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The remaining balance of the favorable lease rates intangible asset was reclassified and added to the operating lease right-of-use asset upon the adoption of the Lease Standard effective January 1, 2019. Figures in the table may not recalculate exactly due to rounding. 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Table of Contents



UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


FORM 10-K

  


 

(Mark One)

   

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

    

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

  

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

  

Commission file number: 1-12882

 


 

  

BOYD GAMING CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 


 

Nevada

88-0242733

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

3883 Howard Hughes Parkway, Ninth Floor, Las Vegas, NV 89169

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

 

(702) 792-7200

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

  

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

  

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value of $0.01 per share

BYD

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  ☒  No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ☐  No  ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  ☒  No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  ☒  No  ☐

 

 

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

  

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

☐ 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Act.☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ☒

 

As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange for such date, was approximately $2.1 billion.

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

  

 

Class

 

Outstanding as of February 20, 2020

 

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value

 

111,607,470

 

  

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for the registrant's 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the registrant's fiscal year end of December 31, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

  



  

 

Table of Contents
 

 

BOYD GAMING CORPORATION

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page No.

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1.

Business

1

 

 

 

ITEM 1A.

Risk Factors

11

 

 

 

ITEM 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

24

 

 

 

ITEM 2.

Properties

25

 

 

 

ITEM 3.

Legal Proceedings

25

 

 

 

ITEM 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

25

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

26

 

 

 

ITEM 6.

Selected Financial Data

28

 

 

 

ITEM 7.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

30

 

 

 

ITEM 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

51

 

 

 

ITEM 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

52

 

 

 

ITEM 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

113

 

 

 

ITEM 9A.

Controls and Procedures

113

 

 

 

ITEM 9B.

Other Information

115

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

ITEM 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

115

 

 

 

ITEM 11.

Executive Compensation

115

 

 

 

ITEM 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

115

 

 

 

ITEM 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

115

 

 

 

ITEM 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

115

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

116

 

 

 

ITEM 16.

Form 10-K Summary

124

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

125

 

 

Table of Contents
 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1.    Business

Overview

Boyd Gaming Corporation (the "Company," the "Registrant," "Boyd Gaming," "we" or "us") is a multi-jurisdictional gaming company that has been in operation since 1975. Headquartered in Las Vegas, we operate 29 wholly owned gaming entertainment properties in Nevada, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio and Pennsylvania.

 

We strive to create long-term shareholder value, to be among the leading companies in our industry and to provide opportunities for all while we support and enhance our communities. Our primary areas of focus are: (i) ensuring our existing operations are managed as efficiently as possible and remain positioned for growth; (ii) improving our capital structure and strengthening our balance sheet, including paying down debt, increasing free cash flow, improving operations and diversifying our asset base; and (iii) successfully implementing our growth strategy, which is built on identifying development opportunities and acquiring assets that are a good strategic fit and provide an appropriate return to our shareholders.

 

We operate with an efficient business model that we believe has enabled us to grow operating margins over the past several years, and we believe we have an opportunity to realize additional cost savings by further leveraging our size and scale. We strategically reinvest in our non-gaming amenities, including hotel rooms and restaurants to refresh our property offerings and better capitalize on customers' evolving spending behaviors. We manage our cost and expense structure to adjust to current business volumes and to generate strong and stable cash flows.

 

During 2019, we completed several transactions that improved our long-term financial position, strengthened our balance sheet and returned capital to our shareholders. During fourth quarter 2019, we issued $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 4.750% senior notes due December 2027. The net proceeds from the debt issuance were ultimately used to finance the redemption of all of the Company's outstanding 6.875% senior notes due 2023 and prepay a portion of our Refinancing Term B Loans. Since second quarter 2019, we have paid $295.0 million in prepayments on our Refinancing Term B Loans. In addition, for the year ended December 31, 2019, we repurchased 1.1 million shares for $28.0 million under the Company's share repurchase program. The Company declared quarterly dividends of $0.06 per share on March 4, 2019 and $0.07 per share on June 7, 2019, September 17, 2019 and December 17, 2019. 

 

We continually work to position our Company for greater success by strengthening our existing operations and growing through acquisitions, capital investments and other strategic initiatives. An example is our recent strategic initiative regarding legalized sports gambling. In July 2018, the Company entered into a partnership agreement with MGM Resorts International ("MGM Resorts"). Under this partnership, MGM Resorts and Boyd Gaming will both have the opportunity to offer online and mobile gaming platforms, including sports betting, casino gaming and poker in jurisdictions where either company operates physical casino resorts and online licenses are available. In August 2018, we entered into a strategic partnership with FanDuel Group to pursue sports betting and online gaming opportunities across the United States. Also in August 2018, we opened sports books at our two Mississippi properties, IP Casino Resort Spa ("IP") in Biloxi, and Sam's Town Hotel & Gambling Hall in Tunica, following the receipt of final approval from the Mississippi Gaming Commission. In March 2019, Valley Forge opened a sports book at the facility and in third quarter 2019, sports books at Diamond Jo Worth, Diamond Jo Dubuque, Blue Chip and Belterra Casino Resort opened, following approval from the respective state regulatory bodies.

 

We believe that the following factors have contributed to our success in the past and are central to our success in the future:

 

 

nine of our Las Vegas properties are well-positioned to capitalize on the attractive Las Vegas locals market;

     
 

our three downtown Las Vegas properties focus a majority of their marketing programs on, and derive a majority of their revenues from, a unique niche - Hawaiian customers;

     
 

our operations are geographically diversified within the United States;

     
 

we have strengthened our balance sheet and have increased free cash flow;

     
 

we have the ability to expand certain existing properties and to act opportunistically to make strategic acquisitions; and

     
 

we have an experienced management team.

 

 
1

Table of Contents

 

Properties

As of December 31, 2019, we own and operate 29 properties offering a total of 1,773,902 square feet of casino space, 36,977 slot machines, 809 table games and 11,090 hotel rooms. We derive the majority of our revenues from our gaming operations, which generated approximately 75%, 73% and 72% of our revenues in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Food & beverage revenues represent our next most significant revenue source, generating approximately 13% of revenues for 2019, and 14% for 2018 and 2017. Room revenues and other revenues each contributed less than 10% of revenues during each year.

 

We view each operating property as an operating segment. For financial reporting purposes, we aggregate our properties into three reportable business segments: (i) Las Vegas Locals; (ii) Downtown Las Vegas; and (iii) Midwest & South.

 

We added five properties to our Midwest & South segment during 2018. Valley Forge was acquired on September 17, 2018 and Ameristar Kansas City, Ameristar St. Charles, Belterra Resort and Belterra Park were acquired on October 15, 2018. As a result of the sale in 2016 of our equity interest in Borgata Hotel Casino & Spa ("Borgata"), we report our interest in Borgata as discontinued operations. See Note 2, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 for further discussion of these activities.

 

For financial information related to our segments as of and for the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019, see Note 14, Segment Information, to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8.

 

2

Table of Contents

 

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our properties (listed by the Reportable Segment in which each such property is reported) as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019:

 

     

Year

                                       
     

Opened

 

Casino

                           

Average

 
     

or

 

Space

 

Slot

 

Table

 

Hotel

 

Hotel

   

Daily

 
 

Location

 

Acquired

 

(Sq. ft.)

 

Machines

 

Games

 

Rooms

 

Occupancy

   

Rate

 

Las Vegas Locals

                                             

Gold Coast Hotel and Casino

Las Vegas, NV

 

2004

    88,915     1,718     49     712     85 %   $ 58  

The Orleans Hotel and Casino

Las Vegas, NV

 

2004

    137,000     2,272     60     1,885     85 %   $ 67  

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall

Las Vegas, NV

 

1979

    120,681     1,800     24     645     86 %   $ 60  

Suncoast Hotel and Casino

Las Vegas, NV

 

2004

    95,898     1,817     33     427     90 %   $ 77  

Eastside Cannery Casino and Hotel

Las Vegas, NV

 

2016

    63,879     881     9     306     78 %   $ 57  

Aliante casino + Hotel + Spa

North Las Vegas, NV

 

2016

    125,000     1,782     33     202     96 %   $ 96  

Cannery Casino Hotel

North Las Vegas, NV

 

2016

    86,000     1,451     22     200     84 %   $ 70  

Eldorado Casino

Henderson, NV

 

1993

    17,756     303         N/A     N/A       N/A  

Jokers Wild Casino

Henderson, NV

 

1993

    23,698     385     7     N/A     N/A       N/A  
                                               

Downtown Las Vegas

                                             

California Hotel and Casino

Las Vegas, NV

 

1975

    35,848     916     30     781     92 %   $ 47  

Fremont Hotel and Casino

Las Vegas, NV

 

1985

    30,244     912     28     447     88 %   $ 52  

Main Street Station Casino, Brewery and Hotel

Las Vegas, NV

 

1993

    26,918     813     19     406     91 %   $ 50  
                                               

Midwest & South

                                             

Par-A-Dice Hotel and Casino

East Peoria, IL

 

1996

    26,116     867     25     202     80 %   $ 68  

Belterra Casino Resort

Florence, IN

 

2018

    54,758     1,157     40     662     66 %   $ 84  

Blue Chip Casino, Hotel & Spa

Michigan City, IN

 

1999

    65,000     1,655     40     486     78 %   $ 79  

Diamond Jo Dubuque

Dubuque, IA

 

2012

    43,508     886     19     N/A     N/A       N/A  

Diamond Jo Worth

Northwood, IA

 

2012

    36,133     881     24     N/A     N/A       N/A  

Kansas Star Casino

Mulvane, KS

 

2012

    70,010     1,756     52     N/A     N/A       N/A  

Amelia Belle Casino

Amelia, LA

 

2012

    27,484     844     11     N/A     N/A       N/A  

Delta Downs Racetrack Casino & Hotel

Vinton, LA

 

2001

    15,000     1,630         370     67 %   $ 71  

Evangeline Downs Racetrack and Casino

Opelousas, LA

 

2012

    39,208     1,362         N/A     N/A       N/A  

Sam's Town Hotel and Casino

Shreveport, LA

 

2004

    29,285     985     25     514     67 %   $ 73  

Treasure Chest Casino

Kenner, LA

 

1997

    25,000     1,030     27     N/A     N/A       N/A  

IP Casino Resort Spa

Biloxi, MS

 

2011

    81,700     1,448     54     1,089     88 %   $ 71  

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall

Tunica, MS

 

1994

    46,000     785     17     700     47 %   $ 55  

Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City

Kansas City, MO

 

2018

    140,000     2,030     56     184     91 %   $ 80  

Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles

St. Charles, MO

 

2018

    130,000     2,396     56     397     91 %   $ 87  

Belterra Park

Cincinnati, OH

 

2018

    56,863     1,365         N/A     N/A       N/A  

Valley Forge Casino Resort

King of Prussia, PA

 

2018

    36,000     850     49     475     60 %   $ 104  

Total

    1,773,902     36,977     809     11,090                

N/A = Not Applicable

 

We also own and operate a travel agency and a captive insurance company that underwrites travel-related insurance, each located in Hawaii. Financial results for these operations are included in our Downtown Las Vegas segment, as our Downtown Las Vegas properties concentrate their marketing efforts on gaming customers from Hawaii. In addition, the financial results for our Illinois distributed gaming operator, which we acquired on June 1, 2018, are included in the Midwest & South segment. Our distributed gaming operator currently operates approximately 1,000 gaming units in approximately 220 locations across the state of Illinois.

 

3

Table of Contents

 

Las Vegas Locals Properties

Our Las Vegas Locals segment consists of nine casinos that primarily serve the resident population of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Las Vegas has historically been characterized by a vibrant economy and strong demographics that include a large population of retirees and other active gaming customers. In recent years, the Las Vegas economy has strengthened, as reflected in the positive trends in employment, construction activity and visitation. Our Las Vegas Locals segment competes directly with other locals casinos and gaming companies, some of which operate larger casinos and offer different promotions than ours.

 

Gold Coast Hotel and Casino

Gold Coast Hotel and Casino ("Gold Coast") is located on Flamingo Road, approximately one mile west of the Las Vegas Strip and one-quarter mile west of Interstate 15, the major highway linking Las Vegas and southern California. Its location offers easy access from all of the Las Vegas valley. The primary target market for Gold Coast consists of local middle-market customers who actively gamble. Gold Coast's amenities include 712 hotel rooms and suites along with meeting facilities, multiple restaurant options and a 70-lane bowling center.

 

The Orleans Hotel and Casino

The Orleans Hotel and Casino ("The Orleans") is located on Tropicana Avenue, a short distance from the Las Vegas Strip. The target markets for The Orleans are both local residents and visitors to the Las Vegas area. The Orleans provides an exciting New Orleans French Quarter-themed environment. Amenities at The Orleans include 1,885 hotel rooms, a variety of restaurants and bars, a spa and fitness center, 18 stadium-seating movie theaters, a 52-lane bowling center, banquet and meeting space, and a special events arena that seats up to 9,500 patrons.

 

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall ("Sam's Town Las Vegas") is located on the Boulder Strip, approximately six miles east of the Las Vegas Strip, and features a contemporary western theme. Its informal, friendly atmosphere appeals to both local residents and out-of-town visitors alike. Amenities at Sam's Town Las Vegas include 645 hotel rooms, a variety of restaurants and bars, 18 stadium-seating movie theaters, and a 56-lane bowling center.

 

Suncoast Hotel and Casino

Suncoast Hotel and Casino ("Suncoast") is located in Peccole Ranch, a master-planned community adjacent to Summerlin, and is readily accessible from most major points in Las Vegas, including downtown and the Las Vegas Strip. The primary target market for Suncoast consists of local middle-market customers who gamble frequently. Suncoast features 427 hotel rooms, multiple restaurant options, 25,000 square feet of banquet and meeting facilities, 16 stadium-seating movie theaters, and a 64-lane bowling center.

 

Eastside Cannery Casino and Hotel

Eastside Cannery Casino and Hotel ("Eastside Cannery") is located directly south of Sam's Town Las Vegas at the intersection of Boulder Highway and Harmon Avenue in Las Vegas. Its location offers easy access for both the Las Vegas and Henderson valleys. Eastside Cannery offers 306 hotel rooms, one restaurant and four bars, 20,000 square feet of meeting and ballroom space, and a 250-seat entertainment lounge.

 

Aliante Casino + Hotel + Spa

Aliante Casino + Hotel + Spa ("Aliante") is located in North Las Vegas adjacent to an 18-hole championship golf course and has convenient access to major freeways connecting it to points throughout Las Vegas. The primary target market for Aliante consists of local middle-market customers who gamble frequently. Aliante features a full-service Scottsdale-modern, desert-inspired casino and resort, which includes 202 hotel rooms, multiple restaurant options, a 16-screen movie theater complex, a 587-seat showroom, a spa, and a resort style pool with cabanas.

 

Cannery Casino Hotel

Cannery Casino Hotel ("Cannery") is located in the eastern part of the Las Vegas Valley and has convenient access to major freeways connecting it to points throughout Las Vegas. The primary target market for Cannery consists of local, casual working-class customers who gamble frequently. The Cannery has a 200-room hotel, five restaurants and five bars, a 30,000 square foot entertainment venue and a 14-screen movie theater.

 

Eldorado Casino and Jokers Wild Casino

Located in downtown Henderson, the Eldorado Casino ("Eldorado") is approximately 14 miles from the Las Vegas Strip. Jokers Wild Casino ("Jokers Wild") is also located in Henderson. The amenities at each of these properties include a sports book and dining options, as well as gaming, including slots at both properties and table games at Jokers Wild. The principal customers of these properties are Henderson residents.

 

4

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Downtown Las Vegas Properties

Our three Downtown Las Vegas properties directly compete with eight other casinos that operate in downtown Las Vegas. As such, we have developed a distinct niche for our downtown properties by focusing on customers from Hawaii. Our downtown properties focus their marketing on gaming enthusiasts from Hawaii and tour and travel agents in Hawaii with whom we have cultivated relationships since we opened our California Hotel and Casino (the "Cal") in 1975. Through our Hawaiian travel agency, Vacations Hawaii, we operate as many as four charter flights from Honolulu to Las Vegas each week, helping to provide air transportation for our customers. We also have strong, informal relationships with other Hawaiian travel agencies and offer affordable all-inclusive packages. These relationships, combined with our Hawaiian promotions, have allowed the Cal, Fremont Hotel and Casino ("Fremont") and Main Street Station Casino, Brewery and Hotel ("Main Street Station") to capture a significant share of the Hawaiian tourist trade in Las Vegas. During the year ended December 31, 2019, patrons from Hawaii comprised approximately 67% of the occupied room nights at the Cal, 35% of the occupied room nights at Fremont, and 46% of the occupied room nights at Main Street Station.

 

California Hotel and Casino

The Cal's amenities include 781 hotel rooms, multiple dining options, a sports book, and meeting space. The Cal and Main Street Station are connected by an indoor pedestrian bridge.

 

Fremont Hotel and Casino

Fremont is adjacent to the principal pedestrian thoroughfare in downtown Las Vegas, known as the Fremont Street Experience. The property's amenities include 447 hotel rooms, two restaurants, a race and sports book, and meeting space.

 

Main Street Station Casino, Brewery and Hotel

Main Street Station's amenities include 406 hotel rooms and two restaurants, one of which includes a brewery. In addition, Main Street Station features a 96-space recreational vehicle park, the only such facility in the downtown area.

 

Midwest & South Properties

Our Midwest & South properties consist of four land-based casinos, six dockside riverboat casinos, three racinos and four barge-based casinos that operate in nine states in the midwest and southern United States. Generally, these states allow casino gaming on a limited basis through the issuance of a limited number of gaming licenses. Each of our Midwest & South properties generally serve customers within a 100-mile radius and compete directly with other casino facilities operating in their respective immediate and surrounding market areas, as well as with gaming operations in surrounding jurisdictions.

 

Par-A-Dice Hotel Casino

Par-A-Dice Hotel Casino ("Par-A-Dice") is a dockside riverboat casino located on the Illinois River in East Peoria, Illinois that features a 202-room hotel. Located adjacent to the Par-A-Dice riverboat is a land-based pavilion, which includes four restaurants and a gift shop. Par-A-Dice is strategically located near Interstate 74, a major east-west interstate highway, and it is the only casino gaming facility located within an approximately 90 mile radius of Peoria, Illinois.

 

Belterra Casino Resort

Belterra Casino Resort ("Belterra Resort") is a dockside riverboat casino located in Florence, Indiana, approximately 50 minutes from downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, 70 minutes from Louisville, Kentucky, and 90 minutes from Lexington, Kentucky. Belterra Resort is also approximately two and one-half hours from Indianapolis, Indiana. The real estate utilized by Belterra Resort is subject to a Master Lease with Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. ("GLPI"). A FanDuel branded sportsbook opened at Belterra Resort in September 2019. Ogle Haus Inn, a 54-room boutique hotel that we lease from GLPI, is operated by us and located near Belterra Resort.

 

Blue Chip Casino, Hotel & Spa

Blue Chip Casino, Hotel & Spa ("Blue Chip") is a dockside riverboat casino located in Michigan City, Indiana, which is 40 miles west of South Bend, Indiana and 60 miles east of Chicago, Illinois. The property competes primarily with six casinos in northern Indiana and southern Michigan and, to a lesser extent, with casinos in the Chicago area and racinos located near Indianapolis. The property features 486 guest rooms, a spa and fitness center, dining and nightlife venues, and meeting and event space, including a land-based pavilion. A FanDuel branded sportsbook opened at Blue Chip in September 2019.

 

Diamond Jo Dubuque

Diamond Jo Dubuque is a land-based casino located in the Port of Dubuque, a waterfront development on the Mississippi River in downtown Dubuque, Iowa. Diamond Jo Dubuque is a two-story property that includes a bowling center, event center, and two banquet rooms. A FanDuel branded sportsbook opened at Diamond Jo Dubuque in September 2019. The property also features several dining outlets, including the Kitchen Buffet, a live action buffet, Woodfire Grille, the casino's high-end restaurant, The Filament, an electrifying-yet-casual restaurant and bar, and The Game, a sports bar, as well as three full service bars and Mississippi Moon Bar, a live music venue. 

 

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Diamond Jo Worth

Diamond Jo Worth is a land-based casino situated on a 46-acre site in Northwood, Iowa, which is located in north-central Iowa, near the Minnesota border and approximately 30 miles north of Mason City. The casino has an event center and several dining options, including the Kitchen Buffet, a buffet restaurant, Woodfire Grille, a high-end restaurant, a Subway and Burger King which is owned by a third party. A FanDuel branded sportsbook opened at Diamond Jo Worth in September 2019. There is a 102-room Country Inn & Suites hotel attached to the casino and a 60-room Holiday Inn Express hotel adjacent to the casino, both of which are owned and operated by third parties.

 

Kansas Star Casino

Kansas Star Casino ("Kansas Star") serves as Lottery Gaming Facility Manager for the South Central Gaming Zone on behalf of the Kansas Lottery pursuant to the Lottery Gaming Facility Management Contract (the "Kansas Management Contract"). The land-based casino is located in Mulvane, Kansas, approximately 20 miles south of Wichita, Kansas and has a buffet, a steakhouse and a number of other amenities including a deli, noodle bar, casual dining restaurant and casino bars. Kansas Star also has an arena that provides a venue for concerts, trade shows and equestrian events. In addition, the property has an event center for conventions, banquets and other events and an equestrian pavilion that includes a practice arena and covered stalls. There is a 300-room hotel adjacent to the casino that is operated by a third party. Under the terms of the agreement, Kansas Star has the option to purchase the hotel.

 

Amelia Belle Casino

The Amelia Belle Casino ("Amelia Belle") is located in south-central Louisiana, and is a three-level riverboat with gaming located on the first two decks as well as a café on the first deck. The property's third deck includes a buffet and banquet room.

 

Delta Downs Racetrack Casino & Hotel

Delta Downs Racetrack Casino & Hotel ("Delta Downs") is a land-based racino located in Vinton, Louisiana and conducts horse races on a seasonal basis and operates year-round simulcast facilities for customers to wager on races held at other tracks. In addition, Delta Downs offers slot play and a 370-room hotel. Delta Downs is approximately 25 miles closer to Houston than the next closest gaming properties, located in Lake Charles, Louisiana, and is conveniently located near a travel route taken by customers traveling between Houston, Beaumont and other parts of southeastern Texas to Lake Charles, Louisiana.

 

Evangeline Downs Racetrack and Casino

Evangeline Downs Racetrack and Casino ("Evangeline Downs") is a land-based racino located in Louisiana. The racino currently includes a casino with a convention center and multiple food venues, including a buffet, cafe, and two restaurants and bars. The racino includes a one-mile dirt track, a 7/8-mile turf track and stables for 1,008 horses. The Clubhouse, together with the grandstand and patio area, provides seating capacity for up to 4,295 patrons. In the Clubhouse, Silk's Fine Dining offers a varied menu and the grandstand area contains a concession and bar. There is also a 117-room hotel adjacent to the racino, which is operated by a third party.

 

Evangeline Downs operates three Off Track Betting ("OTB") locations in Henderson, Eunice and St. Martinville, Louisiana. Each OTB offers simulcast pari-mutuel wagering and video poker. Under Louisiana's racing and off-track betting laws, we have a right of prior approval with respect to any applicant seeking a permit to operate an OTB within a 55-mile radius of the Evangeline Downs racetrack, which effectively gives us the exclusive right, at our option, to operate additional OTBs within such a radius, provided that such OTB is not also within a 55-mile radius of another horse racetrack.

 

Sam's Town Hotel and Casino

Sam's Town Hotel and Casino ("Sam's Town Shreveport") is a dockside riverboat casino located along the Red River in Shreveport, Louisiana. Amenities at the property include 514 hotel rooms, a spa, four restaurants, a live entertainment venue, and convention and meeting space. Feeder markets include east Texas (including Dallas), Texarkana, Arkansas and surrounding Louisiana cities, including Bossier City, Minden, Ruston and Monroe. 

 

Treasure Chest Casino

Treasure Chest Casino ("Treasure Chest") is a dockside riverboat casino located on Lake Pontchartrain in the western suburbs of New Orleans, Louisiana. The property is designed as a classic 18th century Victorian style paddlewheel riverboat, with a total capacity for 1,925 people. The entertainment complex located adjacent to the riverboat houses a 120-seat Caribbean showroom and two restaurants. Located approximately five miles from the New Orleans International Airport, Treasure Chest primarily serves residents of suburban New Orleans.

 

IP Casino Resort Spa

IP Casino Resort Spa ("IP") is a barge-based casino overlooking the scenic back bay of Biloxi and, as a recipient of a AAA Four Diamond Award, is one of the premier resorts on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The property features more than 1,000 hotel rooms and suites; more than 65,000 square feet of convention and meeting space; a spa and salon; a 1,383-seat theater offering regular headline entertainment; eight lounges and bars; and seven restaurants, including a steak and seafood restaurant and an upscale Asian restaurant.

 

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Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall ("Sam's Town Tunica") is a barge-based casino located in Tunica County, Mississippi. The property has extensive amenities, including 700 hotel rooms, a sports book, an entertainment lounge, four dining venues, two escape rooms, an arcade, a residential vehicle park, and a 1,600-seat River Palace Arena.

 

Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City

Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City ("Ameristar Kansas City") is a barge-based casino located 10 miles from downtown Kansas City, Missouri. The property competes primarily with five casinos in the Kansas City area and bordering eastern Kansas market. The property features 184 guest rooms, 10 restaurants, a 1,200 seat concert venue, and an 18-theater cinema. The real estate utilized by Ameristar Kansas City is subject to a Master Lease with GLPI.

 

Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles

Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles ("Ameristar St. Charles") is a barge-based casino located in St. Charles at the Missouri River, strategically situated to attract guests from the St. Charles and the greater St. Louis areas, as well as tourists from outside the region. The property, which is in close proximity to the St. Charles convention facility, is located on approximately 52 acres along the western bank of the Missouri River. The property features an AAA Four Diamond full-service luxury suite hotel with 400 well-appointed rooms, an indoor-outdoor pool, seven dining venues; twelve bars, an entertainment venue, a full-service luxury day spa, two TopGolf Swing Suites and a 20,000-square-foot conference center. The real estate utilized by Ameristar St. Charles is subject to a Master Lease with GLPI.

 

Belterra Park

Belterra Park is a land-based racino located in Cincinnati, Ohio, situated on approximately 160 acres of land, 40 of which are undeveloped. The property is a gaming and entertainment center offering live racing, pari-mutuel wagering, video lottery terminal gaming, six restaurants, a VIP lounge, pari-mutuel wagering, and racing facilities with live thoroughbred racing on both dirt and the only grass track in Ohio.

 

Valley Forge Casino Resort

Valley Forge Casino Resort ("Valley Forge") is a land-based casino hotel located in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The property features approximately 36,000 square feet of gaming floor, 100,000 square feet of meeting, conference and banquet facilities and two luxury hotel towers. The Valley Tower has 325 recently remodeled rooms while the Casino Tower offers over 150 completely renovated rooms in the heart of the action. A FanDuel branded sportsbook opened at Valley Forge in March 2019. The property also presents six dining options, live entertainment and an exciting nightlife scene.

 

Competition

Our properties generally operate in highly competitive environments. We compete against other gaming companies as well as other hospitality, entertainment and leisure companies. We face significant competition in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Such competition may intensify in some of these jurisdictions if new gaming operations open in these markets or existing competitors expand their operations. Our properties compete directly with other gaming properties in each state in which we operate, as well as in adjacent states. We also compete for customers with other casino operators in other markets, including Native American casinos, and other forms of gaming, such as lotteries and internet gaming. In some instances, particularly with Native American casinos, our competitors pay substantially lower taxes or no taxes at all. We believe that increased legalized gaming in other states, particularly in areas close to our existing gaming properties and the development or expansion of Native American gaming in or near the states in which we operate, could create additional competition for us and could adversely affect our operations or future development projects.

 

Strategic Initiatives

Acquisition of Lattner Entertainment Group

To further diversify and expand our business, we acquired Lattner Entertainment Group Illinois, LLC ("Lattner"), in June 2018. The acquisition of Lattner provides us with an additional avenue to access gaming customers and a platform to participate in the expansion of distributed gaming.

 

Market-Access Agreement with MGM Resorts

In July 2018, we and MGM Resorts announced a market-access agreement to significantly increase each company's market access and customer base throughout the United States. Under this arrangement, our Company and MGM Resorts both have the opportunity to offer online and mobile gaming platforms - including sports betting, casino gaming and poker - in jurisdictions where either company operates physical casino resorts and online licenses are available. Under this market access agreement, each company has a path to expand their online and mobile gaming presence across 15 states, allowing each company to leverage their scale to create a nationwide approach to online and mobile sports betting, real money casino gaming and poker. As states continue to legalize interactive gaming, both companies will be poised to offer products in mobile and online sports betting, real money casino gaming and poker products where legally applicable.

 

Strategic Partnership with FanDuel Group

In August 2018, we announced that we had entered into a strategic partnership with FanDuel Group ("FanDuel"), the largest online sports destination in the United States, to pursue sports betting and online gaming opportunities across the country. This partnership brings together two of the largest and most geographically diversified companies in the gaming entertainment industry, given our Company’s scale and experience is being combined with FanDuel’s eight million customers and its presence across 45 states.

 

Subject to state law and regulatory approvals, we will establish a presence in the online gaming and sports wagering industry by leveraging FanDuel's technology and related services to operate Boyd Gaming-branded mobile and online sports-betting and gaming services. In turn, FanDuel will establish and operate mobile and online sports-betting and gaming services under the FanDuel brand in the states where we are licensed. During 2019, FanDuel sports books opened at our Valley Forge, Diamond Jo Worth, Diamond Jo Dubuque, Blue Chip and Belterra Resort properties.

 

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Our relationship with FanDuel covers all states where we hold gaming licenses currently and in the future, excluding Nevada. It also covers states included under our market-access agreement with MGM Resorts. The two companies will also engage in extensive co-branding and cross-promotional efforts. FanDuel will market our properties through its existing daily fantasy sports service and future interactive sports betting and gaming services, while we will promote FanDuel's products to our customer base. FanDuel will also provide our customers access to its existing product line.

 

Future Development Opportunities

Development agreement with Wilton Rancheria

We have a development agreement and a management agreement with Wilton Rancheria, a federally-recognized Native American tribe located southeast of Sacramento, California, to develop and manage a gaming entertainment complex. In January 2017, the tribe received a favorable Record of Decision from the Bureau of Indian Affairs and in February 2017, the land was taken into trust on behalf of the tribe. In September 2017, the California State Legislature unanimously approved, and the Governor of California executed, a tribal-state gaming compact with the tribe allowing the development of the casino. In October 2018, the National Indian Gaming Commission approved the Company's management contract with the Tribe. With the compact now in place, we are in the process of finalizing project budget, design and construction planning. The project will be constructed using third-party financing. Once commenced and project financing put in place, the construction timeline is expected to span 18 to 24 months. The land parcel taken into trust is located approximately 15 miles southeast of Sacramento on Highway 99, one of the two major north-south freeways in the Sacramento area.

 

Frequent Player Loyalty Programs

B Connected

We have established a nationwide branding initiative and loyalty program. Our players use their "B Connected" cards to earn and redeem points at nearly all of our properties. The program has five player tiers - Ruby, Sapphire, Emerald, Onyx and Titanium. The "B Connected" club, among other benefits, rewards players for their loyalty as well as entitles them to qualify for promotions and earn rewards toward slot, video poker, or table games play.

 

Benefits for our loyal customers include annual cruises, vacations, and gifts of luxury jewelry and electronics. The B Connected program is currently available in the Las Vegas valley at Aliante, the Cal, Fremont, Gold Coast, Main Street Station, The Orleans, Sam's Town Las Vegas and Suncoast; in Louisiana at Amelia Belle, Delta Downs, Evangeline Downs, Sam's Town Shreveport and Treasure Chest; in Illinois at Par-A-Dice; in Indiana at Blue Chip and Belterra Resort; in Iowa at Diamond Jo Dubuque and Diamond Jo Worth; in Mississippi at Sam's Town Tunica and IP; in Kansas at Kansas Star; in Missouri at Ameristar St. Charles and Ameristar Kansas City; and in Ohio at Belterra Park. Valley Forge and Cannery are expected to fully implement the program in 2020. 

 

Other Programs

Cannery, Eastside Cannery and Valley Forge continue to sponsor their own player loyalty programs to build brand awareness and leverage loyalty through marketing and promotional programs to retain existing customers, maintain trip frequency, acquire new customers, and recover lapsed customers. These properties offer their guests comprehensive, competitive and targeted marketing and promotion programs. Each program offers players a hassle-free way of earning points redeemable at each respective property for slot and table games play, food, beverage and retail items as well as complementaries and other rewards and benefits based on play. In addition, each property strives to differentiate its casino with high-quality guest services to further enhance overall brand and customer experience.

 

We plan to extend the B Connected program to these properties, subject to the receipt of regulatory approvals. The implementation of the B Connected program will replace the individual property programs described above and provide our customers at these properties even more value for their rewards with a multi-property player loyalty program.

 

Other Promotional Activities

We provide other promotional offers and discounts targeted towards new customers, frequent customers, inactive customers, customers of various levels of play, and prospective customers who have not yet visited our properties, and mid-week and other promotional activities that seek to generate visits to our properties during slower periods. Complementaries are usually in the form of monetary discounts, and other rewards generally can only be redeemed at our restaurants, retail and spa facilities.

 

Government Regulation

We are subject to extensive regulation under laws, rules and supervisory procedures primarily in the jurisdictions where our facilities are located or docked. The states in which we operate empower their regulators to investigate participation by licensees in gaming outside their jurisdiction and may require access to periodic reports respecting those gaming activities. Violations of laws in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in other jurisdictions. A detailed description of the governmental gaming regulations to which we are subject is filed as Exhibit 99.1 and is herein incorporated by reference.

 

If additional gaming regulations are adopted in a jurisdiction in which we operate, such regulations could impose restrictions or costs that could have a significant adverse effect on us. From time to time, various proposals have been introduced in the legislatures of some of the jurisdictions in which we have existing or planned operations that, if enacted, could adversely affect the tax, regulatory, operational or other aspects of the gaming industry and us. We do not know whether or not such legislation will be enacted. The federal government has also previously considered a federal tax on casino revenues and the elimination of betting on NCCA events. And with the recent expansion of sports wagering in various state jurisdictions, the federal government may elect to enact legislation taxing and regulating sports wagering, or alternatively may elect to prohibit such wagering. In addition, gaming companies are currently subject to significant state and local taxes and fees in addition to normal federal and state corporate income taxes, and such taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time. Any material increase in these taxes or fees could adversely affect us.

 

Employees and Labor Relations

At December 31, 2019, we employed approximately 24,300 persons, and had collective bargaining agreements with three unions covering 1,858 employees. Negotiations for a first contract with an organized bargaining unit are in progress at several of our Las Vegas properties.

 

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Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Nevada in June 1988. Our principal executive offices are located at 3883 Howard Hughes Parkway, Ninth Floor, Las Vegas, NV 89169, and our main telephone number is (702) 792-7200. Our website is www.boydgaming.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference herein.

 

Available Information

We file annual, quarterly, current and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site, at http://www.sec.gov, containing reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Copies of our SEC filings are also available on the SEC’s website. You also may read and copy reports and other information filed by us at the office of the New York Stock Exchange, Inc., 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. A copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K will be provided to a stockholder, with exhibits, without charge upon written request to Boyd Gaming Corporation, 3883 Howard Hughes Parkway, Ninth Floor, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169, (702) 792-7200, Attn: David Strow, Vice President, Corporate Communications.

 

We make our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to these reports, available free of charge on our corporate website as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. In addition, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Corporate Governance Guidelines, and charters of the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee are available on our website. We will provide reasonable quantities of electronic or paper copies of filings free of charge upon request. In addition, we will provide a copy of the above referenced charters to stockholders upon request.

 

Important Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). Such statements contain words such as "may," "will," "might," "expect," "believe," "anticipate," "could," "would," "estimate," "pursue," "target," "project," "intend," "plan," "seek," "should," "assume," and "continue," as well as variations of such words and similar expressions referring to the future. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, but are not limited to, statements regarding:

 

 

the factors that contribute to our ongoing success and our ability to be successful in the future;
 

our business model, areas of focus and strategy for driving business results;
  competition, including expansion of gaming into additional markets including internet gaming, the impact of competition on our operations, our ability to respond to such competition, and our expectations regarding continued competition in the markets in which we compete;
  our estimated effective income tax rates, estimated tax benefits, and merits of our tax positions;
  the general effect, and expectation, of the national and global economy on our business, as well as the economies where each of our properties are located;
  our expenses;
  indebtedness, including Boyd Gaming’s ability to refinance or pay amounts outstanding under its credit agreement and Boyd Gaming’s unsecured notes, when they become due and our compliance with related covenants, and our expectation that we will need to refinance all or a portion of our respective indebtedness at or before maturity;
  our expectation regarding the trends that will affect the gaming industry over the next few years and the impact of these trends on growth of the gaming industry, future development opportunities and merger and acquisition activity in general;
  our belief that consumer confidence will strengthen as the job market continues to expand;
  our expectations with respect to the valuation of tangible and intangible assets;
  the type of covenants that will be included in any future debt instruments;
  our expectations with respect to potential disruptions in the global capital markets, the effect of such disruptions on consumer confidence and reduced levels of consumer spending and the impact of these trends on our financial results;
  our ability to meet our projected operating and maintenance capital expenditures and the costs associated with our expansion, renovations and development of new projects;
  our ability to pay dividends or to pay any specific rate of dividends, and our expectations with respect to the receipt of dividends;
  our commitment to finding opportunities to strengthen our balance sheet and to operate more efficiently;
  our intention to pursue expansion opportunities, including acquisitions, that are a good fit for our business, deliver a solid return for stockholders, and are available at the right price;
  our intention to fund purchases made under our share repurchase program, if any, with existing cash resources and availability under the Credit Facility;
  our assumptions and expectations regarding our critical accounting estimates;
  Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDAR, and the usefulness of each as a measure of operating performance or valuation;
  our expectations for capital improvement projects;
  the impact of new accounting pronouncements on our consolidated financial statements;
  that our credit agreement and our cash flows from operating activities will be sufficient to meet our respective projected operating and maintenance capital expenditures for the next twelve months;
  our ability to fund any expansion projects using cash flows from operations and availability under our credit agreement or through additional debt issuances;
  our market risk exposure and efforts to minimize risk;
  expansion, development, investment and renovation plans, including the scope of any such plans, expected costs, financing (including sources thereof and our expectation that long-term debt will substantially increase in connection with such projects), timing and the ability to achieve market acceptance;

 

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  our belief that all pending litigation claims, if adversely decided, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations;
  that margin improvements will remain a driver of profit growth for us going-forward;
  development opportunities in existing or new jurisdictions and our ability to successfully take advantage of such opportunities;
  regulations, including anticipated taxes, tax credits or tax refunds expected, and the ability to receive and maintain necessary approvals for our projects;
  the outcome of various tax audits and assessments, including our appeals thereof, timing of resolution of such audits, our estimates as to the amount of taxes that will ultimately be owed and the impact of these audits on our consolidated financial statements;
  our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes;
  our expectations regarding Congress legalizing online gaming in the United States as well as the continued expansion of online gaming as a result of the passage of new authorizing legislation in various states;
  our expectations regarding the expansion of sports betting;
  our asset impairment analyses and our intangible asset and goodwill impairment tests;
  the likelihood of interruptions to our rights in the land we lease under long-term leases for certain of our hotel and casinos;
  the ability of our customer-tracking, customer loyalty and yield-management programs to continue to increase customary loyalty and same-store sales;
  the effect of environmental and structural building conditions related to our properties;
  our ability to receive insurance reimbursement and our estimates of self-insurance accruals and future liability;
  that operating results for previous periods are not necessarily indicative of future performance;
  that estimates and assumptions made in the preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles may differ from actual results;
  our expectations regarding our cost containment efforts;
  our belief that recently issued accounting pronouncements will not have a material impact on our financial statements where we have so stated;
  our estimates as to the effect of any changes in our Consolidated EBITDA on our ability to remain in compliance with certain covenants in the credit agreement;
  our ability to engage in productive negotiations regarding bargaining agreements as necessary;
  expectations, plans, beliefs, hopes or intentions regarding the future; and
  assumptions underlying any of the foregoing statements.

 

These forward-looking statements speak only as of the dates stated and we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, even if experience or future events make it clear that any expected results expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements will not be realized. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, these expectations may prove to be incorrect or we may not achieve the financial results, savings or other benefits anticipated in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are necessarily estimates reflecting the best judgment of our senior management and involve a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which may be beyond our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements. If any of those risks and uncertainties were to materialize, actual results could differ materially from those discussed in any such forward-looking statement. Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in forward-looking statements are those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” and in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other current and periodic reports filed from time to time with the SEC. These factors include, but are not limited to:

 

 

the effects of intense competition that exists in the gaming industry;

 

the risk that our acquisitions and other expansion opportunities divert management’s attention or incur substantial costs, or that we are otherwise unable to develop, profitably manage or successfully integrate the businesses we have acquired or may acquire in the future;

 

the fact that our expansion, development and renovation projects (including enhancements to improve property performance) are subject to many risks inherent in expansion, development or construction of a new or existing project;

 

the risk that any of our projects may not be completed, if at all, on time or within established budgets, or that any project will not result in increased earnings to us;

 

the risk that significant delays, cost overruns, or failures of any of our projects to achieve market acceptance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations;

 

our ability to take advantage of, and to realize the anticipated benefits of, any past or future financing, mergers and acquisitions, dispositions, partnerships, and other corporate opportunities, and the risks associated with such or similar transactions, arrangements or opportunities;
 

the risk that new gaming licenses or jurisdictions become available (or offer different gaming regulations or taxes) that result in increased competition to us;
 

the risk that negative industry or economic trends, reduced estimates of future cash flows, disruptions to our business, slower growth rates or lack of growth in our business, may result in significant write-downs or impairments in future periods;

 

the risk that regulatory authorities may revoke, suspend, condition or limit our gaming or other licenses, certificates and concessions, impose substantial fines and take other adverse actions against any of our casino operations or any current or future online gaming and sports wagering operations;

 

the risk that we may be unable to refinance our respective outstanding indebtedness as it comes due, or that if we do refinance, the terms are not favorable to us;

 

the effects of the extensive governmental gaming regulation and taxation policies to which we are subject and the costs of compliance or failure to comply with such regulations, as well as any changes in laws and regulations, including increased taxes, which could harm our business;

 

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  the effects of federal, state and local laws affecting our business such as the regulation of smoking, the regulation of directors, officers, key employees and partners and regulations affecting business in general;
  the effects of extreme weather conditions or natural disasters on our facilities and the geographic areas from which we draw our customers, and our ability to recover insurance proceeds (if any);
  the effects of events adversely impacting the economy or the regions from which we draw a significant percentage of our customers, including the effects of any future economic recession, war, terrorist or similar activity or natural or man-made disasters in, at, or around our properties;
  the risk that we fail to adapt our business and amenities to changing customer preferences;
  our ability to continue to negotiate collective bargaining agreements with the unions that represent certain of our employees;
  the effect of unusual gaming hold percentages in any given period;
  financial community and rating agency perceptions of us, and the effect of economic, credit and capital market conditions on the economy and the gaming and hotel industry;
  the risk of the expansion of legalized gaming in the regions in which we operate;
  the risk relating to the Kansas legislature authorizing a new gaming referendum allowing Wichita Greyhound Park to install slot machines, creating increased competition in the Kansas market;
  the risk of failing to maintain the integrity of our information technology infrastructure causing unintended distribution to third parties of, or access by third parties to, our customer, company or employee data, and any litigation, fines, disruption to our operations or reputational harm resulting from such loss of data integrity;
  our estimated effective income tax rates, estimated tax benefits, and merits of our tax positions;
  our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes;
 

the potential of certain of our stockholders owning large interest in our capital stock to significantly influence our affairs;

 

other statements regarding our future operations, financial condition and prospects, and business strategies;

 

the risk that we may be unable to retain our key management and personnel, including key employees of the acquired companies; and

 

our current and future insurance coverage levels, including the risk we have not obtained sufficient coverage, may not be able to obtain sufficient coverage in the future, or will only be able to obtain additional coverage at significantly increased rates.

 

All forward-looking statements should be evaluated with the understanding of their inherent uncertainty. All forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K (including any document incorporated by reference) are made only as of the date of the document in which they are contained, based on information available to us as of the date of that document, and we caution you not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements in light of the risks and uncertainties associated with them. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by our cautionary statements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

ITEM 1A.    Risk Factors

In addition to the other information contained in this report on Form 10-K, the following Risk Factors should be considered carefully in evaluating our business.

 

If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the value of our securities, including our common stock and senior notes, could decline significantly, and investors could lose all or part of their investment.

 

This report is qualified in its entirety by these risk factors.

 

Risks Related to our Business

Our business is particularly sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer spending as a result of downturns in the economy.

Consumer demand for entertainment and other amenities at casino hotel properties, such as ours, are particularly sensitive to downturns in the economy and the corresponding impact on discretionary spending on leisure activities. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences brought about by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions, effects of declines in consumer confidence in the economy, including any future housing, employment and credit crisis, the impact of high energy and food costs, the increased cost of travel, the potential for bank failures, decreased disposable consumer income and wealth, or fears of war and future acts of terrorism could further reduce customer demand for the amenities that we offer, thus imposing practical limits on pricing and negatively impacting our results of operations and financial condition.

 

For example, beginning in 2007 we experienced one of the toughest economic periods in Las Vegas history. The housing crisis and economic slowdown in the United States resulted in a significant decline in the amount of tourism and spending in Las Vegas and other locations in which we own or invest in casino hotel properties. While the economy has improved significantly since the end of the recent economic recession, our business continues to be impacted from changes in consumer spending habits due to the recession. Our customers spend less per visit and differently than prior to the recession, including focusing more on non-gaming amenities. We cannot say when, if ever, or to what extent, customer behavior in our various markets will fully-revert to pre-recession behavior trends. If customers spend less per visit or customers prefer non-gaming amenities of our competitors, and we are unable to increase total visitation, our business may be adversely affected. Since our business model relies on consumer expenditures on entertainment, luxury and other discretionary items, a slowing or stoppage of the economic recovery or a return to an economic downturn will further adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Intense competition exists in the gaming industry, and we expect competition to continue to intensify.

The gaming industry is highly competitive for both customers and employees, including those at the management level. We compete with numerous casinos and hotel casinos of varying quality and size in market areas where our properties are located. We also compete with other non-gaming resorts and vacation destinations, and with various other casino and other entertainment businesses, including online gaming websites, and could compete with any new forms of gaming that may be legalized in the future. The casino entertainment business is characterized by competitors that vary considerably in their size, quality of facilities, number of operations, brand identities, marketing and growth strategies, financial strength and capabilities, level of amenities, management talent and geographic diversity. In most markets, we compete directly with other casino facilities operating in the immediate and surrounding market areas. In some markets, we face competition from nearby markets in addition to direct competition within our market areas.

 

With fewer other new markets opening for development, competition in existing markets has intensified in recent years. We and our competitors have invested in expanding existing facilities, developing new facilities, and acquiring established facilities in existing markets. This expansion of existing casino entertainment properties, the increase in the number of properties and the aggressive marketing strategies of many of our competitors have increased competition in many markets in which we compete, and this intense competition can be expected to continue. For example, in December 2014, a new property opened in Lake Charles, Louisiana, that increased competition with Delta Downs. At the end of December 2015, a new casino opened in D'Iberville, Mississippi that competes with IP. In Illinois, the legalization of video lottery terminals in recent years has added more than 33,000 new gaming devices across the state, including over 5,100 in the immediate market of the Par-A-Dice, increasing competition for that property. In January 2018, a new tribal casino in South Bend, Indiana opened, which competes with Blue Chip for gaming customers. Additionally, competition may intensify if our competitors commit additional resources to aggressive pricing and promotional activities in order to attract customers.

 

Also, our business may be adversely impacted by the additional gaming and room capacity in states where we operate or intend to operate. Several states are also considering enabling the development and operation of casinos or casino-like operations in their jurisdictions.

 

The possible future expansion of gaming in Wisconsin or the possible expansion of gaming in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, if approved, could impact the operating results of the Diamond Jo Dubuque. Further, Kansas Star could, in the future, face competition from the Wichita Greyhound Park, located approximately 30 miles away in Park City, Kansas. While gaming is not currently permitted in Sedgwick County, Kansas (the site of the Wichita Greyhound Park), the Kansas Expanded Lottery Act permits the installation of slot machines at race tracks under certain conditions. If the Kansas legislature authorized a new gaming referendum in Sedgwick County and such referendum was approved, and certain other regulatory conditions were satisfied, the Wichita Greyhound Park could be permitted to install slot machines.

 

We also compete with legalized gaming from casinos located on Native American tribal lands. Expansion of Native American gaming in areas located near our properties, or in areas in or near those from which we draw our customers, could have an adverse effect on our operating results. For example, increased competition from federally recognized Native American tribes near Blue Chip and Sam’s Town Shreveport has had a negative impact on our results. Native American gaming facilities typically have a significant operating advantage over our properties due to lower gaming fees or taxes, allowing those facilities to market more aggressively and to expand or update their facilities at an accelerated rate. Although we expanded our facility at Blue Chip in an effort to be more competitive in this market, competing Native American properties could continue to have an adverse impact on the operations of both Blue Chip and Sam’s Town Shreveport. Kansas Star may face additional competition in the Wichita, Kansas metropolitan area. The Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma previously filed an application with the U.S. Department of Interior to have certain land located in Park City, Kansas (in the Wichita metro area) taken into trust by the U.S. Government and to permit gaming. In July 2014, the U.S. Department of Interior rejected the Wyandotte Nation’s trust application for the Park City land. However, the Nation has indicated it will seek to appeal this ruling. If an appeal were filed and ultimately successful, the Wyandotte Nation would be permitted to open a Class II gaming facility, and upon successful negotiation of a compact with the State of Kansas would be permitted to open a Class III gaming facility.

 

In addition, we also compete to some extent with other forms of gaming on both a local and national level, including state-sponsored lotteries, charitable gaming, video gaming terminals at bars, restaurants, taverns and truck stops, on-and off-track wagering, and other forms of entertainment, including motion pictures, sporting events and other recreational activities. It is possible that these secondary competitors could reduce the number of visitors to our facilities or the amount they are willing to wager, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue or maintain our profitability and cash flows.

 

If our competitors operate more successfully than we do, if they attract customers away from us as a result of aggressive pricing and promotion, if they are more successful than us in attracting and retaining employees, if their properties are enhanced or expanded, if they operate in jurisdictions that give them operating advantages due to differences or changes in gaming regulations or taxes, or if additional hotels and casinos are established in and around the locations in which we conduct business, we may lose market share or the ability to attract or retain employees. In particular, the expansion of casino gaming in or near any geographic area from which we attract or expect to attract a significant number of our customers could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, increased competition may require us to make substantial capital expenditures to maintain and enhance the competitive positions of our properties, including updating slot machines to reflect changing technology, refurbishing public service areas periodically, replacing obsolete equipment on an ongoing basis and making other expenditures to increase the attractiveness and add to the appeal of our facilities. Because we are highly leveraged, after satisfying our obligations under our outstanding indebtedness, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient funds to undertake these expenditures or that we will be able to obtain sufficient financing to fund such expenditures. If we are unable to make such expenditures, our competitive position could be materially adversely affected.

 

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We may incur impairments to goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets.

In accordance with the authoritative accounting guidance for goodwill and other intangible assets, we test our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually or if a triggering event occurs. We perform our annual impairment testing for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets as of October 1. No impairment charges were recorded as a result of the 2019, 2018 and 2017 tests.

 

If our estimates of projected cash flows related to our assets are not achieved, we may be subject to future impairment charges, which could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial statements.

 

We face risks associated with growth and acquisitions.

As part of our business strategy, we regularly evaluate opportunities for growth through development of gaming operations in existing or new markets, through acquiring other gaming entertainment facilities or through redeveloping our existing gaming facilities. In the future, we may also pursue expansion opportunities, including joint ventures, in jurisdictions where casino gaming is not currently permitted in order to be prepared to develop projects upon approval of casino gaming. The expansion of our operations, whether through acquisition, development or internal growth, could divert management’s attention and could also cause us to incur substantial costs, including legal, professional and consulting fees.

 

Although we only intend to engage in acquisitions that, if consummated, will be accretive to us and our shareholders, acquisitions require significant management attention and resources to integrating new properties, businesses and operations. Additionally, we are currently working to successfully integrate the additional properties into Boyd Gaming’s operating structure in order to realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions. Potential difficulties we may encounter as part of the integration process include the following:

 

 

the inability to successfully incorporate the assets in a manner that permits us to achieve the full revenue and other benefits anticipated to result from acquisitions;

 

complexities associated with managing the combined business, including difficulty addressing possible differences in cultures and management philosophies and the challenge of integrating complex systems, technology, networks and other assets of each of the companies in a seamless manner that minimizes any adverse impact on customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies; and

 

potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses associated with acquisitions.

 

In addition, it is possible that the integration process could result in:

 

 

diversion of the attention of our management; and

 

the disruption of, or the loss of momentum in, each our ongoing business or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies or our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits, or could reduce our earnings or otherwise adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify, acquire, develop or profitably manage additional companies or operations or successfully integrate such companies or operations, including the properties associated with our recent acquisitions into our existing operations without substantial costs, delays or other problems. Additionally, there can be no assurance that we will receive gaming or other necessary licenses or approvals for new projects that we may pursue or that gaming will be approved in jurisdictions where it is not currently approved.

 

Ballot measures or other voter-approved initiatives to allow gaming in jurisdictions where gaming, or certain types of gaming (such as slots), was not previously permitted could be challenged, and, if such challenges are successful, these ballot measures or initiatives could be invalidated. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that there will not be similar or other challenges to legalized gaming in existing or current markets in which we may operate or have development plans, and successful challenges to legalized gaming could require us to abandon or substantially curtail our operations or development plans in those locations, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

There can be no assurance that we will not face similar challenges and difficulties with respect to new development projects or expansion efforts that we may undertake, which could result in significant sunk costs that we may not be able to fully recoup or that otherwise have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Our expansion and development opportunities may face significant risks inherent in construction projects.

We regularly evaluate expansion, development, investment and renovation opportunities.

 

Any such development projects are subject to many other risks inherent in the expansion or renovation of an existing enterprise or construction of a new enterprise, including unanticipated design, construction, regulatory, environmental and operating problems and lack of demand for our projects. Our current and future projects could also experience:

 

 

changes to plans and specifications;

     
 

delays and significant cost increases;

     
 

shortages of materials;

     
 

shortages of skilled labor or work stoppages for contractors and subcontractors;

     
 

labor disputes or work stoppages;

     
 

disputes with and defaults by contractors and subcontractors;

     
 

health and safety incidents and site accidents;

     
 

engineering problems, including defective plans and specifications;

     
 

poor performance or nonperformance by any of our joint venture partners or other third parties on whom we place reliance;

     
 

changes in laws and regulations, or in the interpretation and enforcement of laws and regulations, applicable to gaming facilities, real estate development or construction projects;

     
 

unforeseen construction scheduling, engineering, environmental, permitting, construction or geological problems;

     
 

environmental issues, including the discovery of unknown environmental contamination;

     
 

weather interference, floods, fires or other casualty losses;

     
 

other unanticipated circumstances or cost increases; and

     
 

failure to obtain necessary licenses, permits, entitlements or other governmental approvals.

 

 

The occurrence of any of these development and construction risks could increase the total costs of our construction projects or delay or prevent the construction or opening or otherwise affect the design and features of our construction projects, which could materially adversely affect our plan of operations, financial condition and ability to satisfy our debt obligations.

 

In addition, actual costs and construction periods for any of our projects can differ significantly from initial expectations. Our initial project costs and construction periods are based upon budgets, conceptual design documents and construction schedule estimates prepared at inception of the project in consultation with architects and contractors. Many of these costs can increase over time as the project is built to completion. We can provide no assurance that any project will be completed on time, if at all, or within established budgets, or that any project will result in increased earnings to us. Significant delays, cost overruns, or failures of our projects to achieve market acceptance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Although we design our projects to minimize disruption of our existing business operations, expansion and renovation projects require, from time to time, all or portions of affected existing operations to be closed or disrupted. Any significant disruption in operations of a property could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The failure to obtain necessary government approvals in a timely manner, or at all, can adversely impact our various expansion, development, investment and renovation projects.

Certain permits, licenses and approvals necessary for some of our current or anticipated projects have not yet been obtained. The scope of the approvals required for expansion, development, investment or renovation projects can be extensive and may include gaming approvals, state and local land-use permits and building and zoning permits. Unexpected changes or concessions required by local, state or federal regulatory authorities could involve significant additional costs and delay the scheduled openings of the facilities. We may not obtain the necessary permits, licenses and approvals within the anticipated time frames, or at all.

 

Failure to maintain the integrity of our information technology systems, protect our internal information, or comply with applicable privacy and data security regulations could adversely affect us.

We rely extensively on our computer systems to process customer transactions, manage customer data, manage employee data and communicate with third-party vendors and other third parties, and we may also access the internet to use our computer systems. Our operations require that we collect and store customer data, including credit card numbers and other personal information, for various business purposes, including marketing and promotional purposes. We also collect and store personal information about our employees. Breaches of our security measures or information technology systems or the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive personal information or confidential data about us, or our customers, or our employees including the potential loss or disclosure of such information as a result of hacking or other cyber-attack, computer virus, fraudulent use by customers, employees or employees of third party vendors, trickery or other forms of deception or unauthorized use, or due to system failure, could expose us, our customers, our employees or other individuals affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in litigation and potential liability for us, damage our casino or brand names and reputations or otherwise harm our business. We rely on proprietary and commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmission and storage of customer information, such as payment card, employee information and other confidential or proprietary information. Our data security measures are reviewed and evaluated regularly, however they might not protect us against increasingly sophisticated and aggressive threats. The cost and operational consequences of implementing further data security measures could be significant.

 

Additionally, the collection of customer and employee personal information imposes various privacy compliance related obligations on our business and increases the risks associated with a breach or failure of the integrity of our information technology systems. The collection and use of personal data are governed by privacy laws and regulations enacted by the various states, the federal government of the United States, and various foreign jurisdictions. Privacy laws and regulations continue to evolve and on occasion may be inconsistent between jurisdictions. Various federal, state, and foreign legislative or regulatory bodies may enact or adopt new or additional laws and regulations concerning privacy, data retention, data transfer, and data protection. For example, California has enacted a new privacy law, known as the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the “CCPA”), which provides to California consumers certain new access, deletion and opt-out rights related to their personal information, imposes civil penalties for violations and affords, in certain cases, a private right of action for data breaches. Compliance with the CCPA may require us to incur significant costs and expenses.

 

Compliance with applicable privacy laws and regulations may increase our operating costs and/or adversely impact our ability to market our products, properties and services to our customers. In addition, non-compliance with applicable privacy laws and regulations by us (or in some circumstances non-compliance by third-party service providers engaged by us) may also result in damage of reputation, result in vulnerabilities that could be exploited to breach our systems and/or subject us to fines, payment of damages, lawsuits or restrictions on our use or transfer of personal information.

 

While we maintain cyber insurance coverage to protect against these risks to the Company, such insurance is unlikely to fully mitigate the impact of any information breach.

 

Risks Related to the Regulation of our Industry

We are subject to extensive governmental regulation, as well as federal, state and local laws affecting business in general, which may harm our business.

Our ownership, management and operation of gaming facilities are subject to extensive laws, regulations and ordinances which are administered by the Illinois Gaming Board, Indiana Gaming Commission, Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission, Kansas Lottery Commission, Kansas Racing and Gaming Commission, Louisiana State Gaming Control Board, Louisiana State Racing Commission, Mississippi Gaming Commission, Missouri Gaming Commission, Nevada Gaming Commission and Gaming Control Board, Ohio Lottery Commission and Ohio State Racing Commission, Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board and various other federal, state and local government entities and agencies. We are subject to regulations that apply specifically to the gaming industry and horse racetracks and casinos, in addition to regulations applicable to businesses generally. A more detailed description of the governmental gaming regulations to which we are subject is filed as Exhibit 99.1 herewith. If additional gaming regulations are adopted in a jurisdiction in which we operate, such regulations could impose restrictions or costs that could have a significant adverse effect on us. From time to time, various proposals are introduced in the legislatures of some of the jurisdictions in which we have existing or planned operations that, if enacted, could adversely affect the tax, regulatory, operational or other aspects of the gaming industry and our company.

 

To date, we have obtained all governmental licenses, findings of suitability, registrations, permits and approvals necessary for the operation of our properties. However, we can give no assurance that any additional licenses, permits and approvals that may be required will be given or that existing ones will be renewed or will not be revoked. Renewal is subject to, among other things, continued satisfaction of suitability requirements. Any failure to renew or maintain our licenses or to receive new licenses when necessary would have a material adverse effect on us.

 

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Gambling

Legislative or administrative changes in applicable legal requirements, including legislation to prohibit casino gaming, have been proposed in the past. For example, in 1996, the State of Louisiana adopted a statute in connection with which votes were held locally where gaming operations were conducted and which, had the continuation of gaming been rejected by the voters, might have resulted in the termination of operations at the end of their current license terms. During the 1996 local gaming referendums, Lafayette Parish voted to disallow gaming in the Parish, whereas St. Landry Parish, the site of our racino, voted in favor of gaming. All parishes where riverboat gaming operations are currently conducted voted to continue riverboat gaming, but there can be no guarantee that similar referenda might not produce unfavorable results in the future. Proposals to amend or supplement the Louisiana Riverboat Economic Development and Gaming Control Act and the Pari-Mutuel Act also are frequently introduced in the Louisiana State legislature. In the 2001 session, a representative from Orleans Parish introduced a proposal to repeal the authority of horse racetracks in Calasieu Parish (the site of Delta Downs) and St. Landry Parish (the site of Evangeline Downs) to conduct slot machine gaming at such horse racetracks and to repeal the special taxing districts created for such purposes. If adopted, this proposal would have effectively prohibited us from operating the casino portion of our racino. In addition, the Louisiana legislature, from time to time, considers proposals to repeal the Pari-Mutuel Act.

 

The legislation permitting gaming in Iowa authorizes the granting of licenses to “qualified sponsoring organizations.” Such “qualified sponsoring organizations” may operate the gambling structure itself, subject to satisfying necessary licensing requirements, or it may enter into an agreement with an operator to operate gambling on its behalf. An operator must be approved and licensed by the Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission. The Dubuque Racing Association (“DRA”), a not-for-profit corporation organized for the purpose of operating a pari-mutuel greyhound racing facility in Dubuque, Iowa, first received a riverboat gaming license in 1990 and, pursuant to the Amended DRA Operating Agreement, has served as the “qualified sponsoring organization” of the Diamond Jo Dubuque since March 18, 1993. The term of the Amended DRA Operating Agreement currently in place expires on December 31, 2030. The agreement is subject to review and approval by the state gaming commission. The Worth County Development Authority (“WCDA”), pursuant to the WCDA Operating Agreement, serves as the “qualified sponsoring organization” of Diamond Jo Worth. The term of the WCDA Operating Agreement expires on March 31, 2025, and is subject to automatic ten-year renewal periods. If the Amended DRA Operating Agreement or WCDA Operating Agreement were to terminate, or if the DRA or WCDA were to otherwise discontinue acting as our “qualified sponsoring organization” with respect to our operation of the Diamond Jo Dubuque or Diamond Jo Worth, respectively, and we were unable to obtain approval from the Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission to partner with an alternative “qualified sponsoring organization” as required by our gaming license, we would no longer be able to continue our Diamond Jo Dubuque or Diamond Jo Worth operations, which would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Regulation of Smoking

Illinois has adopted laws that significantly restrict, or otherwise ban, smoking at our properties in those jurisdictions. The Illinois laws that restrict smoking at casinos, and similar legislation in other jurisdictions in which we operate, could materially impact the results of operations of our properties in those jurisdictions. Indiana imposes a state wide smoking ban in specified businesses, buildings, public places and other articulated locations. Indiana's statute specifically exempted riverboat casinos, and all other gaming facilities in Indiana, from the smoking ban; however, the statute also allowed local governments to enact more restrictive smoking bans than the state statute and also left in place any more restrictive local legislation that existed as of the effective date of the statute. To date, neither Michigan City nor LaPorte County, where Blue Chip is located, has enacted any ordinance or other law that would impose a smoking ban on Blue Chip.

 

Regulation of Directors, Officers, Key Employees and Partners

Our directors, officers, key employees, joint venture partners and certain shareholders must meet approval standards of certain state regulatory authorities. If state regulatory authorities were to find a person occupying any such position, a joint venture partner, or shareholder unsuitable, we would be required to sever our relationship with that person, or the joint venture partner or shareholder may be required to dispose of their interest. State regulatory agencies may conduct investigations into the conduct or associations of our directors, officers, key employees or joint venture partners to ensure compliance with applicable standards.

 

Certain public and private issuances of securities and other transactions that we are party to also require the approval of some state regulatory authorities.

 

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Live Racing Regulations

Louisiana gaming regulations and our gaming license for the Evangeline Downs and Delta Downs require that we, among other things, conduct a minimum of 80 live racing days in a consecutive 20-week period each year of live horse race meetings at the horse racetrack. Live racing days typically vary in number from year to year and are based on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the number of suitable race horses and the occurrence of severe weather. If we fail to have the minimum number of racing days, our gaming license with respect to the racino may be canceled, and the casino will be required to cease operations. Any cessation of our operation would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Regulations Affecting Businesses in General

In addition to gaming regulations, we are also subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations affecting businesses in general. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, smoking, employees, currency transactions, taxation, zoning and building codes, anti-money laundering laws and regulations and marketing and advertising. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. For example, Nevada enacted legislation that eliminated, in most instances, and, for certain pre-existing development projects, reduced, property tax breaks and retroactively eliminated certain sales tax exemptions offered as incentives to companies developing projects that meet certain environmental “green” standards. As a result, we, along with other companies developing projects that meet such standards, have not been able to realize the full tax benefits that were originally anticipated.

 

We are subject to extensive taxation policies, which may harm our business.

The federal government has, from time to time, considered a federal tax on casino revenues and may consider such a tax in the future. If such an increase were to be enacted, it could adversely affect our business, financial conditions, results of operations and cash flow. Our ability to incur additional indebtedness in the future to finance casino development projects could be materially and adversely affected.

 

In addition, gaming companies are often subject to significant state and local taxes and fees, in addition to normal federal and state corporate income taxes, and such taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time and which increase may be retroactive to prior years.

 

If there is any material increase in state and local taxes and fees, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

Risks Related to our Properties

We own real property and are subject to extensive environmental regulation, which creates uncertainty regarding future environmental expenditures and liabilities, and could affect our ability to develop, sell or rent our property or to borrow money where such property is required to be used as collateral.

We are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, including those governing discharges to air and water, the generation, handling, management and disposal of petroleum products or hazardous substances or wastes, and the health and safety of our employees. Permits may be required for our operations and these permits are subject to renewal, modification and, in some cases, revocation. In addition, under environmental laws, ordinances or regulations, a current or previous owner or operator of property may be liable for the costs of investigation and removal or remediation of some kinds of hazardous substances or petroleum products on, under, or in its property, without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or caused, the presence of the contaminants, and regardless of whether the practices that resulted in the contamination were legal at the time they occurred. Additionally, as an owner or operator, we could also be held responsible to a governmental entity or third parties for property damage, personal injury and investigation and cleanup costs incurred by them in connection with any contamination. The liability under those laws has been interpreted to be joint and several unless the harm is divisible and there is a reasonable basis for allocation of the responsibility. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of those substances may be substantial, and the presence of those substances, or the failure to remediate a property properly, may impair our ability to use our property.

 

The presence of, or failure to remediate properly, such substances may adversely affect the ability to sell or rent the property or to borrow funds using the property as collateral. Additionally, the owner of a site may be subject to claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from a site.

 

As part of our business in Worth County, Iowa, we operate a gas station, which includes a number of underground storage tanks containing petroleum products.

 

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We have reviewed environmental assessments, in some cases including soil and groundwater testing, relating to our currently owned and leased properties in Dubuque, Iowa, and other properties we may lease from the City of Dubuque or other parties. As a result, we have become aware that there is contamination present on some of these properties apparently due to past industrial activities. Furthermore, the location of Kansas Star is the site of several non-operational oil wells, the remediation of which has been addressed in connection with the construction of the development project there. We have also reviewed environmental assessments and are not aware of any environmental liabilities related to any of our other properties.

 

Future developments regarding environmental matters could lead to material costs of environmental compliance for us and such costs could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

 

Additionally, our horse racing operations are subject to oversight by the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"), including regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations and the related processing of animal waste water. In 2015, Delta Downs commenced a remediation project, as a result of an EPA examination, to ensure its future compliance with the Clean Water Act. However, the ongoing operations of our horse racing operations could result in future violations of EPA regulations and exposure to associated potential fines.

 

We own facilities that are located in areas that experience extreme weather conditions.

Extreme weather conditions may interrupt our operations, damage our properties and reduce the number of customers who visit our facilities in the affected areas.

 

For example, certain of the properties we operate have been forced to close for extended periods due to floods and hurricanes, including Treasure Chest and Delta Downs, which have experienced closures for over 40 days on separate occasions in the past. In addition, Belterra Park was closed for over 10 days due to flooding in 2017.

 

Belterra Park, Blue Chip, Par-A-Dice, Sam's Town Tunica, Sam's Town Shreveport and Treasure Chest are each located in an area that has been identified by the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency ("FEMA") as a special flood hazard area, which, according to FEMA statistics, has a 1% chance of a flood equal to or exceeding the base flood elevation (a 100-year flood) in any given year. Furthermore, our properties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio and Pennsylvania are at risk of experiencing snowstorms, tornadoes and flooding.

 

In addition to the risk of flooding and hurricanes, snowstorms and other adverse weather conditions may interrupt our operations, damage our properties and reduce the number of customers who visit our facilities in an affected area. For example, during the first quarter of 2011, and again in 2014, much of the country was impacted by unusually severe winter weather, particularly in the Midwest. These storms made it very difficult for our customers to visit, and we believe such winter weather had a material and adverse impact on the results of our operations during such times. If there is a prolonged disruption at any of our properties due to natural disasters, terrorist attacks or other catastrophic events, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

 

To maintain our gaming licenses for our Evangeline Downs and Delta Downs racinos, we must conduct a minimum of 80 live racing days in a consecutive 20-week period each year of live horse race meetings at each racetrack, and poor weather conditions may make it difficult for us to comply with this requirement.

 

While we maintain insurance coverage that may cover certain of the costs and loss of revenue that we incur as a result of some extreme weather conditions, our coverage is subject to deductibles and limits on maximum benefits. There can be no assurance that we will be able to fully collect, if at all, on any claims resulting from extreme weather conditions. If any of our properties are damaged or if their operations are disrupted as a result of extreme weather in the future, or if extreme weather adversely impacts general economic or other conditions in the areas in which our properties are located or from which they draw their patrons, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all possible losses that our properties could suffer, our insurance costs may increase, and we may not be able to obtain similar insurance coverage in the future.

Although we have "all risk" property insurance coverage for our operating properties, which covers damage caused by a casualty loss (such as fire, natural disasters, acts of war, or terrorism), each policy has certain exclusions. In addition, our property insurance coverage is in an amount that may be significantly less than the expected replacement cost of rebuilding the facilities if there was a total loss. Our level of insurance coverage also may not be adequate to cover all losses in the event of a major casualty. In addition, certain casualty events, such as labor strikes, nuclear events, acts of war, loss of income due to cancellation of room reservations or conventions due to fear of terrorism, deterioration or corrosion, insect or animal damage and pollution, may not be covered at all under our policies. Therefore, certain acts could expose us to substantial uninsured losses.

 

We also have "builder's risk" insurance coverage for our development and expansion projects. Builder's risk insurance provides coverage for projects during their construction for damage caused by a casualty loss. In general, our builder's risk coverage is subject to the same exclusions, risks and deficiencies as those described above for our all-risk property coverage. Our level of builder's risk insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all losses in the event of a major casualty.

 

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We maintain cyber insurance coverage that insures against certain expenses incurred by the Company in the event of any information breach, as well as insuring against certain costs and damages associated with losses by third parties. However, such insurance is unlikely to fully mitigate the impact of such an information breach.

 

Belterra Park, Blue Chip, Par-A-Dice, Sam's Town Tunica, Sam's Town Shreveport and Treasure Chest are each located in an area that has been identified by the director of the FEMA as a special flood hazard area. Our level of flood insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all losses in the event of a major flood.

 

We renew our insurance policies (other than our builder's risk insurance) on an annual basis. The cost of coverage may become so high that we may need to further reduce our policy limits or agree to certain exclusions from our coverage.

 

Our debt instruments and other material agreements require us to meet certain standards related to insurance coverage. Failure to satisfy these requirements could result in an event of default under these debt instruments or material agreements.

 

We draw a significant percentage of our customers from certain geographic regions. Events adversely impacting the economy or these regions, including public health outbreaks and man-made or natural disasters, may adversely impact our business.

The California, Fremont and Main Street Station draw a substantial portion of their customers from the Hawaiian market, with such customers historically comprising more than half of the room nights sold at each property. Decreases in discretionary consumer spending, as well as an increase in fuel costs or transportation prices, a decrease in airplane seat availability, or a deterioration of relations with tour and travel agents, particularly as they affect travel between the Hawaiian market and our facilities, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our Las Vegas properties also draw a substantial number of customers from certain other specific geographic areas, including the Southern California, Arizona and Las Vegas local markets. Native American casinos in California and other parts of the United States have diverted some potential visitors away from Nevada, which has had and could continue to have a negative effect on Nevada gaming markets. In addition, due to our significant concentration of properties in Nevada, any man-made or natural disasters in or around Nevada, or the areas from which we draw customers to our Las Vegas properties, could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Each of our properties located outside of Nevada depends primarily on visitors from their respective surrounding regions and are subject to comparable risk.

 

The strength and profitability of our business depends on consumer demand for hotel casino resorts in general and for the type of amenities our properties offer. Changes in consumer preferences or discretionary consumer spending could harm our business. Terrorist activities in the United States and elsewhere, military conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere, outbreaks of infectious disease and pandemics, adverse weather conditions and natural disasters, among other things, have had negative impacts on travel and leisure expenditures. In addition, other factors affecting travel and discretionary consumer spending, including general economic conditions, disposable consumer income, fears of further economic decline and reduced consumer confidence in the economy, may negatively impact our business. We cannot predict the extent to which similar events and conditions may continue to affect us in the future. An extended period of reduced discretionary spending and/or disruptions or declines in tourism could significantly harm our operations.

 

Energy price increases may adversely affect our cost of operations and our revenues.

Our casino properties use significant amounts of electricity, natural gas and other forms of energy. In addition, our Hawaiian air charter operation uses a significant amount of jet fuel. While no shortages of energy or fuel have been experienced to date, substantial increases in energy and fuel prices, including jet fuel prices, in the United States have, and may continue to, negatively affect our results of operations. The extent of the impact is subject to the magnitude and duration of the energy and fuel price increases, of which the impact could be material. In addition, energy and gasoline price increases could result in a decline of disposable income of potential customers, an increase in the cost of travel and a corresponding decrease in visits and spending levels at our properties, which could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our facilities, including our riverboats and dockside facilities, are subject to risks relating to mechanical failure and regulatory compliance.

Generally, all of our facilities are subject to the risk that operations could be halted for a temporary or extended period of time, as the result of casualty, forces of nature, mechanical failure, or extended or extraordinary maintenance, among other causes. In addition, our gaming operations, including those conducted on riverboats or at dockside facilities could be damaged or halted due to extreme weather conditions.

 

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We currently conduct our Treasure Chest, Par-A-Dice, Blue Chip, Sam's Town Shreveport, Amelia Belle and Belterra Resort gaming operations on riverboats. Each of our riverboats must comply with the United States Coast Guard ("USCG") requirements as to boat design, on-board facilities, equipment, personnel and safety. Each riverboat must hold a Certificate of Inspection for stabilization and flotation, and may also be subject to local zoning codes. The USCG requirements establish design standards, set limits on the operation of the vessels and require individual licensing of all personnel involved with the operation of the vessels. Loss of a vessel's Certificate of Inspection would preclude its use as a casino.

 

USCG regulations require a hull inspection for all riverboats at five-year intervals. Under certain circumstances, alternative hull inspections may be approved. The USCG may require that such hull inspections be conducted at a dry-docking facility, and if so required, the cost of travel to and from such docking facility, as well as the time required for inspections of the affected riverboats, could be significant. To date, the USCG has allowed in-place underwater inspections of our riverboats twice every five years on alternate two- and three-year schedules. The USCG may not continue to allow these types of inspections in the future. The loss of a dockside casino or riverboat casino from service for any period of time could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Indiana and Louisiana have adopted alternate inspection standards for riverboats in those states. The standards require inspection by ABS Consulting ("ABSC"). ABSC inspection for our riverboats at Blue Chip, Treasure Chest and Sam's Town Shreveport commenced during 2010. The Amelia Belle is also inspected by the ABSC. The Par-A-Dice riverboat will remain inspected by the USCG for the foreseeable future. ABSC imposes essentially the same design, personnel, safety, and hull inspection standards as the USCG. Therefore, the risks to our business associated with USCG inspection should not change by reason of inspection by ABSC. Failure of a vessel to meet the applicable USCG or ABSC standards would preclude its use as a casino.

 

USCG regulations also require us to prepare and follow certain security programs. In 2004, we implemented the American Gaming Association's Alternative Security Program at our riverboat casinos and dockside facilities. The American Gaming Association's Alternative Security Program is specifically designed to address maritime security requirements at riverboat casinos and their respective dockside facilities. Only portions of those regulations will apply to our riverboats inspected by ABSC. Changes to these regulations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Some of our hotels and casinos are located on leased property. If we default on one or more leases, the applicable lessors could terminate the affected leases and we could lose possession of the affected hotel and/or casino.

We lease certain parcels of land on which Eastside Cannery, Suncoast, Belterra Resort, Treasure Chest, Sam's Town Shreveport, IP, Ameristar Kansas City and Ameristar St. Charles' hotels and gaming facilities are located. In addition, we lease other parcels of land on which portions of the California and the Fremont are located. As a ground lessee, we have the right to use the leased land; however, we do not retain fee ownership in the underlying land. Accordingly, with respect to the leased land, we will have no interest in the land or improvements thereon at the expiration of the ground leases. Moreover, since we do not completely control the land underlying the property, a landowner could take certain actions to disrupt our rights in the land leased under the long-term leases. While such interruption is unlikely, such events are beyond our control. If the entity owning any leased land chose to disrupt our use either permanently or for a significant period of time, then the value of our assets could be impaired and our business and operations could be adversely affected. If we were to default on any one or more of these leases, the applicable lessors could terminate the affected leases and we could lose possession of the affected land and any improvements on the land, including the hotels and casinos. This would have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations as we would then be unable to operate all or portions of the affected facilities.

 

Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2019, we had net operating losses ("NOLs") for federal income tax purposes. Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, if a corporation undergoes an "ownership change" as defined in that section, the corporation's ability to use its pre-change NOLs and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may become subject to significant limitations. We may experience an ownership change in the future as a result of shifts in our stock ownership, which may result from the issuance of our common stock, the exercise of stock options and other equity compensation awards, as well as ordinary sales and purchases of our common stock, among other things. If an ownership change in our stock were to be triggered in the future, our subsequent ability to use any NOLs existing at that time could be significantly limited. Additionally, on December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"). The Tax Act changed the carryback and carryforward periods for NOLs generated after December 31, 2017 and imposed annual limitations on the use of such NOLs. While the rules for NOLs generated in the year ended December 31, 2017 and prior did not change, our NOLs all predate the change, it is possible that future law changes could affect our ability to utilize NOLs prospectively.

 

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Risks Related to our Indebtedness

We have a significant amount of indebtedness.

We and our subsidiaries had approximately $3.8 billion of long-term debt (including debt of non-guarantor subsidiaries and without deducting unamortized discount and origination fees) as of December 31, 2019 (of which approximately $1.3 billion was outstanding under the Credit Facility) and which includes approximately $27.0 million of current maturities of long-term debt and excludes approximately $12.6 million in aggregate outstanding letters of credit. In addition, an aggregate amount of approximately $656.6 million was available for borrowing under the Revolving Credit Facility as of December 31, 2019.

 

If we pursue, or continue to pursue, any expansion, development, investment or renovation projects requiring capital beyond our available borrowing capacity, we expect that our long-term debt will substantially increase in connection with related capital expenditures. This indebtedness could have important consequences, including:

 

 

difficulty in satisfying our obligations under our current indebtedness;

     
 

increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

     
 

requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our indebtedness, which would reduce the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, expansion efforts and other general corporate purposes;

     
 

limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;

     
 

placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and

     
 

limiting, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants in our indebtedness, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds.

 

Our debt instruments contain, and any future debt instruments likely will contain, a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things:

 

 

incur additional debt, including providing guarantees or credit support;

     
 

incur liens securing indebtedness or other obligations;

     
 

make certain investments;

     
 

dispose of assets;

     
 

make certain acquisitions;

     
 

pay dividends or make distributions and make other restricted payments;

     
 

enter into sale and leaseback transactions;

     
 

engage in any new businesses; and

     
 

enter into transactions with our stockholders and our affiliates.

 

In addition, our Credit Facility contains certain financial covenants, including, without limitation, various covenants: (i) requiring the maintenance of a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio of 1.75 to 1.00; (ii) establishing a maximum permitted consolidated total leverage ratio; and (iii) establishing a maximum permitted secured leverage ratio.

 

Failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could have a significant adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Note 7, Long-Term Debt, included in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8, contains further disclosure regarding our current outstanding debt.

 

To service our indebtedness, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness and to fund planned capital expenditures and expansion efforts will depend upon our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.

 

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It is unlikely that our business will generate sufficient cash flows from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us under the Credit Facility in amounts sufficient to enable us to retire our indebtedness as such indebtedness matures and to fund our other liquidity needs. We believe that we will need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, at or before maturity, and cannot provide assurances that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness, including amounts borrowed under the Credit Facility on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. We may have to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying planned expenses and capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring debt, or obtaining additional equity or debt financing or joint venture partners. These financing strategies may not be affected on satisfactory terms, if at all. In addition, certain states’ laws contain restrictions on the ability of companies engaged in the gaming business to undertake certain financing transactions. Some restrictions may prevent us from obtaining necessary capital.

 

We and our subsidiaries may still be able to incur substantially more debt, which could further exacerbate the risks described above.

We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of the indentures governing our senior notes do not fully prohibit us or our subsidiaries from doing so. Borrowings under the Credit Facility are effectively senior to our senior notes and the guarantees of our subsidiary guarantors to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such borrowings. If new debt is added to our, or our subsidiaries', current debt levels, the related risks that we or they now face could intensify.

 

We are required to pay a substantial amount of rent pursuant to our Master Lease with GLPI, which impacts free cash flow and could in the future limit our ability to invest in our operations or seek additional development or strategic opportunities.

We lease the real estate of Ameristar Kansas City, Ameristar St. Charles, and Belterra Casino Resort (each an "OpCo," and collectively the "OpCos") from Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. ("GLPI"), pursuant to a triple net REIT Master Lease (the "Master Lease"). Current annual rent under the Master Lease is $97.7 million, with rental increases over time. The Master Lease also includes substantial additional obligations that may require future uses of free cash flow, including obligations to maintain and repair the properties, including minimum annual capital investment requirements, and provides that we have assumed the risk of loss with respect to any casualty or condemnation event, including the obligation to repair or rebuild the facility.

 

These obligations, which could significantly impact free cash flow, could in the future adversely impact our ability to invest in our operations or seek additional development or strategic opportunities. For example, our obligations under the Leases may:

 

 

limit our ability to prepay or repay our long-term debt and to obtain additional indebtedness;

 

limit our ability to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes; and

  limit our ability to respond to changes in our business and the industry in which we operate, including pursuing new markets and additional lines of business, development opportunities, acquisitions and other strategic investments that we would otherwise pursue.

 

Any of the above listed factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The Master Lease includes additional provisions that restrict our ability to freely operate and could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition, including the following:

 

 

Escalations in Rent - We are obligated to pay base rent under the Master Lease, and base rent is composed of building base rent and land base rent. Every year of the Master Lease term, building base rent is subject to an annual escalation of up to 2% and we may be required to pay the escalated building base rent regardless of our revenues, profit or general financial condition.

 

Variable Rent - We are obligated to pay percentage rent under the Master Lease, which is re-calculated every two years. Such percentage rent shall equal 4% of the change between (i) the average net revenues for the trailing two-year period and (ii) 50% of the trailing 12 months net revenues as of the month ending immediately prior to the execution of the Master Lease. We may be required to pay an increase in percentage rent based on increases in net revenues without a corresponding increase in our profits.

 

Pooled Lease - The Master Lease is a pooled lease arrangement, which prohibits us from divesting any individual OpCo without GLPI’s prior consent. Any divestiture of all of the OpCos also requires GLPI’s prior consent, except for limited circumstances where the purchaser meets various financial and gaming operations experience requirements. These limitations on transfer could adversely impact our ability to manage our business.

 

Master Lease Guaranties - The Master Lease is guaranteed by the certain subsidiaries of the tenant (the "Lease Guarantors"). A default under any of the Master Lease guaranties that is not cured within the applicable grace period will constitute an event of default under the Master Lease.

 

Effect of End of Term or Not Renewing the Master Lease - If we do not renew the Master Lease at the stipulated renewals or we do not enter into a new master lease at the end of the term, we will be required to sell the business of tenant. If we cannot agree upon acceptable terms of sale with a qualified successor tenant, GLPI will select the successor tenant to purchase our business through a competitive auction. If this occurs, we will be required to transfer our business to the highest bidder at the auction, subject to regulatory approvals.

 

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If we are unable to finance our expansion, development, investment and renovation projects, as well as other capital expenditures, through cash flow, borrowings under the Credit Facility, access to the capital markets and additional financings, our expansion, development, investment and renovation efforts will be jeopardized.

We intend to finance our current and future expansion, development, investment, acquisition and renovation projects, as well as our other capital expenditures, primarily with cash flow from operations, borrowings under our Credit Facility, and equity or debt financings. If we are unable to finance our current or future expansion, development, investment, acquisition and renovation projects, or our other capital expenditures, we will have to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing, delaying or abandoning planned expansion, development, investment, acquisition and renovation projects as well as other capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring debt, obtaining additional equity financing or joint venture partners, or modifying the Credit Facility. These sources of funds may not be sufficient to finance our expansion, development, investment, acquisition and renovation projects, and other financing may not be available on acceptable terms, in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, our existing indebtedness contains certain restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness.

 

In the past, there have been significant disruptions in the global capital markets that adversely impacted the ability of borrowers to access capital. A crisis may greatly restrict the availability of capital and cause the cost of capital (if available) to be much higher than it has traditionally been. Although the financial markets have generally recovered from the most recent financial crisis and availability of capital has increased, the financial markets remain volatile. While we currently anticipate that we will be able to fund any expansion projects using cash flows from operations and availability under the Credit Facility (to the extent that availability exists after we meet our working capital needs), if availability under our Credit Facility does not exist or we are otherwise unable to make sufficient borrowings thereunder, any additional financing that is needed may not be available to us or, if available, may not be on terms favorable to us. As a result, if we are unable to obtain adequate project financing in a timely manner, or at all, we may be forced to sell assets in order to raise capital for projects, limit the scope of, or defer such projects, or cancel the projects altogether. In the event that we are unable to access capital with favorable terms, additional equity and/or credit support may be necessary to obtain construction financing for the remaining cost of the project.

 

We are not able to predict the duration or strength of the current economic recovery, the resulting impact on the solvency or liquidity of our lenders, or the possibility of a future recession. Prolonged slow growth or a downturn, or further worsening or broadening of adverse conditions in worldwide and domestic economies could affect our lenders. If a large percentage of our lenders were to file for bankruptcy or otherwise default on their obligations to us, we may not have the liquidity under the Credit Facility to fund our current projects. There is no certainty that our lenders will continue to remain solvent or fund their respective obligations under the Credit Facility. If we were otherwise required to renegotiate or replace the Credit Facility, there is no assurance that we would be able to secure terms that are as favorable to us, if at all.

 

Risks Related to our Equity Ownership

Our common stock price may fluctuate substantially, and a shareholder's investment could decline in value.

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially due to many factors, including:

 

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations;

     
 

announcements of significant acquisitions or other agreements by us or by our competitors;

     
 

our sale of common stock or other securities in the future;

     
 

trading volume of our common stock;

     
 

conditions and trends in the gaming and destination entertainment industries;

     
 

changes in the estimation of the future size and growth of our markets; and

     
 

general economic conditions, including, without limitation, changes in the cost of fuel and air travel.

 

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In addition, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to companies' operating performance. Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company's securities, shareholder derivative lawsuits and/or securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management's attention and resources.

 

Certain of our stockholders own large interests in our capital stock and may significantly influence our affairs.

William S. Boyd, our Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors, together with his immediate family, beneficially owned approximately 27% of the Company's outstanding shares of common stock as of December 31, 2019. As such, the Boyd family has the ability to significantly influence our affairs, including the election of members of our Board of Directors and, except as otherwise provided by law, approving or disapproving other matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including a merger, consolidation, or sale of assets.

 

ITEM 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None

 

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ITEM 2.    Properties

Information relating to the location and general characteristics of our properties is provided in Part I, Item 1, Business - Properties, and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

As of December 31, 2019, some of our properties utilized leased property in their operations.

 

The real estate utilized by three of our properties are subject to a Master Lease with Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. The properties under this Master Lease are:

 

 

Ameristar Kansas City, including approximately 250 acres of leased land and building.

     
 

Ameristar St. Charles, including approximately 240 acres of leased land and building.

     
 

Belterra Resort, including approximately 315 acres of leased land and building.

 

In addition, all or a portion of the sites for the following properties are leased:

 

 

Suncoast, located on 49 acres of leased land.

     
 

Eastside Cannery, located on 30 acres of leased land.

     
 

California, located on 13.9 acres of owned land and 1.6 acres of leased land.

     
 

Fremont, located on 1.4 acres of owned land and 0.9 acres of leased land.

     
 

IP, located on 24 acres of owned land and 3.9 acres of leased land.

     
 

Treasure Chest, located on 14 acres of leased land.

     
 

Sam's Town Shreveport, located on 18 acres of leased land.

     
 

Diamond Jo Dubuque, located on 7 acres of owned land and leases approximately 2.0 acres of parking surfaces.

     
 

Diamond Jo Worth, which owns 279 acres and leases 33 acres of land in Emmons, Minnesota that is used as a nine-hole golf course and a nine-station sporting clay course and hunting facility.

     
 

Evangeline Downs, which leases the facilities that comprise the Henderson, Eunice and St. Martinville OTBs.

 

ITEM 3.    Legal Proceedings

We are parties to various legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. We believe that all pending claims, if adversely decided, would not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.

 

ITEM 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable

 

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PART II

 

ITEM 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "BYD." On February 20, 2020, the closing sales price of our common stock on the NYSE was $34.74 per share. On that date, we had approximately 610 holders of record of our common stock and our directors and executive officers owned approximately 28% of the outstanding shares. There are no other classes of common equity outstanding.

 

Dividends

Dividends are declared at the discretion of our Board of Directors. We are subject to certain limitations regarding the payment of dividends, such as restricted payment limitations contained in our Credit Facility and the indentures for our outstanding notes.

 

Share Repurchase Program

No share repurchases were made pursuant to our share repurchase program during the three months ended December 31, 2019.

 

In July 2008, our Board of Directors authorized an amendment to our existing share repurchase program to increase the amount of common stock available to be repurchased to $100 million. On May 2, 2017 the Company announced that its Board of Directors had reaffirmed the Company's existing share repurchase program (the "2008 Plan"). On December 12, 2018, our Board of Directors authorized a new share repurchase program of $100 million which is in addition to the existing repurchase authorization (the "2018 Plan"). There were 1.1 million shares repurchased during the year ended December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, the repurchase authorization under the 2008 Plan has been fully utilized and $72.5 million remained available under the 2018 Plan.

 

We are not obligated to repurchase any shares under these programs. Subject to applicable corporate securities laws, repurchases under this program may be made at such times and in such amounts as we deem appropriate. Repurchases are funded with existing cash resources and availability under the Credit Facility. We are subject to certain limitations regarding the repurchase of common stock, such as restricted payment limitations contained in our Credit Facility and the indentures for our outstanding notes.

 

We may acquire our debt or equity securities through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, tender offers, exchange offers, redemptions or otherwise, upon such terms and at such prices as we may determine.

 

Our Definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with our 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, incorporated herein by reference, contains information concerning securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans within the captions Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Equity Compensation Plan Information.

 

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Stock Performance Graph

The graph below compares the five-year cumulative total return on our common stock to the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor's MidCap 400 Index ("S&P 400") and to companies in our peer group, which is comprised of Penn National Gaming, Inc., Red Rock Resort, Inc. and Eldorado Resorts, Inc. The performance graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2014 in each of the Company's common stock, the S&P 400 and our peer group, and that all dividends were reinvested. For purposes of the performance graph, in cases in which a shareholder of a peer group company received shares of another company in a corporate transaction, the value of the additional shares received are considered to be a dividend and assumed to be reinvested in the stock of the peer company on the date of the transaction. The stock price performance shown in this graph is neither necessarily indicative of, nor intended to suggest, future stock price performance.

 

 

   

Indexed Returns

 
   

Boyd Gaming Corp.

 

S&P 400

 

Peer Group

 

December 2015

  $ 155.48   $ 97.82   $ 139.65  

December 2016

    157.82     118.11     147.24  

December 2017

    275.72     137.30     283.23  

December 2018

    164.77     122.08     216.93  

December 2019

    239.77     154.07     314.22  

 

The performance graph should not be deemed filed or incorporated by reference into any other of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act of 1934, unless we specifically incorporate the performance graph by reference therein.

 

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ITEM 6.    Selected Financial Data

The selected consolidated financial data presented below has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. This information should be read in conjunction with the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our audited Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes thereto.

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

2019 (a)

 

2018 (b)

 

2017 (c)

 

2016 (d)

 

2015 (e)

 

Statement of Operations Data:

                               

Total revenues

  $ 3,326,119   $ 2,626,730   $ 2,400,819   $ 2,199,259   $ 2,214,831  
                                 

Operating income

    472,568     355,284     343,801     260,408     271,584  
                                 

Income from continuing operations before income taxes

    202,126     155,032     171,113     7,768     4,443  
                                 

Income from continuing operations, net of tax

    157,636     114,701     167,998     207,701     11,068  
                                 

Income from discontinued operations, net of tax

        347     21,392     212,530     36,539  
                                 

Net income

    157,636     115,048     189,390     420,231     47,607  
                                 

Income from continuing operations per common share

                               

Basic

  $ 1.39   $ 1.01   $ 1.46   $ 1.81   $ 0.10  

Diluted

  $ 1.38   $ 1.00   $ 1.45   $ 1.80   $ 0.10  
                                 

Dividends declared per common share

  $ 0.27   $ 0.23   $ 0.15   $   $  
                                 

Balance Sheet Data:

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 249,977   $ 249,417   $ 203,104   $ 193,862   $ 158,821  

Total assets

    6,650,145     5,756,339     4,685,930     4,670,751     4,350,900  

Long-term debt, net of current maturities

    3,738,937     3,955,119     3,051,899     3,199,119     3,239,799  

Total stockholders' equity

    1,265,242     1,145,741     1,097,227     930,180     501,837  
                                 

Other Data:

                               

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (f)

 

1.7x

 

1.7x

 

1.9x

 

1.0x

 

1.0x

 

 

(a)    2019 includes a full year of financial results for Lattner, Valley Forge, Ameristar Kansas City, Ameristar St. Charles, Belterra Resort and Belterra Park. In addition, 2019 includes $34.9 million in pretax loss on early extinguishments of debt.

 

(b)    2018 includes the financial results of acquired properties from their respective acquisition date, which include Lattner on June 1, 2018, Valley Forge on September 17, 2018 and Ameristar Kansas City, Ameristar St. Charles, Belterra Resort and Belterra Park on October 15, 2018. As a result of the acquisitions and ongoing projects, we had project development, preopening and writedowns of $45.7 million.

 

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(c)    2017 includes a full year of financial results for Aliante, Cannery and Eastside Cannery. Additionally, 2017 includes a noncash income tax benefit of $60.1 million related to the changes in tax legislation. Discontinued operations for 2017 of $21.4 million reflects our after-tax share of the proceeds related to the final settlement of Borgata’s property tax disputes with Atlantic City. The Company has accounted for its 50% investment in Borgata as discontinued operations for all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements.

 

(d)    2016 includes $38.3 million in pretax, non-cash impairment charges which includes non-cash impairment charges of $23.6 million, $12.5 million and $0.8 million for a gaming license, goodwill and trademarks, respectively, in our Midwest & South segment; and $42.4 million in pretax loss on early extinguishments and modifications of debt. Additionally, 2016 includes a noncash income tax benefit of $203.9 million resulting from the release of a previously recorded deferred tax asset valuation allowance. The financial results of Aliante are included in these financial results from its September 27, 2016 date of acquisition, and the financial results of Cannery and Eastside Cannery are included from their December 20, 2016 date of acquisition. Discontinued operations for 2016 include an after-tax gain on the sale of our equity interest in Borgata of $181.7 million.

 

(e)    2015 includes $18.6 million in pretax, non-cash impairment charges, which includes a $17.5 million non-cash impairment charge for a gaming license in our Midwest & South segment; and $40.7 million in pretax loss on early extinguishments and modifications of debt.

 

(f)    For purposes of computing this ratio, "earnings" consist of income before income taxes and income/(loss) from unconsolidated affiliates, plus fixed charges (excluding capitalized interest) and distributed income of equity investees. "Fixed charges" include interest whether expensed or capitalized, amortization of debt expense, discount, or premium related to indebtedness (included in interest expense), and such portion of rental expense that we deem to be a reasonable representation of the interest factor. 

 

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ITEM 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto and other financial information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to the historical information, certain statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements based on current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of certain events may differ significantly from those projected in such forward-looking statements.

 

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW

Boyd Gaming Corporation (the "Company," "Boyd Gaming," "we" or "us") is a multi-jurisdictional gaming company that has been in operation since 1975.

 

As of December 31, 2019, we are a geographically diversified operator of 29 wholly owned gaming entertainment properties. Headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada, we have gaming operations in Nevada, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio and Pennsylvania. We view each operating property as an operating segment. For financial reporting purposes, we aggregate our wholly owned properties into the following three reportable segments:

 

Las Vegas Locals

   

Gold Coast Hotel and Casino

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

The Orleans Hotel and Casino

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Suncoast Hotel and Casino

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Eastside Cannery Casino and Hotel

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Aliante Casino + Hotel + Spa

 

North Las Vegas, Nevada

Cannery Casino Hotel

 

North Las Vegas, Nevada

Eldorado Casino

 

Henderson, Nevada

Jokers Wild Casino

 

Henderson, Nevada

Downtown Las Vegas

   

California Hotel and Casino

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Fremont Hotel and Casino

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Main Street Station Casino, Brewery and Hotel

 

Las Vegas, Nevada

Midwest & South

   

Par-A-Dice Hotel and Casino

 

East Peoria, Illinois

Belterra Casino Resort

 

Florence, Indiana

Blue Chip Casino, Hotel & Spa

 

Michigan City, Indiana

Diamond Jo Dubuque

 

Dubuque, Iowa

Diamond Jo Worth

 

Northwood, Iowa

Kansas Star Casino

 

Mulvane, Kansas

Amelia Belle Casino

 

Amelia, Louisiana

Delta Downs Racetrack Casino & Hotel

 

Vinton, Louisiana

Evangeline Downs Racetrack and Casino

 

Opelousas, Louisiana

Sam's Town Hotel and Casino

 

Shreveport, Louisiana

Treasure Chest Casino

 

Kenner, Louisiana

IP Casino Resort Spa

 

Biloxi, Mississippi

Sam's Town Hotel and Gambling Hall

 

Tunica, Mississippi

Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City

 

Kansas City, Missouri

Ameristar Casino Report Spa St. Charles

 

St. Charles, Missouri

Belterra Park

 

Cincinnati, Ohio

Valley Forge Casino Resort

 

King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

 

We also own and operate a travel agency and a captive insurance company that underwrites travel-related insurance, each located in Hawaii. Financial results for these operations are included in our Downtown Las Vegas segment, as our Downtown Las Vegas properties concentrate their marketing efforts on gaming customers from Hawaii.

 

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Results for Lattner Entertainment Group Illinois, LLC ("Lattner"), our Illinois distributed gaming operator, are included in our Midwest & South segment.

 

In May 2016, we entered into an Equity Purchase Agreement to sell our 50% equity interest in the parent company of Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa ("Borgata") to MGM Resorts. This transaction closed on August 1, 2016. We account for our investment in Borgata by applying the equity method and report its results as discontinued operations for all periods presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Our Midwest & South segment includes our wholly owned subsidiaries Valley Forge Casino Resort for the period following its September 17, 2018 acquisition, and Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City, Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles, Belterra Casino Resort and Belterra Park (together, the "Pinnacle Properties") for the period following their October 15, 2018 acquisition. See Note 2, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8.

 

Most of our gaming entertainment properties also include hotel, dining, retail and other amenities. Our main business emphasis is on slot revenues, which are highly dependent upon the number of visits and spending levels of customers at our properties.

 

Our properties have historically generated significant operating cash flow, with the majority of our revenue being cash-based. While we do provide casino credit, subject to certain gaming regulations and jurisdictions, most of our customers wager with cash and pay for non-gaming services with cash or by credit card.

 

Our industry is capital intensive and we rely heavily on the ability of our properties to generate operating cash flow in order to fund maintenance capital expenditures, fund acquisitions, provide excess cash for future development, repay debt financing and associated interest costs, repurchase our debt or equity securities, and pay income taxes and dividends.

 

Our primary areas of focus are: (i) ensuring our existing operations are managed as efficiently as possible and remain positioned for growth; (ii) improving our capital structure and strengthening our balance sheet, including paying down debt, increasing cash flow, improving operations and diversifying our asset base; and (iii) successfully pursuing our growth strategy, which is built on identifying development opportunities and acquiring assets that are a good strategic fit and provide an appropriate return to our shareholders.

 

Our Strategy

Our overriding strategy is to increase shareholder value by pursuing strategic initiatives that improve and grow our business.

 

Strengthening our Balance Sheet

We are committed to finding opportunities to strengthen our balance sheet through diversifying and increasing our cash flows. We intend to take a balanced approach to our cash flows, with a current emphasis on debt repayment followed by investing in our business and returning capital to shareholders.

 

Operating Efficiently

We are committed to operating more efficiently. As we experience revenue growth in both our gaming and non-gaming operations, the efficiencies of our business position us to flow a substantial portion of the revenue growth directly to the bottom line.

 

Evaluating Acquisition Opportunities

Our evaluations of potential investments and growth opportunities are strategic, deliberate, and disciplined. Our goal is to identify and pursue opportunities that grow our business and deliver a solid return for shareholders. These investments can take the form of expanding and enhancing offerings and amenities at existing properties, development of new properties, or acquisitions. Currently, the Company is primarily focused on enhancements to its existing properties.

 

Maintaining our Brand

The ability of our employees to deliver great customer service helps distinguish our Company and our brands from our competitors. Our employees are an important reason that our customers continue to choose our properties over the competition across the country. In addition, we have established a nationwide branding initiative and loyalty program. Our players use their "B Connected" cards to earn and redeem points at nearly all of our properties. The "B Connected" club, among other benefits, rewards players for their loyalty by entitling them to qualify for promotions and earn rewards toward gaming and nongaming activities.

 

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Our Key Performance Indicators

We use several key performance measures to evaluate the operations of our properties. These key performance measures include the following:

 

 

Gaming revenue measures: slot handle, which means the dollar amount wagered in slot machines, and table game drop, which means the total amount of cash deposited in table games drop boxes, plus the sum of markers issued at all table games, are measures of volume and/or market share.  Slot win and table game hold, which mean the difference between customer wagers and customer winnings on slot machines and table games, respectively, represent the amount of wagers retained by us and recorded as gaming revenues. Slot win percentage and table game hold percentage, which are not fully controllable by us, represent the relationship between slot handle to slot win and table game drop to table game hold, respectively.

     
 

Food & beverage revenue measures: average guest check, which means the average amount spent per customer visit and is a measure of volume and product offerings; number of guests served ("food covers"), which is an indicator of volume; and the cost per guest served, which is a measure of operating margin.

     
 

Room revenue measures: hotel occupancy rate, which measures the utilization of our available rooms; and average daily rate ("ADR"), which is a price measure.

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Overview

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions)

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

Total revenues

  $ 3,326.1   $ 2,626.7   $ 2,400.8  

Operating income

    472.6     355.3     343.8  

Income from continuing operations, net of tax

    157.6     114.7     168.0  

Income from discontinued operations, net of tax

        0.3     21.4  

Net income

    157.6     115.0     189.4  

 

Total Revenues

Total revenues increased $699.4 million, or 26.6%, for 2019 as compared to 2018 due primarily to the acquisitions of Lattner on June 1, 2018, Valley Forge on September 17, 2018 and Ameristar Kansas City, Ameristar St. Charles, Belterra Resort and Belterra Park on October 15, 2018 (collectively, the "Acquisitions").

 

Total revenues increased $225.9 million, or 9.4%, for 2018 as compared to 2017 due primarily to the Midwest & South segment increasing by $217.1 million over the prior period primarily attributable to the Acquisitions.

 

Operating Income

In 2019, our operating income increased $117.3 million as compared to 2018 due primarily to the Acquisitions and cost control efforts surrounding our operating costs. In addition, project development, preopening and writedowns expense decreased $24.0 million from the prior year period, which included costs incurred related to the Acquisitions.

 

In 2018, our operating income increased $11.5 million as compared to 2017 due primarily to the Acquisitions, along with the favorable impact of our continuing cost control efforts. Changes in operating margins are discussed further below.

 

 

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Income from Continuing Operations, Net of Tax

Income from continuing operations, net of tax was $157.6 million in 2019, as compared to $114.7 million in 2018, an increase of $42.9 million. This increase was primarily attributable to the $117.3 million increase in operating income, as discussed above, offset by a $33.3 million increase in interest expense, net of amounts capitalized, due to an increase in the weighted average long-term debt balance of $536.0 million reflecting the incremental debt incurred to fund the Acquisitions, a 0.2 percentage point increase in the weighted average interest rate and by $34.9 million of loss on early extinguishments and modifications of debt due to our refinancing activities.

 

Income from continuing operations, net of tax was $114.7 million in 2018, as compared to $168.0 million in 2017, a decrease of $53.3 million. This decrease was attributable to a $37.2 million increase in the income tax provision. The increase in the income tax provision is a result of the prior year provision including a discrete tax benefit of $60.1 million related to the changes in tax legislation in 2017. In addition, interest expense, net of amounts capitalized, increased $31.1 million due to an increase in the weighted average long-term debt balance of $205.9 million reflecting the additional debt issued to fund the Acquisitions and a 1.0% percentage point increase in the weighted average interest rate. These declines were offset by the operating income increase of $11.5 million from the prior year for those factors mentioned above and an increase in interest income of $1.9 million due to the investment in cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities of the net proceeds from the issuance of the 6.000% Senior Notes due August 2026 in second quarter 2018.

 

Income From Discontinued Operations, Net of Tax

Income from discontinued operations, net of tax, reflects the results of our equity method investment in Borgata, which we sold in August 2016. The 2018 results include cash received for our share of miscellaneous recoveries realized by Borgata of $0.3 million. The 2017 results include property tax recovery proceeds of $36.2 million related to the final settlement of Borgata's property tax disputes with Atlantic City.

 

Net Income

For the year ended December 31, 2019, net income was $157.6 million, compared with net income of $115.0 million for the corresponding period of the prior year. The $42.6 million change is primarily due to the increase in income from continuing operations, net of tax, of $42.9 million, as discussed above, offset by a $0.3 million decrease in net income from discontinued operations, net of tax.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2018, net income was $115.0 million, compared with net income of $189.4 million for the corresponding period of the prior year. The $74.3 million change is primarily due to the decrease in income from continuing operations, net of tax along with a $21.0 million decrease in income from discontinued operations from the prior year (both items discussed above).

 

Operating Revenues

We derive the majority of our revenues from our gaming operations, which generated approximately 75%, 73% and 72% of our revenues for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Food & beverage revenues represent our next most significant revenue source, generating approximately 13% of revenues for 2019, and 14% for 2018 and 2017. Room revenues and other revenues separately contributed less than 10% of revenues during each year.

 

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Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions)

 

2019

   

2018

   

2017

 

REVENUES

                       

Gaming

  $ 2,483.3     $ 1,925.4     $ 1,740.3  

Food & beverage

    447.9       367.9       346.4  

Room

    237.2       199.5       186.8  

Other

    157.7       133.9       127.3  

Total revenues

  $ 3,326.1     $ 2,626.7     $ 2,400.8  
                         

COSTS AND EXPENSES

                       

Gaming

  $ 1,116.4     $ 845.5     $ 759.6  

Food & beverage

    412.9       347.6       335.5  

Room

    110.7       90.9       85.2  

Other

    96.1       87.4       83.6  

Total costs and expenses

  $ 1,736.1     $ 1,371.4     $ 1,263.9  
                         

MARGINS

                       

Gaming

    55.0 %     56.1 %     56.4 %

Food & beverage

    7.8 %     5.5 %     3.1 %

Room

    53.3 %     54.4 %     54.4 %

Other

    39.1 %     34.7 %     34.3 %

 

Gaming

Gaming revenues are comprised primarily of the net win from our slot machine operations and to a lesser extent from table games win. The $557.9 million, or 29.0%, increase in gaming revenues during 2019 as compared to the prior year, was primarily due to the Acquisitions.

 

The $185.2 million, or 10.6%, increase in gaming revenues during 2018 as compared to the prior year, was primarily due to the Acquisitions. In addition, the Louisiana and Mississippi properties experienced gaming revenue growth, particularly Delta Downs, Amelia Belle and IP. Gaming margins were essentially even with the prior year.

 

Food & Beverage

Food & beverage revenues increased $80.0 million, or 21.7%, during 2019 as compared to prior year. The increase is primarily due to the Acquisitions. Overall food & beverage margins increased to 7.8% from 5.5% in the prior year, due primarily to an increase in average check of 10.8% while cost per cover increased by only 6.1%

 

Food & beverage revenues increased $21.5 million, or 6.2%, during 2018 as compared to prior year due primarily to the Acquisitions. Overall food & beverage margins increased to 5.5% from 3.1% in the prior year, primarily due to an overall increase in average check of 2.2% offset slightly by an increase in cost per cover of 0.6%.

 

Room

Room revenues increased $37.7 million, or 18.9%, in 2019 compared to 2018 due primarily to the Acquisitions. An increase in room revenue of $5.5 million in the Las Vegas Locals segment was driven by an increase in the hotel occupancy rate of 3.1% from the prior year, offset by a decrease of 0.8% in the average daily rate from the prior year.

 

Room revenues increased $12.7 million, or 6.8%, in 2018 compared to 2017 due primarily to the Acquisitions which accounted for $8.4 million. The increase in room revenue of $2.3 million in the Downtown Las Vegas segment was driven by an increase in the average daily rate of 6.1% from the prior year. The Las Vegas Locals segment also experienced room revenue growth of $1.7 million attributable to a 1.2% increase over the prior year in average daily rate.

 

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Other

Other revenues relate to patronage visits at the amenities at our properties, including entertainment and nightclub revenues, retail sales, theater tickets and other venues. Other revenues increased by $23.9 million, or 17.8%, during 2019 as compared to the prior year, was primarily due to the Acquisitions.

 

Other revenues increased by $6.5 million, or 5.1%, during 2018 as compared to the prior year due primarily to the Acquisitions, which accounted for an increase of $5.5 million to other revenue in the Midwest & South segment.

 

Revenues and Adjusted EBITDAR by Reportable Segment

We determine each of our properties' profitability based upon Adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, Amortization and Rent expense related to the master lease ("Adjusted EBITDAR"), which represents earnings before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, deferred rent, master lease rent expense, share-based compensation expense, project development, preopening and writedowns expenses, impairments of assets and other operating items, net, as applicable. Reportable Segment Adjusted EBITDAR is the aggregate sum of the Adjusted EBITDAR for each of the properties comprising our Las Vegas Locals, Downtown Las Vegas and Midwest & South segments before net amortization, preopening and other items. Results for Downtown Las Vegas include the results of our travel agency and captive insurance company in Hawaii. The results for our Illinois distributed gaming operator are included in our Midwest & South segment. Corporate expense represents unallocated payroll, professional fees, aircraft expenses and various other expenses not directly related to our casino and hotel operations. Furthermore, for purposes of this presentation, corporate expense excludes its portion of share-based compensation expense.

 

EBITDAR is a commonly used measure of performance in our industry that we believe, when considered with measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, provides our investors a more complete understanding of our operating results before the impact of investing and financing transactions and income taxes and facilities comparisons between us and our competitors. Management has historically adjusted EBITDAR when evaluating operating performance because we believe that the inclusion or exclusion of certain recurring and non-recurring items is necessary to provide a full understanding of our core operating results and as a means to evaluate period-to-period results.

 

The following table presents our total revenues and Adjusted EBITDAR by Reportable Segment:

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions)

 

2019

   

2018

   

2017

 

Total revenues

                       

Las Vegas Locals

  $ 880.9     $ 873.5     $ 868.4  

Downtown Las Vegas

    257.7       248.1       244.4  

Midwest & South

    2,187.5       1,505.1       1,288.0  

Total revenues

  $ 3,326.1     $ 2,626.7     $ 2,400.8  
                         

Adjusted EBITDAR (1)

                       

Las Vegas Locals

  $ 283.0     $ 274.3     $ 249.9  

Downtown Las Vegas

    62.4       56.5       54.6  

Midwest & South

    635.2       432.4       364.4  

Total Reportable Segment Adjusted EBITDAR

    980.6       763.2       668.9  

Corporate expense

    (83.9 )     (81.9 )     (73.0 )

Adjusted EBITDAR

  $ 896.7     $ 681.3     $ 595.9  

 

(1) Refer to Note 14, Segment Information, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for a reconciliation of Total Reportable Segment Adjusted EBITDAR to operating income, as reported in accordance with GAAP in our accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

 

Las Vegas Locals

Total revenues increased $7.4 million, or 0.9%, during 2019 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to revenue increases in food & beverage and room revenue. Food & beverage revenue increased $1.8 million due to an increase in average check of 7.8% over prior year. In addition, room revenue increased $5.5 million, as discussed above.

 

Total revenues increased $5.1 million, or 0.6%, during 2018 as compared to the prior year, reflecting revenue increases in all departmental categories. Gaming revenue increased $1.8 million primarily due to a 3.7% and 0.4% increase in table game win and slot win, respectively. In addition, room revenue increased $1.7 million due to a 1.2% increase in average daily rate and other revenue increased $1.0 million due to increased consumption of property amenities and visitor spending.

 

Adjusted EBITDAR increased by $8.7 million, or 3.2%, during 2019 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to revenue growth.

 

Downtown Las Vegas

Total revenues increased by $9.6 million, or 3.9%, in 2019 as compared to the prior year, reflecting revenue increases in all departmental categories except other revenue. Gaming revenue increased $5.8 million primarily due to a 6.8% increase in slot win. Food & beverage revenue increased $2.0 million primarily due to an increase in average check of 6.2% and a 1.1% increase in food covers. In addition, room revenue increased $1.8 million as the hotel occupancy rate increased 2.8% over prior year. We continue to tailor our marketing programs in the Downtown segment to cater to our Hawaiian market. Our Hawaiian market represented approximately 53% and 54% of our occupied rooms in this segment in 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

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Total revenues increased by $3.7 million, or 1.5%, in 2018 as compared to the prior year, reflecting revenue increases in all departmental categories except gaming revenue. Food & beverage revenue increased by $1.3 million due to an increase in average check of 3.4% over prior year. In addition, room revenue increased $2.3 million as the average daily rate increased 6.1% over prior year. We continue to tailor our marketing programs in the Downtown segment to cater to our Hawaiian market. Our Hawaiian market represented approximately 54% during both 2018 and 2017 of our occupied rooms in this segment.

 

Adjusted EBITDAR increased by $5.9 million, or 10.4%, during 2019 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to revenue growth.

 

Midwest & South

Total revenues increased $682.4 million, or 45.3%, in 2019 as compared to 2018, primarily due to the Acquisitions.

 

Total revenues increased $217.1 million, or 16.9%, in 2018 as compared to 2017, primarily due to the Acquisitions. In addition, the Louisiana and Mississippi properties experienced gaming revenue growth, particularly Delta Downs, Amelia Belle and IP.

 

Adjusted EBITDAR increased by $202.8 million, or 46.9%, during 2019 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to the Acquisitions.

 

Other Operating Costs and Expenses

The following operating costs and expenses, as presented in our consolidated statements of operations, are further discussed below:

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

 

(In millions)

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

Selling, general and administrative

  $ 459.6   $ 369.3   $ 362.0  

Master lease rent expense

    97.7     20.7      

Maintenance and utilities

    154.7     127.0     109.5  

Depreciation and amortization

    276.6     230.0     217.5  

Corporate expense

    105.1     104.2     88.1  

Project development, preopening and writedowns

    21.7     45.7     14.5  

Impairment of assets

        1.0     (0.4 )

Other operating items, net

    1.9     2.2     1.9  

 

Selling, General and Administrative

Selling, general and administrative expenses include marketing, technology, compliance and risk, surveillance and security. These costs, as a percentage of total revenues, were 13.8%, 14.1% and 15.1% for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We continue to focus on disciplined and targeted marketing spend and on our cost containment efforts.

 

Master Lease Rent Expense

Master lease rent expense represents rent expense incurred by those properties subject to a master lease agreement with a real estate investment trust.

 

Maintenance and Utilities

Maintenance and utilities expenses, as a percentage of total revenues, were 4.7%, 4.8% and 4.6% for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization expense, as a percentage of total revenues, was 8.3%, 8.8% and 9.1% for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decline in the percentage versus the prior periods is attributable to there not being depreciation on the real property for three of the Acquisition properties which are subject to the master lease agreement.

 

Corporate Expense

Corporate expense represents unallocated payroll, professional fees, rent and various other administrative expenses that are not directly related to our casino and/or hotel operations, in addition to the corporate portion of share-based compensation expense. Corporate expense, represented 3.2%, 4.0% and 3.7%, of total revenues, for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

Project Development, Preopening and Writedowns

Project development, preopening and writedowns represent: (i) certain costs incurred and recoveries realized related to the activities associated with various acquisition opportunities, strategic initiatives, dispositions and other business development activities in the ordinary course of business; (ii) certain costs of start-up activities that are expensed as incurred; and (iii) asset write-downs. The higher project development, preopening and writedowns expense in 2018 as compared to 2019 and 2017 is primarily due to the Acquisitions, the Wilton Rancheria development and the launch of the redesigned B Connected player loyalty program.

 

Impairment of Assets

There were no costs related to impairment of assets in 2019.

 

Impairment of assets of $1.0 million in 2018 includes non-cash impairment charges related to a nonoperating asset.

 

Impairment of assets in 2017 include a $0.6 million write down of a land parcel in Missouri that was sold during the period. This impairment charge is offset by a $1.0 million excess reserve recovery related to the Echelon project. The value of the remaining Echelon inventory is fully reserved.

 

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Other Operating Items, Net

Other operating items, net, is generally comprised of miscellaneous non-recurring operating charges, including direct and non-reimbursable costs associated with natural disasters and severe weather, including hurricane and flood expenses and subsequent recoveries of such costs, as applicable.