10-Q 1 so_10qx9302018.htm 10-Q Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
þ QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018
OR
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to            

Commission
File Number
 
Registrant, State of Incorporation,
Address and Telephone Number
 
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
1-3526
 
The Southern Company
(A Delaware Corporation)
30 Ivan Allen Jr. Boulevard, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30308
(404) 506-5000
 
58-0690070
 
 
 
 
 
1-3164
 
Alabama Power Company
(An Alabama Corporation)
600 North 18th Street
Birmingham, Alabama 35203
(205) 257-1000
 
63-0004250
 
 
 
 
 
1-6468
 
Georgia Power Company
(A Georgia Corporation)
241 Ralph McGill Boulevard, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30308
(404) 506-6526
 
58-0257110
 
 
 
 
 
001-31737
 
Gulf Power Company
(A Florida Corporation)
One Energy Place
Pensacola, Florida 32520
(850) 444-6111
 
59-0276810
 
 
 
 
 
001-11229
 
Mississippi Power Company
(A Mississippi Corporation)
2992 West Beach Boulevard
Gulfport, Mississippi 39501
(228) 864-1211
 
64-0205820
 
 
 
 
 
001-37803
 
Southern Power Company
(A Delaware Corporation)
30 Ivan Allen Jr. Boulevard, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30308
(404) 506-5000
 
58-2598670
 
 
 
 
 
1-14174
 
Southern Company Gas
(A Georgia Corporation)
Ten Peachtree Place, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30309
(404) 584-4000
 
58-2210952




Indicate by check mark whether the registrants (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to file such reports), and (2) have been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants have submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to submit such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Registrant
 
Large
Accelerated
Filer
 
Accelerated
Filer
 
Non-
accelerated
Filer
 
Smaller
Reporting
Company
 
Emerging
Growth
Company
The Southern Company
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alabama Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Georgia Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Gulf Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Mississippi Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Southern Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
Southern Company Gas
 
 
 
 
 
X
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No þ (Response applicable to all registrants.)
 
Registrant
 
Description of
Common Stock
 
Shares Outstanding at September 30, 2018

The Southern Company
 
Par Value $5 Per Share
 
1,028,888,684

Alabama Power Company
 
Par Value $40 Per Share
 
30,537,500

Georgia Power Company
 
Without Par Value
 
9,261,500

Gulf Power Company
 
Without Par Value
 
7,392,717

Mississippi Power Company
 
Without Par Value
 
1,121,000

Southern Power Company
 
Par Value $0.01 Per Share
 
1,000

Southern Company Gas
 
Par Value $0.01 Per Share
 
100

This combined Form 10-Q is separately filed by The Southern Company, Alabama Power Company, Georgia Power Company, Gulf Power Company, Mississippi Power Company, Southern Power Company, and Southern Company Gas. Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf. Each registrant makes no representation as to information relating to the other registrants.

2

INDEX TO QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
September 30, 2018


 
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Financial Statements (Unaudited)
 
Item 2.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3

INDEX TO QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
September 30, 2018


 
 
Page
Number
 
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION (CONTINUED)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
PART II—OTHER INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Inapplicable
Item 3.
Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Inapplicable
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Inapplicable
Item 5.
Other Information
Inapplicable
Item 6.
 

4


DEFINITIONS
Term
Meaning
 
 
2013 ARP
Alternative Rate Plan approved by the Georgia PSC in 2013 for Georgia Power for the years 2014 through 2016 and subsequently extended through 2019
AFUDC
Allowance for funds used during construction
Alabama Power
Alabama Power Company
ARO
Asset retirement obligation
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
Atlanta Gas Light
Atlanta Gas Light Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
Atlantic Coast Pipeline
Atlantic Coast Pipeline, LLC, a joint venture to construct and operate a natural gas pipeline in which Southern Company Gas has a 5% ownership interest
Bechtel
Bechtel Power Corporation, the primary contractor for the remaining construction activities for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
Bechtel Agreement
The October 23, 2017 construction completion agreement between the Vogtle Owners and Bechtel
CCR
Coal combustion residuals
Chattanooga Gas
Chattanooga Gas Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
Clean Power Plan
Final action published by the EPA in 2015 that established guidelines for states to develop
plans to meet EPA-mandated CO2 emission rates or emission reduction goals for existing
electric generating units
CO2
Carbon dioxide
COD
Commercial operation date
Contractor Settlement Agreement
The December 31, 2015 agreement between Westinghouse and the Vogtle Owners resolving disputes between the Vogtle Owners and the EPC Contractor under the Vogtle 3 and 4 Agreement
Cooperative Energy
Electric cooperative in Mississippi
CPCN
Certificate of public convenience and necessity
Customer Refunds
Refunds issued to Georgia Power customers in 2018 as ordered by the Georgia PSC related to the Guarantee Settlement Agreement
CWIP
Construction work in progress
Dalton Pipeline
A 50% undivided ownership interest of Southern Company Gas in a pipeline facility in Georgia
DOE
U.S. Department of Energy
ECO Plan
Mississippi Power's environmental compliance overview plan
Eligible Project Costs
Certain costs of construction relating to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 that are eligible for financing under the loan guarantee program established under Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPC Contractor
Westinghouse and its affiliate, WECTEC Global Project Services Inc.; the former engineering, procurement, and construction contractor for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FFB
Federal Financing Bank
Fitch
Fitch Ratings, Inc.
Form 10-K
Annual Report on Form 10-K of Southern Company, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Gulf Power, Mississippi Power, Southern Power, and Southern Company Gas for the year ended December 31, 2017, as applicable
GAAP
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles
Georgia Power
Georgia Power Company
GHG
Greenhouse gas

5


DEFINITIONS
(continued)
Term
Meaning
Guarantee Settlement Agreement
The June 9, 2017 settlement agreement between the Vogtle Owners and Toshiba related to certain payment obligations of the EPC Contractor guaranteed by Toshiba
Gulf Power
Gulf Power Company
Heating Degree Days
A measure of weather, calculated when the average daily temperatures are less than 65 degrees Fahrenheit
Horizon Pipeline
Horizon Pipeline Company, LLC
IGCC
Integrated coal gasification combined cycle, the technology originally approved for Mississippi Power's Kemper County energy facility (Plant Ratcliffe)
IIC
Intercompany interchange contract
Illinois Commission
Illinois Commerce Commission
Interim Assessment Agreement
Agreement entered into by the Vogtle Owners and the EPC Contractor to allow construction to continue after the EPC Contractor's bankruptcy filing
IRS
Internal Revenue Service
ITC
Investment tax credit
JEA
Jacksonville Electric Authority
KWH
Kilowatt-hour
LIBOR
London Interbank Offered Rate
LIFO
Last-in, first-out
LNG
Liquefied natural gas
Loan Guarantee Agreement
Loan guarantee agreement entered into by Georgia Power with the DOE in 2014, under which the proceeds of borrowings may be used to reimburse Georgia Power for Eligible Project Costs incurred in connection with its construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
LOCOM
Lower of weighted average cost or current market price
LTSA
Long-term service agreement
MEAG
Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia
Merger
The merger, effective July 1, 2016, of a wholly-owned, direct subsidiary of Southern Company with and into Southern Company Gas, with Southern Company Gas continuing as the surviving corporation
Mississippi Power
Mississippi Power Company
mmBtu
Million British thermal units
Moody's
Moody's Investors Service, Inc.
MRA
Municipal and Rural Associations
MW
Megawatt
natural gas distribution utilities
Southern Company Gas' natural gas distribution utilities (Nicor Gas, Atlanta Gas Light, Virginia Natural Gas, Elizabethtown Gas, Florida City Gas, Chattanooga Gas, and Elkton Gas as of June 30, 2018) (Nicor Gas, Atlanta Gas Light, Virginia Natural Gas, and Chattanooga Gas as of July 29, 2018)
NCCR
Georgia Power's Nuclear Construction Cost Recovery
NextEra Energy
NextEra Energy, Inc.
Nicor Gas
Northern Illinois Gas Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
NRC
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NYMEX
New York Mercantile Exchange, Inc.
OCI
Other comprehensive income
PennEast Pipeline
PennEast Pipeline Company, LLC, a joint venture to construct and operate a natural gas pipeline in which Southern Company Gas has a 20% ownership interest
PEP
Mississippi Power's Performance Evaluation Plan

6


DEFINITIONS
(continued)
Term
Meaning
Pivotal Home Solutions
Nicor Energy Services Company, until June 4, 2018 a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas, doing business as Pivotal Home Solutions
Pivotal Utility Holdings
Pivotal Utility Holdings, Inc., until July 29, 2018 a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas, doing business as Elizabethtown Gas (until July 1, 2018), Elkton Gas (until July 1, 2018), and Florida City Gas
PowerSecure
PowerSecure, Inc.
power pool
The operating arrangement whereby the integrated generating resources of the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power (excluding subsidiaries) are subject to joint commitment and dispatch in order to serve their combined load obligations
PPA
Power purchase agreements, as well as, for Southern Power, contracts for differences that provide the owner of a renewable facility a certain fixed price for the electricity sold to the grid
PSC
Public Service Commission
PTC
Production tax credit
Rate CNP
Alabama Power's Rate Certificated New Plant
Rate CNP Compliance
Alabama Power's Rate Certificated New Plant Compliance
Rate CNP PPA
Alabama Power's Rate Certificated New Plant Power Purchase Agreement
Rate ECR
Alabama Power's Rate Energy Cost Recovery
Rate NDR
Alabama Power's Rate Natural Disaster Reserve
Rate RSE
Alabama Power's Rate Stabilization and Equalization plan
registrants
Southern Company, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Gulf Power, Mississippi Power, Southern Power Company, and Southern Company Gas
ROE
Return on equity
S&P
S&P Global Ratings, a division of S&P Global Inc.
SCS
Southern Company Services, Inc. (the Southern Company system service company)
SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SNG
Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.
Southern Company
The Southern Company
Southern Company Gas
Southern Company Gas and its subsidiaries
Southern Company Gas Capital
Southern Company Gas Capital Corporation, a 100%-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas
Southern Company Gas Dispositions
Southern Company Gas' disposition of Pivotal Home Solutions, Pivotal Utility Holdings' disposition of Elizabethtown Gas and Elkton Gas, and NUI Corporation's disposition of Pivotal Utility Holdings, which primarily consisted of Florida City Gas
Southern Company system
Southern Company, the traditional electric operating companies, Southern Power, Southern Company Gas, Southern Electric Generating Company, Southern Nuclear, SCS, Southern Communications Services, Inc., PowerSecure, and other subsidiaries
Southern Nuclear
Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.
Southern Power
Southern Power Company and its subsidiaries
SPSH
SP Solar Holdings I, LP
SP Wind
SP Wind Holdings II, LLC
Tax Reform Legislation
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was signed into law on December 22, 2017 and became effective on January 1, 2018
Toshiba
Toshiba Corporation, parent company of Westinghouse
traditional electric operating companies
Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Gulf Power, and Mississippi Power
Triton
Triton Container Investments, LLC
VCM
Vogtle Construction Monitoring
Virginia Commission
Virginia State Corporation Commission
Virginia Natural Gas
Virginia Natural Gas, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Southern Company Gas

7


DEFINITIONS
(continued)
Term
Meaning
Vogtle 3 and 4 Agreement
Agreement entered into with the EPC Contractor in 2008 by Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the Vogtle Owners, and rejected in bankruptcy in July 2017, pursuant to which the EPC Contractor agreed to design, engineer, procure, construct, and test Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4
Vogtle Owners
Georgia Power, Oglethorpe Power Corporation, MEAG, and the City of Dalton, Georgia, an incorporated municipality in the State of Georgia acting by and through its Board of Water, Light, and Sinking Fund Commissioners
Vogtle Services Agreement
The June 9, 2017 services agreement between the Vogtle Owners and the EPC Contractor, as amended and restated on July 20, 2017, for the EPC Contractor to transition construction management of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to Southern Nuclear and to provide ongoing design, engineering, and procurement services to Southern Nuclear
WACOG
Weighted average cost of gas
Westinghouse
Westinghouse Electric Company LLC


8


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning regulated rates, the strategic goals for the wholesale business, customer and sales growth, economic conditions, fuel and environmental cost recovery and other rate actions, projected equity ratios, costs of modernization efforts, current and proposed environmental regulations and related compliance plans and estimated expenditures, pending or potential litigation matters, access to sources of capital, financing activities, completion dates of construction projects, completion of announced dispositions, filings with state and federal regulatory authorities, impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation, federal and state income tax benefits, estimated sales and purchases under power sale and purchase agreements, and estimated construction and other plans and expenditures. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terminology such as "may," "will," "could," "would," "should," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "projects," "predicts," "potential," or "continue" or the negative of these terms or other similar terminology. There are various factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements; accordingly, there can be no assurance that such indicated results will be realized. These factors include:

the impact of recent and future federal and state regulatory changes, including environmental laws and regulations governing air, water, land, and protection of other natural resources, and also changes in tax and other laws and regulations to which Southern Company and its subsidiaries are subject, as well as changes in application of existing laws and regulations;
the uncertainty surrounding the Tax Reform Legislation, including implementing regulations and IRS interpretations, actions that may be taken in response by regulatory authorities, and its impact, if any, on the credit ratings of Southern Company and its subsidiaries;
current and future litigation or regulatory investigations, proceedings, or inquiries;
the effects, extent, and timing of the entry of additional competition in the markets in which Southern Company's subsidiaries operate, including from the development and deployment of alternative energy sources such as self-generation and distributed generation technologies;
variations in demand for electricity and natural gas, including those relating to weather, the general economy, population and business growth (and declines), the effects of energy conservation and efficiency measures, and any potential economic impacts resulting from federal fiscal decisions;
available sources and costs of natural gas and other fuels;
limits on pipeline capacity;
transmission constraints;
effects of inflation;
the ability to control costs and avoid cost and schedule overruns during the development, construction, and operation of facilities, including Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 which includes components based on new technology that only recently began initial operation in the global nuclear industry at scale, including changes in labor costs, availability, and productivity, challenges with management of contractors, subcontractors, or vendors, adverse weather conditions, shortages, increased costs or inconsistent quality of equipment, materials, and labor, including any changes related to imposition of import tariffs, contractor or supplier delay, non-performance under construction, operating, or other agreements, operational readiness, including specialized operator training and required site safety programs, unforeseen engineering or design problems, start-up activities (including major equipment failure and system integration), and/or operational performance;
the ability to construct facilities in accordance with the requirements of permits and licenses (including satisfaction of NRC requirements), to satisfy any environmental performance standards and the requirements of tax credits and other incentives, and to integrate facilities into the Southern Company system upon completion of construction;
investment performance of the Southern Company system's employee and retiree benefit plans and nuclear decommissioning trust funds;
advances in technology;
ongoing renewable energy partnerships and development agreements;
state and federal rate regulations and the impact of pending and future rate cases and negotiations, including rate actions relating to fuel and other cost recovery mechanisms;

9


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
(continued)
the ability to successfully operate the electric utilities' generating, transmission, and distribution facilities and Southern Company Gas' natural gas distribution and storage facilities and the successful performance of necessary corporate functions;
legal proceedings and regulatory approvals and actions related to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, including Georgia PSC approvals and NRC actions;
under certain specified circumstances, a decision by holders of more than 10% of the ownership interests of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 not to proceed with construction and the ability of other Vogtle Owners to tender a portion of their ownership interests to Georgia Power following certain construction cost increases;
in the event Georgia Power becomes obligated to provide funding to MEAG with respect to the portion of MEAG's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 involving JEA, any inability of Georgia Power to receive repayment of such funding;
litigation or other disputes related to the Kemper County energy facility;
the inherent risks involved in operating and constructing nuclear generating facilities, including environmental, health, regulatory, natural disaster, terrorism, and financial risks;
the inherent risks involved in transporting and storing natural gas;
the performance of projects undertaken by the non-utility businesses and the success of efforts to invest in and develop new opportunities;
internal restructuring or other restructuring options that may be pursued;
potential business strategies, including acquisitions or dispositions of assets or businesses, including the proposed dispositions of Gulf Power, Southern Power's plants located in Florida, and the Mankato natural gas facility and the proposed sale of a noncontrolling interest in Southern Power's wind facilities, which cannot be assured to be completed or beneficial to Southern Company or its subsidiaries;
the possibility that the anticipated benefits from the Merger cannot be fully realized or may take longer to realize than expected and the possibility that costs related to the integration of Southern Company and Southern Company Gas will be greater than expected;
the ability of counterparties of Southern Company and its subsidiaries to make payments as and when due and to perform as required;
the ability to obtain new short- and long-term contracts with wholesale customers;
the direct or indirect effect on the Southern Company system's business resulting from cyber intrusion or physical attack and the threat of physical attacks;
interest rate fluctuations and financial market conditions and the results of financing efforts;
changes in Southern Company's and any of its subsidiaries' credit ratings, including impacts on interest rates, access to capital markets, and collateral requirements;
the impacts of any sovereign financial issues, including impacts on interest rates, access to capital markets, impacts on foreign currency exchange rates, counterparty performance, and the economy in general, as well as potential impacts on the benefits of the DOE loan guarantees;
the ability of Southern Company's electric utilities to obtain additional generating capacity (or sell excess generating capacity) at competitive prices;
catastrophic events such as fires, earthquakes, explosions, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes and other storms, droughts, pandemic health events such as influenzas, or other similar occurrences;
the direct or indirect effects on the Southern Company system's business resulting from incidents affecting the U.S. electric grid, natural gas pipeline infrastructure, or operation of generating or storage resources;
impairments of goodwill or long-lived assets;
the effect of accounting pronouncements issued periodically by standard-setting bodies; and
other factors discussed elsewhere herein and in other reports (including the Form 10-K) filed by the registrants from time to time with the SEC.
The registrants expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

10


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY
AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

11


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (UNAUDITED)
 
 
For the Three Months
Ended September 30,
 
For the Nine Months
Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
(in millions)
 
(in millions)
Operating Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Retail electric revenues
$
4,605

 
$
4,615

 
$
11,913

 
$
11,786

Wholesale electric revenues
693

 
718

 
1,923

 
1,867

Other electric revenues
170

 
168

 
509

 
510

Natural gas revenues (includes alternative revenue programs of
$5, $-, $(23), and $9, respectively)
492

 
532

 
2,806

 
2,746

Other revenues
199

 
168

 
1,007

 
494

Total operating revenues
6,159

 
6,201

 
18,158

 
17,403

Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fuel
1,310

 
1,285

 
3,514

 
3,372

Purchased power
257

 
256

 
760

 
646

Cost of natural gas
104

 
134

 
1,053

 
1,085

Cost of other sales
120

 
90

 
688

 
293

Other operations and maintenance
1,404

 
1,341

 
4,217

 
4,100

Depreciation and amortization
787

 
767

 
2,338

 
2,236

Taxes other than income taxes
319

 
303

 
990

 
941

Estimated loss on plants under construction
1

 
34

 
1,105

 
3,155

Gain on dispositions, net
(353
)
 

 
(317
)
 
(19
)
Impairment charges
36

 

 
197

 

Total operating expenses
3,985

 
4,210

 
14,545

 
15,809

Operating Income
2,174

 
1,991

 
3,613

 
1,594

Other Income and (Expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Allowance for equity funds used during construction
36

 
18

 
99

 
133

Earnings from equity method investments
36

 
32

 
108

 
100

Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized
(458
)
 
(407
)
 
(1,386
)
 
(1,248
)
Other income (expense), net
57

 
65

 
195

 
165

Total other income and (expense)
(329
)
 
(292
)
 
(984
)
 
(850
)
Earnings Before Income Taxes
1,845

 
1,699

 
2,629

 
744

Income taxes
623

 
590

 
598

 
317

Consolidated Net Income
1,222

 
1,109

 
2,031

 
427

Dividends on preferred and preference stock of subsidiaries
4

 
10

 
12

 
32

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
54

 
30

 
71

 
48

Consolidated Net Income Attributable to
Southern Company
$
1,164

 
$
1,069

 
$
1,948

 
$
347

Common Stock Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share -
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
1.14

 
$
1.07

 
$
1.92

 
$
0.35

Diluted
$
1.13

 
$
1.06

 
$
1.91

 
$
0.35

Average number of shares of common stock outstanding (in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
1,023

 
1,003

 
1,016

 
998

Diluted
1,029

 
1,010

 
1,021

 
1,005

Cash dividends paid per share of common stock
$
0.60

 
$
0.58

 
$
1.78

 
$
1.72

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

12


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (UNAUDITED)
 
 
For the Three Months
Ended September 30,
 
For the Nine Months
Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
 
(in millions)
 
(in millions)
Consolidated Net Income
$
1,222

 
$
1,109

 
$
2,031

 
$
427

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qualifying hedges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Changes in fair value, net of tax of
$(4), $15, $(6), and $32, respectively
(11
)
 
25

 
(19
)
 
54

Reclassification adjustment for amounts included in net income,
net of tax of $5, $(10), $21, and $(36), respectively
14

 
(17
)
 
60

 
(59
)
Pension and other postretirement benefit plans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reclassification adjustment for amounts included in net income,
net of tax of $3, $1, $4, and $2, respectively
8

 
1

 
11

 
3

Total other comprehensive income (loss)
11

 
9

 
52

 
(2
)
Comprehensive Income
1,233

 
1,118

 
2,083

 
425

Dividends on preferred and preference stock of subsidiaries
4

 
10

 
12

 
32

Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests
54

 
30

 
71

 
48

Consolidated Comprehensive Income Attributable to
Southern Company
$
1,175

 
$
1,078

 
$
2,000

 
$
345

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


13


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)
 
For the Nine Months
Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
(in millions)
Operating Activities:
 
 
 
Consolidated net income
$
2,031

 
$
427

Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net income to net cash provided from operating activities  
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization, total
2,647

 
2,564

Deferred income taxes
(286
)
 
15

Allowance for equity funds used during construction
(99
)
 
(133
)
Pension, postretirement, and other employee benefits
(60
)
 
(64
)
Settlement of asset retirement obligations
(160
)
 
(137
)
Stock based compensation expense
108

 
95

Estimated loss on plants under construction
1,081

 
3,148

Gain on dispositions, net
(324
)
 
(22
)
Impairment charges
197

 

Other, net
(21
)
 
(80
)
Changes in certain current assets and liabilities —
 
 
 
-Receivables
37

 
423

-Prepayments
14

 
(39
)
-Natural gas for sale
87

 

-Other current assets
(90
)
 
(66
)
-Accounts payable
(248
)
 
(467
)
-Accrued taxes
839

 
157

-Accrued compensation
(138
)
 
(230
)
-Retail fuel cost over recovery
36

 
(211
)
-Other current liabilities
(67
)
 
(129
)
Net cash provided from operating activities
5,584

 
5,251

Investing Activities:
 
 
 
Business acquisitions, net of cash acquired
(64
)
 
(1,016
)
Property additions
(5,793
)
 
(5,242
)
Nuclear decommissioning trust fund purchases
(846
)
 
(585
)
Nuclear decommissioning trust fund sales
840

 
580

Dispositions
2,773

 
66

Cost of removal, net of salvage
(252
)
 
(208
)
Change in construction payables, net
91

 
120

Investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries
(93
)
 
(134
)
Payments pursuant to LTSAs
(157
)
 
(189
)
Other investing activities
1

 
(77
)
Net cash used for investing activities
(3,500
)
 
(6,685
)
Financing Activities:
 
 
 
Decrease in notes payable, net
(1,225
)
 
(515
)
Proceeds —
 
 
 
Long-term debt
1,950

 
4,068

Common stock
878

 
613

Preferred stock

 
250

Short-term borrowings
3,150

 
1,263

Redemptions and repurchases —
 
 
 
Long-term debt
(4,498
)
 
(1,981
)
Preferred and preference stock

 
(150
)
Short-term borrowings
(1,800
)
 
(409
)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests
(86
)
 
(89
)
Capital contributions from noncontrolling interests
1,333

 
79

Payment of common stock dividends
(1,805
)
 
(1,716
)
Other financing activities
(237
)
 
(113
)
Net cash provided from (used for) financing activities
(2,340
)
 
1,300

Net Change in Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
(256
)
 
(134
)
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash at Beginning of Period
2,147

 
1,992

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash at End of Period
$
1,891

 
$
1,858

Supplemental Cash Flow Information:
 
 
 
Cash paid (received) during the period for —
 
 
 
Interest (net of $53 and $72 capitalized for 2018 and 2017, respectively)
$
1,402

 
$
1,286

Income taxes, net
137

 
(187
)
Noncash transactions — Accrued property additions at end of period
1,125

 
805

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

14


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)
 
Assets
 
At September 30, 2018
 
At December 31, 2017
 
 
(in millions)
Current Assets:
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
1,847

 
$
2,130

Receivables —
 
 
 
 
Customer accounts receivable
 
1,730

 
1,806

Energy marketing receivables
 
498

 
607

Unbilled revenues
 
738

 
810

Under recovered fuel clause revenues
 
105

 
171

Other accounts and notes receivable
 
690

 
698

Accumulated provision for uncollectible accounts
 
(33
)
 
(44
)
Materials and supplies
 
1,418

 
1,438

Fossil fuel for generation
 
390

 
594

Natural gas for sale
 
486

 
595

Prepaid expenses
 
354

 
452

Other regulatory assets, current
 
522

 
604

Assets held for sale, current
 
407

 
12

Other current assets
 
232

 
199

Total current assets
 
9,384

 
10,072

Property, Plant, and Equipment:
 
 
 
 
In service
 
100,672

 
103,542

Less: Accumulated depreciation
 
30,739

 
31,457

Plant in service, net of depreciation
 
69,933

 
72,085

Nuclear fuel, at amortized cost
 
844

 
883

Construction work in progress
 
7,655

 
6,904

Total property, plant, and equipment
 
78,432

 
79,872

Other Property and Investments:
 
 
 
 
Goodwill
 
5,315

 
6,268

Equity investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries
 
1,569

 
1,513

Other intangible assets, net of amortization of $225 and $186
at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
 
674

 
873

Nuclear decommissioning trusts, at fair value
 
1,872

 
1,832

Leveraged leases
 
794

 
775

Miscellaneous property and investments
 
258

 
249

Total other property and investments
 
10,482

 
11,510

Deferred Charges and Other Assets:
 
 
 
 
Deferred charges related to income taxes
 
792

 
825

Unamortized loss on reacquired debt
 
328

 
206

Other regulatory assets, deferred
 
6,196

 
6,943

Assets held for sale
 
4,667

 

Other deferred charges and assets
 
1,436

 
1,577

Total deferred charges and other assets
 
13,419

 
9,551

Total Assets
 
$
111,717

 
$
111,005

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


15


THE SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (UNAUDITED)
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
At September 30, 2018
 
At December 31, 2017
 
 
(in millions)
Current Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Securities due within one year
 
$
3,013

 
$
3,892

Notes payable
 
2,564

 
2,439

Energy marketing trade payables
 
521

 
546

Accounts payable
 
2,246

 
2,530

Customer deposits
 
524

 
542

Accrued taxes
 
1,060

 
636

Accrued interest
 
422

 
488

Accrued compensation
 
800

 
959

Asset retirement obligations, current
 
348

 
351

Other regulatory liabilities, current
 
349

 
337

Liabilities held for sale, current
 
355

 

Other current liabilities
 
763

 
874

Total current liabilities
 
12,965

 
13,594

Long-term Debt
 
41,425

 
44,462

Deferred Credits and Other Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Accumulated deferred income taxes
 
6,035

 
6,842

Deferred credits related to income taxes
 
6,651

 
7,256

Accumulated deferred ITCs
 
2,377

 
2,267

Employee benefit obligations
 
2,017

 
2,256

Asset retirement obligations, deferred
 
5,817

 
4,473

Accrued environmental remediation
 
269

 
389

Other cost of removal obligations
 
2,330

 
2,684

Other regulatory liabilities, deferred
 
153

 
239

Liabilities held for sale
 
2,835

 

Other deferred credits and liabilities
 
454

 
691

Total deferred credits and other liabilities
 
28,938

 
27,097

Total Liabilities
 
83,328

 
85,153

Redeemable Preferred Stock of Subsidiaries
 
324

 
324

Stockholders' Equity:
 
 
 
 
Common Stockholders' Equity:
 
 
 
 
Common stock, par value $5 per share —
 
 
 
 
Authorized — 1.5 billion shares
 
 
 
 
Issued — 1.0 billion shares
 
 
 
 
Treasury — September 30, 2018: 1.0 million shares
 
 
 
 
    — December 31, 2017: 0.9 million shares
 
 
 
 
Par value
 
5,140

 
5,038

Paid-in capital
 
10,905

 
10,469

Treasury, at cost
 
(39
)
 
(36
)
Retained earnings
 
9,048

 
8,885

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
 
(177
)
 
(189
)
Total Common Stockholders' Equity
 
24,877

 
24,167

Noncontrolling Interests
 
3,188

 
1,361

Total Stockholders' Equity
 
28,065

 
25,528

Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
$
111,717

 
$
111,005

The accompanying notes as they relate to Southern Company are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

16

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

THIRD QUARTER 2018 vs. THIRD QUARTER 2017
AND
YEAR-TO-DATE 2018 vs. YEAR-TO-DATE 2017


OVERVIEW
Southern Company is a holding company that owns all of the common stock of the traditional electric operating companies and the parent entities of Southern Power and Southern Company Gas and owns other direct and indirect subsidiaries. Discussion of the results of operations is focused on the Southern Company system's primary businesses of electricity sales by the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power and the distribution of natural gas by Southern Company Gas. The four traditional electric operating companies are vertically integrated utilities providing electric service in four Southeastern states. Southern Power develops, constructs, acquires, owns, and manages power generation assets, including renewable energy projects, and sells electricity at market-based rates in the wholesale market. During the second quarter 2018, Southern Power completed the sale of a 33% equity interest in a limited partnership indirectly owning substantially all of its solar facilities. On October 31, 2018, Southern Power entered into agreements with three financial investors for the sale of a noncontrolling interest for approximately $1.2 billion in tax equity in SP Wind, which owns a portfolio of eight operating wind facilities. On November 5, 2018, Southern Power entered into an agreement to sell all of its equity interests in Plant Mankato (including the 385-MW expansion currently under construction) for an aggregate purchase price of $650 million. Southern Company Gas distributes natural gas through its natural gas distribution utilities and is involved in several other complementary businesses including gas marketing services, wholesale gas services, and gas midstream operations. In July 2018, Southern Company Gas completed sales of three of its natural gas distribution utilities. During the second quarter 2018, Southern Company Gas also completed the sale of Pivotal Home Solutions. The Southern Company system's other business activities include providing energy technologies and services to electric utilities and large industrial, commercial, institutional, and municipal customers. Customer solutions include distributed generation systems, utility infrastructure solutions, and energy efficiency products and services. Other business activities also include investments in telecommunications, leveraged lease projects, and gas storage facilities. For additional information, see BUSINESS – "The Southern Company System – Traditional Electric Operating Companies," " – Southern Power," " – Southern Company Gas," and " – Other Businesses" in Item 1 of the Form 10-K. See FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL and Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information regarding disposition activity.
On May 20, 2018, Southern Company entered into a stock purchase agreement with NextEra Energy to sell Gulf Power for an aggregate cash purchase price of $5.75 billion (less the amount of indebtedness assumed at closing, which is currently estimated at approximately $1.3 billion), subject to certain adjustments. The completion of the sale is expected to occur in the first quarter 2019 and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of certain closing conditions. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company's Sale of Gulf Power" herein for additional information.
In 2018, Alabama Power, Georgia Power, Gulf Power, Mississippi Power, Atlanta Gas Light, and Nicor Gas reached agreements with their respective state PSCs or other applicable state regulatory agencies relating to the regulatory impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation, which, for some companies, included capital structure adjustments expected to help mitigate the potential adverse impacts to certain of their credit metrics. See Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Regulatory Matters" herein for additional information regarding state PSC or other regulatory agency actions related to the Tax Reform Legislation. Also see MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Income Tax Matters" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K and FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Credit Rating Risk" and Note (H) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for information regarding the Tax Reform Legislation.

17

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Southern Company continues to focus on several key performance indicators. These indicators include, but are not limited to, customer satisfaction, plant availability, electric and natural gas system reliability, execution of major construction projects, and earnings per share.
Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 Status
In 2009, the Georgia PSC certified construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 (with electric generating capacity of approximately 1,100 MWs each). In March 2017, the EPC Contractor filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In December 2017, the Georgia PSC approved Georgia Power's recommendation to continue construction. The current expected in-service dates remain November 2021 for Unit 3 and November 2022 for Unit 4.
In the second quarter 2018, Georgia Power revised its base cost forecast and estimated contingency to complete construction and start-up of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to $8.0 billion and $0.4 billion, respectively, for a total project capital cost forecast of $8.4 billion (net of $1.7 billion received under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and approximately $188 million in related Customer Refunds). Although Georgia Power believes these incremental costs are reasonable and necessary to complete the project and the Georgia PSC has stated the $7.3 billion estimate included in the seventeenth VCM proceeding does not represent a cost cap, Georgia Power did not seek rate recovery for the $0.7 billion increase in costs included in the revised base capital cost forecast (or any related financing costs) in the nineteenth VCM report filed with the Georgia PSC on August 31, 2018. In connection with future VCM filings, Georgia Power may request the Georgia PSC to evaluate costs included in the revised construction contingency estimate for rate recovery as and when they are appropriately included in the base capital cost forecast. After considering the significant level of uncertainty that exists regarding the future recoverability of costs included in the construction contingency estimate since the ultimate outcome of these matters is subject to the outcome of future assessments by management, as well as Georgia PSC decisions in these future regulatory proceedings, Georgia Power recorded a total pre-tax charge to income of $1.1 billion ($0.8 billion after tax) in the second quarter 2018.
As a result of the increase in the total project capital cost forecast and Georgia Power's decision not to seek rate recovery of the increase in the base capital costs, the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 were required to vote to continue construction. On September 26, 2018, the Vogtle Owners unanimously voted to continue construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. In connection with the vote to continue construction, Georgia Power entered into (i) a binding term sheet (Vogtle Owner Term Sheet) with the other Vogtle Owners and certain of MEAG's wholly-owned subsidiaries, including MEAG Power SPVJ, LLC (MEAG SPVJ), to take certain actions which partially mitigate potential financial exposure for the other Vogtle Owners and (ii) a term sheet with MEAG and MEAG SPVJ to provide funding with respect to MEAG SPVJ's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 under certain circumstances. Georgia Power is working with the other Vogtle Owners to clarify any interpretive issues related to the operation of certain provisions of the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet.
In September 2017, the DOE issued a conditional commitment to Georgia Power for up to approximately $1.67 billion in additional guaranteed loans under the Loan Guarantee Agreement. In September 2018, the DOE extended the conditional commitment to March 31, 2019. Any further extension must be approved by the DOE. Final approval and issuance of these additional loan guarantees by the DOE cannot be assured and are subject to the negotiation of definitive agreements, completion of due diligence by the DOE, receipt of any necessary regulatory approvals, and satisfaction of other conditions.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
See FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Construction ProgramNuclear Construction" and ACCOUNTING POLICIES – "Application of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" herein for additional information.

18

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Net Income
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$95
 
8.9
 
$1,601
 
N/M
N/M - Not meaningful
Consolidated net income attributable to Southern Company was $1.2 billion ($1.14 per share) for the third quarter 2018 compared to $1.1 billion ($1.07 per share) for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to lower federal income tax expense as a result of the Tax Reform Legislation and higher retail electric revenues due to warmer weather in the third quarter 2018 compared to the corresponding period in 2017. These increases were partially offset by reductions in retail revenues related to Tax Reform Legislation impacts and an increase in operations and maintenance expenses.
Consolidated net income attributable to Southern Company was $1.9 billion ($1.92 per share) for year-to-date 2018 compared to $347 million ($0.35 per share) for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to charges of $3.2 billion ($2.2 billion after tax) in 2017 related to the Kemper IGCC at Mississippi Power, partially offset by a $1.1 billion ($0.8 billion after tax) charge in the second quarter 2018 for an estimated probable loss on Georgia Power's construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. Also contributing to the increase were lower federal income tax expense as a result of the Tax Reform Legislation and higher retail electric revenues due to colder weather in the first quarter 2018 and warmer weather in the second and third quarters 2018 compared to the corresponding periods in 2017, partially offset by reductions in retail revenues related to Tax Reform Legislation impacts and impairment charges at Southern Power and Southern Company Gas, primarily related to the dispositions described in Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein.
Retail Electric Revenues
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(10)
 
(0.2)
 
$127
 
1.1
In the third quarter 2018, retail electric revenues were $4.61 billion compared to $4.62 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, retail electric revenues were $11.9 billion compared to $11.8 billion for the corresponding period in 2017.
Details of the changes in retail electric revenues were as follows:
 
 
Third Quarter 2018
 
Year-to-Date 2018
 
 
(in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(in millions)
 
(% change)
Retail electric – prior year
 
$
4,615

 
 
 
$
11,786

 
 
Estimated change resulting from –
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rates and pricing
 
(198
)
 
(4.2
)
 
(444
)
 
(3.8
)
Sales growth
 
43

 
0.9

 
65

 
0.6

Weather
 
80

 
1.7

 
297

 
2.5

Fuel and other cost recovery
 
65

 
1.4

 
209

 
1.8

Retail electric – current year
 
$
4,605

 
(0.2
)%
 
$
11,913

 
1.1
 %
Revenues associated with changes in rates and pricing decreased in the third quarter and year-to-date 2018 when compared to the corresponding periods in 2017 primarily due to revenues deferred as regulatory liabilities for future

19

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

customer bill credits related to the Tax Reform Legislation and decreases in revenues recognized under the NCCR tariff at Georgia Power. The year-to-date 2018 decrease was partially offset by higher contributions from variable demand-driven pricing from commercial and industrial customers at Georgia Power.
See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters – Alabama Power," " Georgia Power Rate Plans," and " Gulf Power Retail Base Rate Cases" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Revenues attributable to changes in sales increased in the third quarter and year-to-date 2018 when compared to the corresponding periods in 2017. In the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, weather-adjusted residential KWH sales increased 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively, and weather-adjusted commercial KWH sales increased 0.8% and 0.6%, respectively, primarily due to customer growth. Industrial KWH sales increased 2.4% and 1.9% in the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, respectively, primarily in the primary metals sector, largely due to strong domestic demand for steel and aluminum, partially offset by decreased sales in the chemicals and paper sectors, primarily due to customer maintenance outages and on-site cogeneration.
Fuel and other cost recovery revenues increased $65 million and $209 million in the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, respectively, when compared to the corresponding periods in 2017 primarily due to higher energy sales resulting from colder weather in the first quarter 2018 and warmer weather in the second and third quarters 2018 compared to the corresponding periods in 2017. Electric rates for the traditional electric operating companies include provisions to adjust billings for fluctuations in fuel costs, including the energy component of purchased power costs. Under these provisions, fuel revenues generally equal fuel expenses, including the energy component of PPA costs, and do not affect net income. The traditional electric operating companies each have one or more regulatory mechanisms to recover other costs such as environmental and other compliance costs, storm damage, new plants, and PPA capacity costs.
Wholesale Electric Revenues
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(25)
 
(3.5)
 
$56
 
3.0
Wholesale electric revenues consist of PPAs primarily with investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives and short-term opportunity sales. Wholesale electric revenues from PPAs (other than solar and wind PPAs) have both capacity and energy components. Capacity revenues generally represent the greatest contribution to net income and are designed to provide recovery of fixed costs plus a return on investment. Energy revenues will vary depending on fuel prices, the market prices of wholesale energy compared to the Southern Company system's generation, demand for energy within the Southern Company system's electric service territory, and the availability of the Southern Company system's generation. Increases and decreases in energy revenues that are driven by fuel prices are accompanied by an increase or decrease in fuel costs and do not have a significant impact on net income. Energy sales from solar and wind PPAs do not have a capacity charge and customers either purchase the energy output of a dedicated renewable facility through an energy charge or through a fixed price related to the energy. As a result, the ability to recover fixed and variable operations and maintenance expenses is dependent upon the level of energy generated from these facilities, which can be impacted by weather conditions, equipment performance, transmission constraints, and other factors. Wholesale electric revenues at Mississippi Power include FERC-regulated municipal and rural association sales under cost-based tariffs as well as market-based sales. Short-term opportunity sales are made at market-based rates that generally provide a margin above the Southern Company system's variable cost to produce the energy.
In the third quarter 2018, wholesale electric revenues were $693 million compared to $718 million for the corresponding period in 2017. This decrease was related to a $20 million decrease in energy revenues and a $5 million decrease in capacity revenues. The decrease in energy revenues is primarily related to a decrease in non-PPA revenues from short-term sales at Southern Power and a decrease in revenue under the Shared Services Agreement

20

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

(SSA) between Mississippi Power and Cooperative Energy. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in revenues at Southern Power from new natural gas PPAs from existing facilities, an increase in sales from renewable facilities, and an increase in fuel costs that are contractually recovered through PPAs.
For year-to-date 2018, wholesale electric revenues were $1.92 billion compared to $1.87 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. This increase was related to a $70 million increase in energy revenues, partially offset by a $14 million decrease in capacity revenues. The increase in energy revenues primarily related to Southern Power included revenues from new natural gas PPAs from existing facilities, an increase in fuel costs that are contractually recovered through PPAs, and an increase in sales from renewable facilities. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in non-PPA revenues from short-term sales at Southern Power and a decrease in revenue under the SSA between Mississippi Power and Cooperative Energy.
Natural Gas Revenues
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(40)
 
(7.5)
 
$60
 
2.2
In the third quarter 2018, natural gas revenues were $492 million compared to $532 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, natural gas revenues were $2.8 billion compared to $2.7 billion for the corresponding period in 2017.
Details of the changes in natural gas revenues were as follows:
 
Third Quarter 2018
 
Year-to-Date 2018
 
(in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(in millions)
 
(% change)
Natural gas revenues – prior year
$
532

 
 
 
$
2,746

 
 
Estimated change resulting from
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infrastructure replacement programs and base rate changes

 

 
53

 
1.9

Gas costs and other cost recovery
(16
)
 
(3.0
)
 
(24
)
 
(0.9
)
Weather
1

 
0.2

 
17

 
0.6

Wholesale gas services
17

 
3.2

 
46

 
1.7

Dispositions(*)
(43
)
 
(8.1
)
 
(30
)
 
(1.1
)
Other
1

 
0.2

 
(2
)
 

Natural gas revenues – current year
$
492

 
(7.5
)%
 
$
2,806

 
2.2
 %
(*)
Includes Pivotal Utility Holdings' disposition of Elizabethtown Gas and Elkton Gas as well as NUI Corporation's disposition of Pivotal Utility Holdings, which primarily consisted of Florida City Gas. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company Gas" herein for additional information.
Revenues attributable to infrastructure replacement programs and base rate changes at the natural gas distribution utilities increased for year-to-date 2018 due to continued investments recovered through infrastructure replacement programs and base rate increases as a result of rate cases, partially offset by revenue reductions for the impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation.
Revenues attributable to gas costs and other cost recovery in the third quarter 2018 decreased primarily due to reduced natural gas prices during the third quarter 2018 compared to the corresponding period in 2017 and decreased volumes of natural gas sold in the third quarter 2018 as a result of fewer customers served following the dispositions. Revenues attributable to gas costs and other cost recovery for year-to-date 2018 decreased due to reduced natural gas prices during 2018 compared to the corresponding period in 2017, partially offset by increased volumes of natural gas sold in 2018 as a result of colder weather, as determined by Heating Degree Days.

21

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Revenues increased due to colder weather, as determined by Heating Degree Days, in 2018 compared to the corresponding periods in 2017 that affected the utility customers in Illinois and Southern Company Gas' gas marketing services customers in Georgia and Illinois.
Revenues attributable to Southern Company Gas' wholesale gas services business increased primarily due to increased commercial activity, partially offset by derivative losses.
Natural gas distribution rates include provisions to adjust billings for fluctuations in natural gas costs. Therefore, gas costs recovered through natural gas revenues generally equal the amount expensed in cost of natural gas and do not affect net income from gas distribution operations.
See Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein under "Regulatory MattersSouthern Company Gas" for additional information.
Other Revenues
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$31
 
18.5
 
$513
 
103.8
In the third quarter 2018, other revenues were $199 million compared to $168 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, other revenues were $1.0 billion compared to $494 million for the corresponding period in 2017. These increases were related to an increase in sales of products and services from additional customer contracts in distributed generation and utility infrastructure at PowerSecure, partially offset by a decrease in revenues resulting from the sale of Pivotal Home Solutions on June 4, 2018 at Southern Company Gas. The year-to-date 2018 increase was primarily related to storm restoration services in Puerto Rico. Additionally, these increases reflect $21 million and $40 million of revenues in the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, respectively, from unregulated sales of products and services that were reclassified to other revenues as a result of the adoption of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606). In prior periods, these revenues were included in other income (expense), net. See Note (A) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information regarding the adoption of ASC 606.
Fuel and Purchased Power Expenses
 
Third Quarter 2018
vs.
Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018
vs.
Year-to-Date 2017
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
Fuel
$
25

 
1.9
 
$
142

 
4.2
Purchased power
1

 
0.4
 
114

 
17.6
Total fuel and purchased power expenses
$
26

 
 
 
$
256

 
 
In the third quarter 2018, total fuel and purchased power expenses were $1.6 billion compared to $1.5 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily the result of a $68 million increase in the volume of KWHs generated and purchased, partially offset by a $42 million decrease in the average cost of fuel and purchased power.
For year-to-date 2018, total fuel and purchased power expenses were $4.3 billion compared to $4.0 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily the result of a $300 million increase in the volume of KWHs generated and purchased, partially offset by a $74 million net decrease in the average cost of fuel and purchased power. In addition, fuel expense increased $30 million for year-to-date 2018 in accordance with an Alabama PSC accounting order authorizing the use of excess deferred income taxes to offset under recovered fuel costs.

22

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Fuel and purchased power energy transactions at the traditional electric operating companies are generally offset by fuel revenues and do not have a significant impact on net income. See FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Regulatory Matters – Fuel Cost Recovery" and " – Alabama Power – Accounting Order" herein for additional information. Fuel expenses incurred under Southern Power's PPAs are generally the responsibility of the counterparties and do not significantly impact net income.
Details of the Southern Company system's generation and purchased power were as follows:
 
Third Quarter 2018
 
Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018
 
Year-to-Date 2017
Total generation (in billions of KWHs)
56
 
55
 
153
 
147
Total purchased power (in billions of KWHs)
6
 
6
 
16
 
14
Sources of generation (percent) —
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gas
47
 
47
 
46
 
46
Coal
32
 
31
 
30
 
30
Nuclear
14
 
15
 
15
 
16
Hydro
2
 
2
 
3
 
2
Other
5
 
5
 
6
 
6
Cost of fuel, generated (in cents per net KWH)(a) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gas
2.78
 
2.92
 
2.79
 
2.93
Coal
2.75
 
2.75
 
2.79
 
2.82
Nuclear
0.81
 
0.80
 
0.80
 
0.80
Average cost of fuel, generated (in cents per net KWH)(a)
2.47
 
2.52
 
2.47
 
2.51
Average cost of purchased power (in cents per net KWH)(b)
5.32
 
5.36
 
5.52
 
5.32
(a)
For year-to-date 2018, cost of fuel, generated and average cost of fuel, generated excludes a $30 million adjustment associated with the Alabama PSC accounting order related to excess deferred income taxes.
(b)
Average cost of purchased power includes fuel purchased by the Southern Company system for tolling agreements where power is generated by the provider.
Fuel
In the third quarter 2018, fuel expense was $1.31 billion compared to $1.29 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a 7.5% increase in the volume of KWHs generated by natural gas and a 1.3% increase in the volume of KWHs generated by coal, partially offset by a 4.8% decrease in the average cost of natural gas per KWH generated.
For year-to-date 2018, fuel expense was $3.5 billion compared to $3.4 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a 9.3% increase in the volume of KWHs generated by natural gas and a 4.1% increase in the volume of KWHs generated by coal, partially offset by a 4.8% decrease in the average cost of natural gas per KWH generated and a 1.1% decrease in the average cost of coal per KWH generated.
Purchased Power
For year-to-date 2018, purchased power expense was $760 million compared to $646 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a 10.5% increase in the volume of KWHs purchased and a 3.8% increase in the average cost per KWH purchased.
Energy purchases will vary depending on demand for energy within the Southern Company system's electric service territory, the market prices of wholesale energy as compared to the cost of the Southern Company system's generation, and the availability of the Southern Company system's generation.

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Cost of Natural Gas
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(30)
 
(22.4)
 
$(32)
 
(2.9)
Natural gas distribution rates include provisions to adjust billings for fluctuations in natural gas costs. Therefore, gas costs recovered through natural gas revenues generally equal the amount expensed in cost of natural gas and do not affect net income from the natural gas distribution utilities. Cost of natural gas at the natural gas distribution utilities represented 75% and 83% of total cost of natural gas for the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, respectively.
In the third quarter 2018, cost of natural gas was $104 million compared to $134 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The decrease reflects $14 million related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions, which resulted in a decrease in the volume of natural gas sold in the third quarter 2018 as a result of fewer gas distribution customers, and a 3.2% decrease in natural gas prices during the third quarter 2018 compared to the corresponding period in 2017.
For year-to-date 2018, cost of natural gas was $1.05 billion compared to $1.09 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The decrease reflects $8 million related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions, which resulted in a decrease in the volume of natural gas sold in 2018 as a result of fewer gas distribution customers, as well as an 8.4% decrease in natural gas prices during 2018, partially offset by an increase in the volume of natural gas sold in 2018 as a result of colder weather compared to the corresponding period in 2017.
Cost of Other Sales
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$30
 
33.3
 
$395
 
134.8
In the third quarter 2018, cost of other sales was $120 million compared to $90 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, cost of other sales was $688 million compared to $293 million for the corresponding period in 2017. These increases were related to an increase in sales of products and services from additional customer contracts in distributed generation and utility infrastructure at PowerSecure. The year-to-date 2018 increase was primarily related to storm restoration services in Puerto Rico.
Other Operations and Maintenance Expenses
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$63
 
4.7
 
$117
 
2.9
In the third quarter 2018, other operations and maintenance expenses were $1.4 billion compared to $1.3 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a $22 million increase in electric transmission and distribution costs, primarily due to additional line maintenance, and $21 million of disposition-related costs at Southern Company Gas. The increase also reflects $21 million of expenses from unregulated sales of products and services that were reclassified to other operations and maintenance expenses as a result of the adoption of ASC 606. In prior periods, these expenses were included in other income (expense), net.
For year-to-date 2018, other operations and maintenance expenses were $4.2 billion compared to $4.1 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a $60 million increase in electric transmission and distribution costs, primarily due to additional line maintenance, and $29 million of disposition-related costs at

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Southern Company Gas. The increase also reflects $51 million of expenses from unregulated sales of products and services that were reclassified to other operations and maintenance expenses as a result of the adoption of ASC 606. In prior periods, these expenses were included in other income (expense), net. These increases were partially offset by a $32.5 million charge in the first quarter 2017 related to the write-down of Gulf Power's ownership of Plant Scherer Unit 3 in accordance with the settlement of Gulf Power's 2017 rate case. See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters – Gulf Power – Retail Base Rate Cases" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
See Note (A) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information regarding the adoption of ASC 606.
Depreciation and Amortization
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$20
 
2.6
 
$102
 
4.6
In the third quarter 2018, depreciation and amortization was $787 million compared to $767 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, depreciation and amortization was $2.3 billion compared to $2.2 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. These increases primarily reflect increases of $18 million and $76 million for the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, respectively, related to additional plant in service. Additionally, the year-to-date 2018 increase was due to $34 million in depreciation credits recognized in 2017, as authorized in Gulf Power's 2013 rate case settlement. See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters – Gulf Power – Retail Base Rate Cases" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Taxes Other Than Income Taxes
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$16
 
5.3
 
$49
 
5.2
In the third quarter 2018, taxes other than income taxes were $319 million compared to $303 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, taxes other than income taxes were $990 million compared to $941 million for the corresponding period in 2017. These increases were primarily due to increased property taxes at the traditional electric operating companies and investment capital taxes at Southern Company Gas. Also contributing to the year-to-date 2018 increase was an increase in municipal franchise fees primarily related to higher retail revenues at Georgia Power and an increase in revenue tax expenses as a result of higher revenues at Southern Company Gas.
Estimated Loss on Plants Under Construction
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(33)
 
(97.1)
 
$(2,050)
 
(65.0)
In the third quarter 2018, estimated loss on plants under construction was $1 million compared to $34 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, estimated loss on plants under construction was $1.1 billion compared to $3.2 billion for the corresponding period in 2017. The third quarter 2018 decrease was primarily due to lower costs associated with abandonment and related closure activities for the mine and gasifier-related assets of the Kemper IGCC at Mississippi Power. The year-to-date 2018 decrease was primarily due to revisions to the estimated construction costs for, and subsequent suspension in June 2017 of, the Kemper IGCC at Mississippi

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Power, partially offset by charges in 2018 related to Georgia Power's revised estimate to complete construction and start-up of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.
See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Kemper County Energy Facility" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Kemper County Energy Facility" and "Nuclear Construction" herein for additional information.
Gain on Dispositions, Net
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$353
 
N/M
 
$298
 
N/M
N/M - Not meaningful
In the third quarter and year-to-date 2018, a net gain on dispositions of $353 million ($40 million gain after tax) and $317 million ($35 million loss after tax), respectively, were recorded related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions. The year-to-date 2018 increase in gain on dispositions, net was partially offset by a $19 million decrease in gains from sales of integrated transmission system assets at Georgia Power. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company Gas" herein for additional information regarding related income taxes which substantially offset the gains for the Southern Company Gas Dispositions.
Impairment Charges
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$36
 
N/M
 
$197
 
N/M
N/M - Not meaningful
Southern Power recorded a $36 million asset impairment charge in the third quarter 2018 on wind turbine equipment held for development projects and a $119 million asset impairment charge in the second quarter 2018 in contemplation of the sale of its Florida plants. Additionally, Southern Company Gas recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $42 million during the first quarter 2018 in contemplation of the sale of Pivotal Home Solutions.
See Notes (A) and (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein under "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets" and under "Southern Power – Sale of Florida Plants" and "Southern Company Gas," respectively, for additional information.
Allowance for Equity Funds Used During Construction
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$18
 
100.0
 
$(34)
 
(25.6)
In the third quarter 2018, AFUDC equity was $36 million compared to $18 million in the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a higher AFUDC rate resulting from a higher equity ratio and lower short-term borrowings at Georgia Power and a higher AFUDC base related to environmental and transmission projects at Alabama Power.
For year-to-date 2018, AFUDC equity was $99 million compared to $133 million in the corresponding period in 2017. The decrease primarily resulted from Mississippi Power's suspension of the Kemper IGCC construction in June 2017, partially offset by a higher AFUDC rate resulting from a higher equity ratio and lower short-term borrowings at Georgia Power and a higher AFUDC base related to environmental and transmission projects at Alabama Power.

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Kemper County Energy Facility" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K.
Interest Expense, Net of Amounts Capitalized
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$51
 
12.5
 
$138
 
11.1
In the third quarter 2018, interest expense, net of amounts capitalized was $458 million compared to $407 million in the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, interest expense, net of amounts capitalized was $1.4 billion compared to $1.2 billion in the corresponding period in 2017. These increases were primarily due to an increase in variable interest rates and average outstanding debt at the parent company and a $33 million net reduction in the third quarter 2017 following a settlement with the IRS related to research and experimental deductions at Mississippi Power, partially offset by a decrease in average outstanding debt at Georgia Power. The year-to-date 2018 increase was also due to new debt issuances and short-term debt at Southern Company Gas and a reduction in AFUDC debt of $24 million related to the Kemper IGCC project suspension in June 2017 at Mississippi Power.
See FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Financing Activities" herein, Note 6 to the financial statements of Southern Company in Item 8 of the Form 10-K, and Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(8)
 
(12.3)
 
$30
 
18.2
In the third quarter 2018, other income (expense), net was $57 million compared to $65 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The decrease was primarily due to a reduction of gains from the settlement of contractor litigation claims at Southern Company Gas, partially offset by a gain from a joint-development wind project at Southern Power, which is attributable to Southern Power's partner in the project and fully offset within noncontrolling interests.
For year-to-date 2018, other income (expense), net was $195 million compared to $165 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to the settlement of Mississippi Power's Deepwater Horizon claim in May 2018 and a gain from a joint-development wind project at Southern Power, which is attributable to Southern Power's partner in the project and fully offset within noncontrolling interests, partially offset by a reduction of gains from the settlement of contractor litigation claims at Southern Company Gas.
See Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein under "General Litigation Matters – Mississippi Power" and "Regulatory MattersSouthern Company GasAtlanta Gas Light's Pipeline Replacement Program" and Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein under "Southern Power – Development Projects" for additional information.

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Income Taxes
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$33
 
5.6
 
$281
 
88.6
In the third quarter 2018, income taxes were $623 million compared to $590 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to tax expense related to the sales of Elizabethtown Gas, Elkton Gas, and Florida City Gas and the recognition of a valuation allowance on certain state tax credit carryforwards at Georgia Power, partially offset by lower federal income tax expense as well as the benefit from the flowback of excess deferred income taxes as a result of the Tax Reform Legislation and a decrease in pre-tax earnings (excluding the gains on the sales of Elizabethtown Gas, Elkton Gas, and Florida City Gas).
For year-to-date 2018, income taxes were $598 million compared to $317 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to an increase in pre-tax earnings, primarily resulting from charges recorded in 2017 related to the Kemper IGCC at Mississippi Power partially offset by the estimated probable loss on Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 at Georgia Power recognized in the second quarter 2018, and tax expense related to the Southern Company Gas Dispositions. This increase was partially offset by lower federal income tax expense as well as the benefit from the flowback of excess deferred income taxes as a result of the Tax Reform Legislation and the net state income tax benefits arising from the reorganizations of certain of Southern Power's legal entities.
See Note (H) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information.
Dividends on Preferred and Preference Stock of Subsidiaries
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$(6)
 
(60.0)
 
$(20)
 
(62.5)
In the third quarter 2018, dividends on preferred and preference stock of subsidiaries was $4 million compared to $10 million for the corresponding period in 2017. For year-to-date 2018, dividends on preferred and preference stock of subsidiaries was $12 million compared to $32 million for the corresponding period in 2017. These decreases were primarily due to the 2017 redemptions of all outstanding shares of preferred and preference stock at Georgia Power.
See Note 6 the financial statements of Southern Company under "Redeemable Preferred Stock of Subsidiaries" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information. Also see FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Financing Activities" herein for information on Mississippi Power's redemption of all of its outstanding preferred stock subsequent to September 30, 2018.
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
Third Quarter 2018 vs. Third Quarter 2017
 
Year-to-Date 2018 vs. Year-to-Date 2017
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
 
(change in millions)
 
(% change)
$24
 
80.0
 
$23
 
47.9
Substantially all noncontrolling interests relate to renewable projects at Southern Power. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Power" herein for additional information.
In the third quarter 2018, net income attributable to noncontrolling interests was $54 million compared to $30 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was due to $14 million of other income allocations attributable to a joint-development wind project and $10 million of net income allocations primarily due to the sale of a 33% equity interest in SPSH in 2018, the company holding substantially all of Southern Power's solar facilities.

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

For year-to-date 2018, net income attributable to noncontrolling interests was $71 million compared to $48 million for the corresponding period in 2017. The increase was primarily due to $21 million of net income allocations due to the sale of a 33% equity interest in SPSH in 2018 and $14 million of other income allocations attributable to a joint-development wind project, partially offset by a reduction of $10 million of net income allocations to other partnership interests, primarily due to the tax equity partnership for Gaskell West 1.
FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL
The results of operations discussed above are not necessarily indicative of Southern Company's future earnings potential. The level of Southern Company's future earnings depends on numerous factors that affect the opportunities, challenges, and risks of the Southern Company system's primary businesses of selling electricity and distributing natural gas. These factors include the traditional electric operating companies' and the natural gas distribution utilities' ability to maintain constructive regulatory environments that allow for the timely recovery of prudently-incurred costs during a time of increasing costs and limited projected demand growth over the next several years. Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 construction and rate recovery and the profitability of Southern Power's competitive wholesale business and successful additional investments in renewable and other energy projects are also major factors.
Future earnings for the electricity and natural gas businesses will be driven primarily by customer growth. Earnings in the electricity business will also depend upon maintaining and growing sales, considering, among other things, the adoption and/or penetration rates of increasingly energy-efficient technologies, increasing volumes of electronic commerce transactions, and more multi-family home construction, all of which could contribute to a net reduction in customer usage. Earnings for both the electricity and natural gas businesses are subject to a variety of other factors. These factors include weather, competition, new energy contracts with other utilities and other wholesale customers, energy conservation practiced by customers, the use of alternative energy sources by customers, the prices of electricity and natural gas, the price elasticity of demand, and the rate of economic growth or decline in the service territory. In addition, the level of future earnings for the wholesale electric business also depends on numerous factors including regulatory matters, creditworthiness of customers, total electric generating capacity available and related costs, future acquisitions and construction of electric generating facilities, the impact of tax credits from renewable energy projects, and the successful remarketing of capacity as current contracts expire. Demand for electricity and natural gas is primarily driven by the pace of economic growth that may be affected by changes in regional and global economic conditions, which may impact future earnings. In addition, the volatility of natural gas prices has a significant impact on the natural gas distribution utilities' customer rates, long-term competitive position against other energy sources, and the ability of Southern Company Gas' gas marketing services and wholesale gas services businesses to capture value from locational and seasonal spreads. Additionally, changes in commodity prices subject a significant portion of Southern Company Gas' operations to earnings variability.
As part of its ongoing effort to adapt to changing market conditions, Southern Company continues to evaluate and consider a wide array of potential business strategies. These strategies may include business combinations, partnerships, and acquisitions involving other utility or non-utility businesses or properties, disposition of certain assets or businesses, internal restructuring, or some combination thereof. Furthermore, Southern Company may engage in new business ventures that arise from competitive and regulatory changes in the utility industry. Pursuit of any of the above strategies, or any combination thereof, may significantly affect the business operations, risks, and financial condition of Southern Company.
On May 20, 2018, Southern Company entered into a stock purchase agreement with NextEra Energy to sell all of the capital stock of Gulf Power for an aggregate cash purchase price of $5.75 billion (less the amount of indebtedness assumed at closing, which is currently estimated at approximately $1.3 billion), subject to (i) customary adjustments for indebtedness and working capital and (ii) reduction by the amount (if any) by which Gulf Power fails to meet a specified capital expenditure target. The completion of the sale is expected to occur in the first quarter 2019 and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of certain closing conditions, including, among others, (i) approval by the FERC and the Federal Communications Commission, (ii) the entry into certain ancillary agreements, including transmission-related agreements and a transition services agreement, among the parties and

29

SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

their affiliates, and (iii) other customary closing conditions. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company's Sale of Gulf Power" herein for additional information. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
On June 4, 2018, Southern Company Gas completed the stock sale of Pivotal Home Solutions to American Water Enterprises LLC for a total cash purchase price of $365 million, which includes the final working capital adjustment. This disposition resulted in an estimated net loss of $73 million, which includes $39 million of income tax expense, the calculation of which is expected to be finalized in the fourth quarter 2018. In contemplation of the transaction, a goodwill impairment charge of $42 million was recorded during the first quarter 2018.
On July 1, 2018, a Southern Company Gas subsidiary, Pivotal Utility Holdings, completed the sales of the assets of two of its natural gas distribution utilities, Elizabethtown Gas and Elkton Gas, to South Jersey Industries, Inc. for a total cash purchase price of $1.7 billion and an additional $40 million for working capital, subject to a final working capital adjustment expected in the fourth quarter 2018. This disposition resulted in an estimated pre-tax gain of approximately $230 million and an after-tax gain of approximately $18 million, the calculations of which are expected to be finalized in the fourth quarter 2018.
On July 29, 2018, Southern Company Gas and its wholly-owned direct subsidiary, NUI Corporation, completed the stock sale of Pivotal Utility Holdings, which primarily consisted of Florida City Gas, to NextEra Energy for a total cash purchase price of $530 million (less $3 million of indebtedness assumed at closing for customer deposits) and an additional $60 million for cash and other working capital, which includes the final working capital adjustment. This disposition resulted in an estimated pre-tax gain of approximately $121 million and an after-tax gain of approximately $20 million, the calculations of which are expected to be finalized in the fourth quarter 2018.
The after-tax impacts of the Southern Company Gas Dispositions included income tax expense on goodwill not deductible for tax purposes and for which a deferred tax liability had not been recorded previously. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Company Gas" herein for additional information.
In May 2018, Southern Power completed the sale of a 33% equity interest in SPSH, a limited partnership indirectly owning substantially all of Southern Power's solar facilities, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.2 billion. On October 31, 2018, Southern Power entered into agreements with three financial investors for the sale of a noncontrolling interest for approximately $1.2 billion in tax equity in SP Wind, which owns a portfolio of eight operating wind facilities. The transaction is subject to Public Utility Commission of Texas approval and is expected to close by the end of 2018. On November 5, 2018, Southern Power entered into an agreement to sell all of its equity interests in Plant Mankato (including the 385-MW expansion currently under construction) for an aggregate purchase price of $650 million. The transaction is subject to the expiration or termination of the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act and FERC and state commission approvals and is expected to close mid-2019. See Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Power" herein for additional information. The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
For additional information relating to these issues, see RISK FACTORS in Item 1A and MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K.
Environmental Matters
The Southern Company system's operations are regulated by state and federal environmental agencies through a variety of laws and regulations governing air, water, land, and protection of other natural resources. The Southern Company system maintains comprehensive environmental compliance and GHG strategies to assess upcoming requirements and compliance costs associated with these environmental laws and regulations. The costs, including capital expenditures, operations and maintenance costs, and costs reflected in ARO liabilities, required to comply with environmental laws and regulations and to achieve stated goals may impact future unit retirement and replacement decisions, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition. Related costs may result from the installation of additional environmental controls, closure and monitoring of CCR facilities, unit retirements, and adding or changing fuel sources for certain existing units, as well as related upgrades to the transmission system. A

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SOUTHERN COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

major portion of these costs are expected to be recovered through existing ratemaking provisions. The ultimate impact of environmental laws and regulations and the GHG goals discussed below will depend on various factors, such as state adoption and implementation of requirements, the availability and cost of any deployed technology, and the outcome of pending and/or future legal challenges.
New or revised environmental laws and regulations could affect many areas of the traditional electric operating companies', Southern Power's, and the natural gas distribution utilities' operations. The impact of any such changes cannot be determined at this time. Environmental compliance costs could affect earnings if such costs cannot continue to be fully recovered in rates on a timely basis for the traditional electric operating companies and the natural gas distribution utilities or through long-term wholesale agreements for the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power. Further, increased costs that are recovered through regulated rates could contribute to reduced demand for electricity and natural gas, which could negatively affect results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition. Additionally, many commercial and industrial customers may also be affected by existing and future environmental requirements, which for some may have the potential to ultimately affect their demand for electricity and natural gas. See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL "Environmental Matters" of Southern Company in Item 7 and Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Environmental Matters" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Environmental Laws and Regulations
Water Quality
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Environmental Matters – Environmental Laws and Regulations – Water Quality" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding the effluent limitations guidelines (ELG) rule.
On May 2, 2018, the EPA updated its anticipated final rulemaking schedule for ELG from September 2020 to December 2019. The impact of any changes to the ELG rule will depend on the content of the final rule and the outcome of any legal challenges and cannot be determined at this time.
Coal Combustion Residuals
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Environmental Matters – Environmental Laws and Regulations – Coal Combustion Residuals" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding the Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities rule (CCR Rule).
The EPA published certain amendments to the CCR Rule, which became effective August 29, 2018. These amendments extend the date from April 2019 to October 31, 2020 to cease sending CCR and other waste streams to impoundments that demonstrate compliance with all except two specified criteria. These amendments also establish groundwater protection standards for four constituents that do not have established EPA maximum contaminant levels and allow a participating state director or the EPA (where the EPA is the permitting authority) to suspend groundwater monitoring requirements under certain circumstances. Specific site impacts are being evaluated by the traditional electric operating companies.
On October 15, 2018, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued a mandate that broadens the CCR Rule to regulate previously-excluded inactive surface impoundments (legacy units) located at retired generation facilities and challenges both the ability of unlined impoundments to continue operating and the classification of clay lined units. It is anticipated that the EPA will issue a series of rulemakings to address this court action. The Southern Company system is evaluating the extent of potential impacts on legacy units but anticipates no significant impacts to its ongoing CCR strategies due to this mandate. The ultimate impact of these changes will not be known until the EPA rulemaking and any legal challenges are finalized.
In June 2018, Alabama Power recorded an increase of approximately $1.2 billion to its AROs related to the CCR Rule. The revised cost estimates were based on information from feasibility studies performed on ash ponds in use

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at plants operated by Alabama Power, including a plant jointly-owned by Mississippi Power. During the second quarter 2018, Alabama Power's management completed its analysis of these studies which indicated that additional closure costs, primarily related to increases in estimated ash volume, water management requirements, and design revisions, will be required to close these ash ponds under the planned closure-in-place methodology. As the level of work becomes more defined in the next 12 months, it is likely that these cost estimates will change and the change could be material.
Georgia Power continues to perform engineering studies related to its plans to close the ash ponds at all of its generating plants, including one jointly owned with Gulf Power, in compliance with federal and state CCR rules. Georgia Power also continues to refine its closure strategy and cost estimates for each ash pond and is preparing permit applications as required by the State of Georgia CCR rule. While Georgia Power and Gulf Power believe their recorded liabilities for ash pond closures appropriately reflect their obligations under the current closure strategies they have elected, changes to such strategies and cost estimates would likely result in additional closure costs which would increase their ARO liabilities. It is not currently possible to quantify the impacts of any increase related to a change in closure strategies and/or ongoing engineering studies for the current closure strategies, and the timing of future cash outflows is indeterminable at this time; however, the impact on Georgia Power's and Gulf Power's ARO liabilities is expected to be material. As permit applications advance, engineering studies continue, and the timing of individual ash pond closures develops further during the fourth quarter 2018, Georgia Power and Gulf Power will record any necessary changes to their ARO liabilities.
The traditional electric operating companies expect to continue to periodically update their ARO cost estimates, which could increase further, as additional information becomes available. Absent continued recovery of ARO costs through regulated rates, Southern Company's results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition could be materially impacted. See Note (A) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Asset Retirement Obligations" herein for additional information.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
Nuclear Decommissioning
See Note 1 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Nuclear Decommissioning" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (A) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Asset Retirement Obligations" and "Nuclear Decommissioning" herein for additional information.
In June 2018, Alabama Power completed an updated decommissioning cost site study for Plant Farley. The estimated cost of decommissioning based on the study resulted in an increase in the ARO liability of approximately $300 million. Amounts previously contributed to Alabama Power's external trust funds are currently projected to be adequate to meet the updated decommissioning obligations.
Georgia Power expects to complete updated decommissioning cost site studies for Plant Hatch and Plant Vogtle Units 1 and 2 in the fourth quarter 2018, which could result in additional changes to Southern Company's ARO liability. The ultimate outcome of these studies cannot be determined at this time.
Global Climate Issues
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Environmental Matters – Global Climate Issues" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding the Clean Power Plan and domestic GHG policies.
On August 31, 2018, the EPA published a proposed Clean Power Plan replacement rule known as the Affordable Clean Energy rule (ACE Rule), which would require states to develop unit-specific emission rate standards based on heat-rate efficiency improvements for existing fossil fuel-fired steam units. As proposed, combustion turbines, including natural gas combined cycles, are not affected sources. As of September 30, 2018, the Southern Company system has ownership interests in 44 fossil fuel-fired steam units to which the proposed ACE Rule is applicable. The ultimate impact of this rule to the Southern Company system is currently unknown and will depend on changes

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between the proposal and the final rule, subsequent state plan developments and requirements, and any associated legal proceedings.
Through 2017, the Southern Company system has achieved an estimated GHG emission reduction of 36% since 2007. In April 2018, Southern Company established an intermediate goal of a 50% reduction in carbon emissions from 2007 levels by 2030 and a long-term goal of low- to no-carbon operations by 2050. To achieve these goals, the Southern Company system expects to continue growing its renewable energy portfolio, optimize technology advancements to modernize its transmission and distribution systems, increase the use of natural gas for generation, complete construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, invest in energy efficiency, and continue research and development efforts focused on technologies to lower GHG emissions. The Southern Company system's ability to achieve these goals also will be dependent on many external factors, including supportive national energy policies, low natural gas prices, and the development, deployment, and advancement of relevant energy technologies. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
FERC Matters
Market-Based Rate Authority
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL "FERC Matters Market-Based Rate Authority" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding proceedings related to the traditional electric operating companies' and Southern Power's 2014 and 2017 triennial market power analyses.
On May 4, 2018, the FERC issued an order terminating both proceedings, finding that the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power satisfy the FERC's standards for market-based rates. On May 9, 2018, the traditional electric operating companies and Southern Power made the compliance filing required by the order. These proceedings are concluded.
Open Access Transmission Tariff
On May 10, 2018, the Alabama Municipal Electric Authority and Cooperative Energy filed with the FERC a complaint against SCS and the traditional electric operating companies claiming that the current 11.25% base ROE used in calculating the annual transmission revenue requirements of the traditional electric operating companies' open access transmission tariff is unjust and unreasonable as measured by the applicable FERC standards. The complaint requests that the base ROE be set no higher than 8.65% and that the FERC order refunds for the difference in revenue requirements that results from applying a just and reasonable ROE established in this proceeding upon determining the current ROE is unjust and unreasonable. On June 18, 2018, SCS and the traditional electric operating companies filed their response challenging the adequacy of the showing presented by the complainants and offering support for the current ROE. On September 6, 2018, the FERC issued an order establishing a refund effective date of May 10, 2018 in the event a refund is due and initiating an investigation and settlement procedures regarding the current base ROE. Through September 30, 2018, the estimated maximum potential refund is not expected to be material to Southern Company's results of operations. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
Southern Company Gas
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL "FERC Matters Southern Company Gas" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding Southern Company Gas' gas pipeline construction projects.
The Atlantic Coast Pipeline has experienced challenges to its permits since construction began earlier in 2018 and continues to work with the appropriate agencies to obtain the necessary permits. The PennEast Pipeline continues to work with state and federal agencies to obtain the required permits to begin construction. Any material permitting delays may impact forecasted capital expenditures and in-service dates. The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.

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Regulatory Matters
Fuel Cost Recovery
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL "Regulatory Matters Fuel Cost Recovery" of Southern Company in Item 7 and Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters – Alabama Power – Rate ECR" and "Regulatory Matters – Georgia Power – Fuel Cost Recovery" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding fuel cost recovery for the traditional electric operating companies.
The traditional electric operating companies each have established fuel cost recovery rates approved by their respective state PSCs. Fuel cost recovery revenues are adjusted for differences in actual recoverable fuel costs and amounts billed in current regulated rates. Accordingly, changes in the billing factor will not have a significant effect on Southern Company's revenues or net income, but will affect cash flow. The traditional electric operating companies continuously monitor their under or over recovered fuel cost balances and make appropriate filings with their state PSCs to adjust fuel cost recovery rates as necessary.
Alabama Power
Alabama Power's revenues from regulated retail operations are collected through various rate mechanisms subject to the oversight of the Alabama PSC. Alabama Power currently recovers its costs from the regulated retail business primarily through Rate RSE, Rate CNP, Rate ECR, and Rate NDR. In addition, the Alabama PSC issues accounting orders to address current events impacting Alabama Power. See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters – Alabama Power" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for additional information regarding Alabama Power's rate mechanisms, accounting orders, and the recovery balance of each regulatory clause for Alabama Power.
On May 1, 2018, the Alabama PSC approved modifications to Rate RSE and other commitments designed to position Alabama Power to address the growing pressure on its credit quality resulting from the Tax Reform Legislation, without increasing retail rates under Rate RSE in the near term. Alabama Power plans to reduce growth in total debt by increasing equity, with corresponding reductions in debt issuances, thereby de-leveraging its capital structure. Alabama Power's goal is to achieve an equity ratio of approximately 55% by the end of 2025. At September 30, 2018, Alabama Power's equity ratio was approximately 47%. See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Income Tax Matters – Federal Tax Reform Legislation" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Rate RSE
The approved modifications to Rate RSE became effective June 2018 and are applicable for January 2019 billings and thereafter. The modifications include reducing the top of the allowed weighted common equity return (WCER) range from 6.21% to 6.15% and modifications to the refund mechanism applicable to prior year actual results. The modifications to the refund mechanism allow Alabama Power to retain a portion of the revenue that causes the actual WCER for a given year to exceed the allowed range.
In conjunction with these modifications to Rate RSE, on May 8, 2018, Alabama Power consented to a moratorium on any upward adjustments under Rate RSE for 2019 and 2020. Additionally, Alabama Power will return $50 million to customers through bill credits in 2019.
In accordance with an established retail tariff that provides for an interim adjustment to customer billings to recognize the impact of a change in the statutory income tax rate, Alabama Power has returned $151 million through September 30, 2018 and anticipates returning a total of approximately $257 million to retail customers through bill credits by December 31, 2018 as a result of the change in the federal income tax rate under the Tax Reform Legislation.

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Rate ECR
On May 1, 2018, the Alabama PSC approved an increase to Rate ECR from 2.015 cents per KWH to 2.353 cents per KWH effective July 2018 which is expected to result in additional collections of approximately $100 million through December 31, 2018. The approved increase in the Rate ECR factor will have no significant effect on Southern Company's net income, but will increase operating cash flows related to fuel cost recovery in 2018. Absent any further order from the Alabama PSC, in January 2019, the rate will return to the originally authorized 5.910 cents per KWH.
Accounting Order
On May 1, 2018, the Alabama PSC approved an accounting order that authorizes Alabama Power to defer the benefits of federal excess deferred income taxes associated with the Tax Reform Legislation for the year ending December 31, 2018 as a regulatory liability and to use up to $30 million of such deferrals to offset under recovered amounts under Rate ECR. Any remaining amounts will be used for the benefit of customers as determined by the Alabama PSC. As of September 30, 2018, Alabama Power had applied the full $30 million to offset the under recovered balance under Rate ECR and expects the total deferrals for the year ending December 31, 2018 to be approximately $50 million. See Note 5 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Federal Tax Reform Legislation" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Georgia Power
Georgia Power's revenues from regulated retail operations are collected through various rate mechanisms subject to the oversight of the Georgia PSC. Georgia Power currently recovers its costs from the regulated retail business through the 2013 ARP, which includes traditional base tariff rates, Demand-Side Management tariffs, Environmental Compliance Cost Recovery tariffs, and Municipal Franchise Fee tariffs. In addition, financing costs related to certified construction costs of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 are being collected through the NCCR tariff and fuel costs are collected through a separate fuel cost recovery tariff. See Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Nuclear Construction" herein and Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Nuclear Construction" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding Georgia Power's NCCR tariff. Also see Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Regulatory MattersGeorgia PowerFuel Cost Recovery" herein for additional information regarding Georgia Power's fuel cost recovery.
Rate Plans
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Regulatory Matters – Georgia Power – Rate Plans" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding Georgia Power's 2013 ARP and the Georgia PSC's 2018 order related to the Tax Reform Legislation.
On April 3, 2018, the Georgia PSC approved a settlement agreement between Georgia Power and the staff of the Georgia PSC regarding the retail rate impact of the Tax Reform Legislation (Georgia Power Tax Reform Settlement Agreement). Pursuant to the Georgia Power Tax Reform Settlement Agreement, to reflect the federal income tax rate reduction impact of the Tax Reform Legislation, Georgia Power will refund to customers a total of $330 million through bill credits. Georgia Power issued bill credits of approximately $130 million in October 2018 and will issue bill credits of approximately $95 million in June 2019 and $105 million in February 2020. In addition, Georgia Power is deferring as a regulatory liability (i) the revenue equivalent of the tax expense reduction resulting from legislation lowering the Georgia state income tax rate from 6.00% to 5.75% in 2019 and (ii) the entire benefit of approximately $700 million in federal and state excess accumulated deferred income taxes. At September 30, 2018, Georgia Power's related regulatory liability balance totaled $655 million. The amortization of these regulatory liabilities is expected to be addressed in Georgia Power's next base rate case, which is scheduled to be filed by July 1, 2019. If there is not a base rate case in 2019, customers will receive $185 million in annual bill credits beginning in 2020, with any additional federal and state income tax savings deferred as a regulatory liability, until Georgia Power's next base rate case.

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To address the negative cash flow and credit metric impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation, the Georgia PSC also approved an increase in Georgia Power's retail equity ratio to the lower of (i) Georgia Power's actual common equity weight in its capital structure or (ii) 55%, until Georgia Power's next base rate case. At September 30, 2018, Georgia Power's actual retail common equity ratio (on a 13-month average basis) was approximately 53%. Benefits from reduced federal income tax rates in excess of the amounts refunded to customers will be retained by Georgia Power to cover the carrying costs of the incremental equity in 2018 and 2019.
Storm Damage Recovery
See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters Georgia Power Storm Damage Recovery" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding Georgia Power's storm damage reserve.
Georgia Power is accruing $30 million annually through December 31, 2019, as provided in the 2013 ARP, for incremental operations and maintenance costs of damage from major storms to its transmission and distribution facilities. As of September 30, 2018, the total balance in Georgia Power's regulatory asset related to storm damage was $311 million. During October 2018, Hurricane Michael caused significant damage to Georgia Power's transmission and distribution facilities. Georgia Power currently estimates the costs of repairing the damage will total approximately $125 million to $150 million, which will be charged to Georgia Power's storm damage reserve or capitalized. The rate of storm damage cost recovery is expected to be adjusted as part of Georgia Power's next base rate case, which is scheduled to be filed by July 1, 2019. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
Gulf Power
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Regulatory Matters – Gulf Power" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K for additional information.
Storm Damage Cost Recovery
On October 10, 2018, Hurricane Michael made landfall on the Gulf Coast of Florida causing substantial damage in Gulf Power's service territory. Gulf Power currently estimates the costs of repairing the damages to its transmission and distribution lines and uninsured facilities will total approximately $350 million to $400 million, which primarily will be charged to Gulf Power's property damage reserve or capitalized. Gulf Power maintains a reserve for property damage to cover the cost of damages from major storms to its transmission and distribution lines and the cost of uninsured damages to its generating facilities and other property. At September 30, 2018, Gulf Power had a balance of approximately $48 million in its property damage reserve. In accordance with the settlement agreement approved by the Florida PSC in April 2017 (2017 Gulf Power Rate Case Settlement Agreement), Gulf Power can petition the Florida PSC to seek recovery of the costs associated with Hurricane Michael, along with replenishing the property damage reserve to approximately $40 million. Any recovery from customers would begin, on an interim basis, 60 days following the filing of the cost recovery petition. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
Retail Base Rate Case
As a continuation of the 2017 Gulf Power Rate Case Settlement Agreement, on March 26, 2018, the Florida PSC approved a stipulation and settlement agreement among Gulf Power and three intervenors addressing the retail revenue requirement effects of the Tax Reform Legislation (Gulf Power Tax Reform Settlement Agreement).
The Gulf Power Tax Reform Settlement Agreement results in annual reductions to Gulf Power's revenues of $18.2 million from base rates and $15.6 million from environmental cost recovery rates implemented April 1, 2018 and also provided for a one-time refund of $69.4 million for the retail portion of unprotected (not subject to normalization) deferred tax liabilities through a reduced fuel cost recovery rate over the remainder of 2018. Through September 30, 2018, approximately $53 million of this refund has been reflected in customer bills. As a result of the

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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Gulf Power Tax Reform Settlement Agreement, the Florida PSC also approved an increase in Gulf Power's maximum equity ratio from 52.5% to 53.5% for all retail regulatory purposes.
As part of the Gulf Power Tax Reform Settlement Agreement, a limited scope proceeding to address protected deferred tax liabilities consistent with IRS normalization principles was initiated on April 30, 2018. On October 30, 2018, the Florida PSC approved a $9.6 million annual reduction in base rate revenues effective January 2019, which concluded this proceeding. Through September 30, 2018, Gulf Power has deferred $7 million of related 2018 tax benefits as a regulatory liability to be refunded to retail customers in 2019 through Gulf Power's fuel cost recovery rate.
Mississippi Power
On February 7, 2018, Mississippi Power submitted its revised 2018 projected PEP filing to the Mississippi PSC, which reflected the impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation, requesting an increase in annual retail revenues of $26 million based on a performance-adjusted ROE of 9.33% and an increased equity ratio of 55%.
On July 27, 2018, Mississippi Power and the Mississippi Public Utilities Staff (MPUS) entered into a settlement agreement with respect to the 2018 PEP filing and all unresolved PEP filings for prior years (PEP Settlement Agreement), which was approved by the Mississippi PSC on August 7, 2018. Rates under the PEP Settlement Agreement became effective with the first billing cycle of September 2018. The PEP Settlement Agreement provides for an increase of approximately $21.6 million in annual base retail revenues, which excludes certain compensation costs contested by the MPUS, as well as approximately $2 million which was subsequently approved for recovery through a separate Mississippi Power cost rider. Under the PEP Settlement Agreement, Mississippi Power is deferring the contested compensation costs for 2018 and 2019 as a regulatory asset. The Mississippi PSC is currently expected to rule on the appropriate treatment for such costs in connection with Mississippi Power's next base rate case, which is scheduled to be filed in the fourth quarter 2019 (2019 Base Rate Case). The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
Pursuant to the PEP Settlement Agreement, Mississippi Power's performance-adjusted allowed ROE is 9.31% and its allowed equity ratio remains at 50%, pending further review by the Mississippi PSC. In lieu of the requested equity ratio increase, Mississippi Power retained $44 million of excess accumulated deferred income taxes resulting from the Tax Reform Legislation, which had been proposed to be amortized beginning in 2018, until the conclusion of the 2019 Base Rate Case. Further, Mississippi Power will seek equity contributions sufficient to restore its equity ratio (which was 45% at September 30, 2018) to 50% by December 31, 2018. In the event Mississippi Power's actual average equity ratio for 2018 is more than 1% higher or lower than the 50% target, Mississippi Power will defer the corresponding difference in its revenue requirement as a regulatory asset or liability for resolution in the 2019 Base Rate Case.
Pursuant to the PEP Settlement Agreement, PEP proceedings are suspended until after the conclusion of the 2019 Base Rate Case and Mississippi Power is not required to make any PEP filings for regulatory years 2018, 2019, and 2020. The PEP Settlement Agreement also resolved all open PEP filings with no change to customer rates. As a result, in the third quarter 2018, Mississippi Power recognized revenues of $5 million previously reserved in connection with the 2012 PEP lookback filing.
Southern Company Gas
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Regulatory Matters – Southern Company Gas" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K and Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Regulatory MattersSouthern Company Gas" herein for additional information.
On February 23, 2018, Atlanta Gas Light revised its annual base rate filing to reflect the impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation and requested a $16 million rate reduction in 2018. On May 15, 2018, the Georgia PSC approved a stipulation for Atlanta Gas Light's annual base rates to remain at the 2017 level for 2018 and 2019, with customer credits of $8 million in each of July 2018 and October 2018 to reflect the impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation.

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The Georgia PSC maintained Atlanta Gas Light's previously authorized earnings band based on a ROE between 10.55% and 10.95% and increased the allowed equity ratio by 4% to an equity ratio of 55% to address the negative cash flow and credit metric impacts of the Tax Reform Legislation. Additionally, Atlanta Gas Light is required to file a traditional base rate case on or before June 1, 2019 for rates effective January 1, 2020.
On May 2, 2018, the Illinois Commission approved Nicor Gas' rehearing request for revised base rates to incorporate the reduction in the federal income tax rate as a result of the Tax Reform Legislation. The resulting decrease of approximately $44 million in annual base rate revenues became effective May 5, 2018. Nicor Gas' previously-authorized capital structure and ROE of 9.8% were not addressed in the rehearing and remain unchanged.
Kemper County Energy Facility
For additional information on the Kemper County energy facility, see Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Kemper County Energy Facility" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K.
As the mining permit holder for the Kemper County energy facility, Liberty Fuels Company, LLC has a legal obligation to perform mine reclamation, and Mississippi Power has a contractual obligation to fund all reclamation activities. Mine reclamation began in the first quarter 2018.
As of September 30, 2018, Mississippi Power recorded charges to income of an immaterial amount for the third quarter 2018 and $45 million ($34 million after tax) for year-to-date 2018, primarily resulting from the abandonment and related closure activities for the mine and gasifier-related assets at the Kemper County energy facility. Additional closure costs for the mine and gasifier-related assets, currently estimated to cost up to $20 million pre-tax (excluding salvage, net of dismantlement costs), may be incurred through the first half of 2020. In addition, period costs, including, but not limited to, costs for compliance and safety, ARO accretion, and property taxes for the mine and gasifier-related assets, are estimated at $2 million for the remainder of 2018, $8 million in 2019, and $4 million annually beginning in 2020. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time.
The combined cycle and associated common facilities portions of the Kemper County energy facility were dedicated as Plant Ratcliffe on April 27, 2018.
Reserve Margin Plan
On August 6, 2018, Mississippi Power filed its proposed Reserve Margin Plan (RMP), as required by the Mississippi PSC's order in the docket established for the purposes of pursuing a global settlement of the costs related to the Kemper County energy facility. Under the RMP, Mississippi Power proposes alternatives that would reduce its reserve margin, with the most economic of the alternatives being the two-year and seven-year acceleration of the retirement of Plant Watson Units 4 and 5, respectively, to the first quarter 2022 and the four-year acceleration of the retirement of Plant Greene County Units 1 and 2 to the third quarter 2021 and the third quarter 2022, respectively, in order to lower or avoid operating costs. The Plant Greene County unit retirements would require the completion by Alabama Power of proposed transmission and system reliability improvements, as well as agreement by Alabama Power. The RMP filing also states that, in the event the Mississippi PSC ultimately approves an alternative that includes an accelerated retirement, Mississippi Power would require authorization to defer in a regulatory asset for future recovery the remaining net book value of the units at the time of retirement. Mississippi Power expects the MPUS and other interested parties to review the proposal prior to resolution by the Mississippi PSC. The ultimate outcome of this matter cannot be determined at this time. However, if approved by the Mississippi PSC, the alternatives are not expected to have any adverse impact on customer rates.
Construction Program
Overview
The subsidiary companies of Southern Company are engaged in continuous construction programs to accommodate existing and estimated future loads on their respective systems. The Southern Company system intends to continue

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its strategy of developing and constructing new electric generating facilities, adding environmental modifications to certain existing units, expanding the electric transmission and distribution systems, and updating and expanding the natural gas distribution systems. For the traditional electric operating companies, major generation construction projects are subject to state PSC approval in order to be included in retail rates. While Southern Power generally constructs and acquires generation assets covered by long-term PPAs, any uncontracted capacity could negatively affect future earnings. Southern Company Gas is engaged in various infrastructure improvement programs designed to update or expand the natural gas distribution systems of the natural gas distribution utilities to improve reliability and meet operational flexibility and growth. The natural gas distribution utilities recover their investment and a return associated with these infrastructure programs through their regulated rates. See Notes 3 and 12 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Regulatory Matters – Southern Company Gas – Regulatory Infrastructure Programs" and "Southern Power – Construction Projects in Progress," respectively, in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (J) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Southern Power" herein for additional information.
The largest construction project currently underway in the Southern Company system is Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 (45.7% ownership interest by Georgia Power in the two units, each with approximately 1,100 MWs). See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Nuclear Construction" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and "Nuclear Construction" herein for additional information.
Also see FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Capital Requirements and Contractual Obligations" herein for additional information regarding Southern Company's capital requirements for its subsidiaries' construction programs.
Nuclear Construction
See Note 3 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Nuclear Construction" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding the construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, VCM reports, and the NCCR tariff.
In 2009, the Georgia PSC certified construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. In 2012, the NRC issued the related combined construction and operating licenses, which allowed full construction of the two AP1000 nuclear units (with electric generating capacity of approximately 1,100 MWs each) and related facilities to begin. Until March 2017, construction on Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 continued under the Vogtle 3 and 4 Agreement, which was a substantially fixed price agreement. In March 2017, the EPC Contractor filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.
In connection with the EPC Contractor's bankruptcy filing, Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the Vogtle Owners, entered into the Interim Assessment Agreement with the EPC Contractor to allow construction to continue. The Interim Assessment Agreement expired in July 2017 when Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the other Vogtle Owners, and the EPC Contractor entered into the Vogtle Services Agreement. Under the Vogtle Services Agreement, Westinghouse provides facility design and engineering services, procurement and technical support, and staff augmentation on a time and materials cost basis. The Vogtle Services Agreement will continue until the start-up and testing of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 are complete and electricity is generated and sold from both units. The Vogtle Services Agreement is terminable by the Vogtle Owners upon 30 days' written notice.
In October 2017, Georgia Power, acting for itself and as agent for the other Vogtle Owners, executed the Bechtel Agreement, a cost reimbursable plus fee arrangement, whereby Bechtel is reimbursed for actual costs plus a base fee and an at-risk fee, which is subject to adjustment based on Bechtel's performance against cost and schedule targets. Each Vogtle Owner is severally (not jointly) liable for its proportionate share, based on its ownership interest, of all amounts owed to Bechtel under the Bechtel Agreement. The Vogtle Owners may terminate the Bechtel Agreement at any time for their convenience, provided that the Vogtle Owners will be required to pay amounts related to work performed prior to the termination (including the applicable portion of the base fee), certain termination-related costs, and, at certain stages of the work, the applicable portion of the at-risk fee. Bechtel may

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terminate the Bechtel Agreement under certain circumstances, including certain Vogtle Owner suspensions of work, certain breaches of the Bechtel Agreement by the Vogtle Owners, Vogtle Owner insolvency, and certain other events. Pursuant to the Loan Guarantee Agreement between Georgia Power and the DOE, Georgia Power is required to obtain the DOE's approval of the Bechtel Agreement prior to obtaining any further advances under the Loan Guarantee Agreement.
In December 2017, the Georgia PSC approved Georgia Power's seventeenth VCM report, which included a recommendation to continue construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, with Southern Nuclear serving as project manager and Bechtel serving as the primary construction contractor.
Cost and Schedule
In preparation for its nineteenth VCM filing, Georgia Power requested Southern Nuclear to perform a full cost reforecast for the project. Georgia Power's approximate proportionate share of the remaining estimated capital cost to complete Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 by the expected in-service dates of November 2021 and November 2022, respectively, is as follows:
 
(in billions)
Base project capital cost forecast(a)(b)
$
8.0

Construction contingency estimate
0.4

Total project capital cost forecast(a)(b)
8.4

Net investment as of September 30, 2018(b)
(4.3
)
Remaining estimate to complete(a)
$
4.1

(a)
Excludes financing costs expected to be capitalized through AFUDC of approximately $350 million.
(b)
Net of $1.7 billion received from Toshiba under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and approximately $188 million in related Customer Refunds.
Georgia Power estimates that its financing costs for construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 will total approximately $3.2 billion, of which $1.8 billion had been incurred through September 30, 2018.
The table above reflects the $0.7 billion increase to the base capital cost forecast reported in the second quarter 2018 and is based on the cost reforecast performed prior to the nineteenth VCM filing, which primarily resulted from changed assumptions related to the finalization of contract scopes and management responsibilities for Bechtel and over 60 subcontractors, labor productivity rates, and craft labor incentives, as well as the related levels of project management, oversight, and support, including field supervision and engineering support.
Although Georgia Power believes these incremental costs are reasonable and necessary to complete the project and the Georgia PSC's order in the seventeenth VCM proceeding specifically states that the construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 is not subject to a cost cap, Georgia Power did not seek rate recovery for these cost increases included in the current base capital cost forecast (or any related financing costs) in the nineteenth VCM report that was filed with the Georgia PSC on August 31, 2018. In connection with future VCM filings, Georgia Power may request the Georgia PSC to evaluate costs currently included in the construction contingency estimate for rate recovery as and when they are appropriately included in the base capital cost forecast. After considering the significant level of uncertainty that exists regarding the future recoverability of costs included in the construction contingency estimate since the ultimate outcome of these matters is subject to the outcome of future assessments by management, as well as Georgia PSC decisions in these future regulatory proceedings, Georgia Power recorded a total pre-tax charge to income of $1.1 billion ($0.8 billion after tax) in the second quarter 2018, which includes the total increase in the base capital cost forecast and construction contingency estimate.
As construction continues, challenges with management of contractors, subcontractors, and vendors; labor productivity, availability, and/or cost escalation; procurement, fabrication, delivery, assembly, and/or installation, including any required engineering changes, of plant systems, structures, and components (some of which are based on new technology that only recently began initial operation in the global nuclear industry at this scale); or other

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issues could arise and change the projected schedule and estimated cost. Monthly construction production targets required to maintain the current project schedule continue to increase significantly through the remainder of 2018 and into 2019. To meet these increasing monthly targets, existing craft construction productivity must improve and additional craft laborers must be retained and deployed.
There have been technical and procedural challenges to the construction and licensing of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 at the federal and state level and additional challenges may arise. Processes are in place that are designed to assure compliance with the requirements specified in the Westinghouse Design Control Document and the combined construction and operating licenses, including inspections by Southern Nuclear and the NRC that occur throughout construction. As a result of such compliance processes, certain license amendment requests have been filed and approved or are pending before the NRC. Various design and other licensing-based compliance matters, including the timely resolution of Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) and the related approvals by the NRC, may arise, which may result in additional license amendments or require other resolution. If any license amendment requests or other licensing-based compliance issues are not resolved in a timely manner, there may be delays in the project schedule that could result in increased costs.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time. However, any extension of the project schedule is currently estimated to result in additional base capital costs of approximately $50 million per month, based on Georgia Power's ownership interests, and AFUDC of approximately $12 million per month. While Georgia Power is not precluded from seeking recovery of any future capital cost forecast increase, management will ultimately determine whether or not to seek recovery. Any further changes to the capital cost forecast that are not expected to be recoverable through regulated rates will be required to be charged to income and such charges could be material.
Joint Owner Contracts
In November 2017, the Vogtle Owners entered into an amendment to their joint ownership agreements for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to provide for, among other conditions, additional Vogtle Owner approval requirements. Effective August 31, 2018, the Vogtle Owners further amended the joint ownership agreements to clarify and provide procedures for certain provisions of the joint ownership agreements related to adverse events that require the vote of the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 to continue construction (as amended, and together with the November 2017 amendment, the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements). The Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements also confirm that the Vogtle Owners' sole recourse against Georgia Power or Southern Nuclear for any action or inaction in connection with their performance as agent for the Vogtle Owners is limited to removal of Georgia Power and/or Southern Nuclear as agent, except in cases of willful misconduct.
As a result of the increase in the total project capital cost forecast and Georgia Power's decision not to seek rate recovery of the increase in the base capital costs as described above, the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 were required to vote to continue construction. On September 26, 2018, the Vogtle Owners unanimously voted to continue construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4.
Amendments to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements
In connection with the vote to continue construction, Georgia Power entered into (i) the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet with the other Vogtle Owners and MEAG's wholly-owned subsidiaries MEAG SPVJ, MEAG Power SPVM, LLC (MEAG SPVM), and MEAG Power SPVP, LLC (MEAG SPVP) to take certain actions which partially mitigate potential financial exposure for the other Vogtle Owners, including additional amendments to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements and the purchase of PTCs from the other Vogtle Owners, and (ii) a term sheet (MEAG Term Sheet and, together with the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet, Term Sheets) with MEAG and MEAG SPVJ to provide funding with respect to MEAG SPVJ's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 (Project J) under certain circumstances. Pursuant to the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet, the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements will be modified as follows: (i) each Vogtle Owner will pay its proportionate share of qualifying construction costs for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 based on its ownership percentage up to the estimated cost at completion (EAC) for Plant Vogtle Units

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3 and 4 which forms the basis of Georgia Power's forecast of $8.4 billion in the nineteenth VCM plus $800 million of additional construction costs; (ii) Georgia Power will be responsible for 55.7% of actual qualifying construction costs between $800 million and $1.6 billion over the EAC in the nineteenth VCM (resulting in $80 million of potential additional costs to Georgia Power), with the remaining Vogtle Owners responsible for 44.3% of such costs pro rata in accordance with their respective ownership interests; and (iii) Georgia Power will be responsible for 65.7% of qualifying construction costs between $1.6 billion and $2.1 billion over the EAC in the nineteenth VCM (resulting in a further $100 million of potential additional costs to Georgia Power), with the remaining Vogtle Owners responsible for 34.3% of such costs pro rata in accordance with their respective ownership interests.
If the EAC is revised and exceeds the EAC in the nineteenth VCM by more than $2.1 billion, each of the other Vogtle Owners will have a one-time option to tender a portion of its ownership interest to Georgia Power in exchange for Georgia Power's agreement to pay 100% of such Vogtle Owner's remaining share of total construction costs in excess of the EAC in the nineteenth VCM plus $2.1 billion. In this event, Georgia Power will have the option of cancelling the project in lieu of purchasing a portion of the ownership interest of any other Vogtle Owner. If Georgia Power accepts the offer to purchase a portion of another Vogtle Owner's ownership interest in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, the ownership interest(s) to be conveyed from the tendering Vogtle Owner(s) to Georgia Power would be calculated based on the proportion of the cumulative amount of construction costs paid by each such tendering Vogtle Owner(s) and by Georgia Power as of the commercial operation date of Plant Vogtle Unit 4. For purposes of this calculation, payments made by Georgia Power on behalf of another Vogtle Owner in accordance with the second and third items described in the paragraph above would be treated as payments made by the applicable Vogtle Owner.
In the event the actual costs at completion are less than the EAC reflected in the nineteenth VCM report and Plant Vogtle Unit 3 is placed in service by the currently scheduled date of November 2021 or Plant Vogtle Unit 4 is placed in service by the currently scheduled date of November 2022, Georgia Power would be entitled to 60.7% of the cost savings with respect to the relevant unit and the remaining Vogtle Owners would be entitled to 39.3% of such savings on a pro rata basis in accordance with their respective ownership interests.
For purposes of the foregoing provisions, qualifying construction costs would not include costs (i) resulting from force majeure events, including governmental actions or inactions (or significant delays associated with issuance of such actions) that affect the licensing, completion, startup, operations, or financing of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, administrative proceedings or litigation regarding ITAAC or other regulatory challenges to commencement of operation of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, and changes in laws or regulations governing Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4, (ii) legal fees and legal expenses incurred due to litigation with contractors or subcontractors that are not subsidiaries or affiliates of Southern Company, and (iii) additional costs caused by Vogtle Owner requests other than Georgia Power, except for the exercise of a right to vote granted under the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements, that increase costs by $100,000 or more.
Georgia Power is working with the other Vogtle Owners to clarify any interpretive issues related to the operation of certain of the above provisions of the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet.
Under the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet, the provisions of the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements requiring that Vogtle Owners holding 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 vote to continue construction following certain adverse events (Project Adverse Events) will be modified. Pursuant to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements and the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet, the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 must vote to continue construction if certain Project Adverse Events occur, including: (i) the bankruptcy of Toshiba; (ii) the termination or rejection in bankruptcy of certain agreements, including the Vogtle Services Agreement, the Bechtel Agreement, or the agency agreement with Southern Nuclear; (iii) Georgia Power publicly announces its intention not to submit for rate recovery any portion of its investment in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 or the Georgia PSC determines that any of Georgia Power's costs relating to the construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 will not be recovered in retail rates, excluding any additional amounts paid by Georgia Power on behalf of the other Vogtle Owners pursuant to the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet provisions described above and the first 6% of costs during any six-month VCM reporting period that are disallowed by the Georgia PSC for recovery, or for

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which Georgia Power elects not to seek cost recovery, through retail rates; and (iv) an incremental extension of one year or more over the most recently approved schedule. Under the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet, Georgia Power may cancel the project at any time in its sole discretion.
In addition, pursuant to the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements, the required approval of holders of ownership interests in Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 is at least (i) 90% for a change of the primary construction contractor and (ii) 67% for material amendments to the Vogtle Services Agreement or agreements with Southern Nuclear or the primary construction contractor, including the Bechtel Agreement.
The Vogtle Owner Term Sheet provides that if the holders of at least 90% of the ownership interests fail to vote in favor of continuing the project following any future Project Adverse Event, work on Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 would continue for a period of 30 days if the holders of more than 50% of the ownership interests vote in favor of continuing construction (Majority Voting Owners). In such a case, the Vogtle Owners (i) would agree to negotiate in good faith towards the resumption of the project, (ii) if no agreement was reached during such 30-day period, the project would be cancelled, and (iii) in the event of such a cancellation, the Majority Voting Owners would be obligated to reimburse any other Vogtle Owner for the costs it incurred during such 30-day negotiation period.
Purchase of PTCs During Commercial Operation
In addition, under the terms of the Vogtle Owner Term Sheet, Georgia Power agreed to purchase additional PTCs from OPC, Dalton, MEAG SPVM, MEAG SPVP, and MEAG SPVJ (to the extent any MEAG SPVJ PTC rights remain after any purchases required under the MEAG Term Sheet as described below) at varying purchase prices dependent upon the actual cost to complete construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 as compared to the EAC included in the nineteenth VCM report. The purchases will be at the option of the applicable Vogtle Owner and will occur during the month after such PTCs are earned.
Potential Funding to MEAG Project J
Pursuant to the MEAG Term Sheet, if MEAG SPVJ is unable to make its payments due under the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements solely because (i) the conduct of JEA, such as JEA's legal challenges of its obligations under a PPA with MEAG (PPA-J), materially impedes access to capital markets for MEAG for Project J, or (ii) PPA-J is declared void by a court of competent jurisdiction or rejected by JEA under the applicable provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code (each of (i) and (ii), a JEA Default), Georgia Power would purchase from MEAG SPVJ the rights to PTCs attributable to MEAG SPVJ's share of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 (approximately 206 MWs) at varying prices dependent upon the stage of construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. The aggregate purchase price of the PTCs, together with any advances made as described in the next paragraph, shall not exceed $300 million.
At the option of MEAG, as an alternative or supplement to Georgia Power's purchase of PTCs as described above, Georgia Power has agreed to provide up to $250 million in funding to MEAG for Project J in the form of advances (either advances under the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements or the purchase of MEAG Project J bonds, at the discretion of Georgia Power), subject to any required approvals of the Georgia PSC and the DOE.
In the event MEAG SPVJ certifies to Georgia Power that it is unable to fund its obligations under the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements as a result of a JEA Default and Georgia Power becomes obligated to provide funding as described above, MEAG is required to (i) assign to Georgia Power its right to vote on any future Project Adverse Event and (ii) diligently pursue JEA for its breach of PPA-J. In addition, Georgia Power agreed that it will not sue MEAG for any amounts due from MEAG SPVJ under MEAG's guarantee of MEAG SPVJ's obligations so long as MEAG SPVJ complies with the terms of the MEAG Term Sheet as to its payment obligations and the other provisions of the Vogtle Joint Ownership Agreements.
Under the terms of the MEAG Term Sheet, Georgia Power may decline to provide any funding in the form of advances, including in the event of a failure to receive any required Georgia PSC or DOE approvals, and cancel the project in lieu of providing such funding.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.

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Regulatory Matters
In 2009, the Georgia PSC voted to certify construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 with a certified capital cost of $4.418 billion. In addition, in 2009 the Georgia PSC approved inclusion of the Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 related CWIP accounts in rate base, and the State of Georgia enacted the Georgia Nuclear Energy Financing Act, which allows Georgia Power to recover financing costs for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4. Financing costs are recovered on all applicable certified costs through annual adjustments to the NCCR tariff up to the certified capital cost of $4.418 billion. As of September 30, 2018, Georgia Power had recovered approximately $1.8 billion of financing costs. Financing costs related to capital costs above $4.418 billion will be recovered through AFUDC; however, Georgia Power will not record AFUDC related to any capital costs in excess of the total deemed reasonable by the Georgia PSC (currently $7.3 billion) and not requested for rate recovery. Georgia Power expects to file on November 9, 2018 to increase the NCCR tariff by approximately $90 million annually, effective January 1, 2019, pending Georgia PSC approval.
Georgia Power is required to file semi-annual VCM reports with the Georgia PSC by February 28 and August 31 of each year. In 2013, in connection with the eighth VCM report, the Georgia PSC approved a stipulation between Georgia Power and the staff of the Georgia PSC to waive the requirement to amend the Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 certificate in accordance with the 2009 certification order until the completion of Plant Vogtle Unit 3, or earlier if deemed appropriate by the Georgia PSC and Georgia Power.
In 2016, the Georgia PSC voted to approve a settlement agreement (Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement) resolving certain prudency matters in connection with the fifteenth VCM report. In December 2017, the Georgia PSC voted to approve (and issued its related order on January 11, 2018) certain recommendations made by Georgia Power in the seventeenth VCM report and modifying the Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement. The Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement, as modified by the January 11, 2018 order, resolved the following regulatory matters related to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4: (i) none of the $3.3 billion of costs incurred through December 31, 2015 and reflected in the fourteenth VCM report should be disallowed from rate base on the basis of imprudence; (ii) the Contractor Settlement Agreement was reasonable and prudent and none of the amounts paid pursuant to the Contractor Settlement Agreement should be disallowed from rate base on the basis of imprudence; (iii) (a) capital costs incurred up to $5.68 billion would be presumed to be reasonable and prudent with the burden of proof on any party challenging such costs, (b) Georgia Power would have the burden to show that any capital costs above $5.68 billion were prudent, and (c) a revised capital cost forecast of $7.3 billion (after reflecting the impact of payments received under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and related Customer Refunds) was found reasonable; (iv) construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 should be completed, with Southern Nuclear serving as project manager and Bechtel as primary contractor; (v) approved and deemed reasonable Georgia Power's revised schedule placing Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 in service in November 2021 and November 2022, respectively; (vi) confirmed that the revised cost forecast does not represent a cost cap and that prudence decisions on cost recovery will be made at a later date, consistent with applicable Georgia law; (vii) reduced the ROE used to calculate the NCCR tariff (a) from 10.95% (the ROE rate setting point authorized by the Georgia PSC in the 2013 ARP) to 10.00% effective January 1, 2016, (b) from 10.00% to 8.30%, effective January 1, 2020, and (c) from 8.30% to 5.30%, effective January 1, 2021 (provided that the ROE in no case will be less than Georgia Power's average cost of long-term debt); (viii) reduced the ROE used for AFUDC equity for Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 from 10.00% to Georgia Power's average cost of long-term debt, effective January 1, 2018; and (ix) agreed that upon Unit 3 reaching commercial operation, retail base rates would be adjusted to include carrying costs on those capital costs deemed prudent in the Vogtle Cost Settlement Agreement. The January 11, 2018 order also stated that if Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 are not commercially operational by June 1, 2021 and June 1, 2022, respectively, the ROE used to calculate the NCCR tariff will be further reduced by 10 basis points each month (but not lower than Georgia Power's average cost of long-term debt) until the respective unit is commercially operational. The ROE reductions negatively impacted earnings by approximately $25 million in 2017 and are estimated to have negative earnings impacts of approximately $100 million in 2018 and an aggregate of $680 million from 2019 to 2022.

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In its January 11, 2018 order, the Georgia PSC also stated if other conditions change and assumptions upon which Georgia Power's seventeenth VCM report are based do not materialize, the Georgia PSC reserved the right to reconsider the decision to continue construction.
On February 12, 2018, Georgia Interfaith Power & Light, Inc. and Partnership for Southern Equity, Inc. filed a petition appealing the Georgia PSC's January 11, 2018 order with the Fulton County Superior Court. On March 8, 2018, Georgia Watch filed a similar appeal to the Fulton County Superior Court for judicial review of the Georgia PSC's final decision and denial of Georgia Watch's motion for reconsideration. Georgia Power believes the two appeals have no merit; however, an adverse outcome in either appeal combined with subsequent adverse action by the Georgia PSC could have a material impact on Southern Company's results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
The Georgia PSC has approved eighteen VCM reports covering the periods through December 31, 2017, including total construction capital costs incurred through that date of $4.9 billion (before $1.7 billion of payments received under the Guarantee Settlement Agreement and approximately $188 million in related Customer Refunds). On August 31, 2018, Georgia Power filed its nineteenth VCM report with the Georgia PSC, which requested approval of $578 million of construction capital costs incurred from January 1, 2018 through June 30, 2018.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
See RISK FACTORS of Southern Company in Item 1A herein and in the Form 10-K for a discussion of certain risks associated with the licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear generating units, including potential impacts that could result from a major incident at a nuclear facility anywhere in the world.
DOE Financing
As of September 30, 2018, Georgia Power had borrowed $2.6 billion related to Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4 costs through the Loan Guarantee Agreement and a multi-advance credit facility among Georgia Power, the DOE, and the FFB, which provides for borrowings of up to $3.46 billion, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions. In September 2017, the DOE issued a conditional commitment to Georgia Power for up to approximately $1.67 billion in additional guaranteed loans under the Loan Guarantee Agreement. In September 2018, the DOE extended the conditional commitment to March 31, 2019. Any further extension must be approved by the DOE. Final approval and issuance of these additional loan guarantees by the DOE cannot be assured and are subject to the negotiation of definitive agreements, completion of due diligence by the DOE, receipt of any necessary regulatory approvals, and satisfaction of other conditions. See Note 6 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "DOE Loan Guarantee Borrowings" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K and Note (F) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "DOE Loan Guarantee Borrowings" herein for additional information, including applicable covenants, events of default, mandatory prepayment events (including any decision not to continue construction of Plant Vogtle Units 3 and 4), and conditions to borrowing.
The ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be determined at this time.
Income Tax Matters
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Income Tax Matters" of Southern Company in Item 7 of the Form 10-K and FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY – "Credit Rating Risk," Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements under "Regulatory Matters," and Note (H) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for information regarding the Tax Reform Legislation and related regulatory actions.
Southern Power
In April 2018, Southern Power completed the final stage of a legal entity reorganization of various direct and indirect subsidiaries that own and operate substantially all of its solar facilities, including certain subsidiaries owned in partnership with various third parties. The reorganization resulted in net state tax benefits related to certain changes in apportionment rates totaling approximately $54 million, which were recorded in the first half of 2018.

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In September 2018, Southern Power also completed a legal reorganization of eight operating wind facilities under a new holding company, SP Wind, which resulted in net state tax benefits totaling approximately $11 million related to certain changes in apportionment rates.
Other Matters
Southern Company and its subsidiaries are involved in various other matters being litigated and regulatory matters that could affect future earnings. In addition, Southern Company and its subsidiaries are subject to certain claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. The business activities of Southern Company's subsidiaries are subject to extensive governmental regulation related to public health and the environment, such as laws and regulations governing air, water, land, and protection of natural resources. Litigation over environmental issues and claims of various types, including property damage, personal injury, common law nuisance, and citizen enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has occurred throughout the U.S. This litigation has included claims for damages alleged to have been caused by CO2 and other emissions, CCR, and alleged exposure to hazardous materials, and/or requests for injunctive relief in connection with such matters.
The ultimate outcome of such pending or potential litigation or regulatory matters cannot be predicted at this time; however, for current proceedings not specifically reported in Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein, management does not anticipate that the ultimate liabilities, if any, arising from such current proceedings would have a material effect on Southern Company's financial statements. See Note (B) to the Condensed Financial Statements herein for a discussion of various other contingencies, regulatory matters, and other matters being litigated which may affect future earnings potential.
On October 2, 2018, the Mississippi PSC approved executed agreements between Mississippi Power and its largest retail customer, Chevron, for Mississippi Power to continue providing retail service to the Chevron refinery in Pascagoula, Mississippi through 2038. The new agreements are not expected to have a material impact on earnings.
Litigation
In 2016, a complaint against Mississippi Power was filed in Harrison County Circuit Court (Circuit Court) by Biloxi Freezing & Processing Inc., Gulfside Casino Partnership, and John Carlton Dean, which was amended and refiled to include, among other things, Southern Company as a defendant. The individual plaintiff alleged that Mississippi Power and Southern Company violated the Mississippi Unfair Trade Practices Act. All plaintiffs alleged that Mississippi Power and Southern Company concealed, falsely represented, and failed to fully disclose important facts concerning the cost and schedule of the Kemper County energy facility and that these alleged breaches unjustly enriched Mississippi Power and Southern Company. The plaintiffs sought unspecified actual damages and punitive damages; asked the Circuit Court to appoint a receiver to oversee, operate, manage, and otherwise control all affairs relating to the Kemper County energy facility; asked the Circuit Court to revoke any licenses or certificates authorizing Mississippi Power or Southern Company to engage in any business related to the Kemper County energy facility in Mississippi; and sought attorney's fees, costs, and interest. The plaintiffs also sought an injunction to prevent any Kemper County energy facility costs from being charged to customers through electric rates. In June 2017, the Circuit Court ruled in favor of motions by Southern Company and Mississippi Power and dismissed the case. In July 2017, the plaintiffs filed notice of an appeal. On July 13, 2018, Mississippi Power and Southern Company reached a settlement agreement with the plaintiffs and the plaintiffs' appeal was dismissed with prejudice. The settlement had no material impact on Southern Company's financial statements.
In January 2017, a putative securities class action complaint was filed against Southern Company, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia, Atlanta Division, by Monroe County Employees' Retirement System on behalf of all persons who purchased shares of Southern Company's common stock between April 25, 2012 and October 29, 2013. The complaint alleges that Southern Company, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers made materially false and misleading statements regarding the Kemper County energy facility in violation of certain provisions under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The complaint seeks, among other things, compensatory damages and litigation costs and attorneys' fees. In June 2017, the plaintiffs filed an amended

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complaint that provided additional detail about their claims, increased the purported class period by one day, and added certain other former Mississippi Power officers as defendants. In July 2017, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' amended complaint with prejudice, to which the plaintiffs filed an opposition in September 2017. On March 29, 2018, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia, Atlanta Division, issued an order granting, in part, the defendants' motion to dismiss. The court dismissed certain claims against certain officers of Southern Company and Mississippi Power and dismissed the allegations related to a number of the statements that plaintiffs challenged as being false or misleading. On April 26, 2018, the defendants filed a motion for reconsideration of the court's order, seeking dismissal of the remaining claims in the lawsuit. On August 10, 2018, the court denied the motion for reconsideration and denied a motion to certify the issue for interlocutory appeal.
In February 2017, Jean Vineyard filed a shareholder derivative lawsuit and, in May 2017, Judy Mesirov filed a shareholder derivative lawsuit, each in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. Each of these lawsuits names as defendants Southern Company, certain of its directors, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers. In August 2017, these two shareholder derivative lawsuits were consolidated in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. The complaints allege that the defendants caused Southern Company to make false or misleading statements regarding the Kemper County energy facility cost and schedule. Further, the complaints allege that the defendants were unjustly enriched and caused the waste of corporate assets and also allege that the individual defendants violated their fiduciary duties. Each plaintiff seeks to recover, on behalf of Southern Company, unspecified actual damages and, on each plaintiff's own behalf, attorneys' fees and costs in bringing the lawsuit. Each plaintiff also seeks certain changes to Southern Company's corporate governance and internal processes. On April 25, 2018, the court entered an order staying this lawsuit until 30 days after the resolution of any dispositive motions or any settlement, whichever is earlier, in the putative securities class action.
In May 2017, Helen E. Piper Survivor's Trust filed a shareholder derivative lawsuit in the Superior Court of Gwinnett County, State of Georgia that names as defendants Southern Company, certain of its directors, certain of its officers, and certain former Mississippi Power officers. The complaint alleges that the individual defendants, among other things, breached their fiduciary duties in connection with schedule delays and cost overruns associated with the construction of the Kemper County energy facility. The complaint further alleges that the individual defendants authorized or failed to correct false and misleading statements regarding the Kemper County energy facility schedule and cost and failed to implement necessary internal controls to prevent harm to Southern Company. The plaintiff seeks to recover, on behalf of Southern Company, unspecified actual damages and disgorgement of profits and, on its behalf, attorneys' fees and costs in bringing the lawsuit. The plaintiff also seeks certain unspecified changes to Southern Company's corporate governance and internal processes. On May 4, 2018, the court entered an order staying this lawsuit until 30 days after the resolution of any dispositive motions or any settlement, whichever is earlier, in the putative securities class action.
On May 18, 2018, Southern Company and Mississippi Power received a notice of dispute and arbitration demand filed by Martin Product Sales, LLC (Martin) based on two agreements, both related to Kemper IGCC byproducts for which Mississippi Power provided termination notices in September 2017. Martin alleges breach of contract, breach of good faith and fair dealing, fraud and misrepresentation, and civil conspiracy and makes a claim for damages in the amount of approximately $143 million, as well as additional unspecified damages, attorney's fees, costs, and interest.
Southern Company believes these legal challenges have no merit; however, an adverse outcome in any of these proceedings could have an impact on Southern Company's results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Southern Company will vigorously defend itself in these matters, the ultimate outcome of which cannot be determined at this time.

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Investments in Leveraged Leases
See MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS – FUTURE EARNINGS POTENTIAL – "Other Matters – Investments in Leveraged Leases" of Southern Company in Item 7 and Note 1 to the financial statements of Southern Company under "Leveraged Leases" in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for additional information regarding the leveraged lease agreements of a subsidiary of Southern Company Holdings Inc. (Southern Holdings) and concerns about the financial and operational performance of one of the lessees and the associated generation assets.
The ability of the lessees to make required payments to the Sou