10-Q 1 so_10qx3312019.htm 10-Q Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
þ QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2019
OR
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to            

Commission
File Number
 
Registrant, State of Incorporation,
Address and Telephone Number
 
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
1-3526
 
The Southern Company
(A Delaware Corporation)
30 Ivan Allen Jr. Boulevard, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30308
(404) 506-5000
 
58-0690070
 
 
 
 
 
1-3164
 
Alabama Power Company
(An Alabama Corporation)
600 North 18th Street
Birmingham, Alabama 35203
(205) 257-1000
 
63-0004250
 
 
 
 
 
1-6468
 
Georgia Power Company
(A Georgia Corporation)
241 Ralph McGill Boulevard, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30308
(404) 506-6526
 
58-0257110
 
 
 
 
 
001-11229
 
Mississippi Power Company
(A Mississippi Corporation)
2992 West Beach Boulevard
Gulfport, Mississippi 39501
(228) 864-1211
 
64-0205820
 
 
 
 
 
001-37803
 
Southern Power Company
(A Delaware Corporation)
30 Ivan Allen Jr. Boulevard, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30308
(404) 506-5000
 
58-2598670
 
 
 
 
 
1-14174
 
Southern Company Gas
(A Georgia Corporation)
Ten Peachtree Place, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30309
(404) 584-4000
 
58-2210952




Indicate by check mark whether the registrants (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to file such reports), and (2) have been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants have submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to submit such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Registrant
 
Large
Accelerated
Filer
 
Accelerated
Filer
 
Non-
accelerated
Filer
 
Smaller
Reporting
Company
 
Emerging
Growth
Company
The Southern Company
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alabama Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Georgia Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Mississippi Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Southern Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Southern Company Gas
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No þ (Response applicable to all registrants.)
 
Registrant
 
Description of
Common Stock
 
Shares Outstanding at March 31, 2019

The Southern Company
 
Par Value $5 Per Share
 
1,040,295,732

Alabama Power Company
 
Par Value $40 Per Share
 
30,537,500

Georgia Power Company
 
Without Par Value
 
9,261,500

Mississippi Power Company
 
Without Par Value
 
1,121,000

Southern Power Company
 
Par Value $0.01 Per Share
 
1,000

Southern Company Gas
 
Par Value $0.01 Per Share
 
100

This combined Form 10-Q is separately filed by The Southern Company, Alabama Power Company, Georgia Power Company, Mississippi Power Company, Southern Power Company, and Southern Company Gas. Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf. Each registrant makes no representation as to information relating to the other registrants.

2

INDEX TO QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
March 31, 2019


 
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Financial Statements (Unaudited)
 
Item 2.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3

INDEX TO QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
March 31, 2019


 
 
Page
Number
 
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION (CONTINUED)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
PART II—OTHER INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Inapplicable
Item 3.
Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Inapplicable
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Inapplicable
Item 5.
Other Information
Inapplicable
Item 6.
 

4


Term
Meaning
2013 ARP
Alternative Rate Plan approved by the Georgia PSC in 2013 for Georgia Power for the years 2014 through 2016 and subsequently extended through 2019
AFUDC
Allowance for funds used during construction
Alabama Power
Alabama Power Company
Amended and Restated Loan Guarantee Agreement
Loan guarantee agreement entered into by Georgia Power with the DOE in 2014, as amended and restated on March 22, 2019, under which the proceeds of borrowings may be used to reimburse Georgia Power for Eligible Project Costs incurred in connection with its construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
ARO
Asset retirement obligation
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
Atlanta Gas Light
Atlanta Gas Light Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
Atlantic Coast Pipeline
Atlantic Coast Pipeline, LLC, a joint venture to construct and operate a natural gas pipeline in which Southern Company Gas has a 5% ownership interest
Bechtel
Bechtel Power Corporation, the primary contractor for the remaining construction activities for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
Bechtel Agreement
The October 23, 2017 construction completion agreement between the Vogtle Owners and Bechtel
CCR
Coal combustion residuals
Chattanooga Gas
Chattanooga Gas Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
CO2
Carbon dioxide
COD
Commercial operation date
Contractor Settlement Agreement
The December 31, 2015 agreement between Westinghouse and the Vogtle Owners resolving disputes between the Vogtle Owners and the EPC Contractor under the Vogtle 3 and 4 Agreement
Cooperative Energy
Electric cooperative in Mississippi
Customer Refunds
Refunds issued to Georgia Power customers in 2018 as ordered by the Georgia PSC related to the Guarantee Settlement Agreement
CWIP
Construction work in progress
Dalton
City of Dalton, Georgia, an incorporated municipality in the State of Georgia, acting by and through its Board of Water, Light, and Sinking Fund Commissioners
Dalton Pipeline
A pipeline facility in Georgia in which Southern Company Gas has a 50% undivided ownership interest
DOE
U.S. Department of Energy
ECO Plan
Mississippi Power's environmental compliance overview plan
Eligible Project Costs
Certain costs of construction relating to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 that are eligible for financing under the loan guarantee program established under Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPC Contractor
Westinghouse and its affiliate, WECTEC Global Project Services Inc.; the former engineering, procurement, and construction contractor for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FFB
Federal Financing Bank
Fitch
Fitch Ratings, Inc.
Form 10-K
Annual Report on Form 10-K of Southern Company, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Mississippi Power, Southern Power, and Southern Company Gas for the year ended December 31, 2018, as applicable
GAAP
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles

5


DEFINITIONS
(continued)

Term
Meaning
Georgia Power
Georgia Power Company
GHG
Greenhouse gas
Guarantee Settlement Agreement
The June 9, 2017 settlement agreement between the Vogtle Owners and Toshiba related to certain payment obligations of the EPC Contractor guaranteed by Toshiba
Gulf Power
Gulf Power Company, until January 1, 2019, a subsidiary of Southern Company
Heating Degree Days
A measure of weather, calculated when the average daily temperatures are less than 65 degrees Fahrenheit
Heating Season
The period from November through March when Southern Company Gas' natural gas usage and operating revenues are generally higher
HLBV
Hypothetical liquidation at book value
IGCC
Integrated coal gasification combined cycle, the technology originally approved for Mississippi Power's Kemper County energy facility (Plant Ratcliffe)
IIC
Intercompany Interchange Contract
Illinois Commission
Illinois Commerce Commission
ITAAC
Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria, standards established by the NRC
ITC
Investment tax credit
JEA
Jacksonville Electric Authority
KWH
Kilowatt-hour
LIFO
Last-in, first-out
LOCOM
Lower of weighted average cost or current market price
LTSA
Long-term service agreement
MEAG
Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia
Merger
The merger, effective July 1, 2016, of a wholly-owned, direct subsidiary of Southern Company with and into Southern Company Gas, with Southern Company Gas continuing as the surviving corporation
Mississippi Power
Mississippi Power Company
mmBtu
Million British thermal units
Moody's
Moody's Investors Service, Inc.
MRA
Municipal and Rural Associations
MW
Megawatt
natural gas distribution utilities
Southern Company Gas' natural gas distribution utilities (Nicor Gas, Atlanta Gas Light, Virginia Natural Gas, Elizabethtown Gas, Florida City Gas, Chattanooga Gas, and Elkton Gas as of June 30, 2018) (Nicor Gas, Atlanta Gas Light, Virginia Natural Gas, and Chattanooga Gas as of July 29, 2018)
NCCR
Georgia Power's Nuclear Construction Cost Recovery
NextEra Energy
NextEra Energy, Inc.
Nicor Gas
Northern Illinois Gas Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
NRC
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NYMEX
New York Mercantile Exchange, Inc.
OATT
Open access transmission tariff
OCI
Other comprehensive income
PennEast Pipeline
PennEast Pipeline Company, LLC, a joint venture to construct and operate a natural gas pipeline in which Southern Company Gas has a 20% ownership interest
PEP
Mississippi Power's Performance Evaluation Plan
Pivotal Home Solutions
Nicor Energy Services Company, until June 4, 2018 a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas, doing business as Pivotal Home Solutions

6


DEFINITIONS
(continued)

Term
Meaning
Pivotal Utility Holdings
Pivotal Utility Holdings, Inc., until July 29, 2018 a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas, doing business as Elizabethtown Gas (until July 1, 2018), Elkton Gas (until July 1, 2018), and Florida City Gas
PowerSecure
PowerSecure, Inc.
power pool
The operating arrangement whereby the integrated generating resources of the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power (excluding subsidiaries) are subject to joint commitment and dispatch in order to serve their combined load obligations
PPA
Power purchase agreements, as well as, for Southern Power, contracts for differences that provide the owner of a renewable facility a certain fixed price for the electricity sold to the grid
PSC
Public Service Commission
PTC
Production tax credit
Rate CNP
Alabama Power's Rate Certificated New Plant
Rate CNP Compliance
Alabama Power's Rate Certificated New Plant Compliance
Rate CNP PPA
Alabama Power's Rate Certificated New Plant Power Purchase Agreement
Rate ECR
Alabama Power's Rate Energy Cost Recovery
Rate NDR
Alabama Power's Rate Natural Disaster Reserve
Rate RSE
Alabama Power's Rate Stabilization and Equalization
registrants
Southern Company, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Mississippi Power, Southern Power Company, and Southern Company Gas
revenue from contracts with customers
Revenue from contracts accounted for under the guidance of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers
ROE
Return on equity
S&P
S&P Global Ratings, a division of S&P Global Inc.
SCS
Southern Company Services, Inc. (the Southern Company system service company)
SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SNG
Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.
Southern Company
The Southern Company
Southern Company Gas
Southern Company Gas and its subsidiaries
Southern Company Gas Capital
Southern Company Gas Capital Corporation, a 100%-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
Southern Company Gas Dispositions
Southern Company Gas' disposition of Pivotal Home Solutions, Pivotal Utility Holdings' disposition of Elizabethtown Gas and Elkton Gas, and NUI Corporation's disposition of Pivotal Utility Holdings, which primarily consisted of Florida City Gas
Southern Company system
Southern Company, the traditional electric operating companies, Southern Power, Southern Company Gas, Southern Electric Generating Company, Southern Nuclear, SCS, Southern Communications Services, Inc., PowerSecure, and other subsidiaries
Southern Nuclear
Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.
Southern Power
Southern Power Company and its subsidiaries
SP Solar
SP Solar Holdings I, LP
SP Wind
SP Wind Holdings II, LLC
Tax Reform Legislation
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which became effective on January 1, 2018
Toshiba
Toshiba Corporation, the parent company of Westinghouse
traditional electric operating companies
Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Gulf Power, and Mississippi Power through December 31, 2018; Alabama Power, Georgia Power, and Mississippi Power as of January 1, 2019
Triton
Triton Container Investments, LLC
VCM
Vogtle Construction Monitoring
VIE
Variable interest entity
Virginia Commission
Virginia State Corporation Commission

7


DEFINITIONS
(continued)

Term
Meaning
Virginia Natural Gas
Virginia Natural Gas, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
Vogtle 3 and 4 Agreement
Agreement entered into with the EPC Contractor in 2008 by Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the Vogtle Owners, and rejected in bankruptcy in July 2017, pursuant to which the EPC Contractor agreed to design, engineer, procure, construct, and test Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
Vogtle Owners
Georgia Power, Oglethorpe Power Corporation, MEAG, and Dalton
Vogtle Services Agreement
The June 9, 2017 services agreement between the Vogtle Owners and the EPC Contractor, as amended and restated on July 20, 2017, for the EPC Contractor to transition construction management of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to Southern Nuclear and to provide ongoing design, engineering, and procurement services to Southern Nuclear
WACOG
Weighted average cost of gas
Westinghouse
Westinghouse Electric Company LLC

8


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning regulated rates, the strategic goals for the business, customer and sales growth, economic conditions, fuel and environmental cost recovery and other rate actions, projected equity ratios, current and proposed environmental regulations and related compliance plans and estimated expenditures, pending or potential litigation matters, access to sources of capital, financing activities, completion dates of construction projects, matters related to the abandonment of the Kemper IGCC, completion of announced dispositions, filings with state and federal regulatory authorities, and estimated construction plans and expenditures. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terminology such as "may," "will," "could," "would," "should," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "projects," "predicts," "potential," or "continue" or the negative of these terms or other similar terminology. There are various factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements; accordingly, there can be no assurance that such indicated results will be realized. These factors include:

the impact of recent and future federal and state regulatory changes, including tax and environmental laws and regulations and other laws and regulations to which Southern Company and its subsidiaries are subject, as well as changes in application of existing laws and regulations;
the extent and timing of costs and legal requirements related to CCR;
current and future litigation or regulatory investigations, proceedings, or inquiries, including litigation and other disputes related to the Kemper County energy facility;
the effects, extent, and timing of the entry of additional competition in the markets in which Southern Company's subsidiaries operate, including from the development and deployment of alternative energy sources;
variations in demand for electricity and natural gas;
available sources and costs of natural gas and other fuels;
the ability to complete necessary or desirable pipeline expansion or infrastructure projects, limits on pipeline capacity, and operational interruptions to natural gas distribution and transmission activities;
transmission constraints;
effects of inflation;
the ability to control costs and avoid cost and schedule overruns during the development, construction, and operation of facilities, including Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, which includes components based on new technology that only recently began initial operation in the global nuclear industry at this scale, and including changes in labor costs, availability, and productivity; challenges with management of contractors, subcontractors, or vendors; adverse weather conditions; shortages, increased costs, or inconsistent quality of equipment, materials, and labor; contractor or supplier delay; non-performance under construction, operating, or other agreements; operational readiness, including specialized operator training and required site safety programs; engineering or design problems; design and other licensing-based compliance matters, including the timely resolution of ITAAC and the related approvals by the NRC; challenges with start-up activities, including major equipment failure and system integration; and/or operational performance;
the ability to construct facilities in accordance with the requirements of permits and licenses (including satisfaction of NRC requirements), to satisfy any environmental performance standards and the requirements of tax credits and other incentives, and to integrate facilities into the Southern Company system upon completion of construction;
investment performance of the employee and retiree benefit plans and nuclear decommissioning trust funds;
advances in technology;
ongoing renewable energy partnerships and development agreements;
state and federal rate regulations and the impact of pending and future rate cases and negotiations, including rate actions relating to ROE, equity ratios, and fuel and other cost recovery mechanisms;

9


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
(continued)
the ability to successfully operate the electric utilities' generating, transmission, and distribution facilities and Southern Company Gas' natural gas distribution and storage facilities and the successful performance of necessary corporate functions;
legal proceedings and regulatory approvals and actions related to construction projects, such as Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 and pipeline projects, including PSC approvals and FERC and NRC actions;
under certain specified circumstances, a decision by holders of more than 10% of the ownership interests of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 not to proceed with construction and the ability of other Vogtle Owners to tender a portion of their ownership interests to Georgia Power following certain construction cost increases;
in the event Georgia Power becomes obligated to provide funding to MEAG with respect to the portion of MEAG's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 involving JEA, any inability of Georgia Power to receive repayment of such funding;
the inherent risks involved in operating and constructing nuclear generating facilities;
the inherent risks involved in transporting and storing natural gas;
the performance of projects undertaken by the non-utility businesses and the success of efforts to invest in and develop new opportunities;
internal restructuring or other restructuring options that may be pursued;
potential business strategies, including acquisitions or dispositions of assets or businesses, including the proposed dispositions of Plant Mankato and the Nacogdoches biomass-fueled facility, which cannot be assured to be completed or beneficial to Southern Company or its subsidiaries;
the ability of counterparties of Southern Company and its subsidiaries to make payments as and when due and to perform as required;
the ability to obtain new short- and long-term contracts with wholesale customers;
the direct or indirect effect on the Southern Company system's business resulting from cyber intrusion or physical attack and the threat of physical attacks;
interest rate fluctuations and financial market conditions and the results of financing efforts;
access to capital markets and other financing sources;
changes in Southern Company's and any of its subsidiaries' credit ratings;
the ability of Southern Company's electric utilities to obtain additional generating capacity (or sell excess generating capacity) at competitive prices;
catastrophic events such as fires, earthquakes, explosions, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes and other storms, droughts, pandemic health events, or other similar occurrences;
the direct or indirect effects on the Southern Company system's business resulting from incidents affecting the U.S. electric grid, natural gas pipeline infrastructure, or operation of generating or storage resources;
impairments of goodwill or long-lived assets;
the effect of accounting pronouncements issued periodically by standard-setting bodies; and
other factors discussed elsewhere herein and in other reports (including the Form 10-K) filed by the registrants from time to time with the SEC.
The registrants expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

10


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY
AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

11


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (UNAUDITED)
 
 
For the Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
(in millions)
Operating Revenues:
 
 
 
Retail electric revenues
$
3,084

 
$
3,568

Wholesale electric revenues
499

 
623

Other electric revenues
168

 
161

Natural gas revenues (includes alternative revenue programs of
$(2) and $(24), respectively)
1,474

 
1,607

Other revenues
187

 
413

Total operating revenues
5,412

 
6,372

Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
Fuel
850

 
1,101

Purchased power
170

 
267

Cost of natural gas
686

 
720

Cost of other sales
118

 
289

Other operations and maintenance
1,312

 
1,451

Depreciation and amortization
751

 
769

Taxes other than income taxes
329

 
355

Estimated loss on plants under construction
2

 
44

Gain on dispositions, net
(2,497
)
 

Total operating expenses
1,721

 
4,996

Operating Income
3,691

 
1,376

Other Income and (Expense):
 
 
 
Allowance for equity funds used during construction
32

 
30

Earnings from equity method investments
48

 
41

Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized
(430
)
 
(458
)
Other income (expense), net
78

 
60

Total other income and (expense)
(272
)
 
(327
)
Earnings Before Income Taxes
3,419

 
1,049

Income taxes
1,360

 
113

Consolidated Net Income
2,059

 
936

Dividends on preferred stock of subsidiaries
4

 
4

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
(29
)
 
(6
)
Consolidated Net Income Attributable to
Southern Company
$
2,084

 
$
938

Common Stock Data:
 
 
 
Earnings per share -
 
 
 
Basic
$
2.01

 
$
0.93

Diluted
$
1.99

 
$
0.92

Average number of shares of common stock outstanding (in millions)
 
 
 
Basic
1,038

 
1,011

Diluted
1,045

 
1,016

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

12


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (UNAUDITED)
 
 
For the Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
(in millions)
Consolidated Net Income
$
2,059

 
$
936

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Qualifying hedges:
 
 
 
Changes in fair value, net of tax of $(9) and $16, respectively
(28
)
 
47

Reclassification adjustment for amounts included in net income,
net of tax of $9 and $(6), respectively
28

 
(19
)
Pension and other postretirement benefit plans:
 
 
 
Reclassification adjustment for amounts included in net income,
net of tax of $- and $-, respectively

 
2

Total other comprehensive income (loss)

 
30

Comprehensive Income
2,059

 
966

Dividends on preferred stock of subsidiaries
4

 
4

Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
(29
)
 
(6
)
Consolidated Comprehensive Income Attributable to
Southern Company
$
2,084

 
$
968

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


13


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
 
For the Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
(in millions)
Operating Activities:
 
 
 
Consolidated net income
$
2,059

 
$
936

Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net income to net cash provided from operating activities —
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization, total
851

 
873

Deferred income taxes
191

 
34

Allowance for equity funds used during construction
(32
)
 
(30
)
Mark-to-market adjustments
46

 
(60
)
Pension, postretirement, and other employee benefits
(53
)
 
(27
)
Settlement of asset retirement obligations
(62
)
 
(41
)
Stock based compensation expense
64

 
69

Estimated loss on plants under construction
6

 
37

Gain on dispositions, net
(2,503
)
 
1

Other, net
19

 
73

Changes in certain current assets and liabilities —
 
 
 
-Receivables
378

 
197

-Prepayments
(129
)
 
(82
)
-Natural gas for sale
363

 
413

-Other current assets
17

 
7

-Accounts payable
(783
)
 
(425
)
-Accrued taxes
928

 
(79
)
-Accrued compensation
(489
)
 
(471
)
-Other current liabilities
(127
)
 
84

Net cash provided from operating activities
744

 
1,509

Investing Activities:
 
 
 
Business acquisitions, net of cash acquired
(2
)
 
(46
)
Property additions
(1,678
)
 
(1,781
)
Nuclear decommissioning trust fund purchases
(197
)
 
(306
)
Nuclear decommissioning trust fund sales
192

 
301

Proceeds from dispositions
4,427

 
135

Cost of removal, net of salvage
(89
)
 
(79
)
Change in construction payables, net
(146
)
 
(112
)
Investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries
(10
)
 
(30
)
Payments pursuant to LTSAs
(28
)
 
(73
)
Other investing activities
(15
)
 
(4
)
Net cash provided from (used for) investing activities
2,454

 
(1,995
)
Financing Activities:
 
 
 
Increase in notes payable, net
86

 
782

Proceeds —
 
 
 
Long-term debt
1,220

 
600

Common stock
224

 
113

Short-term borrowings

 
1,200

Redemptions and repurchases —
 
 
 
Long-term debt
(2,429
)
 
(1,283
)
Short-term borrowings
(1,750
)
 
(150
)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests
(36
)
 
(13
)
Capital contributions from noncontrolling interests
3

 
8

Payment of common stock dividends
(623
)
 
(586
)
Other financing activities
(48
)
 
(42
)
Net cash provided from (used for) financing activities
(3,353
)
 
629

Net Change in Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
(155
)
 
143

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash at Beginning of Period
1,519

 
2,147

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash at End of Period
$
1,364

 
$
2,290

Supplemental Cash Flow Information:
 
 
 
Cash paid (received) during the period for —
 
 
 
Interest (net of $18 and $17 capitalized for 2019 and 2018, respectively)
$
462

 
$
499

Income taxes, net

 
(1
)
Noncash transactions — Accrued property additions at end of period
899

 
894

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

14


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)
 
Assets
 
At March 31, 2019
 
At December 31, 2018
 
 
(in millions)
Current Assets:
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
1,361

 
$
1,396

Receivables —
 
 
 
 
Customer accounts receivable
 
1,715

 
1,726

Energy marketing receivables
 
529

 
801

Unbilled revenues
 
555

 
654

Under recovered fuel clause revenues
 
73

 
115

Other accounts and notes receivable
 
863

 
813

Accumulated provision for uncollectible accounts
 
(46
)
 
(50
)
Materials and supplies
 
1,477

 
1,465

Fossil fuel for generation
 
427

 
405

Natural gas for sale
 
189

 
524

Prepaid expenses
 
786

 
432

Assets from risk management activities, net of collateral
 
111

 
222

Other regulatory assets
 
482

 
525

Assets held for sale
 
55

 
393

Other current assets
 
132

 
162

Total current assets
 
8,709

 
9,583

Property, Plant, and Equipment:
 
 
 
 
In service
 
102,673

 
103,706

Less: Accumulated depreciation
 
30,834

 
31,038

Plant in service, net of depreciation
 
71,839

 
72,668

Other utility plant, net
 
1,315

 

Nuclear fuel, at amortized cost
 
885

 
875

Construction work in progress
 
7,598

 
7,254

Total property, plant, and equipment
 
81,637

 
80,797

Other Property and Investments:
 
 
 
 
Goodwill
 
5,284

 
5,315

Equity investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries
 
1,598

 
1,580

Other intangible assets, net of amortization of $251 and $235
at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively
 
585

 
613

Nuclear decommissioning trusts, at fair value
 
1,875

 
1,721

Leveraged leases
 
806

 
798

Miscellaneous property and investments
 
363

 
269

Total other property and investments
 
10,511

 
10,296

Deferred Charges and Other Assets:
 
 
 
 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net of amortization
 
1,881

 

Deferred charges related to income taxes
 
794

 
794

Unamortized loss on reacquired debt
 
318

 
323

Other regulatory assets, deferred
 
8,191

 
8,308

Assets held for sale, deferred
 
763

 
5,350

Other deferred charges and assets
 
1,292

 
1,463

Total deferred charges and other assets
 
13,239

 
16,238

Total Assets
 
$
114,096

 
$
116,914

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


15


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
At March 31, 2019
 
At December 31, 2018
 
 
(in millions)
Current Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Securities due within one year
 
$
2,315

 
$
3,198

Notes payable
 
1,251

 
2,915

Energy marketing trade payables
 
532

 
856

Accounts payable
 
2,037

 
2,580

Customer deposits
 
483

 
522

Accrued taxes —
 
 
 
 
Accrued income taxes
 
340

 
21

Other accrued taxes
 
331

 
635

Accrued interest
 
412

 
472

Accrued compensation
 
473

 
1,030

Asset retirement obligations
 
417

 
404

Other regulatory liabilities
 
310

 
376

Liabilities held for sale
 
38

 
425

Operating lease obligations
 
226

 

Other current liabilities
 
754

 
852

Total current liabilities
 
9,919

 
14,286

Long-term Debt
 
40,457

 
40,736

Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Accumulated deferred income taxes
 
7,937

 
6,558

Deferred credits related to income taxes
 
6,417

 
6,460

Accumulated deferred ITCs
 
2,353

 
2,372

Employee benefit obligations
 
2,084

 
2,147

Operating lease obligations, deferred
 
1,720

 

Asset retirement obligations, deferred
 
9,011

 
8,990

Accrued environmental remediation
 
261

 
268

Other cost of removal obligations
 
2,304

 
2,297

Other regulatory liabilities, deferred
 
211

 
169

Liabilities held for sale, deferred
 
39

 
2,836

Other deferred credits and liabilities
 
405

 
465

Total deferred credits and other liabilities
 
32,742

 
32,562

Total Liabilities
 
83,118

 
87,584

Redeemable Preferred Stock of Subsidiaries
 
291

 
291

Total Stockholders' Equity (See accompanying statements)
 
30,687

 
29,039

Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
$
114,096

 
$
116,914

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

16


SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (UNAUDITED)
 
Southern Company Common Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
 
 
Number of
Common Shares
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income
(Loss)
 
 
 
 
 
Issued
 
Treasury
 
Par Value
 
Paid-In Capital
 
Treasury
 
Retained Earnings
 
 
Noncontrolling Interests
 
Total
 
(in thousands)
 
(in millions)
Balance at December 31, 2017
1,008,532

 
(929
)
 
$
5,037

 
$
10,470

 
$
(36
)
 
$
8,885

 
$
(189
)
 
$
1,361

 
$
25,528

Consolidated net income attributable to
Southern Company

 

 

 

 

 
938

 

 

 
938

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 
30

 

 
30

Stock issued
4,055

 

 
16

 
97

 

 

 

 

 
113

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 
36

 

 

 

 

 
36

Cash dividends of $0.58 per share

 

 

 

 

 
(586
)
 

 

 
(586
)
Contributions from noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
9

 
9

Distributions to noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(13
)
 
(13
)
Net income (loss) attributable
to noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(6
)
 
(6
)
Other

 
(33
)
 
1

 

 
(2
)
 
20

 
(41
)
 
(2
)
 
(24
)
Balance at March 31, 2018
1,012,587

 
(962
)
 
$
5,054

 
$
10,603

 
$
(38
)
 
$
9,257

 
$
(200
)
 
$
1,349

 
$
26,025

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at December 31, 2018
1,034,741

 
(953
)
 
$
5,164

 
$
11,094

 
$
(38
)
 
$
8,706

 
$
(203
)
 
$
4,316

 
$
29,039

Consolidated net income attributable to
Southern Company

 

 

 

 

 
2,084

 

 

 
2,084

Stock issued
6,547

 

 
28

 
196

 

 

 

 

 
224

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 
24

 

 

 

 

 
24

Cash dividends of $0.60 per share

 

 

 

 

 
(622
)
 

 

 
(622
)
Contributions from noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
3

 
3

Distributions to noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(41
)
 
(41
)
Net income (loss) attributable to
noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(29
)
 
(29
)
Other

 
(39
)
 

 
7

 
(2
)
 
(1
)
 

 
1

 
5

Balance at March 31, 2019
1,041,288

 
(992
)
 
$
5,192

 
$
11,321

 
$
(40
)
 
$
10,167

 
$
(203
)
 
$
4,250

 
$
30,687

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


17

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

FIRST QUARTER 2019 vs. FIRST QUARTER 2018


OVERVIEW
Southern Company is a holding company that owns all of the common stock of the traditional electric operating companies and the parent entities of Southern Power and Southern Company Gas and owns other direct and indirect subsidiaries. Discussion of the results of operations is focused on the Southern Company system's primary businesses of electricity sales by the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power and the distribution of natural gas by Southern Company Gas. The traditional electric operating companies are vertically integrated utilities providing electric service in three Southeastern states. Southern Power develops, constructs, acquires, owns, and manages power generation assets, including renewable energy projects, and sells electricity at market-based rates in the wholesale market. Southern Company Gas distributes natural gas through its natural gas distribution utilities and is involved in several other complementary businesses including gas pipeline investments, wholesale gas services, and gas marketing services. The Southern Company system's other business activities include providing energy solutions, such as distributed energy infrastructure, energy efficiency products and services, and utility infrastructure services, to customers. Other business activities also include investments in telecommunications, leveraged lease projects, and gas storage facilities. For additional information, see BUSINESS – "The Southern Company System – Traditional Electric Operating Companies," " – Southern Power," " – Southern Company Gas," and " – Other Businesses" in Item 1 of the Form 10-K.
On January 1, 2019, Southern Company completed its sale of Gulf Power to NextEra Energy for an aggregate cash purchase price of approximately $5.8 billion (less $1.3 billion of indebtedness assumed), subject to customary working capital adjustments. The preliminary gain associated with the sale of Gulf Power totaled $2.5 billion pre-tax ($1.3 billion after tax). See Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company" herein for additional information.
Georgia Power and Atlanta Gas Light are required to file base rate cases with the Georgia PSC by July 1, 2019 and June 3, 2019, respectively. Nicor Gas filed a rate case with the Illinois Commission in November 2018. These three rate cases are expected to conclude in 2019. In addition, Mississippi Power is scheduled to file a base rate case with the Mississippi PSC in the fourth quarter 2019. The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time. See FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Regulatory Matters" herein and Note 2 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Southern Company continues to focus on several key performance indicators. These indicators include, but are not limited to, customer satisfaction, plant availability, electric and natural gas system reliability, execution of major construction projects, and earnings per share.
Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 Status
In 2009, the Georgia PSC certified construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 (with electric generating capacity of approximately 1,100 MWs each). Georgia Power holds a 45.7% ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. In March 2017, the EPC Contractor filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In December 2017, the Georgia PSC approved Georgia Power's recommendation to continue construction. The current expected in-service dates remain November 2021 for Unit 3 and November 2022 for Unit 4.
In the second quarter 2018, Georgia Power revised its base capital cost forecast and estimated contingency to complete construction and start-up of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to $8.0 billion and $0.4 billion, respectively, for a total project capital cost forecast of $8.4 billion (net of $1.7 billion received under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and approximately $188 million in related Customer Refunds), with respect to Georgia Power's ownership interest.
As a result of the increase in the total project capital cost forecast and Georgia Power's decision not to seek rate recovery of the increase in the base capital costs, the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant

18

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Vogtle Units 3 and 4 were required to vote to continue construction. In September 2018, the Vogtle Owners unanimously voted to continue construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. In connection with the vote to continue construction, Georgia Power entered into (i) a binding term sheet (Vogtle Owner Term Sheet) with the other Vogtle Owners and certain of MEAG's wholly-owned subsidiaries, including MEAG Power SPVJ, LLC (MEAG SPVJ), to take certain actions which partially mitigate potential financial exposure for the other Vogtle Owners and (ii) a term sheet (MEAG Term Sheet) with MEAG and MEAG SPVJ to provide funding with respect to MEAG SPVJ's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 under certain circumstances. On January 14, 2019, Georgia Power, MEAG, and MEAG SPVJ entered into an agreement to implement the provisions of the MEAG Term Sheet. On February 18, 2019, Georgia Power, the other Vogtle Owners, and certain of MEAG's wholly-owned subsidiaries entered into certain amendments to their joint ownership agreements to implement the provisions of the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet.
In April 2019, Southern Nuclear completed a cost and schedule validation process to verify and update quantities of commodities remaining to install, labor hours to install remaining quantities and related productivity, testing and system turnover requirements, and forecasted staffing needs and related costs. This process confirmed the total estimated project capital cost forecast for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. The expected in-service dates of November 2021 for Unit 3 and November 2022 for Unit 4, as previously approved by the Georgia PSC, remain unchanged.
In March 2019, Georgia Power entered into the Amended and Restated Loan Guarantee Agreement with the DOE, under which the proceeds of borrowings may be used to reimburse Georgia Power for Eligible Project Costs incurred in connection with its construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, up to approximately $5.130 billion. At March 31, 2019, Georgia Power had a total of $3.46 billion of borrowings outstanding under the related multi-advance credit facilities.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
See FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Construction ProgramNuclear Construction" and Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "DOE Loan Guarantee Borrowings" herein for additional information.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Net Income
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$1,146
 
122.2
Consolidated net income attributable to Southern Company was $2.1 billion ($2.01 per share) for the first quarter 2019 compared to $938 million ($0.93 per share) for the corresponding period in 2018. The increase was primarily due to the $2.5 billion ($1.3 billion after tax) gain on the sale of Gulf Power in 2019, partially offset by a decrease in retail revenues due to milder weather compared to the corresponding period in 2018. See Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company" herein for additional information.
Retail Electric Revenues
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(484)
 
(13.6)
In the first quarter 2019, retail electric revenues were $3.1 billion compared to $3.6 billion for the corresponding period in 2018.

19

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Details of the changes in retail electric revenues were as follows:
 
 
First Quarter 2019
 
 
(in millions)
 
(% change)
Retail electric – prior year
 
$
3,568

 
 
Estimated change resulting from –
 
 
 
 
Rates and pricing
 
58

 
1.6

Sales decline
 
(11
)
 
(0.3
)
Weather
 
(91
)
 
(2.6
)
Fuel and other cost recovery
 
(150
)
 
(4.2
)
Gulf Power disposition
 
(290
)
 
(8.1
)
Retail electric – current year
 
$
3,084

 
(13.6
)%
Revenues associated with changes in rates and pricing increased in the first quarter 2019 when compared to the corresponding period in 2018 primarily due to increases under Rate CNP Compliance at Alabama Power and increases related to PEP and ECO Plan rate changes that became effective for the first billing cycle of September 2018 at Mississippi Power.
See Note 2 to the financial statements under "Alabama Power" and "Mississippi Power" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Revenues attributable to changes in sales decreased in the first quarter 2019 when compared to the corresponding period in 2018. In the first quarter 2019, weather-adjusted residential KWH sales increased 0.4% primarily due to customer growth, partially offset by decreased customer usage primarily resulting from an increase in energy efficient residential appliances. Weather-adjusted commercial KWH sales decreased 1.9% primarily due to decreased customer usage resulting from an increase in energy saving initiatives, partially offset by customer growth. Industrial KWH sales decreased 2.0% in the first quarter 2019 when compared to the corresponding period in 2018 as a result of a decrease in demand resulting from changes in production levels primarily in the primary metals, chemicals, and paper sectors, partially offset by increased demand in the pipeline sector.
Fuel and other cost recovery revenues decreased $150 million in the first quarter 2019 compared to the corresponding period in 2018 primarily due to decreased energy sales driven by milder weather, resulting in lower customer demand and lower generation costs. Electric rates for the traditional electric operating companies include provisions to adjust billings for fluctuations in fuel costs, including the energy component of purchased power costs. Under these provisions, fuel revenues generally equal fuel expenses, including the energy component of PPA costs, and do not affect net income. The traditional electric operating companies each have one or more regulatory mechanisms to recover other costs such as environmental and other compliance costs, storm damage, new plants, and PPA capacity costs.
Wholesale Electric Revenues
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(124)
 
(19.9)
Wholesale electric revenues consist of PPAs and short-term opportunity sales. Wholesale electric revenues from PPAs (other than solar and wind PPAs) have both capacity and energy components. Capacity revenues generally represent the greatest contribution to net income and are designed to provide recovery of fixed costs plus a return on investment. Energy revenues will vary depending on fuel prices, the market prices of wholesale energy compared to the Southern Company system's generation, demand for energy within the Southern Company system's electric service territory, and the availability of the Southern Company system's generation. Increases and decreases in energy revenues that are driven by fuel prices are accompanied by an increase or decrease in fuel costs and do not

20

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

have a significant impact on net income. Energy sales from solar and wind PPAs do not have a capacity charge and customers either purchase the energy output of a dedicated renewable facility through an energy charge or through a fixed price related to the energy. As a result, the ability to recover fixed and variable operations and maintenance expenses is dependent upon the level of energy generated from these facilities, which can be impacted by weather conditions, equipment performance, transmission constraints, and other factors. Wholesale electric revenues at Mississippi Power include FERC-regulated municipal and rural association sales under cost-based tariffs as well as market-based sales. Short-term opportunity sales are made at market-based rates that generally provide a margin above the Southern Company system's variable cost to produce the energy.
In the first quarter 2019, wholesale electric revenues were $499 million compared to $623 million for the corresponding period in 2018. This decrease was related to a $106 million decrease in energy revenues and an $18 million decrease in capacity revenues. Excluding a decrease of $7 million of energy revenues related to the sale of Gulf Power, the decrease in energy revenues primarily related to Southern Power and included a decrease in non-PPA revenues due to a decrease in the volume of KWHs sold through short-term sales, primarily due to a reduction in uncovered natural gas capacity, as well as a decrease in revenues related to natural gas PPAs due to a decrease in the average cost of fuel and purchased power, partially offset by an increase in the volume of KWHs sold due to increased customer load. The decrease was also due to lower fuel prices and lower customer demand due to milder weather at the traditional electric operating companies. The decrease in capacity revenues primarily related to the sales of Gulf Power and Southern Power's Plant Oleander and Plant Stanton Unit A. See Note 15 to the financial statements under "Southern Power – Sales of Natural Gas Plants" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Natural Gas Revenues
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(133)
 
(8.3)
In the first quarter 2019, natural gas revenues were $1.5 billion compared to $1.6 billion for the corresponding period in 2018.
Details of the changes in natural gas revenues were as follows:
 
 
First Quarter 2019
 
 
(in millions)
 
(% change)
Natural gas revenues – prior year
 
$
1,607

 
 
Estimated change resulting from
 
 
 
 
Infrastructure replacement programs and base rate changes
 
32

 
2.0

Gas costs and other cost recovery
 
62

 
3.9

Weather
 
7

 
0.4

Wholesale gas services
 
(80
)
 
(5.0
)
Southern Company Gas Dispositions
 
(167
)
 
(10.4
)
Other
 
13

 
0.8

Natural gas revenues – current year
 
$
1,474

 
(8.3
)%
Revenues attributable to infrastructure replacement programs and base rate changes at the natural gas distribution utilities increased for the first quarter 2019 compared to the corresponding period in 2018 primarily due to a $22 million increase at Nicor Gas and a $9 million increase at Atlanta Gas Light. These amounts include the natural gas distribution utilities' continued investments recovered through infrastructure replacement programs and base rate increases as well as increases due to the impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation.

21

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Revenues attributable to gas costs and other cost recovery increased in the first quarter 2019 compared to the corresponding period in 2018 primarily due to higher natural gas prices and increased volumes of natural gas sold at Southern Company Gas' remaining four natural gas distribution utilities in the first quarter 2019. Natural gas distribution rates include provisions to adjust billings for fluctuations in natural gas costs. Therefore, gas costs recovered through natural gas revenues generally equal the amount expensed in cost of natural gas and do not affect net income from the natural gas distribution utilities.
Revenues increased due to colder weather, as determined by Heating Degree Days, in Illinois in the first quarter 2019 compared to the corresponding period in 2018.
Revenues attributable to Southern Company Gas' wholesale gas services business decreased in the first quarter 2019 compared to the corresponding period in 2018 primarily due to decreased commercial activity, partially offset by derivative gains.
See Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein under "Southern Company Gas" for additional information.
Other Revenues
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(226)
 
(54.7)
In the first quarter 2019, other revenues were $187 million compared to $413 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease was primarily related to PowerSecure's 2018 storm restoration services in Puerto Rico.
Fuel and Purchased Power Expenses
 
 
First Quarter 2019
vs.
First Quarter 2018
 
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
Fuel
 
$
(251
)
 
(22.8)
Purchased power
 
(97
)
 
(36.3)
Total fuel and purchased power expenses
 
$
(348
)
 
 
In the first quarter 2019, total fuel and purchased power expenses were $1.0 billion compared to $1.4 billion for the corresponding period in 2018. Excluding a decrease of $121 million related to the sale of Gulf Power, the decrease was primarily the result of a $149 million decrease in the average cost of fuel and purchased power and a $78 million net decrease in the aggregate volume of KWHs generated and purchased.
Fuel and purchased power energy transactions at the traditional electric operating companies are generally offset by fuel revenues and do not have a significant impact on net income. See FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Regulatory MattersFuel Cost Recovery" herein for additional information. Fuel expenses incurred under Southern Power's PPAs are generally the responsibility of the counterparties and do not significantly impact net income.

22

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Details of the Southern Company system's generation and purchased power were as follows:
 
 
First Quarter 2019
 
First Quarter 2018(a)
Total generation (in billions of KWHs)
 
43
 
46
Total purchased power (in billions of KWHs)
 
4
 
3
Sources of generation (percent) —
 
 
 
 
Gas
 
48
 
45
Coal
 
22
 
29
Nuclear
 
16
 
16
Hydro
 
8
 
4
Other
 
6
 
6
Cost of fuel, generated (in cents per net KWH)
 
 
 
 
Gas
 
2.56
 
2.84
Coal
 
2.92
 
2.88
Nuclear
 
0.79
 
0.78
Average cost of fuel, generated (in cents per net KWH)
 
2.32
 
2.47
Average cost of purchased power (in cents per net KWH)(b)
 
4.50
 
7.04
(a)
Excludes Gulf Power, which was sold on January 1, 2019.
(b)
Average cost of purchased power includes fuel purchased by the Southern Company system for tolling agreements where power is generated by the provider.
Fuel
In the first quarter 2019, fuel expense was $850 million compared to $1.1 billion for the corresponding period in 2018. Excluding approximately $54 million related to Gulf Power in 2018, the decrease was primarily due to a 29.1% decrease in the volume of KWHs generated by coal and a 9.9% decrease in the average cost of natural gas per KWH generated.
Purchased Power
In the first quarter 2019, purchased power expense was $170 million compared to $267 million for the corresponding period in 2018. Excluding approximately $67 million of non-affiliated purchases by Gulf Power in 2018 and $22 million of non-affiliated purchases from Gulf Power in 2019 that would have been eliminated in consolidation in 2018, the decrease was primarily due to a 29.1% decrease in the average cost per KWH purchased. See Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company" herein for information regarding the sale of Gulf Power.
Energy purchases will vary depending on demand for energy within the Southern Company system's electric service territory, the market prices of wholesale energy as compared to the cost of the Southern Company system's generation, and the availability of the Southern Company system's generation.
Cost of Natural Gas
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(34)
 
(4.7)
Excluding Atlanta Gas Light, which does not sell natural gas to end-use customers, natural gas distribution rates include provisions to adjust billings for fluctuations in natural gas costs. Therefore, gas costs recovered through

23

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

natural gas revenues generally equal the amount expensed in cost of natural gas and do not affect net income from the natural gas distribution utilities. Cost of natural gas at the natural gas distribution utilities represented 87% of total cost of natural gas for the first quarter 2019.
In the first quarter 2019, cost of natural gas was $686 million compared to $720 million for the corresponding period in 2018. Excluding a $79 million decrease related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions, cost of natural gas increased $45 million. This increase reflects a 4.9% increase in natural gas prices and an increase in the volume of natural gas sold in the first quarter 2019 primarily as a result of colder weather in Illinois, as determined by Heating Degree Days, compared to the corresponding period in 2018.
Cost of Other Sales
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(171)
 
(59.2)
In the first quarter 2019, cost of other sales was $118 million compared to $289 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease was primarily related to PowerSecure's 2018 storm restoration services in Puerto Rico.
Other Operations and Maintenance Expenses
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(139)
 
(9.6)
In the first quarter 2019, other operations and maintenance expenses were $1.3 billion compared to $1.5 billion for the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease reflects approximately $76 million related to Gulf Power in 2018 and $71 million related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions, including the $42 million goodwill impairment charge recorded in contemplation of the sale of Pivotal Home Solutions.
Depreciation and Amortization
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(18)
 
(2.3)
In the first quarter 2019, depreciation and amortization was $751 million compared to $769 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease was primarily due to decreases of $47 million related to the sale of Gulf Power and $16 million related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions, partially offset by an increase of $33 million related to additional plant in service.
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(26)
 
(7.3)
In the first quarter 2019, taxes other than income taxes were $329 million compared to $355 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease primarily relates to the sale of Gulf Power.

24

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Estimated Loss on Plants Under Construction
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(42)
 
(95.5)
In the first quarter 2019, estimated loss on plants under construction was $2 million compared to $44 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease was primarily due to lower costs associated with abandonment and closure activities for the mine and gasifier-related assets of the Kemper IGCC at Mississippi Power.
See Note 2 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein under "Mississippi PowerKemper County Energy Facility" for additional information.
Gain on Dispositions, Net
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$2,497
 
N/M
N/M - Not meaningful
In the first quarter 2019, a net gain on dispositions of $2.5 billion ($1.3 billion gain after tax) was recorded related to the sale of Gulf Power. See Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company" herein for additional information.
Interest Expense, Net of Amounts Capitalized
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(28)
 
(6.1)
In the first quarter 2019, interest expense, net of amounts capitalized was $430 million compared to $458 million in the corresponding period in 2018. Excluding a decrease of $13 million related to the sale of Gulf Power, the decrease was immaterial.
See FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Financing Activities" herein, Note 8 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K, and Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Other Income (Expense), Net
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$18
 
30.0
In the first quarter 2019, other income (expense), net was $78 million compared to $60 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The increase was primarily due to an increase in interest income from a new tolling arrangement accounted for as a lease at Mississippi Power and temporary cash investments.

25

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Income Taxes
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$1,247
 
N/M
N/M - Not meaningful
In the first quarter 2019, income taxes were $1.4 billion compared to $113 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The increase was primarily due to tax expense related to the sale of Gulf Power.
See Notes (G) and (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
First Quarter 2019 vs. First Quarter 2018
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$23
 
N/M
N/M - Not meaningful
Substantially all noncontrolling interests relate to renewable projects at Southern Power. See Note 7 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K under "Southern Power" for additional information.
In the first quarter 2019, net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests was $29 million compared to $6 million for the corresponding period in 2018. The increase was primarily related to tax equity partnerships entered into in 2018.
FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL
The results of operations discussed above are not necessarily indicative of Southern Company's future earnings potential. Future earnings will be impacted by the recently completed and additional pending disposition activities described herein, in Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein, and in Note 15 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K. The level of Southern Company's future earnings depends on numerous factors that affect the opportunities, challenges, and risks of the Southern Company system's primary businesses of selling electricity and distributing natural gas. These factors include the traditional electric operating companies' and the natural gas distribution utilities' ability to maintain constructive regulatory environments that allow for the timely recovery of prudently-incurred costs during a time of increasing costs, continued customer growth, and, for the traditional electric operating companies, the weak pace of growth in electricity use per customer, especially in residential and commercial markets. Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 construction and rate recovery and the profitability of Southern Power's competitive wholesale business are also major factors.
Earnings in the electricity business will also depend upon maintaining and growing sales, considering, among other things, the adoption and/or penetration rates of increasingly energy-efficient technologies, increasing volumes of electronic commerce transactions, and more multi-family home construction, all of which could contribute to a net reduction in customer usage. Earnings for both the electricity and natural gas businesses are subject to a variety of other factors. These factors include weather, competition, new energy contracts with other utilities and other wholesale customers, energy conservation practiced by customers, the use of alternative energy sources by customers, the prices of electricity and natural gas, the price elasticity of demand, and the rate of economic growth or decline in the service territory. In addition, the level of future earnings for the wholesale electric business also depends on numerous factors including regulatory matters, creditworthiness of customers, total electric generating capacity available and related costs, the development or acquisition of renewable facilities and other energy projects, and the successful remarketing of capacity as current contracts expire. Demand for electricity and natural gas is primarily driven by the pace of economic growth that may be affected by changes in regional and global economic conditions, which may impact future earnings. In addition, the volatility of natural gas prices has a significant impact on the natural gas distribution utilities' customer rates, long-term competitive position against

26

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

other energy sources, and the ability of Southern Company Gas' gas marketing services and wholesale gas services businesses to capture value from locational and seasonal spreads. Additionally, changes in commodity prices subject a significant portion of Southern Company Gas' operations to earnings variability.
As part of its ongoing effort to adapt to changing market conditions, Southern Company continues to evaluate and consider a wide array of potential business strategies. These strategies may include business combinations, partnerships, and acquisitions involving other utility or non-utility businesses or properties, disposition of certain assets or businesses, internal restructuring, or some combination thereof. Furthermore, Southern Company may engage in new business ventures that arise from competitive and regulatory changes in the utility industry. Pursuit of any of the above strategies, or any combination thereof, may significantly affect the business operations, risks, and financial condition of Southern Company.
In November 2018, Southern Power entered into an agreement to sell all of its equity interests in Plant Mankato (including the 385-MW expansion currently under construction) for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $650 million. The completion of the disposition is subject to the expansion unit reaching commercial operation as well as various other customary conditions to closing, including FERC and state commission approvals. On April 17, 2019, Southern Power entered into an agreement to sell all of its equity interests in the Nacogdoches biomass-fueled facility to Austin Energy for an aggregate purchase price of $460 million, subject to customary closing conditions and working capital adjustments. Each of these sales is expected to close in mid-2019; however, the ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
For additional information relating to these issues, see RISK FACTORS and MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K.
Environmental Matters
The Southern Company system's operations are regulated by state and federal environmental agencies through a variety of laws and regulations governing air, water, land, and protection of other natural resources. The Southern Company system maintains comprehensive environmental compliance and GHG strategies to assess upcoming requirements and compliance costs associated with these environmental laws and regulations. The costs, including capital expenditures, operations and maintenance costs, and costs reflected in ARO liabilities, required to comply with environmental laws and regulations and to achieve stated goals may impact future electric generating unit retirement and replacement decisions, results of operations, cash flows, and/or financial condition. Related costs may result from the installation of additional environmental controls, closure and monitoring of CCR facilities, unit retirements, or changing fuel sources for certain existing units, as well as related upgrades to the Southern Company system's transmission and distribution (electric and natural gas) systems. A major portion of these costs is expected to be recovered through retail and wholesale rates. The ultimate impact of environmental laws and regulations and GHG goals will depend on various factors, such as state adoption and implementation of requirements, the availability and cost of any deployed technology, fuel prices, and the outcome of pending and/or future legal challenges.
New or revised environmental laws and regulations could affect many areas of the traditional electric operating companies', Southern Power's, and the natural gas distribution utilities' operations. The impact of any such changes cannot be determined at this time. Environmental compliance costs could affect earnings if such costs cannot continue to be recovered in rates on a timely basis for the traditional electric operating companies and the natural gas distribution utilities or through long-term wholesale agreements for the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power. Further, increased costs that are recovered through regulated rates could contribute to reduced demand for electricity and natural gas, which could negatively affect results of operations, cash flows, and/or financial condition. Additionally, many commercial and industrial customers may also be affected by existing and future environmental requirements, which for some may have the potential to ultimately affect their demand for electricity and natural gas. See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL "Environmental Matters" of Southern Company in Item 7 and Note 3 to the financial statements under "Environmental Matters" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.

27

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Regulatory Matters
See Note 2 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Fuel Cost Recovery
The traditional electric operating companies each have established fuel cost recovery rates approved by their respective state PSCs. Fuel cost recovery revenues are adjusted for differences in actual recoverable fuel costs and amounts billed in current regulated rates. Accordingly, changes in the billing factor will not have a significant effect on Southern Company's revenues or net income, but will affect cash flow. The traditional electric operating companies continuously monitor their under or over recovered fuel cost balances and make appropriate filings with their state PSCs to adjust fuel cost recovery rates as necessary.
Alabama Power
Alabama Power's revenues from regulated retail operations are collected through various rate mechanisms subject to the oversight of the Alabama PSC. Alabama Power currently recovers its costs from the regulated retail business primarily through Rate RSE, Rate CNP, Rate ECR, and Rate NDR. In addition, the Alabama PSC issues accounting orders to address current events impacting Alabama Power.
Environmental Accounting Order
In connection with management's decision to retire Plant Gorgas, in February 2019, Alabama Power reclassified approximately $1.3 billion for Plant Gorgas Unit 10 from plant in service, net of depreciation to other utility plant, net and continued to depreciate the asset according to the original depreciation rates. On April 15, 2019, Alabama Power retired Plant Gorgas Units 8, 9, and 10 and reclassified approximately $740 million of the remaining net investment costs of the units to a regulatory asset to be recovered over the units' remaining useful lives as established prior to the decision to retire. Additionally, approximately $700 million of net capitalized asset retirement costs will be reclassified to a regulatory asset and recovered in accordance with accounting guidance provided by the Alabama PSC. See Note 2 to the financial statements under "Alabama Power – Environmental Accounting Order" and Note 6 in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Georgia Power
Georgia Power's revenues from regulated retail operations are collected through various rate mechanisms subject to the oversight of the Georgia PSC. Georgia Power currently recovers its costs from the regulated retail business through the 2013 ARP, which includes traditional base tariff rates, Demand-Side Management tariffs, Environmental Compliance Cost Recovery tariffs, and Municipal Franchise Fee tariffs. Georgia Power is scheduled to file a base rate case by July 1, 2019, which may continue or modify these tariffs. In addition, financing costs related to certified construction costs of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 are being collected through the NCCR tariff and fuel costs are collected through a separate fuel cost recovery tariff.
Mississippi Power
Kemper County Energy Facility
As the mining permit holder, Liberty Fuels Company, LLC has a legal obligation to perform mine reclamation, and Mississippi Power has a contractual obligation to fund all reclamation activities. As a result of the abandonment of the Kemper IGCC, final mine reclamation began in 2018 and is expected to be substantially completed in 2020, with monitoring expected to continue through 2027. See Note 6 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
During the first quarter 2019, Mississippi Power recorded pre-tax charges to income of $2 million ($1 million after tax), primarily resulting from the abandonment and related closure activities and ongoing period costs, net of sales proceeds, for the mine and gasifier-related assets at the Kemper County energy facility. Additional closure costs for

28

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

the mine and gasifier-related assets, currently estimated at up to $10 million pre-tax (excluding salvage, net of dismantlement costs), may be incurred through the first half of 2020. In addition, period costs, including, but not limited to, costs for compliance and safety, ARO accretion, and property taxes for the mine and gasifier-related assets, are estimated at $11 million for the remainder of 2019 and $2 million to $6 million annually in 2020 through 2023.
In addition, Mississippi Power constructed the CO2 pipeline for the planned transport of captured CO2 for use in enhanced oil recovery and is currently evaluating its options regarding the final disposition of the CO2 pipeline, including removal of the pipeline. This evaluation is expected to be complete later in 2019. If Mississippi Power ultimately decides to remove the CO2 pipeline, the cost of removal could have a material impact on Southern Company's financial statements.
In December 2018, Mississippi Power filed with the DOE its request for property closeout certification under the contract related to the $387 million of grants received. Mississippi Power and the DOE are currently in discussions regarding the requested closeout and property disposition, which may require payment to the DOE for a portion of certain property that is to be retained by Mississippi Power. In connection with the DOE closeout discussions, on April 29, 2019, the Civil Division of the Department of Justice informed Southern Company and Mississippi Power of an investigation related to the Kemper County energy facility. The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time; however, they could have a material impact on Southern Company's financial statements.
Southern Company Gas
The natural gas distribution utilities are subject to regulation and oversight by their respective state regulatory agencies for the rates charged to their customers and other matters. With the exception of Atlanta Gas Light, which does not sell natural gas to end-use customers, the natural gas distribution utilities are authorized by the relevant regulatory agencies in the states in which they serve to use natural gas cost recovery mechanisms that adjust rates to reflect changes in the wholesale cost of natural gas and ensure recovery of all costs prudently incurred in purchasing natural gas for customers. Natural gas cost recovery revenues are adjusted for differences in actual recoverable natural gas costs and amounts billed in current regulated rates. Changes in the billing factor will not have a significant effect on revenues or net income, but will affect cash flows. In addition to natural gas cost recovery mechanisms, there are other cost recovery mechanisms, such as regulatory riders, which vary by utility but allow recovery of certain costs, such as those related to infrastructure replacement programs, as well as environmental remediation and energy efficiency plans.
In November 2018, Nicor Gas filed a general base rate case with the Illinois Commission requesting a $230 million increase in annual base rate revenues. The requested increase is based on a projected test year for the 12-month period ending September 30, 2020, a ROE of 10.6%, and an increase in the equity ratio from 52% to 54% to address the negative cash flow and credit metric impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation.
On April 16, 2019, Nicor Gas entered into a stipulation agreement to resolve all related issues with the Staff of the Illinois Commission, including a ROE of 9.86% and an equity ratio of 54%. Also on April 16, 2019, Nicor Gas filed its rebuttal testimony with the Illinois Commission incorporating the stipulation agreement and addressing the remaining items outstanding with the other two intervenors. As a result of the stipulation agreement and rebuttal testimony, the revised requested annual revenue increase is $180 million.
The Illinois Commission is expected to rule on the requested increase within the statutory time limit of 11 months from the filing of the rate case, after which rate adjustments will be effective.
Atlanta Gas Light is required to file a traditional base rate case no later than June 3, 2019 for rates effective January 1, 2020.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.

29

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Construction Program
Overview
The subsidiary companies of Southern Company are engaged in continuous construction programs to accommodate existing and estimated future loads on their respective systems. The Southern Company system intends to continue its strategy of developing and constructing new electric generating facilities, adding environmental modifications to certain existing units, expanding and improving the electric transmission and distribution systems, and updating and expanding the natural gas distribution systems. For the traditional electric operating companies, major generation construction projects are subject to state PSC approval in order to be included in retail rates. While Southern Power generally constructs and acquires generation assets covered by long-term PPAs, any uncontracted capacity could negatively affect future earnings. Southern Company Gas is engaged in various infrastructure improvement programs designed to update or expand the natural gas distribution systems of the natural gas distribution utilities to improve reliability and meet operational flexibility and growth. The natural gas distribution utilities recover their investment and a return associated with these infrastructure programs through their regulated rates. See Notes 2 and 15 to the financial statements under "Southern Company Gas – Infrastructure Replacement Programs and Capital Projects" and "Southern Power," respectively, in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Power" herein for additional information.
The largest construction project currently underway in the Southern Company system is Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 (45.7% ownership interest by Georgia Power in the two units, each with approximately 1,100 MWs). See Note 2 to the financial statements under "Georgia Power – Nuclear Construction" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and "Nuclear Construction" herein for additional information.
Also see FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Capital Requirements and Contractual Obligations" herein for additional information regarding Southern Company's capital requirements for its subsidiaries' construction programs.
Nuclear Construction
See Note 2 to the financial statements under "Georgia Power – Nuclear Construction" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding the construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, the joint ownership agreements and related funding agreement, VCM reports, and the NCCR tariff.
In 2009, the Georgia PSC certified construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. Georgia Power holds a 45.7% ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. In 2012, the NRC issued the related combined construction and operating licenses, which allowed full construction of the two AP1000 nuclear units (with electric generating capacity of approximately 1,100 MWs each) and related facilities to begin. Until March 2017, construction on Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 continued under the Vogtle 3 and 4 Agreement, which was a substantially fixed price agreement. In March 2017, the EPC Contractor filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In connection with the EPC Contractor's bankruptcy filing, Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the other Vogtle Owners, entered into several transitional arrangements to allow construction to continue. In July 2017, Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the other Vogtle Owners, entered into the Vogtle Services Agreement, whereby Westinghouse provides facility design and engineering services, procurement and technical support, and staff augmentation on a time and materials cost basis. The Vogtle Services Agreement provides that it will continue until the start-up and testing of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 are complete and electricity is generated and sold from both units. The Vogtle Services Agreement is terminable by the Vogtle Owners upon 30 days' written notice.
In October 2017, Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the other Vogtle Owners, executed the Bechtel Agreement, a cost reimbursable plus fee arrangement, whereby Bechtel is reimbursed for actual costs plus a base fee and an at-risk fee, which is subject to adjustment based on Bechtel's performance against cost and schedule targets. Each Vogtle Owner is severally (not jointly) liable for its proportionate share, based on its ownership interest, of all amounts owed to Bechtel under the Bechtel Agreement. The Vogtle Owners may terminate the Bechtel Agreement at any time for their convenience, provided that the Vogtle Owners will be required to pay

30

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

amounts related to work performed prior to the termination (including the applicable portion of the base fee), certain termination-related costs, and, at certain stages of the work, the applicable portion of the at-risk fee. Bechtel may terminate the Bechtel Agreement under certain circumstances, including certain Vogtle Owner suspensions of work, certain breaches of the Bechtel Agreement by the Vogtle Owners, Vogtle Owner insolvency, and certain other events.
Cost and Schedule
Georgia Power's approximate proportionate share of the remaining estimated capital cost to complete Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 by the expected in-service dates of November 2021 and November 2022, respectively, is as follows:
 
(in billions)
Base project capital cost forecast(a)(b)
$
8.0

Construction contingency estimate
0.4

Total project capital cost forecast(a)(b)
8.4

Net investment as of March 31, 2019(b)
(4.9
)
Remaining estimate to complete(a)
$
3.5

(a)
Excludes financing costs expected to be capitalized through AFUDC of approximately $325 million.
(b)
Net of $1.7 billion received from Toshiba under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and approximately $188 million in related Customer Refunds.
Georgia Power estimates that its financing costs for construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 will total approximately $3.1 billion, of which $1.9 billion had been incurred through March 31, 2019.
In April 2019, Southern Nuclear completed a cost and schedule validation process to verify and update quantities of commodities remaining to install, labor hours to install remaining quantities and related productivity, testing and system turnover requirements, and forecasted staffing needs and related costs. This process confirmed the total estimated project capital cost forecast for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. The expected in-service dates of November 2021 for Unit 3 and November 2022 for Unit 4, as previously approved by the Georgia PSC, remain unchanged.
As construction continues, challenges with management of contractors, subcontractors, and vendors; supervision of craft labor and related craft labor productivity, ability to attract and retain craft labor, and/or related cost escalation; procurement, fabrication, delivery, assembly, and/or installation and the initial testing and start-up, including any required engineering changes, of plant systems, structures, or components (some of which are based on new technology that only recently began initial operation in the global nuclear industry at this scale), any of which may require additional labor and/or materials; or other issues could arise and change the projected schedule and estimated cost. Monthly construction production targets established as part of a strategy to maintain and build margin to the approved in-service dates will continue to increase significantly throughout 2019. To meet these increasing monthly targets, existing craft construction productivity must improve and additional craft laborers must be retained and deployed.
There have been technical and procedural challenges to the construction and licensing of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 at the federal and state level and additional challenges may arise. Processes are in place that are designed to assure compliance with the requirements specified in the Westinghouse Design Control Document and the combined construction and operating licenses, including inspections by Southern Nuclear and the NRC that occur throughout construction. As a result of such compliance processes, certain license amendment requests have been filed and approved or are pending before the NRC. Various design and other licensing-based compliance matters, including the timely resolution of ITAAC and the related approvals by the NRC, may arise, which may result in additional license amendments or require other resolution. If any license amendment requests or other licensing-based compliance issues are not resolved in a timely manner, there may be delays in the project schedule that could result in increased costs.

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time. However, any extension of the regulatory-approved project schedule is currently estimated to result in additional base capital costs of approximately $50 million per month, based on Georgia Power's ownership interests, and AFUDC of approximately $12 million per month. While Georgia Power is not precluded from seeking recovery of any future capital cost forecast increase, management will ultimately determine whether or not to seek recovery. Any further changes to the capital cost forecast that are not expected to be recoverable through regulated rates will be required to be charged to income and such charges could be material.
Joint Owner Contracts
In November 2017, the Vogtle Owners entered into an amendment to their joint ownership agreements for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to provide for, among other conditions, additional Vogtle Owner approval requirements. Effective in August 2018, the Vogtle Owners further amended the joint ownership agreements to clarify and provide procedures for certain provisions of the joint ownership agreements related to adverse events that require the vote of the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to continue construction (as amended, and together with the November 2017 amendment, the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements). The Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements also confirm that the Vogtle Owners' sole recourse against Georgia Power or Southern Nuclear for any action or inaction in connection with their performance as agent for the Vogtle Owners is limited to removal of Georgia Power and/or Southern Nuclear as agent, except in cases of willful misconduct.
As a result of the increase in the total project capital cost forecast and Georgia Power's decision not to seek rate recovery of the increase in the base capital costs in conjunction with the nineteenth VCM report, the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 were required to vote to continue construction. In September 2018, the Vogtle Owners unanimously voted to continue construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.
Amendments to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements
In connection with the vote to continue construction, Georgia Power entered into (i) the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet with the other Vogtle Owners and MEAG's wholly-owned subsidiaries MEAG SPVJ, MEAG Power SPVM, LLC (MEAG SPVM), and MEAG Power SPVP, LLC (MEAG SPVP) to take certain actions which partially mitigate potential financial exposure for the other Vogtle Owners, including additional amendments to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements and the purchase of PTCs from the other Vogtle Owners at pre-established prices, and (ii) the MEAG Term Sheet with MEAG and MEAG SPVJ to provide funding with respect to MEAG SPVJ's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 under certain circumstances. On January 14, 2019, Georgia Power, MEAG, and MEAG SPVJ entered into an agreement to implement the provisions of the MEAG Term Sheet. On February 18, 2019, Georgia Power, the other Vogtle Owners, and MEAG's wholly-owned subsidiaries MEAG SPVJ, MEAG SPVM, and MEAG SPVP entered into certain amendments to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements to implement the provisions of the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
Regulatory Matters
In 2009, the Georgia PSC voted to certify construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 with a certified capital cost of $4.418 billion. In addition, in 2009 the Georgia PSC approved inclusion of the Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 related CWIP accounts in rate base, and the State of Georgia enacted the Georgia Nuclear Energy Financing Act, which allows Georgia Power to recover financing costs for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. Financing costs are recovered on all applicable certified costs through annual adjustments to the NCCR tariff up to the certified capital cost of $4.418 billion. At March 31, 2019, Georgia Power had recovered approximately $1.9 billion of financing costs. Financing costs related to capital costs above $4.418 billion will be recovered through AFUDC; however, Georgia Power will not record AFUDC related to any capital costs in excess of the total deemed reasonable by the Georgia PSC (currently $7.3 billion) and not requested for rate recovery. In December 2018, the Georgia PSC approved Georgia Power's request to increase the NCCR tariff by $88 million annually, effective January 1, 2019.

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Georgia Power is required to file semi-annual VCM reports with the Georgia PSC by February 28 and August 31 of each year. In 2013, in connection with the eighth VCM report, the Georgia PSC approved a stipulation between Georgia Power and the staff of the Georgia PSC to waive the requirement to amend the Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 certificate in accordance with the 2009 certification order until the completion of Plant Vogtle Unit 3, or earlier if deemed appropriate by the Georgia PSC and Georgia Power.
In 2016, the Georgia PSC voted to approve a settlement agreement (Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement) resolving certain prudency matters in connection with the fifteenth VCM report. In December 2017, the Georgia PSC voted to approve (and issued its related order on January 11, 2018) Georgia Power's seventeenth VCM report and modified the Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement. The Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement, as modified by the January 11, 2018 order, resolved the following regulatory matters related to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4: (i) none of the $3.3 billion of costs incurred through December 31, 2015 and reflected in the fourteenth VCM report should be disallowed from rate base on the basis of imprudence; (ii) the Contractor Settlement Agreement was reasonable and prudent and none of the amounts paid pursuant to the Contractor Settlement Agreement should be disallowed from rate base on the basis of imprudence; (iii) (a) capital costs incurred up to $5.68 billion would be presumed to be reasonable and prudent with the burden of proof on any party challenging such costs, (b) Georgia Power would have the burden to show that any capital costs above $5.68 billion were prudent, and (c) a revised capital cost forecast of $7.3 billion (after reflecting the impact of payments received under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and related Customer Refunds) was found reasonable; (iv) construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 should be completed, with Southern Nuclear serving as project manager and Bechtel as primary contractor; (v) approved and deemed reasonable Georgia Power's revised schedule placing Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 in service in November 2021 and November 2022, respectively; (vi) confirmed that the revised cost forecast does not represent a cost cap and that prudence decisions on cost recovery will be made at a later date, consistent with applicable Georgia law; (vii) reduced the ROE used to calculate the NCCR tariff (a) from 10.95% (the ROE rate setting point authorized by the Georgia PSC in the 2013 ARP) to 10.00% effective January 1, 2016, (b) from 10.00% to 8.30%, effective January 1, 2020, and (c) from 8.30% to 5.30%, effective January 1, 2021 (provided that the ROE in no case will be less than Georgia Power's average cost of long-term debt); (viii) reduced the ROE used for AFUDC equity for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 from 10.00% to Georgia Power's average cost of long-term debt, effective January 1, 2018; and (ix) agreed that upon Unit 3 reaching commercial operation, retail base rates would be adjusted to include carrying costs on those capital costs deemed prudent in the Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement. The January 11, 2018 order also stated that if Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 are not commercially operational by June 1, 2021 and June 1, 2022, respectively, the ROE used to calculate the NCCR tariff will be further reduced by 10 basis points each month (but not lower than Georgia Power's average cost of long-term debt) until the respective Unit is commercially operational. The ROE reductions negatively impacted earnings by approximately $100 million in 2018 and are estimated to have negative earnings impacts of approximately $75 million in 2019 and an aggregate of approximately $635 million from 2020 to 2022.
In its January 11, 2018 order, the Georgia PSC also stated if other conditions change and assumptions upon which Georgia Power's seventeenth VCM report are based do not materialize, the Georgia PSC reserved the right to reconsider the decision to continue construction.
In February 2018, Georgia Interfaith Power & Light, Inc. (GIPL) and Partnership for Southern Equity, Inc. (PSE) filed a petition appealing the Georgia PSC's January 11, 2018 order with the Fulton County Superior Court. In March 2018, Georgia Watch filed a similar appeal to the Fulton County Superior Court for judicial review of the Georgia PSC's decision and denial of Georgia Watch's motion for reconsideration. In December 2018, the Fulton County Superior Court granted Georgia Power's motion to dismiss the two appeals. On January 9, 2019, GIPL, PSE, and Georgia Watch filed an appeal of this decision with the Georgia Court of Appeals. Georgia Power believes the appeal has no merit; however, an adverse outcome in the appeal combined with subsequent adverse action by the Georgia PSC could have a material impact on Southern Company's results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
In August 2018, Georgia Power filed its nineteenth VCM report with the Georgia PSC, which requested approval of $578 million of construction capital costs incurred from January 1, 2018 through June 30, 2018. On February 19, 2019, the Georgia PSC approved the nineteenth VCM, but deferred approval of $51.6 million of expenditures

33

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

related to Georgia Power's portion of an administrative claim filed in the Westinghouse bankruptcy proceedings. Through the nineteenth VCM, the Georgia PSC has approved total construction capital costs incurred through June 30, 2018 of $5.4 billion (before $1.7 billion of payments received under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and approximately $188 million in related Customer Refunds). In addition, the staff of the Georgia PSC requested, and Georgia Power agreed, to report the results of the cost and schedule validation process to the Georgia PSC (which is expected to occur by May 1, 2019) and to file its twentieth VCM report concurrently with the twenty-first VCM report by August 31, 2019.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
See RISK FACTORS of Southern Company in the Form 10-K for a discussion of certain risks associated with the licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear generating units, including potential impacts that could result from a major incident at a nuclear facility anywhere in the world.
DOE Financing
At March 31, 2019, Georgia Power had borrowed $3.46 billion related to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 costs as provided through the Amended and Restated Loan Guarantee Agreement and related multi-advance credit facilities among Georgia Power, the DOE, and the FFB, which provide for borrowings of up to approximately $5.130 billion, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions. See Note 8 to the financial statements under "Long-term Debt – DOE Loan Guarantee Borrowings" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "DOE Loan Guarantee Borrowings" herein for additional information, including applicable covenants, events of default, mandatory prepayment events, and conditions to borrowing.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
Other Matters
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL "Other Matters" of Southern Company in Item 7 for additional information.
Southern Company and its subsidiaries are involved in various other matters that could affect future earnings, including matters being litigated, as well as other regulatory matters and matters that could result in asset impairments. In addition, Southern Company and its subsidiaries are subject to certain claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. The business activities of Southern Company's subsidiaries are subject to extensive governmental regulation related to public health and the environment, such as laws and regulations governing air, water, land, and protection of other natural resources. Litigation over environmental issues and claims of various types, including property damage, personal injury, common law nuisance, and citizen enforcement of environmental laws and regulations, has occurred throughout the U.S. This litigation has included claims for damages alleged to have been caused by CO2 and other emissions, CCR, and alleged exposure to hazardous materials, and/or requests for injunctive relief in connection with such matters.
The ultimate outcome of such pending or potential litigation, regulatory matters, or potential asset impairments cannot be predicted at this time; however, for current proceedings not specifically reported in Notes (B) and (C) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein, management does not anticipate that the ultimate liabilities, if any, arising from such current proceedings would have a material effect on Southern Company's financial statements. See Notes (B) and (C) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for a discussion of various other contingencies, regulatory matters, and other matters being litigated which may affect future earnings potential.
Litigation
In January 2017, a putative securities class action complaint was filed against Southern Company, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia by Monroe County Employees' Retirement System on behalf of all persons who purchased shares of Southern Company's common stock between April 25, 2012 and October 29, 2013. The complaint alleges that Southern Company, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers made materially false and

34

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

misleading statements regarding the Kemper County energy facility in violation of certain provisions under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The complaint seeks, among other things, compensatory damages and litigation costs and attorneys' fees. In 2017, the plaintiffs filed an amended complaint that provided additional detail about their claims, increased the purported class period by one day, and added certain other former Mississippi Power officers as defendants. Also in 2017, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' amended complaint with prejudice, to which the plaintiffs filed an opposition. In March 2018, the court issued an order granting, in part, the defendants' motion to dismiss. The court dismissed certain claims against certain officers of Southern Company and Mississippi Power and dismissed the allegations related to a number of the statements that plaintiffs challenged as being false or misleading. In April 2018, the defendants filed a motion for reconsideration of the court's order, seeking dismissal of the remaining claims in the lawsuit. In August 2018, the court denied the motion for reconsideration and denied a motion to certify the issue for interlocutory appeal.
In February 2017, Jean Vineyard and Judy Mesirov each filed a shareholder derivative lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. Each of these lawsuits names as defendants Southern Company, certain of its directors, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers. In 2017, these two shareholder derivative lawsuits were consolidated in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. The complaints allege that the defendants caused Southern Company to make false or misleading statements regarding the Kemper County energy facility cost and schedule. Further, the complaints allege that the defendants were unjustly enriched and caused the waste of corporate assets and also allege that the individual defendants violated their fiduciary duties. Each plaintiff seeks to recover, on behalf of Southern Company, unspecified actual damages and, on each plaintiff's own behalf, attorneys' fees and costs in bringing the lawsuit. Each plaintiff also seeks certain changes to Southern Company's corporate governance and internal processes. In April 2018, the court entered an order staying this lawsuit until 30 days after the resolution of any dispositive motions or any settlement, whichever is earlier, in the putative securities class action.
In May 2017, Helen E. Piper Survivor's Trust filed a shareholder derivative lawsuit in the Superior Court of Gwinnett County, Georgia that names as defendants Southern Company, certain of its directors, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers. The complaint alleges that the individual defendants, among other things, breached their fiduciary duties in connection with schedule delays and cost overruns associated with the construction of the Kemper County energy facility. The complaint further alleges that the individual defendants authorized or failed to correct false and misleading statements regarding the Kemper County energy facility schedule and cost and failed to implement necessary internal controls to prevent harm to Southern Company. The plaintiff seeks to recover, on behalf of Southern Company, unspecified actual damages and disgorgement of profits and, on its behalf, attorneys' fees and costs in bringing the lawsuit. The plaintiff also seeks certain unspecified changes to Southern Company's corporate governance and internal processes. In May 2018, the court entered an order staying this lawsuit until 30 days after the resolution of any dispositive motions or any settlement, whichever is earlier, in the putative securities class action.
In May 2018, Southern Company and Mississippi Power received a notice of dispute and arbitration demand filed by Martin Product Sales, LLC (Martin) based on two agreements, both related to Kemper IGCC byproducts for which Mississippi Power provided termination notices in 2017. Martin alleges breach of contract, breach of good faith and fair dealing, fraud and misrepresentation, and civil conspiracy and makes a claim for damages in the amount of approximately $143 million, as well as additional unspecified damages, attorney's fees, costs, and interest. In the first quarter 2019, Mississippi Power and Southern Company filed motions to dismiss.
Southern Company believes these legal challenges have no merit; however, an adverse outcome in any of these proceedings could have an impact on Southern Company's results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
Mississippi Power
In conjunction with Southern Company's sale of Gulf Power, Mississippi Power and Gulf Power have committed to seek a restructuring of their 50% undivided ownership interests in Plant Daniel such that each of them would, after the restructuring, own 100% of a generating unit. On January 15, 2019, Gulf Power provided notice to Mississippi

35

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Power that Gulf Power will retire its share of the generating capacity of Plant Daniel on January 15, 2024. Mississippi Power has the option to purchase Gulf Power's ownership interest for $1 on January 15, 2024, provided that Mississippi Power exercises the option no later than 120 days prior to that date. Mississippi Power is assessing the potential operational and economic effects of Gulf Power's notice. The ultimate outcome of these matters remains subject to completion of Mississippi Power's evaluations and applicable regulatory approvals, including by the FERC and the Mississippi PSC, and cannot be determined at this time. See Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company" herein for information regarding the sale of Gulf Power.
ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Application of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Southern Company prepares its consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Significant accounting policies are described in Notes 1, 5, and 6 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K. In the application of these policies, certain estimates are made that may have a material impact on Southern Company's results of operations and related disclosures. Different assumptions and measurements could produce estimates that are significantly different from those recorded in the financial statements. See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – ACCOUNTING POLICIES – "Application of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for a complete discussion of Southern Company's critical accounting policies and estimates.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
See Note (A) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for information regarding Southern Company's recently adopted accounting standards.
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY
Overview
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY "Overview" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information. Southern Company's financial condition remained stable at March 31, 2019. Southern Company intends to continue to monitor its access to short-term and long-term capital markets as well as bank credit agreements to meet future capital and liquidity needs. See "Capital Requirements and Contractual Obligations," "Sources of Capital," and "Financing Activities" herein for additional information.
Net cash provided from operating activities totaled $0.7 billion for the first three months of 2019, a decrease of $0.8 billion from the corresponding period in 2018. The decrease in net cash provided from operating activities was primarily due to the timing of vendor payments and the impacts of the Gulf Power disposition and the Southern Company Gas Dispositions. Net cash provided from investing activities totaled $2.5 billion for the first three months of 2019 primarily due to proceeds from the sale of Gulf Power, partially offset by the traditional electric operating companies' installation of equipment to comply with environmental standards and construction of electric generation, transmission, and distribution facilities and capital expenditures for Southern Company Gas' infrastructure replacement programs. Net cash used for financing activities totaled $3.4 billion for the first three months of 2019 primarily due to repayments of short-term bank debt, net redemptions and repurchases of long-term debt, and common stock dividend payments. Cash flows from financing activities vary from period to period based on capital needs and the maturity or redemption of securities. See Notes (F) and (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Significant balance sheet changes for the first three months of 2019 include decreases in assets and liabilities held for sale of $4.9 billion and $3.2 billion, respectively, primarily related to the sale of Gulf Power; the recording of $1.9 billion in operating lease right-of-use assets, net of amortization and operating lease obligations related to the adoption of FASB ASC Topic 842, Leases; a decrease of $1.7 billion in notes payable related to the repayment of short-term bank debt; an increase of $1.6 billion in total stockholders' equity primarily related to the gain on the sale

36

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

of Gulf Power; an increase of $1.4 billion in accumulated deferred income taxes primarily related to the expected utilization of tax credit carryforwards in the 2019 tax year as a result of increased taxable income from the sale of Gulf Power; a decrease of $1.2 billion in long-term debt (including amounts due within one year) resulting from net repayments of long-term debt; and an increase of $0.8 billion in total property, plant, and equipment primarily related to the traditional electric operating companies' installation of equipment to comply with environmental standards and construction of electric generation, transmission, and distribution facilities. See Notes (F), (K), and (L) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
At the end of the first quarter 2019, the market price of Southern Company's common stock was $51.68 per share (based on the closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange) and the book value was $25.41 per share, representing a market-to-book ratio of 203%, compared to $43.92, $23.91, and 184%, respectively, at the end of 2018. Southern Company's common stock dividend for the first quarter 2019 was $0.60 per share compared to $0.58 per share in the first quarter 2018.
Capital Requirements and Contractual Obligations
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY "Capital Requirements and Contractual Obligations" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for a description of Southern Company's capital requirements and contractual obligations. Approximately $2.3 billion will be required through March 31, 2020 to fund maturities of long-term debt. See "Sources of Capital" herein for additional information.
The construction programs are subject to periodic review and revision, and actual construction costs may vary from these estimates because of numerous factors. These factors include: changes in business conditions; changes in load projections; changes in environmental laws and regulations; the outcome of any legal challenges to environmental rules; changes in electric generating plants, including unit retirements and replacements and adding or changing fuel sources at existing electric generating units, to meet regulatory requirements; changes in FERC rules and regulations; state regulatory agency approvals; changes in the expected environmental compliance program; changes in legislation; the cost and efficiency of construction labor, equipment, and materials; project scope and design changes; storm impacts; and the cost of capital. In addition, there can be no assurance that costs related to capital expenditures will be fully recovered. Additionally, planned expenditures for plant acquisitions may vary due to market opportunities and Southern Power's ability to execute its growth strategy. See Note 15 to the financial statements under "Southern Power" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Power" herein for additional information regarding Southern Power's plant acquisitions and construction projects.
The construction program also includes Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, which includes components based on new technology that only recently began initial operation in the global nuclear industry at this scale and which may be subject to additional revised cost estimates during construction. The ability to control costs and avoid cost and schedule overruns during the development, construction, and operation of new facilities is subject to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, changes in labor costs, availability, and productivity; challenges with management of contractors, subcontractors, or vendors; adverse weather conditions; shortages, increased costs, or inconsistent quality of equipment, materials, and labor; contractor or supplier delay; non-performance under construction, operating, or other agreements; operational readiness, including specialized operator training and required site safety programs; engineering or design problems; design and other licensing-based compliance matters, including the timely resolution of ITAAC and the related approvals by the NRC; challenges with start-up activities, including major equipment failure and system integration; and/or operational performance. See Note 2 to the financial statements under "Georgia Power – Nuclear Construction" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Georgia PowerNuclear Construction" herein for information regarding Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 and additional factors that may impact construction expenditures.

37

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Sources of Capital
Southern Company intends to meet its future capital needs through operating cash flows, borrowings from financial institutions, and debt and equity issuances in the capital markets. Equity capital can be provided from any combination of Southern Company's stock plans, private placements, or public offerings. The amount and timing of additional equity and debt issuances in 2019, as well as in subsequent years, will be contingent on Southern Company's investment opportunities and the Southern Company system's capital requirements and will depend upon prevailing market conditions and other factors. See "Capital Requirements and Contractual Obligations" herein for additional information.
Except as described herein, the traditional electric operating companies, Southern Power, and Southern Company Gas plan to obtain the funds required for construction and other purposes from operating cash flows, external security issuances, borrowings from financial institutions, and equity contributions or loans from Southern Company. Southern Power also plans to utilize tax equity partnership contributions, as well as funds resulting from its pending asset sales. However, the amount, type, and timing of any future financings, if needed, will depend upon prevailing market conditions, regulatory approval, and other factors. See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY "Sources of Capital" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information. Also see Note (K) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Power" herein for additional information regarding the pending sales of Plants Mankato and Nacogdoches.
In addition, in 2014, Georgia Power entered into a loan guarantee agreement with the DOE and, in March 2019, entered into the Amended and Restated Loan Guarantee Agreement, under which the proceeds of borrowings may be used to reimburse Georgia Power for Eligible Project Costs incurred in connection with its construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.
Under the Amended and Restated Loan Guarantee Agreement, the DOE has agreed to guarantee the obligations of Georgia Power under note purchase agreements among the DOE, Georgia Power, and the FFB and related promissory notes which provide for two multi-advance term loan facilities (FFB Credit Facilities). Under the FFB Credit Facilities, Georgia Power may make term loan borrowings through the FFB in an amount up to approximately $5.130 billion, provided that total aggregate borrowings under the FFB Credit Facilities may not exceed 70% of (i) Eligible Project Costs minus (ii) approximately $1.492 billion (reflecting the amounts received by Georgia Power under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement less the Customer Refunds). At March 31, 2019, Georgia Power had borrowed $3.46 billion under the FFB Credit Facilities.
See Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "DOE Loan Guarantee Borrowings" herein for additional information regarding the Amended and Restated Loan Guarantee Agreement, including applicable covenants, events of default, mandatory prepayment events, and additional conditions to borrowing. Also see Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Georgia PowerNuclear Construction" herein for additional information regarding Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.
Southern Company's current liabilities frequently exceed current assets because of scheduled maturities of long-term debt and the periodic use of short-term debt as a funding source, as well as significant seasonal fluctuations in cash needs. As of March 31, 2019, Southern Company's current liabilities exceeded current assets by $1.2 billion, primarily due to long-term debt that is due within one year of $2.3 billion (including approximately $1.0 billion at Georgia Power, $0.3 billion at Mississippi Power, $0.6 billion at Southern Power, and $0.4 billion at Southern Company Gas) and notes payable of $1.3 billion (including approximately $0.5 billion at the parent company, $0.3 billion at Georgia Power, $0.1 billion at Southern Power, and $0.4 billion at Southern Company Gas), partially offset by $1.4 billion of cash and cash equivalents. To meet short-term cash needs and contingencies, the Southern Company system has substantial cash flow from operating activities and access to capital markets and financial institutions. Southern Company, the traditional electric operating companies, Southern Power, and Southern Company Gas intend to utilize operating cash flows, as well as commercial paper, lines of credit, bank notes, and securities issuances, as market conditions permit, as well as, under certain circumstances for the traditional electric

38

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

operating companies, Southern Power, and Southern Company Gas, equity contributions and/or loans from Southern Company to meet their short-term capital needs.
At March 31, 2019, Southern Company and its subsidiaries had approximately $1.4 billion of cash and cash equivalents. Committed credit arrangements with banks at March 31, 2019 were as follows:
 
Expires
 
 
Company
2019
2020
2022
 
Total
 
Unused(d)
 
(in millions)
Southern Company(a)
$

$

$
2,000

 
$
2,000

 
$
1,999

Alabama Power
33

500

800

 
1,333

 
1,333

Georgia Power


1,750

 
1,750

 
1,736

Mississippi Power
100



 
100

 
100

Southern Power(b)


750

 
750

 
741

Southern Company Gas(c)


1,900

 
1,900

 
1,895

Other
30



 
30

 
30

Southern Company Consolidated
$
163

$
500

$
7,200

 
$
7,863

 
$
7,834

(a)
Represents the Southern Company parent entity.
(b)
Does not include Southern Power Company's $120 million continuing letter of credit facility for standby letters of credit expiring in 2021, of which $24 million was unused at March 31, 2019. Southern Power's subsidiaries are not parties to its bank credit arrangement.
(c)
Southern Company Gas, as the parent entity, guarantees the obligations of Southern Company Gas Capital, which is the borrower of $1.4 billion of this arrangement. Southern Company Gas' committed credit arrangement also includes $500 million for which Nicor Gas is the borrower and which is restricted for working capital needs of Nicor Gas. Pursuant to this multi-year credit arrangement, the allocations between Southern Company Gas Capital and Nicor Gas may be adjusted.
(d)
Amounts used are for letters of credit.
See Note 8 to the financial statements under "Bank Credit Arrangements" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Bank Credit Arrangements" herein for additional information.
Most of these bank credit arrangements, as well as the term loan arrangements of Alabama Power, Southern Power Company, and SEGCO, contain covenants that limit debt levels and contain cross-acceleration or cross-default provisions to other indebtedness (including guarantee obligations) that are restricted only to the indebtedness of the individual company. Such cross-default provisions to other indebtedness would trigger an event of default if the applicable borrower defaulted on indebtedness or guarantee obligations over a specified threshold. Such cross-acceleration provisions to other indebtedness would trigger an event of default if the applicable borrower defaulted on indebtedness, the payment of which was then accelerated. At March 31, 2019, Southern Company, the traditional electric operating companies, Southern Power Company, Southern Company Gas, Nicor Gas, and SEGCO were in compliance with all such covenants. None of the bank credit arrangements contain material adverse change clauses at the time of borrowings.
Subject to applicable market conditions, Southern Company and its subsidiaries expect to renew or replace their bank credit arrangements as needed, prior to expiration. In connection therewith, Southern Company and its subsidiaries may extend the maturity dates and/or increase or decrease the lending commitments thereunder.
A portion of the unused credit with banks is allocated to provide liquidity support to the revenue bonds of the traditional electric operating companies and the commercial paper programs of Southern Company, the traditional electric operating companies, Southern Power Company, Southern Company Gas, Nicor Gas, and SEGCO. The amount of variable rate revenue bonds of the traditional electric operating companies outstanding requiring liquidity support as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $1.4 billion. In addition, at March 31, 2019, the traditional electric operating companies had approximately $432 million of revenue bonds outstanding that are required to be remarketed within the next 12 months. Subsequent to March 31, 2019, Georgia Power purchased and held approximately $115 million of outstanding pollution control revenue bonds required to be remarketed.

39

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Southern Company, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Southern Power Company, Southern Company Gas, Nicor Gas, and SEGCO make short-term borrowings primarily through commercial paper programs that have the liquidity support of the committed bank credit arrangements described above. Short-term borrowings are included in notes payable in the balance sheets.
Details of short-term borrowings were as follows:
 
 
Short-term Debt at
March 31, 2019
 
Short-term Debt During the Period(*)
 
 
Amount
Outstanding
 
Weighted
Average
Interest
Rate
 
Average
Amount
Outstanding
 
Weighted
Average
Interest
Rate
 
Maximum
Amount
Outstanding
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
(in millions)
Commercial paper
 
$
1,151

 
2.9
%
 
$
1,248

 
2.9
%
 
$
2,293

Short-term bank debt
 
100

 
3.1
%
 
208

 
3.2
%
 
1,850

Total
 
$
1,251

 
2.9
%
 
$
1,456

 
2.9
%
 
 
(*)
Average and maximum amounts are based upon daily balances during the three-month period ended March 31, 2019.
Southern Company believes the need for working capital can be adequately met by utilizing commercial paper programs, lines of credit, bank term loans, and operating cash flows.
Credit Rating Risk
At March 31, 2019, Southern Company and its subsidiaries did not have any credit arrangements that would require material changes in payment schedules or terminations as a result of a credit rating downgrade.
There are certain contracts that could require collateral, but not accelerated payment, in the event of a credit rating change of certain subsidiaries to BBB and/or Baa2 or below. These contracts are for physical electricity and natural gas purchases and sales, fuel purchases, fuel transportation and storage, energy price risk management, transmission, interest rate management, and construction of new generation at Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.
The maximum potential collateral requirements under these contracts at March 31, 2019 were as follows:
Credit Ratings
Maximum Potential
Collateral
Requirements
 
(in millions)
At BBB and/or Baa2
$
30

At BBB- and/or Baa3
$
433

At BB+ and/or Ba1(*)
$
1,988

(*)
Any additional credit rating downgrades at or below BB- and/or Ba3 could increase collateral requirements up to an additional $38 million.
Generally, collateral may be provided by a Southern Company guaranty, letter of credit, or cash. Additionally, a credit rating downgrade could impact the ability of Southern Company and its subsidiaries to access capital markets, and would be likely to impact the cost at which they do so.
As a result of the Tax Reform Legislation, certain financial metrics, such as the funds from operations to debt percentage, used by the credit rating agencies to assess Southern Company and its subsidiaries may be negatively impacted. Southern Company and most of its regulated subsidiaries have taken actions to mitigate the resulting impacts, which, among other alternatives, include adjusting capital structure. Absent actions by Southern Company and its subsidiaries that fully mitigate the impacts, the credit ratings of Southern Company and certain of its subsidiaries could be negatively affected. See Note 2 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for

40

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

additional information related to state PSC or other regulatory agency actions related to the Tax Reform Legislation, including approvals of capital structure adjustments for Alabama Power, Georgia Power, and Atlanta Gas Light by their respective state PSCs and a similar request by Nicor Gas currently pending Illinois Commission approval, which are expected to help mitigate the potential adverse impacts to certain of their credit metrics.
Financing Activities
During the first three months of 2019, Southern Company issued approximately 6.5 million shares of common stock primarily through employee equity compensation plans and received proceeds of approximately $224 million.
The following table outlines the long-term debt financing activities for Southern Company and its subsidiaries for the first three months of 2019:
Company
Senior Note Maturities, Redemptions, and Repurchases
 
Revenue Bond
Issuances and
Reofferings
of Purchased
Bonds
 
Revenue Bond
Maturities, Redemptions, and
Repurchases
 
Other
Long-Term
Debt
Issuances
 
Other Long-Term Debt Redemptions
and Maturities(a)
 
(in millions)
Southern Company(b)
$
2,100

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Alabama Power
200

 

 

 

 

Georgia Power

 
343

 
108

 
835

 
2

Mississippi Power

 
43

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

 
19

Southern Company Consolidated
$
2,300

 
$
386

 
$
108

 
$
835

 
$
21

(a)
Includes reductions in finance lease obligations resulting from cash payments under finance leases.
(b)
Represents the Southern Company parent entity.
Except as otherwise described herein, Southern Company and its subsidiaries used the proceeds of debt issuances for their redemptions and maturities shown in the table above, to repay short-term indebtedness, and for general corporate purposes, including working capital. The subsidiaries also used the proceeds for their construction programs.
In January 2019, Southern Company repaid a $250 million short-term uncommitted bank credit arrangement and a $1.5 billion short-term floating rate bank loan.
Also in January 2019, through cash tender offers, Southern Company repurchased and retired approximately $522 million of the $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount outstanding of its 1.85% Senior Notes due July 1, 2019 (1.85% Notes), approximately $180 million of the $350 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of its Series 2014B 2.15% Senior Notes due September 1, 2019 (Series 2014B Notes), and approximately $504 million of the $750 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of its Series 2018A Floating Rate Notes due February 14, 2020 (Series 2018A Notes), for an aggregate purchase price, excluding accrued and unpaid interest, of approximately $1.2 billion. In addition, following the completion of the cash tender offers, in February 2019, Southern Company completed the redemption of all of the Series 2018A Notes, 1.85% Notes, and Series 2014B Notes remaining outstanding.
As reflected in the table above, in March 2019, Georgia Power made additional borrowings under the FFB Credit Facilities in an aggregate principal amount of $835 million at an interest rate of 3.213% through the final maturity date of February 20, 2044. The proceeds were used to reimburse Georgia Power for Eligible Project Costs relating to the construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.

41

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Subsequent to March 31, 2019, Georgia Power purchased and held the following pollution control revenue bonds, which may be reoffered to the public at a later date:
$55 million aggregate principal amount of Development Authority of Burke County (Georgia) Pollution Control Revenue Bonds (Georgia Power Company Plant Vogtle Project), Fourth Series 1994;
$30 million aggregate principal amount of Development Authority of Burke County (Georgia) Pollution Control Revenue Bonds (Georgia Power Company Plant Vogtle Project), Fourth Series 1995;
$20 million aggregate principal amount of Development Authority of Burke County (Georgia) Pollution Control Revenue Bonds (Georgia Power Company Plant Vogtle Project), Ninth Series 1994; and
$10 million aggregate principal amount of Development Authority of Burke County (Georgia) Pollution Control Revenue Bonds (Georgia Power Company Plant Vogtle Project), Second Series 1994.
In addition to any financings that may be necessary to meet capital requirements and contractual obligations, Southern Company and its subsidiaries plan to continue, when economically feasible, a program to retire higher-cost securities and replace these obligations with lower-cost capital if market conditions permit.

42


PART I
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
During the three months ended March 31, 2019, there were no material changes to Southern Company's, Alabama Power's, Georgia Power's, Mississippi Power's, and Southern Power's disclosures about market risk. For additional market risk disclosures relating to Southern Company Gas, see MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Market Price Risk" of Southern Company Gas herein. For an in-depth discussion of each registrant's market risks, see MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Market Price Risk" of each registrant in Item 7 of the Form 10-K and Note 1 to the financial statements under "Financial Instruments" and Notes 13 and 14 to the financial statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K. Also see Notes (I) and (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for information relating to derivative instruments.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures.
(a)
Evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures.
As of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Southern Company, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Mississippi Power, Southern Power, and Southern Company Gas conducted separate evaluations under the supervision and with the participation of each company's management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of the disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Sections 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended). Based upon these evaluations, the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, in each case, concluded that the disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
(b)
Changes in internal controls over financial reporting.
There have been no changes in Southern Company's, Alabama Power's, Georgia Power's, Mississippi Power's, Southern Power's, or Southern Company Gas' internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) during the first quarter 2019 that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect Southern Company's, Alabama Power's, Georgia Power's, Mississippi Power's, Southern Power's, or Southern Company Gas' internal control over financial reporting.

43


ALABAMA POWER COMPANY

44


ALABAMA POWER COMPANY
CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (UNAUDITED)
 
 
For the Three Months
Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
(in millions)
Operating Revenues:
 
 
 
Retail revenues
$
1,213

 
$
1,285

Wholesale revenues, non-affiliates
61

 
74

Wholesale revenues, affiliates
60

 
51

Other revenues
74

 
63

Total operating revenues
1,408

 
1,473

Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
Fuel
301

 
326

Purchased power, non-affiliates
37