10-K 1 v370266_10k.htm FORM 10-K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
þ
Annual report under section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
 
¨
Transition report under section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934
 
Commission file number  0-22196
 
INNODATA INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
 
13-3475943
(State or other jurisdiction of
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
incorporation or organization)
 
 
 
 
 
Three University Plaza
 
 
Hackensack, New Jersey
 
07601
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
 
 
(201) 371-8000
 
 
(Registrant's telephone number)
 
 
 
Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act: 
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock $.01 par value
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Preferred Stock Purchase Right
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 
Securities registered under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:   None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  ¨  No  þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes  ¨  No  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the past twelve months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  þ  No  ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ    No  ¨
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers in response to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer.  See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer ¨
Accelerated filer þ
Non-accelerated filer ¨
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  ¨  No  þ
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based on the closing price reported on The Nasdaq Stock Market on June 30, 2013) was $70,796,300.
 
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, $.01 par value, as of February 10, 2014 was 25,049,889.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Items 10,11,12,13 and 14 of Part III of this Form 10-K.
 
 
 
INNODATA INC
Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2013
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS   
 
 
 
Page
 
Part I
 
Item 1.
Business
1
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
10
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
20
Item 2.
Properties
20
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
20
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
21
 
 
 
 
Part II
 
Item 5
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
22
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
23
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
25
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
38
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
38
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
39
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
39
 
Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
39
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
40
Item 9B.
Other Information
41
 
 
 
 
Part III
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
42
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
42
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
42
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
42
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
42
 
 
 
 
Part IV
 
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
43
 
 
 
Signatures
 
44
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
Disclosures in this Form 10-K contain certain forward-looking statements, including without limitation, statements concerning our operations, economic performance, and financial condition. These forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words “project,” “head start,” "believe," "expect," “should,” "anticipate," "indicate," "point to," “forecast,” “likely” and other similar expressions generally identify forward-looking statements, which speak only as of their dates.
 
These forward-looking statements are based largely on our current expectations, and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including without limitation, that contracts may be terminated by clients, projected or committed volumes of work may not materialize; our Innodata Advanced Data Solutions segment (“IADS”)is a new venture with minimal revenues that has incurred losses since inception and has recorded impairment charges for all of its fixed assets; we currently intend to continue to invest in IADS; the primarily at-will nature of contracts with our Content Services clients and the ability of these clients to reduce, delay or cancel projects; continuing Content Services segment revenue concentration in a limited number of clients; continuing Content Services segment reliance on project-based work; inability to replace projects that are completed, canceled or reduced; depressed market conditions; changes in external market factors; the ability and willingness of our clients and prospective clients to execute business plans which give rise to requirements for digital content and professional services in knowledge processing; difficulty in integrating and deriving synergies from acquisitions, joint venture and strategic investments; potential undiscovered liabilities of companies that we acquire; changes in our business or growth strategy; the emergence of new or growing competitors; various other competitive and technological factors; and other risks and uncertainties indicated from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
Our actual results could differ materially from the results referred to in the forward-looking statements. In light of these risks and uncertainties, there can be no assurance that the results referred to in the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K will occur.
 
We undertake no obligation to update or review any guidance or other forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
 
Item 1. Business.
 
Business Overview
 
Innodata (NASDAQ: INOD) is a global provider of business process, information technology (IT) and professional services that are focused on digital enablement. Our clients comprise several of the world’s leading digital retailers that sell digital content; preeminent publishers and other providers of online business information products; and enterprises in information-intensive industries (such as aerospace, defense, financial services, healthcare, high technology, insurance, and manufacturing) that create and manage large volumes of content to support their products or operations.
 
We operate in two reporting segments: Content Services  and Innodata Advanced Data Solutions.
 
Content Services (CS) Segment
 
Our  CS segment provides solutions to digital retailers, information services companies, publishers and enterprises that have one or more of the following broad business requirements: development of digital content (including e-books); development of new digital information products; and operational support of existing digital information products and systems.
 
 
1

 
Many of our clients are driving or are responding to rapid and fundamental changes in the way end users discover, consume and create published information. For some of our publishing and information services clients, this means transforming information products from print to digital; for others, it means migrating already-digital products from web-only distribution to multiple-channel distribution that includes mobile and tablet devices and incorporates mobility, social platform and semantic search; and for others still it means re-tooling pure search-based information products into workflow-imbedded analytical tools that combine content with software to enable context-aware decision-making; and for a select number of our information services clients, it means embracing the content-as-a-service model to integrate content with other tools, applications and data. Each of these transformations requires shifts in products, as well as the technology and the operations that support them.
 
For our enterprise publishing clients, changes in the way end users discover, consume and create published information often necessitates replacing old processes and technologies that generated static, whole documents with new processes and technologies that enable content to reside as modular components which are re-combined dynamically to create up-to-date, product-specific assembly guides, engineering diagrams/schematics, compliance documentation, field operations guides and clinical documentation destined simultaneously for the web, tablets and smartphones.
 
By blending consulting, technology and operations sourcing, along with deep domain expertise, we provide measurable outcomes for publishing companies, information services companies and enterprises through business transformation, accelerating innovation and efficient operations. Areas of notable technical competency and innovation include high-quality, large-scale transformation from image and PDF formats into digital text in a wide variety of formats (XML, ePUB3, XHTML, etc.); extraction and transformation of complex unstructured legal, financial, medical and technical information to enriched, structured, normalized, and referenced information; and development and integration of technologies that relate to digital publishing workflow (including editorial and production systems), custom content management systems and digital asset management systems (including enterprise database technologies) and media-neutral content delivery systems (including portals, websites and mobile applications).  Each of our technical competencies is supported by defined approaches, frameworks and methodologies. We have a special focus on XML and related structured information standards, and through its employees Innodata has played leadership roles in the development of such standards.
 
E-Book Production and Distribution
 
We are one of the largest producers of e-books, serving four of the five leading digital retailers of e-books as well as 80 leading trade, education and professional publishers that sell e-books. We manufacture both standard e-books and interactive e-books in a variety of formats (including EPUB, Mobi and Kindle) and in 12 major languages (including Japanese and Chinese). In addition, we distribute e-books on behalf of publishers and authors to more than 25 e-book retailers across North America, the United Kingdom, Australia and 24 countries in the European Union. Since the fall of 2011, we have produced over 1 million e-book titles.
 
Information Product Development
 
We help our clients develop high-value information products and knowledge repositories. Our clients include four of the ten largest information industry companies in the world, spanning financial, legal, healthcare and scientific information. Information and publishing is a $753 billion industry consisting of more than 7,000 publishers, information providers and software service firms worldwide. Many of our clients specialize in the scientific, technical and medical (STM) segment (estimated revenues of $32.3 billion) and the legal, tax and regulatory (LTR) segment (estimated revenues of $19.7 billion)1. Both STM and LTR publishers make some or all of their revenues from the sale of information products created from the primary and secondary data produced by professionals and researchers (in the case of STM) or courts, legislatures, administrative bodies and rule-making institutions (in the case of LTR).
 

1
Outsell Inc. (January 24, 2014). “Information Industry Market Size & Share Rankings Report: Preliminary 2013 Results.”
 
2

 
We enable our clients to rapidly develop new digital products without direct investments in staff, facilities and technology. We embrace agile development methodologies that provide the benefits of early solution visualization and an iterative development process that spans content, technology and user interface development. We use a combination of onsite project management, onshore solutions architecture and offshore globally distributed teams of developers, analysts and subject matter experts.
 
For example, a leading legal publisher sought to develop a new digital product that would provide lawyers and compliance officers a workflow tool for rule checking, rapid research and fact checking. The new digital tool needed to be accessible via laptops, smart phones and tablet devices.  Moreover, it needed to be updated daily to maintain pace with rapid regulatory developments (it was destined to replace a printed loose leaf series that was updated only monthly).  Our technology architects, developers and content analysts designed and implemented the new digital tool within budget and on schedule. Using the new digital tool, lawyers and compliance officers can now confidently react faster to their clients’ increased regulatory burdens with up-to-date information.
 
For another leading global publisher, we developed an eReader application designed specifically for complex professional reference material. The publisher saw an opportunity to increase sales by re-publishing its printed reference works as e-books, but was unable to market them as e-books because existing eReader applications were built for simple fiction and trade books. We developed an eReader application for the client that changed this – it enabled advanced search, linking and cross-references to external sources, subscriber annotations, frequent textual updates and a host of other functions the publisher required in order to distribute its complex reference books as e-books over the iPad® as well as Android and Windows-enabled mobile devices.
 
Operational Support
 
We help our clients significantly lower the cost of maintaining their high-value information products, applications and systems. Clients for which we perform such services include five of the top ten leading legal, tax and regulatory information providers, three of the top ten credit and financial information providers, and four of the top ten scientific, technical and medical information providers. Relative to information products, our focus is on the underlying “content supply chain” activities that are necessary to maintain the product. These activities often include content aggregation; extraction; encoding; indexing and abstracting; fabrication; and distribution. We deliver these activities on an outsourced basis.
 
For example, for a leading provider of networking equipment, we provide digital enhancement and related production systems support for its product guides, release notes, configurations guides, installation guides and other documents.
 
For an $8 billion leading provider of financial and news information, we aggregate public source documentation from a variety of government agencies, which it transforms, analyzes and extracts in order to support a real-time, high-value information product.
 
For a leading wholesale textbook distributor, we provide support and maintenance for its digital book platform, including its customizable bookshelf and eReader applications and its conversion and fulfillment processes.
  
 
3

  
Digital Content Supply Chain Strategy
 
We work with clients at a strategic business and technology level to address business process and technology challenges related to digital content supply chain optimization and strategy. By aligning operations and technology with business goals, we help businesses accelerate new product development and introduction; control cost; consolidate and leverage technology investment; and obtain benefits of scale.
 
For a multinational information services company, we worked in conjunction with a client’s internal teams to design new content architectures and implement new content technologies that enabled the client to migrate its operations away from process and technologies designed primarily for print output to new processes and technologies that were designed around the nature of the content itself and supported multiple simultaneous delivery channels.
 
A global information company had acquired two businesses that each collected, processed and managed some of the same public law content. The company recognized the opportunity to reduce cost by consolidating the processing of this overlapping content. To accomplish this cost savings, we implemented a new, consolidated workflow system using Alfresco and jBPM which provided a common framework for content reuse, while enabling content enrichment processes to be performed by external and internal resources in a fully managed environment.
 
For a publisher of legal treatises and practice guides and provider of on-demand learning, we created a future-state vision of operational workflows required to support an increasing array of technologies and online products. This future-state vision included recommendations regarding process improvements and new technologies.
 
Innodata Advanced Data Solutions (IADS) Segment
 
Many enterprises are embracing new digital information technologies and workflow processes within their operations in order to improve internal decision-support systems. We formed our IADS segment in mid-2011 to design and develop new capabilities to enable clients in the financial services, insurance, medical and healthcare sectors to improve decision-support through digital technologies. We believe that by creating and commercializing innovative business strategies and technology solutions we will be able to accelerate our growth and reduce our revenue volatility.
 
IADS operates through its Synodex LLC and docGenix LLC subsidiaries.  As of December 31, 2013 we owned 83% of Synodex and 94% of docGenix.
 
The main focus of the Synodex business is the extraction and classification of data from unstructured medical records in an innovative way to provide improved data service capabilities for insurance underwriting, insurance claims, medical records management and clinical trial support services. Synodex has developed and piloted its APS.Extract® product for specific use with life, disability and long-term care insurance underwriting and claims and has cultivated a large number of interested clients in both the U.S. and the U.K. Most recently, Synodex launched its Synodex.Connect® platform to facilitate digital data exchange for underwriting workflows between independent brokers and insurance carriers, including delivery of Synodex’s APS.Extract data and reports.
 
The main focus of the docGenix business is the extraction and classification of data from unstructured legal documents in order to improve an organization’s ability to analyze documentation and feed actionable data to downstream applications.
 
 
4

 
As an example of our docGenix service, we provided a leading global investment company a new content management system for its complex derivatives agreements. The company is party to more than 5,000 derivative contracts where the impact of market changes and the counterparty and collateral changes require daily verification and analysis.  Conducting this research was slow and resource-intensive because contract creation, storage and retrieval processes were all still paper or image based. Using docGenix’s system, these complex documents are transformed into machine readable, computer-addressable data that is downstreamed to risk collateral and other mission-critical systems, and users can perform multi-dimensional, complex queries in minutes.
 
The IADS subsidiaries are in a developmental stage and have incurred losses since inception and have reported minimal revenues through 2013. Our cumulative investment in these subsidiaries was $24.0 million as of December 31, 2013, consisting of $17.0 million in operating expenses and $7.0 million in capital expenditures. As of December 31, 2013, the Company has written off all the fixed assets of IADS. In the immediate future  we intend to continue to invest in these subsidiaries at the combined rate of $1.5 to $2.0 million per quarter.
 
Our Global Operations
 
We provide our services using a globally distributed workforce utilizing advanced technologies which automate portions of our process and help ensure that our work product is highly accurate and consistent.
 
Our production facilities are ISO 27001 certified. In addition, we comply with the requirements of the United States’ Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 as amended (HIPAA) (including by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Data (HITECH)) and the United Kingdom’s Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA), as applicable. Both Innodata and Synodex are U.S. Safe Harbor registered entities adhering to both the European Union and the Switzerland Safe Harbor Frameworks on the protection of personal data. We encrypt all individual protected health information, both at rest and in motion, to the AES 256 or similar standard, and we employ a range of security features including monitored firewalls and intrusion detection devices.
 
For our data extraction services, we maintain staff in a wide spectrum of disciplines, including medicine, law, engineering, management, finance, science and the humanities.
 
Our services are organized and managed around three vectors: a vertical industry focus, a horizontal service/process focus, and a supportive operations focus.
 
The vertically-aligned groups understand our clients’ businesses and strategic initiatives.  The vertical group for each particular industry includes experts hired from that industry.
 
Our service/process-aligned groups include engineering personnel and delivery personnel.  Our engineering teams are responsible for creating secure and efficient custom workflows and integrating proprietary and third-party technologies to automate manual processes and improve the consistency and quality of our work product.  These tools include categorization engines that utilize pattern recognition algorithms based on comprehensive rule sets and related heuristics, data extraction tools that automatically retrieve specific types of information from large data sources, and workflow systems that enable various tasks and activities to be performed across our multiple facilities.
 
Our globally distributed delivery personnel are responsible for executing our client engagements in accordance with service-level agreements.  We deliver services from facilities in the United States, India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Israel.
 
Other support groups are responsible for managing diverse enabling functions including human resources, organizational development, network and communications technology infrastructure support and physical infrastructure and facilities management.
 
Our sales staff, program managers and consultants operate primarily from our North American and European locations, as well as from client sites.
 
 
5

 
Our Opportunity
 
Rapid changes in digital content technologies have created the need for all sorts of companies to refashion their product offerings and their operations.  Media, publishing and information services companies contend with new monetization models, delivery platforms, and channels.  They seek to develop new digital products as print product revenue wanes; to broaden their markets by distributing content over the iPad®, iPhone®, Android and other portable devices; and to monetize existing content in new, highly targeted custom products through flexible reuse and repurposing.
 
Meanwhile, for enterprises that rely on content to support operations, this shift to digital technology offers opportunities to improve internal decision support and risk mitigation in complex data operations by harnessing the power of machine-readable, digital data to drive improved decision support. For enterprises that rely on content to support products, this shift to digital technology offers opportunities to create and manage content more efficiently, while at the same time distributing content through an increased number of channels.
 
As a result, media, publishing and information services companies, and content-intensive enterprises, are increasingly relying on service providers, such as Innodata, to provide digital content-related services.
 
Clients
 
Four clients each generated more than 10% of our revenues in the fiscal year ended 2013. Revenues from Apple Inc. (“Apple”) were approximately $6.8 million, or 11% of total revenues, revenues from Bloomberg L.P. affiliated companies (the “BLP Clients”) were approximately $9.5 million, or 15% of total revenues, revenues from Reed Elsevier affiliated companies (the “RE Clients”) were approximately $9.6 million or 15% of total revenues, and revenues from Wolters Kluwer affiliated companies (the “WK Clients”) were approximately $6.8 million, or 11% of total revenues. No other client generated more than 10% of our revenues in 2013. These four clients together generated approximately 51%, 57% and 51% of our total revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Revenues from clients located in foreign countries (principally in Europe) accounted for 35%, 24% and 30% of our total revenues for these respective fiscal years.
 
We have long-standing relationships with many of our clients, and we have provided services to three of the four clients mentioned in the preceding paragraph for over ten years. Our track record of delivering high-quality services helps us to solidify client relationships. Many of our clients have continued to provide additional projects to us after our initial engagement with them.
 
Our contractual arrangements with Apple during calendar year 2013 consisted of a master services agreement (“MSA”) and two statements of work (“SOWs”). The MSA and SOWs automatically renew on a monthly basis unless terminated by either party for convenience on 60 days’ prior notice with respect to the MSA and one SOW, and on 30 days’ prior notice with respect to the second SOW. The MSA may be terminated by either Apple or the Company for material breach, failure to meet service levels, or insolvency related events that that are not cured during a 30-day notice period, or, if the material breach is incapable of cure, immediately on written notice. Apple may also terminate the MSA in the event of a force majeure that materially affects performance and lasts for more than 30 days. The SOWs may be terminated by either party for “cause” on 30 days’ notice (0 days’ notice if the “cause” is incurable), and without “cause” on 60 days’ notice with respect to one SOW and 30 days’ notice with respect to the second SOW. The MSA also contains confidentiality, indemnification and other standard provisions.
 
 
6

 
Our contractual agreements with the BLP Clients during calendar year 2013 consisted of two MSAs and separately agreed to SOWs for specific services. The MSAs automatically renew on an annual basis unless terminated by either party on 60 days’ prior notice. BLP Clients may terminate the MSA on 30 days’ notice, and the BLP Clients may terminate the SOWs on notice periods ranging from 30 days to 90 days. The MSAs and SOWs may also be terminated by either BLP Clients or the Company on notice periods of 30 days or less for “cause,” or on insolvency related events or changes of control of the other party. The MSAs also contains confidentiality, limitation of liability, indemnification and other standard provisions.
 
Our contractual arrangements with the RE Clients during 2013 consisted of multiple MSAs and separately agreed to SOWs for specific services. Two of the MSAs have indefinite terms, a third has a term that ends in February 2014, and the fourth has a term that ends on the later of September 2015 or the expiration date of all SOWs issued under that MSA. RE Clients may terminate the MSAs on notice periods ranging from zero to six months, and they may terminate their SOWs on notice periods of up to 180 days. They may also terminate certain of the MSAs and SOWs on notice periods of three months or less for “cause” and for insolvency related events, and on changes of control, force majeure and the imposition of certain price increases by the Company that are not acceptable to them. The Company may terminate two of the MSAs on notice periods of 180 days, and a third on a notice period of three months, and it may also terminate certain MSAs and SOWs for “cause”, insolvency related events affecting the RE Clients, and other defined events. The MSAs contain confidentiality, limitation of liability, indemnification and other standard provisions.
 
Our contractual arrangements with the WK Clients during calendar year 2013 consisted of multiple MSAs and separately agreed to SOWs for specific services. Two MSAs have indefinite terms, two MSAs continue in effect until the later of their expiration date and the completion of all services performed pursuant to such MSA, one MSA has a term that expires in March 2017, and one MSA expired in July 2013.  One MSA expired in December 2012 and SOWs for services that continue to be performed by the Company pursuant to the MSA are in the process of being transferred to the MSA that will expire in March 2017. WK Clients may terminate certain MSAs on notice periods ranging from three months to 30 days, and they may terminate certain individual SOWs on notice periods ranging from 10 days to three months. WK Clients may also terminate certain of the MSAs and SOWs on notice periods of 60 days or less for “cause” and for insolvency related events, and on changes of control, force majeure and the imposition of certain price increases by the Company that are not acceptable to them. The Company may terminate certain of the MSAs on notice periods ranging from 30 days to three months, and it may also terminate certain MSAs and SOWs for “cause”, insolvency related events affecting the WK Clients, and other defined events. The MSAs contain confidentiality, limitation of liability, indemnification and other standard provisions.
 
Our agreements with our other clients are in many cases terminable on 30 to 90 days' notice. A substantial portion of the services we provide to our clients is subject solely to their requirements.
 
Competitive Strengths
 
Our expertise in digital content.  We are primarily focused on helping clients across multiple vertical industries to use digital data to build new kinds of products, to reduce costs and to improve decision-support.
 
Our focus on quality.   We have achieved a reputation within our clients for consistent high-quality. We maintain independent quality assurance capabilities in all geographies where we have production facilities.  Our quality assurance teams are compliant and certified to the ISO 9001:2008 quality management system standards.
 
Our global delivery model.   We have operations in seven countries in North America, Europe and Asia. We provide services to our clients through a comprehensive global delivery model that integrates both local and global resources to obtain the best economic results. 
 
Our proven track record and reputation.   By consistently providing high-quality services, we have achieved a track record of client successes. This track record is reflected in our reputation as a leading service provider within the media, publishing and information services sector. Our reputation and brand connote an assurance of expertise, quality execution and risk mitigation.
 
 
7

 
Our focus on technology and engineering innovation.   Our engineering and IT teams integrate proprietary and best-in-class third party tools into our workflows to drive as much automation as possible. In addition, our engineering and IT teams provide services directly to our clients, helping them achieve improved efficiencies within their own operations.
 
Our long-term relationships with clients.   We have long-term relationships with many of our clients, who frequently retain us for additional projects after a successful initial engagement. We believe there are significant opportunities for additional growth with our existing clients, and we seek to expand these relationships by increasing the depth and breadth of the services we provide. This strategy allows us to use our in-depth client-specific knowledge to provide more fully integrated services and develop closer relationships with those clients.
 
Our ability to scale.   We have demonstrated the ability to expand our teams and facilities to meet the needs of our clients. By virtue of the significant numbers of professional staff working on projects, we are able to build teams for new engagements quickly. We have also demonstrated the ability to hire and train staff quickly in order to service diverse and often large-scale needs of our clients.
 
Our internal infrastructure.   We utilize established facilities, technology and communications infrastructure to support our business model.  We own and operate some of the most advanced content production facilities in the world, which are linked by multi-redundant data connections. Our Wide Area Network – along with our Local Area Networks, Storage Area Networks and data centers – is configured with industry standard redundancy, often with more than one backup to help ensure 24x7 availability.  Our infrastructure is built to accommodate advanced tools, processes and technologies that support our content and technical experts.  We encrypt all individual protected health information, both at rest and in motion, to the AES 256 or similar standard, and we employ a range of security features including managed firewalls and intrusion services.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
We market and sell our services directly through our professional staff, senior management and direct sales personnel operating primarily out of our corporate headquarters in Hackensack, New Jersey, just outside New York City. During 2013, we had five executive-level business development and marketing professionals and approximately 10 sales personnel. We also deploy solutions architects, technical support experts and consultants who support the development of new clients and new client engagements. These resources work within teams (both permanent and ad hoc) that provide support to clients.
 
Our sales professionals identify and qualify prospects, securing direct personal access to decision makers at existing and prospective clients. They facilitate interactions between client personnel and our service teams to define ways in which we can assist clients with their goals. For each prospective client engagement, we assemble a team of our senior employees drawn from various disciplines within our Company. The team members assume assigned roles in a formalized process, using their combined knowledge and experience to understand the client’s goals and collaborate with the client on a solution.
 
Sales activities include the design and generation of presentations and proposals, account and client relationship management and the organization of account activities.
 
Personnel from our solutions analysis group and our engineering services group closely support our direct sales effort.  These individuals assist the sales force in understanding the technical needs of clients and providing responses to these needs, including demonstrations, prototypes, pricing quotations and time estimates. In addition, account managers from our customer service group support our direct sales effort by providing ongoing project-level support to our clients.
 
 
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Our marketing organization is responsible for developing and increasing the visibility and awareness of our brand and our service offerings, defining and communicating our value proposition, generating qualified, early-stage leads and furnishing effective sales support tools.
 
As part of our marketing strategy we partner with media organizations to build awareness, establish a reputation as an industry thought leader and generate leads.  Media partners include trade associations and publications, trade show producers and consulting organizations.  These partnerships are particularly valuable in enterprise industries as we build our presence among digital content leaders and decision makers.
 
Primary marketing outreach activities include event marketing (including exhibiting at trade shows, conferences and seminars), direct and database marketing, public and media relations (including speaking engagements and active participation in industry and technical standard bodies), and web marketing (including integrated marketing campaigns, search engine optimization, search engine marketing and the maintenance and continued development of external websites).
 
Research and Development
 
We did not incur any research and development costs in any of the three years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 or 2011.
 
Competition
 
Our Content Services segment operates in a  highly competitive, fragmented and intense market.  Major competitors include Apex CoVantage, Aptara, Cenveo, Infosys, HCL Technologies, Macmillan India, SPI Technologies, JSI S.A.S. Groupe Jouve and Thomson Digital.
 
We compete in this market by offering high-quality services and favorable pricing that leverages our technical skills, IT infrastructure, offshore model and economies of scale.  Our competitive advantages are especially attractive to clients for undertakings that are technically challenging are sizable in scope or scale, are continuing, or that require a highly fail-safe environment with technology redundancy.
 
The Synodex subsidiary of our IADS segment seeks to compete in the insurance data analysis industry by applying innovative technology to speed accurate decision making and to improve productivity. It is at an early stage of development. Its major competitors are Risk Righter, EMSI, Parameds, and Hooper Holmes, all of whom are large firms with established client bases.
 
We also compete with in-house personnel at existing or prospective clients who may attempt to duplicate our services in-house.
 
Locations
 
We are headquartered in Hackensack, New Jersey, just outside New York City. We have eight production facilities in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel.
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2013, we employed approximately 40 persons in the United States and Europe, and over 5,000 persons in eight global delivery centers in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel.  Most of our employees have graduated from at least a two-year college program. Many of our employees hold advanced degrees in law, business, technology, medicine and social sciences.  No employees are currently represented by a labor union, and we believe that our relations with our employees are satisfactory.
 
 
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Corporate Information
 
Our principal executive offices are located at Three University Plaza, Hackensack, New Jersey 07601, and our telephone number is (201) 371-8000. Our website is www.innodata.com; information contained on our website is not included as a part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  There we make available, free of charge, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file that material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our SEC reports can be obtained through the Investor Relations section of our website or from the Securities and Exchange Commission at www.sec.gov.
 
Item 1A.   Risk Factors.
 
We have historically relied on a very limited number of clients that have accounted for a significant portion of our revenues, and our results of operations could be adversely affected if we were to lose one or more of these significant clients.
 
We have historically relied on a very limited number of clients that have accounted for a significant portion of our revenues.  Two clients generated approximately 26%, 41% and 30% of the Company’s total revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Another client accounted for 15% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2013, but for accounted for less than 10% for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.  One other client accounted for 11% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2013 but accounted for less than 10% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 14% for the year ended December 31, 2011.  No other client accounted for 10% or more of total revenues during these periods. Further, in the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, revenues from non-US clients accounted for 35%, 24% and 30%, respectively, of the Company's revenues.  We may lose any of these, or our other major clients, as a result of our failure to meet or satisfy our clients’ requirements, the completion or termination of a project or engagement, or the client’s selection of another service provider. 
 
In addition, the volume of work performed for our major clients may vary from year to year, and services they require from us may change from year to year. They may also request us to modify certain key terms of our agreements with them as a condition of continuing to do business with us. If the volume of work performed for our major clients varies, or if the services they require from us change, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected, and we may incur a loss from operations. If certain key terms of our agreements with our major clients are modified, our revenues and results of operations may be adversely affected. Our services are typically subject to client requirements, and in many cases are terminable upon 30 to 90 days’ notice.
 
A significant portion of our services is provided on a non-recurring basis for specific projects, and our inability to replace large projects when they are completed or otherwise terminated has adversely affected, and could in the future adversely affect, our revenues and results of operations.
 
We provide a portion of our services for specific projects that generate revenues that terminate on completion of a defined task.  While we seek, wherever possible, on completion or termination of large projects, to counterbalance periodic declines in revenues with new arrangements to provide services to the same client or others, our inability to obtain sufficient new projects to counterbalance any decreases in such work may adversely affect our future revenues and results of operations.
 
The Synodex and docGenix subsidiaries in our IADS segment are early stage companies and have incurred losses to date.
 
We have invested significant amounts in the Synodex and docGenix subsidiaries of our IADS segment. Our total 2013 investment in Synodex and docGenix was $8.3 million, consisting of $7.3 million in operating expenses and $1.0 million in capital expenditures. Our cumulative investment in these subsidiaries as of December 31, 2013 was $24 million, consisting of $17.0 million in operating expenses and $7.0 million in capital expenditures. During 2013, these subsidiaries generated approximately $1.1 million in revenues and incurred a net loss of $11.8 million, net of inter-segment profits. The net loss includes a $5.5 million impairment charge on the fixed assets of our Synodex subsidiary. As of December 31, 2013, we have written off all the fixed assets of IADS.
 
 
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 We intend to continue to invest in Synodex and docGenix in the immediate future at the combined rate of $1.5-$2.0 million per quarter. However, we may curtail our continuing investments if our internal resources are insufficient and outside financing is not available on terms we find attractive.
 
These subsidiaries are still subject to the risks and uncertainties of early stage companies, and there can be no assurance that these subsidiaries will be viable. We have no prior experience in selling these IADS services and we are dependent on a small group of skilled personnel. Failure to generate meaningful revenues and margins could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
New acquisitions, joint ventures or strategic investments or partnerships could harm our operating results.
 
We may pursue acquisitions, joint ventures or engage in strategic investments or partnerships to grow and enhance our capabilities. We cannot assure that we will successfully consummate any acquisitions or joint ventures, or profit by strategic investments, or achieve desired financial and operating results. Further, such activities involve a number of risks and challenges, including proper evaluation, diversion of management’s attention and proper integration with our current business. Accordingly, we might fail to realize the expected benefits or strategic objectives of any such venture we undertake. If we are unable to complete the kind of acquisitions for which we plan, we may not be able to achieve our planned rates of growth, profitability or competitive position in specific markets or services.
 
A large portion of our accounts receivable is payable by a limited number of clients; the inability of any of these clients to pay its accounts receivable would adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Several significant clients account for a large percentage of our accounts receivable.  If any of these clients were unable, or refused, for any reason, to pay our accounts receivable, our financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected. As of December 31, 2013, 65% or $7.9 million, of our accounts receivable was due from four clients. See “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
 
In addition, we evaluate the financial condition of our clients and usually bill and collect on relatively short cycles. We maintain specific allowances against doubtful receivables. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that we currently anticipate and, as a result, we might need to adjust our allowances. There is no guarantee that we will accurately assess the creditworthiness of our clients. Macroeconomic conditions, such as the continued credit crisis and related turmoil in the global financial system, could also result in financial difficulties, including limited access to the credit markets, insolvency or bankruptcy, for our clients, and, as a result, could cause clients to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. If we are unable to collect timely from our clients, our cash flows could be adversely affected.
 
Quarterly fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations could make financial forecasting difficult and could negatively affect our stock price.
 
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, significant fluctuations in our quarterly revenues and results of operations.  During the past eight quarters, our net income ranged from a profit of approximately $3.4 million in the first quarter of 2012 to a loss of approximately $11.7 million in the third quarter of 2013. 
 
We experience fluctuations in our revenue and earnings as we replace and begin new projects, which may have some normal start-up delays, or we may be unable to replace a project entirely. These and other factors may contribute to fluctuations in our results of operations from quarter to quarter.
 
 
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A high percentage of our operating expenses, particularly personnel and rent, are relatively fixed in advance of any particular quarter. As a result, unanticipated variations in the number and timing of our projects, or in employee wage levels and utilization rates, may cause us to significantly underutilize our production capacity and employees, resulting in significant variations in our operating results in any particular quarter, and have resulted in losses.
 
The economic environment and pricing pressures could negatively impact our revenues and operating results.
 
Due to the intense competition involved in outsourcing and information technology services, we generally face pricing pressures from our clients. Our ability to maintain or increase pricing is restricted as clients generally expect to receive volume discounts or special pricing incentives as we do more business with them; moreover, our large clients may exercise pressure for discounts outside of agreed terms.
 
Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to maintain pricing on our existing projects and win new projects at appropriate margins.
 
Our profit margin, and therefore our profitability, is dependent on the rates we are able to recover for our services. If we are not able to maintain pricing on our existing services and win new projects at profitable margins, our profitability could suffer. The rates we are able to recover for our services are affected by a number of factors, including competition, the value our client derives from our services and general economic and political conditions.
 
If our pricing structures do not accurately anticipate the cost and complexity of performing our work, then our contracts could be unprofitable.
 
We provide services either on a time-and-materials basis or on a fixed-price basis. Our pricing is highly dependent on our internal forecasts and predictions about our projects, which might be based on limited data and could turn out to be inaccurate. If we do not accurately estimate the costs and timing for completing projects, our contracts could prove unprofitable for us or yield lower profit margins than anticipated.
 
Our inability to obtain price increases and improve our efficiency may impact our results of operations.
 
Over the past few years, we have experienced wage inflation in the Asian countries where we have the majority of our operations. In addition, we may experience adverse fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. These global events have put pressure on our profitability and our margins. Although we have tried to partially offset wage increases and foreign currency fluctuations through price increases and improving our efficiency, we cannot ensure that we may be able to continue to do so in the future, which would negatively impact our results of operations.
 
If our clients are not satisfied with our services, they may terminate our contracts with them or our services, which could have an adverse impact on our business.
 
Our business model depends in large part on our ability to attract additional work from our base of existing clients. Our business model also depends on relationships our account teams develop with our clients so that we can understand our clients’ needs and deliver solutions and services that are tailored to those needs. If a client is not satisfied with the quality of work performed by us, or with the type of services or solutions delivered, then we could incur additional costs to address the situation, the profitability of that work might be impaired, and the client’s dissatisfaction with our services could damage our ability to obtain additional work from that client. In particular, clients that are not satisfied might seek to terminate existing contracts, which would mean that we could incur costs for the services performed with no associated revenue upon termination of a contract. This could also direct future business to our competitors. In addition, negative publicity related to our client services or relationships, regardless of its accuracy, may further damage our business by affecting our ability to compete for new contracts with current and prospective clients.
 
 
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Our new clients may not generate the level of revenues anticipated for reasons beyond our control.
 
As we get new opportunities and win new business, our new clients may not generate the level of revenues that we initially anticipated at the time of signing a contract with them. This could be due to various reasons beyond our control. We may invest in people or technology and incur other costs in anticipation of revenues, and as such any deviation from our expected plan would impact our margins and earnings.
 
Our business will suffer if we fail to develop new services and enhance our existing services in order to keep pace with the rapidly evolving technological environment or provide new service offerings, which may not succeed.
 
The outsourcing, information technology and consulting services industries are characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, changing client preferences and new product and service introductions. Our future success will depend on our ability to develop solutions that keep pace with changes in the markets in which we provide services. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in developing new services, addressing evolving technologies on a timely or cost-effective basis or, if these services are developed, that we will be successful in the marketplace. In addition, we cannot guarantee that products, services or technologies developed by others will not render our services non-competitive or obsolete. Our failure to address these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
We invest in developing and pursuing new service offerings from time to time. Our profitability could be reduced if these services do not yield the profit margins we expect, or if the new service offerings do not generate the planned revenues.
 
We have made and continue to make significant investments towards building-out new capabilities to pursue growth. These investments increase our costs and if these services do not yield the revenues or profit margins we expect and we are unable to grow our business and revenues proportionately, our profitability may be reduced.
 
We depend on third-party technology in the provision of our services.
 
We rely upon certain software that we license from third parties, including software integrated with our internally developed software used in the provision of our services. These third-party software licenses may not continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable or competitive terms, if at all.  The loss of, or inability to maintain or obtain any of these software licenses, could result in delays in the provision of our services until we develop, identify, license and integrate equivalent software. Any delay in the provision of our services could damage our business and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, for our Synodex and docGenix subsidiaries of our IADS segment, we utilize third party data centers to serve our clients and generate revenues. Any disruption in provision of services from these data centers could result in loss of revenues, client dissatisfaction and loss of clients.
 
We compete in highly competitive markets for our CS segment that have low barriers to entry.
 
The markets for our services are highly competitive and fragmented.  Some of our competitors have longer operating histories, significantly greater financial, human, technical and other resources and greater name recognition than we do.  If we fail to be competitive with these companies in the future, we may lose market share, which could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.
 
 
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There are relatively few barriers preventing companies from competing with us. As a result, new market entrants also pose a threat to our business.  We also compete with in-house personnel at current and prospective clients, who may attempt to duplicate our services using their own personnel. We cannot guarantee that our clients will outsource more of their needs to us in the future, or that they will not choose to provide internally the services that they currently obtain from us.  If we are not able to compete effectively, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected.
 
Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and if we are unable to protect them or are subject to intellectual property rights claims, our business may be harmed.
 
Our intellectual property rights include certain trademarks and trade secrets, which are important assets for our business. Although we take precautions to protect our intellectual property rights, these efforts may not be sufficient or effective. In addition, various events outside of our control pose a threat to our intellectual property rights as well as to our business.
 
We may fail to attract and retain enough sufficiently trained employees to support our operations, as competition for highly skilled personnel is significant. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
The outsourcing industry relies on large numbers of skilled employees. Our success depends to a significant extent on our ability to attract, hire, train and retain qualified employees. Our performance largely depends on the talents and efforts of highly skilled individuals including our executives and key sales personnel. The outsourcing industry, including our Company, experiences high employee attrition. Increased competition for these professionals, in the outsourcing industry or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on us. A significant increase in the attrition rate among employees with specialized skills could decrease our operating efficiency and productivity.
 
In addition, our ability to maintain and renew existing engagements and obtain new businesses will depend, in large part, on our ability to attract, train and retain personnel with skills that enable us to keep pace with growing demands for outsourcing, evolving industry standards and changing client preferences. Our failure to attract, train and retain personnel with the qualifications necessary to fulfill the needs of our existing and future clients or to assimilate new employees successfully could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
Disruptions in telecommunications, system failures, data corruption or virus attacks could harm our ability to execute our global resource model, which could result in client dissatisfaction and a reduction of our revenues.
 
We use a distributed global resource model. Our onshore workforce provides services from our North American and European offices, as well as from client sites; and our offshore workforce provides services from our eight overseas production facilities in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel. All our global facilities are linked with a telecommunications network that uses multiple service providers. We may not be able to maintain active voice and data communications between our various facilities and our clients' sites at all times due to disruptions in these networks, system failures, data corruption or virus attacks. Any significant failure in our ability to communicate could result in a disruption in business, which could hinder our performance or our ability to complete client projects on time. This, in turn, could lead to client dissatisfaction and an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
A material breach in security relating to our information systems could adversely affect us.
 
Even though we have implemented network security measures, our servers may be vulnerable to computer viruses, cyber-attacks, break-ins and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering. The occurrence of any of the events described above could result in interruptions, delays, the loss or corruption of data, cessations in the availability of systems or liability under privacy laws or contracts, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
 
 
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Governmental and client focus on data security could increase our costs of operations. In addition, any incidents in which we fail to protect our clients' information against security breaches could result in monetary damages against us, termination of our engagement by our client, and may adversely impact our results of operations.
 
Certain laws and regulations regarding data privacy and security affecting our clients impose requirements regarding the privacy and security of information maintained by these clients, as well as notification to persons whose personal information is accessed by an unauthorized third party.  As a result of any continuing legislative initiatives and client demands, we may have to modify our operations with the goal of further improving data security.  The cost of compliance with these laws and regulations is high and is likely to increase in the future. Any such modifications may result in increased expenses and operating complexity, and we may be unable to increase the rates we charge for our services sufficiently to offset these increases. In addition, as part of the service we perform, we have access to confidential client data, including sensitive personal data. As a result, we are subject to numerous U.S. and foreign jurisdiction laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as the Data Protection Act 1988, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 as amended (including by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and various other laws governing the protection of individually identifiable information). We may also be bound by certain client agreements to use and disclose the confidential client information in a manner consistent with the privacy standards under regulations applicable to such client. Any failure on our part to comply with these laws and regulations can result in negative publicity and diversion of management time and effort and may subject us to significant liabilities and other penalties.
 
If client confidential information is inappropriately disclosed due to a breach of our computer systems, system failures or otherwise, or if any person, including any of our employees, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches controls or procedures with which we are responsible for complying with respect to such data or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, we may have substantial liabilities to our clients.  Any incidents with respect to the handling of such information could subject us to litigation or indemnification claims with our clients and other parties. In addition, any breach or alleged breach of our confidentiality agreements with our clients may result in termination of their engagements, resulting in associated loss of revenue and increased costs.
 
Our international operations subject us to risks inherent in doing business on an international level, any of which could increase our costs and hinder our growth.
 
The major part of our operations is carried on in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel, while our headquarters are in the United States, and our clients are primarily located in North America and Europe.  While we do not depend on significant revenues from sources internal to the countries in which we operate, we are nevertheless subject to certain adverse economic factors relating to overseas economies generally, including inflation, external debt, a negative balance of trade and underemployment.  Other risks associated with our international business activities include:
 
·
difficulties in staffing international projects and managing international operations, including overcoming logistical and communications challenges;
 
 
·
local competition, particularly in the Philippines, India and Sri Lanka;
 
 
·
imposition of public sector controls;
 
 
·
trade and tariff restrictions;
 
 
·
price or exchange controls;
 
 
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·
currency control regulations;
 
 
·
foreign tax consequences;
 
 
·
labor disputes and related litigation and liability;
 
 
·
limitations on repatriation of earnings; and
 
 
·
the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations.
 
One or more of these factors could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
Our international operations subject us to currency exchange fluctuations, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
 
To date, most of our revenues have been denominated in U.S. dollars, while a significant portion of our expenses, primarily labor expenses in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel, is incurred in the local currencies of the countries in which we operate.  For financial reporting purposes, we translate all non-U.S. denominated transactions into dollars in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.  As a result, we are exposed to the risk that fluctuations in the value of these currencies relative to the dollar could increase the dollar cost of our operations and therefore adversely affect our results of operations.
 
The Philippines and India have at times experienced high rates of inflation as well as major fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Philippine peso and the U.S. dollar and the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar. Continuing inflation and significant fluctuations in the peso and rupee against the dollar could adversely affect our results of operations. 
 
There is no guarantee that our financial results will not be adversely affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations or that any efforts by us to engage in foreign currency hedging activities will be effective. Finally, as most of our expenses are incurred in currencies other than those in which we bill for the related services, any increase in the value of certain foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar could increase our operating costs.
 
In the event that the government of India, the Philippines or the government of another country changes its tax policies, rules and regulations, our tax expense may increase and affect our effective tax rates.
 
We are subject to income taxes in both the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. We are subject to the continual examination by tax authorities in India and in the Philippines, and the Company assesses the likelihood of outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of its provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits could be materially different from what is reflected in historical income tax provisions and accruals, and could result in a material effect on the Company’s income tax provision, net income or cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made. If additional taxes are assessed, it could have an adverse impact on our financial results.
 
In addition, unanticipated changes in the tax rates, tax laws or the interpretation of tax laws in the jurisdiction where we operate, could affect our future results of operations.
 
 
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Our operating results may be adversely affected by our use of derivative financial instruments.
 
We have entered into a series of foreign currency forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedges. These contracts are intended to partially offset the impact of the movement of the exchange rates on future operating costs of our Asian subsidiaries. The hedging strategies that we have implemented or may implement to mitigate foreign currency exchange rate risks may not reduce or completely offset our exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations and may expose our business to unexpected market, operational and counterparty credit risks. Accordingly, we may incur losses from our use of derivative financial instruments that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Regulations of the Internal Revenue Service may impose significant U.S. income taxes on our subsidiaries in the Philippines.
 
Our subsidiaries incorporated in the Philippines were domesticated in Delaware as limited liability companies.  In August 2004, the Internal Revenue Service promulgated regulations, effective August 12, 2004, that treat certain companies incorporated in foreign jurisdictions and also domesticated as Delaware limited liability companies as U.S. corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes.  We have effected certain filings with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to ensure that these subsidiaries are no longer domesticated in Delaware.  As a result, commencing January 1, 2005, these subsidiaries are no longer treated as U.S. corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the regulations, and furthermore, are not subject to U.S. federal income taxes commencing as of such date.
 
In the preamble to such regulations, the IRS expressed its view that dual-registered companies described in the preceding paragraph are also treated as U.S. corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes for periods prior to August 12, 2004.  In 2006, the IRS issued its final regulations, stating that neither the temporary regulations nor these final regulations is retroactive.  Further, additional guidance was released by the IRS which clarified that the regulations upon which we relied were not binding on pre-existing entities until May 2006.  For periods prior to this date (i.e., prior to August 12, 2004) these final regulations apply, and the classification of dually chartered entities is governed by the pre-existing regulations.  As such, we believe that our historic treatment of these subsidiaries as not having been required to pay taxes in the United States for the period prior to August 12, 2004 is correct, and we have made no provision for U.S. taxes in our financial statements for these entities for the periods prior to August 12, 2004.
 
However, we cannot guarantee that the Internal Revenue Service will not assert other positions with respect to the foregoing matters, including positions with respect to our treatment of the tax consequences of the termination of the status of our Philippine subsidiaries as Delaware limited liability companies that, if successful, could increase materially our liability for U.S. federal income taxes.
 
If tax authorities in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate contest the manner in which we allocate our profits, our net income could decrease.
 
Substantially all of the services we provide to our clients are provided by our Asian subsidiaries located in different jurisdictions. Tax authorities in some of these jurisdictions have from time to time challenged the manner in which we allocate our profits among our subsidiaries, and we may not prevail in this type of challenge. If such a challenge were successful, our worldwide effective tax rate could increase, thereby decreasing our net income.
 
An expiration or termination of our preferential tax rate incentives could adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Certain foreign subsidiaries are subject to preferential tax rates. In addition, one of our foreign subsidiaries enjoys a tax holiday. These tax incentives provide that we pay reduced income taxes in those jurisdictions for a fixed period of time that varies depending on the jurisdiction. An expiration or termination of these incentives could substantially increase our worldwide effective tax rate, thereby decreasing our net income and adversely affecting our results of operations.  
 
 
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Our earnings may be adversely affected if we change our intent not to repatriate earnings in Asia or if such earnings become subject to U.S. tax on a current basis.
 
Unremitted earnings of  our foreign subsidiaries have been included in the consolidated financial statements without giving effect to the United States taxes that may be payable on distribution to the United States. Unremitted earnings aggregated $32.4 million at December 31, 2013 and were held by our foreign subsidiaries in cash and cash equivalents. A significant portion of the amounts held outside of the United States could be repatriated to the United States, but under current law would be subject to United States federal income taxes less applicable foreign tax credits should we intend to remit these funds. While as of December 31, 2013 we have no plans to remit the funds, if we change our intent we will have to accrue the applicable amount of taxes associated with such earnings and pay such taxes. These increased taxes could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
President Obama’s administration announced a number of tax-related legislative proposals that would, among other things, seek to effectively tax certain profits of U.S. companies earned overseas. Although, several of these proposals were not enacted into law, Congress could consider any of these measures at any time. If enacted into law, and depending on their precise terms, these proposals could increase our tax rate and tax payments, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Anti-outsourcing legislation, if adopted, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our clients.
 
The issue of outsourcing of services abroad by U.S. companies is a topic of political discussion in the United States. Measures aimed at limiting or restricting outsourcing by U.S. companies are under discussion in Congress and in numerous state legislatures. While no substantive anti-outsourcing legislation has been introduced to date, given the ongoing debate over this issue, the introduction of such legislation is possible. If introduced, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected and our ability to service our clients could be impaired.
 
Our growth could be hindered by visa restrictions.
 
Occasionally, we have employees from our other facilities visit or transfer to the United States to meet our clients and work on projects at clients sites. Any visa restrictions or new legislation putting a restriction on issuing visas could affect our business.
 
Immigration and visa laws and regulations in the United States and other countries are subject to legislative and administrative changes as well as changes in the application of standards. Immigration and visa laws and regulations can be significantly affected by political forces and levels of economic activity. Our international expansion strategy and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected if legislative or administrative changes to immigration or visa laws and regulations impair our ability to staff projects with our professionals who are not citizens of the country where the work is to be performed.
 
Political uncertainty, political unrest, terrorism, and natural calamities in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel could adversely affect business conditions in those regions, which in turn could disrupt our business and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
 
We conduct the majority of our production operations in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel. These countries and regions remain vulnerable to disruptions from political uncertainty, political unrest, terrorist acts, and natural calamities.
 
 
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Any damage to our network and/or information systems would damage our ability to provide service, in whole or in part, and/or otherwise damage our operation  and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Further, political tensions and escalation of hostilities in any of these countries could adversely affect our operations in these countries and therefore adversely affect our revenues and results of operations. We have significant amount of cash and cash equivalent and short term investments that are held by our operating foreign subsidiaries located in Asia. Any political uncertainly, unrest, disruption or natural calamities in any of these countries may restrict our access to these assets, which in turn could disrupt our business and financial condition.
 
Terrorist attacks or a war could adversely affect our results of operations.
 
Terrorist attacks, such as the attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States and the attacks in Mumbai, India in November 2008, and other acts of violence or war could affect us or our clients by disrupting normal business practices for extended periods of time and reducing business confidence.  In addition, acts of violence or war may make travel more difficult and may effectively curtail our ability to serve our clients' needs, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations. 
 
We are the subject of continuing litigation, including litigation by certain of our former employees.
 
In 2008, the Supreme Court of the Republic of the Philippines refused to review a decision of the Court of Appeals in Manila against a Philippines subsidiary of the Company that is inactive and has no material assets, and purportedly also against Innodata Inc. that orders the reinstatement of certain former employees of the subsidiary to their former positions and also orders the payment of back wages and benefits that aggregate approximately $8.0 million. Based on consultation with legal counsel, we believe that recovery against Innodata Inc. is nevertheless unlikely.
 
We are also subject to various other legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business.
 
While we currently believe that the ultimate outcome of these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or overall trends in results of operations, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties. Substantial recovery against us in the above-referenced Philippines action could have a material adverse impact on us, and unfavorable rulings or recoveries in the other proceedings could have a material adverse impact on the operating results of the period in which the ruling or recovery occurs. In addition, our estimate of potential impact on our financial position or overall results of operations for the above legal proceedings could change in the future. See “Legal Proceedings.”
 
Our reputation could be damaged or our profitability could suffer if we do not meet the controls and procedures in respect to the services and solutions we provide to our clients, or if we contribute to our clients’ internal control deficiencies.
 
Our clients may perform audits or require us to perform audits, provide audit reports or obtain certifications with respect to the controls and procedures that we use in the performance of services for such clients, especially when we process data or information belonging to them. Our ability to acquire new clients and retain existing clients may be adversely affected and our reputation could be harmed if we receive a qualified opinion, or if we cannot obtain an appropriate certification or opinion with respect to our controls and procedures in connection with any such audit in a timely manner. Additionally, our profitability could suffer if our controls and procedures were to result in internal controls failures or impair our client’s ability to comply with its own internal control requirements.
 
 
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New and changing corporate governance and public disclosure requirements add uncertainty to our compliance policies and increase our costs of compliance.
 
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to accounting, corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, other SEC regulations, and the NASDAQ Stock Market rules, are creating uncertainty for companies like ours. These laws, regulations and standards may lack specificity and are subject to varying interpretations. Their application in practice may evolve over time, as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs of compliance as a result of ongoing revisions to such corporate governance standards.
 
Although we are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, and complying with evolving laws, regulations and standards, if we fail to comply with new or changed laws, regulations or standards of corporate governance, our business and reputation may be harmed.
 
It is unlikely that we will pay dividends.
 
We have not paid any cash dividends since our inception and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.  We expect that our earnings, if any, will be used to finance our growth.
 
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.
 
None.
 
Item 2.  Properties.
 
Our services are primarily performed from our Hackensack, New Jersey headquarters and eight overseas production facilities in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel, all of which are leased. The square footage of all our leased properties totals approximately 370,000.
 
In addition, we may need to lease additional property in the future. We believe that we will be able to obtain suitable additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms on an “as needed” basis.
 
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings.
 
In 2008, the Supreme Court of the Republic of the Philippines refused to review a decision of the Court of Appeals in Manila against a Philippine subsidiary of the Company that is inactive and has no material assets, and purportedly also against Innodata Inc. that orders the reinstatement of certain former employees of the subsidiary to their former positions and also orders the payment of back wages and benefits that aggregate approximately $8.0 million. Based on consultation with legal counsel, we believe that recovery against Innodata Inc. is nevertheless unlikely.
 
The Court of Appeals decision was rendered in Case Nos. CA-G.R. SP No. 93295 Innodata Employees Association (IDEA), Eleanor Tolentino, et al. vs. Innodata Philippines, Inc., et al., and CA-G.R. SP No. 90538 Innodata Philippines, Inc. vs. Honorable Acting Secretary Manuel G. Imson, et al. 28 June 2007). Matters relating to execution of this decision are on file with the Department of Labor and Employment National Labor Relations Commission, Republic of the Philippines (NLRC-NCR-Case No.07-04713-2002, et al., Innodata Employees Association (IDEA) and Eleanor A. Tolentino, et al. vs. Innodata Philippines, Inc., et al), and the Department of Labor and Employment Office of the Secretary of Labor and Employment, Republic of the Philippines (Case No. OS-AJ-0015-2001, In Re: Labor Dispute at Innodata Philippines, Inc.).
 
We are also subject to various other legal proceedings and claims which arise in the ordinary course of business. 
 
While management currently believes that the ultimate outcome of these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or overall trends in results of operations, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties. Substantial recovery against us in the above referenced Philippines action could have a material adverse impact on us, and unfavorable rulings or recoveries in the other proceedings could have a material adverse impact on the operating results of the period in which the ruling or recovery occurs.
 
 
20

 
Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures.
 
None.
 
 
21

 
PART II
 
Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
 
Innodata Inc. (the “Company”) Common Stock is quoted on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the symbol “INOD.” On February 13, 2014, there were 89 stockholders of record of the Company’s Common Stock based on information provided by the Company's transfer agent.  Virtually all of the Company’s publicly held shares are held in “street name” and the Company believes the actual number of beneficial holders of its Common Stock to be 3,072.
 
The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices on a quarterly basis for the Company's Common Stock, as reported on Nasdaq, for the two years ended December 31, 2013.
 
 
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
Sale Prices
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2012
 
High
 
Low
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
6.24
 
$
3.65
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second Quarter
 
 
7.25
 
 
4.90
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third Quarter
 
 
7.35
 
 
3.18
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth Quarter
 
 
4.24
 
 
2.80
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2013
 
High
 
Low
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
4.19
 
$
3.24
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second Quarter
 
 
3.50
 
 
2.91
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third Quarter
 
 
3.28
 
 
2.29
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth Quarter
 
 
2.65
 
 
2.21
 
 
Dividends
 
The Company has never paid cash dividends on its Common Stock and does not anticipate that it will do so in the foreseeable future.  The future payment of dividends, if any, on the Common Stock is within the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend on the Company's earnings, its capital requirements and financial condition and other relevant factors.
 
 
22

 
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
 
The following table sets forth the aggregate information for the Company's equity compensation plans in effect as of December 31, 2013:
 
 
 
Number of
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Securities to be Issued
 
Weighted-Average
 
Number of Securities
 
 
 
Upon Exercise of
 
Exercise Price of
 
Remaining Available For
 
 
 
Outstanding Options,
 
Outstanding Options,
 
Future Issuance Under
 
Plan Category
 
Warrants and Rights
 
Warrants and Rights
 
Equity Compensation Plans
 
 
 
(a)
 
(b)
 
(c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders (1)
 
3,048,000
 
$
2.99
 
1,475,100
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 
-
 
 
-
 
-
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
3,048,000
 
$
2.99
 
1,475,100
 
 
(1) 2013 Stock Plan, approved by the stockholders, see Note 8 to Consolidated Financial Statements, contained elsewhere herein.
 
Purchase of Equity Securities
 
There were no repurchases of equity securities during the year.
 
In September 2011, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $2.0 million of our common stock in open market or private transactions. There is no expiration date associated with the program. We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock under the September 2011 authorization.
 
We did not have any sales of unregistered equity securities during the three months ended December 31, 2013.
 
Item 6.  Selected Financial Data.
 
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated historical financial data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. Our selected consolidated financial data set forth below as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013 has been derived from the audited financial statements included elsewhere herein. Our selected consolidated financial data set forth below as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 and for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 are derived from our audited financial statements not included elsewhere herein. Our selected consolidated financial information for 2013, 2012 and 2011 should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
23

 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
 
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
64,249
 
$
86,591
 
$
73,942
 
$
61,513
 
$
76,711
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating costs and expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses
 
 
49,127
 
 
57,382
 
 
50,176
 
 
47,284
 
 
52,143
 
Selling and administrative expenses
 
 
17,295
 
 
22,189
 
 
19,082
 
 
15,659
 
 
16,318
 
Impairment charge
 
 
5,524
 
 
505
 
 
-
 
 
-
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
71,946
 
 
80,076
 
 
69,258
 
 
62,943
 
 
68,461
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) from operations
 
 
(7,697)
 
 
6,515
 
 
4,684
 
 
(1,430)
 
 
8,250
 
Interest income – net
 
 
(313)
 
 
(324)
 
 
(587)
 
 
(215)
 
 
(30)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) before provision for (benefit
from) income taxes
 
 
(7,384)
 
 
6,839
 
 
5,271
 
 
(1,215)
 
 
8,280
 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
 
 
5,451
 
 
1,150
 
 
1,361
 
 
(468)
 
 
967
 
Net income (loss)
 
 
(12,835)
 
 
5,689
 
 
3,910
 
 
(747)
 
 
7,313
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loss attributable to non-controlling interests
 
 
2,203
 
 
1,784
 
 
561
 
 
-
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) attributable to Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries
 
$
(10,632)
 
$
7,473
 
$
4,471
 
$
(747)
 
$
7,313
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) per share attributable to
Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
(0.43)
 
$
0.30
 
$
0.18
 
$
(0.03)
 
$
0.30
 
Diluted
 
$
(0.43)
 
$
0.28
 
$
0.18
 
$
(0.03)
 
$
0.28
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash dividends per share
 
$
-
 
$
-
 
$
-
 
$
-
 
$
-
 
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BALANCE SHEET DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
 
$
28,844
 
$
32,784
 
$
28,148
 
$
26,088
 
$
32,589
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
49,997
 
$
66,181
 
$
59,397
 
$
52,247
 
$
53,565
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Long term obligations
 
$
3,747
 
$
3,374
 
$
2,944
 
$
1,604
 
$
1,199
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity
 
$
39,973
 
$
50,509
 
$
41,168
 
$
39,438
 
$
40,985
 
 
 
24

 
Item 7.  Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this report. In addition to historical information, this discussion includes forward-looking information that involves risks and assumptions which could cause actual results to differ materially from management’s expectations. See “Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this report.
 
Executive Overview
 
We are a global provider of business process, information technology (IT) and professional services that are focused on digital enablement. We operate in two reporting segments: Content Services (CS) and Innodata Advanced Data Solutions (IADS).
 
The following table sets forth, for the period indicated, certain financial data expressed for the three years ended December 31, 2013:
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
2013
 
% of revenue
 
 
2012
 
% of revenue
 
 
2011
 
% of revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
64.2
 
100.0
%
 
$
86.6
 
100.0
%
 
$
73.9
 
100.0
%
Direct operating costs
 
 
49.1
 
76.5
%
 
 
57.4
 
66.3
%
 
 
50.1
 
67.8
%
Selling and administrative expenses
 
 
17.3
 
26.9
%
 
 
22.2
 
25.6
%
 
 
19.1
 
25.8
%
Impairment charge
 
 
5.5
 
8.6
%
 
 
0.5
 
0.6
%
 
 
-
 
-
 
Income (loss) from operations
 
 
(7.7)
 
-12.0
%
 
 
6.5
 
7.5
%
 
 
4.7
 
6.4
%
Other income
 
 
(0.3)
 
 
 
 
 
(0.3)
 
 
 
 
 
(0.6)
 
 
 
Income (loss) before provision for
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(benefit from) income taxes
 
 
(7.4)
 
 
 
 
 
6.8
 
 
 
 
 
5.3
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
 
 
5.4
 
 
 
 
 
1.1
 
 
 
 
 
1.4
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
 
 
(12.8)
 
 
 
 
 
5.7
 
 
 
 
 
3.9
 
 
 
Loss attributable to non-controlling interest
 
 
2.2
 
 
 
 
 
1.8
 
 
 
 
 
0.6
 
 
 
Net income (loss) attributable to Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries
 
$
(10.6)
 
 
 
 
$
7.5
 
 
 
 
$
4.5
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
We price our services based on the quantity delivered or resources utilized, and we recognize revenue in the period in which the services are performed and delivered.  Revenues for contracts billed on a time-and-materials basis are recognized as services are performed.  Revenues under fixed-fee contracts, which are not significant to the overall revenues, are recognized on the percentage of completion method of accounting, as services are performed or milestones are achieved. 
 
 
25

 
Direct Operating Costs
 
Direct operating costs consist of direct payroll, lease rentals and occupancy costs, depreciation and amortization, travel, telecommunications, computer services and supplies, realized gains and losses on settlement of foreign currency forward contracts and other direct expenses that are incurred in providing services to our clients.
 
Selling and Administrative Expenses
 
Selling and administrative expenses consist of management and administrative salaries and incentives, sales and marketing costs, new services research and related software development, professional fees and consultant costs and other administrative overhead costs. 
 
Results of Operations
 
Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2012
 
Revenues
 
Total revenues were $64.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, a 26% decrease from the $86.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012.  Revenues from the CS segment were $63.1 million and $85.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.  Revenues from the IADS segment were $1.1 million and $1.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
 
The $22.3 million decrease in the CS segment is principally attributable to an $18.9 million decline in revenues from e-book related services that we perform for one of our significant clients, partly offset by a $3.4 million increase in revenues from our non-e-book related services. In 2014, we expect that revenues from one of our non-e-book clients will decline by $5.0 million.
 
Two clients generated approximately 26%, 41% and 30% of our total revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Another client accounted for 15% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2013, but accounted for less than 10% for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.  One other client accounted for 11% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2013 but accounted for less than 10% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 14% for the year ended December 31, 2011.  No other client accounted for 10% or more of total revenues during these periods. Further, in the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, revenues from non-US clients accounted for 35%, 24% and 30%, respectively, of the Company's revenues.
 
Direct Operating Costs
 
Direct operating costs were approximately $49.1 million and $57.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, a decrease of $8.3 million or approximately 14%. Direct operating costs for the CS segment were $43.9 million and $53.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, a decrease of $9.4 million or approximately 18%. Direct operating costs for the IADS segment were approximately $5.2 million and $4.1 million for the respective periods, net of intersegment profits.
 
Direct operating costs as a percentage of total revenues increased to 76% for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to 66% for the year ended December 31, 2012. Direct operating costs for the CS segment as a percentage of CS segment revenues were 70% for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to 62% for the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
The decline in direct operating costs for the CS segment was principally attributable to a decrease in production headcount due to a decline in CS revenues. However, direct operating costs as a percentage of CS segment revenues have increased  since our direct operating costs are comprised of both fixed and variable costs and fixed costs do not change proportionately to changes in revenues.
 
 
26

 
Direct operating costs for the IADS segment consist primarily of certain production costs for pilot and other initial engagements, as well as facility overhead costs for our new delivery center in Asia.
 
As of December 31, 2013, all fixed assets of IADS have been written off. Starting in the fourth quarter of 2013, all capital expenditures incurred for IADS are expensed as direct operating costs.
 
Impairment Charge
 
The Synodex subsidiary of our IADS segment has not achieved significant revenue to date and has incurred losses since inception. As a result, in the third quarter of 2013, we evaluated the carrying value of the fixed assets of our Synodex subsidiary compared to its fair value and concluded that that the carrying value exceeds its fair value. This resulted in an impairment charge of $5.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013.
 
In the fourth quarter of 2012, we evaluated the carrying value of the fixed assets of our docGenix subsidiary compared to its fair value and concluded that the carrying value exceeds its fair value. This resulted in an impairment charge of $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Selling and Administrative Expenses
 
Selling and administrative expenses were $17.3 million and $22.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, a decrease of $4.9 million, or approximately 22%.  Selling and administrative costs for the CS segment were $15.2 million and $19.3 million in these respective periods. Selling and administrative expenses for the IADS segment for the respective periods were $2.1 million and $2.9 million, net of intersegment profits.
 
We restructured our operations over the past few quarters which resulted in cost savings in the second half of 2013. This led to a decline in selling and administrative expenses for the CS segment during the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Selling and administrative expenses for the CS segment, as a percentage of CS segment revenues, increased to 24% for the year ended December 31, 2013, from 23% for the year ended 2012, primarily as a result of lower revenues and the fixed component of our selling and administrative expenses. A significant portion of our selling and administrative expenses is fixed in nature.
 
The decline in selling and administrative expenses for the IADS segment is primarily on account of restructuring our docGenix operations in the fourth quarter of 2012.
 
Income Taxes
 
For the year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded a provision for income taxes in accordance with local tax regulations for our foreign subsidiaries. Some of our foreign subsidiaries are subject to tax holidays or preferential tax rates which reduce our overall effective tax rate when compared to the U.S. statutory tax rate. In addition, the earnings of our foreign subsidiaries are not subject to tax in the U.S. unless the earnings are repatriated.
 
The Synodex subsidiary of our IADS segment has not achieved significant revenue to date and has incurred losses since inception. Our U.S. entity incurred losses primarily on account of the losses of Synodex. In assessing the realization of deferred tax assets, we considered whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the U.S. deferred tax assets will not be realizable. As the expectation of future taxable income resulting from Synodex cannot be predicted with certainty, we created a valuation allowance against all the U.S. deferred tax assets starting in the third quarter of 2013. As of December 31, 2013, we have a valuation allowance of $8.1 million against all of our U.S. deferred tax assets. 
 
 
27

 
For the year ended December 31, 2012, our U.S. entity recorded a benefit from income tax on account of losses incurred by our U.S. entity. With respect to our foreign subsidiaries, we recorded a provision for income taxes in accordance with the local tax regulations. As some of our foreign subsidiaries are subject to tax holidays or preferential tax rates, our overall effective tax rate was lower compared to the U.S. statutory tax rate. In addition, the earnings of our foreign subsidiaries are not subject to tax in the U.S. unless the earnings are repatriated.
 
Beginning in 2002, unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries have been included in the consolidated financial statements without giving effect to the United States taxes that may be payable on distribution to the United States, because such earnings are not anticipated to be remitted to the United States. If such earnings were to be distributed, we could be subject to United States income taxes that may not be fully offset by foreign tax credits. It is not practicable at this time to determine the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these earnings.
 
Pursuant to an income tax audit by the Indian Bureau of Taxation in March 2006, one of our Indian subsidiaries received a tax assessment approximating $263,000, including interest, through December 31, 2013, for the fiscal tax year ended March 31, 2003.  We disagree with the basis of the tax assessment and filed an appeal with the Appeal Officer against the assessment. In October 2010, the matter was resolved with a judgment in our favor. Under the Indian Income Tax Act, however, the income tax assessing officer has the right to appeal against the judgment passed by the Appeal Officer. In December 2010, the income tax assessing officer exercised this right, against which we have filed an application to defend the case, and we intend to contest it vigorously. The Indian Bureau of Taxation has also completed an audit of our Indian subsidiary’s income tax return for the fiscal tax year ended March 31, 2004. The ultimate outcome was favorable, and there was no tax assessment imposed for the fiscal tax year ended March 31, 2004. In 2008 and 2009, the Indian subsidiary received a final tax assessment for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2005 and 2006 from the Indian Bureau of Taxation. The tax assessment amounted to $285,000 and $290,000, including interest through December 31, 2013, for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2005 and 2006, respectively. We disagree with the basis of these tax assessments, have filed an appeal against the assessments and are contesting them vigorously. In January 2012, the Indian subsidiary received a final tax assessment of approximately $1.0 million, including interest, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2008, from the Indian Bureau of Taxation. We disagree with the basis of this tax assessment, and have filed an appeal against it. Due to this assessment, we recorded a tax provision amounting to $453,000 including interest through December 31, 2013. Based on recent experience and the current regulatory environment, we believe that the tax provision of $453,000 including interest is adequate. The Indian Bureau of Taxation has also completed an audit of our Indian subsidiary’s income tax return for the fiscal tax year ended March 31, 2009. The ultimate outcome was favorable, and there was no tax assessment imposed for the fiscal tax year ended March 31, 2009. The Indian Bureau of Taxation commenced an audit of this subsidiary’s income tax return for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The ultimate outcome cannot be determined at this time. As the Company is continually subject to tax audits by the Indian Bureau of Taxation, we continuously assesses the likelihood of an unfavorable assessment for all fiscal years for which the Company has not been audited, and as of December 31, 2013, the Company recorded a tax provision amounting to $1,162,000 including interest.
 
In January 2013, one of our Philippine subsidiaries received an informal tax assessment from the Internal Revenue Service of the Philippines for an amount totaling $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. We disagreed with the basis of the informal tax assessment and contested it vigorously. The ultimate outcome was favorable, and, accordingly, we did not record any tax provision.
 
We had unrecognized tax benefits of $2.5 million and $2.4 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The portion of unrecognized tax benefits relating to interest and penalties was $0.8 million and $0.7 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, if recognized, would have an impact on our effective tax rate.
 
 
28

 
We are subject to various tax audits and claims which arise in the ordinary course of business.  Management currently believes that the ultimate outcome of these audits and claims will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.   
 
Net Loss
 
We generated a net loss of $10.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to net income of $7.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. The loss is primarily attributable to the $7.1 million valuation allowance referred to in “Income Taxes,” the $5.0 million impairment charge referred to in “Impairment Charge,” a decline in gross margins of the CS segment resulting from lower revenues offset in part by a decline in selling and administrative expenses, and continuing losses from operations of the IADS segment.  
 
Net income for the CS segment was $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $13.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. Net loss for the IADS segment was $11.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, net of intersegment profits.  
 
Year Ended December 31, 2012 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2011
 
Revenues
 
          Total revenues were $86.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, a 17% increase from the $73.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2011.  Revenues from the CS segment were $85.4 million and $73.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.  Revenues from the IADS segment were $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2012.  There were no revenues from the IADS segment for the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
          The $11.5 million increase in the CS segment is principally attributable to higher revenues from e-book related services that we perform for one of our significant clients.  We experienced sequential declines in revenue from this client in the last three quarters of 2012.
 
                Our top two clients generated $35 million or 41% and $22.2 million or 30% of our total revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Another client accounted for less than 10% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2012, but for 14% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011.  No other client accounted for 10% or more of revenues during these periods.
 
                Further, in the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, revenues from non-U.S. clients accounted for 24% and 30%, respectively, of our total revenues.
 
Direct Operating Costs
 
Direct operating costs were approximately $57.4 million and $50.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, an increase of $7.2 million or approximately 14%. Direct operating costs for the CS segment were $53.3 million and $49.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, an increase of $3.7 million or approximately 7%. Direct operating costs for the IADS segment were approximately $4.1 million and $0.6 million for the respective periods, net of intersegment profits.
 
The increase in direct operating costs for the CS segment was principally attributable to an increase in production headcount and other operating costs in support of increased revenues. The increase in direct operating costs was partially offset by a decrease in direct labor costs achieved primarily from productivity gains. The productivity gains were principally the result of increased efficiency, improvements in our processes and innovation in our technology.
 
 
29

 
The increase in direct operating costs for the IADS segment represents production costs for initial engagements, increase in production labor costs to perform pilot engagements and facility overhead costs for our new delivery center in Asia.
 
Direct operating costs as a percentage of total revenues declined to 66% for the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to 68% for the year ended December 31, 2011. Direct operating costs for the CS segment as a percentage of CS segment revenues were approximately 62% for the year ended December 31, 2012, compared to 67% for the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Selling and Administrative Expenses
 
Selling and administrative expenses were $22.2 million and $19.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, an increase of $3.1 million, or approximately 16%.  Selling and administrative costs for the CS segment were $19.3 million and $17.5 million in these respective periods. Selling and administrative expenses for the IADS segment for the respective periods were $2.9 million and $1.6 million, net of intersegment profits.
 
The increase in selling and administrative expenses for the CS segment for the year ended December 31, 2012 is principally attributable to compensation costs of new hires, wage increases and an increase in other miscellaneous administrative costs. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we recorded approximately $0.5 million from the recovery of bad debts from a previously fully reserved account receivable.
 
Selling and administrative expenses for the CS segment, as a percentage of CS segment revenues, declined to 23% for the year ended December 31, 2012, from 24% for the year ended 2011, and this was primarily as a result of higher revenues.
 
The $1.3 million increase in selling and administrative expenses for the IADS segment is primarily attributable to compensation costs of new personnel hired for sales and marketing and increases in other administrative costs. 
 
Impairment Charge
 
In the fourth quarter of 2012, we evaluated the carrying value of the fixed assets of our docGenix subsidiary compared to its fair value and concluded that the carrying value exceeds its fair value. This resulted in an impairment charge of $0.5 million.
 
Restructuring Costs
 
In the second half of 2012, we restructured our operations, and recorded a one-time charge of approximately $0.2 million ($0.1 million in direct operating costs and $0.1 million in selling, general and administrative costs) representing severance and other personnel-related expenses. We expect cost savings of approximately $3.0 million per year from this restructuring activity.
 
Income Taxes
 
For the year ended December 31, 2012, our U.S. entity recorded a benefit from income tax on account of losses incurred by our U.S. entity. With respect to our foreign subsidiaries, we recorded a provision for income taxes in accordance with the local tax regulations. As some of our foreign subsidiaries are subject to tax holidays or preferential tax rates, our overall effective tax rate was lower compared to the U.S. statutory tax rate. In addition, the earnings of our foreign subsidiaries are not subject to tax in the U.S. unless the earnings are repatriated.
 
 
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For the year ended December 31, 2011, we recorded a provision for income taxes for the U.S. entity and certain, but not all of our foreign subsidiaries, as certain foreign subsidiaries are subject to tax holidays or preferential tax rates. In addition, the earnings of our foreign subsidiaries are not subject to tax in the U.S. unless the earnings are repatriated.
 
The effective tax rate at 17% was lower for the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to 26% for the year ended December 31, 2011 as the income attributable to our higher tax jurisdictions was lower.
 
Beginning in 2002, unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries have been included in the consolidated financial statements without giving effect to the United States taxes that may be payable on distribution to the United States, because such earnings are not anticipated to be remitted to the United States. If such earnings were to be distributed, we could be subject to United States income taxes that may not be fully offset by foreign tax credits. It is not practicable at this time to determine the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these earnings.
 
In assessing the realization of deferred tax assets, we consider whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realizable. The ultimate realization of the deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which temporary differences are deductible and net operating losses are available. We consider many factors when assessing the likelihood of future realization of the deferred tax assets, including our recent cumulative earnings, expectation of future taxable income, the carryforward periods available to us for tax reporting purposes, and other relevant factors. At December 31, 2012 and 2011, we had no valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets.
 
We had unrecognized tax benefits of $2.4 million and $2.3 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The portion of unrecognized tax benefits relating to interest and penalties was $0.7 million and $0.6 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The unrecognized tax benefits as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, if recognized, would have an impact on our effective tax rate.
 
We are subject to various tax audits and claims which arise in the ordinary course of business.  Management currently believes that the ultimate outcome of these audits and claims will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.   
 
Net Income
 
We generated net income of $7.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to $4.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2011. Net income for the CS segment was $13.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to $6.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The significant increase in net income for the CS segment was primarily due to an increase in gross margins resulting from higher revenues, and an increase in productivity due to improvements in processes and technology. This increase was partly offset by an increase in selling and administrative expenses primarily due to compensation costs of new hires, wage increases and an increase in other administrative costs. A lower provision for income taxes and higher losses attributable to non-controlling interests in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to year ended December 31, 2011 also contributed to an increase in net income. Net loss for the IADS segment was $6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to $2.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, net of intersegment profits. The increase in net loss was principally on account of new personnel hired for operations, and sales and marketing, increase in facility overhead costs and other administrative costs, and a $0.5 million impairment charge for our docGenix subsidiary.  
 
 
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
                Selected measures of liquidity and capital resources, expressed in thousands, are as follows:
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
24,752
 
$
25,425
 
$
11,389
 
Short term investments
 
 
-
 
 
3,091
 
 
5,828
 
Working capital
 
 
28,844
 
 
32,784
 
 
28,148
 
 
                At December 31, 2013 we had cash and cash equivalents of $24.8 million, of which $22.6 million was held by our foreign subsidiaries and the $2.2 million balance was held in the United States. If needed, amounts held by foreign subsidiaries could be repatriated to the United States to satisfy working capital needs of the U.S. entity, but under current law, would be subject to United States federal income taxes.  As of December 31, 2013, our intent is to permanently reinvest these funds outside the United States.
 
                We have used, and plan to use, such cash for (i) investments in IADS, which in 2013 aggregated approximately $7.2 million, net of revenues, and are expected to be at the rate of $1.5 million to $2.0 million per quarter in the immediate future, (ii) the expansion of our other operations; (iii) general corporate purposes, including working capital; and (iv) possible business acquisitions. As of December 31, 2013, we had working capital of approximately $28.8 million compared to working capital of approximately $32.8 million at December 31, 2012.  
 
We have a $15.0 million uncommitted bank line that expires in June 2014 which provides that at the bank’s discretion we may on a secured basis borrow amounts equal to up to 80% of our eligible accounts receivable at the bank’s alternate base interest rate plus 0.5% or LIBOR plus 2.5%. At December 31, 2013, 80% of our eligible receivables aggregated approximately $5.5 million. We have not made any borrowings under this line. In February 2014, the bank advised that it did not intend to make any advances or extensions of credit or other financial accommodations under the line, and that it would not consider permitting advances in the future unless and until it has received from us designated financial and business information in form and substance satisfactory to the bank.
   
In March 2014 we borrowed $0.9 million in a three year sale leaseback transaction at an effective interest rate of 3%.
 
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and internally generated funds will provide sufficient sources of liquidity to satisfy our financial needs for the next 12 months. However, we may curtail our continuing investments in our IADS segment if these funds are insufficient and outside financing is not available on terms we find attractive.
 
                In the second quarter of 2012, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 to give us the ability to offer from time to time up to an aggregate of $70 million of securities, which may consist of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, or units consisting of any of the foregoing. The registration is intended to give us flexibility should financing opportunities arise.
 
Net Cash Provided By (Used in) Operating Activities
 
                Cash provided by our operating activities in 2013 was $0.6 million, resulting from net loss of $12.8 million, adjustments for non-cash items of $15.2 million, and $1.8 million used for working capital. Adjustments for non-cash items principally consisted of $3.7 million for depreciation and amortization, stock compensation expense of $1.0 million and an impairment charge of approximately $5.5 million relating to the IADS segment. Working capital activities primarily consisted of a source of cash of $2.4 million as a result of a decrease in accounts receivable, use of cash of $1.9 million from a decrease in accrued salaries, wages and related benefits, use of cash of $1.2 million from a decrease in income and other taxes and use of cash of $1 million from a decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses.
 
 
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                Cash provided by our operating activities in 2012 was $17.8 million, resulting from net income of $5.7 million, adjustments for non-cash items of $5.3 million, and $6.8 million provided for working capital. Adjustments for non-cash items principally consisted of $3.9 million for depreciation and amortization, stock compensation expense of $1.0 million and an impairment charge of approximately $0.5 million relating to the IADS segment. Working capital activities primarily consisted of a source of cash of $7.4 million as a result of a decrease in accounts receivable, use of cash of $0.7 million from an increase in other assets, use of cash of $0.4 million from an decrease in income and other taxes, partially offset by a source of cash of $0.5 million for prepaid expenses and other current assets.
 
                Cash used in our operating activities in 2011 was $3.0 million, resulting from net income of $3.9 million, adjustments for non-cash items of $3.5 million, and $10.4 million used for working capital. Adjustments for non-cash items principally consisted of $3.4 million for depreciation and amortization, stock compensation expense of $0.8 million, $0.8 million for a net change in deferred taxes and $0.5 million for pension costs. Working capital activities primarily consisted of a use of cash of $12.9 million as a result of an increase in accounts receivable and a use of cash of $0.7 million for an increase in other assets, partially offset by a source of cash of $1.7 million for accrued salaries and wages representing payroll and incentive accruals and a source of cash amounting to $0.7 million for an increase in accounts payable.  
 
At December 31, 2013, our days’ sales outstanding were 74 days as compared to 76 days as of December 31, 2012 and 74 days as of December 31, 2011. We calculate DSO by first dividing the total revenues for the period over average net accounts receivable, which is the sum of net accounts receivable at the beginning of the period and net accounts receivable at the end of the period, to yield an amount we refer to as the “accounts receivable turnover”. Then we take the total number of days within the period reported over the accounts receivable turnover to yield DSO expressed in number of days.  
 
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities
 
                During 2013, 2012 and 2011, cash used in our investing activities for capital expenditures were $3.8 million, $6.8 million and $5.9 million, respectively. Capital spending in 2013 for CS segment was $2.8 million that principally consisted of the purchase of technology equipment including servers, network infrastructure and workstations. Also included within capital expenditures are costs incurred to develop our proprietary software platform, tools and technology for the IADS segment amounting to $1.0 million.  Capital spending in 2012 for the CS segment was $3.0 million that principally consisted of purchases of technology equipment, including workstations, computer software and leasehold improvements, and to establish a new delivery center in Asia. Capital spending in 2012 for the IADS segment was $3.8 million that included costs incurred to develop our proprietary software platform, tools and technology.  Capital spending in 2011 principally consisted of the purchases of technology equipment including workstations, computer software and leasehold improvements. Also included within capital expenditures are costs incurred to acquire and develop computer software and a platform for the IADS segment amounting to $2.0 million and to establish two new delivery centers in Asia. During 2014, we anticipate that capital expenditures for ongoing technology, equipment and infrastructure upgrades will approximate $3.0 to $4.0 million, a portion of which we may finance. Also, included in the investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 is the sale of short-term and long-term investments primarily representing proceeds on the maturity of certificates of deposit in amounts of $3.0 million, $2.7 million and $8.0 million, respectively.
 
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Financing Activities
 
                Payment of long term obligations approximated $0.7 million, $0.2 million and $0.6 million for 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.  Proceeds from the exercise of stock options for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 were $0.1 million and $0.6 million, respectively. There were no stock option exercises during the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
 
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During the year ended December 31, 2011, we repurchased 494,000 shares of our common stock at a cost of approximately $1.3 million, at a volume-weighted average price of $2.69 per share. Such repurchase was made from the June 2010 authorization. In September 2011, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $2.0 million of our common stock in open market or private transactions. We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock under the September 2011 authorization.
 
                As we operate in a number of countries around the world, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve and may have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial results. Our primary exposure relates to non-U.S. based operating expenses in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel. Our U.S. entity has historically funded expenditures for our foreign subsidiaries. We are exposed to foreign exchange risk and, therefore, we use foreign currency forward contracts to mitigate our exposure to fluctuating future cash flows arising from changes in foreign exchange rates. We may continue to enter into these or other such instruments in the future, to reduce foreign currency exposure to appreciation or depreciation in the value of these foreign currencies. In addition to our exposure to future cash flows, a significant portion of our cash and cash equivalents are held by our operating foreign subsidiaries and therefore we are exposed to foreign exchange risk on such cash and cash equivalents and short term investments arising from changes in foreign exchange rates. At present, we do not enter into any hedging instruments to mitigate foreign exchange risk on such assets; however, we may do so in the future.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
                The table below summarizes our contractual obligations (in thousands) at December 31, 2013, and the effect that those obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Less than
 
1-3
 
4-5
 
After 5
 
Contractual Obligations
 
Total
 
1 year
 
years
 
years
 
years
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital Lease
 
$
17
 
$
17
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non cancelable operating leases
 
 
4,735
 
 
767
 
$
1,635
 
$
775
 
$
1,558
 
Total contractual cash obligations
 
$
4,752
 
$
784
 
$
1,635
 
$
775
 
$
1,558
 
 
                Future expected obligations under our pension benefit plans have not been included in the contractual cash obligations table above.
 
Inflation, Seasonality and Prevailing Economic Conditions
 
                Our most significant costs are the salaries and related benefits of our employees in Asia. We are exposed to higher inflation in wage rates in the countries in which we operate.  We generally perform work for our clients under project-specific contracts, requirements-based contracts or long-term contracts. We must adequately anticipate wage increases, particularly on our fixed-price contracts. There can be no assurance that we will be able to recover cost increases through increases in the prices that we charge for our services to our clients.
 
                Our quarterly operating results are subject to certain fluctuations.  We experience fluctuations in our revenue and earnings as we replace and begin new projects, which may have some normal start-up delays, or we may be unable to replace a project entirely. These and other factors may contribute to fluctuations in our operating results from quarter to quarter. In addition, as some of our Asian facilities are closed during holidays in the fourth quarter, we typically incur higher wages, due to overtime, that reduce our margins.
 
 
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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates
 
        Our discussion and analysis of our results of operations, liquidity and capital resources are based on our consolidated financial statements which have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts and billing adjustments, long-lived assets, goodwill, valuation of deferred tax assets, value of securities underlying stock-based compensation, litigation accruals, pension benefits, valuation of derivative instruments and estimated accruals for various tax exposures. We base our estimates on historical and anticipated results and trends and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, including assumptions as to future events. These estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. By their nature, estimates are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. Actual results may differ from our estimates and could have a significant adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations and financial position. We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant estimates and judgments in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
 
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
                We establish credit terms for new clients based upon management’s review of their credit information and project terms, and perform ongoing credit evaluations of our clients, adjusting credit terms when management believes appropriate, based upon payment history and an assessment of the client’s current credit worthiness.  We record an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our clients to make required payments.  We determine this allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past due, our previous loss history, our estimate of the client’s current ability to pay its obligation to us, and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole.  While credit losses have generally been within expectations and the provisions established, we cannot guarantee that credit loss rates in the future will be consistent with those experienced in the past.  In addition, we would have credit exposure if the financial condition of one of our major clients were to deteriorate.  In the event that the financial condition of our clients were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances might be necessary.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
                Revenue is recognized in the period in which services are performed and delivery has occurred and when all the criteria of Staff Accounting Bulletin 104 have been met.
 
                Revenues for contracts billed on a time-and-materials basis are recognized as services are performed. Revenues under fixed-fee contracts are recognized on a percentage-of-completion method of accounting as services are performed or milestones are achieved. Revenues from fixed-fee projects accounted for less than 10% of our total revenue for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013. Certain reimbursable expenses incurred on behalf of clients are recorded on a net basis in revenues.
 
 
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Long-lived Assets
 
                We assess the recoverability of long-lived assets, which consist primarily of fixed assets, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. The following factors, if present, may trigger an impairment review: (i) significant underperformance relative to expected historical or projected future operating results; (ii) significant negative industry or economic trends; (iii) a significant decline in the Company’s stock price for a sustained period; and (iv) a change in the Company’s market capitalization relative to net book value. If the recoverability of these assets is unlikely because of the existence of one or more of the above-mentioned factors, an impairment analysis is performed, initially using a projected undiscounted cash flow method.  We make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors to determine the fair value of these respective assets. An impairment loss will be recognized only if the carrying value of a long-lived asset is not recoverable and exceeds its fair value, and is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of a long-lived asset exceeds its fair value.
 
                In the impairment review conducted by us, the carrying value of the fixed assets of our Synodex subsidiary exceeded its fair value. We recorded an impairment charge of $5.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. For the year ended December 31, 2012 we did a similar impairment review for our docGenix subsidiary and recorded an impairment charge of $0.5 million.  There were no impairment charges recorded for the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Income Taxes
 
                We determine our deferred taxes based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities, using enacted tax rates, as well as any net operating loss or tax credit carryforwards expected to reduce taxes payable in future years.  We provide a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.  While we consider future taxable income in assessing the need for the valuation allowance, in the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize the deferred tax assets in the future in excess of its net recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would increase income in the period such determination was made. Similarly, in the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize the deferred tax assets in the future considering the future taxable income, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would decrease income in the period such determination was made. Change in valuation allowance from period to period is included in our tax provision in the period of change. As of December 31, 2013, we intend to indefinitely reinvest the foreign earnings in our foreign subsidiaries. Unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries have been included in the consolidated financial statements without giving effect to the United States taxes that may be payable on distribution to the United States, because such earnings are not anticipated to be remitted to the United States. However, if we change our intent and repatriate such earnings, we will have to accrue the applicable amount of taxes associated with such earnings.
 
The Synodex subsidiary of the IADS segment has not achieved significant revenue to date and has incurred losses since inception. Our U.S. entity has incurred losses primarily on account of the losses of Synodex. In assessing the realization of deferred tax assets, we considered whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the U.S. deferred tax assets will not be realizable. As the expectation of future taxable income resulting from Synodex cannot be predicted with certainty, we created a $7.1 million valuation allowance against all the U.S. deferred tax assets.  We also recorded a valuation allowance of $0.7 million on all deferred tax assets arising from unrealized losses on foreign currency forward contracts.
 
In addition we have provided for an accrual for potential tax obligations resulting from income tax audits and other potential tax obligations.
 
We account for income taxes regarding uncertain tax positions, and recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions under “income tax expense” in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income.
 
 
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Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
 
                We test goodwill annually for impairment using a two-step fair-value-based test.  The first step of the goodwill impairment test, used to identify potential impairment, compares the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test must be performed to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. If impairment is determined, we will recognize additional charges to operating expenses in the period in which they are identified, which would result in a reduction of operating results and a reduction in the amount of goodwill. Our most recent test for impairment was conducted as of September 30, 2013, in which the estimated fair values of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying amount, including goodwill.  As such, no impairment was identified or recorded.
 
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
 
                We are authorized to grant stock options to officers, directors, employees and others who render services to the Company under the 2013 Stock Plan approved by the stockholders.
 
                We measure and recognize stock-based compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair value at the grant date and recognized over the requisite service period. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment, including estimating the expected term of stock options and the expected volatility of our stock. The fair value is determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. We recorded stock-based compensation expense of approximately $0.9 million, $1.0 million and $0.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
 
Legal Proceedings
 
We are subject to various legal proceedings and claims which arise in the ordinary course of business. Our legal reserves related to these proceedings and claims are based on a determination of whether or not a loss is probable. We review outstanding claims and proceedings with external counsel to assess probability and estimates of loss. The reserves are adjusted if necessary. If circumstances change, we may be required to record adjustments that could be material to our reported financial condition and results of operations. 
 
Pensions
 
Most of our non-U.S. subsidiaries provide for government mandated defined pension benefits covering those employees who meet certain eligibility requirements. Pension assumptions are significant inputs to actuarial models that measure pension benefit obligations and related effects on operations. Two critical assumptions – discount rate and rate of increase in compensation levels – are important elements of plan expense and asset/liability measurements. These critical assumptions are evaluated at least annually on a plan and a country-specific basis. Other assumptions involving demographic factors such as retirement age, mortality and turnover are evaluated periodically and are updated to reflect actual experience and expectations for the future. Actual results in any given year will often differ from actuarial assumptions because of economic and other factors, and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, the impact of these differences are accumulated and amortized over future periods.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
In July 2013, the FASB issued guidance on presentation of an unrecognized tax benefit when a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward exists. This update clarifies that an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, should be presented in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward if such settlement is required or expected in the event the uncertain tax position is disallowed. In situations where a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward is not available at the reporting date under the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction or the tax law of the jurisdiction does not require, and the entity does not intend to use, the deferred tax asset for such purpose, the unrecognized tax benefit should be presented in the financial statements as a liability and should not be combined with deferred tax assets. This accounting guidance is effective prospectively for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. Retroactive application is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of this adoption on its consolidated financial statements.
 
 
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Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
 
Interest rate risk
 
                We are exposed to interest rate change market risk with respect to our uncommitted credit line with a financial institution which is priced based on the bank’s alternate base rate (3.25% at December 31, 2013) plus 0.5% or LIBOR (0.20% at December 31, 2013) plus 2.5%.  We have never made any borrowings under this line. Only to the extent we utilize all or a portion of this line of credit will changes in the interest rate have a positive or negative effect on our interest expense.  
 
Foreign currency risk
 
                We have operations in several international markets that subject us to foreign currency fluctuations. Although the majority of our contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars, a substantial portion of the costs incurred to render services under these contracts is incurred in the local currencies of several international markets where we carry on our operations. Our significant operations are based in the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Israel where revenues are generated in U.S. dollars and the corresponding expenses are generated in Philippine peso, Indian rupee, Sri Lanka rupee and Israeli shekel.
 
To mitigate the exposure of fluctuating future cash flows due to changes in foreign exchange rates, we entered into foreign currency forward contracts. These foreign currency forward contracts were entered into with a maximum term of twelve months and have an aggregate notional amount of approximately $15.2 million as of December 31, 2013. We may continue to enter into these, or other such instruments, in the future to reduce foreign currency exposure to appreciation or depreciation in the value of these foreign currencies.
 
The impact of foreign currency fluctuations will continue to present economic challenges to us and could negatively impact our overall results of operations. A 10% appreciation in the U.S. dollar’s value relating to the hedged currencies would decrease the forward contracts’ fair value by approximately $1.4 million as of December 31, 2013. Similarly, a 10% depreciation in the U.S. dollar’s value relative to the hedged currencies would increase the forward contracts’ fair value by approximately $1.7 million as of December 31, 2013. Any increase or decrease in the fair value of our currency exchange rate sensitive forward contracts, if utilized, would be substantially offset by a corresponding decrease or increase in the fair value of the hedged underlying cash flows.
 
Other than the aforementioned forward contracts, we have not engaged in any hedging activities nor have we entered into off-balance-sheet transactions or arrangements.
 
                As of December 31, 2013, our foreign locations held cash and cash equivalents totaling approximately $22.6 million. These assets are exposed to foreign exchange risk arising from changes in foreign exchange rates. At present, we do not enter into any hedging instruments to mitigate foreign exchange risk on such assets; however, we may do so in the future.
 
Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
 
                See Financial Statement Index, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data commencing on page F-1 herein.
 
 
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Item 9.  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
 
                None.
 
Item 9A.  Controls and Procedures.
 
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our Exchange Act reports is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission's rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
 
                Under the supervision, and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined under Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(e). Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2013, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.
 
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There have been no changes in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) or 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the last fiscal quarter to which this report relates that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
Report of Management on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting for the Company. Internal control over financial reporting is a process to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Internal control over financial reporting includes maintaining records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect our transactions; providing reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary for preparation of our financial statements; providing reasonable assurance that receipts and expenditures of company assets are made in accordance with management authorization; and providing reasonable assurance that unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of company assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements would be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting is not intended to provide absolute assurance that a misstatement of our financial statements would be prevented or detected.
 
Management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (1992) - issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on this evaluation, management concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2013. 
 
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, was audited by CohnReznick LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report appearing below.
 
 
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders of Innodata Inc.:
 
We have audited Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries’ (“Innodata”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Innodata’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the effectiveness of Innodata’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management’s assessment, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk and performing such other procedures as we consider necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In our opinion, Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries’ has maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013 based on the COSO criteria.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the year ended December 31, 2013, and the related financial statement schedule of Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries and our report dated March 13, 2014, expressed an unmodified opinion thereon.
 
/s/CohnReznick LLP
 
Roseland, New Jersey
March 13, 2014
 
 
40

 
Item 9B.  Other information.
 
                None.
 
 
41

 
PART III
 
Item 10.  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
 
The information called for by Item 10 is incorporated by reference from the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act no later than 120 days after the end of the Company’s 2013 fiscal year.
 
The Company has a code of ethics that applies to all of its employees, officers, and directors, including its principal executive officer, principal financial and accounting officer, and controller.  The text of the Company’s code of ethics is posted on its website at www.innodata.com. The Company intends to disclose future amendments to, or waivers from, certain provisions of the code of ethics for executive officers and directors in accordance with applicable Nasdaq and SEC requirements.
 
Item 11.  Executive Compensation.
 
The information called for by Item 11 is incorporated by reference from the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act no later than 120 days after the end of the Company’s 2013 fiscal year.
 
Item 12.  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
 
The information called for by Item 12 is incorporated by reference from the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act no later than 120 days after the end of the Company’s 2013 fiscal year.
 
Item 13.  Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
 
The information called for by Item 13 is incorporated by reference from the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act no later than 120 days after the end of the Company’s 2013 fiscal year.
 
Item 14.  Principal Accounting Fees and Services.
 
The information called for by Item 14 is incorporated by reference from the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act no later than 120 days after the end of the Company’s 2013 fiscal year.
 
 
42

 
PART IV
 
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.
 
(a)
1.  Financial Statements.  See Item 8. Index to Financial Statements.
 
2.  Financial Statement Schedules. Schedule II – Valuation and Qualifying Accounts.
 
3.  Exhibits – See Exhibit Index attached hereto and incorporated by reference herein.
 
 
43

 
SIGNATURES
 
In accordance with Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the registrant caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
INNODATA INC.
 
 
 
 
By
/s/ Jack Abuhoff
 
 
Jack Abuhoff
 
 
Chairman of the Board,
 
 
Chief Executive Officer and President
 
In accordance with the Exchange Act, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Jack Abuhoff
 
Chairman of the Board,
 
March 13, 2014
Jack Abuhoff
 
Chief Executive Officer and President
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ O’Neil Nalavadi
 
Senior Vice President,
 
March 13, 2014
O’Neil Nalavadi
 
Chief Financial Officer
and Principal Accounting Officer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Louise C. Forlenza
 
Director
 
March 13, 2014
Louise C. Forlenza
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Haig S. Bagerdjian
 
Director
 
March 13, 2014
Haig S. Bagerdjian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Stewart R. Massey
 
Director
 
March 13, 2014
Stewart R. Massey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Anthea C. Stratigos
 
Director
 
March 13, 2014
Anthea C. Stratigos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Andargachew S. Zelleke
 
Director
 
March 13, 2014
Andargachew S. Zelleke
  
 
  
 
 
 
44

 
Item 8. Financial Statements.
 
INNODATA INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
 
PAGE
 
 
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
F-2
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2013 and 2012
 
F-3
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the three years ended December 31, 2013
 
F-4
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three years ended  December 31, 2013
 
F-5
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three years ended  December 31, 2013
 
F-6
 
 
 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
F-7
 
 
F-1

 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders of Innodata Inc.:
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the year ended December 31, 2013. Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15. Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries’ management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and their results of operations and cash flows for each of the three years in the year ended December 31, 2013, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013 based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organization of the Treadway Commission (COSO) and our report dated March 13, 2014, expressed an unmodified opinion thereon.
 
/s/ CohnReznick LLP
 
Roseland, New Jersey
March 13, 2014
 
 
F-2

 
INNODATA INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
DECEMBER 31, 2013 AND 2012
(in thousands, except share data)
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
24,752
 
$
25,425
 
Short term investments – other
 
 
-
 
 
3,091
 
Accounts receivable, net
 
 
11,876
 
 
14,317
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
 
1,907
 
 
2,561
 
Deferred income taxes
 
 
45
 
 
1,104
 
Total current assets
 
 
38,580
 
 
46,498
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property and equipment, net
 
 
6,083
 
 
10,656
 
Other assets
 
 
3,323
 
 
3,504
 
Deferred income taxes
 
 
1,336
 
 
4,848
 
Goodwill
 
 
675
 
 
675
 
Total assets
 
$
49,997
 
$
66,181
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
 
$
898
 
$
1,618
 
Accrued expenses
 
 
2,780
 
 
2,482
 
Accrued salaries, wages and related benefits
 
 
4,647
 
 
6,584
 
Income and other taxes
 
 
1,003
 
 
2,155
 
Current portion of long term obligations
 
 
351
 
 
818
 
Deferred income taxes
 
 
57
 
 
57
 
Total current liabilities
 
 
9,736
 
 
13,714
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deferred income taxes
 
 
190
 
 
182
 
Long-term obligations
 
 
3,747
 
 
3,374
 
Commitments and contingencies
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-controlling interests
 
 
(3,649)
 
 
(1,598)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Serial preferred stock; 5,000,000 shares authorized, none outstanding
 
 
-
 
 
-
 
Common stock, $.01 par value; 75,000,000 shares authorized; 26,597,000 shares issued and 25,050,000 outstanding at December 31, 2013 and 26,436,000 shares issued and 24,889,000 outstanding at December 31, 2012
 
 
266
 
 
264
 
Additional paid-in capital
 
 
22,963
 
 
22,140
 
Retained earnings
 
 
21,724
 
 
32,356
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
 
 
(692)
 
 
37
 
 
 
 
44,261
 
 
54,797
 
Less: treasury stock, 1,547,000 shares at cost
 
 
(4,288)
 
 
(4,288)
 
Total stockholders’ equity
 
 
39,973
 
 
50,509
 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
$
49,997
 
$
66,181
 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
 
F-3

 
INNODATA INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2013, 2012 AND 2011
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
64,249
 
$
86,591
 
$
73,942
 
Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating costs
 
 
49,127
 
 
57,382
 
 
50,176
 
Selling and administrative expenses
 
 
17,295
 
 
22,189
 
 
19,082
 
Impairment charges
 
 
5,524
 
 
505
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
71,946
 
 
80,076
 
 
69,258
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) from operations
 
 
(7,697)
 
 
6,515
 
 
4,684
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income, net
 
 
(313)
 
 
(324)
 
 
(587)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
 
 
(7,384)
 
 
6,839
 
 
5,271
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
 
 
5,451
 
 
1,150
 
 
1,361
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
 
 
(12,835)
 
 
5,689
 
 
3,910
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loss attributable to non-controlling interests
 
 
2,203
 
 
1,784
 
 
561
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) attributable to Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries
 
$
(10,632)
 
$
7,473
 
$
4,471
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) per share attributable to Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
(0.43)
 
$
0.30
 
$
0.18
 
Diluted
 
$
(0.43)
 
$
0.28
 
$
0.18
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
 
24,997
 
 
24,895
 
 
24,916
 
Diluted
 
 
24,997
 
 
26,232
 
 
25,103
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
(12,835)
 
$
5,689
 
$
3,910
 
Pension liability adjustment, net of taxes
 
 
(73)
 
 
(138)
 
 
(284)
 
Change in fair value of derivatives, net of taxes of $(46), $705 and $(1,142) for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively
 
 
(656)
 
 
1,202
 
 
(1,945)
 
Other Comprehensive income (loss)
 
 
(729)
 
 
1,064
 
 
(2,229)
 
Total Comprehensive income (loss)
 
 
(13,564)
 
 
6,753
 
 
1,681
 
Comprehensive loss attributable to non-controlling interests
 
 
2,203
 
 
1,784
 
 
561
 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Innodata Inc. and Subsidiaries
 
$
(11,361)
 
$
8,537
 
$
2,242
 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
 
 
F-4

 
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