0001193125-22-126644.txt : 20220428 0001193125-22-126644.hdr.sgml : 20220428 20220428123623 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001193125-22-126644 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 20-F PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 207 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20211231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20220428 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20220428 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: SINOPEC SHANGHAI PETROCHEMICAL CO LTD CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0000908732 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: PLASTICS, MATERIALS, SYNTH RESINS & NONVULCAN ELASTOMERS [2821] IRS NUMBER: 000000000 FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 20-F SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-12158 FILM NUMBER: 22864300 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: JINSHAWEI SHANGHAI STREET 2: 48 JINVI RD CITY: SHANGHAI STATE: F4 ZIP: 200540 BUSINESS PHONE: 862157943143 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: JINSHAWEI SHANGHAI STREET 2: 48 JINVI RD CITY: SHANGHAI STATE: F4 ZIP: 200540 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: SHANGHAI PETROCHEMICAL CO LTD DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 19930707 20-F 1 d267955d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
falseFY0.00500000908732CNtrueGovernment grants. Grants related to R&D, other tax refund and subsidies are included in the government grants line item. There are no unfulfilled conditions or other contingencies attaching to these grants.Structured deposits are financial products issued by banks, return of which are linked to the performance of the embedded index, like foreign exchange rate, interest rate and etc..According to the Company’s Articles of Association, the reserve available for distribution is the lower of the amount determined under China Accounting Standards for Business Enterprises and the amount determined under IFRS.According to the relevant PRC regulations, the Group is required to transfer an amount to specific reserve for the safety production fund based on the turnover of certain refining and chemicals products. This reserve represents unutilized safety production fund.The application of the share premium account is governed by Sections 167 and 168 of the PRC Company Law.Other reserve comprises share of post-acquisition movements in other comprehensive income from associates and joint ventures using the equity methods of accounting with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment.The transfer to this reserve from the retained profits is subject to the approval by shareholders at general meetings. Its usage is similar to that of the legal surplus reserve.This reserve represents gifts or grants received from China Petrochemical Corporation, the ultimate parent company and which are required to be included in this reserve fund by PRC regulations.Under PRC rules and regulations, the Company and its PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside 10% of the net income determined in accordance with the PRC accounting rules and regulations to a legal surplus reserve. The transfer to this reserve must be made before distribution of any dividend to shareholders. The legal surplus reserve is non-distributable other than in liquidation and can be used to make good of previous years’ losses, if any, and may be utilized for business expansion or converted into ordinary shares by the issuance of new shares to shareholders in proportion to their existing shareholdings or by increasing the par value of the shares currently held by the shareholders, provided that the balance after such issuance is not less than 25% of the registered capital. In accordance with PRC rules and regulations, the Company has set aside RMB6,571,284 thousand of legal surplus as of 31 December 2021.As at 31 December 2020 and 2021, certain trade receivables and bills receivable were classified as financial assets at FVOCI, as the Group’s business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling of these assets. Pursuant to the resolution of the 18th meeting of the 7th term of Board of Directors on 5 December 2013, the Group was approved to make a capital contribution of USD 30,017,000 (RMB 182,804 thousand equivalent) to Shanghai Secco, an associate of the Group. As at 31 December 2021, the Company has contributed RMB 71,541 thousand to Shanghai Secco. According to the approval by Shanghai Municipal Commission of Commerce as issued on 19 October 2015, the rest of the capital contribution to Shanghai Secco should be within 50 years starting from its registration date.Pursuant to the articles of association of Shidian Energy in August 2019, Toufa agreed to make a capital contribution of RMB 400,000 thousand to acquire 40% share of Shidian Energy. As at 31 December 2021, Toufa has contributed RMB 320,000 thousand to Shidian Energy, and the rest of the capital contribution to Shidian Energy should be paid before January 2022 in accordance with the agreement.Sinopec Baling Petrochemical Co., Ltd and the Company jointly established Baling Materials on 7 September 2021, each with a cash contribution of RMB 400,000 thousand. As at 31 December 2021, the Company has made a paid-up capital contribution of RMB50,000 thousand.Amounts due to related parties – measured at FVPL represents the obligation that the Company needs to return the crude oil to its related party with maturity of less than 1 year, which is measured at fair value through profit or loss.Cash deposits with a related party were cash deposits at Sinopec Finance Company Limited (“Sinopec Finance”).Unentitled portion represented the earnings from sales of the lands injected by Government in Chemical Industry that cannot be shared by other shareholders. 0000908732 2021-01-01 2021-12-31 0000908732 2020-01-01 2020-12-31 0000908732 2019-01-01 2019-12-31 0000908732 2020-12-31 0000908732 2021-12-31 0000908732 2019-12-31 0000908732 1993-11-08 0000908732 2017-09-27 0000908732 2018-01-12 0000908732 2020-08-01 2020-08-31 0000908732 2020-08-31 0000908732 2018-12-31 0000908732 shi:LongTermPrepaidExpenseMember 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
20-F
 
 
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from__________to__________
Commission file number
1-12158
 
 
中国石化上海石油化工股份有限公司
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
The People’s Republic of China
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
No. 48 Jinyi Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai, PRC 200540
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
 
Mr. Wu Haijun
No. 48 Jinyi Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai, 200540
The People’s Republic of China
Tel: +86 (21) 57943143
Fax: +86 (21) 57940050
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each representing 100 H Shares, par value RMB1.00 per Share
 
SHI
 
New York Stock Exchange
H Shares, par value RMB1.00 per Share
 
 
 
New York Stock Exchange*
 
*
Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares. The H Shares are also listed and traded on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
None
(Title of Class)
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
3,495,000,000 H Shares, par value RMB1.00 per Share
7,328,813,500 A Shares, par value RMB1.00 per Share
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15) (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232,405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large Accelerated Filer
 
 
 
  
Accelerated Filer
 
         
Non-Accelerated
Filer
 
 
 
  
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S.GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP  ☐
 
        International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
 
 
 
Other  ☐
 
 
        by the International Accounting Standards Board
 
 
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.  Item 17  ☐  Item 18  ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).     Yes  ☐    No  
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. *    Yes  ☐    No  ☐
 
*
This requirement does not apply to the registrant in respect of this filing.
 
 
 

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i

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this annual report that address activities, events or developments which we expect or anticipate will or may occur in the future are hereby identified as forward-looking statements for the purpose of the safe harbor provided by Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words such as “believe,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “project,” “estimate,” “predict,” “plan” and similar expressions are also intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements address, among others, such issues as:
 
   
amount and nature of future development;
 
   
future prices of and demand for our products;
 
   
future earnings and cash flow;
 
   
capital expansion programs;
 
   
future plans and capital expenditures;
 
   
expansion and other development trends of the petrochemical industry;
 
   
expected production or processing capacities, including expected Rated Capacities and primary distillation capacities, of units or facilities not yet in operation;
 
   
expansion and growth of our business and operations; and
 
   
our prospective operational and financial information.
These statements are based on assumptions and analyses made by us in light of our experience and our perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors we believe are appropriate in particular circumstances. However, whether actual results and developments will meet our expectations and predictions depends on a number of risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, including the risks set forth in “
Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors
” and the following:
 
   
fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas prices;
 
   
fluctuations in prices of our products;
 
   
failures or delays in achieving production from development projects;
 
   
potential acquisitions and other business opportunities;
 
   
continued availability of capital and financing;
 
   
changes to environmental and economic regulations;
 
   
general economic, market and business conditions, including volatility in interest rates, changes in foreign exchange rates and volatility in commodity markets; and
 
   
other risks and factors beyond our control.
Consequently, all of the forward-looking statements made in this annual report are qualified by these cautionary statements and readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements should be considered in light of the various important factors set forth above and elsewhere in this annual report, including the risks set forth in “
Item 3. Key Information – Risk Factors
.” In addition, we cannot assure you that the actual results or developments anticipated by us will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will have the expected effect on us or our business or operations.
Unless otherwise specified, references in this annual report to “U.S. Dollars” or “U.S.$” are to United States Dollars, references to “HK Dollars” or “HK$” are to Hong Kong Dollars and references to “Renminbi” or “RMB” are to Renminbi yuan, the legal currency of the PRC.
We publish our financial statements in Renminbi. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. Dollars have been made at a rate of RMB 6.3726 to U.S. $1.00, the noon buying rate on December 30, 2021 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board. We do not represent that Renminbi or U.S. Dollar amounts could be converted into U.S. Dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate.
CERTAIN TERMS AND CONVENTIONS
References to “we” or “us” or “Company” are references to Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited and our subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. Before our formation, these references relate to the petrochemical businesses carried on by the Complex.
 
1

References to “Sinopec Corp.” are references to China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, the controlling shareholder of the Company.
References to the “Sinopec Group” and “Sinopec” are references to China Petrochemical Corporation, the controlling company of Sinopec Corp.
References to the “Complex” are references to Shanghai Petrochemical Complex, our predecessor founded in 1972.
References to “China” or the “PRC” are references to The People’s Republic of China which, for the purpose of this annual report and for geographical reference only, excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan.
References to “ADSs” are references to our American Depositary Shares, which are listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). Each ADS represents 100 H Shares.
References to our “A Shares” are references to 7,328,813,500 A Shares of the Company, par value RMB1.00 per share, which are ordinary shares held by Chinese investors.
References to our “H Shares” are references to our overseas-listed foreign ordinary shares, par value RMB1.00 per share, which are listed and traded on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (“HKSE”) under the number “338.”
“Rated Capacity” is the output capacity of a given production plant or, where appropriate, the throughput capacity, calculated by estimating the number of days in a year that the production plant is expected to operate, including downtime for regular maintenance, and multiplying that number by an amount equal to the plant optimal daily output or throughput, as the case may be.
All references to “tons” are references to metric tons.
Unless otherwise noted, references to sales volume are to sales to entities other than us or our divisions and subsidiaries.
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS.
Not applicable.
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE.
Not applicable.
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION.
 
 
A.
Capitalization
and
Indebtedness.
Not applicable.
 
 
B.
Reasons
for
the
Offer
and
Use
of
Proceeds.
Not applicable.
 
 
C.
Risk
Factors.
An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. You should consider carefully all of the information in this annual report, including the risks and uncertainties described below and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making an investment in our ADSs. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In any such case, the market price of our ADSs could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Business and Operational Risk Factors
The coronavirus pandemic has and could continue to materially and adversely affect our business.
In the beginning of 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus
(COVID-19)
was reported to have surfaced and then caused a pandemic outbreak. Shanghai has implemented a slew of enhanced measures related to matters such as community prevention and control, patient transport, and disinfection since March 2022. The phased lockdown triggered by the
COVID-19
outbreak in Shanghai will remain for the time being. The global outbreak of
COVID-19
and related adverse public health developments have had and may continue to have a material adverse impact upon our normal operating activities, the demand for our end products and our financial performance. Our normal operating activities were disrupted by the temporary closure of our offices, suspension of business travel, disruptions to our normal working schedules, various restrictions on our employees’ activities and similar disruptive effects to our normal operations. In addition, the global spread of
COVID-19,
and the implementation by governments around the world of measures intended to slow down the spread, have caused a material reduction in worldwide business activity, resulting in a drop in demand for our products.
 
2

We have taken measures in response to the pandemic, including the adoption of more stringent workplace sanitation measures. We will continue to monitor the situation and consider additional measures to protect the health and safety of our employees and to respond to future developments.    New outbreaks have occurred and may continue to occur within China and abroad.    However, the extent to which these outbreaks impact our results will depend on global trends and future developments that are not within our control, including the emergence of new variants, the availability of effective vaccines, the development and availability of therapeutic treatments for
COVID-19,
the scope and severity of the outbreaks and the actions taken by governmental authorities to contain any outbreaks. The long-term impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic on our performance also depends in large part on the effect of the pandemic on global and regional economies and the response of world financial markets. For example, the lockdown of Shanghai and other municipalities in China in early 2022 may adversely affect the near-term growth of the Chinese economy . An extended outbreak could depress global economic activity, disrupting our operations, reducing demand for our products and adversely impacting our financial performance.
Our operations may be adversely affected by the cyclical nature of the petroleum and petrochemical markets and by the volatility of prices of crude oil and petrochemical products.
Most of our revenues are attributable to the sale of refined oil and petrochemical products, which have historically been cyclical and sensitive to the availability and price of raw materials and general economic conditions. Markets for many of our products are sensitive to changes in industry capacity and output levels, changes in regional and global economic conditions, the price and availability of substitute products and changes in consumer demand, which from time to time have had a significant impact on our product prices in the regional and global markets. Due to the recent extreme volatility in crude oil prices, the decrease in tariff charges, the removal of other restrictions on importation and the Chinese government’s gradual relaxation of its control of the allocation of products and pricing, many of our products have become increasingly vulnerable to the cyclical nature of regional and global petroleum and petrochemical markets, which may adversely affect our operations.
We consume large amounts of crude oil to manufacture our products of which more than 95% is typically imported. In 2021, crude oil costs accounted for RMB 43.182 billion, or 58.12% of our consolidated annual cost of sales (68.26% of parent company annual cost of sales). As a result, changes in crude oil prices can affect our profitability. In recent years, due to various reasons, the price of crude oil has fluctuated significantly. The volatility of crude oil prices, as well as in the price of other energy products, has increased significantly as a result of the pending conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Russia is a major supplier of crude oil and natural gas to global markets. The sanctions imposed on Russia by numerous countries may result in a material reduction in oil and gas exports from Russia, which could increase price volatility for such products. We expect that the volatility and uncertainty of the prices of crude oil and petrochemical products will continue, and that increasing crude oil prices and declines in prices of petrochemical products may adversely affect our business and results of operations and financial condition.
Some of our major products are subject to government price controls, and we are not able to pass on all cost increases from rising crude oil prices through higher product prices.
We consume large amounts of crude oil to manufacture our products of which more than 95% is typically imported. We attempt to mitigate the effect of increased costs due to rising crude oil prices. However, our ability to pass on these increased costs to our customers is dependent on market conditions and government regulations. Given that the increase of the sales prices of our products may lag behind the increase of crude oil costs, we may fail to completely cover the increased costs by increasing our sales prices, particularly where government regulations restrict the prices of certain of our fuel products. In particular, gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas are subject to government price controls at present. In 2019, 2020 and 2021 approximately 44.81%, 43.64%, and 47.01%, respectively, of our net sales were from such products subject to price controls. Although the current price-setting mechanism for refined petroleum products in China allows the Chinese government to adjust price in the PRC market when the average international crude oil price fluctuates beyond certain levels within a certain time period (see
Item 4. Information on the Company – B. Business Overview – Product Pricing
), the Chinese government still retains discretion as to whether or when to adjust the prices of the refined oil products. The Chinese government generally exercises certain price control over refined oil products once international crude oil prices experience a sustained rise or become significantly volatile. For instance, some of our fuel products are required to be sold to designated distributors (such as the subsidiaries of Sinopec Corp.). Because we cannot freely sell our fuel products to take advantage of possible opportunities for higher prices, we may not be able to fully cover increases in crude oil prices by increasing the sale prices of our products, which has had and will possibly continue to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our development and operation plans have significant capital expenditure and financing requirements, which are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties.
The petrochemical business is a capital intensive business. Our ability to maintain and increase our revenues, net profit and cash flows depends upon continued capital spending. Our current business strategy contemplates capital expenditure for 2022 of approximately RMB 3,500 million (U.S. $548.96 million), which will be provided through financing activities and use of our own capital. Our actual capital expenditures may vary significantly from these planned amounts, subject to our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, investments and other factors that may be beyond our control. In addition, there can be no assurance as to whether, or at what cost, our capital projects will be completed or the success of these projects if completed.
 
3

As of March 31, 2022, we had an aggregate outstanding indebtedness of approximately RMB 6,749 million (U.S.$1,058.55 million). Most of our borrowings are with state-controlled banks in China and structured as short term debt obligations with payment due in one year or less. These banks have generally been willing to provide new short term loans while we pay off existing loans. Sinopec Finance Company Limited (“Sinopec Finance”), provided a loan of RMB 700 million (US $109.79 million) for our debt for the year ended December 31, 2021 and for the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Our ability to obtain external financing in the future and our ability to make timely repayments of our debt obligations are subject to a variety of uncertainties, including: our future results of operations, financial condition and cash flows; the condition of the economy in China and the condition of markets for our products; the cost of financing and the condition of financial markets; the issuance of relevant government approvals and other project risks associated with the development of infrastructure in China; and the continuing willingness of banks to provide new loans as we pay down existing debt.
While we anticipate that we will rely less on borrowings to finance capital expenditures and operations, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected if we fail to obtain sufficient funding for our operations or development plans.
Our operations are exposed to risks relating to operating hazards and production safety and we have limited insurance coverage for resulting
losses.
Our operations involve the handling and storage of explosives and other hazardous articles. In addition, our operations involve the use of heavy machinery, which involves inherent risks that cannot be entirely eliminated through our preventive efforts. As a result, we may encounter fires, explosions and other unexpected incidents during our operations, which may cause personal injuries or death, property damage, environmental damage, interruption of operations and reputational damages to us. Each of such incidents could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We maintain a package of insurance coverage plan through Sinopec Group on our property, facilities and inventory. In addition, we maintain insurance policies for such assets as the engineering construction projects and products in transit with third-party commercial insurance companies. Sinopec Group carries out unified insurance for safety production liability insurance and environmental liability insurance. We also insured a safety production liability insurance for 1 year in August 2021. The annual cumulative compensation caps is RMB 135 million and the compensation caps for each accident is RMB 67.5 million. We carry a third party liability insurance with a coverage capped at RMB 50 million in 2022 to cover claims, subject to deductibles, in respect of personal injury, property or environmental damage arising from accidents on our property or relating to our operations other than on our transportation vehicles. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all the financial losses caused by operating hazards. Resulting losses required to be compensated or otherwise paid for by us due to such operating hazards that are not fully insured against may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are controlled by Sinopec Corp., whose interests may not be aligned with yours.
As of March 31, 2022, Sinopec Corp. owned 50.44% of our shares. Accordingly, it has voting and management control over us, and its interests may be different from the interests of our other shareholders. Subject to our Articles of Association and applicable laws and regulations, Sinopec Corp. will be in a position to cause us to declare dividends, determine the outcome of corporate actions requiring shareholder approval or effect corporate transactions without the approval of the holders of the H Shares and ADSs. Any such increase in our dividend payout would reduce funds available for reinvestment in our business and any such actions or transactions could adversely affect us or our minority shareholders. Sinopec Corp. may also experience changes in its own business strategy and policies. Although we are not currently aware of any specific changes, they could, in turn, lead Sinopec Corp. to change its policies or practices toward us in ways that we cannot predict, with corresponding unpredictable consequences for our business. Additionally, Sinopec Corp. may leverage its controlling shareholder position to influence our decisions with regard to the manufacturing and operation, allocation of financial resources and appointment and removal of senior management members, which could adversely affect us or our minority shareholders.
We have also engaged from time to time and will continue to engage in a variety of transactions with Sinopec Corp., Sinopec Group, the controlling company of Sinopec Corp., and their various subsidiaries or affiliates which provide a number of services to us, including the supply of raw materials, product distribution and sales agency, project design and installment service, petrochemical industry related insurance and financial services. We also sell oil and petrochemical products to Sinopec Corp. and its affiliates. Our transactions with these companies are governed by a Mutual Product Supply and Sales Services Framework Agreement with Sinopec Corp. and a Comprehensive Services Framework Agreement with Sinopec Group, the terms of which were negotiated on an
arm’s-length
basis. See
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions – B. Related Party
Transactions
. Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if either Sinopec Corp. or Sinopec Group refuses to engage in such transactions or if one of them seeks to amend the its contracts with us in a way adverse to us. In addition, Sinopec Corp. has interests in businesses that compete or are likely to compete, either directly or indirectly, with our businesses. Because Sinopec Corp. is our controlling shareholder and its interests may conflict with our own interests, Sinopec Corp. may take actions that favor itself over our interests.
 
4

We could face increasing competition in China.
Our principal market, Eastern China, which is comprised of Shanghai, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Fujian, has enjoyed stronger economic growth and a higher demand for petrochemical products than other regions of China. As a result, we believe that our competitors will try to expand their sales and build up their distribution networks in our principal market. We believe this will have an adverse impact on the production and sale of our major products. Moreover, Chinese private enterprises have gradually overcome technological and funding barriers to extend their business from the downstream processing sector to the upstream petrochemical field. These enterprises have advantages in many areas such as flexibility in operation costs, preferential policy treatments and regional presence, and may use these advantages to compete with us in our target market.
We face increasing foreign competition in our lines of business.
China joined the WTO on December 11, 2001 and committed to eliminate some tariff and
non-tariff
barriers to foreign competition in the domestic petrochemical industry that benefited us in the past. In particular, China:
 
   
has reduced tariffs on imported petrochemicals products that compete with ours;
 
   
increased levels of permitted foreign investment in the domestic petrochemicals industry, allowing foreign investors to own 100% of a domestic petrochemicals company from December 11, 2004;
 
   
has gradually relaxed restrictions on the import of crude oil by
non-state-owned
companies;
 
   
has granted foreign-owned companies the right to import petrochemical products; and
 
   
has permitted foreign-owned companies to distribute and market fuel products in both retail and wholesale markets in China.
As a result of these measures, we face increasing competition from foreign companies and imports. In addition, competition for our products has increased, as many overseas companies have switched their focus to sales in China. Furthermore, tariff reductions could reduce our profit margins or otherwise negatively impact our revenue from certain products, including a small number of significant products. The Chinese government may also reduce the tariffs imposed on production equipment that we may import in the future.
Cyber attacks and security breaches may threaten the integrity of our intellectual property and other sensitive information and disrupt our business operations, which could adversely affect our reputation, business and financial position.
We face numerous and evolving global cybersecurity threats, which may range from uncoordinated individual attempts to sophisticated and targeted measures directed at us. Cyber attacks and security breaches may include, but are not limited to, attempts to disrupt our operations including our information technology systems and data, gain access to confidential information, insertion of computer viruses, denial of service and other electronic security breaches, whether internal or external through third parties with whom we conduct business. In recent years, a number of major oil and petrochemical companies have been the subject of cyber attacks.
Although we have not experienced any material cybersecurity incidents in the past, we cannot assure you that we will not experience them in the future. Due to the evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, the scope and impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. While we continually work to safeguard our systems and mitigate potential risks, there is no assurance that such actions will be sufficient to prevent cyber attacks or security breaches that manipulate or improperly use our systems or networks, compromise confidential or otherwise protected information, destroy or corrupt data, or otherwise disrupt our operations. The occurrence of such events could disrupt our operations, cause physical harm to people or the environment, damage or destroy assets, compromise business systems, result in proprietary information, including information of our employees, customers, partners and other third parties, being altered, lost, stolen or compromised or otherwise disrupt our business operations. We could incur significant costs to remedy the effects of such a cybersecurity disruption as well as in connection with any resulting regulatory actions and litigation. In addition, a material cybersecurity incident could negatively impact our reputation and our competitive position, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks associated with climate change.
In recent years, the petrochemical industry is facing more and more severe challenges as a result of concerns about global climate change. A series of international, domestic and regional agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions have been signed and come into force. The Paris climate change agreement adopted in December 2015 included binding commitments by countries that have ratified the agreement since November 2016, which may lead to stricter national and regional measures in the near future. Compliance with these measures may lead to higher capital expenditures, tax expenditures, operating costs and other increased costs, resulting in reduced profits and income. Strategic investment may also be adversely affected.
 
5

Legal, Regulatory or Political Risk Factors
Our business operations may be adversely affected by present or future environmental regulations.
We are subject to extensive environmental protection laws and regulations in China. These laws and regulations permit:
 
   
the imposition of environmental protection tax for the discharge of waste substances;
 
   
the levy of payments and fines for damages for serious environmental offenses;
 
   
the government to close down or suspend any facility which has caused or may cause environmental damages and require it to correct or stop operations causing environmental damages; and
 
   
lawsuits and liabilities arising from pollutions and damages to the environment and public interests.
Our production operations produce substantial amounts of waste materials (
i.e.
, waste water, waste gas and waste residue). In addition, our production and operations require environmental-related permits that are subject to renewal, modification and revocation. We were subject to various administrative penalties for violations of the relevant PRC environmental laws and regulations in the past years. See
Item 4. Information of the
Company – B. Business Overview – Environmental Protection
. We have established a system to treat waste materials to prevent and reduce pollution. The Chinese government (including the local governments), however, has moved, and may move further, toward the adoption of more regulations and more stringent environmental standards. On May 31, 2021, the Ministry of ecology and environment issued the guidance on strengthening the prevention and control of the source of ecological environment of high energy consumption and high emission construction projects, strictly approving the environmental impact assessment of “two high” projects such as petrochemical and modern coal chemical industry, and resolutely curbing the blind development of “two high” projects. Chinese national or local authorities may also apply more rigorous enforcement of such regulations which would require us to incur additional expenditures on environmental matters. More stringent environmental requirements or a more rigorous enforcement program could impose significant additional costs on us, and may require us to undertake capital investments to conform with the new requirements. We cannot quantify such additional costs at this time.
If the Chinese government changes current regulations that allow us to make payments in foreign currencies, we may be unable to obtain the foreign currency necessary for our business.
The Renminbi currently is not a freely convertible currency. We receive most of our revenue in Renminbi. A portion of our Renminbi revenue must be converted into other currencies to meet our foreign currency needs, which include, among other things:
 
   
debt service costs on foreign currency-denominated debt;
 
   
purchases of imported equipment;
 
   
payment of any cash dividends declared in respect of the H Shares and the ADSs; and
 
   
import of crude oil and other materials.
Under existing foreign exchange regulations in China, we may undertake current account foreign exchange transactions, including the payment of dividends, without prior approval from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) by producing commercial documents evidencing the foreign exchange transactions, provided that they are processed through Chinese banks licensed to engage in foreign exchange transactions. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account (international revenues and expenditures that increase or decrease debt or equity, including principal payments in respect of foreign currency-denominated obligations) continue to be subject to limitations and require the prior approval of SAFE. These limitations could affect our ability to obtain foreign exchange through debt financing, or to make capital expenditures in foreign currency. The Chinese government has stated publicly that it intends to eventually make the Renminbi freely convertible in the future. However, we cannot predict whether the PRC government will continue its existing foreign exchange policy and when the PRC government will allow free conversion of Renminbi.
If the Chinese government restricts our ability to make payments in foreign currency, we may be unable to obtain the foreign currency necessary for our business. In that case, our business may be materially adversely affected, and we may default on our obligations.
Changes in the monetary policy and fluctuations in the value of Renminbi may have an adverse impact on Sinopec Group’s business and operating results
The exchange rate of the Renminbi against the US Dollar and other foreign currencies may fluctuate and is subject to alterations due to changes on the Chinese political and economic situations. In July 2005, the PRC government overhauled its policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the US dollar by permitting the Renminbi to fluctuate within a certain band against a basket of foreign currencies. Since the adoption of this new policy, the value of the Renminbi against the US dollar fluctuates daily. In addition, the PRC government has been under international pressure to further ease its exchange rate policy, and may as a result further change its currency policy. Early in 2020, the Renminbi had weakened against the US dollar to levels not seen since 2008, but steadily rebounded at the end of the year.
 
6

A small portion of our cash and cash equivalents is denominated in foreign currencies (mainly the U.S. Dollar). As of December 31, 2021, our bank deposits denominated in foreign currencies were equivalent to RMB 166 million. Any increase in the value of Renminbi against other currencies, including the U.S. dollar, may decrease the Renminbi value of our cash and cash equivalents that are denominated in foreign currencies.
Although most of our revenue is denominated in Renminbi, most of our procurement of crude oil, certain equipment and certain debt repayments are denominated in foreign currencies. Any depreciation of the Renminbi in the future would increase our costs and adversely affect profitability. In addition, any depreciation of the Renminbi could adversely affect the value of the dividends of our H Shares and ADSs, which we declare in Renminbi and pay in foreign currencies.
Our business may be limited or adversely affected by government regulations.
The Chinese central and local governments continue to exercise a certain degree of control over the petrochemical industry in China by, among other things:
 
   
mandating distribution channels for our fuel products;
 
   
setting the allocations and pricing of certain resources, products and services;
 
   
assessing taxes and fees payable;
 
   
setting import and export quotas and procedures; and
 
   
setting safety, environmental and quality standards.
As a result, we may face significant constraints on our flexibility and ability to expand our business operations or to maximize our profitability. In the past, we have benefited from favorable regulatory policies. Existing policies that favor our industry may change in the future and our business could be adversely affected by any such changes.
Our development plans may require regulatory approval.
We are currently engaged in a number of construction and expansion projects. Most of our projects are subject to governmental review and approval. The timing and cost of completion of these projects will depend on numerous factors, including approvals from relevant government authorities and general economic conditions in China.
While in general we attempt to obtain governmental approval as far in advance as practicable, we are unable to predict the timing and outcome of these governmental reviews and approvals. If any of our important projects required for our future growth are not approved, or not approved on a timely basis, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.
The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.
While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us. In addition, the Chinese government has implemented in the past certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, and since 2012, the rate of China’s economic growth has slowed down. Any prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy may reduce the demand for our products and services and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
7

Interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations is uncertain.
The Chinese legal system is based on statutory law. Under this system, prior court decisions may be cited as persuasive authority, but do not have the binding effect of precedents. Since 1979, the Chinese government has been developing a comprehensive system of commercial laws and considerable progress has been made in the promulgation of laws and regulations dealing with economic matters, such as corporate organization and governance, foreign investment, commerce, taxation and trade. Because these laws, regulations and legal requirements are relatively new or otherwise undeveloped and not all accessible to the public and because prior court decisions have little precedential value, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, regulations and legal requirements involve greater uncertainty than in other jurisdictions.
You may not enjoy shareholders’ protections that you would be entitled to in other jurisdictions.
As most of our business is conducted in China, our operations are governed principally by the laws of China. Despite the continuing improvement of the PRC Company Law and Securities Law, Chinese legal provisions for the protection of shareholders’ rights and access to information are different from those applicable to companies formed in the United States, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and other developed countries or regions. You may not enjoy shareholders’ protections under Chinese law that you would be entitled to in other jurisdictions. We are a foreign private issuer, and therefore exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, such as rules relating to the having a majority of independent directors; independent audit committee members, compensation committee members and nominating committee members; obtaining shareholder approval for certain issuances of securities; or certain reporting requirements and certifications. Significant differences between our corporate governance practices and those of U.S. issuers listed on the NYSE are further described under
Item 16G.
Corporate Governance
. Because of these exemptions, shareholders may be afforded fewer protections than they otherwise would under the NYSE corporate governance requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, or shareholders may not be afforded the same information generally available to shareholders holding shares in public companies organized in the United States or traded on the NYSE that are not foreign private issuers.
Our Articles of Association require you to submit your disputes with us and other persons defined by our Articles of Association regarding the Company’s affairs to arbitration. You will have no legal right to a court proceeding with respect to such disputes.
Our Articles of Association require holders of our H Shares or ADSs having a claim against, or a dispute with, us, our directors, supervisors, executive officers or a holder of our A Shares relating to any rights or obligations conferred or imposed by our Articles of Association, the PRC Company Law or other relevant Chinese laws or regulations relating to our affairs, to submit such claim or dispute to arbitration with the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission or to the Hong Kong International Arbitration Center. Our Articles of Association further provide that any arbitration decisions with respect to such disputes or claims shall be final and binding on all parties. As a result, you will have no legal right to a court proceeding with respect to such disputes.
Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.
The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the U.S. Furthermore, on June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which, if enacted, would amend the HFCAA and require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three.
Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this
20-F,
as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB. Our Audit Committee is aware of these limitations, but believes that it is important for us to use an auditor based in China as that is the principal location of our assets and operations.
The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ordinary shares are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the reliability and quality of our audited financial statements. In addition, under changes to the PRC Securities Law that became effective in March 2020, the SEC and other foreign securities regulators are not permitted to directly conduct investigations or depositions in China and no entity or individual is permitted to provide any document or material in connection with securities business to any offshore securities regulatory authority without the permission of the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the relevant departments of PRC State Council. These restrictions may further erode confidence in our financial reporting.
 
8

On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB designated China and Hong Kong as jurisdictions where the PCAOB is not allowed to conduct full and complete audit inspections. If the SEC determines that, for any year commencing with our 2021 fiscal year our auditors were not subject to inspection by the PCAOB, then we will be required to comply with the disclosure requirements set forth in these rules and establish that we are not owned or controlled by a governmental entity in our jurisdiction. The SEC will publicly identify companies subject to these disclosure requirements on the SEC’s website. An initial trading prohibition would not be imposed until we have been identified by the SEC in this manner for three consecutive years, during such period of time we would need to identify and engage an accounting firm that is subject to PCAOB inspections to avoid such trading prohibition.
The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfil its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company’s auditors were not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022. If our securities could be delisted or prohibited from being traded
“over-the-counter”
earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act and are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs.
If remedial measures are imposed on the “big four”
PRC-based
accounting firms, including our predecessor independent registered public accounting firm and successor independent registered public accounting firm, we might not be able to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. This could result in a suspension of trading or a delisting or deregistration of our ADSs.
Starting in 2011, the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our predecessor independent registered public accounting firm and successor independent registered public accounting firm, were affected by a conflict between the United States and Chinese law. Specifically, for certain United States listed companies operating and audited in China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the Chinese accounting firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under Chinese law they could not respond directly to the United States regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the CSRC.
In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the
PRC-based
accounting firms, including predecessor independent registered public accounting firm and successor independent registered public accounting firm. In January 2014, an administrative law judge reached an initial decision to impose penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC. The accounting firms filed a petition for review of the initial decision. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioners of the SEC had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the CSRC. The firms will receive matching requests, and are required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they fail to meet specified criteria, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Remedies for any future noncompliance could include, as appropriate, an automatic
six-month
bar on a single firm’s performance of certain audit work, commencement of a new proceeding against a firm, or in extreme cases the resumption of the current proceeding against all four firms. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four
PRC-based
accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019.
In the event that the SEC brings new administrative proceedings, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding
PRC-based,
United States listed companies and the market price of the ADSs may be adversely affected.
If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our consolidated financial statements, our consolidated financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of the ADSs from the NYSE or deregistration with the SEC, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of the ADSs in the United States.
 
9

We may be or become a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors.
Generally, if, for any taxable year, at least 75% of our gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of the value of our assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, we would be characterized as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Since PFIC status depends on the composition of our income and the composition and value of our assets from time to time, there can be no assurance that we are not currently a PFIC or that we will not be considered a PFIC for the current year, or for any future taxable year. If we are characterized as a PFIC, U.S. investors may suffer adverse tax consequences, including increased U.S. tax liabilities and reporting requirements. For further discussion of the adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences of our possible classification as a PFIC, see
Item 10. Additional Information – E. Taxation – U.S. Taxation.
We could be sanctioned or otherwise penalized under relevant U.S. laws if we engage in business with certain entities in Iran or Russia and such transactions are determined by the U.S. governmental authorities to violate U.S. laws.
We have in the past sourced a small portion of crude oil from Iran. The United States has adopted a number of measures since 1996 that provide for the possible imposition of sanctions against
non-U.S.
companies engaged in certain activities in and with Iran in the energy and other sectors, including, the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (“ITRSHRA”) enacted August 10, 2012 and the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act (“IFCA”) enacted January 2, 2013, Section 1245 of the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012 (“NDAA”) enacted December 31, 2011, and Executive Order 13846 of August 6, 2018 that was issued in connection with the termination of the participation by the United States in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, or JCPOA, that became effective January 16, 2016, and resulted in the waiver of certain U.S. sanctions against
non-U.S.
persons engaging in certain transactions with Iran. The withdrawal was effected in two stages that resulted on November 5, 2018, in the complete
re-imposition
of the U.S. sanctions that were waived under the JCPOA. On November 5, 2018, the United States also granted a
180-day
waiver (that is potentially renewable) under Section 1245 of the NDAA to China (and seven other countries) allowing for the purchase of petroleum from Iran under specified conditions. The NDAA waiver does not authorize transactions that remain prohibited under other U.S. sanctions laws. On April 22, 2019, the U.S. Secretary of State announced that the United States would not grant any further waivers under the NDAA. In February 2021, U.S. President announced that the U.S. would not lift economic sanctions on Iran until Iran complies with the terms of the JCPOA.
The sanctionable activities include certain investments, the provision of goods, services, technology, or support that could contribute to the development of petroleum and petrochemical resources or the production of refined petroleum products in Iran, the exportation of refined petroleum products to Iran, the transportation of crude oil from Iran, or the engagement in a significant transaction for the purchase or acquisition of petroleum or petroleum products from Iran, and the engagement in transactions with certain Iranian specially designated nationals and blocked persons (“SDNs”) as identified and published by U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, the agency primarily responsible for administering U.S. sanctions and embargoes.
We have sourced a small portion of our crude oil from Iran in the past through Sinopec Corp., our current controlling shareholder, and independent third parties, and Iran may continue to be the ultimate source of a small portion of our crude oil. In addition, Sinopec Corp. and Sinopec Group, the controlling shareholder of Sinopec Corp., have engaged in operations in or purchasing crude oil sourced from Iran and may continue to do so in the future. We have no control over the activities of Sinopec Group or Sinopec Corp. in connection with any activities that they may conduct in Iran.
If our purchases of crude oil from Iran and transactions related thereto are determined to be sanctionable activities by the U.S. President and/or the relevant U.S. governmental authorities, we may be subject to five or more of the twelve sanctions options available under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (as amended) (“ISA”) and the ITRSHRA, which include restrictions on bank financing, outright blocking of the Company’s property within any U.S. jurisdiction, under the control of U.S. persons anywhere in the world, and prohibition of U.S. persons from investing or purchasing a significant amount of equity or debt instruments of the Company. Similar sanctions may also be imposed under Executive Order 13846, the IFCA, and other U.S. laws. In addition, many states in the United States have adopted legislation requiring state pension funds to divest themselves of securities in any company with active business operations in Iran. We cannot assure that we or any of our affiliates will not be sanctioned by the U.S. President and/or the relevant U.S. governmental authorities in light of the activities by us or our affiliates in Iran. The imposition of any such sanctions on us or our affiliates will have a negative impact on our business, reputation or stock price. In addition, purchase of crude oil by Sinopec Corp. subsidiaries that supply us with raw materials may from time to time be sourced from National Iranian Oil Company. This entity has been identified by the U.S. government as an SDN and sanctioned under various laws, including for assisting the government of Iran to avoid sanction and for engaging in activities related to nuclear proliferation. Under Executive Order 13846, the U.S. President can sanction
non-U.S.
companies that engage in transactions with SDNs such as the National Iranian Oil Company. To the extent we indirectly (or directly) purchase raw materials from this entity, we risk potential U.S. government sanctions. Even absent any U.S. government sanctions, we risk adverse publicity in the world markets, which may impair our reputation and business.
In addition, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine has resulted in the imposition of new sanctions on the Russian energy sector and greater scrutiny of pre-existing sanctions. The continuation of the conflict may result in the imposition of additional or more severe sanctions, and may also generate a higher level of sanctions enforcement activity. The International Emergency Economic Powers Act currently prohibits dealings with designated Russian persons and entities if the transaction involves a nexus to the U.S., such as payment in U.S. dollars. Under U.S. law, penalties could be imposed upon us even if we purchase crude oil or natural gas through a third party, and we are not aware that the purchase was made from an entity subject to U.S. sanctions. The sanctions regime relating to the Russian energy sector is continuing to evolve, and no assurance can be given that the United States or other jurisdictions will not seek to impose penalties upon us if they believed that we had engaged in sanctionable activities. If we were to become involved in sanctions proceedings, our business reputation could be harmed and we could incur substantial costs in order to defend the proceedings or pay any resulting penalties
 
10

Sinopec Group, the controlling shareholder of Sinopec Corp. which is our current controlling shareholder, or its affiliates’ current or future activities in certain countries are the subject of economic sanctions under relevant U.S. laws and could result in negative media and investor attention to us and possible imposition of sanctions on Sinopec Group, which could materially and adversely affect our shareholders.
Sinopec Group undertakes, from time to time and without our involvement, overseas investments and operations in the oil and gas industry, including the exploration and production of oil and gas, refining and Liquefied Natural Gas, or LNG, projects. Sinopec Group’s overseas asset    portfolio includes oil and gas development projects in Iran, Sudan and Syria, countries subject to U.S. sanctions and embargoes. We cannot predict the interpretation or implementation of government policy at the U.S. federal, state or local levels with respect to any current or future activities by Sinopec Group or its affiliates in countries or with individuals or entities that are the subject of U.S. sanctions. Similarly, we cannot predict whether U.S. sanctions will be further tightened, or the impact that such actions may have on Sinopec Group. It is possible that the United States could subject Sinopec Group to sanctions due to these activities. Certain U.S. state and local governments and colleges have restrictions on the investment of public funds or endowment funds, respectively, in companies that are members of corporate groups with activities in certain countries that are the subject of U.S. sanctions. These investors may not wish to invest, and may divest their investment, in us because of our relationship with Sinopec Group and its investments and activities in those U.S. government sanctioned countries. It is possible that, as a result of activities by Sinopec Group or its affiliates in countries that are the subject of U.S. sanctions, we may be subject to negative media or investor attention, which may distract management, consume internal resources and affect investors’ perception of our company.
Further, the ISA authorizes the imposition of sanctions on companies that engage in certain activities in and with Iran, especially in Iran’s energy sector. It is possible that Sinopec Group or its affiliates engage in activities that are targeted for sanction purposes by the ISA or other U.S. laws. If the U.S. President determines that Sinopec Group or one of its affiliates in fact engaged in the targeted activities, he would be required under the ISA to impose on Sinopec Group or its affiliates at least five sanctions from among twelve sanctions options available under the ISA, which range from restrictions on U.S. exports or bank financing to outright blocking of Sinopec Group or its affiliate’s property within the United States or in the possession or control of U.S. persons anywhere in the world. In addition, the IFCA requires the U.S. President to block the property of persons and entities within U.S. jurisdiction or control of U.S. persons if he determines that, among other things, such persons or entities are engaged in certain transactions involving the energy, shipping or shipbuilding sectors of Iran or with certain SDNs. It also requires the U.S. President to impose five or more sanctions under the ISA on a person that he determines has knowingly, on or after July 1, 2013, sold, supplied or transferred to or from Iran precious metals or certain other materials (including graphite, aluminum, steel, coal and certain software) if used for specified purposes. If the U.S. President determines that Sinopec Group, or an entity it owns or controls engages in any such activities and if the most extreme sanction under the ISA or other U.S. sanctions laws, blocking, were applied to Sinopec Group’s property, including controlled subsidiaries, Sinopec Group could be prohibited from engaging in business activities in the United States or with U.S. individuals or entities, and U.S. transactions in our securities and distributions to U.S. individuals and entities with respect to our securities could also be prohibited.
In addition, pursuant to the IFCA, Executive Order 13846 and other U.S. laws, the U.S. government can sanction financial institutions anywhere in the world that engage in certain Iran-related transactions. Such sanctions include prohibiting the financial institution from opening, or imposing strict conditions on maintaining, a correspondent or payable through account in the United States. The potential for financial institutions to be sanctioned for Iran related activities may impact our ability to engage in financial transactions related to Iran transactions.
General Risk Factors
The trading prices of our ADSs and H Shares have been volatile and may continue to be volatile regardless of our operating performance.
The trading prices of our ADSs and H Shares have been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. The market price for our ADSs may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:
 
   
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations;
 
   
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;
 
   
conditions in petroleum and petrochemical markets;
 
   
changes in the operating performance or market valuations of other petroleum and petrochemical companies;
 
   
announcements by us or our competitors of new products, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
 
   
fluctuations of exchange rates between RMB and the U.S. Dollar; and
 
   
general economic or political conditions in China or elsewhere in the world.
 
11

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. The securities of some
PRC-based
companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings in recent years, including, in some cases, substantial declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies listed in the United States in general, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in any inappropriate activities. In particular, the global financial crisis and the ensuing economic recessions in many countries have contributed and may continue to contribute to extreme volatility in the global stock markets. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs.
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY.
A. History and Development of the Company
General Information
We were established in the People’s Republic of China as a joint stock limited company under the PRC Company Law on June 29, 1993 as Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited. On October 12, 2000, we changed our name to Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited. Our registered office is at No. 48 Jinyi Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai, China 200540. Our telephone number there is
(86-21)
5794-1941. Our company website is
www.spc.com.cn
. The SEC maintains an Internet site at
www.sec.gov
that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and our other information that file electronically with the SEC.
Our Predecessor
Our predecessor, the Complex, was founded in 1972 as one of the first large scale Chinese petrochemical enterprises using advanced imported technology and equipment. Prior to June 29, 1993, the Complex was wholly-owned by Sinopec Group, at the time a ministerial level enterprise (before its restructuring in 1998). The Complex’s location was chosen because of accessibility by water and land transportation to Shanghai, a major industrial city of China, and the availability of reclaimable land. The Complex was initially under the administration of the Ministry of Textile Industry and in 1983 was placed under the administration of Sinopec.
Construction Projects
The Complex and we, as its successor, have completed six major stages of construction. The first stage of construction (1972-1976) included reclamation of land and the installation of 18 production units. The second stage of construction (1980-1986) increased the Complex’s capacity for processing crude oil and doubled its capacity for synthetic fiber production. The third stage of construction (1987-1992) primarily consisted of the installation of a 300,000 ton Rated Capacity ethylene unit, an additional crude oil refining unit and other units for the production of petrochemical products. The third stage of construction completed our transition from a synthetic fiber producer to a highly integrated producer of a wide variety of petrochemical products. The fourth stage of construction (2000-2002) mainly included the 700,000 ton Ethylene Expansion Project and Coal-Fired Power Plant Expansion Project. The fifth stage of construction (2003-2009) was mainly designed to optimize our structure and realize sustainable development, and mainly included 3,300,000t/a diesel hydrogenation unit, 1,200,000t/a delayed coking unit and other projects implemented for removing “bottlenecks” in refinery, the building of new 600,000t/a paraxylene hydrocarbon complex unit, 150,000t/a C5 segregation unit, 380,000t/a ethane unit,
etc..
The Company commenced the sixth stage of construction in 2010 (the “Phase 6 Project”) and completed the project in December 2012. The key component of the Phase 6 Project was the refinery revamping and expansion project. The Phase 6 Project also included the technology development and fine chemicals projects. The purpose of the Phase 6 Project was to improve the Company’s overall industrial structure, core competitiveness and the capability of maintaining sustainable developments. The Phase 6 Project was focused on the objective to achieve intensive utilization of natural resources and the
build-up
of a complete set of facilities, in accordance with the fundamental industrial model of integrating oil refining and petrochemical production. Through this project, the Company further enhanced its oil refining process and strengthened and expanded the Company’s core businesses while continuing to explore the development of fine chemicals and products with high value added.
Over the past four decades, the Company has built up an infrastructure system to support its production needs. The Company has its own facilities to supply water, electricity, steam and other utilities and to treat waste water, as well as ocean and inland waterway wharfs and railroad and road transportation facilities.
 
12

Our Initial Public Offering and Listing
We were established as a subsidiary of Sinopec on June 29, 1993. In preparation for our initial public offering of ordinary shares, all assets and liabilities of the Complex were transferred either to us or to Sinopec Shanghai Jinshan Industrial Company (“JI”), a separate subsidiary of Sinopec. The Complex’s
non-core
businesses and assets, such as housing, stores, schools, transportation and medical services, were transferred to JI. The Complex’s core business and assets were transferred to us. The Complex then ceased to exist as a legal entity. In 1998, Sinopec was restructured into a limited liability company under the name of China Petrochemical Corporation (“Sinopec Group”). On February 25, 2000, Sinopec Group transferred its interest in us to its subsidiary, Sinopec Corp. In 1997, JI was restructured and its subsidiaries were either transferred to Sinopec or Shanghai Jinshan District.
Our H Shares commenced listing on the HKSE on July 26, 1993. Our ADSs, each representing 100 H Shares, are listed on the NYSE. Our A Shares are listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. We were the first Chinese joint stock limited company to have securities concurrently traded in Hong Kong, the United States and China. On November 8, 1993, our A Shares were included in the Shanghai Stock Exchange Stock Index.
A Share Reform
Pursuant to regulations issued by the CSRC, we were required to obtain shareholder approval for and implement certain share reform. As a result of such share reform, all
non-publicly
tradable A Shares of the Company would be converted into publicly tradable A Shares and may be sold publicly on the Shanghai Stock Exchange subject to any applicable
lock-up
period.
In connection with the share reform, the Distribution Proposal regarding 2013 Interim Distribution of Cash Dividend and the Conversion of Capital Fund and Surplus Reserve into Shares of the Company (“Proposal”) was approved at the Company’s 2013 First Extraordinary General Meeting, 2013 First A Shareholders Class Meeting and 2013 First H Shareholders Class Meeting held on October 22, 2013. According to the Proposal, based on the Company’s total share capital of 7,200,000,000 shares as of June 30, 2013, RMB2,421 million of the capital surplus of the Company from its share premium account was used to fund the issue of 3.36 new bonus shares with respect to every 10 issued and outstanding shares, the surplus reserve was used to fund the issue of 1.64 new bonus shares with respect to every 10 issued and outstanding shares, and an interim cash dividend of RMB0.50 (tax included) for every 10 issued and outstanding shares was distributed to all shareholders.
In addition, Sinopec Corp. undertakes under the Proposal that it shall not, within 12 months from the date on which Sinopec Corp. becomes entitled to trade, deal in or transfer its
non-publicly
tradable shares of the Company in the market (meaning the first trading day after the implementation of the Proposal), trade such shares in the market. Also, after the expiration of the aforesaid
12-month
term, the amount of existing
non-publicly
tradable shares to be disposed of by Sinopec Corp. through trading on the stock exchange shall not represent more than 5% of the total number of our shares held by Sinopec Corp. within the next 12 months, and not more than 10% within the next 24 months.
Immediately upon completion of the conversion of capital surplus and surplus reserve into new shares of the Company, the total number of A Shares of the Company reached, as of December 4, 2013, 7,305,000,000, and the total amount of H Shares of the Company reached 3,495,000,000. Therefore, the Company’s total share capital consists of 10,800,000,000 shares. Sinopec Corp., being the controlling shareholder of the Company, holds 5,460,000,000 A Shares, representing 50.56% of the total share capital of the Company.
The share certificates of new H Shares issued in connection with the share reform were dispatched and the cash dividend was paid to the holders of H Shares on December 4, 2013. The dealings in the new H Shares commenced on December 5, 2013.
The Company exercised its Share Option Incentive Scheme for the first time in August 2017, and the second time in January 2018, and the total number of shares of the Company increased by 14,176, 600 shares and 9,636,900 shares, respectively, upon exercise. Immediately upon completion of the exercise of Share Option Incentive Scheme on February 14, 2018, the total number of A Shares of the Company reached, as of December 4, 2013, 7,328,813,500, and the total amount of H Shares of the Company reached 3,495,000,000.
Description of Principal Capital Expenditures and Divestitures
For a description of capital expansion projects related to our facilities, see
Item 4. Information on the Company – D. Property, Plant and
Equipment – Capital Expansion Program
.
B. Business Overview
We are one of the major petrochemical companies in China based on 2021 net sales and ethylene production. Our highly integrated petrochemical complex processes crude oil into a broad range of products in four major product areas:
 
   
synthetic fibers,
 
   
resins and plastics,
 
13

   
intermediate petrochemicals, and
 
   
petroleum products.
Based on 2021 sales volumes, we are a leading Chinese producer of synthetic fibers and resins and plastic products. We believe that we are also a leading competitor in sales of petroleum products and intermediate petrochemicals in our regional markets.
Our net sales by business lines as a percentage of total net sales in each of 2019, 2020 and 2021 are summarized as follows:
Net Sales of RMB88,055.7 million in 2019
 
Synthetic fibers
     2.45
Resins and plastics
     11.33
Intermediate petrochemicals
     11.71
Petroleum products
     48.98
Trading of petrochemical products
     24.63
Others
     0.90
  
 
 
 
Total
     100.00
  
 
 
 
Net Sales of RMB61,560.9 million in 2020
 
Synthetic fibers
     2.39
Resins and plastics
     15.30
Intermediate petrochemicals
     13.33
Petroleum products
     48.96
Trading of petrochemical products
     18.81
Others
     1.21
  
 
 
 
Total
     100.00
  
 
 
 
Net Sales of RMB 75,888.8 million in 2021
 
Synthetic fibers
     1.81
Resins and plastics
     13.13
Intermediate petrochemicals
     14.21
Petroleum products
     55.19
Trading of petrochemical products
     14.56
Others
     1.10
  
 
 
 
Total
     100.00
  
 
 
 
We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from customers in Eastern China (principally Shanghai and its six neighboring provinces), an area that has experienced economic growth above the national average in recent years. Shown by geographic region and exports, our net sales by business lines as a percentage of total net sales for each of 2019, 2020 and 2021 are as follows:
2019 Net Sales by Region (%)
 
    
Eastern
China
    
Other parts of China
    
Exports
 
Synthetic fibers
     89.32        10.68        0.00  
Resins and plastics
     83.40        16.60        0.00  
Intermediate petrochemicals
     93.88        5.42        0.70  
Petroleum products
     85.40        0.55        14.05  
Trading of petrochemical products
     48.48        48.26        3.26  
Total net sales
     78.36        3.36        18.28  
 
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2020 Net Sales by Region (%)
 
    
Eastern
China
    
Other parts of China
    
Exports
 
Synthetic fibers
     89.85        10.15        0.00  
Resins and plastics
     91.93        8.07        0.00  
Intermediate petrochemicals
     94.72        4.06        1.22  
Petroleum products
     91.35        0.24        8.41  
Trading of petrochemical products
     61.08        5.61        33.31  
Total net sales
     86.92        2.64        10.45  
2021 Net Sales by Region (%)
 
    
Eastern
China
    
Other parts of China
    
Exports
 
Synthetic fibers
     91.68        8.32        0.00  
Resins and plastics
     94.99        5.01        0.00  
Intermediate petrochemicals
     97.12        1.18        1.70  
Petroleum products
     91.80        0.39        7.81  
Trading of petrochemical products
     64.54        3.11        32.35  
Total net sales
     89.28        1.43        9.29  
Business Strategies
Our development objectives are to evolve itself into a “leading domestically, first-class globally” energy and chemical and new material enterprise. The key components of the Company’s development strategy are as follows: to take into account both low cost and differentiation, and to focus on both scale and refinement. The Company focuses on value and market orientation, creativity, talents as the backbone of the Company, the emphasis of environment and low carbon emissions and integrated development, to realize low cost and large scale of the upstream, and high value-added and refinement of the downstream. The Company will give full play to its advantages of a wide product chain, diversified products and close monitoring of the market to enhance competitiveness. Under the guidance of the above development strategy, according to the requirements of North-South Transformation Policy raised by Shanghai Government, the Company will (a) actively promote the transition from oil refining to chemical industry, the transition from chemical industry to materials, the transition from materials to
high-end
products, and the transition from parks to ecology, (b) carry out comprehensive technological transformation and quality upgrades, and (c) further optimize refining product structure to better meet the market needs. The Company will seek to strengthen the core industries of
mid-to-high-end
new materials such as carbon fiber, and take polyester, polyolefin, elastomer, and
C-5
downstream fine chemical new materials as breakthrough and extension for the
mid-to-high-end
new materials which should help the North-South transformation and the construction of Carbon Valley Green Bay and local industrial parks in Jinshan District. The Company will seek to develop wind, light, fire, and biological integrated power generation and green hydrogen production technology, with a view towards realizing the energy structure transformation from fossil energy to fossil energy combined with renewable energy to achieve energy saving. Through diversified industrial linkage development and cluster agglomeration, the Company plans to build an industrial base with green energy, fine chemical, and
high-end
material on the north bank of Hangzhou Bay with world-scale and first-class competitiveness.
In 2022, Sinopec Group will continue to adhere to the market-oriented, efficiency-centered strategy, consolidate the foundation of environmental protection, optimize production and operation, improve corporate governance efficiency with a focus on building talent teams, achieve high-quality development of the Company and strive to create better economic benefits.
In 2022, the Company is looking to process a total of 13.65 million tons of crude oil and produce a total of 7.57 million tons of refined oil, 0.8252 million tons of ethylene, 0.666 million tons of paraxylene, 0.431 million tons of polyethylene, 0.453 million tons of polypropylene, 0.103 million tons of ethylene glycol, and 0.02 million tons of acrylic fiber. To achieve our business objectives in 2022, we intend to pursue the following strategies:
 
   
Focus on green and clean energy for consolidating environmental protection
 
15

The Company will seek to comprehensively promote the establishment of the HSSE management system and establish and improve the PDCA closed-loop management mechanism. Under the key theme of “identifying major risks, eliminating major hidden dangers, and preventing major accidents”, the Company seeks to strengthen risk management and control in key areas and key links, and continue to tighten contractor safety management and control. Furthermore, the Company will endeavor to continue to improve employees’ safety awareness and skills and promote the creation of a culture that values safety. The Company will also emphasize implementing a green and clean strategy and strengthen carbon emission management to realize stable and standard- meeting emission of waste gas and wastewater to ensure that VOCs’ average concentration at the boundary was less than 100 micrograms/m3 and strengthen carbon emission management. The Company also seeks to make a good effort in the supply of anti-epidemic materials, in dealing with emergencies and the workforce’s stability to ensure the safety and physical and mental health of employees, and to strengthen employee safety education and comprehensively improve employee health management standards.
 
   
Focus on improving quality and efficiency through the continuous optimization of production and operation
The Company intends to optimize its overall planning for operations shutdown and
start-up
and strengthen the plant’s management and control during the shutdown and
start-up
phase. The Company shall also seek to improve its technical and economic indicators by improving safety management and its key control and maintenance plans. The Company also intends to optimize its systems to further improve the accuracy and reliability of crude oil comparison and selection, production and operation, and product structure optimization. The Company shall also further expand varieties in crude oil procurement and enhance deployment flexibility and will endeavor to reduce crude oil procurement costs. Furthermore, the Company strives to accurately grasp market conditions and adjust marketing strategies and product structures to maximize benefits. The Company shall also emphasize flexibly adjusting the yield of refined oil products and diesel-gasoline ratio, raise the total volume of high-grade gasoline, and develop new channels for exporting gasoline and jet fuel. The Company shall also seek to take advantage of market opportunities and devote efforts in developing new products and specialized materials. The Company intends to optimize its public projects and promote the optimization of its storage and transportation logistics system, and optimization its oil refining business. As a significant step forward, the Company is planning to implement full process safety management while strengthening its process stability and equipment integrity management, and continuously upgrade the automation and intelligence of its equipment. The Company will exert strict control of “Three Smalls” and eliminate “Three Nons”. Special competitions on the reliability of production equipment will continue to take place, while the “The Day of Excellence” activities are continuing to mobilize employees to eliminate safety risks in time, avoid accidents, and strengthen the smooth separation of the equipment.
 
   
Advance reformations further and raise efficiencies in corporate governance
With a focus on its strategic planning, the Company seeks to explore its path in organizational reorganization along the business or industrial chain to establish an organizational system which is in line with the management scope. The Company plans to reorganize its organizations and streamline work processes as well as integrate positions, and focus on key tasks in the reform, such as the reformation of “three systems”, the reformation of its scientific research regime, and a sound market-oriented operating system. The Company shall continue to promote its process management to improve the efficiency of business collaboration between different departments. The Company shall also strive to strengthen the management of investment enterprises, and incorporate wholly-owned and controlling subsidiaries into the Company’s integrated management system. The Company shall also fully carry out benchmarking and upgrading, and strengthen cost target management across its entire staff , while further tapping potentials and raise efficiency, with strict control on various expenses and expenditures. The Company also plans to integrate business and finance, and transformation from accounting finance to management finance. The Company also intends to implement transparent management, optimize business processes, improve management efficiency and quality, and makes good use of information technology to quickly and effectively convey the Company’s decisions and plans to, and deployment at, the grass-roots level. The Company is also establishing a retroactive investigation mechanism designed to ensure all the employees are clear about the goals and responsibilities and provided with proper motivation.
 
   
Focus on creativity-driven development so as to realize high-quality corporate development
In accordance with the “3060” national carbon emission requirement (“3060” refers to having carbon dioxide emissions peak by 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality by 2060), the Company’s ultimate goal is to ensure “zero carbon emissions” and guarantee coordination of carbon reduction and transformation and development. The Company promoted the construction of large ton carbon fiber,
hundred-ton
high performance carbon fiber pilot plant project, 3rd circuit 220 kV power supply line project. We will speed up the construction of hydrogen energy demonstration projects and launch the thermoplastic elastomer project. The Company shall emphasize tackling key core technologies such as carbon fiber, increase investment in research and development, and improve the collaborative innovation mechanism. The Company shall also explore opportunities in differentiated high value-added products, and strive to build a new material industry cluster with the carbon fiber industry as its core and utilize polyester, polyolefin, elastomer, C5 downstream fine chemical new materials as the keys to seek breakthroughs and developments. The Company also promotes the construction of a data governance system and the application of advanced control and optimization technologies, and deepens the application of intelligent security by promoting the construction of an integrated platform for intelligent marketing and accelerating the advancement of digital transformation.
 
16

   
Focus on team building and cementing solid foundation for development
The Company shall further empower the Company through recruiting talents and improve the recruitment of new graduates. The Company is devising a five-year training program for new college graduates and building a talent team with engineering thinking. The Company shall also clarify its employment orientation and evaluate the officer and talent selection and appointment mechanism. The Company continues to explore channels to select and appoint officers by introducing experienced talent through the selection and appointment of professional managers to nurture more young officers. The Company is also looking to uphold the pioneering spirit of the base-level and the public and improve staff medical services and improve medical protection standards to raise its staff’s happiness index while further enhancing the cohesion of the staff team.
Principal Products
We produce four principal types of products with different specifications, including synthetic fibers, resins and plastics, intermediate petrochemicals and petroleum products. We use many of the important petroleum products and intermediate petrochemicals we produce in producing our own downstream products.
The following table shows a comparison of the production volume and sales volume in 2020 and 2021 by our major products.
 
Products
  
Production
   
Sales
 
  
2021
(10,000
tons)
    
2020
(10,000
tons)
    
Year-on-year

change
   
2021
(10,000
tons)
    
2020
(10,000
tons)
    
Year-on-year

change
 
Diesel
Note1
     338.80        398.21        -14.92     338.10        398.61        -15.18
Gasoline
     339.64        327.30        3.77     340.23        328.18        3.67
Jet Fuel
Note1
     118.45        112.45        5.34     99.57        99.43        0.14
Paraxylene
     49.63        66.24        -25.08     46.53        45.64        1.95
Benzene
Note2
     30.67        37.21        -17.58     29.99        33.14        -9.51
Ethylene Glycol
     15.07        23.67        -36.33     4.14        12.73        -67.48
Ethylene Oxide
     33.56        31.30        7.22     32.78        30.53        7.37
Ethylene
Note2
     71.28        82.52        -13.62     —          —          —    
Polyethylene
     49.62        58.12        -14.62     49.63        57.85        -14.21
Polypropylene
     45.59        49.29        -7.51     42.26        45.16        -6.42
Polyester Pellet
Note2
     34.34        33.99        1.03     30.24        29.33        3.10
Acrylic
     7.10        11.55        -38.53     7.32        11.69        -37.38
Polyester Staple
     2.62        3.37        -22.26     2.73        3.40        -19.71
                
 
Notes: 1. Excludes sales volume of proceeds on order.
2. The difference between production and sales are internal sales.
The above-mentioned sales volume does not include the trading of our petrochemical products.
The following table shows our 2021 net sales by major products as a percentage of total net sales together with the typical uses of these products.
 
Product
  
% of net sales
  
Typical Use
SYNTHETIC FIBERS
     
Polyester staple fiber
   0.22    Textiles and apparel
Acrylic staple fiber
   1.52    Cotton type fabrics, wool type fabrics
Others
   0.07   
Sub-total
  
1.81
  
RESINS AND PLASTICS
     
Polyester chips
   2.22    Polyester fibers, films and containers
Polypropylene pellets
   4.80    Films, ground sheeting, wire and
cable compound and otherinjection molding products such as housewares and toys Polyethylene pellets
   4.19    Films or sheets, injection molding
products such as housewares, toys and household electrical appliances and automobile parts Polyvinyl alcohol (“PVA”)
   0.01    PVA fibers, building coating materials and textile starch
Others
   1.91   
Sub-total
  
13.13
  
INTERMEDIATE PETROCHEMICALS
     
Ethylene
   0.00    Feedstock for polyethylene, ethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride and other
intermediate petrochemicals which can be further processed into resins, plastics and synthetic fiber.
     
Ethylene oxide
   2.91    Intermediate products for the chemical and pharmaceutical
industry, including dyes, detergents and adjuvant
     
 
17

Product
  
% of net sales
  
Typical Use
Benzene
   2.42    Intermediate petrochemical products, styrene, plastics, explosives, dyes, detergents, epoxies and polyamide fiber
Paraxylene
   3.44    Intermediate petrochemicals and polyester
Butadiene
   0.82    Synthetic rubber and plastics
Ethylene glycol
   0.25    Fine chemicals
Others
   4.37   
Sub-total
  
14.21
  
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
     
Gasoline
   22.70    Transportation fuels
Diesel
   18.13    Transportation fuels and agricultural machinery fuels
Jet Fuel
   4.83    Transportation fuels
Others
   9.53   
Sub-total
  
55.19
  
Trading of petrochemical products
   14.56    Import and export trade of petrochemical products (purchased from domestic and overseas suppliers)
Others
   1.10   
Total
  
100.00
  
The following table provides a detailed description of our major products by industry segment, primary upstream raw materials, transport and storage method, primary downstream application fields and key price-influencing factors:
 
Product
  
Industry segment
  
Primary upstream
raw material
  
Transport/storage
method
  
Primary downstream
application fields
  
Key price-influencing
factors
Diesel
   Petroleum products    Petroleum    Pipeline transportation and shipping/ storage tank    Transportation fuel, agricultural machinery fuel    International crude oil price, government control
Gasoline
   Petroleum products    Petroleum    Pipeline transportation and shipping/ storage tank    Transportation fuel    International crude oil price, government control
Jet Fuel
   Petroleum products    Petroleum    Pipeline transportation and shipping/ storage tank    Transportation fuel    International crude oil price, supply- demand balance
Paraxylene
   Intermediate petrochemicals    Naphtha    Road transportation/ storage tank    Intermediate petrochemical products and polyester    Raw material price, supply-demand balance
Benzene
   Intermediate petrochemicals    Naphtha    Road transportation, shipping, rail transportation/ storage tank    Intermediate petrochemical products, styrene, plastic, explosive, dye, detergent, epoxy resin, chinlon    International crude oil price, market supply- demand condition
Ethylene Glycol
   Intermediate petrochemicals    Naphtha    Road transportation/ storage tank    Fine Chemicals engineering    International crude oil price, market supply- demand condition
/
 
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Product
  
Industry segment
  
Primary upstream
raw material
  
Transport/storage
method
  
Primary downstream
application fields
  
Key price-influencing
factors
Ethylene Oxide
   Intermediate petrochemicals    Naphtha    Road transportation, pipeline transportation/ storage tank    Chemical and medical industry intermediate products, including dyes, detergents and auxiliary    International crude oil price, market supply- demand condition
Ethylene
   Intermediate petrochemicals    Naphtha    Road transportation, pipeline transportation, shipping/storage tank    PE, EG, PVC and other raw material for further processing of intermediate petrochemical products such as resins, plastics and synthetic fibres    International crude oil price, supply- demand balance
Polyethylene
   Resins and plastics    Ethylene    Road transportation, shipping and rail transportation/ warehousing    Film, mulching film, cable insulation material and housewares, toys injection moulding products    Raw material price and market supply- demand condition
Polypropylene
   Resins and plastics    Propylene    Road transportation, shipping and rail transportation/ warehousing    Film, mulching film, housewares, toys, household appliances and auto parts injection moulding products    Raw material price and market supply- demand condition
Polyester chips
   Resins and plastics    PTA, EG    Road transportation, shipping and rail transportation/ warehousing    Polyester fibre or film, container    Raw material price and market supply- demand condition
Acrylics
   Synthetic fibres    Acrylonitrile    Road transportation, shipping and rail transportation/ warehousing    Simple spinning or blend with other material for texture or acrylic top    Raw material price and market supply- demand condition
Polyester    Synthetic fibres    Polyester    Road transportation, shipping and rail transportation/warehousing    Texture, apparel    Raw material price and market supply- demand condition
 
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Production Processes
The key component of the vertically integrated production facility of the Company is the ethylene facility producing ethylene and propylene and aromatics facility mainly producing paraxylene and benzene. Ethylene is the main raw material for the production of polyethylene and ethylene glycol, while ethylene glycol and PTA polymerization produces polyester. Propylene is the main raw material for the production of acrylics and polypropylene. The above-mentioned products all use crude oil as raw material and are processed through a series of petrochemical facilities. The chart below illustrates in brief the production processes of the Company.
 
Intermediate Petrochemicals
Ethylene
– Ethylene is either directly processed into polypropylene resins or processed into other intermediate petrochemicals. The most important of these is MEG. MEG is a key ingredient in polyester. It is produced by oxidizing ethylene in the ethylene oxide /ethylene glycol unit. Ethylene is also used to produce vinyl acetate which is processed into PVA.
Propylene
– Propylene is either processed directly into polypropylene resins or is further processed into other intermediate petrochemicals such as acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydroxyl acetonitrile and sodium cyanide. Acrylonitrile is used in producing acrylics.
Vacuum gas oil
– VGO is passed through the hydrocracker, and the resulting heavy naphtha is fed into the aromatics plants to produce paraxylene and benzene. Paraxylene is processed into PTA, one of the principal raw materials in producing polyester.
Resins and Plastics and Synthetic Fibers
We process our intermediate petrochemical products into five kinds of synthetic fiber raw materials: (1) polyester, (2) acrylonitrile, (3) polypropylene, (4) polyethylene, and (5) PVA. Each of these five products has its own production line or lines. We further process polyester and acrylonitrile into various types of synthetic fibers.
Polyester
– MEG and PTA are fed into a polymerization unit which produces polyester chips and polyester melt. Both chips and melt are used as raw materials in the production of polyester staple and filaments. Some chips are also sold to third parties.
Polyester staple fiber is a multi-strand fiber cut into short lengths which can be spun into fabric on its own or blended with cotton, wool or flax to produce textiles. Polyester filaments are a class of more highly processed polyester materials which have been drawn and oriented to produce a long thread-like fiber.
 
20

Acrylonitrile
– We produce polyacrylonitrile by feeding acrylonitrile into a polymerization unit. By passing the polyacrylonitrile through the fiber unit, acrylic fiber and acrylic staple fiber are produced, including cotton and wool type staple fibers. Wool acrylic staple fiber can be processed into acrylic wool strips.
Polypropylene
– We produce polypropylene resins by feeding propylene into a polymerization unit. Our fiber grade polypropylene resin is the main ingredient for polypropylene fiber production.
Polyethylene
– We have three sets of units producing polypropylene, two of which produce
low-density
polyethylene (“LDPE”) using the kettle type process, and the other unit produces all density polypropylene products using the Borstar bimodal process.
PVA
– PVA granules are produced from vinyl acetate, derived from ethylene.
Raw Materials
In 2021, we continued to strengthen our advantages in refining and chemical integration and leverage the strong adaptability of our refining plants to process more high-sulfur crude oil; we used a Process Industry Modeling System to determine the cost performance of crude oil to further improve the cost control of crude oil purchases; and the total volume of the top ten main types of oil purchased in the whole year of 2021 accounted for 82.94% of the total purchase of crude oil.
To enhance the overall profitability, we optimized our ethylene cracking stocks, adjusted and improved our natural gas and fuel gas structure, optimized our hydrogen system, reduced the emission and increased the efficiency of flare gas, increased the outputs of gasoline and aviation kerosene, and optimized naphtha, residual oil and wax oil processing lines. We further optimized the structure of our finished oil products, achieving a diesel to gasoline ratio of 0.99:1 for 2021. We strengthened our tracking of the margin contribution of our units, and continuously carried out daily profitability measurement for each product so as to promptly detect changes in profitability, quickly adjust the load and running schedule of our production units and afford priority to the production of products with high profitability and market demand.
Crude Oil
Crude oil is our primary raw material and the most significant raw material we purchase from outside sources. In 2021, crude oil accounted for approximately 58.12% of our consolidated annual cost of sales (68.26% of parent company annual cost of sales). Accordingly, the supply and price of crude oil are key factors in determining our profitability.
Supply and Transportation
– The crude oil required by us is purchased through Sinopec Corp., as an agent, from foreign sources and Shanghai Nanguang Petrochemical Co., Ltd., as an agent, from domestic sources. During 2021 we did not experience any significant problems in obtaining sufficient crude oil to meet our production needs.
Sinopec Group is responsible for preparing an annual plan on demand and supply for crude oil and petroleum products that forms the basis of the Chinese government’s annual “balancing plan” which effectively dictates our planned volume of crude oil processing in each year. Likewise, under the “balancing plan,” some of our petroleum products are designated for sale to the subsidiaries of Sinopec Group or other designated customers at market prices and we must consult Sinopec Group to sell elsewhere.
We have received confirmation from Sinopec Corp. that it will purchase on our behalf 13.65 million tons of imported crude oil in 2022. Sinopec Corp. has further confirmed that, subject to China’s national crude oil policy and our actual production needs, it will continue to purchase on our behalf sufficient quantities and appropriate types of crude oil, including domestic offshore and imported crude oil, to satisfy our anticipated annual needs. We anticipate that we will fully utilize our supply of crude oil in 2022. We believe that the mix of crude oil feedstock currently available is satisfactory for our 2022 production capacity and targets. Additionally, as part of China’s commitment at its accession into WTO, certain
non-state-owned
enterprises have been granted an increasing amount of quota to import crude oil. Although we do not expect to obtain crude oil through this channel in the foreseeable future due to the current crude oil supply system, this may provide us with an alternative source of crude oil supply.
Crude Oil Mix
– Our refining equipment is designed to process certain grades of crude oil. Therefore, the origin and quality of the crude oil available can be important to our business. We believe that as we have been significantly increasing usage of imported crude oil, we will continue to be able to obtain from the market such imported crude oil that is compatible with our refining equipment. The overall mix of foreign versus domestic crude oil we process in 2022 will depend on a variety of factors, including the amount of future supply of domestic offshore crude oil and the availability, price, quality, processing profitability and compatibility with our refining capabilities of imported crude oil. Provided there are no significant modifications to the existing channels of crude oil supply, we believe that sufficient supplies of crude oil will be available on the domestic or international markets for our 2022 production capacity and goals.
 
21

In 2021, our crude oil was sourced as follows:
 
Domestic offshore crude oil
     1.05
Imported crude oil
     98.95
  
 
 
 
Total:
     100.00
  
 
 
 
We expect that we will continue to rely principally on foreign sources for our crude oil supply. However, we believe that we will be able to maintain our processing efficiency through technological adjustments of our equipment and quality control and that increased use of imported oil will not materially adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Foreign and domestic offshore crude oil is supplied by tanker and pipeline to our oil terminal wharf and oil storage tank. See
Item 4.D.
Property, Plants and Equipment -Wharfs
.
In the past, we have not experienced disruption in our crude oil supply. The crude oil for our atmosphere vacuum distillation facility is mainly supplied from the Ningbo-Shanghai-Nanjing oil pipeline. Due to our ability to obtain crude oil from multiple sources, we are able to meet our normal requirements for crude oil.
Pricing
– The price of domestic crude oil shall apply the market –adjusted rate and the imported crude oil is generally sold to us at prevailing international market prices. The average cost of imported crude oil and domestic offshore crude oil in 2021 was RMB 3261.98 (U.S.$ 505.61) per ton and RMB 3716.11 (U.S.$ 576.01) per ton, respectively. In 2021, we processed 13,626,501 tons of imported crude oil and 137,858 tons of domestic offshore crude oil (including 404,700 tons of crude oil processed on a
sub-contract
basis).
Until March 2001 the Chinese government implemented a unified pricing system for crude oil. Each month, the National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) established an indicative price for each grade of domestic onshore crude oil based on comparable international market prices, inclusive of any duties that would have been imposed had the oil been imported. The actual price for domestic onshore oil would be such indicative price plus a surcharge. This surcharge was determined by China National Petroleum Corporation and Sinopec Group to reflect any transportation and other miscellaneous costs that would have been incurred in having the oil delivered to various refineries. Beginning March 2001, NDRC ceased publishing an indicative price. Instead, the indicative price for domestic onshore oil has been calculated and determined directly by China National Petroleum Corporation and Sinopec Group based on the principles and methods formerly applied by NDRC.
On January 13, 2016, NDRC issued the
Circular on Several Issues on Further Improving the Pricing Mechanism of Refined Oil
(Fa Gai Jia Ge [2016] No. 64) to adjust the existing refined oil pricing mechanism, which include, among other things, (i) setting a price floor of U.S.$40 for the downward adjustment of the crude refined oil. When the international crude oil price drops to U.S.$40 per barrel or below, i.e., the adjustment price floor, the refined oil price in China shall no longer be adjusted downwards; and (ii) creating a reserve for risks associated with the adjustment and control of oil prices. When the international crude oil price drops to U.S.$40 per barrel or below, all unadjusted amount shall be allocated to the reserve above mentioned for use for the purpose of energy saving or reduction of emission, improving the oil quality and securing a safe supply of oil.
We purchase crude oil through Sinopec Corp. and its affiliates from the sources selected and in the quantities confirmed by the Company at market prices. On this basis, we believe that changes in crude oil prices should not have a material effect on our competitiveness with other domestic producers. Nevertheless, any increase in the price of crude oil could have an adverse impact on our profitability to the extent that we are unable to pass cost increases on to our customers.
In 2021, the price of international crude oil market fluctuated and rose. The annual average price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil was $68.21/barrel, an increase of 74.1% over the previous year; the average price of Brent crude oil was $70.89/barrel, an increase of 70.0%; and the average price of Dubai crude oil was $69.23/barrel, an increase of 64.1%.
As of December 31, 2021, Sinopec Group had processed a total of 13.7644 million tons of crude oil (of which 404.7 thousand tons were processed on order), indicating a
year-on-year
decrease of 6.18%, mainly due to the implementation of the largest overhaul in the Company’s history this year. The cost of crude oil processing for the whole year of 2021 was RMB3,232.29/ton, representing an increase of RMB 852.27 /ton or 35.81% from the same period last year. The annual crude oil processing total cost increased by RMB9.222 billion from the same period last year or 27.15%, accounting for 58.12% of the total cost of sales.
Coal
Most of the coal used for electricity generation is purchased through a unified system of procurement by Sinopec Corp.. Coal is transported by rail from the mines to Qinhuangdao port and shipped by barge to Jinshanwei where it is delivered to the plant via a company-owned wharf and conveyer system. Our cost is primarily dependent on coal price and transportation charges.
 
22

We expect that our total requirement for coal to generate electricity in 2022 will be approximately 2 million tons. In 2021, we consumed approximately 1.7521 million tons of coal, a decrease of 138,700 tons from 2020 of 1.8908 million tons.
Other Raw Materials
We produce most of the raw materials used as feedstock for our operations. If any of these raw materials, other than ethylene, becomes unavailable from internal production, we believe that there are sufficient alternative sources at reasonable prices and the unavailability of raw materials from internal sources will not have a significant effect on our operations and profitability.
We purchase some ancillary raw materials from outside sources. These raw materials include natural gas, methanol, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, sulfur, acetone, acrylonitrile, PTA, propylene and a variety of catalytic agents. In 2021, the total cost of these materials accounted for approximately 15.73 % of our total cost of sales. We do not expect any difficulties in obtaining a supply of any of these ancillary raw materials in amounts sufficient to meet our needs in the foreseeable future.
Sales and Marketing
Distribution