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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K 
ANNUAL REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2023
Commission file number: 1-11302
KeyCorp
keylogoa11.jpg
Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter:
Ohio34-6542451
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization:I.R.S. Employer Identification Number:
127 Public Square,Cleveland,Ohio44114-1306
Address of principal executive offices:Zip Code:
(216) 689-3000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, $1 par value
KEY
New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of Fixed-to-Floating Rate
KEY PrI
New York Stock Exchange
Perpetual Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series E)
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of Fixed Rate Perpetual Non-
KEY PrJ
New York Stock Exchange
Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series F)
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of Fixed Rate Perpetual Non-
KEY PrK
New York Stock Exchange
Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series G)
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of Fixed Rate Reset Perpetual Non-KEY PrLNew York Stock Exchange
Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series H)
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this Chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previous issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was $8,646,175,313 (based on the June 30, 2023, closing price of KeyCorp Common Shares of $9.24 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange). As of February 20, 2024, there were 933,841,692 Common Shares outstanding.
Certain specifically designated portions of KeyCorp’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


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Forward-looking Statements

From time to time, we have made or will make forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. Forward-looking statements usually can be identified by the use of words such as “goal,” “objective,” “plan,” “expect,” “assume,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “project,” “believe,” “estimate,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” or other words of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements provide our current expectations or forecasts of future events, circumstances, results or aspirations. Our disclosures in this report contain forward-looking statements. We may also make forward-looking statements in other documents filed with or furnished to the SEC. In addition, we may make forward-looking statements orally to analysts, investors, representatives of the media and others.

Forward-looking statements, by their nature, are subject to assumptions, risks, and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. Our actual results may differ materially from those set forth in our forward-looking statements. There is no assurance that any list of risks and uncertainties or risk factors is complete. In addition, no assurance can be given that any plan, initiative, projection, goal, commitment, expectation, or prospect set forth in this report can or will be achieved. Factors that could cause our actual results to differ from those described in forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

our concentrated credit exposure in commercial and industrial loans;
deterioration of commercial real estate market fundamentals;
defaults by our loan clients or counterparties;
adverse changes in credit quality trends;
declining asset prices;
geopolitical destabilization;
deterioration of asset quality and an increase in credit losses;
labor shortages and supply chain constraints, as well as the impact of inflation;
the extensive regulation of the U.S. financial services industry;
complex and evolving laws and regulations regarding privacy and cybersecurity;
changes in accounting policies, standards, and interpretations;
operational or risk management failures by us or critical third parties;
breaches of security or failures of our technology systems due to technological or other factors and cybersecurity threats;
negative outcomes from claims, litigation, investigations, or governmental proceedings;
failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures;
the occurrence of natural disasters, which may be exacerbated by climate change;
societal responses to climate change;
increased operational risks resulting from remote work;
evolving capital and liquidity standards under applicable regulatory rules;
disruption of the U.S. financial system, including the impact of inflation and a potential global economic downturn or recession;
our ability to receive dividends from our subsidiaries, including KeyBank;
unanticipated changes in our liquidity position, including but not limited to, changes in our access to or the cost of funding and our ability to secure alternative funding sources;
downgrades in our credit ratings or those of KeyBank;
a worsening of the U.S. economy due to financial, political or other shocks;
our ability to anticipate interest rate changes and manage interest rate risk;
deterioration of economic conditions in the geographic regions where we operate;
the soundness of other financial institutions, including instability in the financial industry;
impairment of goodwill;
our ability to manage our reputational risks, including ESG-related risks;
our ability to timely and effectively implement our strategic initiatives;
increased competitive pressure;
our ability to adapt our products and services to industry standards and consumer preferences;
our ability to attract and retain talented executives and employees;
unanticipated adverse effects of strategic partnerships or acquisitions and dispositions of assets or businesses; and
our ability to develop and effectively use the quantitative models we rely upon in our business planning.

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Any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect the impact of subsequent events or circumstances, except as required by applicable securities laws. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider all risks and uncertainties disclosed in our SEC filings, including this report on Form 10-K and our subsequent reports on Forms 10-Q and 8-K and our registration statements under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, all of which are or will upon filing be accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and on our website at www.key.com/ir.

Terminology

Throughout this discussion, references to “Key,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and similar terms refer to the consolidated entity consisting of KeyCorp and its subsidiaries. “KeyCorp” refers solely to the parent holding company, and “KeyBank” refers solely to KeyCorp’s subsidiary bank, KeyBank National Association. “KeyBank (consolidated)” refers to the consolidated entity consisting of KeyBank and its subsidiaries.

We want to explain some industry-specific terms at the outset so you can better understand the discussion that follows.
We use the phrase continuing operations in this document to mean all of our businesses other than our government-guaranteed and private education lending business, which are accounted for as discontinued operations.
We engage in capital markets activities primarily through business conducted by our Commercial Bank segment. These activities encompass a variety of products and services. Among other things, we trade securities as a dealer, enter into derivative contracts (both to accommodate clients’ financing needs and to mitigate certain risks), and conduct transactions in foreign currencies (to accommodate clients’ needs).
For regulatory purposes, capital is divided into two classes. Federal regulations currently prescribe that at least one-half of a bank or BHC’s total risk-based capital must qualify as Tier 1 capital. Both total and Tier 1 capital serve as bases for several measures of capital adequacy, which is an important indicator of financial stability and condition. Banking regulators evaluate a component of Tier 1 capital, known as Common Equity Tier 1, under the Regulatory Capital Rules. The “Capital” section of this report under the heading “Capital adequacy” provides more information on total capital, Tier 1 capital, and the Regulatory Capital Rules, including Common Equity Tier 1, and describes how these measures are calculated.

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The acronyms and abbreviations identified below are used throughout this report, including in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. You may find it helpful to refer back to this page as you read this report.
ABO: Accumulated benefit obligation.
ALCO: Asset/Liability Management Committee.
ALLL: Allowance for loan and lease losses.
A/LM: Asset/liability management.
AML: Anti-money laundering.
AOCI: Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).
APBO: Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation.
AQN Strategies: Arbitria Quum Notitia, LLC.
ARRC: Alternative Reference Rates Committee.
ASC: Accounting Standards Codification.
ASR: Accelerated Stock Repurchase.
ASU: Accounting Standards Update.
ATMs: Automated teller machines.
BSA: Bank Secrecy Act.
BHCA: Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended.
BHCs: Bank holding companies.
Board: KeyCorp Board of Directors.
CAPM: Capital Asset Pricing Model.
CARES Act: Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act.
CCAR: Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review.
Cain Brothers: Cain Brothers & Company, LLC.
CECL: Current Expected Credit Losses.
CFPB: Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, also known as the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection.
CFTC: Commodities Futures Trading Commission.
CMBS: Commercial mortgage-backed securities.
CMO: Collateralized mortgage obligation.
Common Shares: KeyCorp common shares, $1 par value.
CVA: Credit Valuation Adjustment.
DCF: Discounted cash flow.
DIF: Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC.
Dodd-Frank Act: Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and
Consumer Protection Act of 2010.
EAD: Exposure at default.
EBITDA: Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and
amortization.
EPS: Earnings per share.
ERISA: Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.
ERM: Enterprise risk management.
ESG: Environmental, social, and governance
EVE: Economic value of equity.
FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board.
FDIA: Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended.
FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Federal Reserve: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System.
FHLB: Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati.
FHLMC: Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation.
FICO: Fair Isaac Corporation.
FINRA: Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
First Niagara: First Niagara Financial Group, Inc.
FNMA: Federal National Mortgage Association.
FSOC: Financial Stability Oversight Council.
FVA: Fair value of employee benefit plan assets.
GAAP: U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
GNMA: Government National Mortgage Association.
HTC: Historic tax credit.
IDI: Insured depository institution.
IRS: Internal Revenue Service.
ISDA: International Swaps and Derivatives Association.
KBCM: KeyBanc Capital Markets, Inc.
KBING: Key Business Impact and Networking Groups.
KCC: Key Capital Corporation.
KCDC: Key Community Development Corporation.
KCIC: Key Community Investment Capital LLC.
KEF: Key Equipment Finance.
LCR: Liquidity coverage ratio.
LGD: Loss given default.
LIBOR: London Interbank Offered Rate.
LIHTC: Low-income housing tax credit.
LTV: Loan-to-value.
Moody’s: Moody’s Investor Services, Inc.
MRM: Market Risk Management group.
MRC: Market Risk Committee.
N/A: Not applicable.
NAV: Net asset value.
NFA: National Futures Association.
N/M: Not meaningful.
NMTC: New market tax credit.
NOW: Negotiable Order of Withdrawal.
NPR: Notice of proposed rulemaking.
NSF: Non-sufficient funds.
NYSE: New York Stock Exchange.
OCC: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.
OCI: Other comprehensive income (loss).
OREO: Other real estate owned.
PBO: Projected benefit obligation.
PCCR: Purchased credit card relationship.
PCD: Purchased credit deteriorated.
PD: Probability of default.
PPP: Paycheck Protection Program.
RMBS: Residential mortgage-backed securities.
S&P: Standard and Poor’s Ratings Services, a Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
SEC: U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission.
SIFIs: Systemically important financial institutions, including large, interconnected BHCs and nonbank financial companies designated by FSOC for supervision by the Federal Reserve.
SOFR: Secured Overnight Financing Rate.
TDR: Troubled debt restructuring.
TE: Taxable-equivalent.
U.S. Treasury: United States Department of the Treasury.
VaR: Value at risk.
VEBA: Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association.
VIE: Variable interest entity.

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KEYCORP
2023 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item
Number
 
Page
Number
PART I
1
1A
1B
1C
2
3
4
PART II
5
6
7
7A
8
9
9A
9B
9C
PART III
10
11
12
13
14
PART IV
15
16
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

KeyCorp, organized in 1958 under the laws of the State of Ohio, is headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. We are a BHC under the BHCA and one of the nation’s largest bank-based financial services companies, with consolidated total assets of approximately $188.3 billion at December 31, 2023. KeyCorp is the parent holding company for KeyBank National Association, its principal subsidiary, through which most of our banking services are provided. Through KeyBank and certain other subsidiaries, we provide a wide range of retail and commercial banking, commercial leasing, investment management, consumer finance, student loan refinancing, commercial mortgage servicing and special servicing, and investment banking products and services to individual, corporate, and institutional clients through two major business segments: Consumer Bank and Commercial Bank.

As of December 31, 2023, these services were provided across the country through KeyBank’s 959 full-service retail banking branches and a network of 1,217 ATMs in 15 states, as well as additional offices, online and mobile banking capabilities, including our national digital bank, Laurel Road, and a telephone banking call center. Additional information pertaining to our two business segments is included in the “Business Segment Results” section in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this report, and in Note 25 (“Business Segment Reporting”) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements presented in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, which are incorporated herein by reference.

In addition to the customary banking services of accepting deposits and making loans, our bank and its trust company subsidiary offer personal and institutional trust custody services, personal financial and planning services, access to mutual funds, treasury services, and international banking services. Through our bank, trust company, and registered investment adviser subsidiaries, we provide investment management services to clients that include large corporate and public retirement plans, foundations and endowments, high-net-worth individuals, and multi-employer trust funds established for providing pension or other benefits to employees.

We provide other financial services — both within and outside of our primary banking markets — through various nonbank subsidiaries. These services include community development financing, securities underwriting, investment banking and capital markets products, and brokerage. We also provide merchant services to businesses.

KeyCorp is a legal entity separate and distinct from its banks and other subsidiaries. Accordingly, the right of KeyCorp, its security holders, and its creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of its banks and other subsidiaries is subject to the prior claims of the creditors of such banks and other subsidiaries, except to the extent that KeyCorp’s claims in its capacity as a creditor may be recognized.

We derive the majority of our revenues within the United States from customers domiciled in the United States. Revenue from foreign countries and external customers domiciled in foreign countries was immaterial to our consolidated financial statements.

Demographics

Our management structure and basis of presentation is divided into two business segments, Consumer Bank and Commercial Bank. Note 25 (“Business Segment Reporting”) describes the products and services offered by each of these business segments and provides more detailed financial information pertaining to the segments, including changes in basis of presentation.

The Consumer Bank serves individuals and small businesses throughout our 15-state branch footprint and through our Laurel Road digital brand by offering a variety of deposit and investment products, personal finance and financial wellness services, lending, student loan refinancing, mortgage and home equity, credit card, treasury services, and business advisory services. In addition, wealth management and investment services are offered to assist non-profit and high-net-worth clients with their banking, trust, portfolio management, charitable giving, and related needs.

The Commercial Bank consists of the Commercial and Institutional operating segments. The Commercial operating segment is a full-service, commercial banking platform that focuses primarily on serving the borrowing, cash
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management, and capital markets needs of middle market clients within Key’s 15-state branch footprint. It is also a significant, national, commercial real estate lender and third-party servicer of commercial mortgage loans and special servicer of CMBS. The Institutional operating segment operates nationally in providing lending, equipment financing, and banking products and services to large corporate and institutional clients. The industry coverage and product teams have established expertise in the following sectors: Consumer, Energy, Healthcare, Industrial, Public Sector, Real Estate, and Technology. The operating segment includes the KBCM platform which provides a broad suite of capital markets products and services including syndicated finance, debt and equity capital markets, derivatives, foreign exchange, financial advisory, public finance, commercial payments, equipment finance, and commercial mortgage banking. Additionally, KBCM provides fixed income and equity sales and trading services to investor clients.

Additional Information

Our executive offices are located at 127 Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio 44114-1306, and our telephone number is (216) 689-3000. Our website is www.key.com, and the investor relations section of our website may be reached through www.key.com/ir. We make available free of charge, on or through the investor relations section of our website, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as well as proxy statements, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Also posted on our website, and available in print upon request from any shareholder to our Investor Relations Department, are the charters for our Technology Committee, Audit Committee, Compensation and Organization Committee, Executive Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and Risk Committee; our Corporate Governance Guidelines; the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for our directors, officers, and employees; our Standards for Determining Independence of Directors; our policy for Review of Transactions Between KeyCorp and Its Directors, Executive Officers and Other Related Persons; our Statement of Political Activity; and our Corporate Responsibility Report. Within the time period required by the SEC and the NYSE, we will post on our website any amendment to the Code of Ethics and any waiver applicable to any senior executive officer or director. We also make available a summary of filings made with the SEC of statements of beneficial ownership of our equity securities filed by our directors and officers under Section 16 of the Exchange Act. The “Regulatory Disclosures & Filings” section under the “Financials” tab of the investor relations section of our website includes public disclosures concerning our historic annual and mid-year stress-testing activities under the Dodd-Frank Act and our quarterly regulatory capital disclosures under the third pillar of Basel III.

Information contained on or accessible through, including any reports available on, our website or any other website referenced in this report is not part of this report. References to websites in this report are intended to be inactive textual references only.

Shareholders may obtain a copy of any of the above-referenced corporate governance documents by writing to our Investor Relations Department at Investor Relations, KeyCorp, 127 Public Square, Mailcode OH-01-27-0737, Cleveland, Ohio 44114-1306; by calling (216) 689-4221; or by sending an e-mail to investor_relations@keybank.com.

Competition

The market for banking and related financial services is highly competitive. Key competes with other providers of financial services, such as BHCs, commercial banks, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, investment management firms, investment banking firms, broker-dealers, and other local, regional, national, and global institutions that offer financial services. Some of our competitors are larger and may have more financial resources, while some of our competitors enjoy fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. The financial services industry has become more competitive as technology advances have lowered barriers to entry, enabling more companies, including nonbank companies, to provide financial services. For more information on competition and related risks, see Item 1A. Risk Factors - “ We operate in a highly competitive industry.” Mergers and acquisitions have also led to increased concentration in the banking industry, placing added competitive pressure on Key’s core banking products and services as we see competitors enter some of our markets or offer similar products. We compete by offering quality products and innovative services at competitive prices, and by maintaining our product and service offerings to keep pace with customer preferences and industry standards.

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Human Capital

Engaging a diverse and talented team is a top strategic priority for Key. Our human capital management strategy is focused on attracting, developing, and retaining the talent our businesses need to deliver strong returns to our shareholders, which we do by offering a competitive total rewards package, providing opportunities for career development and growth, and fostering a culture that is fair and inclusive.

Competitive Rewards

We make investments to hire and retain the people we need to serve our customers and communities and regularly review our pay practices to reflect changing market and economic conditions. We have steadily increased our starting minimum wage since 2015, and as of December 31, 2023, 98% of employees earned $18 or more per hour, with 89% of employees earning $20 or more per hour. We have made other compensation adjustments in response to market trends, competitive pressures, and a dynamic market for talent.

These investments include a comprehensive and competitive total rewards program, representing our investment in our teammates’ collective success and reflecting our commitment to helping them thrive. Key’s benefits offerings include employee health and welfare plans, a 401(k) plan with competitive matching contributions (dollar for dollar, up to the first 7% of eligible pay contributed on a per pay period basis for eligible employees), up to ten weeks of paid parental leave, a Discounted Stock Purchase Plan, wellness incentives, and a lifestyle reimbursement account program for covered expenses related to health, mental wellness, family needs, and finances.

Teammates can also participate in a variety of company-sponsored volunteer and giving opportunities, including Neighbors Make the Difference Day, our national employee volunteer day, and the Employee Matching Gift Program, which offers eligible employees the opportunity to support qualified nonprofit organizations and multiply their contributions through the KeyBank Foundation.

We have a pay-for-performance culture that is guided by the following three principles:

Pay decisions are based on Key’s performance, business unit performance, and individual performance.
We deliver pay in a way that balances short-term and long-term financial performance objectives and aligns to shareholder value creation.
We support sustainable performance with policies that focus on prudent risk-taking and the balance between risk and reward.

We design our compensation programs to balance risk and reward and align with the guidance of our regulators, and we regularly monitor these programs to remain within our risk tolerances. We subject all discretionary incentives paid to our employees to a robust risk adjustment process that begins before grant and extends beyond payment.

Career Development and Growth

We invest in our teammates’ growth and professional development through a variety of internal networking groups, including our twelve Key Business Impact and Networking Groups (“KBINGs”), formal and informal mentoring programs, including Key’s enterprise-wide formal mentoring program, MentorMe at Key, and a suite of leadership development programs. We also offer employees the opportunities to develop and enhance their skills through formal learning curricula and to obtain tuition reimbursement for eligible collegiate or post-collegiate education and relevant certifications.

Creating a Fair and Inclusive Culture

Key’s purpose is to help our clients, colleagues, and communities thrive. We remain committed to attracting a talented and diverse workforce and supplier base that represents the clients and communities we serve. In 2023, we continued to focus on increasing minority representation in management and leadership roles, expanding our overall recruiting focus, developing diverse candidate pipelines, increasing supplier diversity, providing mentorship opportunities, offering implicit bias training, and leveraging our KBINGs to strengthen both engagement and inclusion.

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In addition, we are committed to pay equity as a foundational element of our culture. As of February 2023, at KeyBank women earn on average more than 99% of what their male teammates earn, and people of color earn on average more than 99% of what their white teammates earn, after taking into account an employee’s job. Our analysis is based on total compensation (base salary and all discretionary incentives) covering all teammates eligible for a discretionary incentive, other than our Executive Leadership Team whose pay is set by our Board of Directors. Our pay equity and parity measures are evaluated annually, and we engage third-party partners to consult on our pay equity analysis and practices as needed. More information about our commitment to pay equity and our commitment to increasing diversity is available at www.key.com/about/diversity/pay-equity-commitment.html.

As of December 31, 2023, our overall workforce was 57.8% female. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, our workforce was also 74.9% White, 9.0% Black/African American, 7.0% Hispanic/Latino, 6.4% Asian and 2.7% other. Our Board of Directors is 46% diverse (six of our 13 total Directors are diverse, with four women, one of whom is also a minority, and two male minorities) and our Executive Leadership Team is 42% diverse (four women and one minority out of 12 total executives).

For more information about our diversity and inclusion efforts, a more detailed breakdown of employee diversity by EEO-1 categories, and information about how we work every day and in every way to help our clients, colleagues, and communities thrive, please see our website and our annual Environmental, Social, and Governance report at https://www.key.com/about/diversity/diversity-and-inclusion.html.

Key’s Workforce

Key had an average of 17,692 full time equivalent employees in 2023. As of December 31, 2023, a total of 17,333 full-time and part-time employees worked in the following regions, which are generally aligned to the regions Key uses for its retail branch banking network:

Human Capital Map.jpg
RegionEmployee Count
East12,459
West 2,322
All Other2,552
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We invest significant time and resources in creating an attractive work environment and competitive total rewards package that attracts and retains top talent. Key’s annualized rate for voluntary turnover as of December 31, 2023, was 14.6%, lower than our annualized voluntary turnover rate for 2022, which was 18.0%, and lower than our previous five year historical average of 16.8%.

Information About Our Executive Officers

KeyCorp’s executive officers are principally responsible for managing the operations of KeyCorp, making policy for KeyCorp, executing on strategic decisions, and managing material risks, subject to the supervision and direction of the Board. All executive officers are subject to annual election at the annual organizational meeting of the Board held each May.

Set forth below are the names and ages of the executive officers of KeyCorp as of December 31, 2023, the positions held by each at KeyCorp during the past five years, and the year each first became an executive officer of KeyCorp. On January 1, 2024, Darrin J. Benhart became Chief Risk Officer. Because Darrin Benhart and James Waters have been employed at KeyCorp for less than five years, information is being provided concerning their prior business experience. There are no family relationships among the directors or the executive officers, and there is no arrangement or understanding between any executive officer and any other person pursuant to which the executive officer was selected.

Victor B. Alexander (44) - Mr. Alexander has been KeyCorp’s Head of Consumer Bank and an executive officer of KeyCorp since January 2020. Prior to that time, he served as the Head of Home Lending from October 2018 to January 2020 and Treasurer from July 2017 to October 2018.

Darrin L. Benhart (58) - Mr. Benhart became Chief Risk Officer and an executive officer of KeyCorp on January 1,
2024. Prior to that time, he served as Deputy Chief Risk Officer and Head of Enterprise Risk Management from
August 2023 to December 2023 and Chief Enterprise Risk Officer from July 2022 to August 2023. Prior to July
2022, he served as a National Bank Examiner with the OCC from March 1992 to March 2022.

Amy G. Brady (57) - Ms. Brady is KeyCorp’s Chief Information Officer, serving in that role since May 2012. Ms. Brady has been an executive officer of KeyCorp since she joined in 2012. She has been a director of DuPont de Nemours, Inc., a multi-industry specialty solutions company, since 2019.

Trina M. Evans (59) - Ms. Evans has been the Director of Corporate Center for KeyCorp since August 2012. Prior to this role, Ms. Evans was the Chief Administrative Officer for Key Community Bank and the Director of Client Experience for KeyBank. She became an executive officer of KeyCorp in March 2013.

Kenneth C. Gavrity (47) - Mr. Gavrity has been Head of Commercial Bank since November 2023 and became an executive officer of KeyCorp in May 2021. Prior to this, Mr. Gavrity served as Head of Enterprise Payments from January 2019 to November 2023 and Head of Commercial Payments from 2016 to 2019.

Christopher M. Gorman (63) - Mr. Gorman has been Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, and President of KeyCorp since May 1, 2020. Mr. Gorman previously served as President and Chief Operating Officer from September 2019 to May 2020 and President of Banking and Vice Chairman from 2017 to September 2019. From 2016 to 2017, he served as Merger Integration Executive responsible for leading the integration efforts related to KeyCorp’s merger with First Niagara. Prior to that, Mr. Gorman was the President of Key Corporate Bank from 2010 to 2016. He became an executive officer of KeyCorp in 2010.

Clark H.I. Khayat (52) - Mr. Khayat has been Chief Financial Officer since March 2023 and an executive officer since September 2018. Mr. Khayat rejoined KeyCorp as Chief Strategy Officer in January 2018 and served in that role until March 2023. Mr. Khayat had previously served as Head of Key’s Enterprise Commercial Payments group from April 2014 to June 2016.

Allyson M. Kidik (44) - Ms. Kidik has been the Chief Risk Review Officer and General Auditor and an executive officer of KeyCorp since July 2022. Ms. Kidik previously served as Senior Deputy General Auditor from 2018 to 2022 and Deputy General Auditor from 2015 to 2018.

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Angela G. Mago (58) - Ms. Mago has served as the Chief Human Resources Officer since November 2023. She previously served as Head of Commercial Bank from May 2019 to November 2023 and Co-Head of Key Corporate Bank from 2016 to May 2019. She became an executive officer of KeyCorp in 2016.

Mark W. Midkiff (61) - On December 31, 2023, Mr. Midkiff was Chief Risk Officer and an executive officer of KeyCorp since January 2018.

Andrew J. Paine III (54) - Mr. Paine has been the Head of Institutional Bank since 2019. He previously served as Co-Head of Key Corporate Bank from 2016 to May 2019. He also serves as President of KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc., a role he has held since 2013. He became an executive officer of KeyCorp in 2016.

Douglas M. Schosser (53) - Mr. Schosser has been the Chief Accounting Officer and an executive officer of KeyCorp since May 2015.

Jaime Warder (50) - Mr. Warder has been Head of Digital Banking since January 2019 and became an executive officer of KeyCorp in May 2021. Prior to this, Mr. Warder served as Head of Business Banking and Investment Services from 2017 to 2019.

James L. Waters (57) - Mr. Waters became the General Counsel and Secretary and an executive officer of KeyCorp in July 2021. From 2018 to 2021, he served as General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc., a financial holding company. Prior to 2018, he was a partner of the law firm Haynes and Boone, LLP.

Supervision and Regulation
The regulatory framework applicable to BHCs and banks is intended primarily to protect consumers, the DIF, taxpayers and the banking system as a whole, rather than to protect the security holders and creditors of financial services companies. Comprehensive reform of the legislative and regulatory environment for financial services companies occurred in 2010 and remains ongoing, with additional reforms expected following the bank failures that occurred in early 2023. We cannot predict changes in applicable laws, regulations or regulatory agency policies, but any such changes may materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, or access to liquidity or credit.
Overview
Federal law establishes a system of regulation under which the Federal Reserve is the umbrella regulator for BHCs, while their subsidiaries are principally regulated by prudential or functional regulators: (i) the OCC for national banks and federal savings associations; (ii) the FDIC for state non-member banks and savings associations; (iii) the Federal Reserve for state member banks; (iv) the CFPB for consumer financial products or services; (v) the SEC and FINRA for securities broker/dealer activities; (vi) the SEC, CFTC, and NFA for swaps and other derivatives; and (vii) state insurance regulators for insurance activities. Certain specific activities, including traditional bank trust and fiduciary activities, may be conducted in a bank without the bank being deemed a “broker” or a “dealer” in securities for purposes of securities functional regulation.
Under the BHCA, BHCs generally may not directly or indirectly own or control more than 5% of the voting shares, or substantially all of the assets, of any bank, without prior approval from the Federal Reserve. In addition, BHCs are generally prohibited from engaging in commercial or industrial activities. However, a BHC that satisfies certain requirements regarding management, capital adequacy, and Community Reinvestment Act performance may elect to be treated as a Financial Holding Company (“FHC”) for purposes of federal law, and as a result may engage in a substantially broader scope of activities that are considered to be financial in nature or complementary to those activities. KeyCorp has elected to be treated as a FHC and, as such, is authorized to engage in securities underwriting and dealing, insurance agency and underwriting, and merchant banking activities. In addition, the Federal Reserve has permitted FHCs, like KeyCorp, to engage in the following activities, under the view that such activities are complementary to a financial activity: physical commodities trading activities, energy management services, and energy tolling, among others.
Under federal law, a BHC also must serve as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary depository institution(s) by providing financial assistance in the event of financial distress. This support may be required when the BHC does not have the resources to, or would prefer not to, provide it. Certain loans by a BHC to a subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits in, and certain other indebtedness of, the subsidiary bank. In addition,
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federal law provides that in the bankruptcy of a BHC, any commitment by the BHC to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
The Dodd-Frank Act created the FSOC to overlay the U.S. supervisory framework for BHCs, insured depository institutions, and other financial service providers, by serving as a systemic risk oversight body. Specifically, the FSOC is authorized to: (i) identify risks to U.S. financial stability that could arise from the material financial distress or failure, or ongoing activities, of large, interconnected SIFIs, or that could arise outside the financial services marketplace; (ii) promote market discipline by eliminating expectations that the U.S. government will shield shareholders, creditors, and counterparties from losses in the event of failure; and (iii) respond to emerging threats to the stability of the U.S. financial system. The FSOC is responsible for facilitating regulatory coordination; information collection and sharing; designating nonbank financial companies for consolidated supervision by the Federal Reserve; designating systemic financial market utilities and systemic payment, clearing, and settlement activities requiring prescribed risk management standards and heightened federal regulatory oversight; recommending stricter standards for SIFIs; and, together with the Federal Reserve, determining whether action should be taken to break up firms that pose a grave threat to U.S. financial stability.
As an FHC, KeyCorp is subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Federal Reserve under the BHCA. Our national bank subsidiaries and their subsidiaries are subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the OCC. At December 31, 2023, we operated one full-service, FDIC-insured national bank subsidiary, KeyBank, and one national bank subsidiary that is limited to fiduciary activities. The FDIC also has certain, more limited regulatory, supervisory, and examination authority over KeyBank and KeyCorp under the FDIA and the Dodd-Frank Act.
We have other financial services subsidiaries that are subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Federal Reserve, as well as other state and federal regulatory agencies and self-regulatory organizations. Because KeyBank engages in derivative transactions, in 2013 it provisionally registered as a swap dealer with the CFTC and became a member of the NFA, the self-regulatory organization for participants in the U.S. derivatives industry. Our securities brokerage and asset management subsidiaries are subject to supervision and regulation by the SEC, FINRA, and state securities regulators, and our insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulation by the insurance regulatory authorities of the states in which they operate. Our other nonbank subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations of both the federal government and the various states in which they are authorized to do business.

Regulatory capital requirements

Background

KeyCorp and KeyBank are subject to regulatory capital requirements that are based largely on the work of an international group of supervisors known as the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (“Basel Committee”). The Basel Committee is responsible for establishing international bank supervisory standards for implementation in member jurisdictions, to enhance and align bank regulation on a global scale, and to promote financial stability.
The regulatory capital framework developed by the Basel Committee and implemented in the United States is a predominately risk-based capital framework that establishes minimum capital requirements based on the amount of regulatory capital a banking organization maintains relative to the amount of its total assets, adjusted to reflect credit risk (“risk-weighted assets”). Each banking organization subject to this regulatory capital framework is required to satisfy certain minimum risk-based capital measures (e.g., a tier 1 risk-based capital ratio requirement of tier 1 capital to total risk-weighted assets), and in the United States, a minimum leverage ratio requirement of tier 1 capital to average total on-balance sheet assets, which serves as a backstop to the risk-based measures.
A capital instrument is assigned to one of two tiers based on the relative strength and ability of that instrument to absorb credit losses on a going concern basis. Capital instruments with relatively robust loss-absorption capacity are assigned to tier 1, while other capital instruments with relatively less loss-absorption capacity are assigned to tier 2. A banking organization’s total capital equals the sum of its tier 1 and tier 2 capital.

The Basel Committee also developed a market risk capital framework (that also has been implemented in the United States) to address the substantial exposure to market risk faced by banking organizations with significant trading activity and augment the credit risk-based capital requirements described above. For example, the minimum total risk-based capital ratio requirement for a banking organization subject to the market risk capital rule equals the ratio of the banking organization’s total capital to the sum of its credit risk-weighted assets and market
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risk-weighted assets. Only KeyCorp is subject to the market risk capital rule, as KeyBank does not engage in substantial trading activity.

Basel III

To address deficiencies in the international regulatory capital standards identified during the 2007-2009 global financial crisis, in 2010 the Basel Committee released comprehensive revisions to the international regulatory capital framework, commonly referred to as “Basel III.” The Basel III revisions are designed to strengthen the quality and quantity of regulatory capital, in part through the introduction of a Common Equity Tier 1 capital requirement; provide more comprehensive and robust risk coverage, particularly for securitization exposures, equities, and off-balance sheet positions; and address pro-cyclicality concerns through the implementation of capital buffers. The Basel Committee also released a series of revisions to the market risk capital framework to address deficiencies identified during its initial implementation (e.g., arbitrage opportunities between the credit risk-based and market risk capital rules) and in connection with the global financial crisis.

KeyCorp and KeyBank are subject to regulatory capital requirements implemented by the U.S. banking agencies that are based largely on Basel III (“Regulatory Capital Rules”). Consistent with the international framework, the Regulatory Capital Rules further restrict the type of instruments that may be recognized in tier 1 and tier 2 capital; establish a minimum Common Equity Tier 1 capital ratio requirement of 4.5% and capital buffers to absorb losses during periods of financial stress while allowing an institution to provide credit intermediation as it would during a normal economic environment; and refine several of the methodologies used for determining risk-weighted assets. The Regulatory Capital Rules provide additional requirements for large banking organizations with over $250 billion in total consolidated assets or $10 billion in foreign exposure, but those additional requirements do not apply to KeyCorp or KeyBank. However, some of those additional requirements will apply to KeyCorp and KeyBank if proposed revisions to the Regulatory Capital Rules are adopted. The proposed revisions to the Regulatory Capital Rules are discussed below under the heading “Recent regulatory capital-related developments.” For purposes of the Regulatory Capital Rules, KeyCorp and KeyBank are treated as “standardized approach” banking organizations.
Under the Regulatory Capital Rules, standardized approach banking organizations, such as KeyCorp and KeyBank, are required to meet the minimum capital and leverage ratios set forth in the following table. At December 31, 2023, KeyCorp’s ratios under the fully phased-in Regulatory Capital Rules are set forth in the following table.
Minimum Capital Ratios and KeyCorp Ratios Under Regulatory Capital Rules
Ratios (including stress capital buffer)Regulatory Minimum Requirement
Stress Capital Buffer (b)
Regulatory Minimum With Stress Capital Buffer
KeyCorp December 31, 2023 (c)
Common Equity Tier 14.50 %2.50 %7.00 %10.02 %
Tier 1 Capital6.00 2.50 8.50 11.67 
Total Capital8.00 2.50 10.50 14.15 
Leverage (a)
4.00 N/A4.00 9.03 
(a)As a standardized approach banking organization, KeyCorp is not subject to the 3% supplementary leverage ratio requirement, which became effective January 1, 2018. However, KeyCorp will be subject to the supplementary leverage ratio if proposed revisions to the Regulatory Capital Rules discussed below are adopted.
(b)Stress capital buffer must consist of Common Equity Tier 1 capital. As a standardized approach banking organization, KeyCorp is not subject to the countercyclical capital buffer of up to 2.5% imposed upon an advanced approaches banking organization under the Regulatory Capital Rules. However, KeyCorp will be subject to the countercyclical capital buffer if proposed revisions to the Regulatory Capital Rules discussed below are adopted.
(c)Ratios reflect the five-year transition of CECL impacts on regulatory ratios.

Revised prompt corrective action framework

The federal prompt corrective action (“PCA”) framework under the FDIA groups FDIC-insured depository institutions into one of five prompt corrective action capital categories: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.” In addition to implementing the Basel III capital framework in the United States, the Regulatory Capital Rules also revised the PCA capital category threshold ratios applicable to FDIC-insured depository institutions such as KeyBank, with an effective date of January 1, 2015. The Revised PCA framework table below identifies the capital category threshold ratios for a “well capitalized” and an “adequately capitalized” institution under the Prompt Corrective Action Framework.
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“Well Capitalized” and “Adequately Capitalized” Capital Category Ratios under
Revised Prompt Corrective Action Framework
Prompt Corrective ActionCapital Category
Ratio
Well Capitalized (a)
Adequately Capitalized
Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based6.5 %4.5 %
Tier 1 Risk-Based8.0 6.0 
Total Risk-Based10.0 8.0 
Tier 1 Leverage (b)
5.0 4.0 
(a)A “well capitalized” institution also must not be subject to any written agreement, order or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.
(b)As a standardized approach banking organization, KeyBank is not subject to the 3% supplementary leverage ratio requirement, which became effective January 1, 2018. However, KeyCorp will be subject to the supplementary leverage ratio if proposed revisions to the Regulatory Capital Rules discussed below are adopted.
As of December 31, 2023, KeyBank (consolidated) satisfied the risk-based and leverage capital requirements necessary to be considered “well capitalized” for purposes of the revised prompt corrective action framework. However, investors should not regard this determination as a representation of the overall financial condition or prospects of KeyBank because the PCA framework is intended to serve a limited supervisory function. Moreover, it is important to note that the PCA framework does not apply to BHCs, like KeyCorp.

Recent regulatory capital-related developments

In December 2017, the Basel Committee released its final revisions to Basel III. The revisions seek to restore credibility in the calculation of risk-weighted assets and improve the comparability of regulatory capital ratios across banking organizations by: (1) enhancing the robustness and risk-sensitivity of the standardized approach for credit risk, credit valuation adjustment, and operational risk; (2) constraining the use of internal models by placing limits on certain inputs used to calculate capital requirements under the internal ratings-based approach for credit risk (used by advanced approaches banking organizations) and removing the ability to use an internal model for purposes of determining the capital charge for CVA risk and operational risk; (3) introducing a leverage ratio buffer to further limit the leverage of global systemically-important banks; and (4) replacing the existing Basel II output floor with a more robust, risk-sensitive floor based on the Basel III standardized approach.

A final rule adopted by the federal banking agencies in February 2019 provides banking organizations with the option to phase in, over a three-year period, the adverse day-one regulatory capital effects of the adoption of the CECL accounting standard. On August 20, 2020, the federal banking agencies issued a final rule that gives banking organizations that adopt CECL before the end of 2020 the option to delay for two years CECL’s adverse effects on regulatory capital. This is in addition to the three-year transition period already in place, resulting in an optional five-year transition.

Key elected to adopt CECL as planned in the first quarter of 2020 and exercised the option to use a five-year transition to measure CECL’s effects on regulatory capital.

On July 27, 2023, the federal banking agencies issued a proposal (the “Capital Proposal”) that would make significant changes to the Regulatory Capital Rules applicable to banking organizations with total assets of $100 billion or more and their depository institution subsidiaries (“Large Banking Organizations”) (including KeyCorp and KeyBank) and banking organizations with significant trading activity. This proposal would implement the final elements of the Basel III capital framework and make other changes to the Regulatory Capital Rules in response to the bank failures that occurred in 2023. The Capital Proposal would establish a new framework for calculating risk-weighted assets (the “expanded risk-based approach”) that would apply to Large Banking Organizations. The expanded risk-based approach would include a new more risk-sensitive standardized approach for measuring credit risk and operational risk. It would also include new standardized approaches for measuring market risk and credit valuation adjustment risk but would allow the use of internal models for market risk in certain circumstances with regulatory approval. Under the Capital Proposal, a Large Banking Organization would be required to calculate its risk-based capital ratios under both the expanded risk-based approach and the current standardized approach and would use the lower of the two. All capital buffer requirements, including the stress capital buffer requirement, would apply regardless of whether the expanded risk-based approach or the existing standardized approach produces the lower ratio.

The Capital Proposal would also align the calculation of regulatory capital for Category III and IV banking organizations with the calculation of regulatory capital for Category I and II banking organizations. KeyCorp and KeyBank are Category IV banking organizations. Under the proposal, Category III and IV banking organizations would be required to include most components of AOCI, including net unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, in regulatory capital. Category III and IV banking organizations would also be required to apply the
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same capital deductions and minority interest treatments that currently apply to Category I and Category II banking organizations. In addition, all Large Banking Organizations would be subject to the supplementary leverage ratio and countercyclical capital buffer requirement and would be required to make certain enhanced public disclosures.

The expanded total risk-weighted assets calculation used in the expanded risk-based approach would be phased in over a three-year period starting on July 1, 2025. For Category III and IV banking organizations, the requirement to reflect AOCI in regulatory capital would also be phased in over a three-year period starting on July 1, 2025. All other elements of the calculation of regulatory capital would apply on the effective date of the final rule, which is expected to be on or about July 1, 2025. Comments on this proposal were due by January 16, 2024.

Liquidity requirements

U.S. banking organizations are subject to regulatory liquidity requirements based on international liquidity standards established by the Basel Committee in 2010, and subsequently revised between 2013 and 2014 (as revised, the “Basel III liquidity framework”). The Basel III liquidity framework establishes quantitative standards designed to ensure that a banking organization is appropriately positioned, from a balance sheet perspective, to satisfy its short- and long-term funding needs.

To address short-term liquidity risk, the Basel III liquidity framework established a liquidity coverage ratio (“Basel III LCR”), calculated as the ratio of a banking organization’s high-quality liquid assets to its total net cash outflows over 30 consecutive calendar days. In addition, to address long-term liquidity risk, the Basel III liquidity framework established a net stable funding ratio (“Basel III NSFR”), calculated as the ratio of the amount of stable funding available to a banking organization to its required amount of stable funding.

Consistent with the Basel III LCR, the final rules implementing the Basel III LCR for U.S. banking organizations (the “Liquidity Coverage Rules”) established a minimum LCR for certain internationally active bank and nonbank financial companies (excluding KeyCorp), and a modified version of the LCR (“Modified LCR”) for BHCs and other depository institution holding companies with over $50 billion in consolidated assets that are not internationally active (including KeyCorp). Under the Liquidity Coverage Rules, KeyCorp was required to calculate a Modified LCR on a monthly basis and was required to satisfy a minimum Modified LCR requirement of 100%. KeyBank was not subject to the LCR or the Modified LCR under the Liquidity Coverage Rules.

Large BHCs, like KeyCorp, are also subject to liquidity requirements contained in regulations adopted pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act and the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”). As enacted in 2010, the Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve to impose enhanced prudential standards and early remediation requirements (collectively, “EPSs”), including enhanced liquidity standards, upon BHCs (like KeyCorp) with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets.

EGRRCPA, enacted on May 24, 2018, raised the asset threshold above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply EPSs to BHCs from $50 billion to $250 billion. EGRRCPA gave the Federal Reserve the authority to continue to apply EPSs to any BHCs having at least $100 billion but less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets (like KeyCorp) if it determines that the application of the EPS is appropriate to prevent or mitigate risks to financial stability or to promote the safety and soundness of the BHC or BHCs, taking into consideration the BHC’s or BHCs’ capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities, size, and other relevant factors.

As a result of the Federal Reserve’s implementation of certain of the EPSs, KeyCorp is subject to requirements relating to cash flow projections, a contingency funding plan, liquidity risk limits, the monitoring of liquidity risks (with respect to collateral, legal entities, currencies, business lines, and intraday exposures), liquidity stress testing, a liquidity buffer, and liquidity risk management requirements, including requirements that apply to the board of directors, the risk committee, senior management, and the independent review function.

Final rules related to the implementation of EGRRCPA (“Tailoring Rules”) became effective on December 31, 2019. The Tailoring Rules established four risk-based categories of banking organizations with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets and applied tailored regulatory requirements to each respective category. Based on Key’s analysis of the Tailoring Rules, KeyCorp falls within the least restrictive of those categories (“Category IV Firms”).

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Under one of the Tailoring Rules, Category IV Firms with weighted short-term wholesale funding of less than $50 billion will not be subject to a reduced LCR. KeyCorp does not meet the $50 billion threshold and is not subject to the reduced LCR or an LCR public disclosure requirement.

Under another Tailoring Rule, Category IV Firms (like KeyCorp) are required to conduct internal liquidity stress tests quarterly and are subject to simplified liquidity risk management requirements. Category IV Firms are still required to maintain a liquidity buffer that is sufficient to meet the projected net stressed cash-flow need over a 30-day planning horizon under the firm’s internal liquidity stress test and remain subject to monthly tailored FR 2052a liquidity reporting requirements.

Under the final rules adopted by the federal banking agencies to implement the Basel III NSFR for U.S. banking organizations, certain banking organizations with more than $100 billion in total assets must maintain minimum amounts of stable funding to support their assets, commitments, and derivatives exposures over a one-year time horizon. Under the rules, Key, as a Category IV firm with average weighted short-term wholesale funding of less than $50 billion, is not subject to an NSFR requirement.

Capital planning and stress testing

The Federal Reserve’s capital plan rule requires each U.S.-domiciled, top-tier BHC with total consolidated assets of at least $100 billion (like KeyCorp) to develop and maintain a written capital plan supported by a robust internal capital adequacy process. The capital plan must be submitted to the Federal Reserve for supervisory review in connection with the BHC’s CCAR (described below). The supervisory review includes an assessment of many factors, including KeyCorp’s ability to maintain capital above each minimum regulatory capital ratio on a pro forma basis under expected and stressful conditions throughout the planning horizon.

The Federal Reserve’s CCAR is an intensive assessment of the capital adequacy of large U.S. BHCs and of the practices these BHCs use to assess their capital needs. The Federal Reserve expects BHCs subject to CCAR to have and maintain regulatory capital in an amount that is sufficient to withstand a severely adverse operating environment and, at the same time, be able to continue operations, maintain ready access to funding, meet obligations to creditors and counterparties, and provide credit intermediation.

The Federal Reserve has conducted a supervisory stress test on KeyCorp, pursuant to which the Federal Reserve projects revenues, expenses, losses, and resulting post-stress capital levels and regulatory capital ratios under conditions that affect the U.S. economy or the financial condition of KeyCorp, including supervisory baseline and severely adverse scenarios, that are determined by the Federal Reserve. KeyCorp and KeyBank have also been required to conduct their own company-run stress tests to assess the impact of stress scenarios (including supervisor-provided baseline, adverse, and severely adverse scenarios and, for KeyCorp, one KeyCorp-defined baseline scenario and at least one KeyCorp-defined stress scenario) on their consolidated earnings, losses, and capital over a nine-quarter planning horizon, taking into account their current condition, risks, exposures, strategies, and activities. While KeyBank has only had to conduct an annual stress test, KeyCorp has had to conduct both an annual and a mid-cycle stress test. KeyCorp and KeyBank have been required to report the results of their annual stress tests to the Federal Reserve and the OCC. KeyCorp has been required to report the results of its mid-cycle stress test to the Federal Reserve.

Under one of the Tailoring Rules, KeyCorp is no longer required to conduct and publicly disclose the results of company-run stress tests and is subject to a supervisory stress test conducted by the Federal Reserve every other year rather than every year. In 2020 and again in 2022, KeyCorp was required to participate in the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process and was subject to a supervisory stress test conducted by the Federal Reserve. In 2024, KeyCorp will again be required to participate in the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process and will be subject to a supervisory stress test conducted by the Federal Reserve.

Since the adoption of a final rule by the federal banking agencies in October 2019, KeyBank is no longer required to conduct annual company-run stress tests. Also, this final rule removes the “adverse” scenario as a required scenario for all stress testing requirements applicable to BHCs and federally-regulated banks so that such stress tests will be required to include only “baseline” and “severely adverse” scenarios.

On March 4, 2020, the Federal Reserve adopted a final rule integrating certain aspects of the Federal Reserve’s Regulatory Capital Rules with CCAR and the stress test rules in order to simplify the overall capital framework that is currently applicable to BHCs that have $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets (including KeyCorp).
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Under the final rule, the Federal Reserve amended the capital conservation buffer requirement under the Regulatory Capital Rules by replacing the static risk-weighted assets component of the buffer with a new measure, the stress capital buffer, which will be based on the results of an individual BHC’s supervisory stress test and cannot be less than 2.5 percent of risk-weighted assets. A firm will be subject to limitations on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments if it does not satisfy all minimum capital requirements and its stress capital buffer requirement. A firm’s stress capital buffer requirement will become effective on October 1 of each year and will remain in effect until September 30 of the following year unless the firm receives an updated stress capital buffer requirement from the Federal Reserve.

On August 26, 2020, the federal banking agencies issued a final rule that revises the definition of eligible retained income as that term is used in the agencies’ Regulatory Capital Rules. The revised definition applies to all buffer requirements applicable to a banking organization, including the stress capital buffer requirement adopted by the Federal Reserve on March 4, 2020. The revised definition of eligible retained income will make any automatic limitations on capital distributions that could apply under the agencies’ capital rules more gradual with the objective of promoting continued lending during a period of stress.

On January 19, 2021, the Federal Reserve issued a final rule to make conforming changes to the capital planning, regulatory reporting, and stress capital buffer requirements for firms subject to Category IV standards (including KeyCorp) to make these requirements consistent with the tailored regulatory framework for large banking organizations that the Federal Reserve adopted in an October 2019 rulemaking. The final rule revises the elements of the capital plan that Category IV firms are required to submit to the Federal Reserve and makes related changes to regulatory reporting requirements. Also, the final rule updates the frequency for calculating the stress capital buffer for these firms.

As a Category IV banking organization subject to a supervisory stress test every other year, KeyCorp was not required to participate in the Federal Reserve’s supervisory stress test in 2023. On July 27, 2023, the Federal Reserve confirmed that KeyCorp’s required stress capital buffer (based on the results of KeyCorp’s June 2022 stress test) is 2.5%, which is the minimum buffer required for banking organizations the size of KeyCorp. This stress capital buffer requirement will remain in effect until September 30, 2024 unless KeyCorp receives an updated stress capital buffer requirement from the Federal Reserve before that date.

Dividend restrictions

Federal law and regulation impose limitations on the payment of dividends by our national bank subsidiaries, like KeyBank. Historically, dividends paid by KeyBank have been an important source of cash flow for KeyCorp to pay dividends on its equity securities and interest on its debt. Dividends by our national bank subsidiaries are limited to the lesser of the amounts calculated under an earnings retention test and an undivided profits test. Under the earnings retention test, without the prior approval of the OCC, a dividend may not be paid if the total of all dividends declared by a bank in any calendar year is in excess of the current year’s net income combined with the retained net income of the two preceding years. Under the undivided profits test, a dividend may not be paid in excess of a bank’s undivided profits. Moreover, under the FDIA, an insured depository institution may not pay a dividend if the payment would cause it to be less than “adequately capitalized” under the prompt corrective action framework or if the institution is in default in the payment of an assessment due to the FDIC. Similarly, under the Regulatory Capital Rules, a banking organization that fails to satisfy the minimum capital conservation buffer requirement will be subject to certain limitations, which include restrictions on capital distributions. For more information about the payment of dividends by KeyBank to KeyCorp, please see Note 3 (“Restrictions on Cash, Dividends, and Lending Activities”) in this report.

FDIA, Resolution Authority and Financial Stability

Deposit insurance and assessments

The DIF provides insurance coverage for domestic deposits funded through assessments on insured depository institutions like KeyBank. The amount of deposit insurance coverage for each depositor’s deposits is $250,000 per depository.

The FDIC must assess the premium based on an insured depository institution’s assessment base, calculated as its average consolidated total assets minus its average tangible equity. KeyBank’s current annualized premium assessments can range from $.025 to $.45 for each $100 of its assessment base. The rate charged depends on
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KeyBank’s performance on the FDIC’s “large and highly complex institution” risk-assessment scorecard, which includes factors such as KeyBank’s regulatory rating, its ability to withstand asset and funding-related stress, and the relative magnitude of potential losses to the FDIC in the event of KeyBank’s failure.

On October 18, 2022, the FDIC adopted a final rule, applicable to all insured depository institutions (including KeyBank), to increase the initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules uniformly by two basis points consistent with the Amended Restoration Plan approved by the FDIC on June 21, 2022. The FDIC indicated that it was taking this action in order to restore the DIF reserve ratio to the required statutory minimum of 1.35% by the statutory deadline of September 30, 2028. Under the final rule, the increase in rates began with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023 and will remain in effect unless and until the reserve ratio meets or exceeds 2% in order to support growth in the DIF in progressing toward the FDIC’s long-term goal of a 2% reserve ratio.

On March 10, 2023, and March 12, 2023, Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) and Signature Bank (“Signature”) were closed by the state banking authorities in California and New York, respectively, and the FDIC was appointed as receiver of SVB and Signature. All deposits of SVB and Signature were transferred to bridge banks established by the FDIC under the systemic risk exception to the least cost test in the FDIA so that the uninsured deposits as well as the insured deposits of both banks were protected by the FDIC. Under the FDIA, the loss to the DIF arising from the use of the systemic risk exception must be recovered through one or more special assessments.

On November 16, 2023, the FDIC issued a final rule to impose a special assessment on IDIs to recover the loss to the DIF resulting from the use of the systemic risk exception to protect the uninsured depositors of SVB and Signature. Under the final rule, the FDIC would collect a special assessment from IDIs at an annual rate of approximately 13.4 basis points over eight quarterly assessment periods, starting with the first quarterly assessment period of 2024. The assessment base for the proposed special assessment is equal to an IDI’s estimated uninsured deposits reported as of December 31, 2022, adjusted to exclude the first $5 billion in estimated uninsured deposits held by the IDI. Because the estimated loss to the DIF from the use of the systemic risk exception will be periodically adjusted and because the total assessments collected may change due to corrective amendments filed by covered IDIs regarding the reported amount of uninsured deposits for the December 31, 2022 reporting period, the FDIC may cease collection of the special assessment early, extend the special assessment collection period, or impose a final shortfall special assessment.

In the final rule, the FDIC indicated that the special assessment is a tax-deductible operating expense for IDIs, and that it assumed that the effect on income of the entire amount of the special assessment would occur in one quarter for the IDIs subject to the assessment. The impact of the special assessment to Key was approximately $190 million, which was recognized upon issuance of the final rule in the fourth quarter of 2023.

The FDIC’s final rule for a special assessment discussed above was not intended to recover the loss to the DIF from the failure of First Republic Bank in May 2023 (initially estimated as a $13 billion loss) or to the DIF from the failures of SVB and Signature that was not related to the protection of uninsured depositors (initially estimated as a $2.7 billion loss). The FDIC indicated that no further adjustments to assessments are contemplated at this time to recover those losses but that it will re-evaluate this issue in the future when it updates projections for the DIF balance and the reserve ratio in connection with its periodic review of the DIF Restoration Plan that was adopted in 2022. The FDIC updates these projections at least semiannually.
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Conservatorship and receivership of insured depository institutions

Upon the insolvency of an insured depository institution, the FDIC will be appointed as receiver or, in rare circumstances, conservator for the insolvent institution under the FDIA. In an insolvency, the FDIC may repudiate or disaffirm any contract to which the institution is a party if the FDIC determines that performance of the contract would be burdensome and that disaffirming or repudiating the contract would promote orderly administration of the institution’s affairs. If the contractual counterparty made a claim against the receivership (or conservatorship) for breach of contract, the amount paid to the counterparty would depend upon, among other factors, the receivership (or conservatorship) assets available to pay the claim and the priority of the claim relative to others. In addition, the FDIC may enforce most contracts entered into by the insolvent institution, notwithstanding any provision that would terminate, cause a default, accelerate or give other rights under the contract solely because of the insolvency, the appointment of the receiver (or conservator), or the exercise of rights or powers by the receiver (or conservator). The FDIC may also transfer any asset or liability of the insolvent institution without obtaining approval or consent from the institution’s shareholders or creditors. These provisions would apply to obligations and liabilities of KeyCorp’s insured depository institution subsidiary, KeyBank, including obligations under senior or subordinated debt issued to public investors.

Receivership of certain SIFIs

The Dodd-Frank Act created a new resolution regime, as an alternative to bankruptcy, known as the “orderly liquidation authority” (“OLA”) for certain SIFIs, including BHCs and their affiliates. Under the OLA, the FDIC would generally be appointed as receiver to liquidate and wind down a failing SIFI. The determination that a SIFI should be placed into OLA receivership is made by the U.S. Treasury Secretary, who must conclude that the SIFI is in default or in danger of default and that the SIFI’s failure poses a risk to the stability of the U.S. financial system. This determination must come after supermajority recommendations by the Federal Reserve and the FDIC, and consultation between the U.S. Treasury Secretary and the President.

If the FDIC is appointed as receiver under the OLA, its powers and the rights and obligations of creditors and other relevant parties would be determined exclusively under the OLA. The powers of a receiver under the OLA are generally based on the FDIC’s powers as receiver for insured depository institutions under the FDIA. Certain provisions of the OLA were modified to reduce disparate treatment of creditors’ claims between the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and the OLA. However, substantial differences between the two regimes remain, including the FDIC’s right to disregard claim priority in some circumstances, the use of an administrative claims procedure under OLA to determine creditors’ claims (rather than a judicial procedure in bankruptcy), the FDIC’s right to transfer claims to a bridge entity, and limitations on the ability of creditors to enforce contractual cross-defaults against potentially viable affiliates of the entity in receivership. OLA liquidity would be provided through credit support from the U.S. Treasury and assessments made, first, on claimants against the receivership that received more in the OLA resolution than they would have received in ordinary liquidation (to the full extent of the excess), and second, if necessary, on SIFIs like KeyCorp utilizing a risk-based methodology.

Depositor preference

The FDIA provides that, in the event of the liquidation or other resolution of an insured depository institution, the claims of its depositors (including claims of its depositors that have subrogated to the FDIC) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as receiver have priority over other general unsecured claims. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will be placed ahead of unsecured, nondeposit creditors, including the institution’s parent BHC and subordinated creditors, in order of priority of payment.

Resolution plans

BHCs with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets, like KeyCorp, have been required to periodically submit to the Federal Reserve and FDIC a plan discussing how the company could be rapidly and orderly resolved if the company failed or experienced material financial distress. Insured depository institutions with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets, like KeyBank, have also been required to submit a resolution plan to the FDIC. These plans have been due annually unless the requirement to submit the plans was deferred by the regulators. The Federal Reserve and FDIC make available on their websites the public sections of resolution plans for the companies, including KeyCorp and KeyBank, that submitted plans. The public sections of the resolution plans of KeyCorp and KeyBank are available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/supervisionreg/resolution-plans.htm and
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https://www.fdic.gov/regulations/reform/resplans/. KeyCorp’s last resolution plan was submitted in 2017, and KeyBank’s last resolution plan was submitted in 2022. KeyCorp is no longer required to submit a resolution plan because of the rule change discussed below while KeyBank remains subject to resolution plan requirements as discussed below.

In October 2019, the Federal Reserve and FDIC adopted a final rule to modify the resolution planning requirements applicable to large BHCs. Under this final rule, BHCs with less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets will no longer be required to submit a resolution plan unless they have $75 billion or more in certain risk-based indicators. Under this final rule, KeyCorp is no longer subject to resolution planning requirements.

On June 25, 2021, the FDIC issued a statement describing the modified approach that it plans to take in implementing certain aspects of its resolution plan rule with respect to IDIs with $100 billion or more in total assets (including KeyBank). In this statement, the FDIC (i) indicated that these institutions will be required to submit resolution plans on a three-year cycle; (ii) described the content requirements for these resolution plan submissions; and (iii) specified that there will be greater emphasis in the future on periodic engagement and capabilities testing by the FDIC with individual institutions. The FDIC stated that resolution plans will be submitted in two groups, with the first group consisting of IDIs whose parent company is not a U.S. global systemically important bank (“GSIB”) or a Category II banking organization and the second group consisting of all other IDIs with $100 billion or more in total assets. KeyBank is in the first group.

On August 29, 2023, the FDIC released for public comment a proposal to amend and restate its current resolution plan rule in order to clarify and strengthen resolution plan submission requirements and reflect lessons learned since the adoption of the FDIC’s current resolution plan rule in 2012. Among other things, the proposal would (i) require IDIs with more than $100 billion in total assets (including KeyBank) to submit full resolution plans every two years, (ii) require IDIs with total assets between $50 billion and $100 billion to submit informational filings every two years, (iii) require both groups of filers to submit more limited supplements in the off years, (iv) enhance and clarify the requirements for the content of resolution submissions, (v) codify certain aspects of guidance and feedback provided to filers subject to the current rule, (vi) expand expectations regarding engagement and capabilities testing, and (vii) establish an enhanced credibility standard for the evaluation of resolution submissions. Comments on the proposal were due by November 30, 2023.

Other Regulatory Requirements and Developments

The Bank Secrecy Act

The BSA requires all financial institutions (including banks and securities broker-dealers) to, among other things, maintain a risk-based system of internal controls reasonably designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism. It includes a variety of recordkeeping and reporting requirements (such as cash and suspicious activity reporting) as well as due diligence and know-your-customer documentation requirements. Key has established and maintains an AML program to comply with the BSA’s requirements.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, a consumer financial services regulator with supervisory authority over banks and their affiliates with assets of more than $10 billion, like Key, to carry out federal consumer protection laws. The CFPB also regulates financial products and services sold to consumers and has rulemaking authority with respect to federal consumer financial laws. Any new regulatory requirements promulgated by the CFPB or modifications in the interpretations of existing regulations could require changes to Key’s consumer-facing businesses. The Dodd-Frank Act also gives the CFPB broad data collecting powers for fair lending for both small business and mortgage loans, as well as extensive authority to prevent unfair, deceptive and abusive practices.

Volcker Rule

The Volcker Rule implements Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which prohibits “banking entities,” such as KeyCorp, KeyBank and their affiliates and subsidiaries, from owning, sponsoring, or having certain relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds (referred to as “covered funds”) and engaging in short-term proprietary trading of financial instruments, including securities, derivatives, commodity futures and options on these instruments.

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The Volcker Rule excepts certain transactions from the general prohibition against proprietary trading, including transactions in government securities (e.g., U.S. Treasuries or any instruments issued by the GNMA, FNMA, FHLMC, a Federal Home Loan Bank, or any state or a political division of any state, among others); transactions in connection with underwriting or market-making activities; and transactions as a fiduciary on behalf of customers. A banking entity may also engage in risk-mitigating hedging activity if it can demonstrate that the hedge reduces or mitigates a specific, identifiable risk or aggregate risk position of the entity. The banking entity is required to conduct an analysis supporting its hedging strategy and the effectiveness of the hedges must be monitored and, if necessary, adjusted on an ongoing basis.

Key does not anticipate that the proprietary trading or covered fund restrictions in the Volcker Rule will have a material impact on its business, but it was required to divest certain fund investments. As of June 30, 2023, Key has completed conforming and/or divesting certain indirect investments subject to the Volcker Rule.

Enhanced prudential standards and early remediation requirements

As enacted in 2010, the Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve to impose EPSs upon BHCs, like KeyCorp, with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets. Prudential standards were required to include enhanced risk-based capital requirements and leverage limits, liquidity requirements, risk-management and risk committee requirements, resolution plan requirements, credit exposure report requirements, single counterparty credit limits (“SCCL”), supervisory and company-run stress test requirements and, for certain financial companies, a debt-to-equity limit. Early remediation requirements were required to include limits on capital distributions, acquisitions, and asset growth in early stages of financial decline and capital restoration plans, capital raising requirements, limits on transactions with affiliates, management changes, and asset sales in later stages of financial decline, which would be triggered by forward-looking indicators including regulatory capital and liquidity measures.

EGRRCPA, enacted on May 24, 2018, raised the asset threshold above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply EPSs to BHCs from $50 billion to $250 billion and gave the Federal Reserve the authority to apply EPSs to BHCs with at least $100 billion in assets. Please see the discussion under the headings “Regulatory capital requirements - Liquidity requirements” and “Regulatory capital requirements - Capital planning and stress testing” for more information about EGRRCPA and the related Tailoring Rules.

Since 2010, the Federal Rule has implemented the following EPSs required under the Dodd-Frank Act: (i) the resolution plan requirements (through a joint final rule adopted with the FDIC), (ii) stress test requirements, (iii) the incorporation of the Regulatory Capital Rules through the Federal Reserve’s previously finalized rules on capital planning and stress tests; (iv) liquidity requirements; (v) the risk management framework, including requirements around the risk committee and the chief risk officer as well as the corporate governance requirements as they relate to liquidity risk management; and (vi) a 15-to-1 debt-to-equity, limit for companies that the FSOC determines pose a “grave threat” to U.S. financial stability. In addition, the Federal Reserve has issued a final rule establishing SCCL requirements, but that rule does not apply to KeyCorp. The Federal Reserve has yet to implement a final rule on the
early remediation requirements.

Bank transactions with affiliates

Federal banking law and regulation imposes qualitative standards and quantitative limitations upon certain transactions by a bank with its affiliates, including the bank’s parent BHC and certain companies the parent BHC may be deemed to control for these purposes. Transactions covered by these provisions must be on arm’s-length terms, and cannot exceed certain amounts that are determined with reference to the bank’s regulatory capital. Moreover, if the transaction is a loan or other extension of credit, it must be secured by collateral in an amount and quality expressly prescribed by statute, and if the affiliate is unable to pledge sufficient collateral, the BHC may be required to provide it. These provisions significantly restrict the ability of KeyBank to fund its affiliates, including KeyCorp, KBCM, and KeyCorp’s nonbanking subsidiaries engaged in making merchant banking investments (and certain companies in which these subsidiaries have invested).

Provisions added by the Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of: (i) the definition of affiliate to include any investment fund having any bank or BHC-affiliated company as an investment adviser; (ii) credit exposures subject to the prohibition on the acceptance of low-quality assets or securities issued by an affiliate as collateral, the quantitative limits, and the collateralization requirements to now include credit exposures arising out of derivative, repurchase agreement, and securities lending/borrowing transactions; and (iii) transactions subject to quantitative limits to now also include credit collateralized by affiliate-issued debt obligations that are not securities. In addition,
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these provisions require that a credit extension to an affiliate remain secured in accordance with the collateral requirements at all times that it is outstanding, rather than the previous requirement of only at the inception or upon material modification of the transaction. These provisions also raise significantly the procedural and substantive hurdles required to obtain a regulatory exemption from the affiliate transaction requirements. While these provisions became effective on July 21, 2012, the Federal Reserve has not yet issued a proposed rule to implement them.

Supervision and governance

On November 2, 2018, the Federal Reserve announced that it is adopting a new supervisory rating system for large financial institutions, including BHCs with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more (like KeyCorp) (“LFI Rating System”), in order to align the Federal Reserve’s rating system with the post-crisis supervisory programs for these firms. The LFI Rating System will provide a supervisory evaluation of whether an institution possesses sufficient operational strength and resilience to maintain safe and sound operations through a range of conditions and will assess an institution’s capital planning and positions, liquidity risk management and positions, and governance and controls. Institutions subject to the LFI Rating System will be rated using the following scale: Broadly Meets Expectations, Conditionally Meets Expectations, Deficient-1, and Deficient-2, with the Conditionally Meets Expectations rating intended to be used as a transitory rating to allow an institution time to remediate a concern identified during the supervisory evaluation. The Federal Reserve assigned an initial rating under the LFI Rating System to KeyCorp in 2020.

The governance and controls component of the LFI Rating System was the subject of two separate, but related proposals: (i) proposed guidance regarding supervisory expectations for boards of directors of large financial institutions; and (ii) proposed guidance regarding core principles for effective senior management, business management, and independent risk management and controls for large financial institutions. The final guidance regarding supervisory expectations for boards of directors was issued by the Federal Reserve on February 26, 2021. The Federal Reserve indicated that it intends to use the board effectiveness guidance in informing its assessment of governance and controls at all firms subject to the LFI Rating System (including KeyCorp).

The Federal Reserve has not finalized the proposed guidance referenced above regarding core principles for effective senior management, business management, and independent risk management and controls for large financial institutions. This guidance would support the supervisory evaluation under the governance and controls component of the LFI Rating System, together with the above-mentioned guidance regarding the effectiveness of a firm’s board of directors.

Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) was enacted in 1977 to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities that they serve, including low- and moderate-income (“LMI”) neighborhoods, consistent with the institutions’ safe and sound operations. The CRA requires the federal banking agencies to assess the record of each institution that they supervise in meeting the credit needs of its entire community, including LMI neighborhoods.

On October 24, 2023, the federal banking agencies adopted a final rule to strengthen and modernize their regulations implementing the CRA to better achieve the purposes of the law, adapt to changes in the banking industry, and provide clarity and consistency in the application of their regulations. Among other things, the final rule (1) clarifies what activities constitute eligible community development activities, (2) adopts four new tests under which large banks with more than $2 billion in assets (including KeyBank) will be evaluated, (3) applies a new framework for assigning conclusions and ratings to banks, (4) updates requirements for delineating facility-based assessment areas, (5) provides for the evaluation of certain large banks in retail lending assessment areas as well as facility-based assessment areas, and (6) imposes new data collection and reporting requirements. The four new tests under which large banks will be evaluated are a retail lending test, a retail services and products test, a community development financing test, and a community development services test. Various metrics and performance standards will be applied under these tests. Some provisions of the final rule will be effective on April 1, 2024 while many other provisions will be effective on January 1, 2026, and certain reporting requirements will be effective on January 1, 2027. KeyBank is subject to the final rule.




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Developments relating to climate change

On March 21, 2022, the SEC issued for public comment a proposal to amend its rules under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to require public companies (including KeyCorp) to provide detailed climate-related information in their registration statements and periodic reports. Among other things, the proposal would require public companies to disclose information about (i) climate-related risks that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the company’s business or financial statements over the short-, medium- or long-term; (ii) the actual and potential impacts of such risks on the company’s strategy, business model, and outlook; (iii) the role of the board of directors in overseeing climate-related risks and management’s role in assessing and managing such risks; (iv) the impact of climate-related events and transitional activities on line items in the company’s consolidated financial statements as well as the financial estimates and assumptions used in the financial statements; and (v) the company’s direct greenhouse gas emissions, indirect emissions from purchased energy, and, if material, indirect emissions from the company’s value chain (which may include financed emissions in a bank’s loan portfolio). The financial services industry has not yet adopted a standardized methodology for banks to use to quantitatively measure indirect emissions from a bank’s value chain, such as financed emissions. Accordingly, this proposal would require many banks to quantify and disclose financed emissions on a comprehensive scale for the first time. We are awaiting issuance of the final rule.

On October 24, 2023, the federal banking agencies issued a set of principles that provide a high-level framework for the safe and sound management of exposures to climate-related financial risks for financial institutions with over $100 billion in total consolidated assets. These principles are intended to provide large financial institutions with guidance in their efforts to identify, measure, monitor, and mitigate physical and transition risks associated with climate change. These principles discuss how these risks can be addressed in the following areas: governance; policies, procedures, and limits; strategic planning; risk management; data, risk measurement, and reporting; and scenario analysis. These principles also describe how climate-related financial risks can be addressed in connection with various specific risk categories, including credit risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, and legal/compliance risk. This interagency guidance applies to KeyCorp and KeyBank.

Long-term debt requirement

On August 29, 2023, the federal banking agencies issued for public comment a proposal that would require certain large BHCs and certain large IDIs to issue and maintain minimum amounts of long-term debt (“LTD”). This proposal would apply to Category II, III, and IV BHCs (including KeyCorp) and IDIs that (i) are not consolidated subsidiaries of U.S. global systemically important banks and (ii) have at least $100 billion in total assets (including KeyBank) or are affiliated with an IDI that has at least $100 billion in total assets. Under the proposal, the required minimum amount of LTD would be the greater of 6 percent of an entity’s total risk-weighted assets, 3.5 percent of an entity’s average total consolidated assets, and 2.5 percent of an entity’s total leverage exposure if it is subject to the supplementary leverage ratio. IDIs that are consolidated subsidiaries of BHCs would be required to issue the LTD to their parent company or another entity that consolidates the IDI.

Debt instruments issued to satisfy the minimum LTD requirement would have to meet certain criteria including, among other things, being unsecured, have a remaining maturity of more than one year, and not provide the holder with acceleration rights except in limited circumstances. BHCs subject to the proposal would also have to comply with certain “clean holding-company” requirements such as a cap on liabilities other than eligible LTD and a prohibition on entering into most qualified financial contracts with third parties. The proposal would provide a three-year transition period with the incremental phase-in of the requirements during this period. The federal banking agencies indicated that the proposal would improve the resolvability of the covered entities in case of their failure, reduce costs to the DIF, and mitigate contagion and financial stability risks by reducing the risk of loss to uninsured depositors. Comments on the proposal were due by January 16, 2024.

Debit Card Interchange Fee Cap

On October 25, 2023, the Federal Reserve issued for public comment a proposal to lower the maximum interchange fee that a debit card issuer with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets (including KeyBank) can receive for a debit card transaction. The interchange fee cap is currently set at the sum of 21 cents for each transaction plus an amount equal to 0.05% of the value of the transaction and a one cent fraud prevention adjustment for issuers that satisfy certain criteria. In the new proposal, the Federal Reserve proposed to lower the cap to the sum of 14.4 cents for each transaction plus an amount equal to 0.04% of the value of the transaction and a 1.3 cent fraud prevention adjustment. The Federal Reserve indicated that it was proposing this revision to the fee
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cap to reflect changes in issuer costs. The Federal Reserve also proposed to update the amount of the fee cap every other year going f