD TAX-MANAGED SMALL-CAP FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND VANGUARD, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.

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BLOOMBERG is a trademark and service mark of Bloomberg Finance L.P. BARCLAYS is a trademark and service mark of Barclays Bank Plc, used under license. Bloomberg Finance L.P. and its affiliates, including Bloomberg Index Services Limited (BISL) (collectively, Bloomberg), or Bloomberg’s licensors, own all proprietary rights in the Bloomberg Barclays 1-15 Year Municipal Bond Index (the Index or Bloomberg Barclays Index).

Neither Barclays Bank Plc, Barclays Capital Inc., or any affiliate (collectively Barclays) or Bloomberg is the issuer or producer of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund and neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has any responsibilities, obligations or duties to investors in the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund. The Index is licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard) as the sponsor of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund. Bloomberg and Barclays’ only relationship with Vanguard in respect to the Index is the licensing of the Index, which is determined, composed and calculated by BISL, or any successor thereto, without regard to the Issuer or the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund or the owners of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund.

Additionally, Vanguard may for itself execute transaction(s) with Barclays in or relating to the Index in connection with the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund. Investors acquire the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund from Vanguard and investors neither acquire any interest in the Index nor enter into any relationship of any kind whatsoever with Bloomberg or Barclays upon making an investment in the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund. The Tax-Managed Balanced Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Bloomberg or Barclays. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays makes any representation or warranty, express or implied regarding the advisability of investing in the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund or the advisability of investing in securities generally or the ability of the Index to track corresponding or relative market performance. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has passed on the legality or suitability of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund with respect to any person or entity. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays is responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund to be issued. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has any obligation to take the needs of the Issuer or the owners of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund or any other third party into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index. Neither Bloomberg nor Barclays has any obligation or liability in connection with administration, marketing or trading of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund.

The licensing agreement between Bloomberg and Barclays is solely for the benefit of Bloomberg and Barclays and not for the benefit of the owners of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund, investors or other third parties. In addition, the licensing agreement between Vanguard and Bloomberg is solely for the benefit of Vanguard and Bloomberg and not for the benefit of the owners of the Tax-Managed Balanced Fund, investors or other third parties.

NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO THE ISSUER, INVESTORS OR TO OTHER THIRD PARTIES FOR THE QUALITY, ACCURACY AND/OR COMPLETENESS OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN OR FOR INTERRUPTIONS IN THE DELIVERY OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX. NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY THE ISSUER, THE INVESTORS OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EACH HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. BLOOMBERG RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE THE METHODS OF CALCULATION OR PUBLICATION, OR TO CEASE THE CALCULATION OR PUBLICATION OF THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX, AND NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY MISCALCULATION OF OR ANY INCORRECT, DELAYED OR INTERRUPTED PUBLICATION WITH RESPECT TO THE BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX. NEITHER BLOOMBERG NOR BARCLAYS SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR ANY LOST PROFITS AND EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBLITY OF SUCH, RESULTING FROM THE USE OF A BLOOMBERG BARCLAYS INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN OR WITH RESPECT TO THE TAX-MANAGED BALANCED FUND.

None of the information supplied by Bloomberg or Barclays and used in this publication may be reproduced in any manner without the prior written permission of both Bloomberg and Barclays Capital, the investment banking division of Barclays Bank Plc. Barclays Bank Plc is registered in England No. 1026167. Registered office 1 Churchill Place London E14 5HP.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Average Maturity. The average length of time until bonds held by a fund reach maturity and are repaid. In general, the longer the average maturity, the more a fund’s share price fluctuates in response to changes in market interest rates. In calculating average maturity, a fund uses a bond’s maturity or, if applicable, an earlier date on which the advisor believes it is likely that a maturity-shortening device (such as a call, a put, a refunding, a prepayment, or a redemption provision or an adjustable coupon rate) will cause the bond to be repaid.

Bloomberg Barclays 1–15 Year Municipal Bond Index. An index that includes investment-grade tax-exempt bonds that are issued by state and local governments and have maturities of 1 to 15 years.

Bond. A debt security (IOU) issued by a corporation, a government, or a government agency in exchange for the money the bondholder lends it. In most instances, the issuer agrees to pay back the loan by a specific date and generally to make regular interest payments until that date.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Cash Equivalent Investments. Cash deposits, short-term bank deposits, and money market instruments that include U.S. Treasury bills and notes, bank certificates of deposit (CDs), repurchase agreements, commercial paper, and banker’s acceptances.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Coupon Rate. The interest rate paid by the issuer of a debt security until its maturity. It is expressed as an annual percentage of the face value of the security.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

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Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Joint Committed Credit Facility. Each Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the fund’s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.

Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE.

Principal. The face value of a debt instrument or the amount of money put into an investment.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Tax-Managed Balanced Composite Index. An index that consists of two unmanaged benchmarks, weighted 50% in the Russell 1000 Index and 50% in the Bloomberg Barclays 1–15 Year Municipal Bond Index.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

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P.O. Box 2600

Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600

Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com

For More Information

If you would like more information about Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds, the following documents are available free upon request:

Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders

Additional information about the Funds’ investments is available in the Funds’ annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ performance during their last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information (SAI)

The SAI provides more detailed information about the Funds and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.

To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report or the SAI, or to request additional information about the Funds or other Vanguard funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:

If you are an individual investor:

The Vanguard Group

Investor Information Department P.O. Box 2600 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600

Telephone: 800-662-7447; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a participant in an employer-sponsored plan:

The Vanguard Group Participant Services P.O. Box 2900 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900

Telephone: 800-523-1188; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would like information about your account, account transactions, and/or account statements, please call:

Client Services Department

Telephone: 800-662-2739; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

You can review and copy information about the Funds (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and other information about the Funds are also available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.

Funds’ Investment Company Act file number: 811-07175

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

P 103 042018


Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds®
Prospectus
 
April 25, 2018
 
Institutional Shares
Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Institutional Shares (VTCIX)
Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Institutional Shares (VTSIX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Funds through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard Fund Summaries   Investing With Vanguard 26
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund 1 Purchasing Shares 26
Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund 5 Converting Shares 29
Investing in Tax-Managed Funds 9 Redeeming Shares 30
More on the Funds 10 Exchanging Shares 34
The Funds and Vanguard 16 Frequent-Trading Limitations 34
Investment Advisor 17 Other Rules You Should Know 36
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 18 Fund and Account Updates 40
Share Price 21 Employer-Sponsored Plans 41
Financial Highlights 23 Contacting Vanguard 42
    Additional Information 43
    Glossary of Investment Terms 45

 


 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to provide a tax-efficient investment return consisting of long-term capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Institutional Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees  
(Fees paid directly from your investment)  
 
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None
Purchase Fee None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None
Redemption Fee None
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees 0.06%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.06%

 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$6 $19 $34 $77

 

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Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 7% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund purchases stocks that pay lower dividends and are included in the Russell 1000 Index—an index that is made up of the stocks of large- and mid-capitalization U.S. companies. The Fund uses statistical methods to “sample” the Index, aiming to minimize taxable dividends while approximating the other characteristics of the Index. The expected result is a portfolio that will loosely track the total return performance of the Index, but with lower taxable income distributions.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s benchmark index tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, the Fund’s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from large- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from the overall stock market. Large- and mid-cap stocks each tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than other segments of the stock market or the stock market in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years. Historically, mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than large-cap stocks because, among other things, mid-size companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

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Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Institutional Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s benchmark index, which has investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Institutional Shares

 


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 16.76% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –22.25% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017

 

  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Institutional Shares    
Return Before Taxes 22.43% 16.00% 8.79%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 21.94 15.54 8.42
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 13.06 12.85 7.12
Russell 1000 Index      
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes) 21.69% 15.71% 8.59%

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as

3


 

an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares is $5 million. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

4


 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to provide a tax-efficient investment return consisting of long-term capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Institutional Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees  
(Fees paid directly from your investment)  
 
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None
Purchase Fee None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None
Redemption Fee None
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses  
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees 0.05%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None
Other Expenses 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.06%

 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$6 $19 $34 $77

 

5


 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 37% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund purchases stocks included in the Standard & Poor‘s SmallCap 600 Index—an index that is made up of stocks of smaller U.S. companies—in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. To improve tax efficiency, the Fund may limit investments in Index securities that have undesirable tax characteristics and may continue to hold securities no longer included in the Index.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s benchmark index tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, the Fund’s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from small-capitalization stocks will trail returns from the overall stock market. Historically, small-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than the large-cap stocks that dominate the overall market, and they often perform quite differently. Small companies tend to have greater stock volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

6


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Institutional Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s benchmark index, which has investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Institutional Shares

 


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 21.05% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –24.78% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017

  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Institutional Shares      
Return Before Taxes 13.08% 15.93% 10.44%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 12.75 15.60 10.19
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 7.62 12.80 8.59
S&P SmallCap 600 Index      
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes) 13.23% 15.99% 10.43%

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as

7


 

an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares is $5 million. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

8


 

Investing in Tax-Managed Funds

Most mutual funds seek to maximize pre-tax total returns, without regard to the personal tax consequences for investors. Yet most investors stand to lose a significant portion of their investment returns to federal, state, and local taxes. Fund dividends and short-term capital gains are now taxed at federal income tax rates as high as 40.8%; for long-term capital gains and certain qualified dividends, the rates can be up to 20%. The Funds offered in this prospectus aim to minimize the impact of taxes on investors’ total returns by operating in a tax-efficient manner. Each Fund uses the following tax-management techniques:

Lower turnover. Each Fund seeks to minimize turnover by employing an index-oriented approach to stock investing. Frequent trading—a hallmark of many actively managed funds—causes a fund to realize capital gains, which must then be distributed to shareholders, reducing after-tax returns.

A disciplined sell-selection method. When selling specific securities, each Fund will select a specific share lot—more often than not, the highest-cost shares—in order to minimize realized capital gains. In addition, the Fund may sell securities at a loss in order to offset realized capital gains that would otherwise have to be distributed to shareholders.

Bias against taxable dividend income. The Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund minimizes taxable dividend income by focusing on the stocks that pay lower dividends in its benchmark index (the Russell 1000 Index).

The Funds’ tax-management techniques may reduce an investor’s taxable income, but will not eliminate it. Because tax consequences are considered in managing the Funds, a Fund’s pre-tax performance may be lower than that of a similar fund that is not tax-managed.

9


 

More on the Funds

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether a Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Funds‘ Institutional Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million. A separate prospectus offers the Funds’ Admiral™ Shares, which generally have an investment minimum of $10,000.

Both share classes offered by a Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that each Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Funds‘ board of trustees, which oversees each Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that each Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote.

10


 

Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund will invest all, or substantially all (but in no event less than 80%), of its assets in small-cap stocks, which include those stocks in the S&P SmallCap 600 Index. This policy may be changed only upon 60 days’ notice to shareholders. The Fund’s investment in small-cap stocks generally will be within the capitalization range of the companies included in the S&P SmallCap 600 Index ($96 million to $9.4 billion, as of December 31, 2017). In the future, the Index’s market capitalization range may be higher or lower, or the Fund’s investment may follow a different small-cap index universe. Such changes may occur at any time and without notice to Fund shareholders.

Market Exposure

The following grid shows, at a glance, the types of investments made by each Fund as its principal investment strategy, as well as the percentage of assets that each Fund expects to allocate to these investments. Market exposure is expected to play the most important role in achieving a Fund’s investment objective.

  Vanguard Fund  
  Tax-Managed Tax-Managed
Market Exposure Capital Appreciation Small-Cap
Common stocks 100% Large- 100%
  and mid-cap U.S. Small-cap U.S.
  companies companies

 

U.S. Stocks

Each Fund invests in U.S. stocks as a principal investment strategy. The size of the companies on which the Funds focus differs with each Fund.


Each Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. Each Fund‘s benchmark index tracks a subset of the U.S. stock market, which could cause the Fund to perform differently from the overall stock market. In addition, each Fund‘s benchmark index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

To illustrate the volatility of stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for the U.S. stock market over various periods as measured by the S&P 500 Index, a widely used barometer of U.S. stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

11


 

U.S. Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1926–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 54.2% 28.6% 19.9% 17.9%
Worst –43.1 –12.4 –1.4 3.1
Average 12.0 10.1 10.3 11.0

 

The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1926 through 2017. You can see, for example, that although the average annual return on common stocks for all of the 5-year periods was 10.1%, average annual returns for individual 5-year periods ranged from –12.4% (from 1928 through 1932) to 28.6% (from 1995 through 1999). These average annual returns reflect past performance of common stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either the stock market as a whole or the Funds in particular.

Keep in mind that the S&P 500 Index holds mainly large-cap stocks. Historically, small-and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile than—and at times have performed quite differently from—large-cap stocks. This volatility is the result of several factors, including less-certain growth and dividend prospects for smaller companies and greater sensitivity to changing economic conditions. The Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund holds mid-cap stocks in addition to large-cap stocks; the Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund holds small-cap stocks.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors.

The asset-weighted median market capitalization of each Fund’s stock holdings as of December 31, 2017, was:

  Asset-Weighted Median
Vanguard Fund Market Capitalization
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation $76.1 billion
Tax-Managed Small-Cap 1.8

 

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Each Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from the types of stocks in which the Fund invests will trail returns from the overall stock market. Specific types of stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than other segments of the stock market or the stock market in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

Security Selection

Each Fund employs an index-oriented approach to stock investing, and the only stocks purchased by a Fund are those of issuers included in its benchmark index at the time of purchase. The following grid shows, at a glance, the types of stocks included in each Fund’s benchmark index.

Vanguard Fund Benchmark Index Types of Stocks
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Russell 1000 Large- and mid-cap
Tax-Managed Small-Cap S&P SmallCap 600 Small-cap

 

Other Investment Policies and Risks

Each Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Funds to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Funds will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

Each Fund may invest a small portion of its assets in equity futures, which are a type of derivative, and/or shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). These equity futures and ETFs typically provide returns similar to those of common stocks. Each Fund may purchase futures or ETFs when doing so will reduce the Fund’s transaction costs or provide flexibility for the Funds to seek better tax efficiency. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in ETF Shares of other Vanguard funds. Fund assets invested in ETF Shares are excluded when allocating to the Fund its share of the costs of Vanguard operations.

Cash Management

Each Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, each Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it

13


 

invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Under normal circumstances, each Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with other positive cash flows. When this is not an option, each Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions, while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, a Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the

Investing With Vanguard section.

Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that each Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. A Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, a Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

Each Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund’s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund’s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case if the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

In addition, each Fund may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its normal investment policies and strategies—for instance, by allocating substantial assets to cash equivalent investments or other less volatile instruments—in response to adverse or unusual market, economic, political, or other conditions. In doing so, the Fund may succeed in avoiding losses but may otherwise fail to achieve its investment objective.

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Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as

15


 

described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although the Funds generally seek to invest for the long term, each Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index-oriented fund sells securities in response to redemption requests or to changes in the composition of its target index. Turnover rates for large-cap stock index funds tend to be very low because large-cap indexes—such as the S&P 500 Index—typically do not change significantly from year to year. Turnover rates for mid-cap and small-cap stock index funds tend to be higher (although still relatively low, compared with actively managed stock funds) because the indexes they track are more likely to change as a result of companies merging, growing, or failing. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Funds. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that a Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund experienced higher portfolio turnover as a result of continued growth in the equity market and the Fund’s tax management technique of selling securities at a loss to offset realized capital gains that would otherwise have to be distributed to shareholders.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with
high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-
term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to
shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

The Funds and Vanguard

Each Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.5 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

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Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Funds through its Equity Index Group. As of December 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.9 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Funds on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Funds.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of 0.02% of each Fund’s average net assets.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Funds‘ board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in a Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Funds‘ sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to a Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Funds have filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Funds may rely on the new SEC relief.

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For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved each Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended June 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are:

Donald M. Butler, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1992, has managed investment portfolios since 1997, and has co-managed the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund and Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund since 2016. Education: B.S.B.A., Shippensburg University.

William Coleman, CFA, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has worked in investment management since joining Vanguard in 2006 and has co-managed the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund and Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund since 2016. Education: B.S., King’s College; M.S., Saint Joseph’s University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Funds.

Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

Each Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December. Capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, each Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.

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Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Although the Funds seek to minimize distributions of taxable capital gains, they may not always achieve this goal. Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Funds‘ normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you

complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net

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investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan),
you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund
makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.

• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Funds offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

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Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. Debt securities held by a fund are valued based on information furnished by an independent pricing service or market quotations. When a fund determines that pricing-service information or market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund's pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most

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commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund's pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities-for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund's pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV. A fund may use fair-value pricing with respect to its fixed income securities on bond market holidays when the fund is open for business (such as Columbus Day and Veterans Day).

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund‘s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report—along with each Fund’s financial statements—is included in the Funds’ most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund’s Institutional
Shares as an example. The Institutional Shares began fiscal year 2017 with a net
asset value (share price) of $56.69 per share. During the year, each Institutional
Share earned $1.099 from investment income (interest and dividends) and
$11.531 from investments that had appreciated in value or that were sold for
higher prices than the Fund paid for them.
 
Shareholders received $1.09 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $68.23, reflecting earnings of $12.63
per share and distributions of $1.09 per share. This was an increase of $11.54 per
share (from $56.69 at the beginning of the year to $68.23 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 22.43% for the year.
 
As of December 31, 2017, the Institutional Shares had approximately $1 billion in
net assets. For the year, the expense ratio was 0.06% ($0.60 per $1,000 of net
assets), and the net investment income amounted to 1.76% of average net
assets. The Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 7% of its net assets.

 

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Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund Institutional Shares      
 
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $56.69 $51.55 $51.59 $46.56 $35.36
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 1.0991 1.011 .897 .830 .719
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 11.531 5.141 (.046) 5.022 11.203
Total from Investment Operations 12.630 6.152 .851 5.852 11.922
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (1.090) (1.012) (.891) (.822) (.722)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (1.090) (1.012) (.891) (.822) (.722)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $68.23 $56.69 $51.55 $51.59 $46.56
Total Return 22.43% 12.06% 1.71% 12.56% 33.73%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $1,006 $613 $564 $530 $468
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.06% 0.06% 0.07% 0.08% 0.08%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 1.76% 1.92% 1.73% 1.70% 1.75%
Portfolio Turnover Rate 7%2 8%2 10%2 6% 4%

 

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

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Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund Institutional Shares        
 
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $55.29 $44.47 $45.88 $43.63 $31.22
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .6931 .572 .576 .481 .398
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 6.488 10.818 (1.406) 2.242 12.428
Total from Investment Operations 7.181 11.390 (.830) 2.723 12.826
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.683) (.570) (.580) (.473) (.416)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Return of Capital (.018)
Total Distributions (.701) (.570) (.580) (.473) (.416)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $61.77 $55.29 $44.47 $45.88 $43.63
Total Return 13.08% 25.78% –1.80% 6.26% 41.09%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $492 $379 $276 $236 $237
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.06% 0.06% 0.07% 0.08% 0.08%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 1.20% 1.22% 1.25% 1.10% 1.09%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 37% 45% 33% 40% 31%

 

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares.

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Institutional Shares

To open and maintain an account. $5 million. If you request Institutional Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for Institutional Shares, your investment will be placed in another share class of the Fund, as appropriate.

Certain Vanguard institutional clients may meet the minimum investment amount by aggregating separate accounts within the same Fund. This aggregation policy does not apply to financial intermediaries.

Vanguard may charge additional recordkeeping fees for institutional clients whose accounts are recordkept by Vanguard. Please contact your Vanguard representative to determine whether additional recordkeeping fees apply to your account.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

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How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for Funds in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the net asset value (NAV) as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account falls on the last business day of the year, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you select the first of the month for automated withdrawals from your designated bank account, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

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Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

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For a conversion request received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions to Institutional Shares

You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from Admiral Shares to Institutional Shares of the same Fund, provided that your account meets all Institutional Shares’ eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares will not be automatically converted.

Mandatory Conversions to Admiral Shares

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for Institutional Shares, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to Admiral Shares. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular

30


 

schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and your fund account will also be assessed the $10 fee by redeeming additional fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the fee amount. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone

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requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on the last day of the year and if that date is a holiday, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you designate the first of the month for automated withdrawals, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by a Fund within one business day of the trade

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date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 15-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

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Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

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These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange

Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain

types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as

trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests

submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

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* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

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Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

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Written instructions also must generally include:

• An original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions may be acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

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Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Low-Balance Accounts

Each Fund reserves the right to convert an investor’s Institutional Shares to Admiral Shares if the fund account balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. Any such conversion will be preceded by written notice to the investor.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

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Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

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Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds twice a year, in February and August. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Funds‘ Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Employer-Sponsored Plans

Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect a Fund as an investment option.

• If you have any questions about a Fund or Vanguard, including those about a Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.

• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.

• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.

Transactions

Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to a Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.

If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Participant Services 800-523-1188 For information and services for participants in employer-
(Text telephone for people with hearing sponsored plans
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102  
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies

 

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Vanguard Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the processing of your transaction.

Regular Mail (Individuals) The Vanguard Group    
  P.O. Box 1110      
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110    
Regular Mail (Institutions, Intermediaries, and The Vanguard Group    
Employer-Sponsored Plan Participants) P.O. Box 2900      
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900    
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail The Vanguard Group    
  455 Devon Park Drive    
  Wayne, PA 19087-1815    
 
 
Additional Information        
 
 
      Vanguard  
    Newspaper Fund CUSIP
Inception Date Abbreviation Number Number
Tax-Managed Capital Appreciation Fund        
Institutional Shares 2/24/1999 TxMCaInst 135 921943601
Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund        
Institutional Shares 4/21/1999 TxMSCInst 118 921943502

 

CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

The Product is not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by Frank Russell Company (“Russell”). Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Product or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Product particularly or the ability of the Russell 1000 Index to track general stock market performance or a segment of the same. Russell’s publication of the Russell 1000 Index in no way suggests or implies an opinion by Russell as to the advisability of investment in any or all of the securities upon which the Russell 1000 Index is based. Russell’s only relationship to The Vanguard Group, Inc., is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of Russell and of the Russell 1000 Index, which is determined, composed, and calculated by Russell without regard to The Vanguard Group, Inc., or the Product. Russell is not responsible for and has not reviewed the Product nor any associated literature or publications and Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, as to their accuracy or completeness, or otherwise. Russell has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the Product.

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Russell makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee as to the accuracy, completeness, reliability or otherwise of the Russell Indexes or any data included in the Russell Indexes. Russell does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Russell 1000 Index or any data included therein and Russell shall have no liability for any errors, omissions, or interruptions therein. Russell makes no warranty, express or implied, as to the use of or results to be obtained by The Vanguard Group, Inc., investors, owners of the product, or any other person or entity from the use of the Russell 1000 Index or any data included therein. Russell makes no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Russell 1000 Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall Russell have any liability for any special, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages (including lost profits), even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

Russell reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate, or in any way change the Russell Indexes. Russell has no obligation to take the needs of any particular fund or its participants or any other product or person into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating any of the Russell Indexes.

The “S&P SmallCap 600 Index” (the “Index”) is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“SPDJI”), and has been licensed for use by Vanguard. Standard & Poor’s® and S&P® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”); Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”); S&P® and S&P 500® are trademarks of S&P; and these trademarks have been licensed for use by SPDJI and sublicensed for certain purposes by Vanguard. Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by SPDJI, Dow Jones, S&P, or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund particularly or the ability of the S&P SmallCap 600 Index to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Vanguard with respect to the S&P SmallCap 600 Index is the licensing of the Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices and/or its licensors. The S&P SmallCap 600 Index is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to Vanguard or Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take the needs of Vanguard or the owners of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the S&P SmallCap 600 Index. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund or the timing of the issuance or sale of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund is to be converted into cash, surrendered or redeemed, as the case may be. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of Vanguard Tax-Managed Small-Cap Fund. There is no assurance that investment products based on the S&P SmallCap 600 Index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment advisor. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY VANGUARD, OWNERS OF VANGUARD TAX-MANAGED SMALL-CAP FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND VANGUARD, OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Cash Equivalent Investments. Cash deposits, short-term bank deposits, and money market instruments that include U.S. Treasury bills and notes, bank certificates of deposit (CDs), repurchase agreements, commercial paper, and banker’s acceptances.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Joint Committed Credit Facility. Each Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the fund’s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.

Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

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New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

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Institutional Division P.O. Box 2900 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900

Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com

For More Information

If you would like more information about Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds, the following documents are available free upon request:

Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders

Additional information about the Funds’ investments is available in the Funds’ annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ performance during their last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information (SAI)

The SAI provides more detailed information about the Funds and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.

To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report or the SAI, or to request additional information about the Funds or other Vanguard funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:

If you are an individual investor:

The Vanguard Group

Investor Information Department P.O. Box 2900 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900

Telephone: 800-662-7447; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a client of Vanguard’s Institutional Division:

The Vanguard Group

Institutional Investor Information Department P.O. Box 2900 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900 Telephone: 888-809-8102; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would like information about your account, account transactions, and/or account statements, please call:

Client Services Department

Telephone: 800-662-2739; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

You can review and copy information about the Funds (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and other information about the Funds are also available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.

Funds’ Investment Company Act file number: 811-07175

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

I 135 042018


Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund
Prospectus
 
April 25, 2018
 
Investor Shares & Admiral™ Shares
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Investor Shares (VDVIX)
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares (VTMGX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Fund through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Fund Summary 1 Investing With Vanguard 26
Investing in Index Funds 7 Purchasing Shares 26
More on the Fund 8 Converting Shares 29
The Fund and Vanguard 16 Redeeming Shares 31
Investment Advisor 17 Exchanging Shares 35
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 18 Frequent-Trading Limitations 35
Share Price 21 Other Rules You Should Know 37
Financial Highlights 23 Fund and Account Updates 42
    Employer-Sponsored Plans 43
    Contacting Vanguard 44
    Additional Information 45
    Glossary of Investment Terms 46

 


 

Fund Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in Canada and the major markets of Europe and the Pacific region.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $20/year $20/year
$10,000)    
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Management Fees 0.13% 0.05%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.04% 0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.17% 0.07%

 

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Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Investor Shares $17 $55 $96 $217
Admiral Shares $7 $23 $40 $90

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index, a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 3,790 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in Canada and the major markets of Europe and the Pacific region. The Fund attempts to replicate the target index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the stocks that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Significant investments in Japan and the United Kingdom (U.K.) subject the Index and the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to Japanese and U.K. country risk.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from non-U.S. small- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Historically, non-U.S. small- and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than the large-cap stocks that dominate the global markets, and they often perform quite differently. Small and mid-size companies tend to have greater stock volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

3


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and tables are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Admiral Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The tables show how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund’s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Developed ex US Index reflects performance of the MSCI EAFE Index through May 28, 2013; the FTSE Developed ex North America Index through December 20, 2015; the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Transition Index through May 31, 2016; and the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

 

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 25.41% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –20.03% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).

4


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares      
Return Before Taxes 26.40% 8.28% 2.34%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 25.44 7.49 1.83
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 15.50 6.39 1.84
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index 26.31% 8.06% 2.52%
FTSE Developed ex North America Index 26.76 8.27 2.44
Spliced Developed ex US Index 26.31 8.51 2.23
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Fair Value Index 26.72 7.87
    Since  
    Inception  
    (Dec. 19,  
  1 Year 2013)  
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Investor Shares      
Return Before Taxes 26.31% 5.80%  
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index 26.31% 5.93%  
FTSE Developed ex North America Index 26.76 5.94  
Spliced Developed ex US Index 26.31 6.00  
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Fair Value Index 26.72 5.93  

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Admiral Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

5


 

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed the Fund since 2013 (co-managed since 2016).

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2017.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Investor Shares or Admiral Shares is $3,000 or $10,000, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

6


 

Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

7


 

More on the Fund

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Admiral Shares. A separate prospectus offers the Fund’s Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively. In addition, the Fund issues ETF Shares (an exchange-traded class of shares), which are also offered through a separate prospectus.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All mutual funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of
the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund’s expense ratios
would be as follows: for Investor Shares, 0.17%, or $1.70 per $1,000 of average
net assets; for Admiral Shares, 0.07%, or $0.70 per $1,000 of average net
assets. The average expense ratio for international funds in 2017 was 1.31%, or
$13.10 per $1,000 of average net assets (derived from data provided by Lipper, a
Thomson Reuters Company, which reports on the mutual fund industry).

 

8


 

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests all, or substantially all, of its assets in the stocks included in the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index.


The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

9


 

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically
associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate
differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and
governments are not subject to the same accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and
financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S.
government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar
U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond
markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and
regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among
others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign
investments.

 


The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

When the U.S. dollar rises in value versus another currency, returns from foreign stocks are reduced because a given sum in foreign currency translates into fewer U.S. dollars. Conversely, a decline in the U.S. dollar enhances returns from foreign stocks.

International investing involves other risks and considerations, including generally higher costs for trading securities; foreign withholding taxes payable on the Fund’s securities, which can reduce dividend income available to distribute to shareholders; and adverse changes in regulatory or legal climates.

To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

10


 

Foreign Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1970–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 69.4% 36.1% 22.0% 15.5%
Worst –43.4 –4.7 0.7 3.1
Average 11.1 9.4 9.5 9.7

 

The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2017. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2008 through 2017, as measured by their respective indexes.

Average Annual Returns for Various Stock Markets 1    
  European Pacific U.S.
  Market2 Market2 Market
2008 –46.42% –36.42% –37.00%
2009 35.83 24.18 26.46
2010 3.88 15.92 15.06
2011 –11.06 –13.74 2.11
2012 19.12 14.42 16.00
2013 25.23 18.27 32.39
2014 –6.18 –2.70 13.69
2015 –2.84 2.96 1.38
2016 –0.40 4.18 11.96
2017 25.51 24.64 21.83

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns reflect the reinvestment of cash dividends after deduction of withholding tax by applying the maximum rate of the company’s country of incorporation applicable to institutional investors.

11


 

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Fund in particular.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors. The asset-weighted median market capitalization of the Fund’s stock holdings as of December 31, 2017, was $29.5 billion.


The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from non-U.S. small- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Historically, non-U.S. small- and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than the large-cap stocks that dominate the global markets, and they often perform quite differently. Small and mid-size companies tend to have greater stock volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

Plain Talk About Regional Versus Broad International Investing
 
Regional funds are international funds that invest in a particular geographical
region, such as Europe or the Pacific Basin. Because they concentrate their
holdings in a single region, these funds typically have higher share price volatility
than broadly diversified international stock funds (which, by investing in many
different foreign markets, may offset losses from one country with gains from
another at any given time).

 

Security Selection

The Fund uses the replication method of indexing, meaning that the Fund generally holds the same stocks as those in its target index and in approximately the same proportions.

The Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, the Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country, but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, the Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from

12


 

holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. The Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. The Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund’s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

The Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its benchmark index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

13


 

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Under normal circumstances, the Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with other positive cash flows. When this is not an option, the Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions, while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, the Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section.

Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that the Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. The Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, the Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

14


 

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, it may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Fund. A

15


 

turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that the Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with
high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-
term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to
shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.5 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

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Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Index Group. As of December 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.9 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of 0.01% of the Fund’s average net assets.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Fund‘s board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in the Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Fund‘s sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to the Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Fund has filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Fund may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended June 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has managed the Fund since 2013 (co-managed since 2016). Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, and has co-managed the Fund since 2017. Education: B.S., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.

From time to time, the Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

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• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you

complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

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Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan),
you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund
makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.

• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Fund offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

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Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

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Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report—along with the Fund’s financial statements—is included in the Fund‘s most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the Fund’s Investor Shares as an example. The Investor
Shares began fiscal year 2017 with a net asset value (share price) of $9.09 per
share. During the year, each Investor Share earned $0.284 from investment
income (interest and dividends) and $2.086 from investments that had
appreciated in value or that were sold for higher prices than the Fund paid for
them.
 
Shareholders received $0.30 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $11.16, reflecting earnings of $2.37 per
share and distributions of $0.30 per share. This was an increase of $2.07 per
share (from $9.09 at the beginning of the year to $11.16 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 26.31% for the year.
 
As of December 31, 2017, the Investor Shares had approximately $950 million in
net assets. For the year, the expense ratio was 0.17% ($1.70 per $1,000 of net
assets), and the net investment income amounted to 2.71% of average net
assets. The Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 3% of its net assets.

 

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Developed Markets Index Fund Investor Shares        
          Dec. 19,
    Year Ended December 31, 20131 to
          Dec. 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $9.09 $9.15 $9.42 $10.34 $10.00
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .2842 .262 .261 .337 .008
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on          
Investments 2.086 (.054) (.276) (.919) .332
Total from Investment Operations 2.370 .208 (.015) (.582) .340
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.300) (.268) (.255) (.338)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.300) (.268) (.255) (.338)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $11.16 $9.09 $9.15 $9.42 $10.34
Total Return3 26.31% 2.36% –0.29% –5.82% 3.40%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $950 $875 $1,040 $1,331 $0.1
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets 0.17% 0.17% 0.20% 0.20% 0.20%4
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average          
Net Assets 2.71% 3.00% 2.73% 3.22% 2.80%4
Portfolio Turnover Rate5 3% 11% 3% 4% 13%

 

1      Inception.
2      Calculated based on average shares outstanding.
3      Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.
4      Annualized.
5      Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.

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Developed Markets Index Fund Admiral Shares        
 
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $11.74 $11.82 $12.17 $13.35 $11.26
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .3751 .350 .352 .450 .353
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 2.695 (.071) (.358) (1.180) 2.085
Total from Investment Operations 3.070 .279 (.006) (.730) 2.438
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.400) (.359) (.344) (.450) (.348)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.400) (.359) (.344) (.450) (.348)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $14.41 $11.74 $11.82 $12.17 $13.35
Total Return2 26.40% 2.45% –0.18% –5.66% 22.06%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $15,180 $9,702 $7,921 $6,068 $2,060
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average          
Net Assets 0.07% 0.07% 0.09% 0.09% 0.09%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.81% 3.10% 2.84% 3.33% 2.91%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 3% 11% 3% 4% 13%

 

The Fund’s original Investor Shares were renamed Admiral Shares as of the close of business on May 13, 2011. The Investor Shares recommenced on December 19, 2013, and are presented separately.

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.

3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Investor Shares To open and maintain an account. $3,000.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

Account Minimums for Admiral Shares

To open and maintain an account. $10,000. If you request Admiral Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for Admiral Shares, your investment will be placed in Investor Shares of the Fund. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

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How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

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By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the net asset value (NAV) as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account falls on the last business day of the year, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you select the first of the month for automated withdrawals from your designated bank account, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

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If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Admiral Shares. Admiral Shares generally are not available for SIMPLE IRAs and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.

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Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions From Investor Shares to Admiral Shares

Self-directed conversions. If your account balance in the Fund is at least $10,000, you may ask Vanguard to convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. See Contacting Vanguard. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

Automatic conversions. Vanguard conducts periodic reviews of account balances and may, if your account balance in the Fund exceeds $10,000, automatically convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You will be notified before an automatic conversion occurs and will have an opportunity to instruct Vanguard not to effect the conversion. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

Conversions to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares

You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from another share class to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund, provided that your account meets all eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to

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request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares will not be automatically converted.

Conversions to ETF Shares

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.

Mandatory Conversions to Another Share Class

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for a share class, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to another share class, as appropriate. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

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By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and your fund account will also be assessed the $10 fee by redeeming additional fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the fee amount. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

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For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on the last day of the year and if that date is a holiday, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you designate the first of the month for automated withdrawals, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

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If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by the Fund within one business day of the trade date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 15-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

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Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places

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certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange

Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain

types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as

trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

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• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests

submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an

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attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

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• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

Written instructions also must generally include:

• An original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions may be acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

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Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Account Service Fee

Vanguard charges a $20 account service fee on fund accounts that have a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation. The account service fee applies to both retirement and nonretirement fund accounts and will be assessed on fund accounts in all Vanguard funds, regardless of the account minimum. The fee, which will be collected by redeeming fund shares in the amount of $20, will be deducted from a fund account only once per calendar year.

If you register on vanguard.com and elect to receive electronic delivery of statements, reports, and other materials for all of your fund accounts, the account service fee for balances below $10,000 will not be charged, so long as that election remains in effect.

The account service fee also does not apply to the following:

• Money market sweep accounts owned in connection with a Vanguard Brokerage Services® account.*

• Accounts held through intermediaries.*

• Accounts held by institutional clients.

• Accounts held by Voyager, Voyager Select, Flagship, and Flagship Select clients.

Eligibility is based on total household assets held at Vanguard, with a minimum of $50,000 to qualify for Vanguard Voyager Services®, $500,000 for Vanguard Voyager Select Services®, $1 million for Vanguard Flagship Services®, and $5 million for Vanguard Flagship Select Services. Vanguard determines eligibility by aggregating assets of all qualifying accounts held by the investor and immediate family members who reside at the same address. Aggregate assets include investments in Vanguard mutual funds, Vanguard ETFs®, certain annuities through Vanguard, the Vanguard 529 Plan, and certain small-business accounts. Assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which Vanguard provides recordkeeping services may be included in

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determining eligibility if the investor also has a personal account holding Vanguard mutual funds. Note that assets held in a Vanguard Brokerage Services account (other than Vanguard funds, including Vanguard ETFs) are not included when determining a household’s eligibility.

• Participant accounts in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans.** Please consult your enrollment materials for the rules that apply to your account.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

* Please note that intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services, may charge a separate fee.

** The following Vanguard fund accounts have alternative fee structures: SIMPLE

IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Low-Balance Accounts

The Fund reserves the right to liquidate a fund account whose balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. This liquidation policy applies to nonretirement fund accounts and accounts that are held through intermediaries. Any such liquidation will be preceded by written notice to the investor.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

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Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

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Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund twice a year, in February and August. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Employer-Sponsored Plans

Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect the Fund as an investment option.

• If you have any questions about the Fund or Vanguard, including those about the Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.

• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.

• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.

Transactions

Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to the Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.

If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Participant Services 800-523-1188 For information and services for participants in employer-
(Text telephone for people with hearing sponsored plans
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102  
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies

 

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Vanguard Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the processing of your transaction.

Regular Mail (Individuals)   The Vanguard Group    
    P.O. Box 1110    
    Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110  
Regular Mail (Institutions, Intermediaries, and The Vanguard Group    
Employer-Sponsored Plan Participants)   P.O. Box 2900    
    Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900  
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail   The Vanguard Group    
    455 Devon Park Drive    
    Wayne, PA 19087-1815  
 
 
Additional Information          
 
 
  Inception Newspaper Vanguard CUSIP
    Date Abbreviation Fund Number Number
Developed Markets Index Fund          
Investor Shares 12/19/2013 TxMInInv 1397 92206J107
Admiral Shares 8/17/1999 TxMIn 127 921943809

 

London Stock Exchange Group companies include FTSE International Limited ("FTSE"), Frank Russell Company ("Russell"), MTS Next Limited ("MTS"), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. ("FTSE TMX"). All rights reserved. "FTSE®", "Russell®", "MTS®", "FTSE TMX®" and "FTSE Russell" and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence. All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the Indices or the fitness or suitability of the Indices for any particular purpose to which they might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Fair Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Fair Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

FTSE Developed ex North America Index. An index that includes common stocks of companies located in developed countries of Europe, Australia, Asia, and the Far East.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Joint Committed Credit Facility. The Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the fund’s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.

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Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

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P.O. Box 2600

Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600

Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com

For More Information

If you would like more information about Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund, the following documents are available free upon request:

Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders

Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information (SAI)

The SAI provides more detailed information about the Fund and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.

To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report or the SAI, or to request additional information about the Fund or other Vanguard funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:

If you are an individual investor:

The Vanguard Group

Investor Information Department P.O. Box 2600 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600

Telephone: 800-662-7447; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a participant in an employer-sponsored plan:

The Vanguard Group Participant Services P.O. Box 2900 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900

Telephone: 800-523-1188; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would like information about your account, account transactions, and/or account statements, please call:

Client Services Department

Telephone: 800-662-2739; Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

You can review and copy information about the Fund (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and other information about the Fund are also available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.

Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-07175

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

P 1397 042018


Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund
Prospectus
 
April 25, 2018
 
Institutional Shares & Institutional Plus Shares
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Shares (VTMNX)
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares (VDIPX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Fund through the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Fund Summary 1 Investing With Vanguard 26
Investing in Index Funds 7 Purchasing Shares 26
More on the Fund 8 Converting Shares 29
The Fund and Vanguard 16 Redeeming Shares 31
Investment Advisor 17 Exchanging Shares 34
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 18 Frequent-Trading Limitations 35
Share Price 21 Other Rules You Should Know 37
Financial Highlights 23 Fund and Account Updates 40
    Employer-Sponsored Plans 42
    Contacting Vanguard 43
    Additional Information 44
    Glossary of Investment Terms 45

 


 

Fund Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in Canada and the major markets of Europe and the Pacific region.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Management Fees 0.04% 0.04%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.02% 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.06% 0.05%

 

1


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Institutional Shares $6 $19 $34 $77
Institutional Plus Shares $5 $16 $28 $64

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index, a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 3,790 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in Canada and the major markets of Europe and the Pacific region. The Fund attempts to replicate the target index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the stocks that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Significant investments in Japan and the United Kingdom (U.K.) subject the Index and the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to Japanese and U.K. country risk.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from non-U.S. small- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Historically, non-U.S. small- and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than the large-cap stocks that dominate the global markets, and they often perform quite differently. Small and mid-size companies tend to have greater stock volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

3


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and tables are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The tables show how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund’s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Developed ex US Index reflects performance of the MSCI EAFE Index through May 28, 2013; the FTSE Developed ex North America Index through December 20, 2015; the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Transition Index through May 31, 2016; and the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

 

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 25.37% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –20.02% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).

4


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Shares      
Return Before Taxes 26.46% 8.30% 2.38%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 25.50 7.51 1.87
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 15.54 6.41 1.88
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index 26.31% 8.06% 2.52%
FTSE Developed ex North America Index 26.76 8.27 2.44
Spliced Developed ex US Index 26.31 8.51 2.23
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Fair Value Index 26.72 7.87
    Since  
    Inception  
    (Apr. 1,  
  1 Year 2014)  
Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares    
Return Before Taxes 26.49% 5.16%  
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index 26.31% 5.09%  
FTSE Developed ex North America Index 26.76 5.24  
Spliced Developed ex US Index 26.31 5.31  
FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Fair Value Index 26.72 5.00  

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Institutional Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

5


 

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed the Fund since 2013 (co-managed since 2016).

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2017.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares is $5 million or $100 million, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

6


 

Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

7


 

More on the Fund

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance

for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this  symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively. A separate prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Admiral™ Shares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000 and $10,000, respectively. In addition, the Fund issues ETF Shares (an exchange-traded class of shares), which are also offered through a separate prospectus.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment returns will differ.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All mutual funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of
the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund’s expense ratios
would be as follows: for Institutional Shares, 0.06%, or $0.60 per $1,000 of
average net assets; for Institutional Plus Shares, 0.05%, or $0.50 per $1,000 of
average net assets. The average expense ratio for international funds in 2017 was
1.31%, or $13.10 per $1,000 of average net assets (derived from data provided by
Lipper, a Thomson Reuters Company, which reports on the mutual fund industry).

 

8


 

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund’s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days’ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests all, or substantially all, of its assets in the stocks included in the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index.


The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

9


 

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically
associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate
differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and
governments are not subject to the same accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and
financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S.
government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar
U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond
markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and
regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among
others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign
investments.

 


The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

When the U.S. dollar rises in value versus another currency, returns from foreign stocks are reduced because a given sum in foreign currency translates into fewer U.S. dollars. Conversely, a decline in the U.S. dollar enhances returns from foreign stocks.

International investing involves other risks and considerations, including generally higher costs for trading securities; foreign withholding taxes payable on the Fund’s securities, which can reduce dividend income available to distribute to shareholders; and adverse changes in regulatory or legal climates.

To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

10


 

Foreign Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1970–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 69.4% 36.1% 22.0% 15.5%
Worst –43.4 –4.7 0.7 3.1
Average 11.1 9.4 9.5 9.7

 

The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2017. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2008 through 2017, as measured by their respective indexes.

Average Annual Returns for Various Stock Markets 1    
  European Pacific U.S.
  Market2 Market2 Market
2008 –46.42% –36.42% –37.00%
2009 35.83 24.18 26.46
2010 3.88 15.92 15.06
2011 –11.06 –13.74 2.11
2012 19.12 14.42 16.00
2013 25.23 18.27 32.39
2014 –6.18 –2.70 13.69
2015 –2.84 2.96 1.38
2016 –0.40 4.18 11.96
2017 25.51 24.64 21.83

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns reflect the reinvestment of cash dividends after deduction of withholding tax by applying the maximum rate of the company’s country of incorporation applicable to institutional investors.

11


 

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Fund in particular.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors. The asset-weighted median market capitalization of the Fund’s stock holdings as of December 31, 2017, was $29.5 billion.


The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from non-U.S. small- and mid-capitalization stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Historically, non-U.S. small- and mid-cap stocks have been more volatile in price than the large-cap stocks that dominate the global markets, and they often perform quite differently. Small and mid-size companies tend to have greater stock volatility because, among other things, these companies tend to be more sensitive to changing economic conditions.

Plain Talk About Regional Versus Broad International Investing
 
Regional funds are international funds that invest in a particular geographical
region, such as Europe or the Pacific Basin. Because they concentrate their
holdings in a single region, these funds typically have higher share price volatility
than broadly diversified international stock funds (which, by investing in many
different foreign markets, may offset losses from one country with gains from
another at any given time).

 

Security Selection

The Fund uses the replication method of indexing, meaning that the Fund generally holds the same stocks as those in its target index and in approximately the same proportions.

The Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, the Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country, but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, the Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from

12


 

holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. The Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. The Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund’s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

The Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its benchmark index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

13


 

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Under normal circumstances, the Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with other positive cash flows. When this is not an option, the Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions, while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, the Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section.

Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that the Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. The Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, the Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

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Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, it may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Fund. A

15


 

turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that the Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with
high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-
term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to
shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.5 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although fund shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

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Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Index Group. As of December 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.9 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of 0.01% of the Fund’s average net assets.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Fund‘s board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in the Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Fund‘s sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to the Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Fund has filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Fund may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended June 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has managed the Fund since 2013 (co-managed since 2016). Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, and has co-managed the Fund since 2017. Education: B.S., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.

From time to time, the Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

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• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you

complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

19


 

Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan),
you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund
makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.

• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Fund offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

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Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

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Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report—along with the Fund’s financial statements—is included in the Fund‘s most recent annual report to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the Fund’s Institutional Shares as an example. The
Institutional Shares began fiscal year 2017 with a net asset value (share price) of
$11.75 per share. During the year, each Institutional Share earned $0.379 from
investment income (interest and dividends) and $2.701 from investments that
had appreciated in value or that were sold for higher prices than the Fund paid for
them.
 
Shareholders received $0.40 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $14.43, reflecting earnings of $3.08
per share and distributions of $0.40 per share. This was an increase of $2.68 per
share (from $11.75 at the beginning of the year to $14.43 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 26.46% for the year.
 
As of December 31, 2017, the Institutional Shares had approximately $12 billion in
net assets. For the year, the expense ratio was 0.06% ($0.60 per $1,000 of net
assets), and the net investment income amounted to 2.82% of average net
assets. The Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 3% of its net assets.

 

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Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Shares        
 
      Year Ended December 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $11.75 $11.83 $12.18 $13.37 $11.27
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .3791 .352 .354 .452 .356
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 2.701 (.072) (.358) (1.190) 2.094
Total from Investment Operations 3.080 .280 (.004) (.738) 2.450
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.400) (.360) (.346) (.452) (.350)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.400) (.360) (.346) (.452) (.350)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $14.43 $11.75 $11.83 $12.18 $13.37
Total Return 26.46% 2.46% –0.17% –5.72% 22.15%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $11,998 $9,092 $8,093 $7,743 $482
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets 0.06% 0.06% 0.07% 0.07% 0.07%
Ratio of Net Investment Income          
to Average Net Assets 2.82% 3.11% 2.86% 3.35% 2.93%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 3% 11% 3% 4% 13%

 

1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.

2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.

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Developed Markets Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares      
 
 
      Year Ended Apr. 1,
    December 31, 20141 to
        Dec. 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $18.37 $18.49 $19.05 $20.90
Investment Operations        
Net Investment Income .5972 .552 .558 .438
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)        
on Investments 4.223 (.107) (.573) (1.798)
Total from Investment Operations 4.820 .445 (.015) (1.360)
Distributions        
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.630) (.565) (.545) (.490)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.630) (.565) (.545) (.490)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $22.56 $18.37 $18.49 $19.05
Total Return 26.49% 2.50% –0.21% –6.67%
Ratios/Supplemental Data        
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $10,102 $7,444 $7,253 $5,918
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets 0.05% 0.05% 0.06% 0.06%3
Ratio of Net Investment Income to Average Net Assets 2.83% 3.12% 2.87% 2.92%3
Portfolio Turnover Rate4 3% 11% 3% 4%

 

1 Inception.

2 Calculated based on average shares outstanding. 3 Annualized.

4 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares To open and maintain an account. Institutional Shares—$5 million; Institutional Plus Shares—$100 million. If you request Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for the requested share class, your investment will be placed in another share class of the Fund, as appropriate.

Certain Vanguard institutional clients may meet the minimum investment amount by aggregating separate accounts within the same Fund. This aggregation policy does not apply to financial intermediaries.

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Vanguard may charge additional recordkeeping fees for institutional clients whose accounts are recordkept by Vanguard. Please contact your Vanguard representative to determine whether additional recordkeeping fees apply to your account.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

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By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the net asset value (NAV) as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account falls on the last business day of the year, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you select the first of the month for automated withdrawals from your designated bank account, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

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If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares

You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from another share class to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund, provided that your account meets all eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares will not be automatically converted.

Conversions to ETF Shares

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.

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Mandatory Conversions to Another Share Class

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for a share class, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to another share class, as appropriate. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and your fund account will also be assessed the $10 fee by redeeming additional fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the fee amount. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through

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intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares

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generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on the last day of the year and if that date is a holiday, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you designate the first of the month for automated withdrawals, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by the Fund within one business day of the trade date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that

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the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 15-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade

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date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange

Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain

types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

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• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as

trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests

submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an

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intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

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Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

Written instructions also must generally include:

• An original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions may be acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

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Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Low-Balance Accounts

The Fund reserves the right to convert an investor’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares to another share class, as appropriate, if the investor’s fund account balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. Any such conversion will be preceded by written notice to the investor.

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Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

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Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard Developed Markets Index Fund twice a year, in February and August. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

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Employer-Sponsored Plans

Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect the Fund as an investment option.

• If you have any questions about the Fund or Vanguard, including those about the Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.

• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.

• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.

Transactions

Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to the Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.

If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Participant Services 800-523-1188 For information and services for participants in employer-
(Text telephone for people with hearing sponsored plans
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors