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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from            to            

 

Commission file number 1-13232 (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

Commission file number 0-56223 (Aimco OP L.P.)

Apartment Investment and Management Company

Aimco OP L.P.

 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Maryland (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

 

84-1259577

Delaware (Aimco OP L.P.)

 

85-2460835

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

4582 South Ulster Street, Suite 1450

Denver, Colorado

 

80237

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (303) 224-7900

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Class A Common Stock (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

 

AIV

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

Partnership Common Units (Aimco OP L.P.)

(title of each class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

Aimco OP L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☐   No  

Aimco OP L.P.:  Yes  ☐   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

Aimco OP L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

Aimco OP L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


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Apartment Investment and Management Company:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

Aimco OP L.P.:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  

Aimco OP L.P.:    

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

Aimco OP L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes     No  

Aimco OP L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock of Apartment Investment and Management Company held by non-affiliates of Apartment Investment and Management Company was approximately $5.6 billion based upon the closing price of $37.64 on June 30, 2020.

 

As of March 10, 2021, there were 149,208,479 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

 

Portions of Part III will be incorporated by reference in accordance with Instruction G (3) to Form 10-K no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year.

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

On December 15, 2020, Apartment Investment and Management Company (“Aimco” or “the Company”) completed the previously announced separation of its business into two, separate and distinct, publicly traded companies, Aimco and Apartment Income REIT Corp. (“AIR”). The separation was effected by way of a pro rata distribution, in which stockholders of Aimco received one share of Class A common stock of AIR for every one share of Class A common stock of Aimco held as of the close of business on December 5, 2020. AIMCO Properties, L.P. (“AIR Operating Partnership”) also completed a pro rata distribution of all of the outstanding common limited partnership units of Aimco OP L.P. (“Aimco Operating Partnership” and such units, “Aimco OP Units”) to holders of AIR Operating Partnership common limited partnership units and AIR Operating Partnership Class I High Performance partnership units as of the close of business on December 5, 2020. The transactions described in this paragraph are collectively referred to as the “Separation.”

Notwithstanding the legal form of the Separation, for accounting and financial reporting purposes, Aimco is presented as being spun-off from AIR. This presentation is in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, and is due primarily to the relative significance of Aimco’s business, as measured in terms of revenues, net income, assets, and other relevant indicators, as compared to those indicators for AIR before the Separation. Therefore, Aimco is the accounting spinnee and AIR is considered the divesting entity and treated as the accounting spinnor (“Aimco Predecessor”). A separate capital structure did not exist since the assets, liabilities and operations of Aimco prior to the Separation (Aimco and AIR together, as they existed prior to the Separation, “Aimco Predecessor”) were spread across multiple legal entities. The historical financial statements of Aimco do not represent the financial position and results of operations of one legal entity, but rather a combination of entities under common control that have been “carved out” from Aimco Predecessor’s financial statements.

This filing combines the Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, of Aimco and Aimco Operating Partnership. Where it is important to distinguish between the two entities, we refer to them specifically. Otherwise, references to “we,” “us,” or “our” mean collectively Aimco, the Aimco Operating Partnership, and their consolidated entities.

Aimco, a Maryland corporation, is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (“REIT”). Aimco, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, is the general partner and directly is the special limited partner of the Aimco Operating Partnership. As of December 31, 2020, Aimco owned approximately 93.2% of the legal interest in the common partnership units of the Aimco Operating Partnership and 94.8% of the economic interest in the Aimco Operating Partnership. The remaining 6.8% legal interest is owned by limited partners. As the sole general partner of the Aimco Operating Partnership, Aimco has exclusive control of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s day-to-day management.

The Aimco Operating Partnership holds all of Aimco’s assets and manages the daily operations of Aimco’s business. Pursuant to the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement, Aimco is required to contribute to the Aimco Operating Partnership all proceeds from the offerings of its securities. In exchange for the contribution of such proceeds, Aimco receives additional interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership with similar terms (e.g., if Aimco contributes proceeds of a stock offering, Aimco receives partnership units with terms substantially similar to the stock issued by Aimco).

We believe combining the periodic reports of Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership into this single report provides the following benefits:

 

We present our business as a whole, in the same manner our management views and operates the business;

 

We eliminate duplicative disclosure and provide a more streamlined and readable presentation because a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership; and

 

We save time and cost through the preparation of a single combined report rather than two separate reports.

We operate Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership as one enterprise, the management of Aimco directs the management and operations of the Aimco Operating Partnership, and Aimco OP GP, LLC, Aimco Operating Partnership’s general partner, is member managed by Aimco.

We believe it is important to understand the few differences between Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership in the context of how Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership operate as a consolidated company. Aimco has no assets or liabilities other than its investment in the Aimco Operating Partnership. Also, Aimco is a corporation that issues publicly traded equity from time to time, whereas the Aimco Operating Partnership is a partnership that has no publicly traded equity. Except for the net proceeds from stock offerings by Aimco, which are contributed to the Aimco Operating Partnership in exchange for additional limited partnership interests (of a similar type and in an amount equal to the shares of stock sold in the offering), the Aimco Operating Partnership generates all remaining capital required by its business. These sources include the Aimco Operating Partnership’s working capital, net cash provided by operating activities, borrowings under its revolving credit facility, the issuance of debt and equity securities, including additional partnership units, and proceeds received from the sale of apartment communities.


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Equity, partners’ capital, and noncontrolling interests are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of Aimco and those of the Aimco Operating Partnership. Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership held by entities other than Aimco, which we refer to as OP Units, are classified within partners’ capital in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s consolidated financial statements and as noncontrolling interests in Aimco’s consolidated financial statements.

To help investors understand the differences between Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership, this report provides separate consolidated financial statements for Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership; a single set of consolidated notes to such financial statements that includes separate discussions of each entity’s stockholders’ equity or partners’ capital, and earnings per share or earnings per unit, as applicable; and a combined Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section that includes discrete information related to each entity.

This report also includes separate Part II, Item 9A. Controls and Procedures sections and separate Exhibits 31 and 32 certifications for Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership in order to establish that the requisite certifications have been made and that Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership are both compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and 18 U.S.C. §1350.

 

 


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APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

AIMCO OP, L.P.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

Item

 

Page

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

1.

Business

2

 

 

 

1A.

Risk Factors

4

 

 

 

1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

18

 

 

 

2.

Properties

19

 

 

 

3.

Legal Proceedings

20

 

 

 

4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

20

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

21

 

 

 

6.

Selected Financial Data

24

 

 

 

7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

25

 

 

 

7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

35

 

 

 

8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

35

 

 

 

9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

36

 

 

 

9A.

Controls and Procedures

36

 

 

 

9B.

Other Information

40

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

41

 

 

 

11.

Executive Compensation

41

 

 

 

12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

41

 

 

 

13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

41

 

 

 

14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

41

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

42

 

 

 

16.

Form 10-K Summary

45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements in certain circumstances. Certain information included in this Annual Report contains or may contain information that is forward-looking, within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including, without limitation, statements regarding: the ongoing relationship between Aimco and AIR following the Separation; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including our ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rental rate and property operating results; the effect of acquisitions, dispositions, redevelopments, and developments; our ability to meet budgeted costs and timelines, and achieve budgeted rental rates related to our development and redevelopment investments; expectations regarding sales of our apartment communities and the use of proceeds thereof; the availability and cost of corporate debt; and our ability to comply with debt covenants, including financial coverage ratios.

These forward-looking statements are based on management’s judgment as of this date, which is subject to risks and uncertainties. Risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations include, but are not limited to: the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on Aimco’s business and on the global and U.S. economies generally, and the ongoing, dynamic and uncertain nature and duration of the pandemic, all of which heightens the impact of the other risks and factors described herein, and the impact on entities in which Aimco holds a partial interest, and the impact of the coronavirus related lockdown on Aimco’s residents, commercial tenants, and operations; real estate and operating risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in the markets in which we operate and competition for residents in such markets; national and local economic conditions, including the pace of job growth and the level of unemployment; the amount, location and quality of competitive new housing supply; the timing and effects of acquisitions, dispositions, redevelopments and developments; changes in operating costs, including energy costs; negative economic conditions in our geographies of operation; loss of key personnel; Aimco’s ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rental rate and property operating results; ability to meet budgeted costs and timelines, and, if applicable, achieve budgeted rental rates related to development and redevelopment investments; expectations regarding sales of apartment communities and the use of proceeds thereof; insurance risks, including the cost of insurance, and natural disasters and severe weather such as hurricanes; financing risks, including the availability and cost of financing; the risk that cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; the risk that earnings may not be sufficient to maintain compliance with debt covenants, including financial coverage ratios; legal and regulatory risks, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending claims and any adverse outcomes; the terms of laws and governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those laws and regulations; possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of apartment communities presently or previously owned by Aimco; the relationship between Aimco and AIR (the “Separate Entities”) after the Separation; the ability and willingness of the Separate Entities and their subsidiaries to meet and/or perform their obligations under any contractual arrangements that were entered into among the parties in connection with the Separation and any of their obligations to indemnify, defend and hold the other party harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities; and the ability to achieve some or all the benefits that we expect to achieve from the Separation; and such other risks and uncertainties described from time to time in filings by the Separate Entities with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

In addition, our current and continuing qualification as a real estate investment trust involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Code, through actual operating results, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership.

Readers should carefully review Aimco’s financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” described in Item 1A of this Annual Report and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

As used herein and except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Aimco, Aimco Operating Partnership and their consolidated entities, collectively.

Certain financial and operating measures found herein and used by management are not defined under Accounting Principles Generally Accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). These measures are defined and reconciled to the most comparable GAAP measures under the Non-GAAP Measures heading.


1


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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

The Company

Aimco is a Maryland corporation incorporated on January 10, 1994. On December 15, 2020, Aimco completed the Separation, creating two, separate and distinct, publicly traded companies, Aimco and AIR.

Aimco is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (“REIT”). Aimco, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, is the general partner and directly is the special limited partner of the Aimco Operating Partnership, a Delaware Limited Partnership. Aimco conducts all of its business and owns all of its assets through the Aimco Operating Partnership.

Please refer to Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for discussion regarding our business segments.

Business Overview

Aimco benefits from its ownership of a diversified portfolio of stabilized multi-family properties, a safe balance sheet with limited use of corporate credit, access to substantial liquidity, and an embedded pipeline of future investment opportunities.

 We rely on the skills and experience of our team in building a broad portfolio of value-add real estate investments, primarily focused on the multifamily sector and located within the continental United States.  Individual investment strategies include property development, redevelopment, and a wide array of other opportunistic ventures. We plan to fund our investment activities through the redeployment of Aimco equity in combination with debt and third-party equity in order to improve our returns on invested capital and to grow Assets Under Management (“AUM”).

 Given our stated strategy, it is expected that at any point in time the value-creation process will be ongoing at numerous of our investments and will therefore be difficult to value. Over time, we expect the Aimco enterprise to produce superior returns on equity on a risk-adjusted basis and it is our plan to do so by:

 

Managing and investing in the development and redevelopment of real property

Our dedicated team will source and execute development and redevelopment projects across our national platform. Aimco will seek outsized returns on incremental capital invested, for itself and its partners, through our team’s local insights regarding sub-market fundamentals, the specific property location, a deep understanding of how best to meet the end users’ needs and wants, a disciplined commitment to mitigating risk during the construction process, and a passion for quality.  We believe that each of these components are critical to the creation of an investment platform that is both sustainable and viable independent of broader market conditions.

 

Managing and investing in other value-add activities (opportunistic investments)

  We expect to have a broad set of investment opportunities due to our national platform, management’s experience and relationships within the industry, and our longstanding experience in solutions-oriented deal structuring. These opportunities may include, but are not limited to, portfolio acquisitions, programmatic joint ventures, debt placements, operational turnarounds, and re-entitlements. Aimco will undertake such opportunistic value-add transactions when warranted by the prospect of outsized risk-adjusted returns. 

 

Owning a portfolio of stabilized properties

We own a geographically diversified portfolio of stabilized properties that produces stable cash flow and serves to balance the risk and highly variable cashflows associated with our portfolio of development and redevelopments and value-add investments.

 

Maintaining sufficient liquidity and utilizing financial leverage

We are highly focused on the importance of maintaining ample liquidity and of limiting our exposure to any single investment. On December 31, 2020, our cash on hand plus capacity to borrow on our revolving credit facility equaled $448.7 million.  

We expect to capitalize our activities through a combination of non-recourse property debt, construction loans, third-party equity, and the recycling of Aimco equity, including through retained earnings. We plan to limit the use of recourse leverage, with a strong preference towards property-level debt in order to limit risk to the Aimco enterprise. When warranted, we plan to seek equity capital from joint venture partners to improve our cost of capital, further leverage Aimco equity, reduce exposure to a single investment and, in certain cases, for strategic benefits.  

 

Benefiting from a national platform while leveraging local and regional expertise

2


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We have corporate headquarters in Denver, Colorado, and Bethesda, Maryland. Our investment platform is managed by experienced professionals based in four regions: West Coast, Central and Mountain West, Mid-Atlantic and Northeast, and Southeast. By regionalizing this platform, we are able to leverage the in-depth local market knowledge of each regional leader, creating a comparative advantage when sourcing, evaluating, and executing investment opportunities.

Competition

There are many developers, managers, and owners of apartment real estate and underdeveloped land, as well as REITs, private real estate companies, and investors, that compete with us in acquiring, developing, obtaining financing for, and disposing of apartment communities. This competition affects our ability to realize our real estate development and transactional objectives.

 

In addition, our apartment communities compete for residents with other housing alternatives, including other rental apartments and condominiums, and single-family homes that are available for rent, as well as new and existing condominiums and single-family homes for sale. Competitive residential housing, as well as household formation and job creation in a particular area, could adversely affect our ability to lease apartment homes and to increase or maintain rental rates.

Taxation

Aimco

Aimco has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), commencing with our initial taxable year, and intends to continue to operate in such a manner. The Code imposes various requirements related to organizational structure, distribution levels, diversity of stock ownership, and certain restrictions with regard to owned assets and categories of income that must be met in order to continue to qualify as a REIT. If Aimco continues to qualify for taxation as a REIT, Aimco will generally not be subject to United States federal corporate income tax on its taxable income that is currently distributed to stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (at the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation.

Certain of our operations, or a portion thereof, are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a subsidiary C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to perform activities that cannot be performed directly by a REIT.

The Aimco Operating Partnership

The Aimco Operating Partnership is treated as a “pass-through” entity for United States federal income tax purposes and is not subject to United States federal income taxation. Partners in the Aimco Operating Partnership, however, are subject to tax on their allocable share of partnership income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits, regardless of whether the partners receive any actual distributions of cash or other property from the Aimco Operating Partnership during the taxable year. Generally, the characterization of any particular item is determined by the Aimco Operating Partnership rather than at the partner level, and the amount of a partner’s allocable share of such item is governed by the terms of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement. The Aimco Operating Partnership is subject to tax in certain states.

Regulation

General

Apartment development is subject to various laws, ordinances, and regulations, including those concerning entitlement, building, health and safety, site and building design, environment, zoning, sales, and similar matters apply to or affect the real estate development industry.

Apartment communities and their owners are subject to various laws, ordinances, and regulations, including those related to real estate broker licensing and regulations relating to recreational facilities such as swimming pools, activity centers, and other common areas.

Changes in laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on communities or increasing the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, as well as changes in laws affecting development, construction, and safety requirements, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which could adversely affect our net income and cash flows from operating activities.

In addition, existing rent control laws, as well as future enactment of rent control or rent stabilization laws, or other laws and ordinances regulating multifamily housing, such as eviction moratoriums and governmental lockdowns, may reduce rental revenue or increase operating costs in particular markets.

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Environmental

Various federal, state, and local laws subject real estate owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials that may be present. These materials may include lead-based paint, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, and petroleum-based fuels. Such laws often impose liability without regard to fault or whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such materials. In connection with the ownership of real estate, we could potentially be liable for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our real estate, whether currently owned, acquired in the future, or owned in the past. These and other risks related to environmental matters are described in more detail in Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Corporate Responsibility

Our corporate responsibility is an important part of our business. As with all other aspects of our business, our corporate responsibility program focuses on continuous improvement, to the benefit of our stockholders, our residents, our team members and our communities.

Team and Culture

Our team and culture are keys to our success. Our intentional focus on collaborative and productive culture based on respect for others and personal responsibility is reinforced by a preference for promotion from within. We focus on succession planning and talent development to produce a strong, stable team that is the enduring foundation of our success.  We offer benefits reinforcing our value of caring for each other, including paid time for parental leave, paid time annually to volunteer in local communities, and a bonus structure at all levels of the organization. We also pay full compensation benefits for team members who are actively deployed by the United States military.

We are responsible for and implement succession planning in all leadership positions, both in the short term and the long term.

We evaluate team engagement, retention, and efficiency and include those in our goals on which all team members are compensated.  Every team member is surveyed via a third-party, confidential survey on his or her annual anniversary of employment.  The team member engagement score consists of the average of the responses to the questions that comprise the engagement index, on a scale of 1 to 5, for all team members who complete the survey during the year.  Aimco’s overall team member engagement score for the 2020 Annual Lifecycle Surveys was 4.42, compared to the target of 4.20.

As of December 31, 2020, we had 52 full-time team members, approximately two-thirds performing development or transactional services with the balance managing corporate and area functions, including debt and capital market transactions, legal, finance, accounting, and other support functions. None of our employees are represented by labor unions.

Our focus on our team and culture is recognized externally, as well.  Out of hundreds of participating companies in 2020, we were one of only six recognized as a “Top Workplace” in Colorado for each of the past eight years, and were one of only two real estate companies to receive a BEST award from the Association for Talent Development in recognition of our company-wide success in talent development, marking our third consecutive year receiving this award.  

Available Information

Our combined Annual Report on Form 10-K, our combined Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K filed by Aimco or the Aimco Operating Partnership, and any amendments to any of those reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable through Aimco’s website at www.aimco.com. The information contained on Aimco’s website is not incorporated into this Annual Report.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risk factors noted in this section, and other factors noted throughout this Annual Report, describe certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

RISKS RELATED TO BUSINESS

Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions, health crises and dislocations in the credit markets could affect our ability to collect rents and late fees from tenants, and our ability to evict tenants, in addition to having other negative effects on our business, which in turn could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions, local, regional, national, or international health crises and dislocations in the credit markets could negatively impact our tenants and our operations. For example, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global

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economic activity and caused significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets. The global impact of the outbreak has been rapidly evolving and many countries, including the United States, have reacted by instituting a wide variety of measures including states of emergency, mandatory quarantines, required business and school closures, implementing “shelter in place” orders, and restricting travel. In addition, many cities and states have enacted, or are considering enacting, exceptions to contractual obligations for residents and commercial tenants, including government mandated rent delays or other abatement measures or concessions or prohibitions on lease terminations or evictions. Many experts predict that the outbreak will trigger a period of material global economic slowdown or a global recession.

Factors that have negatively impacted, or would negatively impact, our operations or those of entities in which we hold a partial interest during the COVID-19 pandemic or another health crisis, adverse economic or geopolitical event or dislocation in the credit market include:

 

our ability to collect rents and late fees on a timely basis or at all, without reductions or other concessions;

 

our ability to evict residents for non-payment and for other reasons;

 

our ability to ensure business continuity in the event our continuity of operations plan is not effective or improperly implemented or deployed during a disruption;

 

fluctuations in regional and local economies, local real estate conditions, and rental rates;

 

our ability to control incremental costs associated with COVID-19;

 

our ability to dispose of communities at all or on terms favorable to us;

 

our ability to complete developments and redevelopments and other construction projects as planned; and

 

potential litigation relating to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Given the ongoing and dynamic nature of the circumstances surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, it is difficult to predict how significant the impact of this outbreak will be on the global economy, our residents and commercial tenants, our communities, and the operations of entities in which we hold a noncontrolling interest (including our interest in Maximus PM Mezzanine A LLC, the partnership owning the “Parkmerced Apartments”), or for how long disruptions are likely to continue. The extent of such impact will depend on developments, which are highly uncertain, rapidly evolving and cannot be predicted, including the ability to contain the virus, the duration of measures implemented, and the overall impact of these measures. Such developments, depending on their nature, duration, and intensity, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. The COVID-19 pandemic also may have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described below.

We do not have control over the partnership owning the Parkmerced Apartments, the operation of which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our indirect interest in the partnership owning the Parkmerced Apartments is subject to certain risks, including, but not limited to, exposure to the skill and capital of the controlling party and those resulting from the severe downturn in San Francisco rents, the ongoing disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic and associated governmental response, and the current economic situation which may result in all or a portion of the loan not being repaid. Such risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Development, redevelopment, and construction risks could affect our profitability.

Development and redevelopment are subject to numerous risks, including the following:

 

we may be unable to obtain, or experience delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, occupancy, or other required governmental or third-party permits and authorizations, which could result in increased costs or the delay or abandonment of opportunities;

 

we may incur costs that exceed our original estimates due to increased material, labor, or other factors and costs, such as litigation and program changes;

 

we may be unable to complete construction and lease-up of an apartment community on schedule, resulting in increased construction and financing costs and a decrease in expected rental revenues;

 

occupancy rates and rents at an apartment community may fail to meet our expectations for a number of reasons, including changes in market and economic conditions beyond our control and the development of competing communities;

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we may be unable to obtain financing, including construction loans, with favorable terms, or at all, which may cause us to delay or abandon an opportunity;

 

we may abandon opportunities that we have already begun to explore, or stop projects we have already commenced, for a number of reasons, including changes in local market conditions or increases in construction or financing costs, and, as a result, we may fail to recover costs already incurred in exploring those opportunities;

 

we are required to pay rent to AIR on the Initial Leased Properties as defined in the Separation and Distribution Agreement with AIR (and any additional properties we may lease from them in accordance with the Master Leasing Agreement), regardless of whether our developments or redevelopments are successful;

 

we have the right to terminate our leases with AIR and may receive payment from AIR, but the price AIR generally has the option to pay in such event under the Master Leasing Agreement may be less than what a third party would have been willing to pay us if we sold such property to a third party;

 

we may incur liabilities to third parties during the development or redevelopment process and we may be faced with claims for construction defects after a property has been developed;

 

we may face opposition from local community or political groups with respect to the development, construction, or operations at a particular site;

 

health and safety incidents or other accidents on site may occur during development;

 

unexpected events or circumstances may arise during the development or redevelopment process that affect the timing of completion and the cost and profitability of the development or redevelopment; and

 

loss of a key member of a redevelopment or development team could adversely affect our ability to deliver developments and redevelopments on time and within our budget.

Some of these development risks may be heightened given current uncertain and potentially volatile market conditions. If market volatility causes economic conditions to remain unpredictable or to trend downwards, we may not achieve our expected returns on properties under development and we could lose some or all of our investments in those properties. In addition, the lead time required to develop, construct, and lease-up a development property may increase, which could adversely impact our projected returns or result in a termination of the development project.

In addition, we may serve as either the construction manager or the general contractor for our development projects. The construction of real estate projects entails unique risks, including risks that the project will fail to conform to building plans, specifications, and timetables. These failures could be caused by labor strikes, weather, government regulations, and other conditions beyond our control. In addition, we may become liable for injuries and accidents occurring during the construction process that are underinsured.

Failure to generate sufficient net operating income may adversely affect our liquidity, limit our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures, or adversely affect our ability to pay dividends or distributions.

Our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures on our communities depends on, among other things, our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments and our ability to collect on interest and principal payments due to us pursuant to the terms of our arrangement with AIR relative to their interest in the partnership owning the Parkmerced Apartments. If we are unable to fund capital expenditures on our communities, we may not be able to preserve the competitiveness of our communities, which could adversely affect their net operating income and long-term value.

Our ability to make payments to our investors depends on our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments and capital expenditure requirements and our ability to collect on interest and principal payments due to us pursuant to the terms of our arrangement with AIR relative to their interest in the partnership owning the Parkmerced Apartments. Our net operating income and liquidity may be adversely affected by events or conditions beyond our control, including:

 

the general economic climate;

 

an inflationary environment in which the costs to operate and maintain our communities increase at a rate greater than our ability to increase rents, which we can only do upon renewal of existing leases or at the inception of new leases;

 

competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;

 

local conditions, such as loss of jobs, unemployment rates, or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;

 

changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;

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changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing; and

 

changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.

We will initially be primarily dependent on AIR for our pipeline of development and redevelopment opportunities.

We will initially be primarily dependent on the pipeline of development and redevelopment opportunities that may be sourced by AIR for a significant portion of our anticipated growth and future revenue. Until we acquire additional sources of development and redevelopment opportunities, we will primarily depend on AIR. We may not be successful in identifying additional opportunities to further diversify and increase our sources of revenue and reduce our portfolio concentration in the near future or at all. The inability of AIR to source such opportunities for us efficiently or at all, could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our properties are geographically concentrated in California, Chicago, Florida, and in the Northeast region of the United States, which makes us more susceptible to regional and local adverse economic and other conditions than if we owned a more geographically diversified portfolio.

The majority of our properties are located in California, Chicago, Florida, and in the Northeast region of the United States. As a result, we are particularly susceptible to adverse economic or other conditions in these markets (such as periods of economic slowdown or recession, business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, increases in real estate and other taxes, and the cost of complying with governmental regulations or increased regulation), as well as to natural disasters (including earthquakes, storms, and hurricanes), potentially adverse effects of “global warming,” and other disruptions that occur in these markets (such as terrorist activity or threats of terrorist activity and other events), any of which may have a greater impact on the value of our assets or on our operating results than if we owned a more geographically diversified portfolio.

We cannot assure you that these markets will grow or that underlying real estate fundamentals will be favorable to owners, operators, and developers of office, multifamily or retail assets, or future development assets. Our operations may also be affected if competing assets are built in these markets. Moreover, submarkets within our core markets may be dependent upon a limited number of industries. Any adverse economic or other conditions in the Northeast region of the United States or in California, or any decrease in demand for office, multifamily, or retail assets could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Our development projects may subject us to certain liabilities, and we are subject to risks associated with developing properties in partnership with others.

We may hire and supervise third-party contractors to provide construction, engineering, and various other services for development projects. Certain of these contracts may be structured such that we are the principal rather than the agent. As a result, we may assume liabilities in the course of the project and be subjected to, or become liable for, claims for construction defects, negligent performance of work or other similar actions by third parties we have engaged.

Adverse outcomes of disputes or litigation could negatively impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition, particularly if we have not limited the extent of the damages for which we may be liable, or if our liabilities exceed the amounts of the insurance that we carry. Moreover, our tenants may seek to hold us accountable for the actions of contractors because of our role even if we have technically disclaimed liability as a legal matter, in which case we may determine it necessary to participate in a financial settlement for purposes of preserving the tenant or customer relationship or to protect our corporate brand. Acting as a principal may also mean that we pay a contractor before we have been reimbursed by our tenants. This exposes us to additional risks of collection in the event of a bankruptcy, insolvency, or a condominium purchaser default. The reverse can occur as well, where a contractor we have paid files for bankruptcy protection or commits fraud with the funds before completing a project that we have funded in part or in full.

Additionally, we may use partnerships and limited liability companies to develop some of our real estate investments. Acting through our wholly owned subsidiaries, we typically will be the general partner or managing member in these partnerships or limited liability companies. There are, however, instances in which we may not control or even participate in management or day-to-day operations of these properties. The use of partnerships and limited liability companies involve special risks associated with the possibility that:

 

a partner or member may have interests or goals inconsistent with ours;

 

a general partner or managing member may take actions contrary to our instructions, requests, policies, or objectives with respect to our real estate investments;

 

a partner or member could experience financial difficulties that prevent it from fulfilling its financial or other responsibilities to the project; or

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a partner may not fulfill its contractual obligations.

In the event any of our partners or members file for bankruptcy, we could be precluded from taking certain actions affecting our project without bankruptcy court approval, which could diminish our control over the project even if we were the general partner or managing member. In addition, if the bankruptcy court were to discharge the obligations of our partner or member, it could result in our ultimate liability for the project being greater than originally anticipated.

Further, disputes between us and a partner may result in litigation or arbitration that may increase our expenses and prevent our management from focusing their time and attention on our business.

To the extent we are a general partner, we may be exposed to unlimited liability, which may exceed our investment or equity in the partnership. If one of our subsidiaries is a general partner of a particular partnership, it may be exposed to the same kind of unlimited liability.

Development of properties may entail a lengthy, uncertain, and costly entitlement process.

Approval to develop real property sometimes requires political support and generally entails an extensive entitlement process involving multiple and overlapping regulatory jurisdictions and often requires discretionary action by local governments. Real estate projects must generally comply with local land development regulations and may need to comply with state and federal regulations. We may incur substantial costs to comply with legal and regulatory requirements. An increase in legal and regulatory requirements may cause us to incur substantial additional costs, or in some cases cause us to determine that the property is not feasible for development. In addition, our competitors and local residents may challenge our efforts to obtain entitlements and permits for the development of properties. The process to comply with these regulations is usually lengthy and costly, may not result in the approvals we seek, and can be expected to materially affect our development activities.

Government regulations and legal challenges may delay the start or completion of the development of our communities, increase our expenses or limit our building of apartments or other activities.

Various local, state, and federal statutes, ordinances, rules, and regulations concerning building, health and safety, site and building design, environment, zoning, sales, and similar matters apply to or affect the real estate development industry. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained depends on factors beyond our control, such as changes in federal, state, and local policies, rules and regulations, and their interpretations and application.

Municipalities may restrict or place moratoriums on the availability of utilities, such as water and sewer taps. If municipalities in which we operate take such actions, it could have an adverse effect on our business by causing delays, increasing our costs, or limiting our ability to operate in those municipalities. These measures may reduce our ability to develop apartment communities and to build and sell other real estate development projects in the affected markets, including with respect to land we may already own, and create additional costs and administration requirements, which in turn may harm our future sales, margins, and earnings.

In addition, there is a variety of legislation being enacted, or considered for enactment, at the federal, state, and local level relating to energy and climate change. This legislation relates to items such as carbon dioxide emissions control and building codes that impose energy efficiency standards. New building code requirements that impose stricter energy efficiency standards could significantly increase our cost to construct buildings. Such environmental laws may affect, for example, how we manage storm water runoff, wastewater discharges, and dust; how we develop or operate on properties on or affecting resources such as wetlands, endangered species, cultural resources, or areas subject to preservation laws; and how we address contamination. As climate change concerns continue to grow, legislation and regulations of this nature are expected to continue and become more costly to comply with. In addition, it is possible that some form of expanded energy efficiency legislation may be passed by the U.S. Congress or federal agencies and certain state legislatures, which may, despite being phased in over time, significantly increase our costs of building apartment communities and the sale price to our buyers and adversely affect our sales volumes. We may be required to apply for additional approvals or modify our existing approvals because of changes in local circumstances or applicable law.

Energy-related initiatives affect a wide variety of companies throughout the United States and the world and, because our operations are heavily dependent on significant amounts of raw materials, such as lumber, steel, and concrete, they could have an indirect adverse impact on our operations and profitability to the extent the manufacturers and suppliers of our materials are burdened with expensive cap and trade and similar energy-related taxes and regulations. Our noncompliance with environmental laws could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocations, and other sanctions.

Governmental regulation affects not only construction activities but also sales activities, mortgage lending activities, and other dealings with consumers. Further, government agencies routinely initiate audits, reviews, or investigations of our business

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practices to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, which can cause us to incur costs or create other disruptions in our business that can be significant. Further, we may experience delays and increased expenses as a result of legal challenges to our proposed communities, whether brought by governmental authorities or private parties.

Competition could limit our ability to lease apartment homes, increase or maintain rents or execute our development strategy.

Our apartment communities compete for residents with other housing alternatives, including other rental apartments and condominiums, and, to a lesser degree, single-family homes that are available for rent, as well as new and existing condominiums and single-family homes for sale. Competitive residential housing, as well as household formation and job creation in a particular area, could adversely affect our ability to lease apartment homes and to increase or maintain rental rates.

In addition, there are many developers, managers, and owners of apartment real estate and underdeveloped land, as well as REITs, private real estate companies, and investors, that compete with us, some of whom have greater financial resources and market share than us. If our competitors prevent us from realizing our real estate development objectives, our performance may fall short of our expectations and adversely affect our business.

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Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we may not be able to sell apartment communities or other assets when appropriate.

Real estate investments are relatively illiquid and generally cannot be sold quickly. REIT tax rules also restrict our ability to sell apartment communities. Thus, we may not be able to change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other market conditions. Our ability to dispose of apartment communities in the future will depend on prevailing economic and market conditions, including the cost and availability of financing. This could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Potential liability or other expenditures associated with potential environmental contamination may be costly.

Various federal, state, and local laws subject real estate owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation of certain potentially hazardous materials that may be present in the land or buildings. Potentially hazardous materials may include polychlorinated biphenyls, petroleum-based fuels, lead-based paint, or asbestos, among other materials. Such laws often impose liability without regard to fault or whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such materials. The presence of, or the failure to manage or remediate properly, these materials may adversely affect occupancy at such real estate as well as the ability to sell or finance such real estate. In addition, governmental agencies may bring claims for costs associated with investigation and remediation actions, damages to natural resources, and for potential fines or penalties in connection with such damage or with respect to the improper management of hazardous materials. Moreover, private plaintiffs may potentially make claims for investigation and remediation costs they incur, or personal injury, disease, disability, or other infirmities related to the alleged presence of hazardous materials at an apartment community. In addition to potential environmental liabilities or costs associated with our current real estate, we may also be responsible for such liabilities or costs associated with communities we acquire or manage in the future, or real estate we no longer own or operate.

Rent control laws and other regulations that limit our ability to increase rental rates may negatively impact our rental income and profitability.

State and local governmental agencies may introduce rent control laws or other regulations that limit our ability to increase rental rates, which may affect our rental income. Especially in times of recession and economic slowdown, rent control initiatives can acquire significant political support. If rent controls unexpectedly became applicable to certain of our properties, our revenue from and the value of such properties could be adversely affected.

Laws benefiting disabled persons may result in our incurrence of unanticipated expenses.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (“ADA”), all places intended to be used by the public are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (“FHAA”), requires apartment communities first occupied after March 13, 1991, to comply with design and construction requirements for disabled access. For those apartment communities receiving federal funds, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 also has requirements regarding disabled access. These and federal, state, and local laws may require structural modifications to our apartment communities or changes in policy/practice, or affect renovations of the communities. Noncompliance with these laws could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants and also could result in an order to correct any non-complying feature, which could result in substantial capital expenditures. Although we believe that our apartment communities are substantially in compliance with present requirements, we may incur unanticipated expenses to comply with the ADA, the FHAA, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 in connection with the ongoing operation or redevelopment of our apartment communities.

Moisture infiltration and resulting mold remediation may be costly.

Although we are proactively engaged in managing moisture intrusion and preventing the presence of mold at our apartment communities, it is not unusual for periodic moisture intrusion to cause mold in isolated locations within an apartment community. We have implemented policies, procedures, and training, and include a detailed moisture intrusion and mold assessment during acquisition due diligence. We believe these measures will manage mold exposure at our apartment communities and will minimize the effects that mold may have on our residents. To date, we have not incurred any material costs or liabilities relating to claims of mold exposure or to abate mold conditions. We have only limited insurance coverage for property damage claims arising from the presence of mold and for personal injury claims related to mold exposure.

Although we are insured for certain risks, the cost of insurance, increased claims activity, or losses resulting from casualty events may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We are insured for a portion of our real estate assets’ exposure to casualty losses resulting from fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, and other perils, which insurance is subject to deductibles and self-insurance retention. We recognize casualty losses or gains based on the net book value of the affected asset and the amount of any related insurance proceeds. In many instances, the actual cost to repair or replace the apartment community may exceed its net book value and any insurance proceeds. We recognize the uninsured portion of losses as casualty losses in the periods in which they are incurred. In addition, we are self-insured for a portion of our exposure to third-party claims related to our employee health insurance plans, workers’ compensation coverage, and general liability exposure. With respect to our exposure to claims of third parties, we establish reserves at levels that reflect our known and estimated losses. The ultimate cost of losses and the impact of unforeseen events

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may vary materially from recorded reserves, and variances may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. We purchase insurance to reduce our exposure to losses and limit our financial losses on large individual risks. The availability and cost of insurance are determined by market conditions outside our control. No assurance can be made that we will be able to obtain and maintain insurance at the same levels and on the same terms as we do today. If we are not able to obtain or maintain insurance in amounts, we consider appropriate for our business, or if the cost of obtaining such insurance increases materially, we may have to retain a larger portion of the potential loss associated with our exposures to risks.

Natural disasters and severe weather may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Natural disasters such as earthquakes and severe weather such as hurricanes may result in significant damage to our real estate assets. The extent of our casualty losses and loss in operating income in connection with such events is a function of the severity of the event and the total amount of exposure in the affected area. When we have geographic concentration of exposures, a single catastrophe (such as an earthquake) or destructive weather event (such as a hurricane) affecting a region may have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot accurately predict natural disasters or severe weather, or the number and type of such events that will affect us. As a result, our operating and financial results may vary significantly from one period to the next. Although we anticipate and plan for losses, there can be no assurance that our financial results will not be adversely affected by our exposure to losses arising from natural disasters or severe weather in the future that exceed our previous experience and assumptions.

We depend on our senior management.

Our success and our ability to implement and manage anticipated future growth depend, in large part, upon the efforts of our senior management team, who have extensive market knowledge and relationships, and exercise substantial influence over our operational, financing, acquisition, and disposition activity. Members of our senior management team have national or regional industry reputations that attract business and investment opportunities and assist us in negotiations with lenders, existing and potential tenants, and other industry participants. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team, or our inability to attract and retain similarly qualified personnel, could adversely affect our business, diminish our investment opportunities, and weaken our relationships with lenders, business partners, existing and prospective tenants, and industry participants, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flow.

We rely on AIR to manage a majority of our properties. If AIR fails to efficiently manage such properties, tenants may not renew their leases, or we may become subject to unforeseen liabilities.

A majority of our properties are managed by AIR. We do not supervise AIR or its managers and employees on a day-to-day basis and we cannot assure you that they will manage such properties in a manner that is consistent with their obligations under our agreements, that they will not be negligent in their performance or engage in any criminal or fraudulent activity, or that they will not otherwise default on their management obligations to us. If any of the foregoing occurs, the relationships with our tenants at such properties could be damaged, which may cause the tenants not to renew their leases, and we could incur liabilities resulting from loss or injury to the properties or to persons at the properties. If we are unable to lease the properties or we become subject to significant liabilities as a result of AIR’s management performance, our financial condition and results of operations could be substantially harmed.

In addition to property management services, we depend on AIR to support certain of our property’s operations, and any adverse changes in the financial health of AIR or our relationship with it could hinder AIR’s ability to successfully manage our operations.

We are dependent on AIR to support certain of our property’s operations pursuant to the Property Management Agreement. Any adverse changes in the financial condition of AIR, AIR’s ability to retain or replace its employees, or our relationship with AIR, could hinder AIR’s ability to successfully manage our operations, which would materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of significant disruptions or cyberattacks of our information technology systems or our failure to comply with laws, rules and regulations related to privacy and data protection.

Information technology, communication networks, and related systems are essential to the operation of our business. We use these systems to manage our vendor relationships, internal communications, accounting and record-keeping systems, and many other key aspects of our business. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks, which also depend on the strength of our procedures and the effectiveness of our internal controls. Information security risks have generally increased in recent years due to the rise in new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyberattacks.

Despite system redundancy, risk transfer, insurance, indemnification, the implementation of security measures, required employee awareness training, and the existence of a disaster recovery plan for our internal information technology systems, our systems, and systems maintained by third-party vendors with which we do business are vulnerable to damage from any number

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of sources. We face risks associated with energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures, and cyberattacks and intrusions, such as computer viruses, malware, attachments to emails, intrusion, and unauthorized access, including from persons inside our organization or from persons outside our organization with access to our systems. We may also incur additional costs to remedy damages caused by such disruptions. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our systems and have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Any compromise of our security could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information (which may be confidential, proprietary, or commercially sensitive in nature), and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.

We also are subject to laws, rules, and regulations in the United States, such as the California Consumer Protection Act (the “CCPA” (which became effective on January 1, 2020)), relating to the collection, use, and security of employee and other data. Evolving compliance and operational requirements under the CCPA and the privacy and data security laws of other jurisdictions in which we operate impose significant costs that are likely to increase over time. Our failure to comply with laws, rules, and regulations related to privacy and data protection could harm our business or reputation.

“ROFO/Purchase Option” provisions, such as in our Master Leasing Agreement, may discourage third parties from negotiating with us with respect to the sale of our real property.

During the term of the Master Leasing Agreement, AIR will have a purchase option on the direct or indirect transfer of any real property owned or, subject to the consent of the landlord, leased by us (including indirect transfers pursuant to a transfer of equity interests in any of our subsidiaries that owns or leases such real property) and any rights to acquire real property, but excluding any property leased from AIR pursuant to the Master Leasing Agreement, with respect to real property for which redevelopment has been substantially completed by Aimco (if applicable) and that has reached a specified occupancy for a minimum time period and a right of first offer with respect to stabilized properties that Aimco is under contract to purchase, but excluding any such transfers in respect of certain of the operating properties. This right of first offer and purchase option may discourage third parties from negotiation with us with respect to the sale of our real property and may limit the number of interested buyers, and further may prevent us from receiving the maximum price that we may otherwise have obtained for such properties.

There may be, or there may be the appearance of, conflicts of interest in our relationship with AIR.

There may be, or there may be the appearance of, conflicts of interest in our relationship with AIR. The Separation was designed to minimize conflicts of interest between us and AIR, however, there can be no assurance that such conflicts don’t exist.

Although we and AIR each have an independent board of directors and independent management and are incentivized to make decisions that are in the best interests of its respective business, Mr. Considine, along with Messrs. Miller and Stein, serve on both our and AIR’s boards of directors, however, such directors will recuse themselves from voting as members of either board of directors during the approval or disapproval of any transactions between the two companies.

The agreements between us and AIR generally do not limit or restrict AIR or its affiliates from engaging in any business or managing other entities that engage in business of the type conducted by us. Although we and AIR do not generally engage in the same business, AIR and its affiliates may in the future determine to redevelop or develop apartment communities and other real estate assets, some of which may be in close proximity to certain of our apartment communities. Certain business opportunities appropriate for us may also in the future be appropriate for AIR or its affiliates, and we may compete with AIR for certain business opportunities. This may cause us to compete with AIR for business opportunities or result in a change in our current business strategy.

Actual, potential, or perceived conflicts could give rise to investor dissatisfaction, settlements with stockholders, litigation or regulatory inquiries or enforcement actions. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and our reputation could be damaged if we fail, or appear to fail, to deal appropriately with one or more potential, actual, or perceived conflicts of interest. Regulatory scrutiny of, or litigation in connection with, conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including causing a reluctance of counterparties to do business with us, a decrease in the prices of our equity securities, and a resulting increased risk of litigation and regulatory enforcement actions.

Our business could be negatively affected as a result of the actions of activist stockholders.

Publicly traded companies have increasingly become subject to campaigns by investors advocating corporate actions such as financial restructuring, increased borrowing, special dividends, stock repurchases, or even sales of assets or the entire company. Given our stockholder composition and other factors, it is possible our stockholders or future activist stockholders

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may attempt to effect such changes. Responding to proxy contests and other actions by such activist stockholders or others would be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations and divert the attention of our board of directors and senior management team from the pursuit of business strategies, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, perceived uncertainties as to our future direction as a result of stockholder activism or changes to the composition of the board of directors may lead to the perception of a change in the direction of the business, instability or lack of continuity, which may be exploited by our competitors, cause concern to our current or potential lenders, partners, or others with whom we do business, and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDEBTEDNESS AND FINANCING

Our debt financing could result in foreclosure of our apartment communities, prevent us from making distributions on our equity, or otherwise adversely affect our liquidity.

On December 16, 2020, we entered into a new revolving secured credit facility. In connection with the Separation, certain of our subsidiaries retained existing secured property-level debt equal to approximately $449.5 million and another became the obligator on two notes payable to the subsidiaries of AIR with an aggregated principal amount equal to approximately $534.1 million (“Notes Payable to AIR”). Over time, we may become party to one or more additional financing arrangements, including credit facilities or other bank debt, bonds, and mortgage financing.

In connection with such financing activities, we are subject to the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, and the risk that our indebtedness may not be refinanced or that the terms of any refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of then-existing indebtedness. If we fail to make required payments of principal and interest on our non-recourse debt, our lenders could foreclose on the apartment communities and other collateral securing such debt, which would result in the loss to us of income and asset value. As of December 31, 2020, a significant number of our apartment communities are encumbered by property debt or serve as collateral for the Notes Payable to AIR. Our organizational documents do not limit the amount of debt that we may incur, and we have significant amounts of debt outstanding. Payments of principal and interest may leave us with insufficient cash resources to operate our communities or pay distributions required to maintain our qualification as a REIT.

Disruptions in the financial markets could affect our ability to obtain financing and the cost of available financing and could adversely affect our liquidity.

Our ability to obtain financing and the cost of such financing depends on the overall condition of the United States credit markets. During periods of economic uncertainty, the United States credit markets may experience significant liquidity disruptions, which may cause the spreads on debt financings to widen considerably and make obtaining financing, both non-recourse property debt and corporate borrowings such as those under our credit facilities, more difficult. In particular, apartment borrowers have benefited from the historic willingness of the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), to make substantial amounts of loans secured by multifamily properties, even in times of economic distress. These two lenders are federally chartered and subject to federal regulation, which is subject to change, making uncertain their prospects and ability to provide liquidity in a future downturn.

If our ability to obtain financing is adversely affected, we may be unable to satisfy scheduled maturities on existing financing through other sources of liquidity, which could result in lender foreclosure on the apartment communities securing such debt and loss of income and asset value, both of which would adversely affect our liquidity.

Increases in interest rates would increase our interest expense and reduce our profitability, and the potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.

Our new revolving secured credit facility contains variable-rate interest and may be based, in part, on LIBOR. An increase or decrease in LIBOR would likely increase or decrease our interest expense. An increase in interest expense may affect our profitability.

In addition, in July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. In 2018, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), as the alternative to LIBOR. Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement remains a question, and the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative reference rates or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Due to the broad use of LIBOR as a reference rate, all financial market participants, including us, are impacted by the risks associated with this transition. To the extent any of our new revolving secured credit facility is expected to have a variable-rate interest based, in part, on LIBOR and, if LIBOR is no longer available, an alternative benchmark index will likely be proposed to replace it. Accordingly, any of these proposals or the resulting consequences could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs, and as a result, our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

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Covenant restrictions may limit our operations and impact our ability to make payments to our investors.

Some of our existing and/or future debt and other securities may contain covenants that restrict our activities. These may include covenants that limit our operations or impact our ability to make distributions or other payments unless certain financial tests or other criteria are satisfied, as well as certain other customary affirmative and negative covenants.

We may increase leverage in executing our development plan, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.

We may decide to increase our leverage to execute our development plan. We will consider a number of factors when evaluating our level of indebtedness and when making decisions regarding the incurrence of new indebtedness, including the estimated market value of our assets and the ability of particular assets, and our company as a whole, to generate cash flow to cover the expected debt service. Although our credit facilities may limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness, our governing documents do not limit the amount of debt we may incur, and we may change our target debt levels at any time without the approval of our stockholders. We may incur additional indebtedness from time to time in the future to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our indebtedness could intensify.

RISKS RELATED TO THE SEPARATION

We may be unable to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expect to achieve from the Separation.

Following the Separation, we and AIR are two, focused and independent companies. We may not be able to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expect to achieve as a company independent from AIR in the time we expect, if at all. For instance, it may take longer than anticipated for us to, or we may never, succeed in growing our revenues through our development and redevelopment business.

The Separation could give rise to disputes or other unfavorable effects, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations.

In connection with the Separation, we entered into a Separation and Distribution Agreement with AIR, effective as of December 15, 2020 (the “Separation Agreement”), which, among other things, contains the agreements among the parties regarding the principal transactions necessary to effect the Separation. It also sets forth other agreements that govern certain aspects of the parties’ ongoing relationship after the completion of the Separation. The Separation may lead to increased operating and other expenses, of both a nonrecurring and a recurring nature, and to changes to certain operations, which expenses or changes could arise pursuant to arrangements made between AIR and us or could trigger contractual rights of, and obligations to, third parties. Disputes with third parties could also arise out of these transactions, and we could experience unfavorable reactions to the Separation from employees, lenders, ratings agencies, regulators, OP unitholders or other interested parties. These increased expenses, changes to operations, disputes with third parties or other effects could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations. In addition, following the Separation, disputes with AIR could arise in connection with each of the Separation Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement, the Property Management Agreements, the Master Services Agreement, the Master Leasing Agreement, or certain other agreements.

Although we have endeavored to enter into agreements on market terms, our agreements with AIR may not reflect terms that would have resulted from arm’s-length negotiations with unaffiliated third parties.

The agreements related to the Separation, including the Separation Agreement, the Employee Matters Agreement, the Property Management Agreements, the Master Services Agreement, the Master Leasing Agreement, and certain other agreements were entered into in the context of the Separation while both companies were under common control. As a result, although we endeavored to enter into these agreements on market terms, they may not reflect terms that would have resulted from arm’s-length negotiations between unaffiliated third parties. The terms of the agreements entered into in the context of the Separation concern, among other things, allocation of assets and liabilities attributable to periods prior to the Separation and the rights and obligations, including certain indemnification obligations, of AIR and us after the Separation, certain services provided by us to AIR and by AIR to us after the Separation, and our lease from AIR of the Initial Leased Properties.

Following the Separation, we may be unable to make, on a timely or cost-effective basis, the changes necessary to operate as an independent company.

Following the Separation, AIR hired substantially all of Aimco’s existing employees (including Aimco’s existing property management employees), and Aimco retained approximately 50 employees. We have no significant historical operations as a company independent from AIR and did not, following the Separation, have the infrastructure or personnel necessary to operate as an independent company without relying on AIR to provide certain services (such as those related to technology, payroll, etc.) on an ongoing basis. In connection with the Separation, we entered into a Master Services Agreement with AIR pursuant to which AIR will provide certain services to us to allow us to benefit from certain cost efficiencies in sharing certain resources

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and personnel. As a separate publicly traded company, Aimco is subject to, and responsible for, regulatory compliance, including periodic public filings with the SEC and compliance with the NYSE continued listing requirements as well as compliance with generally applicable tax and accounting rules, certain elements of which may rely on services provided by AIR under the Master Services Agreement. Because our business has not been operated as a separate company, we cannot assure you that it will be able to successfully implement the infrastructure or retain or hire the personnel necessary to operate as a separate company or that we will not incur costs in excess of anticipated costs to establish such infrastructure and retain or hire such personnel. Because we will not be permitted under the terms of the Master Services Agreement to terminate certain services before the completion of the applicable term, we may be obligated to pay rates for the services higher than those a third party would have paid or that we could have provided to ourselves.

RISKS RELATED TO TAX LAWS AND REGULATIONS

Aimco may fail to qualify as a REIT.

If Aimco fails to qualify as a REIT, Aimco will not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to its stockholders in computing its taxable income and will be subject to United States federal income tax at regular corporate rates. This would substantially reduce our funds available for general corporate usage or for distribution to our investors. Unless entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, Aimco also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to qualify as a REIT. In addition, Aimco’s failure to qualify as a REIT may place us in default under our credit facilities.

We believe that Aimco operates, and has since its taxable year ended December 31, 1994, operated, in a manner that enables it to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Moreover, even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize our REIT status. Aimco’s continued qualification as a REIT will depend on its satisfaction of certain asset, income, investment, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership, and other requirements on a continuing basis. Aimco’s ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon our analysis of the fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we do not obtain independent appraisals. Aimco’s compliance with the REIT annual income and quarterly asset requirements also depends upon our ability to successfully manage the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Moreover, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT qualification requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or other issuers constitutes a violation of the REIT requirements. Moreover, future economic, market, legal, tax, or other considerations may cause Aimco to fail to qualify as a REIT, or the board of directors of Aimco may determine to revoke its REIT status.

REIT distribution requirements limit our available cash.

As a REIT, Aimco is subject to annual distribution requirements. Aimco pays distributions, including taxable stock dividends, intended to enable Aimco to satisfy its distribution requirements. This limits the amount of cash available for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. Aimco generally must distribute annually at least 90% of its “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, in order for its distributed earnings not to be subject to United States federal corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to Aimco’s stockholders to comply with the requirements applicable to REITs under the Code (which may be all cash or combination of cash and stock satisfying the requirements of applicable law). However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell apartment communities or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.

Aimco may be subject to federal, state, and local income taxes in certain circumstances.

Even as a REIT, Aimco may be subject to United States federal income and excise taxes in various situations, such as on its undistributed income. Aimco could also be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income on non-arm’s-length transactions between Aimco and a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) and on any net income from sales of apartment communities that were held for sale primarily in the ordinary course. State and local tax laws may not conform to the United States federal income tax treatment, and Aimco may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions in which Aimco transacts business. Any taxes imposed on Aimco would reduce our operating cash flow and net income and could negatively impact our ability to pay dividends and distributions.

Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

REITs are entitled to a United States federal tax deduction for dividends paid to their stockholders. As compared to other taxable corporations, this ability to reduce or eliminate the REIT’s taxable income by paying dividends to stockholders is a

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principal benefit of maintaining REIT status, generally resulting in a lower combined tax liability of the REIT and its stockholders as compared to that of the combined tax liability of other taxable corporations and their stockholders. Notwithstanding this combined benefit, dividends payable by REITs may result in marginally higher taxes to the stockholder.

C-corporations are generally required to pay United States federal income tax on earnings. After tax earnings are then available for stockholder dividends. The maximum United States federal tax rate applicable to income from “qualified dividends” payable to United States stockholders that are individuals, trusts, and estates is currently 20%, plus the 3.8% investment tax surcharge. While dividends payable by REITs are generally not eligible for the qualified dividend reduced rates, stockholders that are individuals, trusts, or estates, and meet certain requirements, may generally deduct 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary dividends from REITs. This deduction is available for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, and will generally cause the maximum tax rate for ordinary dividends from REITs to be 29.6%, plus the 3.8% investment tax surcharge. The more favorable tax rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts, and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the shares of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including Aimco Common Stock.

Complying with the REIT requirements may cause Aimco to forgo otherwise attractive business opportunities.

To qualify as a REIT, Aimco must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of its income, the nature and diversification of its assets, the amounts distributed to Aimco stockholders, and the ownership of Aimco stock. As a result of these tests, Aimco may be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when Aimco does not have funds readily available for distribution, forgo otherwise attractive investment opportunities, liquidate assets in adverse market conditions, or contribute assets to a TRS that is subject to regular corporate federal income tax.

Changes to United States federal income tax laws could materially and adversely affect Aimco and Aimco’s stockholders.

The present United States federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial, or administrative action at any time, which could affect the United States federal income tax treatment of an investment in Aimco Common Stock. The United States federal income tax rules dealing with REITs are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS, and the United States Treasury Department, which results in statutory changes as well as frequent revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect Aimco or Aimco’s stockholders. Revisions in federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could significantly and negatively affect Aimco’s ability to qualify as a REIT and the tax considerations relevant to an investment in Aimco Common Stock, or could cause Aimco to change its investments and commitments.

RISKS RELATED TO AIMCO OPERATING PARTNERSHIP UNITS

There are restrictions on the ability to transfer and redeem Aimco Operating Partnership Units, there is no public market for Aimco Operating Partnership Units and holders of Aimco Operating Partnership Units are subject to dilution.

The Aimco Operating Partnership agreement restricts the transferability of Aimco Operating Partnership Units (“OP Units”). Until the expiration of a one-year holding period, subject to certain exceptions, investors may not transfer OP Units without the consent of Aimco Operating Partnership’s general partner. Thereafter, investors may transfer such OP Units subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including the general partner’s right of first refusal. In addition, after the expiration of the one-year holding period, investors have the right, subject to the terms of Aimco Operating Partnership’s agreement, to require Aimco Operating Partnership to redeem all or a portion of such investor’s OP Units (in exchange for shares of Aimco Common Stock or cash, in Aimco Operating Partnership’s discretion) once per quarter on an exchange date set by Aimco Operating Partnership, provided such investor provides notice at least 45 days prior to the quarterly exchange date. See “Description of Aimco Operating Partnership Units and Summary of Aimco Operating Partnership Agreement—Redemption Rights of Qualifying Parties”. There is no public market for the OP Units. Aimco Operating Partnership has no plans to list any OP Units on a securities exchange. It is unlikely that any person will make a market in the OP Units, or that an active market for the OP Units will develop. If a market for the OP Units develops and the OP Units are considered “readily tradable” on a “secondary market (or the substantial equivalent thereof),” Aimco Operating Partnership would be classified as a publicly traded partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could have a material adverse effect on Aimco Operating Partnership and its unitholders.

In addition, Aimco Operating Partnership may issue an unlimited number of additional OP Units or other securities for such consideration and on such terms as it may establish, without the approval of the holders of OP Units. Such securities could have priority over the OP Units as to cash flow, distributions, and liquidation proceeds. The effect of any such issuance may be to dilute the interests of holders of OP Units.

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Cash distributions by Aimco Operating Partnership are not guaranteed and may fluctuate with partnership performance.

Aimco Operating Partnership does not intend to make regular distributions to holders of OP Units (other than what is required for Aimco to maintain its REIT status). There can be no assurance regarding the amounts of available cash that Aimco Operating Partnership will generate or the portion that its general partner will choose to distribute. The actual amounts of available cash will depend upon numerous factors, including profitability of operations, required principal and interest payments on its debt, the cost of acquisitions (including related debt service payments), its issuance of debt and equity securities, fluctuations in working capital, capital expenditures, adjustments in reserves, prevailing economic conditions, and financial, business, and other factors, some of which may be beyond Aimco Operating Partnership’s control. Cash distributions depend primarily on cash flow, including from reserves, and not on profitability, which is affected by non-cash items. Therefore, cash distributions may be made during periods when the Aimco Operating Partnership records losses and may not be made during periods when it records profits. The Aimco Operating Partnership agreement gives the general partner discretion in establishing reserves for the proper conduct of the partnership’s business that will affect the amount of available cash. Aimco Operating Partnership may be required to make reserves for the future payment of principal and interest under its credit facilities and other indebtedness. In addition, Aimco Operating Partnership’s credit facilities may limit its ability to distribute cash to holders of OP Units. As a result of these and other factors, there can be no assurance regarding actual levels of cash distributions on OP Units, and Aimco Operating Partnership’s ability to distribute cash may be limited during the existence of any events of default under any of its debt instruments.

Holders of Aimco OP Units have limited voting rights and are limited in their ability to effect a change of control.

Aimco Operating Partnership is managed and operated by its general partner, Aimco. Unlike the holders of common stock in a corporation, holders of OP Units have only limited voting rights on matters affecting Aimco Operating Partnership’s business. Such matters relate to certain amendments of the partnership agreement and certain transactions such as the institution of bankruptcy proceedings, an assignment for the benefit of creditors and certain transfers by the general partner of its interest in Aimco Operating Partnership or the admission of a successor general partner. Holders of OP Units have no right to elect the general partner on an annual or other continuing basis, or to remove the general partner. As a result, holders of OP Units have limited influence on matters affecting the operation of Aimco Operating Partnership, and third parties may find it difficult to attempt to gain control over, or influence the activities of, Aimco Operating Partnership.

The limited partners of Aimco Operating Partnership are unable to remove the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership or to vote in the election of Aimco’s directors unless they own shares of Aimco. In order to comply with specific REIT tax requirements, Aimco’s charter has restrictions on the ownership of its equity securities. As a result, Aimco Operating Partnership limited partners and Aimco stockholders are limited in their ability to effect a change of control of Aimco Operating Partnership and Aimco, respectively.

Holders of OP Units may not have limited liability in specific circumstances.

The limitations on the liability of limited partners for the obligations of a limited partnership have not been clearly established in some states. If it were determined that Aimco Operating Partnership had been conducting business in any state without compliance with the applicable limited partnership statute, or that the right or the exercise of the right by the holders of OP Units as a group to make specific amendments to the agreement of limited partnership or to take other action under the agreement of limited partnership constituted participation in the “control” of Aimco Operating Partnership’s business, then a holder of OP Units could be held liable under specific circumstances for Aimco Operating Partnership’s obligations to the same extent as the general partner.

Aimco may have conflicts of interest with holders of OP Units.

Conflicts of interest could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership and its affiliates (including Aimco), on the one hand, and Aimco Operating Partnership or any partner thereof, on the other. The directors and officers of the general partner have fiduciary duties to manage the general partner in a manner beneficial to Aimco, as the sole stockholder of the general partner. At the same time, as the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership, it has fiduciary duties to manage Aimco Operating Partnership in a manner beneficial to Aimco Operating Partnership and its limited partners. The duties of the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership to Aimco Operating Partnership and its partners may therefore come into conflict with the duties of the directors and officers of the general partner to its sole stockholder, Aimco. Such conflicts of interest might arise in the following situations, among others:

 

decisions of the general partner with respect to the amount and timing of cash expenditures, borrowings, issuances of additional interests and reserves in any quarter, will affect whether or the extent to which there is available cash to make distributions in a given quarter;

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whenever possible, the general partner seeks to limit Aimco Operating Partnership’s liability under contractual arrangements to all or particular assets of Aimco Operating Partnership, with the other party thereto having no recourse against the general partner or its assets;

 

any agreements between Aimco Operating Partnership and the general partner and its affiliates will not grant to the holders of OP Units, separate and distinct from Aimco Operating Partnership, the right to enforce the obligations of the general partner and such affiliates in favor of Aimco Operating Partnership. Therefore, the general partner, in its capacity as the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership, will be primarily responsible for enforcing such obligations; and

 

under the terms of the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement, the general partner is not restricted from causing Aimco Operating Partnership to pay the general partner or its affiliates for any services rendered on terms that are fair and reasonable to Aimco Operating Partnership or entering into additional contractual arrangements with any of such entities on behalf of Aimco Operating Partnership. Neither the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement nor any of the other agreements, contracts, and arrangements between Aimco Operating Partnership, on the one hand, and the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership and its affiliates, on the other, are or will be the result of arm’s-length negotiations.

Provisions in the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement may limit the ability of a holder of OP Units to challenge actions taken by the general partner.

Delaware law provides that, except as provided in a partnership agreement, a general partner owes the fiduciary duties of loyalty and care to the partnership and its limited partners. The Aimco Operating Partnership agreement expressly authorizes the general partner to enter into, on behalf of Aimco Operating Partnership, a right of first opportunity arrangement and other conflict avoidance agreements with various affiliates of Aimco Operating Partnership and the general partner, on such terms as the general partner, in its sole and absolute discretion, believes are advisable. The latitude given in the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement to the general partner in resolving conflicts of interest may significantly limit the ability of a holder of OP Units to challenge what might otherwise be a breach of fiduciary duty. The general partner believes, however, that such latitude is necessary and appropriate to enable it to serve as the general partner of Aimco Operating Partnership without undue risk of liability.

The Aimco Operating Partnership agreement limits the liability of the general partner for actions taken in good faith. Aimco Operating Partnership’s partnership agreement expressly limits the liability of the general partner by providing that the general partner, and its officers and directors, will not be liable or accountable in damages to Aimco Operating Partnership, the limited partners, or assignees for errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission if the general partner or such director or officer acted in good faith. In addition, Aimco Operating Partnership is required to indemnify the general partner, its affiliates, and their respective officers, directors, employees, and agents to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, joint or several, expenses, judgments, fines, and other actions incurred by the general partner or such other persons, provided that Aimco Operating Partnership will not indemnify for (i) willful misconduct or a knowing violation of the law or (ii) for any transaction for which such person received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement. The provisions of Delaware law that allow the common law fiduciary duties of a general partner to be modified by a partnership agreement have not been resolved in a court of law, and the general partner has not obtained an opinion of counsel covering the provisions set forth in the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement that purport to waive or restrict the fiduciary duties of the general partner that would be in effect under common law were it not for the partnership agreement.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Aimco Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries may be prohibited from making distributions and other payments.

All of Aimco Operating Partnership’s real estate assets are owned by subsidiaries of Aimco Operating Partnership. As a result, Aimco Operating Partnership depends on distributions and payments from its subsidiaries in order to satisfy our financial obligations and make payments to our equity holders, as applicable. The ability of Aimco Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries to make such distributions and other payments depends on their earnings and cash flows and may be subject to statutory or contractual limitations. As an equity investor in the REIT subsidiaries and our subsidiaries, our right to receive assets upon their liquidation or reorganization are effectively subordinated to the claims of their creditors and any holders of preferred equity senior to our equity investments. To the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiaries, our claims may still be subordinate to any security interest in or other lien on their assets and to any of their debt or other obligations that are senior to our claims.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.


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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Additional information about our consolidated real estate, including property debt, is contained in “Schedule III - Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our portfolio consists primarily of market rate apartment communities in which we own a substantial interest. Our portfolio of operating properties includes garden style, mid-rise, and high-rise apartment communities located in 12 states and the District of Columbia. In addition, we own Hamilton on the Bay and majority interests in 1001 Brickell Bay Drive and Upton Place.

Below is a summary of the properties in our portfolio as of December 31, 2020:

Property Name

 

Location

 

Apartment Homes

 

 

Property Type

118-122 West 23rd Street

 

New York, NY

 

 

42

 

 

Operating

1045 on the Park Apartments Homes

 

Atlanta, GA

 

 

30

 

 

Operating

2200 Grace

 

Lombard, IL

 

 

72

 

 

Operating

2900 on First Apartments

 

Seattle, WA

 

 

135

 

 

Operating

173 E. 90th Street

 

New York, NY

 

 

72

 

 

Operating

237-239 Ninth Avenue

 

New York, NY

 

 

36

 

 

Operating

Bank Lofts

 

Denver, CO

 

 

125

 

 

Operating

Bluffs at Pacifica, The

 

Pacifica, CA

 

 

64

 

 

Operating

Cedar Rim

 

Newcastle, WA

 

 

104

 

 

Operating

Elm Creek

 

Elmhurst, IL

 

 

400

 

 

Operating

Evanston Place

 

Evanston, IL

 

 

190

 

 

Operating

Hillmeade

 

Nashville, TN

 

 

288

 

 

Operating

Hyde Park Tower

 

Chicago, IL

 

 

155

 

 

Operating

Pathfinder Village

 

Fremont, CA

 

 

246

 

 

Operating

Plantation Gardens

 

Plantation, FL

 

 

372

 

 

Operating

Royal Crest Estates (Marlboro)

 

Marlborough, MA

 

 

473

 

 

Operating

Royal Crest Estates (Nashua)

 

Nashua, NH

 

 

902

 

 

Operating

Royal Crest Estates (Warwick)

 

Warwick, RI

 

 

492

 

 

Operating

St. George Villas

 

St. George, SC

 

 

40

 

 

Operating

Waterford Village

 

Bridgewater, MA

 

 

588

 

 

Operating

Wexford Village

 

Worcester, MA

 

 

264

 

 

Operating

Willow Bend

 

Rolling Meadows, IL

 

 

328

 

 

Operating

Yacht Club at Brickell

 

Miami, FL

 

 

357

 

 

Operating

Yorktown Apartments

 

Lombard, IL

 

 

292

 

 

Operating

Hamilton on the Bay

 

Miami, FL

 

 

275

 

 

Development and Redevelopment

Upton Place (1)

 

Washington, D.C.

 

 

-

 

 

Development and Redevelopment

1001 Brickell Bay Drive (2)

 

Miami, FL

 

 

-

 

 

Other

Total Apartment Homes

 

 

 

 

6,342

 

 

 

(1)

On December 4, 2020, we entered into a joint venture with AIR and a third party developer related to Upton Place. See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details.

(2)

On July 2, 2019, we acquired a 95% interest in 1001 Brickell Bay Drive, a 1.8-acre waterfront parcel in Miami, Florida, currently improved with an office building.

Our apartment communities offer residents a range of amenities, which may include resort pools with cabanas, grills, clubhouses, spas, fitness centers, package lockers, dog parks, and large open spaces. Many of the apartment homes offer features such as granite countertops, solid surface flooring, stainless steel appliances, fireplaces, spacious closets, washers and dryers, balconies, and patios.

A number of our apartment communities are encumbered by property debt. As of December 31, 2020, apartment communities in our portfolio were encumbered by, in aggregate, $449.5 million of property debt with a weighted-average interest rate of 3.13% and a weighted-average maturity of 5.7 years. We also had $534.1 million of Notes Payable to AIR, secured by a pledge of equity in a subsidiary holding a portfolio of assets, which assets also secure existing senior loans of $215.4 million, with an interest rate of 5.2% and a term to maturity of 3.1 years.

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As further discussed in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we have legal liabilities that relate to occurrences prior to the Separation, including environmental liabilities related to properties that were no longer owned by Aimco or AIR at the time of the Separation, pursuant to the terms of the Separation Agreement, Aimco Operating Partnership will bear the first $17.5 million of such liabilities, in the aggregate, and AIR Operating Partnership will bear any such liabilities in excess of $17.5 million.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 


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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Aimco

Aimco’s Common Stock is listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “AIV.”

On March 10, 2021, there were 149,208,479 shares of Common Stock outstanding, held by 757 stockholders of record. The number of holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares but whose shares are held of record by a broker or clearing agency, but does include each such broker or clearing agency as one record holder.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

From time to time, we may issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for OP Units, defined under The Aimco Operating Partnership heading below. Such shares are issued based on an exchange ratio of one share for each common OP Unit. Please refer to Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion of such exchanges. We may also issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for limited partnership interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. During the three months ended December 31, 2020, we did not issue any shares of Common Stock in exchange for OP Units or limited partnership interests in consolidated real estate partnerships.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

There were no repurchases by Aimco of its common equity securities during the three months ended December 31, 2020. Aimco’s Board of Directors has, from time to time, authorized Aimco to repurchase shares of its outstanding Common Stock. As of December 31, 2020, Aimco was authorized to repurchase approximately 10.4 million shares. This authorization has no expiration date. These repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.

The Aimco Operating Partnership

Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than Aimco are referred to as OP Units. OP Units are common partnership units (“common OP Units”). There is no public market for OP Units, and we have no intention of listing the common partnership units on any securities exchange. In addition, the Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement restricts the transferability of OP Units.

On March 10, 2021, there were 159,938,614 common partnership units and equivalents outstanding (149,208,479 of which were held by Aimco) that were held by 2,284 unitholders of record.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

We did not issue any unregistered OP units during the three months ended December 31, 2020.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

The Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement generally provides that after holding common OP Units for one year, limited partners other than Aimco have the right to redeem their common OP Units for cash or, at our election, shares of Aimco Common Stock on a one-for-one basis (subject to customary antidilution adjustments). No common OP Units held by Limited Partners were redeemed for shares of our Common Stock during the three months ended December 31, 2020.

Dividend and Distribution Payments

As a REIT, Aimco is required to distribute annually to holders of its Common Stock at least 90% of its “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which, as defined by the Code and United States Department of Treasury regulations, is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income. Aimco’s Board of Directors determines and declares its dividends. In making a dividend determination, Aimco’s Board of Directors considers a variety of factors, including REIT distribution requirements; current market conditions; liquidity needs; and other uses of cash, such as for deleveraging and accretive investment activities. Aimco’s Board of Directors has not declared a dividend payment, nor have they set the expectation for any future regular dividend payments.

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Stockholders receiving such dividend and any future dividend payable in cash and shares of Aimco Common Stock will be required to include the full amount of such dividends as ordinary income to the extent of Aimco’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for United States federal income tax purposes for the year of such dividends, and may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. With respect to certain non-United States stockholders, Aimco may be required to withhold United States tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in Common Stock.

The Board of Directors of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s general partner determines and declares distributions on OP Units. Aimco, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, is the sole general partner. As of December 31, 2020, Aimco owned approximately 93.2% of the legal interest in the common partnership units of the Aimco Operating Partnership and 94.8% of the economic interest of the Aimco Operating Partnership. The Aimco Operating Partnership holds all of Aimco’s assets and manages the daily operations of Aimco’s business. The distributions paid by the Aimco Operating Partnership to Aimco are used by Aimco to fund the dividends paid to its stockholders. Accordingly, the per share dividends Aimco pays to its stockholders generally equal the per unit distributions paid by the Aimco Operating Partnership to holders of its common partnership units.

Our revolving credit agreement includes customary covenants, including a restriction on dividends and other restricted payments, but permits dividends and distributions as may be necessary to maintain Aimco’s REIT status.

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Performance Graph

The following graph compares cumulative total returns for Aimco’s Common Stock, the MSCI US REIT Index, the Nareit Equity Apartment Index, and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Total Return Index (“S&P 500 Index”). The MSCI US REIT Index is published by Morgan Stanley Capital International Inc., a provider of equity indices. The Nareit Equity Apartment Index is published by The National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“Nareit”), a representative of real estate investment trusts and publicly traded real estate companies with interests in United States real estate and capital markets. The MSCI US REIT Index reflects total shareholder return for a broad range of REITs and the Nareit Equity Apartment Index provides a more direct multifamily peer comparison of total shareholder return. The indices are weighted for all companies that fit the definitional criteria of the particular index and are calculated to exclude companies as they are acquired and to add companies to the index calculation as they become publicly traded companies. All companies that fit the definitional criteria and existed at the point in time presented are included in the index calculations. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in Aimco’s Common Stock and in each index on December 31, 2015, and that all dividends paid have been reinvested. The historical information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

 

 

 

For the years ended December 31,

 

Index

 

2015

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

Aimco

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

117.29

 

 

 

116.50

 

 

 

121.31

 

 

 

147.43

 

 

 

129.62

 

MSCI US REIT Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

108.60

 

 

 

114.11

 

 

 

108.89

 

 

 

137.03

 

 

 

126.66

 

Nareit Equity Apartment Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

102.86

 

 

 

106.68

 

 

 

110.63

 

 

 

139.75

 

 

 

118.30

 

S&P 500 Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

111.96

 

 

 

136.40

 

 

 

130.42

 

 

 

171.49

 

 

 

203.04

 

 

The Performance Graph will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing by Aimco under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that Aimco specifically incorporates the same by reference.


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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected financial data is based on audited historical financial statements of Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership, unless otherwise noted. This information should be read in conjunction with such financial statements, including the notes thereto, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included herein or in previous filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(dollar amounts in thousands, except per share data)

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

OPERATING DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

(unaudited)

 

Total revenues

 

$

151,451

 

 

$

143,692

 

 

$

132,163

 

 

$

127,613

 

 

$

123,450

 

Net (loss) income

 

 

(5,771

)

 

 

113

 

 

 

3,411

 

 

 

5,199

 

 

 

(4,189

)

Net (loss) income attributable to

   Aimco/the Aimco Operating Partnership per

   common share/unit – diluted

 

$

(0.03

)

 

$

0.00

 

 

$

0.02

 

 

$

0.03

 

 

$

(0.03

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

BALANCE SHEET INFORMATION:

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

(unaudited)

 

Total assets

 

$

1,840,492

 

 

$

1,260,125

 

 

$

679,188

 

 

$

689,319

 

 

$

681,171

 

Total indebtedness

 

 

982,094

 

 

 

558,933

 

 

 

420,214

 

 

 

372,920

 

 

 

410,632

 

 


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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Executive Overview

Our strategy includes property development, redevelopment, and other opportunistic investments that offer the prospect of outsized returns on a risk-adjusted basis. We invest where the talent of our business professionals, including their local market knowledge and insight, offers a comparative advantage. We deploy a variety of project and property-level financing structures to improve our returns on invested capital. Additionally, we own a national portfolio of operating properties which offers diversification, capital allocation opportunity, and a stable source of cash flow from operations.

Please refer to “Item 1. Business” for additional discussion of our business organization and strategy and “Item 2. Properties” for details regarding the size, location, and key metrics about our various properties.

The Separation

On December 15, 2020, Aimco completed the separation of AIR from Aimco, creating two distinct, independent businesses. Prior to the Separation, the consolidated financial statements were prepared on a carve-out basis and reflect significant assumptions and allocations. The consolidated financial statements reflect our historical financial position, results of operations, and cash flows in conformity with U.S. GAAP. The financial statements of Aimco are presented for all historical periods described and at the carrying value of such assets and liabilities reflected in Aimco Predecessor’s books and records. The following discussion focuses on the year ended December 31, 2020 results of Aimco as a separate company from AIR.

Financial Highlights

Net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders per common share, on a dilutive basis, decreased by $0.03 during the year ending December 31, 2020, compared to 2019, due primarily to non-cash charges resulting from the Separation.

Our business is organized around five areas of strategic focus: development and redevelopment; operating properties; investment and portfolio; balance sheet; and team and culture.

Development and Redevelopment

During the year ended December 31, 2020, capital additions at properties retained by Aimco totaled approximately $20 million.

On December 15, 2020, we entered into leasehold agreements with AIR for four initial leased assets, as announced in the separation agreements. The leasehold agreements with AIR were obtained by Aimco to complete the development and redevelopment activities underway at the time of Separation.  The four assets leased are: The North Tower at Flamingo Point in Miami Beach, Florida, where we are completing the major redevelopment of 366 apartment homes and amenities; The Fremont Residences on the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora, Colorado, a new 253 apartment home community completed in late 2020 and currently in lease-up; 707 Leahy Apartments in Redwood City, California, a completed major redevelopment of 110 apartment homes that are currently in lease-up; and Prism in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a 136 apartment home development scheduled to be completed in the first quarter of 2021. The lease terms commenced on January 1, 2021 and as a result of this, we expect the incremental direct costs to complete the development and redevelopment of these assets to be approximately $70.0 million. Please refer to Note 17 for additional details on the lease agreements with AIR.

 

Operating Properties

We own a national portfolio of operating properties which offers diversification, capital allocation opportunity, and provides a stable source of cash flow. Our Operating Portfolio, notwithstanding headwinds due to the pandemic, produced solid results for the year ended December 31, 2020. Highlights include:

 

Average daily occupancy at our Operating Portfolio of 96.3% for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 96.9% for the three months ended December 31, 2020, a 190-basis point improvement from the three months ended September 30, 2020.

 

Average revenue per occupied unit at our Operating Portfolio of $1,873 for the year ended December 31, 2020, up 0.1% year over year.

 

Net operating income for our Operating Portfolio decreased by 1.8% year over year, for the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

We estimate that in the year ended December 31, 2020, we incurred $4.5 million of incremental costs as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These estimated incremental costs include $1.9 million of lost commercial revenue, $1.3

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million of higher bad debt expense, and $1.3 million of other COVID-19 related items including increased cleaning costs.

 

We measure residential rent collection as the amount of payments received as a percentage of all residential amounts owed. In 2020, we collected 98.3% of all amounts owed by Aimco residents.

Office operations at 1001 Brickell Bay Drive, while facing headwinds due to the pandemic, remain steady with occupancy on December 31, 2020 of 77%. In November and December, we collected 100% of rents owed, and we collected an average of 96% of rents owed since April.

Investment and Portfolio

Acquisitions: During the year ended December 31, 2020, we acquired Hamilton on the Bay, located in Miami’s Edgewater neighborhood, for $89.6 million. The acquisition includes a 271-apartment home community located on the waterfront, plus an adjacent 0.6-acre development site with four apartment homes. Current zoning allows for the construction of more than 380 additional apartment homes on the combined sites. We are now in planning for a substantial renovation of the existing building.

Joint Venture Transaction: During the year ended December 31, 2020, we entered into a joint venture agreement with a third party developer on Upton Place, a $290.0 million, mixed-use development containing 689 apartment homes and approximately 100,000 square feet of retail space in upper-northwest Washington, D.C. Aimco consolidates this joint venture and holds a 90% economic interest inclusive of a 17% position owned by AIR which, by contract, is controlled by Aimco.

Parkmerced Mezzanine Investment: On November 26, 2019, Aimco Predecessor made a five-year, $275.0 million mezzanine loan to a partnership owning Parkmerced Apartments, located in southwest San Francisco (the “Mezzanine Investment”). The loan bears interest at a 10% annual rate, accruing if not paid from property operations. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Aimco Predecessor received interest payments of $0.6 million and accrued all remaining interest due, as provided by the loan agreement, consistent with GAAP. The terms of the Separation from AIR provide for the mezzanine loan and related agreements to be transferred to us by AIR once third-party consents related to the transfer are received. The legal transfer of the assets had not occurred as of December 31, 2020.  Until such time as ownership is transferred, the terms of the Separation Agreement require AIR to pass payments on such loan to us, and we are obligated to indemnify AIR against any such costs and expenses related thereto. We have the risks and rewards of ownership of the Mezzanine Investment and have recognized an asset related to our right to receive the Mezzanine Investment from AIR.

The loan is subject to certain risks, including, but not limited to, those resulting from the severe downturn in San Francisco rents, the ongoing disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic and associated governmental response, and the current economic situation which may result in all or a portion of the loan not being repaid. In the event we determine that a portion of the Mezzanine Investment is not recoverable, we will recognize an impairment, if appropriate.

Life Science Developer Investment: In the third quarter of 2020, Aimco made a $50 million commitment to IQHQ, Inc. (“IQHQ”), a privately-held life sciences real estate development company.  In addition, Aimco gained the right to collaborate with IQHQ on any multifamily component at its future development sites. As of December 31, 2020, we funded $12.5 million of this commitment and have a remaining commitment of $37.5 million.

The Aimco team continues to actively source and evaluate a wide range of potential investment opportunities.

Balance Sheet

 

Leverage

We seek to increase financial returns and reduce investment risk by using leverage and partners’ capital with appropriate caution. Our leverage consists primarily of long-term, non-recourse property loans encumbering apartment communities, outstanding borrowings on our revolving credit facility, borrowings on construction loans, Notes Payable to AIR, and a redeemable noncontrolling interest in a consolidated real estate partnership. Please refer to the Liquidity and Capital Resources section for additional information regarding our leverage.

In evaluating our financial condition and operating performance we use non-GAAP measures, including Adjusted EBITDAre, which we believe is useful to investors and creditors as a supplemental measure of our ability to incur and service debt. Our Adjusted EBITDAre for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $104.7 million. Please refer to the Non-GAAP Measures section for further information about the calculation of Adjusted EBITDAre and our leverage ratios.

Financing Activity

On December 16, 2020, we entered into a three-year credit agreement providing for a new $150.0 million secured credit facility, a $20.0 million swingline loan sub-facility and a $30.0 million letter of credit sub-facility. We expect to use our credit

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facility primarily for working capital and other short-term purposes. As of December 31, 2020, we had no amounts drawn on this revolving secured credit facility, swingline loan sub-facility or letter of  credit sub-facility.

On December 23, 2020, in connection with our Upton Place property, we secured a construction loan of up to $174.2 million. As of December 31, 2020, we had no amounts drawn on this construction loan.

Please refer to Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion of our financing activity.

Liquidity

Our liquidity consists of cash and restricted cash and available capacity on our revolving secured credit facility. As of December 31, 2020, our total liquidity was $448.7 million. Please refer to the Liquidity and Capital Resources section for additional information regarding our leverage.

Team and Culture

Our team is our most important asset and our culture is key to our success. In connection with the Separation, we retained approximately 50 Aimco employees, including: Wes Powell, Chief Executive Officer; Lynn Stanfield, Chief Financial Officer; and Jennifer Johnson, Chief Administrative Officer and General Counsel; each of whom has more than 16 years of Aimco experience. In addition, former Aimco Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Terry Considine will be actively engaged for a transition period with a particular focus on strategic guidance and new business.

Aimco benefits from having experienced leaders located in each of four regional hubs where they utilize their local knowledge and connections to source and execute on exceptional investment opportunities. We believe the talent of our team, and our ability to retain that talent through a rewarding and balanced work-life culture, will result in superior outcomes and is key to our long-term success. We offer benefits reflecting this belief, including paid time for parental leave, paid time annually to volunteer in local communities, a bonus structure at all levels of the organization, and flexibility in work locations and schedules.

Out of hundreds of participating companies in 2020, we were one of only six recognized as a “Top Workplace” in Colorado for each of the past eight years, and were one of only two real estate companies to receive a BEST award from the Association for Talent Development in recognition of our company-wide success in talent development, marking our third consecutive year receiving this award.

Impacts of COVID-19 and Government Lockdown

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and governmental lockdown continued through the fourth quarter of 2020. At the onset of the pandemic, we formed a cross-functional committee to lead our efforts to adjust to the changing conditions in order to keep our team and our residents safe. We continued our commitment to employees by allowing flexible work arrangements, undertook to pay all costs associated with COVID-19 testing and treatment, and continued clear and frequent communication. Utilizing our previous investment in technology and artificial intelligence, paired with policies providing flexibility, operations continued at our apartment communities with the leasing of apartments and fulfillment of service requests in a safe environment for our team members and our residents.

Our top priority is the health and safety of our residents and teammates. Accordingly, we implemented enhanced cleaning procedures and physical distancing and remote working guidelines at our communities and corporate offices. Additionally, seeing residents as individuals, each impacted differently by the pandemic and governmental lockdown, our teammates have undertaken to speak to every resident in need, to listen, and to help each to solve his or her problems. We also seek to assist the communities where our residents and employees live and work.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, we estimate that we incurred $4.5 million of incremental costs as a result of the pandemic. These estimated incremental costs include $1.9 million of lost commercial revenue, $1.3 million of higher bad debt expense, and $1.3 million of other COVID-19 related items including increased cleaning costs.

Residential Rent Collections

We measure residential rent collection as the amount of payments received as a percentage of all residential amounts owed. Through December 31, 2020, we have collected 98.3% of all amounts owed by Aimco residents in 2020.

Results of Operations

We have three segments: (i) Development and redevelopment, (ii) Operating Portfolio, and (iii) Other. Our Development and redevelopment segment includes residential apartment communities, including associated commercial space, that are under construction or have not achieved stabilization. Our Operating Portfolio segment includes majority owned residential

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communities that have achieved stabilized level of operations as of January 1, 2019 and maintained it throughout the current year and comparable period. Our Other segment consists of 1001 Brickell Bay Drive, our only commercial real estate property.

The following discussion and analysis of the results of our operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

Detailed Results of Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2020, Compared to 2019 and the Year Ended December 31, 2019, Compared to 2018

Net income decreased by $5.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019, and decreased by $3.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 2018, as described more fully below.

Property Operations

As of December 31, 2020, our Operating Portfolio segment included 24 communities with 6,067 apartment homes, our Development and redevelopment segment included Upton Place and Hamilton on the Bay, which are both being prepared for construction, and our Other segment includes one office building.

We use proportionate property net operating income to assess the operating performance of our segments. Proportionate property net operating income is defined as our share of rental and other property revenues, excluding utility reimbursements, less direct property operating expenses, net of utility reimbursements, for consolidated communities. In our consolidated statements of operations, utility reimbursements are included in rental and other property revenues, in accordance with GAAP. Accordingly, the results of operations of our segments discussed below are presented on a proportionate basis and exclude the results of four apartment communities with an aggregate 142 apartment homes that we neither manage nor consolidate, notes receivable, our investment in IQHQ and the Mezzanine Investment.

We do not include property management costs and casualty gains or losses, reported in consolidated amounts, in our assessment of segment performance. Accordingly, these items are not allocated to our segment results discussed below.

Please refer to Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion regarding our segments, including a reconciliation of these proportionate amounts to consolidated rental and other property revenues and property operating expenses.

Proportionate Property Net Operating Income – Year Ended December 31, 2020, Compared to December 31, 2019

The results of our segments for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, are presented below (in thousands).

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

Rental and other property revenues, before utility reimbursements:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development and redevelopment

 

$

1,515

 

 

$

 

 

$

1,515

 

 

 

100.0

%

Operating Portfolio

 

 

130,689

 

 

 

131,346

 

 

 

(657

)

 

 

-0.5

%

Other

 

 

12,986

 

 

 

6,888

 

 

 

6,098

 

 

 

88.5

%

Total

 

 

145,190

 

 

 

138,234

 

 

 

6,956

 

 

 

5.0

%

Property operating expenses, net of utility reimbursements:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development and redevelopment

 

 

981

 

 

 

 

 

 

981

 

 

 

100.0

%

Operating Portfolio

 

 

43,891

 

 

 

42,962

 

 

 

929

 

 

 

2.2

%

Other

 

 

4,148

 

 

 

1,931

 

 

 

2,217

 

 

 

114.8

%

Total

 

 

49,020

 

 

 

44,893

 

 

 

4,127

 

 

 

9.2

%

Proportionate property net operating income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development and redevelopment

 

 

534

 

 

 

 

 

 

534

 

 

 

100.0

%

Operating Portfolio

 

 

86,798

 

 

 

88,384

 

 

 

(1,586

)

 

 

-1.8

%

Other

 

 

8,838

 

 

 

4,957

 

 

 

3,881

 

 

 

78.3

%

Total

 

$

96,170

 

 

$

93,341

 

 

$

2,829

 

 

 

3.0

%

 

Development and redevelopment proportionate property net operating income increased by $0.5 million, or 100% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 2019, due to the acquisition of Hamilton on the Bay in August 2020.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 2019, our Operating Portfolio proportionate property net operating income decreased by $1.6 million, or 1.8%, as operations at Aimco properties were impacted by the pandemic and related restrictions. This decrease was attributable to a $0.7 million, or 0.5%, decrease in rental and other property revenues due primarily to bad debt, increasing from 40 basis points of revenue to 130 basis points, and lower average daily occupancy of 40 basis points. This was partially offset by higher average rent of $21 per apartment home. Property operating expenses increased $0.9 million, or 2.2% increase due primarily to an increase in real estate taxes and insurance.

 

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Other proportionate property net operating income increased by $3.9 million, or 78.3 % for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 2019, due to the acquisition of 1001 Brickell Bay Drive in July 2019.

Proportionate Property Net Operating Income – Year Ended December 31, 2019, Compared to December 31, 2018

The results of our segments for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, are presented below. There was no proportionate property net operating income associated with our Other segment during the year ended December 31, 2018, as the only property in the segment was not acquired until 2019. There was no proportionate property net operating income associated with our Development and redevelopment segment as these properties are under construction (in thousands).

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

Rental and other property revenues, before utility reimbursements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development and redevelopment

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

Operating Portfolio

 

 

131,346

 

 

 

127,368

 

 

 

3,978

 

 

 

3.1

%

Other

 

 

6,888

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,888

 

 

 

100.0

%

Total

 

 

138,234

 

 

 

127,368

 

 

 

10,866

 

 

 

8.5

%

Property operating expenses, net of utility reimbursements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development and redevelopment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Portfolio

 

 

42,962

 

 

 

41,778

 

 

 

1,184

 

 

 

2.8

%

Other

 

 

1,931

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,931

 

 

 

100.0

%

Total

 

 

44,893

 

 

 

41,778

 

 

 

3,115