10-K 1 a201510-k.htm 10-K 10-K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
x
 
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

¨
 
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission file number 1-11848
REINSURANCE GROUP OF AMERICA, INCORPORATED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Missouri
 
43-1627032
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
16600 Swingley Ridge Road, Chesterfield, Missouri
 
63017
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (636) 736-7000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes x  No ¨ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ¨  No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x  No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes x  No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x       Accelerated filer ¨        Non-accelerated filer  ¨        Smaller reporting company ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company.  Yes ¨  No x
The aggregate market value of the stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on June 30, 2015, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange was approximately $6.3 billion.
As of January 31, 2016, 65,211,598 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Certain portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement in connection with the 2015 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (“the Proxy Statement”) which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2015, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.


2


REINSURANCE GROUP OF AMERICA, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
Item
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
1
1A    
1B
2
3
4
 
PART II
 
 
 
5
6
7
7A
8
9
9A
9B
 
PART III
 
 
 
10
11
12
13
14
 
PART IV
 
 
 
15

3


Item 1.         BUSINESS
A.
Overview
Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated (“RGA”) is an insurance holding company that was formed on December 31, 1992. The consolidated financial statements herein include the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of RGA and its subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned (collectively, the “Company”).
The Company has grown to become a leading global provider of traditional and non-traditional life and health reinsurance with operations in the United States, Latin America, Canada, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Reinsurance is an arrangement under which an insurance company, the “reinsurer,” agrees to indemnify another insurance company, the “ceding company,” for all or a portion of the insurance and/or investment risks underwritten by the ceding company. Reinsurance is designed to (i) reduce the net amount at risk on individual risks, thereby enabling the ceding company to increase the volume of business it can underwrite, as well as increase the maximum risk it can underwrite on a single risk; (ii) stabilize operating results by leveling fluctuations in the ceding company’s loss experience; (iii) assist the ceding company in meeting applicable regulatory requirements; and (iv) enhance the ceding company’s financial strength and surplus position.
The Company has geographic-based and business-based operational segments: U.S. and Latin America; Canada; Europe, Middle East and Africa; Asia Pacific; and Corporate and Other. Geographic-based operations are further segmented into traditional and non-traditional businesses. The Company’s segments primarily write reinsurance business that is wholly or partially retained in one or more of RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries. See “Segments” for more information concerning the Company’s operating segments.
Traditional Reinsurance
Traditional reinsurance includes individual and group life and health, disability, and critical illness reinsurance. Life reinsurance primarily refers to reinsurance of individual or group-issued term, whole life, universal life, and joint and last survivor insurance policies. Health and disability reinsurance primarily refers to reinsurance of individual or group health policies. Critical illness reinsurance provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of a pre-defined critical illness.
Traditional reinsurance is written on a facultative or automatic treaty basis. Facultative reinsurance is individually underwritten by the reinsurer for each policy to be reinsured, with the pricing and other terms established based upon rates negotiated in advance. Facultative reinsurance is normally purchased by ceding companies for medically impaired lives, unusual risks, or liabilities in excess of the binding limits specified in their automatic reinsurance treaties.
An automatic reinsurance treaty provides that the ceding company will cede risks to a reinsurer on specified blocks of policies where the underlying policies meet the ceding company’s underwriting criteria. In contrast to facultative reinsurance, the reinsurer does not approve each individual policy being reinsured. Automatic reinsurance treaties generally provide that the reinsurer will be liable for a portion of the risk associated with the specified policies written by the ceding company. Automatic reinsurance treaties specify the ceding company’s binding limit, which is the maximum amount of risk on a given life that can be ceded automatically to the reinsurer and that the reinsurer must accept. The binding limit may be stated either as a multiple of the ceding company’s retention or as a stated dollar amount.
Facultative and automatic reinsurance may be written as yearly renewable term, coinsurance, modified coinsurance or coinsurance with funds withheld. Under a yearly renewable term treaty, the reinsurer assumes primarily the mortality or morbidity risk. Under a coinsurance arrangement, depending upon the terms of the contract, the reinsurer may share in the risk of loss due to mortality or morbidity, lapses, and the investment risk, if any, inherent in the underlying policy. Modified coinsurance and coinsurance with funds withheld differs from coinsurance in that the assets supporting the reserves are retained by the ceding company.
Generally, the amount of life and health reinsurance ceded is stated on an excess or a quota share basis. Reinsurance on an excess basis covers amounts in excess of an agreed-upon retention limit. Retention limits vary by ceding company and also may vary by the age or underwriting classification of the insured, the product, and other factors. Under quota share reinsurance, the ceding company states its retention in terms of a fixed percentage of the risk with the remainder to be ceded to one or more reinsurers up to the maximum binding limit.
Reinsurance agreements, whether facultative or automatic, may include recapture rights, which permit the ceding company to reassume all or a portion of the risk formerly ceded to the reinsurer after an agreed-upon period of time (generally 10 years) or in some cases due to changes in the financial condition or ratings of the reinsurer. Recapture of business previously ceded does not affect premiums ceded prior to the recapture of such business, but would reduce premiums in subsequent periods. The potential adverse effects of recapture rights are mitigated by the following factors: (i) recapture rights vary by treaty and the risk of recapture is a factor that is considered when pricing a reinsurance agreement; (ii) ceding companies generally may exercise their recapture rights only to the extent they have increased their retention limits for the reinsured policies; and (iii) ceding companies generally must recapture all of the policies eligible for recapture under the agreement in a particular year if any are recaptured (which prevents

4


a ceding company from recapturing only the most profitable policies). In addition, when a ceding company recaptures reinsured policies, the reinsurer releases the reserves it maintained to support the recaptured portion of the policies.
Non-Traditional Reinsurance
Non-traditional reinsurance includes longevity reinsurance, asset-intensive reinsurance, and financial reinsurance.
Longevity Reinsurance
In many countries, companies are increasingly interested in reducing their exposure to longevity risk related to the retirement benefits promised to staff. This concern comes from both the absolute size of the risk and also through the volatility that changes in life expectancy can have on their reported earnings. In addition, insurance companies that offer lifetime annuities are seeking ways to manage their current exposure, while also recognizing the potential to take on more risk from employers and individuals.
The Company has entered into transactions on existing longevity business for clients in Europe and Canada. These have been arrangements with traditional insurance companies, as well as customized arrangements for banks dealing with pension schemes. In addition, the Company has acquired a closed block of longevity business in the U.S.
Asset-Intensive Reinsurance
Asset-intensive reinsurance refers to the full-risk coinsurance of annuities or reinsurance that has a significant investment component. Asset-intensive reinsurance allows the Company’s clients to take advantage of growth opportunities that might otherwise not be available due to restrictions on available capital or concerns about the size of the investment risk on their balance sheets.
An ongoing partnership with clients is important with asset-intensive reinsurance because of the active management involved in this type of reinsurance. This active management includes investment decisions, investment and claims management, and the determination of non-guaranteed elements. Some examples of the reinsurance offered by asset-intensive reinsurance are: fixed deferred annuities, indexed annuities, unit-linked variable annuities, universal life corporate-owned life insurance and bank-owned life insurance, unit-linked variable life, immediate/payout annuities, whole life, disabled life reserves, and extended term insurance.
Financial Reinsurance
Financial reinsurance primarily involves assisting ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements by enhancing the ceding companies’ financial strength and regulatory surplus position. Financial reinsurance transactions do not qualify as reinsurance under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), due to the low-risk nature of the transactions. These transactions are reported in accordance with deposit accounting guidelines.
B.
Corporate Structure
RGA is an insurance holding company, the principal assets of which consist of the common stock of Reinsurance Company of Missouri, Incorporated (“RCM”), RGA Americas Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Americas”), RGA Reinsurance Company (Barbados) Ltd. (“RGA Barbados”), RGA International Reinsurance Company Limited (“RGA International”) and RGA Reinsurance Company of Australia Limited ("RGA Australia") as well as several other subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned. Potential sources of funds for RGA to pay stockholder dividends and to fund debt service obligations are dividends and interest paid to RGA by its subsidiaries, securities maintained in its investment portfolio, and proceeds from securities offerings and borrowings. RCM’s primary sources of funds are dividend distributions paid by its subsidiary, RGA Reinsurance Company (“RGA Reinsurance”), whose principal source of funds is derived from current operations. RGA Americas’ primary sources of funds are dividend distributions paid by its subsidiaries, RGA Life Reinsurance Company of Canada (“RGA Canada”), RGA Atlantic Reinsurance Company Ltd. (“RGA Atlantic”) and RGA Reinsurance Company of South Africa, Limited ("RGA South Africa"), whose principal source of funds is derived from current operations. Dividends paid by RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to regulatory restrictions of the respective governing bodies where each reinsurance subsidiary is domiciled.








5


Ratings
Insurer financial strength ratings, sometimes referred to as claims paying ratings, represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding the financial ability of an insurance company to meet its obligations under an insurance policy. The Company’s insurer financial strength ratings as of the date of this filing are listed in the table below for each rating agency that meets with the Company’s management on a regular basis. As of the date of this filing, all ratings listed below are on stable outlook.
Insurer Financial Strength Ratings
A.M. Best
    Company (1)    
Moody’s
Investors
    Service (2)    
Standard &    
Poor’s (3)
RGA Reinsurance Company
A+
A1
AA-
RGA Life Reinsurance Company of Canada
A+
Not Rated
AA-
RGA International Reinsurance Company Limited
Not Rated
Not Rated
AA-
RGA Global Reinsurance Company, Ltd.
Not Rated
Not Rated
AA-
RGA Reinsurance Company of Australia Limited
Not Rated
Not Rated
AA-
RGA Americas Reinsurance Company, Ltd.
A+
Not Rated
AA-
RGA Atlantic Reinsurance Company Ltd.
A+
Not Rated
Not Rated
(1)
An A.M. Best Company (“A.M. Best”) insurer financial strength rating of “A+ (superior)” is the second highest out of fifteen possible ratings and is assigned to companies that have, in A.M. Best’s opinion, a superior ability to meet their ongoing obligations to policyholders.
(2)
A Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) insurer financial strength rating of “A1” (good) is the fifth highest rating out of twenty-one possible ratings and indicates that Moody’s believes the insurance company offers good financial security; however, elements may be present which suggest a susceptibility to impairment sometime in the future.
(3)
A Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) insurer financial strength rating of “AA-” (very strong) is the fourth highest rating out of twenty-one possible ratings. According to S&P’s rating scale, a rating of “AA-” means that, in S&P’s opinion, the insurer has very strong financial security characteristics.
The ability to write reinsurance partially depends on a reinsurer’s financial condition and its financial strength ratings. These ratings are based on a company’s ability to pay policyholder obligations and are not directed toward the protection of investors. A ratings downgrade could adversely affect the Company’s ability to compete. See Item 1A – “Risk Factors” for more on the potential effects of a ratings downgrade.
Regulation
The following table provides the jurisdiction of the regulatory authority for RGA’s primary operating and captive subsidiaries:
Subsidiary
 
Regulatory Authority
RGA Reinsurance
 
Missouri
Parkway Reinsurance Company (“Parkway Re”)
 
Missouri
Rockwood Reinsurance Company ("Rockwood Re")
 
Missouri
Castlewood Reinsurance Company (“Castlewood Re”)
 
Missouri
Chesterfield Reinsurance Company (“Chesterfield Re”)
 
Missouri
RCM
 
Missouri
Timberlake Reinsurance Company II (“Timberlake Re”)
 
South Carolina
RGA Canada
 
Canada
RGA Barbados
 
Barbados
RGA Americas
 
Bermuda
Manor Reinsurance, Ltd. (“Manor Re”)
 
Barbados
RGA Atlantic
 
Barbados
RGA Worldwide Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Worldwide”)
 
Barbados
RGA Global Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Global”)
 
Bermuda
RGA Australia
 
Australia
RGA International
 
Ireland
RGA South Africa
 
South Africa
Aurora National Life Assurance Company ("Aurora National")
 
California
RGA Reinsurance, RGA Americas, Aurora National, RGA Global and RGA International are also subject to regulations in the other jurisdictions in which they are licensed or authorized to do business. Insurance laws and regulations, among other things, establish minimum capital requirements and limit the amount of dividends, distributions, and intercompany payments affiliates can make without regulatory approval. Additionally, insurance laws and regulations impose restrictions on the amounts and types of investments that insurance companies may hold. In addition, new standards to be imposed upon European insurers by Solvency II, revisions to the insurance laws of Bermuda similar to Solvency II, changes to regulations in Canada and revisions

6


to the insurance holding company laws in the U.S. and other jurisdictions could, in the near future, affect RGA Americas, RGA International, RGA Global, RGA Canada, RGA Reinsurance and other subsidiaries, and the clients of each to varying degrees.
U.S. Regulation
Insurance Regulation
The insurance laws and regulations, as well as the level of supervisory authority that may be exercised by the various state insurance departments, vary by jurisdiction. These laws and regulations generally grant broad powers to supervisory agencies or regulators to examine and supervise insurance companies and insurance holding companies with respect to every significant aspect of the conduct of the insurance business. This includes the power to pre-approve the execution of approval or modification of contractual arrangements. These laws and regulations generally require insurance companies to meet certain solvency standards and asset tests, to maintain minimum standards of business conduct, and to file certain reports with regulatory authorities, including information concerning their capital structure, ownership, and financial condition; and subject insurers to potential assessments for amounts paid by guarantee funds. RGA Reinsurance, Chesterfield Re and RCM are subject to the state of Missouri’s adoption of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) Model Audit Rule which requires an insurer to have an annual audit by an independent certified public accountant, provide an annual management report of internal control over financial reporting, file the resulting reports with the Director of Insurance and maintain an audit committee. Aurora National is subject to similar regulation by the State of California. Moreover, Insurance Holding Company System Regulatory Acts in the United States permit the Missouri regulator to request and consider, in its regulation of the solvency of and capital standards for RGA Reinsurance, Chesterfield Re and RCM and the California regulator to request and consider, in its regulation of the solvency of and capital standards for Aurora National, information about the operations of other subsidiaries of RGA and the extent to which there may be deemed to exist contagion risk posed by those operations. In addition, RGA is subject of a supervisory college which involves regular meetings of the insurance regulators of the reinsurance entities of RGA. These regular meetings bring about additional questions and perhaps even limitations on some of the activities of the reinsurance company subsidiaries of RGA.
RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries are required to file statutory financial statements in each jurisdiction in which they are licensed and may be subject to periodic examinations by the insurance regulators of the jurisdictions in which each is licensed, authorized, or accredited. To date, none of the regulators’ reports related to the Company’s periodic examinations have contained material adverse findings.
Although some of the rates and policy terms of U.S. direct insurance agreements are regulated by state insurance departments, the rates, policy terms, and conditions of reinsurance agreements generally are not subject to regulation by any regulatory authority. The same is true outside of the U.S. In the U.S., however, the NAIC Model Law on Credit for Reinsurance, which has been adopted in most states, imposes certain requirements for an insurer to take reserve credit for risk ceded to a reinsurer. Generally, the reinsurer is required to be licensed or accredited in the insurer’s state of domicile, or post security for reserves transferred to the reinsurer in the form of letters of credit or assets placed in trust. The NAIC Life and Health Reinsurance Agreements Model Regulation, which has been passed in most states, imposes additional requirements for insurers to claim reserve credit for reinsurance ceded (excluding yearly renewable term reinsurance and non-proportional reinsurance). These requirements include bona fide risk transfer, an insolvency clause, written agreements, and filing of reinsurance agreements involving in force business, among other things. Outside of the U.S., rules for reinsurance and requirements for minimum risk transfer are less specific and are less likely to be published as rules, but nevertheless standards can be imposed to varying extents.
U.S. Valuation of Life Policies Model Regulation (commonly referred to as Regulation XXX), implemented in the U.S. for various types of life insurance business, significantly increased the level of reserves that U.S. life insurance and life reinsurance companies must hold on their statutory financial statements for various types of life insurance business, primarily certain level premium term life products. The reserve levels required under Regulation XXX are normally in excess of reserves required under GAAP. In situations where primary insurers have reinsured business to reinsurers that are unlicensed and unaccredited in the U.S., the reinsurer must provide collateral equal to its reinsurance reserves in order for the ceding company to receive statutory financial statement credit. Reinsurers have historically utilized letters of credit for the benefit of the ceding company, or have placed assets in trust for the benefit of the ceding company, or have used other structures as the primary forms of collateral.
RGA Reinsurance is the primary subsidiary of the Company subject to Regulation XXX. In order to manage the effect of Regulation XXX on its statutory financial statements, RGA Reinsurance has retroceded a majority of Regulation XXX reserves to unaffiliated and affiliated unlicensed reinsurers and special purpose reinsurers, or captives. RGA Reinsurance’s statutory capital may be significantly reduced if the unaffiliated or affiliated reinsurer is unable to provide the required collateral to support RGA Reinsurance’s statutory reserve credits and RGA Reinsurance cannot find an alternative source for the collateral. New NAIC requirements for life insurers using special purpose reinsures are now in place. While RGA Reinsurance’s current reserve financing arrangements using special purpose reinsurers or “captive reinsurers” are permitted to remain in place, the new rules will place limitations on RGA Reinsurance’s ability to utilize captive reinsurers to finance reserve growth related to future business. Such limitations could cause the Company to utilize alternative financing methods, which may be more expensive than financing methods used in the past.

7


RGA Reinsurance, Chesterfield Re, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re, Castlewood Re and RCM prepare statutory financial statements in conformity with accounting practices prescribed or permitted by the State of Missouri. Timberlake Re prepares statutory financial statements in conformity with accounting practices prescribed or permitted by the State of South Carolina. Aurora National prepares its statutory financial statements in conformity with accounting practices prescribed or permitted by the State of California. Each of these states require domestic insurance companies to prepare their statutory financial statements in accordance with the NAIC Accounting Practices and Procedures manual subject to any deviations permitted by each state’s insurance commissioner. The Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries are subject to the regulations and reporting requirements of their respective countries of domicile.
Based on the growth of the Company’s business and the pattern of reserve levels under Regulation XXX associated with term life business and other statutory reserve requirements, the amount of ceded reserve credits is expected to grow. This growth will require the Company to obtain additional letters of credit, put additional assets in trust, or utilize other funding mechanisms to support reserve credits. If the Company is unable to support the reserve credits, the regulatory capital levels of several of its subsidiaries may be significantly reduced, while the regulatory capital requirements for these subsidiaries would not change. The reduction in regulatory capital would not directly affect the Company’s consolidated shareholders’ equity under GAAP; however, it could affect the Company’s ability to write new business and retain existing business.
Affiliated captives are commonly used in the insurance industry to help manage statutory reserve and collateral requirements and are often domiciled in the same state as the insurance company that sponsors the captive. The NAIC has analyzed the insurance industry’s use of affiliated captive reinsurers to satisfy certain reserve requirements and has adopted measures to promote uniformity in both the approval and supervision of such reinsurers. New standards to address the use of captive reinurers have been introduced. There is a commitment to allowing current captives to continue in accordance with their currently approved plans. State insurance regulators that regulate the Company’s domestic insurance companies have placed restrictions on the use of newly established captive reinsurers which pose to make them less effective. Depending on how the new standards are ultimately applied and whether additional restrictions are introduced, the Company’s ability to reinsure certain products, maintain risk based capital ratios and deploy excess capital could be adversely affected. As a result, the Company may need to alter the type and volume of business it reinsures, increase prices on those products, raise additional capital to support higher regulatory reserves or implement higher cost strategies, all of which could adversely affect the Company’s competitive position and its results of operations.
More changes in the use and regulation of captives may also be adopted, but it is too early to predict the extent of any changes that may be made. Accordingly, the Company is reevaluating and anticipates adjusting its strategy of using captives to enhance its capital efficiency and competitive position while it monitors the regulations related to captives and any proposed changes in such regulations. The Company cannot estimate the impact of discontinuing or altering its captive strategy in response to potential regulatory changes due to many unknown variables, such as the cost and availability of alternative capital, potential changes in regulatory reserving requirements under a principle-based reserving approach, which would likely reduce required collateral, changes in acceptable collateral for statutory reserves, the introduction of the “certified reinsurer” laws and regulations in certain United States jurisdictions where the Company operates, the potential for increased pricing of products offered by the Company and the potential change in mix of products sold and/or offered by the Company and/or its clients.
In the United States, the introduction of the certified reinsurer has provided an alternative way to manage collateral requirements. In 2014, RGA Americas was designated as a certified reinsurer by the Missouri Department of Insurance, Financial Institutions and Professional Registration (“MDI”). This designation allows the Company to retrocede business to RGA Americas in lieu of using captives for collateral requirements.
Reinsurers may place assets in trust to satisfy collateral requirements for certain treaties. In addition, the Company holds securities in trust to satisfy collateral requirements under certain third-party reinsurance treaties. Under certain conditions, the Company may be obligated to move reinsurance from one subsidiary of RGA to another subsidiary or make payments under a given treaty. These conditions include change in control or ratings of the subsidiary, insolvency, nonperformance under a treaty, or loss of the subsidiary’s reinsurance license. If the Company is ever required to perform under these obligations, the risk to the consolidated company under the reinsurance treaties would not change; however, additional capital may be required due to the change in jurisdiction of the subsidiary reinsuring the business and may create a strain on liquidity, possibly causing a reduction in dividend payments or hampering the Company’s ability to write new business or retain existing business.
Capital Requirements
Risk-Based Capital (“RBC”) guidelines promulgated by the NAIC are applicable to RGA Reinsurance, RCM, Aurora National and Chesterfield Re, and identify minimum capital requirements based upon business levels and asset mix. RGA Reinsurance, RCM, Aurora National and Chesterfield Re maintain capital levels in excess of the amounts required by the applicable guidelines. Timberlake Re, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re and Castlewood Re’s capital requirements are determined solely by their licensing orders issued by their states of domicile. Pursuant to its licensing order issued by the South Carolina Department of Insurance, Timberlake Re only calculates RBC as a means of demonstrating its ability to pay principal and interest on its surplus

8


note issued to Timberlake Financial, L.L.C. ("Timberlake Financial"). It is not otherwise subject to the RBC guidelines. Similarly, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re and Castlewood Re are not subject to the requirements of the NAIC’s RBC guidelines. Regulations in international jurisdictions also require certain minimum capital levels, and subject the companies operating there to oversight by the applicable regulatory bodies. RGA’s subsidiaries meet the minimum capital requirements in their respective jurisdictions. The Company cannot predict the effect that any proposed or future legislation or rulemaking in the countries in which it operates may have on the financial condition or operations of the Company or its subsidiaries.
Insurance Holding Company Regulations
RGA Reinsurance, Chesterfield Re, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re, Castlewood Re and RCM are subject to regulation under the insurance and insurance holding company statutes of Missouri. Aurora National is subject to regulation under the insurance and insurance holding company statutes of California. These insurance holding company laws and regulations generally require insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries of insurance holding companies to register and file with the home state regulator, certain reports describing, among other information, their capital structure, ownership, financial condition, certain intercompany transactions, and general business operations. The insurance holding company statutes and regulations also require prior approval of, or in certain circumstances, prior notice to the home state regulator of certain material intercompany transfers of assets, as well as certain transactions between insurance companies, their parent companies and affiliates.
Under current Missouri and California insurance laws and regulations, unless (i) certain filings are made with the home state regulator, (ii) certain requirements are met, including a public hearing, and (iii) approval or exemption is granted by the home state regulator, no person may acquire any voting security or security convertible into a voting security of an insurance holding company, such as RGA, which controls a domestic insurance company, or merge with such an insurance holding company, if as a result of such transaction such person would “control” the insurance holding company. “Control” is presumed to exist under Missouri law if a person directly or indirectly owns or controls 10% or more of the voting securities of another person. Revisions to the insurance holding company standards of Missouri and California require greater disclosure to regulators of matters within the RGA group of companies.
Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions
Current Missouri law, applicable to RCM, and its subsidiaries, RGA Reinsurance and Chesterfield Re, permits the payment of dividends or distributions which, together with dividends or distributions paid during the preceding twelve months, do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of statutory capital and surplus as of the preceding December 31, or (ii) statutory net gain from operations for the preceding calendar year. Any proposed dividend in excess of this amount is considered an “extraordinary dividend” and may not be paid until it has been approved, or a 30-day waiting period has passed during which it has not been disapproved, by the Director of the MDI. Additionally, dividends may be paid only to the extent the insurer has unassigned surplus (as opposed to contributed surplus). Pursuant to these regulatory restrictions, the allowable dividends without prior approval in 2016 for RGA Reinsurance are approximately $150.3 million. Any dividends paid by RGA Reinsurance would be paid to RCM, which in turn has the ability to pay dividends to RGA. Chesterfield Re would pay dividends to its immediate parent Chesterfield Financial Holdings LLC, ("Chesterfield Financial"), which would in turn pay dividends to RCM, subject to the terms of the indenture for the embedded value securitization transaction, in which Chesterfield Financial cannot declare or pay any dividends so long as any private placement notes are outstanding. Chesterfield Re is also subject to certain requirements and restrictions on the payment of dividends pursuant to an agreement with its parent, Chesterfield Financial. The MDI allows RCM to pay a dividend to RGA to the extent RCM received the dividend from RGA Reinsurance, without limitation related to the level of unassigned surplus. Historically, RGA has not relied upon dividends from its subsidiaries to fund its obligations. However, the regulatory limitations and other restrictions described here could limit the Company’s financial flexibility in the future should it choose to or need to use subsidiary dividends as a funding source for its obligations.
The California Insurance Holding Company Act defines an extraordinary dividend, consistent with the definition found in the Missouri Insurance Holding Company Act and imposes an identical restriction upon the ability of Aurora National to pay dividends to RGA Reinsurance. In contrast to both the Missouri and the California Insurance Holding Company Acts, the NAIC Model Insurance Holding Company System Regulatory Act defines an extraordinary dividend as a dividend or distribution which, together with dividends or distributions paid during the preceding twelve months, exceeds the lesser of (i) 10% of statutory capital and surplus as of the preceding December 31, or (ii) statutory net gain from operations for the preceding calendar year. The Company is unable to predict whether, when, or if, Missouri will enact a new measure for extraordinary dividends.
Missouri insurance laws and regulations also require that the statutory surplus of Chesterfield Re, RCM and RGA Reinsurance following any dividend or distribution be reasonable in relation to their outstanding liabilities and adequate to meet their financial needs. The Director of the MDI may call for a rescission of the payment of a dividend or distribution by Chesterfield Re, RGA Reinsurance or RCM that would cause their statutory surplus to be inadequate under the standards of the Missouri insurance regulations. California insurance laws and regulations impose the same scheme on Aurora National as to the dividends or distributions that are made.

9


Pursuant to the South Carolina Director of Insurance, Timberlake Re may declare dividends subject to a minimum Total Adjusted Capital threshold, as defined by the NAIC’s RBC regulation. As of December 31, 2015, Timberlake Re met the minimum required threshold. Any dividends paid by Timberlake Re would be paid to Timberlake Financial, which in turn is subject to contractual limitations on the amount of dividends it can pay to RCM.
Dividend payments from other subsidiaries are subject to the regulations in the country of domicile, which are generally based on their earnings and/or capital level.
Default or Liquidation
In the event that RGA defaults on any of its debt or other obligations, or becomes the subject of bankruptcy, liquidation, or reorganization proceedings, the creditors and stockholders of RGA will have no right to proceed against the assets of any of the subsidiaries of RGA. If any of RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries were to be liquidated or dissolved, the liquidation or dissolution would be conducted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the appropriate governing body in the state or country of the subsidiary’s domicile. The creditors of any such reinsurance company, including, without limitation, holders of its reinsurance agreements and state guaranty associations (if applicable), would be entitled to payment in full from such assets before RGA, as a direct or indirect stockholder, would be entitled to receive any distributions or other payments from the remaining assets of the liquidated or dissolved subsidiary.
Federal Regulation
With enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act during 2010, discussions will continue in the Congress of the United States concerning the future of the McCarran-Ferguson Act, which exempts the “business of insurance” from most federal laws, including anti-trust laws, to the extent such business is subject to state regulation. With the McCarran-Ferguson Act exemption for the business of insurance, a reinsurer may set rate, underwriting and claims handling standards for its ceding company clients to follow. Judicial decisions narrowing the definition of what constitutes the “business of insurance” and repeal or modification of the McCarran-Ferguson Act may limit the ability of the Company, and RGA Reinsurance in particular, to share information with respect to matters such as rate setting, underwriting, and claims management. Likewise, discussions may again resume in the Congress of the United States concerning potential future regulation of insurance and reinsurance at the Federal level. It is not possible to predict the effect of such decisions or changes in the law on the operation of the Company, but it is now more likely than in the past that insurance or reinsurance may be regulated at the Federal level in the U.S. Additionally, new credit for reinsurance rules in the U.S. allowing for collateral reduction has the potential to allow foreign competitors to provide reinsurance to U.S. insurers with reduced collateral requirements. This may ultimately lower the cost at which RGA Reinsurance’s competitors are able to provide reinsurance to U.S. insurers. In addition, the vesting of authority in the U.S. Federal Reserve to review the solvency of certain financial institutions deemed systemically important could impose an additional layer of solvency regulation upon selected insurers and reinsurers. While it is not expected that any RGA entity would be deemed to be systemically important and become the subject to this additional scrutiny, three of RGA Reinsurance’s large U.S. clients have been given the designation subjecting the client’s reinsurance programs to scrutiny by the Federal Reserve. It is possible that more of RGA's clients will be given this designation leading to additional scrutiny of those client's reinsurance programs by the Federal Reserve.
Environmental Considerations
Federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations apply to the Company’s ownership and operation of real property. Inherent in owning and operating real property are the risks of hidden environmental liabilities and the costs of any required clean-up. Under the laws of certain states, contamination of a property may give rise to a lien on the property to secure recovery of the costs of clean-up. In several states, this lien has priority over the lien of an existing mortgage against such property. In addition, in some states and under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”), the Company may be liable, in certain circumstances, as an “owner” or “operator,” for costs of cleaning-up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances at a property mortgaged to it. The Company also risks environmental liability when it forecloses on a property mortgaged to it, although Federal legislation provides for a safe harbor from CERCLA liability for secured lenders that foreclose and sell the mortgaged real estate, provided that certain requirements are met. However, there are circumstances in which actions taken could still expose the Company to CERCLA liability. Application of various other federal and state environmental laws could also result in the imposition of liability on the Company for costs associated with environmental hazards.
The Company routinely conducts environmental assessments prior to taking title to real estate through foreclosure on real estate collateralizing mortgages that it holds. Although unexpected environmental liabilities can always arise, the Company seeks to minimize this risk by undertaking these environmental assessments and complying with its internal procedures, and as a result, the Company believes that any costs associated with compliance with environmental laws and regulations or any clean-up of properties would not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.


10


International Regulation
RGA’s international insurance operations are principally regulated by insurance regulatory authorities in the jurisdictions in which they are located or operate branch offices. The regulation includes minimum capital, solvency and governance requirements. The authority of RGA’s international operations to conduct business is subject to licensing requirements, inspections and approvals and these authorizations are subject to modification and revocation. Periodic examinations of the insurance company books and records, financial reporting requirements, risk management processes and governance procedures are among the techniques used by regulators to supervise RGA’s non-U.S. insurance businesses. The regulators of RGA’s non-U.S. insurance companies and the California Department of Insurance, are also invited to be part of the supervisory college held by the Missouri Department of Insurance, RGA’s group supervisor.
Much like the adoption of Dodd-Frank in the U.S., regulators around the world are reviewing the causes of the 2008 - 2009 financial crisis and considering ways to avoid similar problems in the future. A group leading this effort is the Financial Stability Board (“FSB”). The FSB consists of representatives of national financial authorities of the G20 nations. The G20 and the FSB and related governmental bodies have developed proposals to address issues such as group supervision, capital and solvency standards, systemic economic risk, corporate governance, including executive compensation and many other related issues associated with the financial crisis. At the direction of the FSB, the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (“IAIS”) is developing a model framework for the supervision of internationally active insurance groups (“IAIG’s”) that contemplates “group-wide supervision” across national boundaries. RGA anticipates that it may, in future years, be designated an IAIG bringing about requirements for RGA to conduct a group-wide risk and solvency assessment to monitor and manage its overall solvency. At this time RGA cannot predict what additional capital requirements, compliance costs or other burdens these requirements would impose on it, if adopted. There is also the potential for inconsistent or conflicting regulation of the RGA group of companies as lawmakers and regulators in multiple simultaneously pursue these initiatives.
Additionally, RGA International, operating in the European Economic Area (“EEA”), is subject to the Solvency II measures developed by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and will be required to abide by the evolving risk management practices, capital standards and disclosure requirements of the Solvency II framework. Additionally, the Company’s clients located in the EEA will need to abide by these standards in operating their insurance businesses, including the management of their ceded reinsurance. Currently, insurers and reinsurers located in the EEA are operating under Solvency II. The Company expects Solvency II to have a significant influence on not only the regulation of solvency measures applied to insurers and reinsurers operating within the EEA, but the Company also expects the solvency regulation measures to influence future regulatory structures of countries outside of the EEA, including China and Japan. Influences of the Solvency II - type framework are already present in the insurance regulation of Bermuda and currently influence the solvency measures imposed upon RGA Global and RGA Americas.
New and proposed restrictions in many Asian countries on RGA’s ability to transfer data from one country to another also threaten to make its operations less efficient. Many of these restrictions either do not anticipate the processing of data for reinsurance purposes at all or place costly restrictions on the ability of a reinsurer to service its business by requiring processing to be done within the borders of the country in which the insured consumer resides.
Additionally, requirements proposed or becoming effective in Indonesia and India limit the amount of insurance business that can be ceded to reinsurers not domiciled in those countries. These forced localization requirements have the impact of limiting the amount of reinsurance business RGA can conduct in those countries without the participation of a local reinsurer.
RGA expects the scope and extent of regulation outside of the U.S., as well as group regulatory oversight generally, to continue to increase.
Underwriting
Automatic. The Company’s management determines whether to write automatic reinsurance business by considering many factors, including the types of risks to be covered; the ceding company’s retention limit and binding authority, product, and pricing assumptions; and the ceding company’s underwriting standards, financial strength and distribution systems. For automatic business, the Company ensures that the underwriting standards, procedures and guidelines of its ceding companies are priced appropriately and consistent with the Company’s expectations. To this end, the Company conducts periodic reviews of the ceding companies’ underwriting and claims personnel and procedures.
Facultative. The Company has developed underwriting policies, procedures and standards with the objective of controlling the quality of business written as well as its pricing. The Company’s underwriting process emphasizes close collaboration between its underwriting, actuarial, and administration departments. Management periodically updates these underwriting policies, procedures, and standards to account for changing industry conditions, market developments, and changes occurring in the field of medical technology. These policies, procedures, and standards are documented in electronic underwriting manuals made available to all the Company’s underwriters. The Company regularly performs internal reviews of both its underwriters and underwriting process.

11


The Company’s management determines whether to accept facultative reinsurance business on a prospective insured by reviewing the application, medical information and other underwriting information appropriate to the age of the prospective insured and the face amount of the application. An assessment of medical and financial history follows with decisions based on underwriting knowledge, manual review and consultation with the Company’s medical directors as necessary. Many facultative applications involve individuals with multiple medical impairments, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes, which require a complex underwriting/mortality assessment. The Company employs medical directors and medical consultants to assist its underwriters in making these assessments.
Pricing
Automatic and Facultative. The Company has pricing actuaries dedicated in every geographic market and in every product category who develop reinsurance treaty rates following the Company’s policies, procedures and standards. Biometric assumptions are based primarily on the Company’s own mortality, morbidity and persistency experience, reflecting industry and client-specific experience. Economic and asset-related pricing assumptions are based on current and long-term market conditions and are developed by actuarial and investment personnel with appropriate experience and expertise. Management has established a high-level oversight of the processes and results of these activities, which includes peer reviews in every market as well as centralized procedures and processes for reviewing and auditing pricing activities.
Operations
Generally, the Company’s business has been obtained directly, rather than through brokers. The Company has an experienced sales and marketing staff that works to provide responsive service and maintain existing relationships.
The Company’s administration, auditing, valuation and finance departments are responsible for treaty compliance auditing, financial analysis of results, generation of internal management reports, and periodic audits of administrative and underwriting practices. A significant effort is focused on periodic audits of administrative and underwriting practices, and treaty compliance of clients.
The Company’s claims departments review and verify reinsurance claims, obtain the information necessary to evaluate claims, and arrange for timely claims payments. Claims are subjected to a detailed review process to ensure that the risk was properly ceded, the claim complies with the contract provisions, and the ceding company is current in the payment of reinsurance premiums to the Company. In addition, the claims departments monitor both specific claims and the overall claims handling procedures of ceding companies.
Customer Base
The Company provides reinsurance products primarily to the largest life insurance companies in the world. In 2015, the Company’s five largest clients generated approximately $1,894.3 million or 20.1% of the Company’s gross premiums. In addition, 19 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $100.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 34.0% of the Company’s gross premiums. No individual client generated 10% or more of the Company’s total gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.
Competition
Reinsurers compete on the basis of many factors, including financial strength, pricing and other terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements, reputation, service, and experience in the types of business underwritten. The Company’s competition includes other reinsurance companies as well as other providers of financial services. The Company believes that its primary competitors on a global basis are currently the following, or their affiliates: Munich Re, Swiss Re, Hannover Re and SCOR Global Re. In addition, the Company competes with Pacific Life Re, Prudential Financial and a number of other financial service providers on annuity block business. However, within the reinsurance industry, the competitors can change from year to year.
Employees
As of December 31, 2015, the Company had 2,201 employees located throughout the world. None of these employees are represented by a labor union.
 
C.
Segments
The Company obtains substantially all of its revenues through reinsurance agreements that cover a portfolio of life and health insurance products, including term life, credit life, universal life, whole life, group life and health, joint and last survivor insurance, critical illness, disability, longevity as well as asset-intensive (e.g., annuities) and financial reinsurance. Generally, the Company, through various subsidiaries, has provided reinsurance for mortality, morbidity, and lapse risks associated with such products. With respect to asset-intensive products, the Company has also provided reinsurance for investment-related risks.


12


The following table sets forth the Company’s premiums attributable to each of its segments for the periods indicated on both a gross assumed basis and net of premiums ceded to third parties:
Gross and Net Premiums by Segment
(in millions)
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
Gross
 
Net
 
Gross
 
Net
 
Gross
 
Net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. and Latin America:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
$
5,413.7

 
$
4,806.7

 
$
5,013.3

 
$
4,725.5

 
$
4,709.6

 
$
4,563.4

Non-Traditional
 
61.0

 
22.2

 
59.5

 
20.1

 
67.2

 
22.5

Total U.S. and Latin America
 
5,474.7

 
4,828.9

 
5,072.8

 
4,745.6

 
4,776.8

 
4,585.9

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Canada:
 
 
 


 
 
 


 
 
 


Traditional
 
881.2

 
838.9

 
1,002.9

 
953.4

 
993.2

 
939.0

Non-Traditional
 
38.0

 
38.0

 
21.2

 
21.2

 
23.3

 
23.3

Total Canada
 
919.2

 
876.9

 
1,024.1

 
974.6

 
1,016.5

 
962.3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa:
 
 
 


 
 
 


 
 
 


Traditional
 
1,147.0

 
1,121.5

 
1,187.8

 
1,157.4

 
1,095.2

 
1,069.4

Non-Traditional
 
260.9

 
171.8

 
216.6

 
216.6

 
151.4

 
151.4

Total Europe, Middle East and Africa
 
1,407.9

 
1,293.3

 
1,404.4

 
1,374.0

 
1,246.6

 
1,220.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asia Pacific:
 
 
 


 
 
 


 
 
 


Traditional
 
1,592.6

 
1,551.6

 
1,581.6

 
1,540.9

 
1,483.3

 
1,434.8

Non-Traditional
 
19.5

 
19.5

 
34.0

 
34.0

 
50.4

 
50.4

Total Asia Pacific
 
1,612.1

 
1,571.1

 
1,615.6

 
1,574.9

 
1,533.7

 
1,485.2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate and Other
 
0.5

 
0.5

 
0.8

 
0.8

 
(0.2
)
 
(0.2
)
Total
 
$
9,414.4

 
$
8,570.7

 
$
9,117.7

 
$
8,669.9

 
$
8,573.4

 
$
8,254.0

The following table sets forth selected information concerning assumed life reinsurance business in force and assumed new business volume by segment for the periods indicated. The term “in force” refers to insurance policy face amounts or net amounts at risk. The term “volume” refers to insurance policy face amounts or net amounts at risk.
Reinsurance Business In Force and New Business by Segment
(in billions)
 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
In Force
 
New Business
 
In Force
 
New Business
 
In Force
 
New Business
U.S. and Latin America:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
$
1,594.3

 
$
203.9

 
$
1,483.9

 
$
176.9

 
$
1,397.0

 
$
95.6

Non-Traditional
 
2.1

 

 
1.4

 

 
2.2

 

Total U.S. and Latin America
 
1,596.4

 
203.9

 
1,485.3

 
176.9

 
1,399.2

 
95.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Canada:
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
333.0

 
38.6

 
402.8

 
48.3

 
386.3

 
46.0

Non-Traditional
 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Canada
 
333.0

 
38.6

 
402.8

 
48.3

 
386.3

 
46.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa:
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
602.7

 
171.6

 
561.1

 
175.2

 
556.7

 
106.2

Non-Traditional
 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Europe, Middle East and Africa
 
602.7

 
171.6

 
561.1

 
175.2

 
556.7

 
106.2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asia Pacific:
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
462.7

 
76.9

 
494.0

 
81.6

 
547.4

 
122.6

Non-Traditional
 
0.3

 

 
0.3

 

 
0.3

 

Total Asia Pacific
 
463.0

 
76.9

 
494.3

 
81.6

 
547.7

 
122.6

Total
 
$
2,995.1

 
$
491.0

 
$
2,943.5

 
$
482.0

 
$
2,889.9

 
$
370.4


13


Reinsurance business in force reflects the addition or acquisition of new life reinsurance business, offset by terminations (e.g., life and group contract terminations, lapses of underlying policies, deaths of insureds, and recapture), changes in foreign currency exchange, and any other changes in the amount of insurance in force. As a result of terminations and other changes, assumed in force amounts at risk of $439.4 billion, $428.4 billion, and $408.1 billion were released in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Additional information regarding the operations of the Company’s segments and geographic operations is contained in Note 15 – “Segment Information” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
U.S. and Latin America Operations
The U.S. and Latin America operations represented 56.3%, 54.7% and 55.5% of the Company’s net premiums in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The U.S. and Latin America operations market traditional life and health reinsurance, reinsurance of asset-intensive products, and financial reinsurance, primarily to large U.S. life insurance companies.
Traditional Reinsurance
The U.S. and Latin America Traditional segment provides life and health reinsurance to domestic clients for a variety of products through yearly renewable term agreements, coinsurance, and modified coinsurance. This business has been accepted under many different rate scales, with rates often tailored to suit the underlying product and the needs of the ceding company. Premiums typically vary for smokers and non-smokers, males and females, and may include a preferred underwriting class discount. Reinsurance premiums are paid in accordance with the treaty, regardless of the premium mode for the underlying primary insurance. This business is made up of facultative and automatic treaty business.
Automatic business is generated pursuant to treaties which generally require that the underlying policies meet the ceding company’s underwriting criteria, although in certain cases such policies may be rated substandard. In contrast to facultative reinsurance, reinsurers do not engage in underwriting assessments of each risk assumed through an automatic treaty.
As the Company does not apply its underwriting standards to each policy ceded to it under automatic treaties, the U.S. and Latin America operations generally require ceding companies to retain a portion of the business written on an automatic basis, thereby increasing the ceding companies’ incentives to underwrite risks with due care and, when appropriate, to contest claims diligently.
The U.S. and Latin America facultative reinsurance operation involves the assessment of the risks inherent in (i) multiple impairments, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes; (ii) cases involving large policy face amounts; and (iii) financial risk cases (i.e. cases involving policies disproportionately large in relation to the financial characteristics of the proposed insured). The U.S. and Latin America operations’ marketing efforts have focused on developing facultative relationships with client companies because management believes facultative reinsurance represents a substantial segment of the reinsurance activity of many large insurance companies and also serves as an effective means of expanding the U.S. and Latin America operations’ automatic business. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, approximately 19.9%, 19.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, of the U.S. and Latin America gross premiums were written on a facultative basis.
Only a portion of approved facultative applications ultimately result in reinsurance, as applicants for impaired risk policies often submit applications to several primary insurers, which in turn seek facultative reinsurance from several reinsurers. Ultimately, only one insurance company and one reinsurer are likely to obtain the business. The Company tracks the percentage of declined and placed facultative applications on a client-by-client basis and generally works with clients to seek to maintain such percentages at levels deemed acceptable. As the Company applies its underwriting standards to each application submitted to it facultatively, it generally does not require ceding companies to retain a portion of the underlying risk when business is written on a facultative basis.
In addition, several of the Company’s U.S. and Latin America clients have purchased life insurance policies insuring the lives of their executives. These policies have generally been issued to fund deferred compensation plans and have been reinsured with the Company. The Company’s consolidated balance sheets included interest-sensitive contract liabilities of $2.2 billion and $1.3 billion and policy loans of $1.5 billion and $1.3 billion as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, associated with this business.
Non-Traditional - Asset-Intensive Reinsurance
The Company's U.S. and Latin America Asset-Intensive segment primarily concentrates on the investment risk within underlying annuities and corporate-owned life insurance policies. These reinsurance agreements are mostly structured as coinsurance, coinsurance with funds withheld, or modified coinsurance of primarily investment risk such that the Company recognizes profits or losses primarily from the spread between the investment earnings and the interest credited on the underlying annuity contract liabilities. Reinsurance of such business was reflected in interest-sensitive contract liabilities of approximately $10.5 billion and $10.7 billion as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

14


Annuities are normally limited by the size of the deposit from any single depositor. The Company also reinsures certain indexed annuities, variable annuity products that contain guaranteed minimum death or living benefits and corporate-owned life insurance products. Corporate-owned life insurance normally involves a large number of insureds associated with each deposit, and the Company’s underwriting guidelines limit the size of any single deposit. The individual policies associated with any single deposit are typically issued within pre-set guaranteed issue parameters.
The Company primarily targets highly rated, financially secure companies as clients for asset-intensive business. These companies may wish to limit their own exposure to certain products. Ongoing asset/liability analysis is required for the management of asset-intensive business. The Company performs this analysis internally, in conjunction with asset/liability analysis performed by the ceding companies.
Non-Traditional - Financial Reinsurance
The Company’s U.S. and Latin America Financial Reinsurance segment assists ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements while enhancing their financial strength and regulatory surplus position. The Company commits cash or assumes regulatory insurance liabilities from the ceding companies. Generally, such amounts are offset by receivables from ceding companies that are repaid by the future profits from the reinsured block of business. The Company structures its financial reinsurance transactions so that the projected future profits of the underlying reinsured business significantly exceed the amount of regulatory surplus provided to the ceding company.
The Company primarily targets highly rated insurance companies for financial reinsurance due to the credit risk associated with this business. A careful analysis is performed before providing any regulatory surplus enhancement to the ceding company. This analysis is intended to ensure that the Company understands the risks of the underlying insurance product and that the transaction has a high likelihood of being repaid through the future profits of the underlying business. If the future profits of the business are not sufficient to repay the Company or if the ceding company becomes financially distressed and is unable to make payments under the treaty, the Company may incur losses. A staff of actuaries and accountants track experience for each treaty on a quarterly basis in comparison to models of expected results.
Customer Base
The U.S. and Latin America operations market life reinsurance primarily to the largest U.S. life insurance companies. The Company estimates that approximately 85 of the top 100 U.S. life insurance companies, based on premiums, are clients. The treaties underlying this business generally are terminable by either party on 90 days written notice, but only with respect to future new business. Existing business generally is not terminable, unless the underlying policies terminate or are recaptured. In 2015, the five largest clients generated approximately $1,760.9 million or 32.2% of U.S. and Latin America operation’s gross premiums. In addition, 43 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 57.5% of U.S. and Latin America operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.
Canada Operations
The Canada operations represented 10.2%, 11.2%, and 11.7% of the Company’s net premiums in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The Company operates in Canada primarily through RGA Canada. RGA Canada employs its own underwriting, actuarial, claims, pricing, accounting, systems, marketing and administrative staff in offices located in Montreal and Toronto.
Traditional Reinsurance
In 2015, the Canada Traditional Reinsurance segment assumed $38.6 billion in new business, predominately representing recurring new business, as opposed to in force transactions. Approximately 87.3% of the 2015 recurring new business was written on an automatic basis.
RGA Canada is a leading life reinsurer in Canada, based on new individual life insurance production. It assists clients with capital management and mortality and morbidity risk management and is primarily engaged in individual life reinsurance, as well as creditor, group life and health, and living benefits (critical illness and disability) reinsurance, through yearly renewable term and coinsurance agreements. Creditor insurance covers the outstanding balance on personal, mortgage or commercial loans in the event of death, disability or critical illness and is generally shorter in duration than individual life insurance.
The business is generally composed of facultative and automatic treaty business. Automatic business is generated pursuant to treaties which generally require that the underlying policies meet the ceding company’s underwriting criteria, although in certain cases such policies may be rated substandard. In contrast to facultative reinsurance, reinsurers do not engage in underwriting assessments of each risk assumed through an automatic treaty.
RGA Canada generally requires ceding companies to retain a portion of the business written on an automatic basis, thereby increasing the ceding companies’ incentives to underwrite risks with due care and, when appropriate, to contest claims diligently.

15


Facultative reinsurance involves the assessment of the risks from a medical and financial perspective. RGA Canada is recognized as a leader in facultative reinsurance, and this has served to maintain a strong market share on automatic business.
RGA Canada supports over half the companies active in the living benefits and in the group insurance markets.  Solid claims management expertise and innovative product development capabilities support a growing share of these markets.
Non-Traditional Reinsurance
The Canada Non-Traditional Reinsurance segment concentrates on assisting clients with longevity risk transfer structures within underlying annuities and pension benefit obligations, and on assisting clients in meeting applicable regulatory requirements while enhancing their financial strength and regulatory surplus position through financial reinsurance structures.
Customer Base
Clients include most of the life insurers in Canada, although the number of life insurers is much smaller compared to the U.S. In 2015, the five largest clients generated approximately $475.5 million or 51.7% of Canada operation’s gross premiums. In addition, eight other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 35.0% of Canada operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.
Europe, Middle East and Africa Operations
The Europe, Middle East and Africa ("EMEA") operations represented 15.1%, 15.9%, and 14.8% of the Company’s net premiums in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. This segment serves clients from subsidiaries, licensed branch offices and/or representative offices primarily located in France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, South Africa, Spain, the United Arab Emirates ("UAE") and the United Kingdom ("UK").
EMEA's operations in the UK, Continental Europe and South Africa employ their own underwriting, actuarial, claims, pricing, accounting, marketing and administration staffs with additional support services provided by the Company's staff in the U.S. and Canada.
Traditional Reinsurance
The principal types of reinsurance for this segment include life and health products through yearly renewable term and coinsurance agreements, the reinsurance of critical illness coverage that provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of a pre-defined critical illness and underwritten annuities. Premiums earned from the traditional reinsurance accounted for 86.7% of the total net premiums for the EMEA operations in 2015. Traditional reinsurance in the UK, South Africa and Italy consists predominantly of long term contracts, which are not terminable for existing risk without recapture or natural expiry, whereas in other markets within the region contracts are predominantly short term, renewing annually. The reinsurance agreements of critical illness coverage occurs primarily in the UK and South Africa and may be either facultative or automatic agreements. Premiums earned from critical illness coverage represented 20.8% of the total net premiums for this segment in 2015.
Non-Traditional Reinsurance
The principal types of reinsurance for this segment include longevity, asset-intensive and financial reinsurance. Longevity reinsurance takes the form of closed block annuity reinsurance and longevity swap structures. Premiums earned from non-traditional reinsurance accounted for 13.3% of the total net premiums for the EMEA operations in 2015. Asset-intensive business for this segment consists of coinsurance of payout annuities. Future policy benefits of approximately $4.0 billion and $1.9 billion as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively are associated with this business. Financial reinsurance assists ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements while enhancing their financial strength. These transactions do not qualify as reinsurance under U.S. GAAP, due to low risk nature of transactions and are reported in accordance with deposit accounting guidelines.
Customer Base
In 2015, the UK operations generated approximately $1,032.7 million, or 73.4% of the segment’s gross premiums. In 2015, the five largest clients generated approximately $691.8 million or 49.1% of EMEA operation’s gross premiums. In addition, 13 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 28.9% of EMEA operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.




16


Asia Pacific Operations
The Asia Pacific operations represented 18.3%, 18.2%, and 18.0% of the Company’s net premiums in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The Company has a presence in the Asia Pacific region with licensed branch offices and/or representative offices in China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. The Company has also established a reinsurance subsidiary in Australia in January 1996.
The Asian offices provide full reinsurance services and are supported by the Company’s U.S. and International Division Sydney offices. RGA Australia employs its own underwriting, actuarial, claims, pricing, accounting, systems, marketing, and administration service with additional support provided by the Company’s U.S. and International Division Sydney offices.
Traditional Reinsurance
The principal types of reinsurance for the Traditional Reinsurance segment include life, critical illness, disability and superannuation through yearly renewable term and coinsurance agreements. The reinsurance of critical illness coverage provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of pre-defined critical illness. Superannuation is the Australian government mandated compulsory retirement savings program. Superannuation funds accumulate retirement funds for employees, and, in addition, typically offer life and disability insurance coverage. Reinsurance agreements may be either facultative or automatic agreements covering primarily individual risks and, in some markets, group risks. Premiums earned from traditional reinsurance accounted for 98.8% of the total net premiums for the Asia Pacific operations in 2015. The reinsurance of critical illness coverage occurs primarily in South Korea, Australia and Hong Kong. Premiums earned from critical illness coverage represented 20.1% of the total net premiums for this segment in 2015.
Non-Traditional Reinsurance
The Non-Traditional segment includes financial reinsurance, asset-intensive and certain disability and life blocks. Financial reinsurance assists ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements while enhancing their financial strength. These transactions do not qualify as reinsurance under U.S. GAAP, due to low risk nature of transactions and are reported in accordance with deposit accounting guidelines. Asset-intensive business for this segment primarily concentrates on the investment risk within underlying annuities and life insurance policies. These reinsurance agreements are mostly structured to take on investment risk such that the Company recognizes profits or losses primarily from the spread between the investment earnings and the interest credited on the underlying annuity contract liabilities.
Customer Base
The Australian operations generated approximately $664.7 million, or 41.2% of the total gross premiums for the Asia Pacific operations in 2015. In 2015, the five largest clients generated approximately $576.2 million or 35.7% of Asia Pacific operation’s gross premiums. In addition, 18 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 42.2% of Asia Pacific operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.
Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other operations include investment income from invested assets not allocated to support segment operations and undeployed proceeds from the Company’s capital-raising efforts, in addition to investment related gains or losses. Corporate expenses consist of the offset to capital charges allocated to the operating segments within the policy acquisition costs and other insurance income line item, unallocated overhead and executive costs, and interest expense related to debt. Additionally, Corporate and Other includes results from, among others, RGA Technology Partners, Inc. (“RTP”), a wholly-owned subsidiary that develops and markets technology solutions for the insurance industry and the investment income and expense associated with the Company’s collateral finance and securitization notes.
 
D.
Financial Information About Foreign Operations
The Company’s foreign operations are primarily in Canada, the Asia Pacific region, Europe, and South Africa. Revenue, income (loss) before income taxes, which include investment related gains (losses), interest expense, depreciation and amortization, and identifiable assets attributable to these geographic regions are identified in Note 15 – “Segment Information” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Although there are risks inherent to foreign operations, such as currency fluctuations and restrictions on the movement of funds, as described in Item 1A – “Risk Factors”, the Company’s financial position and results of operations have not been materially adversely affected thereby to date.




17


E.
Available Information
Copies of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports are available free of charge through the Company’s website (www.rgare.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (www.sec.gov). Information provided on such websites does not constitute part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 1A.         RISK FACTORS
In the Risk Factors below, we refer to the Company as “we,” “us,” or “our.” Investing in our securities involves certain risks. Any of the following risks could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition and could result in a loss of your investment. These risks are not exclusive, and additional risks to which we are subject include, but are not limited to, the factors mentioned under “Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements” in Item 7 below and the risks of our businesses described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Many of these risks are interrelated and occur under similar business and economic conditions, and the occurrence of certain of them may in turn cause the emergence, or exacerbate the effect, of others. Such a combination could materially increase the severity of the impact on our operations, liquidity and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Business
We make assumptions when pricing our products relating to mortality, morbidity, lapsation, investment returns and expenses, and significant deviations in experience could negatively affect our financial results.
Our life reinsurance contracts expose us to mortality risk, which is the risk that the level of death claims may differ from that which we assumed in pricing our reinsurance contracts. Some of our reinsurance contracts expose us to morbidity risk, which is the risk that the claims we pay in the event an insured person becomes critically ill or disabled differ from that which we assumed in pricing our reinsurance contracts. Our risk analysis and underwriting processes are designed with the objective of controlling the quality of the business and establishing appropriate pricing for the risks we assume. Among other things, these processes rely heavily on our underwriting, our analysis of mortality and morbidity trends, lapse rates, expenses and our understanding of medical impairments and their effect on mortality or morbidity.
We expect mortality, morbidity and lapse experience to fluctuate somewhat from period to period, but believe they should remain reasonably predictable over a period of many years. Mortality, morbidity or lapse experience that is less favorable than the mortality, morbidity or lapse rates that we used in pricing a reinsurance agreement may cause our net income to be less than otherwise expected because the premiums we receive for the risks we assume may not be sufficient to cover the claims and profit margin. Furthermore, even if the total benefits paid over the life of the contract do not exceed the expected amount, unexpected increases in the incidence of deaths or illness can cause us to pay more benefits in a given reporting period than expected, adversely affecting our net income in any particular reporting period. Likewise, adverse experience could impair our ability to offset certain unamortized deferred acquisition costs and adversely affect our net income in any particular reporting period. We perform annual tests to establish that deferred policy acquisition costs remain recoverable at all times. These tests require us to make a significant number of assumptions. If our financial performance significantly deteriorates to the point where a premium deficiency exists, a cumulative charge to current operations will be recorded which may adversely affect our net income in a particular reporting period.
We regularly review our reserves and associated assumptions as part of our ongoing assessment of our business performance and risks. If we conclude that our reserves are insufficient to cover actual or expected policy and contract benefits and claim payments as a result of changes in experience, assumptions or otherwise, we would be required to increase our reserves and incur charges in the period in which we make the determination. The amounts of such increases may be significant and this could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and may require us to generate or fund additional capital in our businesses.

Our reinsurance subsidiaries are highly regulated, and changes in these regulations could negatively affect our business.
Our reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to government regulation in each of the jurisdictions in which they are licensed or authorized to do business.  Governmental agencies have broad administrative power to regulate many aspects of the reinsurance business, which may include reinsurance terms and capital adequacy.  These agencies are concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders and their direct insurers rather than shareholders or holders of debt securities.  Moreover, insurance laws and regulations, among other things, establish minimum capital requirements and limit the amount of dividends, tax distributions and other payments our reinsurance subsidiaries can make without prior regulatory approval, and impose restrictions on the amount and type of investments we may hold.  The State of Missouri also regulates our reinsurance subsidiaries as members of an insurance holding company system.  The regulation of our reinsurance subsidiaries in this way necessitates restrictions upon RGA as the ultimate parent of these entities.

18


Recently, insurance regulators have increased their scrutiny of insurance holding company systems in the United States. Much of the additional scrutiny is on activities of the insurance company’s entire group which includes the group’s parent company and any non-insurance subsidiaries.  While the laws have not extended regulation to RGA and its non-insurance subsidiaries, the manner in which the insurance regulators regulate RGA’s insurance subsidiaries is now influencing the activities of all other entities within the Company.  Insurance Holding Company System Regulatory Acts in the United States now provide for an expanded supervision of insurance groups operating in the United States.  The scope includes a review of enterprise risk management programs as well as expanded review of agreements between licensed insurers and their group members. Missouri and California have each adopted these new standards as law.
At the United States Federal level, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act established a Financial Stability Oversight Council to identify financial institutions, including insurers and reinsurers, that are systemically important to the United States financial system.  A finding that RGA, or one of its U.S. subsidiaries, is systemically important could ultimately subject the identified entity to additional capital requirements based on business levels and asset mix and other supervision.  Such additional scrutiny might also impact RGA’s ability to pay dividends.   While we do not currently anticipate that the Financial Stability Oversight Council will find RGA to be systemically important, a few of RGA’s client insurance companies have been designated systemically important and we anticipate that more could receive such designation.  Designation of RGA’s client insurance companies could impact RGA through additional scrutiny of the client’s reinsurance programs with the Company, including a consideration of the volume of business ceded by the insurer to the Company.  Moreover, we cannot assure you that more stringent restrictions will not be adopted from time to time in other jurisdictions in which our reinsurance subsidiaries are domiciled, which could, under certain circumstances, significantly reduce dividends or other amounts payable to us by our subsidiaries unless they obtain approval from insurance regulatory authorities.  We cannot predict the effect that any recommendations of the NAIC or proposed or future legislation or rule-making in the United States or elsewhere may have on our financial condition or operations.
Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to the Solvency II measures developed by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and are required to abide by the evolving risk management practices, capital standards and disclosure requirements of the Solvency II framework. We may also be subject to similar solvency regulations in other regions, such as China and Japan. See “Regulation - International Regulation” in Item 1, Business. While we currently believe that the Solvency II requirements will be directly imposed only on our European Union domiciled entities, there can be no assurance at this time that Solvency II will not result in broader consequences to the Company.

A downgrade in our ratings or in the ratings of our reinsurance subsidiaries could adversely affect our ability to compete.
Our financial strength and credit ratings are important factors in our competitive position. Rating organizations periodically review the financial performance and condition of insurers, including our reinsurance subsidiaries. These ratings are based on an insurance company’s ability to pay its obligations and are not directed toward the protection of investors. Rating organizations assign ratings based upon several factors. While most of the factors considered relate to the rated company, some of the factors relate to general economic conditions and circumstances outside the rated company’s control. The various rating agencies periodically review and evaluate our capital adequacy in accordance with their established guidelines and capital models. In order to maintain our existing ratings, we may commit from time to time to manage our capital at levels commensurate with such guidelines and models. If our capital levels are insufficient to fulfill any such commitments, we could be required to reduce our risk profile by, for example, retroceding some of our business or by raising additional capital by issuing debt, hybrid, or equity securities. Any such actions could have a material adverse impact on our earnings or materially dilute our shareholders’ equity ownership interests.
Any downgrade in the ratings of our reinsurance subsidiaries could adversely affect their ability to sell products, retain existing business, and compete for attractive acquisition opportunities. Ratings are subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organization. A rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities, and each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating. We believe that the rating agencies consider the financial strength and flexibility of a parent company and its consolidated operations when assigning a rating to a particular subsidiary of that company. The ability of our subsidiaries to write reinsurance partially depends on their financial condition and is influenced by their ratings. In addition, a downgrade in the rating or outlook of RGA, among other factors, could adversely affect our ability to raise and then contribute capital to our subsidiaries for the purpose of facilitating their operations and growth. A downgrade could also increase our own cost of capital. For example, the facility fee and interest rate for our syndicated revolving credit facility are based on our senior long-term debt ratings. A decrease in those ratings could result in an increase in costs for that credit facility and others. Also, if there is a downgrade in the rating of RGA, or any of our rated subsidiaries, some of our reinsurance contracts would either permit our client ceding insurers to terminate such reinsurance contracts or require us to post collateral to secure our obligations under these reinsurance contracts. Accordingly, we believe a ratings downgrade of RGA, or any of our rated subsidiaries, could have a negative effect on our ability to conduct business.

19


We cannot assure you that actions taken by ratings agencies would not result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, it is unclear what effect, if any, a ratings change would have on the price of our securities in the secondary market.

The availability and cost of collateral, including letters of credit, asset trusts and other credit facilities, could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
Regulatory reserve requirements in various jurisdictions in which we operate may be significantly higher than the reserves required under GAAP. Accordingly, we reinsure, or retrocede, business to affiliated and unaffiliated reinsurers to reduce the amount of regulatory reserves and capital we are required to hold in certain jurisdictions. A regulation in the United States, commonly referred to as Regulation XXX, requires a relatively high level of regulatory, or statutory, reserves that U.S. life insurance and life reinsurance companies must hold on their statutory financial statements for various types of life insurance business, primarily certain level term life products. The reserve levels required under Regulation XXX increase over time and are normally in excess of reserves required under GAAP. The degree to which these reserves will increase and the ultimate level of reserves will depend upon the mix of our business and future production levels in the United States. Based on the assumed rate of growth in our current business plan, and the increasing level of regulatory reserves associated with some of this business, we expect the amount of required regulatory reserves to grow significantly.
In order to reduce the effect of Regulation XXX, our principal U.S. operating subsidiary, RGA Reinsurance Company, has retroceded Regulation XXX-related reserves to affiliated and unaffiliated reinsurers, including affiliated insurers governed by captive insurance laws. Additionally, some of our reinsurance subsidiaries in foreign jurisdictions enter into various reinsurance arrangements with affiliated and unaffiliated reinsurers from time to time in order to reduce statutory capital and reserve requirements. We retrocede business to our affiliates to help reduce the amount of regulatory capital required by the laws of certain jurisdictions, including the U.S. and the UK.
State insurance regulators have been scrutinizing the use of captive reinsurers to satisfy certain reserve requirements. The NAIC has analyzed the insurance industry's use of affiliated captive reinsurers to satisfy certain reserve requirements and has adopted measures to promote uniformity in both the approval and supervision of such reinsurers. New standards to address the use of captive reinsurers have been introduced. State insurance regulators that regulate our domestic insurance companies have placed restrictions on the use of such captive reinsurers which pose to make them less effective. Depending on how the new standards are ultimately applied and whether additional restrictions are introduced, our ability to reinsure certain products, maintain risk based capital ratios and deploy excess capital could be adversely affected. As a result, we may need to alter the type and volume of business we reinsure, increase prices on those products, and raise additional capital to support higher regulatory reserves or implement higher cost strategies, all of which could adversely impact our competitive position and our results of operations and financial position. We cannot estimate the impact of discontinuing or altering our captive strategy in response to potential regulatory changes due to many unknown variables such as the cost and availability of alternative capital, potential changes in regulatory reserving requirements under a principle-based reserving approach which would likely reduce required collateral, changes in acceptable collateral for statutory reserves, the potential introduction of the concept of a “certified reinsurer” in the laws and regulations in certain jurisdictions where we operate, the potential for increased pricing of products offered by us and the potential change in mix of products sold or offered by us or our clients.
We believe that the capital required to support the business ceded to our affiliated reinsurers reflects a more realistic expectation than the capital requirements applicable to our insurance subsidiaries that are retroceding such policies, which have capital requirements that are often considered to be quite conservative. As a general matter, for us to reduce regulatory reserves on business that we retrocede, the affiliated or unaffiliated reinsurer must provide an equal amount of regulatory-compliant collateral. Such collateral may be provided in the form of a letter of credit from a commercial bank, through the placement of assets in trust for our benefit, or through a capital markets securitization.
In connection with these reserve requirements, we face the following risks:
The availability of collateral and the related cost of such collateral in the future could affect the type and volume of business we reinsure and could increase our costs.
We may need to raise additional capital to support higher regulatory reserves, which could increase our overall cost of capital.
If we, or our retrocessionaires, are unable to obtain or provide sufficient collateral to support our statutory ceded reserves, we may be required to increase regulatory reserves. In turn, this reserve increase could significantly reduce our statutory capital levels and adversely affect our ability to satisfy required regulatory capital levels, unless we are able to raise additional capital to contribute to our operating subsidiaries.
Because term life insurance is a particularly price-sensitive product, any increase in insurance premiums charged on these products by life insurance companies, in order to compensate them for the increased statutory reserve

20


requirements or higher costs of insurance they face, may result in a significant loss of volume in their life insurance operations, which could, in turn, adversely affect our life reinsurance operations.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to implement actions to mitigate the effect of increasing regulatory reserve requirements.

Changes in the equity markets, interest rates or volatility affects the profitability of variable annuities with guaranteed living benefits that we reinsure; therefore, such changes may have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.
We reinsure variable annuity products that include guaranteed minimum living benefits. These include guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits (“GMWB”), guaranteed minimum accumulation benefits (“GMAB”) and guaranteed minimum income benefits (“GMIB”). The amount of reserves related to these benefits is based on their fair value and is affected by changes in equity markets, interest rates and volatility. Accordingly, strong equity markets, increases in interest rates and decreases in volatility will generally decrease the fair value of the liabilities underlying the benefits.
Conversely, a decrease in the equity markets along with a decrease in interest rates and an increase in volatility will generally result in an increase in the fair value of the liabilities underlying the benefits, which has the effect of increasing the amount of reserves that we must carry. Such an increase in reserves would result in a charge to our earnings in the quarter in which we increase our reserves. We maintain a customized dynamic hedge program that is designed to mitigate the risks associated with income volatility around the change in reserves on guaranteed benefits. However, the hedge positions may not be effective to exactly offset the changes in the carrying value of the guarantees due to, among other things, the time lag between changes in their values and corresponding changes in the hedge positions, high levels of volatility in the equity markets and derivatives markets, extreme swings in interest rates, contract holder behavior different than expected, and divergence between the performance of the underlying funds and hedging indices. These factors, individually or collectively, may have a material adverse effect on our net income, capital levels, financial condition or liquidity.

RGA is an insurance holding company, and our ability to pay principal, interest and dividends on securities is limited.
RGA is an insurance holding company, with our principal assets consisting of the stock of our reinsurance company subsidiaries, and substantially all of our income is derived from those subsidiaries. Our ability to pay principal and interest on any debt securities or dividends on any preferred or common stock depends, in part, on the ability of our reinsurance company subsidiaries, our principal sources of cash flow, to declare and distribute dividends or to advance money to RGA. We are not permitted to pay common stock dividends or make payments of interest or principal on securities which rank equal or junior to our subordinated debentures and junior subordinated debentures, until we pay any accrued and unpaid interest on such debentures. Our reinsurance company subsidiaries are subject to various statutory and regulatory restrictions, applicable to insurance companies generally, that limit the amount of cash dividends, loans and advances that those subsidiaries may pay to us. Covenants contained in some of our debt agreements and regulations relating to capital requirements affecting some of our more significant subsidiaries also restrict the ability of certain subsidiaries to pay dividends and other distributions and make loans to us. In addition, we cannot assure you that more stringent dividend restrictions will not be adopted, as discussed below under “Our reinsurance subsidiaries are highly regulated, and changes in these regulations could negatively affect our business.”
As a result of our insurance holding company structure, in the event of the insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of one of our reinsurance subsidiaries, all creditors of that subsidiary would be entitled to payment in full out of the assets of such subsidiary before we, as shareholder, would be entitled to any payment. Our subsidiaries would have to pay their direct creditors in full before our creditors, including holders of any class of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of RGA, could receive any payment from the assets of such subsidiaries.

We are exposed to foreign currency risk.
We are a multi-national company with operations in numerous countries and, as a result, are exposed to foreign currency risk to the extent that exchange rates of foreign currencies are subject to adverse change over time. The U.S. dollar value of our net investments in foreign operations, our foreign currency transaction settlements and the periodic conversion of the foreign-denominated earnings to U.S. dollars (our reporting currency) are each subject to adverse foreign exchange rate movements. A significant portion of our revenues and our fixed maturity securities available for sale are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We use foreign-denominated revenues and investments to fund foreign-denominated expenses and liabilities when possible to mitigate exposure to foreign currency fluctuations.

We depend on the performance of others, and their failure to perform in a satisfactory manner would negatively affect us.
In the normal course of business, we seek to limit our exposure to losses from our reinsurance contracts by ceding a portion of the reinsurance to other insurance enterprises or retrocessionaires. We cannot assure you that these insurance enterprises or retrocessionaires will be able to fulfill their obligations to us. As of December 31, 2015, the retrocession pool members

21


participating in our excess retention pool that have been reviewed by A.M. Best Company, were rated “A-”, the fourth highest rating out of fifteen possible ratings, or better. We are also subject to the risk that our clients will be unable to fulfill their obligations to us under our reinsurance agreements with them.
We rely upon our insurance company clients to provide timely, accurate information. We may experience volatility in our earnings as a result of erroneous or untimely reporting from our clients. We work closely with our clients and monitor their reporting to minimize this risk. We also rely on original underwriting decisions made by our clients. We cannot assure you that these processes or those of our clients will adequately control business quality or establish appropriate pricing.
For some reinsurance agreements, the ceding company withholds and legally owns and manages assets equal to the net statutory reserves, and we reflect these assets as funds withheld at interest on our balance sheet. In the event that a ceding company was to become insolvent, we would need to assert a claim on the assets supporting our reserve liabilities. We attempt to mitigate our risk of loss by offsetting amounts for claims or allowances that we owe the ceding company with amounts that the ceding company owes to us. We are subject to the investment performance on the withheld assets, although we do not directly control them. We help to set, and monitor compliance with, the investment guidelines followed by these ceding companies. However, to the extent that such investment guidelines are not appropriate, or to the extent that the ceding companies do not adhere to such guidelines, our risk of loss could increase, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. For additional information on funds withheld at interest, see “Investments-Funds Withheld at Interest” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
We use the services of third-party investment managers to manage certain assets where our investment management expertise is limited. We rely on these investment managers to provide investment advice and execute investment transactions that are within our investment policy guidelines. Poor performance on the part of our outside investment managers could negatively affect our financial performance.
As with all financial services companies, our ability to conduct business depends on consumer confidence in the industry and our financial strength. Actions of competitors, and financial difficulties of other companies in the industry, and related adverse publicity, could undermine consumer confidence and harm our reputation.

Natural and man-made disasters, catastrophes and events, including terrorist attacks, epidemics and pandemics, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Natural disasters and terrorist attacks, as well as epidemics and pandemics, can adversely affect our business and results of operations because they accelerate mortality and morbidity risk. Terrorist attacks on the United States and in other parts of the world and the threat of future attacks could have a negative effect on our business.
We believe our reinsurance programs are sufficient to reasonably limit our net losses for individual life claims relating to potential future natural disasters and terrorist attacks. However, the consequences of further natural disasters, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts, epidemics and pandemics are unpredictable, and we may not be able to foresee events that could have an adverse effect on our business.

We operate in a competitive industry which could adversely affect our market share.
The reinsurance industry is highly competitive, and we encounter significant competition in all lines of business from other reinsurance companies, as well as competition from other providers of financial services. Our competitors vary by geographic market, and many of our competitors have greater financial resources than we do. Our ability to compete depends on, among other things, our ability to maintain strong financial strength ratings from rating agencies, pricing and other terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements, and our reputation, service and experience in the types of business that we underwrite. However, competition from other reinsurers could adversely affect our competitive position.
We compete based on the strength of our underwriting operations, insights on mortality trends based on our large book of business, and responsive service. We believe our quick response time to client requests for individual underwriting quotes and our underwriting expertise are important elements to our strategy and lead to other business opportunities with our clients. Our business will be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain these competitive advantages.

Tax law changes or a prolonged economic downturn could reduce the demand for insurance products, which could adversely affect our business.
Under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, income tax payable by policyholders on investment earnings is deferred during the accumulation period of some life insurance and annuity products. To the extent that the U.S. Internal Revenue Code is revised to reduce the tax-deferred status of life insurance and annuity products, or to increase the tax-deferred status of competing products, all life insurance companies would be adversely affected with respect to their ability to sell such products, and, depending on grandfathering provisions, by the surrenders of existing annuity contracts and life insurance policies. In addition, life insurance

22


products are often used to fund estate tax obligations. The estate tax provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code have been revised frequently in the recent past. If Congress adopts legislation in the future to reduce or eliminate the estate tax, our U.S. life insurance company customers could face reduced demand for some of their life insurance products, which in turn could negatively affect our reinsurance business. We cannot predict whether any tax legislation impacting corporate taxes or insurance products will be enacted, what the specific terms of any such legislation will be or whether, if at all, any legislation would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
A general economic downturn or a downturn in the equity and other capital markets could adversely affect the market for many life insurance and annuity products. Factors including consumer spending, business investment, government spending, the volatility and strength of the capital markets, deflation and inflation all affect the economic environment and thus the profitability of our business. An economic downturn may yield higher unemployment, lower family income, lower corporate earnings, lower business investment and lower consumer spending, and could result in decreased demand for life insurance and annuity products. Because we obtain substantially all of our revenues through reinsurance arrangements that cover a portfolio of life insurance products, as well as annuities, our business would be harmed if the market for annuities or life insurance was adversely affected. Therefore, adverse changes in the economy could affect earnings negatively and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the market for annuity reinsurance products is currently not well developed, and we cannot assure you that such market will develop in the future.

Acquisitions and significant transactions involve varying degrees of risk that could affect our profitability.
We have made, and may in the future make, strategic acquisitions, either of selected blocks of business or other companies. The success of these acquisitions depends on, among other factors, our ability to appropriately price the acquired business. Additionally, acquisitions may expose us to operational challenges and various risks, including:
the ability to integrate the acquired business operations and data with our systems;
the availability of funding sufficient to meet increased capital needs;
the ability to fund cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenues are not realized or are delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions or unforeseen internal difficulties; and
the possibility that the value of investments acquired in an acquisition, may be lower than expected or may diminish due to credit defaults or changes in interest rates and that liabilities assumed may be greater than expected (due to, among other factors, less favorable than expected mortality or morbidity experience).
A failure to successfully manage the operational challenges and risks associated with or resulting from significant transactions, including acquisitions, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our international operations involve inherent risks.
A significant portion of our net premiums come from our operations in Europe, Middle East and Africa and Asia Pacific. One of our strategies is to grow these international operations. International operations subject us to various inherent risks. In addition to the regulatory and foreign currency risks identified above, other risks include the following:
managing the growth of these operations effectively, particularly given the recent rates of growth;
changes in mortality and morbidity experience and the supply and demand for our products that are specific to these markets and that may be difficult to anticipate;
political and economic instability in the regions of the world where we operate;
uncertainty arising out of foreign government sovereignty over our international operations; and
potentially uncertain or adverse tax consequences, including the repatriation of earnings from our non-U.S. subsidiaries.
Some of our international operations are in emerging markets where these risks are heightened and we anticipate that we will continue to do business in such markets. Our pricing assumptions may be less predictable in emerging markets, and deviations in actual experience from these assumptions could impact our profitability in these markets. Additionally, lack of legal certainty and stability in the emerging markets exposes us to increased risk of disruption and adverse or unpredictable actions by regulators and may make it more difficult for us to enforce our contracts, which may negatively impact our business.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage these risks effectively or that they will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our risk management policies and procedures could leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk, which could negatively affect our business or result in losses.
Our risk management policies and procedures to identify, monitor and manage both internal and external risks may not adequately predict future exposures, which could be different or significantly greater than expected. These identified risks may

23


not be the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The failure in cyber or other information security systems, as well as the occurrence of unanticipated events affecting our disaster recovery systems and business continuity planning, could impair our ability to conduct business effectively.
Our business is highly dependent upon the effective operation of our computer systems. We rely on these systems for a variety of business functions across our global operations, including for the administration of our business, underwriting, claims, performing actuarial analyses and maintaining financial records. While we maintain liability insurance for cybersecurity and network interruption losses, our insurance may not be sufficient to protect us against all losses.
We depend heavily upon computer systems to provide reliable service, data and reports. In the event of a disaster such as a natural catastrophe, epidemic, industrial accident, blackout, computer virus, terrorist attack or war, unanticipated problems with our disaster recovery systems could have a material adverse impact on our ability to conduct business and on our results of operations and financial position, particularly if those problems affect our computer-based data processing, transmission, storage and retrieval systems and destroy valuable data. In addition, in the event that a significant number of our managers were unavailable in the event of a disaster, our ability to effectively conduct business could be severely compromised. These interruptions also may interfere with our clients’ ability to provide data and other information and our employees’ ability to perform their job responsibilities.
The failure of our computer systems or our disaster recovery capabilities and plans for any reason could cause significant interruptions in our operations and result in a failure to maintain security, confidentiality or privacy of sensitive or personal data, related to our customers, insured individuals or our employees. Like other global companies, we have experienced threats to our data and systems from time to time. However, we have not detected or identified any evidence to indicate we have experienced a material breach of cyber security. Administrative and technical controls, security measures and other preventative actions we take to reduce the risk of such incidents and protect our information technology may not be sufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our computer systems. Such a failure could harm our reputation, subject us to regulatory sanctions and legal claims, lead to loss of customers and revenues and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Managing key employee retention and succession is critical to our success. 
Our success depends in large part upon our ability to identify, hire, retain and motivate highly skilled employees. We would be adversely affected if we fail to adequately plan for the succession of our senior management and other key employees. While we have succession plans and long-term compensation plans designed to retain our employees, our succession plans may not operate effectively and our compensation plans cannot guarantee that the services of these employees will continue to be available to us.

Risks Related to Our Investments

Adverse capital and credit market conditions may significantly affect our ability to meet liquidity needs, access to capital and cost of capital.
The capital and credit markets experience varying degrees of volatility and disruption. In some periods, the markets have exerted downward pressure on availability of liquidity and credit capacity for certain issuers.
We need liquidity to pay our operating expenses, interest on our debt and dividends on our capital stock and to replace certain maturing liabilities. Without sufficient liquidity, we will be forced to curtail our operations, and our business will be adversely affected. The principal sources of our liquidity are reinsurance premiums under reinsurance treaties and cash flows from our investment portfolio and other assets. Sources of liquidity in normal markets also include proceeds from the issuance of a variety of short- and long-term instruments, including medium- and long-term debt, subordinated and junior subordinated debt securities, capital securities and common stock.
In the event current resources do not satisfy our needs, we may have to seek additional financing. The availability of additional financing will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of equity and credit, the volume of trading activities, the overall availability of credit to the financial services industry, our credit ratings and credit capacity, as well as the possibility that customers or lenders could develop a negative perception of our long- or short-term financial prospects. Similarly, our access to funds may be impaired if regulatory authorities or rating agencies take negative actions against us. Our internal sources of liquidity may prove to be insufficient, and in such case, we may not be able to successfully obtain additional financing on favorable terms, or at all.
Disruptions, uncertainty or volatility in the capital and credit markets may also limit our access to capital required to operate our business, most significantly our reinsurance operations. Such market conditions may limit our ability to replace, in a

24


timely manner, maturing liabilities; satisfy statutory capital requirements; generate fee income and market-related revenue to meet liquidity needs; and access the capital necessary to grow our business. As such, we may be forced to delay raising capital, issue shorter tenor securities than we prefer, or bear an unattractive cost of capital which could decrease our profitability and significantly reduce our financial flexibility. Further, our ability to finance our statutory reserve requirements depends on market conditions. If market capacity is limited for a prolonged period of time, our ability to obtain new funding for such purposes may be hindered and, as a result, our ability to write additional business in a cost-effective manner may be limited or otherwise adversely affected.

Difficult conditions in the global capital markets and the economy generally may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and statutory capital position are materially affected by conditions in the global capital markets and the economy generally, both in the United States and elsewhere around the world. Poor economic conditions, volatility and disruptions in capital markets or financial asset classes can have an adverse effect on our business because our investment portfolio and some of our liabilities are sensitive to changing market factors. Additionally, disruptions in one market or asset class can also spread to other markets or asset classes.
Concerns over U.S. fiscal policy and the trajectory of the U.S. national debt could have severe repercussions to the U.S. and global credit and financial markets, further exacerbate concerns over sovereign debt and disrupt economic activity in the U.S. and elsewhere. As a result, our access to, or cost of, liquidity may deteriorate. As a result of uncertainty regarding U.S. national debt, the market value of some of our investments may decrease, and our capital adequacy could be adversely affected. Further downgrades, together with the sustained current trajectory of the U.S. national debt, could have adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Past economic uncertainties and weakness and disruption of the financial markets around the world, such as the solvency of certain European Union member states and of financial institutions that have significant direct or indirect exposure to debt issued by such countries, have led to concerns over capital markets access. In addition, there has been recent volatility within certain emerging market countries spurred by concerns over the potential for rising U.S. interest rates, slowing global growth, lower prices for oil and other commodities, and the devaluation of certain currencies. These events and continuing market upheavals may have an adverse effect on us, in part because we have a large investment portfolio and are also dependent upon customer behavior. Our revenues may decline in such circumstances and our profit margins may erode. In addition, in the event of extreme prolonged market events, such as the global credit crisis, we could incur significant investment-related losses. Even in the absence of a market downturn, we are exposed to substantial risk of loss due to market volatility.

If our investment strategy is unsuccessful, we could suffer losses.
The success of our investment strategy is crucial to the success of our business. In particular, we structure our investments to match our anticipated liabilities under reinsurance treaties to the extent we believe necessary. If our calculations with respect to these reinsurance liabilities are incorrect, or if we improperly structure our investments to match such liabilities, we could be forced to liquidate investments prior to maturity at a significant loss.
Our investment guidelines permit us to invest up to 10% of our investment portfolio in non-investment grade fixed maturity securities. Those guidelines also permit us to make and invest in commercial mortgage loans. While any investment carries some risk, the risks associated with lower-rated securities are greater than the risks associated with investment grade securities. The risk of loss of principal or interest through default is greater because lower-rated securities are usually unsecured and are often subordinated to an issuer’s other obligations. Additionally, the issuers of these securities frequently have relatively high debt levels and are thus more sensitive to difficult economic conditions, specific corporate developments and rising interest rates, which could impair an issuer’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on such lower-rated securities. As a result, the market price of these securities may be quite volatile, and the risk of loss is greater.
The success of any investment activity is affected by general economic conditions, including the level and volatility of interest rates and the extent and timing of investor participation in such markets, which may adversely affect the markets for interest rate sensitive securities, mortgages and equity securities. Unexpected volatility or illiquidity in the markets in which we directly or indirectly hold positions could adversely affect us.

Interest rate fluctuations could negatively affect the income we derive from the difference between the interest rates we earn on our investments and interest we pay under our reinsurance contracts.
Significant changes in interest rates expose reinsurance companies to the risk of reduced investment income or actual losses based on the difference between the interest rates earned on investments and the credited interest rates paid on outstanding reinsurance contracts. Both rising and declining interest rates can negatively affect the income we derive from these interest rate spreads. During periods of rising interest rates, we may be contractually obligated to reimburse our clients for the greater amounts they credit on certain interest-sensitive products. However, we may not have the ability to immediately acquire investments with

25


interest rates sufficient to offset the increased crediting rates on our reinsurance contracts. During periods of falling interest rates, our investment earnings will be lower because new investments in fixed maturity securities will likely bear lower interest rates. We may not be able to fully offset the decline in investment earnings with lower crediting rates on underlying annuity products related to certain of our reinsurance contracts. Our asset/liability management programs and procedures may not reduce the volatility of our income when interest rates are rising or falling, and thus we cannot assure you that changes in interest rates will not affect our interest rate spreads.
Changes in interest rates may also affect our business in other ways. Higher interest rates may result in increased surrenders on interest-based products of our clients, which may affect our fees and our earnings on those products. Lower interest rates may result in lower sales of certain insurance and investment products of our customers, which would reduce the demand for our reinsurance of these products. If interest rates remain low for an extended period of time, it may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The liquidity and value of some of our investments may become significantly diminished.
We hold certain investments that may lack liquidity, such as privately placed fixed maturity securities, mortgage loans, policy loans and real estate equity. If we require significant amounts of cash on short notice in excess of normal cash requirements or are required to post or return collateral in connection with our investment portfolio, derivatives transactions or securities lending activities, we may have difficulty selling these investments in a timely manner, be forced to sell them for less than we otherwise would have been able to realize, or both.

We could be forced to sell investments at a loss to cover policyholder withdrawals, recaptures of reinsurance treaties or other events.
Some of the products offered by our insurance company customers allow policyholders and contract holders to withdraw their funds under defined circumstances. Our reinsurance subsidiaries manage their liabilities and configure their investment portfolios so as to provide and maintain sufficient liquidity to support anticipated withdrawal demands and contract benefits and maturities under reinsurance treaties with these customers. While our reinsurance subsidiaries own a significant amount of liquid assets, a portion of their assets are relatively illiquid. Unanticipated withdrawal or surrender activity could, under some circumstances, require our reinsurance subsidiaries to dispose of assets on unfavorable terms, which could have an adverse effect on us. Reinsurance agreements may provide for recapture rights on the part of our insurance company customers. Recapture rights permit these customers to reassume all or a portion of the risk formerly ceded to us after an agreed-upon time, usually ten years, subject to various conditions.
Recapture of business previously ceded does not affect premiums ceded prior to the recapture, but may result in immediate payments to our insurance company customers and a charge to income for costs that we deferred when we acquired the business but are unable to recover upon recapture. Under some circumstances, payments to our insurance company customers could require our reinsurance subsidiaries to dispose of assets on unfavorable terms.

The defaults or deteriorating credit of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, insurance companies, commercial banks, investment banks, investment funds and other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty. In addition, with respect to secured and other transactions that provide for us to hold collateral posted by the counterparty, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral we hold cannot be liquidated at prices sufficient to recover the full amount of our exposure. We also have exposure to these financial institutions in the form of unsecured debt instruments, derivative transactions and equity investments. There can be no assurance that losses or impairments to the carrying value of these assets would not materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Defaults on our mortgage loans and volatility in performance may adversely affect our profitability.
Our mortgage loans face default risk and are principally collateralized by commercial properties. Mortgage loans are stated on our balance sheet at unpaid principal balance, adjusted for any unamortized premium or discount, deferred fees or expenses, and are net of valuation allowances. We establish valuation allowances for estimated impairments as of the balance sheet date. Such valuation allowances are based on the excess carrying value of the loan over the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s original effective interest rate, the value of the loan’s collateral if the loan is in the process of foreclosure or is otherwise collateral-dependent, or the loan’s market value if the loan is being sold. The performance of our mortgage loan investments, however, may fluctuate in the future. An increase in the default rate of our mortgage loan investments could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

26


Further, any geographic or sector concentration of our mortgage loans may have adverse effects on our investment portfolios and consequently on our consolidated results of operations or financial condition. While we seek to mitigate this risk by having a broadly diversified portfolio, events or developments that have a negative effect on any particular geographic region or sector may have a greater adverse effect on the investment portfolios to the extent that the portfolios are concentrated. Moreover, our ability to sell assets relating to such particular groups of related assets may be limited if other market participants are seeking to sell at the same time.

Our valuation of fixed maturity and equity securities and derivatives include methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations and could result in changes to investment valuations that may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Fixed maturity, equity securities and short-term investments, which are primarily reported at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets, represent the majority of our total cash and invested assets. We have categorized these securities into a three-level hierarchy, based on the priority of the inputs to the respective valuation technique. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). An asset or liability’s classification within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of significant input to its valuation. For example, a Level 3 fair value measurement may include inputs that are observable (Levels 1 and 2) and unobservable (Level 3). Therefore, gains and losses for such assets and liabilities categorized within Level 3 may include changes in fair value that are attributable to both observable market inputs (Levels 1 and 2) and unobservable market inputs (Level 3).
The determination of fair values in the absence of quoted market prices is based on: (i) valuation methodologies; (ii) securities we deem to be comparable; and (iii) assumptions deemed appropriate based on market conditions specific to the security. The fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based on available market information and judgments about assets and liabilities, including estimates of the timing and amounts of expected future cash flows and the credit standing of the issuer or counterparty. Factors considered in estimating fair value include: coupon rate, maturity, estimated duration, call provisions, sinking fund requirements, credit rating, industry sector of the issuer, and quoted market prices of comparable securities. The use of different methodologies and assumptions may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts.
During periods of market disruption, including periods of significantly rising or high interest rates, rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be difficult to value certain of our securities if trading becomes less frequent or market data becomes less observable. There may be certain asset classes that were in active markets with significant observable data that become illiquid due to the financial environment. In such cases, more securities may fall to Level 3 and thus require more subjectivity and management judgment. As such, valuations may include inputs and assumptions that are less observable or require greater estimation as well as valuation methods that are more sophisticated or require greater estimation thereby resulting in values that may be different than the value at which the investments may be ultimately sold. Further, rapidly changing or disruptive credit and equity market conditions could materially impact the valuation of securities as reported within our consolidated financial statements and the period-to-period changes in value could vary significantly. Decreases in value may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
The reported value of our relatively illiquid types of investments, our investments in the asset classes described in the paragraph above and, at times, our high-quality, generally liquid asset classes, do not necessarily reflect the lowest current market price for the asset. If we were forced to sell certain of our assets in disruptive or volatile market conditions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to sell them for the prices at which we have recorded them and we may be forced to sell them at significantly lower prices.

The determination of the amount of allowances and impairments taken on our investments is highly subjective and could materially affect our results of operations or financial position.
The determination of the amount of allowances and impairments vary by investment type and is based upon our periodic evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Such evaluations and assessments are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available. Management updates its evaluations regularly and reflects changes in allowances and impairments in operations as such evaluations are revised.
For example, the cost of our fixed maturity and equity securities is adjusted for impairments in value deemed to be other-than-temporary in the period in which the determination is made. The assessment of whether impairments have occurred is based on management’s case-by-case evaluation of the underlying reasons for the decline in fair value. Our management considers a wide range of factors about the security issuer and uses their best judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the security and in assessing the prospects for near-term recovery. Inherent in management’s evaluation of the security are assumptions and estimates about the operations of the issuer and its future earnings potential. There can be no assurance that our management has accurately assessed the level of impairments taken, or allowances reflected in our financial statements and their potential impact on regulatory capital. Furthermore, additional impairments or additional allowances may be needed in the future.

27


Defaults, downgrades or other events impairing the value of our fixed maturity securities portfolio may reduce our earnings.
We are subject to the risk that the issuers, or guarantors, of fixed maturity securities we own may default on principal and interest payments they owe us. Fixed maturity securities represent a substantial portion of our total cash and invested assets. The occurrence of a major economic downturn (or a prolonged downturn in the economy), acts of corporate malfeasance, widening risk spreads, or other events that adversely affect the issuers or guarantors of these securities could cause the value of our fixed maturity securities portfolio and our net income to decline and the default rate of the fixed maturity securities in our investment portfolio to increase. A ratings downgrade affecting issuers or guarantors of particular securities, or similar trends that could worsen the credit quality of issuers, such as the corporate issuers of securities in our investment portfolio, could also have a similar effect. With economic uncertainty, credit quality of issuers or guarantors could be adversely affected. Any event reducing the value of these securities other than on a temporary basis could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our investments are reflected within the consolidated financial statements utilizing different accounting bases and accordingly we may not have recognized differences, which may be significant, between cost and fair value in our consolidated financial statements.
Our principal investments are in fixed maturity and equity securities, short-term investments, mortgage loans, policy loans, funds withheld at interest and other invested assets. The carrying value of such investments is as follows:
Fixed maturity and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale and are reported at their estimated fair value. Unrealized investment gains and losses on these securities are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss, net of related deferred acquisition costs and deferred income taxes.
Short-term investments include investments with remaining maturities of one year or less, but greater than three months, at the time of acquisition and are stated at amortized cost, which approximates fair value.
Mortgage and policy loans are stated at unpaid principal balance. Additionally, mortgage loans are adjusted for any unamortized premium or discount, deferred fees or expenses, net of valuation allowances.
Funds withheld at interest represent amounts contractually withheld by ceding companies in accordance with reinsurance agreements. The value of the assets withheld and interest income are recorded in accordance with specific treaty terms.
We use the cost method of accounting for investments in real estate joint ventures and other limited partnership interests in which we have a minor equity investment and virtually no influence over the joint ventures or the partnership’s operations. The equity method of accounting is used for investments in real estate joint ventures and other limited partnership interests in which we have significant influence over the operating and financing decisions but are not required to be consolidated. These investments are reflected in other invested assets on the consolidated balance sheets.
Investments not carried at fair value in our consolidated financial statements - principally, mortgage loans, policy loans, real estate joint ventures and other limited partnerships - may have fair values that are substantially higher or lower than the carrying value reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Each of such asset classes is regularly evaluated for impairment under the accounting guidance appropriate to the respective asset class.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

We may not pay dividends on our common stock.
Our shareholders may not receive future dividends. Historically, we have paid quarterly dividends ranging from $0.027 per share in 1993 to $0.37 per share in 2015. All future payments of dividends, however, are at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, capital requirements, insurance regulatory conditions, operating conditions and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. The amount of dividends that we can pay will depend in part on the operations of our reinsurance subsidiaries. Under certain circumstances, we may be contractually prohibited from paying dividends on our common stock due to restrictions associated with certain of our debt securities.

Certain provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws, and in Missouri law, may delay or prevent a change in control which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.
Certain provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws, as well as Missouri corporate law and state insurance laws, may delay or prevent a change of control of RGA, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain some provisions that may make the acquisition of control of RGA without the approval of our board of directors more difficult, including provisions relating to the nomination, election and removal of directors, the structure

28


of the board of directors and limitations on actions by our shareholders. In addition, Missouri law also imposes some restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between RGA and holders of 20% or more of our outstanding common stock.
These provisions may have unintended anti-takeover effects, including to delay or prevent a change in control of RGA, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Applicable insurance laws may make it difficult to effect a change of control of RGA.
Before a person can acquire control of a U.S. insurance company, prior written approval must be obtained from the insurance commission of the state where the domestic insurer is domiciled. Missouri insurance laws and regulations as well as the insurance laws and regulations of California provide that no person may acquire control of us, and thus indirect control of our U.S. domiciled reinsurance subsidiaries, including RGA Reinsurance and Aurora National, unless:
such person has provided certain required information to the domiciliary state insurance department; and
such acquisition is approved by the domestic state Director of Insurance, to whom we refer as the Director of Insurance, after a public hearing.
Under U.S. state insurance laws and regulations, any person acquiring 10% or more of the outstanding voting securities of a corporation, such as our common stock, is presumed to have acquired control of that corporation and its subsidiaries.
Canadian federal insurance laws and regulations provide that no person may directly or indirectly acquire “control” of or a “significant interest” in our Canadian insurance subsidiary, RGA Canada, unless:
such person has provided information, material and evidence to the Canadian Superintendent of Financial Institutions as required by him; and
such acquisition is approved by the Canadian Minister of Finance.
For this purpose, “significant interest” means the direct or indirect beneficial ownership by a person, or group of persons acting in concert, of shares representing 10% or more of a given class, and “control” of an insurance company exists when:
a person, or group of persons acting in concert, beneficially owns or controls an entity that beneficially owns securities, such as our common stock, representing more than 50% of the votes entitled to be cast for the election of directors and such votes are sufficient to elect a majority of the directors of the insurance company, or
a person has any direct or indirect influence that would result in control in fact of an insurance company.
Similar laws in other countries where we operate limit our ability to effect changes of control for subsidiaries organized in such jurisdictions without the approval of local insurance regulatory officials. Prior to granting approval of an application to directly or indirectly acquire control of a domestic or foreign insurer, an insurance regulator in any jurisdiction may consider such factors as the financial strength of the applicant, the integrity of the applicant’s board of directors and executive officers, the applicant’s plans for the future operations of the domestic insurer and any anti-competitive results that may arise from the consummation of the acquisition of control.

Issuing additional shares may dilute the value or affect the price of our common stock.
Our board of directors has the authority, without action or vote of the shareholders, to issue any or all authorized but unissued shares of our common stock, including securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock and authorized but unissued shares under our equity compensation plans. In the future, we may issue such additional securities, through public or private offerings, in order to raise additional capital. Any such issuance will dilute the percentage ownership of shareholders and may dilute the per share projected earnings or book value of the common stock. In addition, option holders may exercise their options at any time when we would otherwise be able to obtain additional equity capital on more favorable terms.

The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.
The overall market and the price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate as a result of many factors in addition to those discussed in the preceding risk factors. These factors, some or all of which are beyond our control, include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance or changes in financial estimates of securities analysts;
success of our operating and growth strategies;
investor anticipation of strategic and technological threats, whether or not warranted by actual events;
operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies; and
realization of any of the risks described in these risk factors or those set forth in any subsequent Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.

29


In addition, the stock market has historically experienced volatility that often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.

The occurrence of various events may adversely affect the ability of RGA and its subsidiaries to fully utilize any net operating losses (“NOL”s) and other tax attributes.
RGA and its subsidiaries may, from time to time, have a substantial amount of NOLs and other tax attributes, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to offset taxable income and gains. Events outside of our control may cause RGA (and, consequently, its subsidiaries) to experience an “ownership change” under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury regulations, and limit the ability of RGA and its subsidiaries to utilize fully such NOLs and other tax attributes.
In general, an ownership change occurs when, as of any testing date, the percentage of stock of a corporation owned by one or more “5-percent shareholders,” as defined in the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury regulations, has increased by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of stock of the corporation owned by such shareholders at any time during the three-year period preceding such date. In general, persons who own 5% or more (by value) of a corporation’s stock are 5-percent shareholders, and all other persons who own less than 5% (by value) of a corporation’s stock are treated, together, as a single, public group 5-percent shareholder, regardless of whether they own an aggregate of 5% or more (by value) of a corporation’s stock. If a corporation experiences an ownership change, it is generally subject to an annual limitation, which limits its ability to use its NOLs and other tax attributes to an amount equal to the equity value of the corporation multiplied by the federal long-term tax-exempt rate. If we were to experience an ownership change, we could potentially have in the future higher U.S. federal income tax liabilities than we would otherwise have had and it may also result in certain other adverse consequences to RGA.
Item 1B.         UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
The Company has no unresolved staff comments from the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Item 2.         PROPERTIES
The Company's headquarters is located at 16600 Swingley Ridge Road, Chesterfield, Missouri, which comprises approximately 400,000 square feet. In addition, the Company leases approximately 315,000 square feet of office space in 42 locations throughout the world.
Most of the Company’s leases have terms of three to five years; while some leases have longer terms, none exceed 15 years. As provided in Note 12 – “Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the rental expense on operating leases for office space and equipment totaled $12.1 million for 2015.
The Company believes its facilities have been generally well maintained and are in good operating condition. The Company believes the facilities are sufficient for its current requirements.
Item 3.         LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is subject to litigation in the normal course of its business. The Company currently has no material litigation. A legal reserve is established when the Company is notified of an arbitration demand or litigation or is notified that an arbitration demand or litigation is imminent, it is probable that the Company will incur a loss as a result and the amount of the probable loss is reasonably capable of being estimated.
Item 4.         MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.


30


PART II
Item 5.         MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Insurance companies are subject to statutory regulations that restrict the payment of dividends. See Item 1 under the caption Regulation – “Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions”. See Item 8, Note 18 – “Equity” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding board-approved stock repurchase plans. See Item 12 for information about the Company's compensation plans.
Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol “RGA”. On January 31, 2016, there were 30,019 stockholders of record of RGA’s common stock and 65.2 million shares outstanding. The following table presents the high and low closing prices for the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange during the periods indicated and the dividends declared per share during such periods:
 
 
2015
 
2014
Period
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends Declared
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends Declared
First Quarter
 
$
94.14

 
$
82.81

 
$
0.33

 
$
81.28

 
$
70.22

 
$
0.30

Second Quarter
 
98.00

 
90.68

 
0.33

 
80.66

 
75.04

 
0.30

Third Quarter
 
98.57

 
84.86

 
0.37

 
84.45

 
78.29

 
0.33

Fourth Quarter
 
97.08

 
83.36

 
0.37

 
89.87

 
72.34

 
0.33

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table summarizes RGA’s repurchase activity of its common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2015:
 
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased (1)
 
Average Price Paid per   
Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Maximum Number (or
Approximate Dollar
Value) of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased Under
the Plan or Program
November 1, 2015 -
November 30, 2015
 
284,875

 
$
91.57

 
283,939

 
$
99,694,483

December 1, 2015 -
December 31, 2015
 
287,729

 
$
86.89

 
287,704

 
$
74,694,511

 
(1)
RGA repurchased 283,939 and 287,704 shares of common stock under its share repurchase program for $26.0 million and $25.0 million during November and December 2015, respectively.  The Company net settled - issuing 2,707 and 45 shares from treasury and repurchasing from recipients 936 and 25 shares in November and December 2015, respectively, in settlement of income tax withholding requirements incurred by the recipients of an equity incentive award.
  
During 2015, RGA’s board of directors authorized and amended a share repurchase program, with no expiration date, for up to $450.0 million of the RGA’s outstanding common stock.  In connection with this authorization, the board of directors terminated the stock repurchase authority granted in 2014. 
On January 21, 2016, RGA’s board of directors authorized a share repurchase program for up to $400.0 million of the RGA’s outstanding common stock. The authorization was effective immediately and does not have an expiration date. In connection with this new authorization, the board of directors terminated the stock repurchase authority granted in 2015.


31


Comparison of 5-Year Cumulative Total Return
Set forth below is a graph for the Company’s common stock for the period beginning December 31, 2010 and ending December 31, 2015, assuming $100 was invested on December 31, 2010. The graph compares the cumulative total return on the Company’s common stock, based on the market price of the common stock and assuming reinvestment of dividends, with the cumulative total return of companies in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the Standard & Poor’s Insurance (Life/Health) Index. The indices are included for comparative purposes only. They do not necessarily reflect management’s opinion that such indices are an appropriate measure of the relative performance of the Company’s common stock, and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of future performance of the common stock.


 
 
Base Period
 
Cumulative Total Return
 
 
12/10
 
12/11
 
12/12
 
12/13
 
12/14
 
12/15
Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated
 
$
100.00

 
$
98.32

 
$
102.28

 
$
150.39

 
$
172.95

 
$
171.44

S & P 500
 
100.00

 
102.11

 
118.45

 
156.82

 
178.28

 
180.75

S & P Life & Health Insurance
 
100.00

 
79.29

 
90.86

 
148.53

 
151.42

 
141.87


32


Item 6.         SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected financial data has been derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements. The consolidated statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere herein. The consolidated statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 have been derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements not included herein. The selected financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere herein.
Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data
(in millions, except per share and operating data)
 
 
As of or For the Years Ended December 31,
Income Statement Data
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net premiums
 
$
8,570.7

 
$
8,669.9

 
$
8,254.0

 
$
7,906.6

 
$
7,335.7

Investment income, net of related expenses
 
1,734.5

 
1,713.7

 
1,699.9

 
1,436.2

 
1,281.2

Investment related gains (losses), net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities
 
(57.4
)
 
(7.8
)
 
(12.7
)
 
(15.9
)
 
(30.9
)
Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income
 

 

 
(0.2
)
 
(7.6
)
 
3.9

Other investment related gains (losses), net
 
(107.3
)
 
194.0

 
76.9

 
277.6

 
(9.1
)
Total investment related gains (losses), net
 
(164.7
)
 
186.2

 
64.0

 
254.1

 
(36.1
)
Other revenues
 
277.7

 
334.4

 
300.5

 
244.0

 
248.7

Total revenues
 
10,418.2

 
10,904.2

 
10,318.4

 
9,840.9

 
8,829.5

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claims and other policy benefits
 
7,489.4

 
7,406.7

 
7,304.3

 
6,666.0

 
6,225.2

Interest credited
 
337.0

 
451.0

 
476.5

 
379.9

 
316.4

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses
 
1,127.5

 
1,391.4

 
1,300.8

 
1,306.5

 
990.1

Other operating expenses
 
554.0

 
538.4

 
466.7

 
451.8

 
419.3

Interest expense
 
142.9

 
96.7

 
124.3

 
105.3

 
102.6

Collateral finance and securitization expense
 
22.6

 
11.5

 
10.5

 
12.2

 
12.4

Total benefits and expenses
 
9,673.4

 
9,895.7

 
9,683.1

 
8,921.7

 
8,066.0

Income before income taxes
 
744.8

 
1,008.5

 
635.3

 
919.2

 
763.5

Provision for income taxes
 
242.6

 
324.5

 
216.4

 
287.3

 
217.5

Net income
 
$
502.2

 
$
684.0

 
$
418.9

 
$
631.9

 
$
546.0

Earnings Per Share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
 
$
7.55

 
$
9.88

 
$
5.82

 
$
8.57

 
$
7.42

Diluted earnings per share
 
7.46

 
9.78

 
5.78

 
8.52

 
7.37

Weighted average diluted shares, in thousands
 
67,292

 
69,962

 
72,461

 
74,153

 
74,108

Dividends per share on common stock
 
$
1.40

 
$
1.26

 
$
1.08

 
$
0.84

 
$
0.60

Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total investments
 
$
41,978.3

 
$
36,696.1

 
$
32,441.1

 
$
32,912.2

 
$
24,964.6

Total assets (1)
 
50,383.2

 
44,654.3

 
39,652.4

 
40,338.1

 
31,615.8

Policy liabilities(2)
 
37,370.8

 
30,892.2

 
28,386.1

 
27,886.6

 
21,139.7

Long-term debt (1)
 
2,297.5

 
2,297.7

 
2,196.1

 
1,798.8

 
1,403.2

Collateral finance and securitization notes (1)
 
899.2

 
774.0

 
480.9

 
646.1

 
645.4

Total stockholders’ equity
 
6,135.4

 
7,023.5

 
5,935.5

 
6,910.2

 
5,818.7

Total stockholders’ equity per share
 
94.09

 
102.13

 
83.87

 
93.47

 
79.31

Operating Data (in billions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assumed ordinary life reinsurance in force
 
$
2,995.1

 
$
2,943.5

 
$
2,889.9

 
$
2,927.6

 
$
2,664.4

Assumed new business production
 
491.0

 
482.0

 
370.4

 
426.6

 
428.9

(1)
Prior period balances have been updated to conform with current period presentation for the adoption of the accounting standard update "Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs."
(2)
Policy liabilities include future policy benefits, interest-sensitive contract liabilities, and other policy claims and benefits.

33


Item 7.         MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 including, among others, statements relating to projections of the strategies, earnings, revenues, income or loss, ratios, future financial performance, and growth potential of the Company. The words “intend,” “expect,” “project,” “estimate,” “predict,” “anticipate,” “should,” “believe,” and other similar expressions also are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. Future events and actual results, performance, and achievements could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by, or underlying the forward-looking statements.
Numerous important factors could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements including, without limitation, (1) adverse capital and credit market conditions and their impact on the Company’s liquidity, access to capital and cost of capital, (2) the impairment of other financial institutions and its effect on the Company’s business, (3) requirements to post collateral or make payments due to declines in market value of assets subject to the Company’s collateral arrangements, (4) the fact that the determination of allowances and impairments taken on the Company’s investments is highly subjective, (5) adverse changes in mortality, morbidity, lapsation or claims experience, (6) changes in the Company’s financial strength and credit ratings and the effect of such changes on the Company’s future results of operations and financial condition, (7) inadequate risk analysis and underwriting, (8) general economic conditions or a prolonged economic downturn affecting the demand for insurance and reinsurance in the Company’s current and planned markets, (9) the availability and cost of collateral necessary for regulatory reserves and capital, (10) market or economic conditions that adversely affect the value of the Company’s investment securities or result in the impairment of all or a portion of the value of certain of the Company’s investment securities, that in turn could affect regulatory capital, (11) market or economic conditions that adversely affect the Company’s ability to make timely sales of investment securities, (12) risks inherent in the Company’s risk management and investment strategy, including changes in investment portfolio yields due to interest rate or credit quality changes, (13) fluctuations in U.S. or foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, or securities and real estate markets, (14) adverse litigation or arbitration results, (15) the adequacy of reserves, resources and accurate information relating to settlements, awards and terminated and discontinued lines of business, (16) the stability of and actions by governments and economies in the markets in which the Company operates, including ongoing uncertainties regarding the amount of United States sovereign debt and the credit ratings thereof, (17) competitive factors and competitors’ responses to the Company’s initiatives, (18) the success of the Company’s clients, (19) successful execution of the Company’s entry into new markets, (20) successful development and introduction of new products and distribution opportunities, (21) the Company’s ability to successfully integrate acquired blocks of business and entities, (22) action by regulators who have authority over the Company’s reinsurance operations in the jurisdictions in which it operates, (23) the Company’s dependence on third parties, including those insurance companies and reinsurers to which the Company cedes some reinsurance, third-party investment managers and others, (24) the threat of natural disasters, catastrophes, terrorist attacks, epidemics or pandemics anywhere in the world where the Company or its clients do business, (25) interruption or failure of the Company's telecommunication, information technology or other operational systems, or the Company's failure to maintain adequate security to protect the confidentiality or privacy of personal or sensitive data stored on such systems, (26)changes in laws, regulations, and accounting standards applicable to the Company, its subsidiaries, or its business, (27) the effect of the Company’s status as an insurance holding company and regulatory restrictions on its ability to pay principal of and interest on its debt obligations, and (28) other risks and uncertainties described in this document and in the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Forward-looking statements should be evaluated together with the many risks and uncertainties that affect the Company’s business, including those mentioned in this document and the cautionary statements described in the periodic reports the Company files with the SEC. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. The Company does not undertake any obligations to update these forward-looking statements, even though the Company’s situation may change in the future. The Company qualifies all of its forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. For a discussion of these risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements, you are advised to see Item 1A – “Risk Factors”.
Overview
RGA is an insurance holding company that was formed on December 31, 1992. The consolidated financial statements include the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of RGA and its subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned (collectively, the Company).
The Company provides traditional and non-traditional reinsurance to its clients. Traditional reinsurance includes individual and group life and health, disability, and critical illness reinsurance. Non-traditional reinsurance includes longevity reinsurance, asset-intensive reinsurance, and financial reinsurance.

34


The Company derives revenues primarily from renewal premiums from existing reinsurance treaties, new business premiums from existing or new reinsurance treaties, fee income from non-traditional reinsurance business and income earned on invested assets.
Historically, the Company’s primary business has been traditional life reinsurance, which involves reinsuring life insurance policies that are often in force for the remaining lifetime of the underlying individuals insured, with premiums earned typically over a period of 10 to 30 years. Each year, however, a portion of the business under existing treaties terminates due to, among other things, lapses or voluntary surrenders of underlying policies, deaths of insureds, and the exercise of recapture options by ceding companies. The Company has expanded its non-traditional reinsurance business, including significant asset-intensive transactions, which allow its clients to take advantage of growth opportunities and manage their capital, longevity and investment risk.
As is customary in the reinsurance business, clients continually update, refine, and revise reinsurance information provided to the Company. Such revised information is used by the Company in preparation of its consolidated financial statements and the financial effects resulting from the incorporation of revised data are reflected in the current period.
The Company’s long-term profitability primarily depends on the volume and amount of death- and health-related claims incurred and the ability to adequately price the risks it assumes. While death claims are reasonably predictable over a period of many years, claims become less predictable over shorter periods and are subject to significant fluctuation from quarter to quarter and year to year. The Company believes its sources of liquidity are sufficient to cover potential claims payments on both a short-term and long-term basis.
The Company has geographic-based and business-based operational segments: U.S. and Latin America; Canada; Europe, Middle East and Africa; Asia Pacific; and Corporate and Other. Effective January 1, 2015, the Company further refined its reporting of the Canada; Europe, Middle East and Africa; and Asia Pacific segments into traditional and non-traditional businesses to reflect the expanded product offerings within its geographic-based segments. The Company has recently experienced growth and opportunity in its non-traditional businesses resulting from its efforts to meet the needs of its clients and adapt to the changing regulatory environment within the insurance industry. The non-traditional business primarily consists of asset-intensive, longevity, financial reinsurance and capital-motivated transactions that are sourced and managed by the Company’s Global Financial Solutions unit. The prior-period presentation has been adjusted to conform to the new segment reporting structure.
The Company allocates capital to its segments based on an internally developed economic capital model, the purpose of which is to measure the risk in the business and to provide a consistent basis upon which capital is deployed. The economic capital model considers the unique and specific nature of the risks inherent in RGA’s businesses. As a result of the economic capital allocation process, a portion of investment income is credited to the segments based on the level of allocated capital. In addition, the segments are charged for excess capital utilized above the allocated economic capital basis. This charge is included in policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses.
The Company is one of the leading life reinsurers in North America based on premiums and the amount of life reinsurance in force. Based on an industry survey of 2014 information prepared by Munich American at the request of the Society of Actuaries Reinsurance Section (“SOA survey”), the Company has the third-largest market share in North America as measured by individual life insurance in force. The Company’s approach to the North American market has been to:
focus on large, high-quality life insurers as clients;
provide quality facultative underwriting and automatic reinsurance capacity; and
deliver responsive and flexible service to its clients.
In 1994, the Company began using its North American underwriting expertise and industry knowledge to expand into international markets and now has operations in Australia, Barbados, Bermuda, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UAE and the UK. The Company generally starts new operations from the ground up in these markets as opposed to acquiring existing operations, and it often enters these markets to support its North American clients as they expand internationally. Based on the compilation of information from competitors’ annual reports, the Company believes it is the third-largest global life and health reinsurer in the world based on 2014 life and health reinsurance premiums. The Company conducts business with the majority of the largest U.S. and international life insurance companies. The Company has also developed its capacity and expertise in the reinsurance of longevity risks, asset-intensive products (primarily annuities and corporate-owned life insurance) and financial reinsurance.


35


Industry Trends
The Company believes that the following trends in the life insurance industry will continue to create demand for life reinsurance.
Outsourcing of Mortality. The SOA survey indicates that U.S. life reinsurance in force has increased from $6.6 trillion in 2004 to $9.9 trillion at year-end 2014. The Company believes this trend reflects the continued utilization by life insurance companies of reinsurance to manage capital and mortality risk and to develop competitive products. However, the survey results indicate a decline in the percentage of new business being reinsured in recent years, which has caused premium growth rates in the U.S. life reinsurance market to moderate. The Company believes the decline in new business being reinsured is likely a reaction by ceding companies to a broad-based increase in reinsurance rates in the market, stronger capital positions maintained by ceding companies in recent years and a desire by ceding companies to adjust their risk profiles. However, the Company believes reinsurers will continue to be an integral part of the life insurance market due to their ability to efficiently aggregate a significant volume of life insurance in force, creating economies of scale and greater diversification of risk. As a result of having larger amounts of data at their disposal compared to primary life insurance companies, reinsurers tend to have better insights into mortality trends, creating more efficient pricing for mortality risk.
Capital Management. Changing regulatory environments, most notably in Europe, rating agencies and competitive business pressures are causing life insurers to evaluate reinsurance as a means to:
manage risk-based capital by shifting mortality and other risks to reinsurers, thereby reducing amounts of reserves and capital they need to maintain;
release capital to pursue new business initiatives; and
unlock the capital supporting, and value embedded in, non-core product lines.
Consolidation and Reorganization Within the Life Reinsurance and Life Insurance Industry. As a result of consolidations over the last decade within the life reinsurance industry, there are fewer competitors. According to the SOA survey, as of December 31, 2014, the top five companies held approximately 79.6% of the market share in North America based on life reinsurance in force. As a consequence, the Company believes the life reinsurance pricing environment will remain attractive for the remaining life reinsurers, particularly those with a significant market presence and strong ratings.
The SOA surveys indicate that the authors obtained information from participating or responding companies and do not guarantee the accuracy and completeness of their information. Additionally, the surveys do not survey all reinsurance companies, but the Company believes most of its principal competitors are included. While the Company believes these surveys to be generally reliable, the Company has not independently verified their data.
Additionally, merger and acquisition transactions within the life insurance industry continue to occur. The Company believes that reorganizations and consolidations of life insurers will continue. As reinsurance services are used to facilitate these transactions and manage risk, the Company expects demand for its products to continue.
Changing Demographics of Insured Populations. The aging of the population in North America is increasing demand for financial products among “baby boomers” who are concerned about protecting their peak income stream and are considering retirement and estate planning. The Company believes that this trend is likely to result in continuing demand for annuity products and life insurance policies, larger face amounts of life insurance policies and higher mortality and longevity risk taken by life insurers, all of which should fuel the need for insurers to seek reinsurance coverage. The Company continues to follow a two-part business strategy to capitalize on industry trends.
1) Continue Growth of North American Mortality Business. The Company’s strategy includes continuing to grow each of the following components of its North American mortality operations:
Facultative Reinsurance. Based on discussions with the Company’s clients, an industry survey and informal knowledge about the industry, the Company believes it is a leader in facultative underwriting in North America. The Company intends to maintain that status by emphasizing its underwriting standards, prompt response on quotes, competitive pricing, capacity, value added services and flexibility in meeting customer needs. The Company believes its facultative business has allowed it to develop close, long-standing client relationships and generate additional business opportunities with its facultative clients. The Company has processed over 300,000 facultative submissions annually since 2011.
Automatic Reinsurance. The Company intends to expand its presence in the North American automatic reinsurance market by using its mortality expertise and breadth of products and services to gain additional market share.
In Force Block Reinsurance. Increasingly, there are occasions to grow the business by reinsuring in force blocks, as insurers and reinsurers seek to exit various non-core businesses and increase financial flexibility in order to, among other things, redeploy capital and pursue merger and acquisition activity. The Company continually seeks these types of opportunities.

36


2) Continue Growth in Selected International Markets and Products. The Company’s strategy includes building upon the expertise and relationships developed in its North American business platform to continue its growth in selected international markets and products, including:
International Markets. Management believes that international markets continue to offer opportunities for long-term growth, and the Company intends to capitalize on these opportunities by growing its presence in selected markets. Since 1994, the Company has entered new markets internationally, including, in the mid-to-late 1990s, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan and the UK, and beginning in 2002, China, India and South Korea. The Company received regulatory approval to open a representative office in China in 2005 and received its branch license there in 2014; opened representative offices in Poland and Germany in 2006; opened new offices in France and Italy in 2007; opened a representative office in the Netherlands in 2009; and commenced operations in the UAE in 2011 and in Brazil in 2015. Before entering new markets, the Company evaluates several factors including:
the size of the insured population,
competition,
the level of reinsurance penetration,
regulation,
existing clients with a presence in the market, and
the economic, social and political environment.
As previously indicated, the Company generally starts new operations in these markets from the ground up as opposed to acquiring existing operations, and it often enters these markets to support its large international clients as they expand into additional markets. Many of the markets that the Company has entered since 1994, or may enter in the future, are not utilizing life reinsurance, including facultative life reinsurance, at the same levels as the North American market, and therefore, the Company believes these markets represent opportunities for increasing reinsurance penetration. In particular, management believes markets such as Japan, Southeast Asia and South Korea are beginning to realize the benefits that reinsurers bring to the life insurance market. Markets such as China and India represent longer-term opportunities for growth as the underlying direct life insurance markets grow to meet the needs of growing middle-class populations. Additionally, the Company believes that regulatory changes (e.g., Solvency II) in European markets may cause ceding companies to reduce counterparty exposure to their existing life reinsurers and reinsure more business, creating opportunities for the Company.
Asset-intensive and Longevity Reinsurance and Other Products. The Company intends to continue leveraging its existing client relationships and reinsurance expertise to create customized reinsurance products and solutions. Industry trends, particularly the increased pace of consolidation and reorganization among life insurance companies and changes in products and product distribution, are expected to enhance existing opportunities for asset-intensive and longevity reinsurance and other products. The Company began reinsuring annuities with guaranteed minimum benefits on a limited basis in 2007. To date, most of the Company’s asset-intensive reinsurance business has been written in the U.S. and the UK; however, additional opportunities outside of the U.S. continue to develop. The Company also provides longevity reinsurance in Europe and Canada, and in 2008 entered the U.S. healthcare reinsurance market with a primary focus on long-term care and Medicare supplement insurance. In 2010, the Company expanded into the group reinsurance market in North America with the acquisition of Reliastar Life Insurance Company’s U.S. and Canada operations.

37


Results of Operations
Consolidated
Consolidated net income decreased $181.9 million, or 26.6%, and increased $265.2 million, or 63.3%, in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Diluted earnings per share on net income were $7.46 in 2015 compared to $9.78 in 2014 and $5.78 in 2013.
Consolidated income before income taxes decreased $263.7 million, or 26.2%, and increased $373.3 million, or 58.8% in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The decrease in income before income taxes in 2015 was primarily due to unfavorable mortality experience compared to the prior year, a decrease in investment related gains and adverse foreign currency fluctuations. The decrease in investment related gains reflects inverse changes in the fair value of embedded derivatives on modco or funds withheld treaties in 2014 and 2015, primarily due to changes in credit spreads. The unrealized gains and losses associated with these embedded derivatives, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs, reduced income before income taxes by $109.6 million in 2015, as compared to 2014. The decrease in investment related gains also reflects an increase in impairments on fixed maturity securities of $49.6 million in 2015 compared to 2014.
Net income in 2014 benefited from the release of liabilities established for uncertain tax positions due to the closure with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service of tax returns for a recent five-year period. As a result of that release and other adjustments, the provision for income taxes in 2014 was reduced and accrued interest expense of approximately $43.9 million was reversed. The effect of recognizing the closure of these tax years and other related adjustments increased net income by $33.0 million.
The increase in income before income taxes in 2014 is mainly attributable to the Asia Pacific segment's transition from a loss of $226.7 million in 2013, to income of $102.3 million in 2014. The loss in the Asia Pacific segment during 2013 reflects an increase in Australian group claims liabilities primarily related to total and permanent disability coverage and disability income benefits as well as poor claims experience in the Australian operation’s individual lump sum and individual disability businesses.
In addition, the increase in income before income taxes in 2014 reflects higher premiums and increases in both investment related gains and other revenues. The increase in other revenues in 2014 is primarily due to fee income on financial reinsurance transactions in addition to recapture fees and reinstatement fees recognized in the Asia Pacific segment, offset somewhat by the recognition in other revenues of gains on the repurchase of collateral finance securities of $46.5 million in 2013.
Foreign currency exchange fluctuations resulted in decreases to income before income taxes of approximately $55.1 million and $16.9 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively.
The Company recognizes in consolidated income, any changes in the value of embedded derivatives on modco or funds withheld treaties, equity-indexed annuity treaties (“EIAs”) and variable annuity products. The combined changes in these three types of embedded derivatives, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs and retrocession, resulted in a decrease to income before income taxes of approximately $191.6 million and $57.5 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively, as compared to the prior years. These fluctuations do not affect current cash flows, crediting rates or spread performance on the underlying treaties. Therefore, management believes it is helpful to distinguish between the effects of changes in these embedded derivatives, net of related hedging activity, and the primary factors that drive profitability of the underlying treaties, namely investment income, fee income, and interest credited. The individual effect on income before income taxes for these three types of embedded derivatives is as follows:
The change in the value of embedded derivatives related to reinsurance treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis are subject to the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging related to embedded derivatives. The unrealized gains and losses associated with these embedded derivatives, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs, decreased income before income taxes by $109.6 million in 2015 and increased it by $40.4 million in 2014, respectively, as compared to the prior years.
Changes in risk-free rates used in the fair value estimates of embedded derivatives associated with EIAs affect the amount of unrealized gains and losses the Company recognizes. The unrealized gains and losses associated with EIAs, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs and retrocession, increased income before income taxes by $5.1 million in 2015 and decreased it by $32.5 million in 2014, respectively, as compared to the prior years.
The change in the Company’s liability for variable annuities associated with guaranteed minimum living benefits affects the amount of unrealized gains and losses the Company recognizes. The unrealized gains and losses associated with guaranteed minimum living benefits, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs, decreased income before income taxes by $87.1 million and $65.4 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively, as compared to the prior years.
Consolidated net premiums decreased $99.1 million, or 1.1%, and increased $415.8 million, or 5.0%, in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The decrease in 2015 is due primarily to adverse foreign currency fluctuations and a large retrocession transaction completed during the fourth quarter of 2014, partially offset by additional premiums from new business from both new and existing treaties. The retrocession transaction reduced the U.S. and Latin America Traditional segment premiums by approximately $321.4 million in 2015, compared to 2014. The increase in 2014 was primarily due to growth in life reinsurance in force, before the effect of foreign currency fluctuations. Foreign currency fluctuations relative to the prior year affected net premiums unfavorably by

38


approximately $473.5 million and $111.2 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Consolidated assumed life insurance in force was $2,995.1 billion, $2,943.5 billion and $2,889.9 billion as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Foreign currency fluctuations affected the increases in assumed life insurance in force unfavorably by $146.5 billion and $121.4 billion in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The Company added new business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $491.0 billion, $482.0 billion and $370.4 billion during 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Premiums on U.S. and Latin America health and group reinsurance contributed $84.5 million and $120.0 million to the increase in net premiums in 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Consolidated investment income, net of related expenses, increased $20.8 million, or 1.2%, and $13.8 million, or 0.8%, in 2015 and 2014, respectively, primarily due to increases in the average asset base. Market value changes related to the Company’s funds withheld at interest investment associated with the reinsurance of certain EIAs offset the increase in investment income by $108.8 million and $93.5 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The effect on investment income of the EIAs' market value changes is substantially offset by a corresponding change in interest credited to policyholder account balances resulting in an insignificant effect on net income. Average invested assets at amortized cost, excluding spread related business, totaled $20.8 billion, $19.9 billion and $18.1 billion in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The average yield earned on investments, excluding spread related business, was 4.82%, 4.82% and 4.73% in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The yield in 2015 benefited from the cumulative effect of income related to a funds withheld transaction executed in the fourth quarter of 2015 within the U.S. and Latin America Traditional segment, retroactive to the beginning of the year. In addition, the yield in 2014 benefited from higher than expected mortgage loan prepayment fees and bond make-whole premiums. The average yield will vary from year to year depending on a number of variables, including the prevailing interest rate and credit spread environment, prepayment fees and make-whole premiums, changes in the mix of the underlying investments and cash balances, and the timing of dividends and distributions on certain investments. Any continued low interest rate environment, particularly in the U.S. and Canada, would be expected to continue to put downward pressure on this yield.
Total investment related gains (losses), net, declined by $350.9 million, or 188.5% in 2015, and improved by $122.2 million, or 191.0% in 2014. The decline in 2015 was primarily due to an unfavorable change in the value of embedded derivatives related to reinsurance treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis of $297.2 million. Conversely, the improvement in 2014 is primarily due to a favorable change in the value of embedded derivatives related to reinsurance treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis of $128.2 million. Investment impairments on fixed maturity securities increased by $49.6 million in 2015 and decreased by $5.1 million in 2014, compared to the prior years. See Note 4 - “Investments” and Note 5 - “Derivative Instruments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on investment related gains (losses), net, and derivatives. Investment income is allocated to the operating segments based upon average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations.
The effective tax rate on a consolidated basis was 32.6%, 32.2% and 34.1% for 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively. The effective tax rates for 2015, 2014, and 2013 are affected by earnings of non-U.S. subsidiaries in which the Company is permanently reinvested whose statutory tax rates are less than the U.S. statutory tax rate of 35.0%, Subpart F income, tax benefits related to the release of uncertain tax positions and differences in tax bases in foreign jurisdictions. Both Canada and Ireland statutory rates are less than the U.S. statutory rate resulting in the legal entities in these jurisdictions giving rise to the majority of the foreign rate differential. See Note 9 - “Income Tax” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the Company’s consolidated effective tax rate.
Critical Accounting Policies
The Company’s accounting policies are described in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company believes its most critical accounting policies include the establishment of premiums receivable; amortization of deferred acquisition costs (“DAC”); the establishment of liabilities for future policy benefits and incurred but not reported claims; the valuation of investments and investment impairments; the valuation of embedded derivatives; and accounting for income taxes. The balances of these accounts require extensive use of assumptions and estimates, particularly related to the future performance of the underlying business.
Differences in experience compared with the assumptions and estimates utilized in establishing premiums receivable, the justification of the recoverability of DAC, in establishing reserves for future policy benefits and claim liabilities, or in the determination of other-than-temporary impairments to investment securities can have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
Premiums Receivable
Premiums are accrued when due and in accordance with information received from the ceding company. When the Company enters into a new reinsurance agreement, it records accruals based on the terms of the reinsurance treaty. Similarly, when a ceding company fails to report information on a timely basis, the Company records accruals based on the terms of the reinsurance treaty as well as historical experience. Other management estimates include adjustments for increased insurance in force on existing treaties, lapsed premiums given historical experience, the financial health of specific ceding companies, collateral value and the

39


legal right of offset on related amounts (i.e. allowances and claims) owed to the ceding company. Under the legal right of offset provisions in its reinsurance treaties, the Company can withhold payments for allowances and claims from unpaid premiums.
Deferred Acquisition Costs
Costs of acquiring new business, which vary with and are directly related to the production of new business, have been deferred to the extent that such costs are deemed recoverable from future premiums or gross profits. Such costs include commissions and allowances as well as certain costs of policy issuance and underwriting. Non-commission costs related to the acquisition of new and renewal insurance contracts may be deferred only if they meet the following criteria:
Incremental direct costs of a successful contract acquisition.
Portions of employees’ salaries and benefits directly related to time spent performing specified acquisition activities for a contract that has been acquired or renewed.
Other costs directly related to the specified acquisition or renewal activities that would not have been incurred had that acquisition contract transaction not occurred.
The Company tests the recoverability for each year of business at issue before establishing additional DAC. The Company also performs annual tests to establish that DAC remain recoverable at all times, and if financial performance significantly deteriorates to the point where a deficiency exists, a cumulative charge to current operations will be recorded. No such adjustments related to DAC recoverability were made in 2015, 2014 and 2013.
DAC related to traditional life insurance contracts are amortized with interest over the premium-paying period of the related policies in proportion to the ratio of individual period premium revenues to total anticipated premium revenues over the life of the policy. Such anticipated premium revenues are estimated using the same assumptions used for computing liabilities for future policy benefits.
DAC related to interest-sensitive life and investment-type policies are amortized over the lives of the policies, in proportion to the actual and estimated gross profits expected to be realized from mortality, investment income less interest credited, and expense margins.
Liabilities for Future Policy Benefits and Incurred but not Reported Claims
Liabilities for future policy benefits under long-term life insurance policies (policy reserves) are computed based upon expected investment yields, mortality and withdrawal (lapse) rates, and other assumptions, including a provision for adverse deviation from expected claim levels. The Company primarily relies on its own valuation and administration systems to establish policy reserves. The policy reserves the Company establishes may differ from those established by the ceding companies due to the use of different mortality and other assumptions. However, the Company relies upon its ceding company clients to provide accurate data, including policy-level information, premiums and claims, which is the primary information used to establish reserves. The Company’s administration departments work directly with clients to help ensure information is submitted in accordance with the reinsurance contracts. Additionally, the Company performs periodic audits of the information provided by clients. The Company establishes reserves for processing backlogs with a goal of clearing all backlogs within a ninety-day period. The backlogs are usually due to data errors the Company discovers or computer file compatibility issues, since much of the data reported to the Company is in electronic format and is uploaded to its computer systems.
The Company periodically reviews actual historical experience and relative anticipated experience compared to the assumptions used to establish aggregate policy reserves. Further, the Company establishes premium deficiency reserves if actual and anticipated experience indicates that existing aggregate policy reserves, together with the present value of future gross premiums, are not sufficient to cover the present value of future benefits, settlement and maintenance costs and to recover unamortized acquisition costs. The premium deficiency reserve is established through a charge to income, as well as a reduction to unamortized acquisition costs and, to the extent there are no unamortized acquisition costs, an increase to future policy benefits. Because of the many assumptions and estimates used in establishing reserves and the long-term nature of the Company’s reinsurance contracts, the reserving process, while based on actuarial science, is inherently uncertain. If the Company’s assumptions, particularly on mortality, are inaccurate, its reserves may be inadequate to pay claims and there could be a material adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition.
Claims payable for incurred but not reported losses are determined using case-basis estimates and lag studies of past experience. The time lag from the date of the claim or death to the date when the ceding company reports the claim to the Company can be several months and can vary significantly by ceding company, business segment and product type. Incurred but not reported claims are estimates on an undiscounted basis, using actuarial estimates of historical claims expense, adjusted for current trends and conditions. These estimates are continually reviewed and the ultimate liability may vary significantly from the amount recognized, which are reflected in net income in the period in which they are determined.



40


Valuation of Investments and Other-than-Temporary Impairments
The Company primarily invests in fixed maturity securities, mortgage loans, short-term investments, and other invested assets. For investments reported at fair value, the Company utilizes, when available, fair values based on quoted prices in active markets that are regularly and readily obtainable. Generally, these are very liquid investments and the valuation does not require management judgment. When quoted prices in active markets are not available, fair value is based on market valuation techniques, market comparable pricing and the income approach. The Company may utilize information from third parties, such as pricing services and brokers, to assist in determining the fair value for certain investments; however, management is ultimately responsible for all fair values presented in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. This includes responsibility for monitoring the fair value process, ensuring objective and reliable valuation practices and pricing of assets and liabilities, and approving changes to valuation methodologies and pricing sources. The selection of the valuation technique(s) to apply considers the definition of an exit price and the nature of the investment being valued and significant expertise and judgment is required.
Fixed maturity securities are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses on fixed maturity securities classified as available-for-sale, less applicable deferred income taxes as well as related adjustments to deferred acquisition costs, if applicable, are reflected as a direct charge or credit to accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) in stockholders’ equity on the consolidated balance sheets.
See “Investments” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 6 – “Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the valuation of the Company’s investments.
Mortgage loans on real estate are carried at unpaid principal balances, net of any unamortized premium or discount and valuation allowances. For a discussion regarding the valuation allowance for mortgage loans see “Mortgage Loans on Real Estate” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In addition, investments are subject to impairment reviews to identify when a decline in value is other-than-temporary. Other-than-temporary impairment losses related to non-credit factors are recognized in AOCI whereas the credit loss portion is recognized in investment related gains (losses), net. See “Other-than-Temporary Impairment” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of the policies regarding other-than-temporary impairments.
Valuation of Embedded Derivatives
The Company reinsures certain annuity products that contain terms that are deemed to be embedded derivatives, primarily equity-indexed annuities and variable annuities with guaranteed minimum benefits. The Company assesses each identified embedded derivative to determine whether it is required to be bifurcated under the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging. If the instrument would not be reported in its entirety at fair value and it is determined that the terms of the embedded derivative are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract, and that a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the embedded derivative is bifurcated from the host contract and accounted for as a freestanding derivative. Such embedded derivatives are carried on the consolidated balance sheets at fair value with the host contract.
Additionally, reinsurance treaties written on a modified coinsurance or funds withheld basis are subject to the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging related to embedded derivatives. The majority of the Company’s funds withheld at interest balances are associated with its reinsurance of annuity contracts, the majority of which are subject to the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging related to embedded derivatives. Management believes the embedded derivative feature in each of these reinsurance treaties is similar to a total return swap on the assets held by the ceding companies.
The valuation of the various embedded derivatives requires complex calculations based on actuarial and capital markets inputs and assumptions related to estimates of future cash flows and interpretations of the primary accounting guidance continue to evolve in practice. The valuation of embedded derivatives is sensitive to the investment credit spread environment. Changes in investment credit spreads are also affected by the application of a credit valuation adjustment (“CVA”). The fair value calculation of an embedded derivative in an asset position utilizes a CVA based on the ceding company’s credit risk. Conversely, the fair value calculation of an embedded derivative in a liability position utilizes a CVA based on the Company’s credit risk. Generally, an increase in investment credit spreads, ignoring changes in the CVA, will have a negative impact on the fair value of the embedded derivative (decrease in income). See “Derivative Instruments” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 6 – “Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the valuation of the Company’s embedded derivatives.
Income Taxes
The Company provides for federal, state and foreign income taxes currently payable, as well as those deferred due to temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are recognized in net income or

41


in certain cases in other comprehensive income. The Company’s accounting for income taxes represents management’s best estimate of various events and transactions considering the laws enacted as of the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities are measured at the reporting date using enacted tax rates in the relevant jurisdictions expected to apply to taxable income in the years the temporary differences are expected to reverse.
The realization of deferred tax assets depends upon the existence of sufficient taxable income within the carryback or carryforward periods under the tax law in the applicable tax jurisdiction. The Company has deferred tax assets related to net operating and capital losses. The Company has projected its ability to utilize its U.S. and foreign net operating losses and has determined that all of the U.S. losses are expected to be utilized prior to their expiration and established a valuation allowance on the portion of the foreign deferred tax assets the Company believes more likely than not that deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
The Company will establish a valuation allowance if management determines, based on available information, that it is more likely than not that deferred income tax assets will not be realized. Significant judgment is required in determining whether valuation allowances should be established as well as the amount of such allowances. When making such determination, consideration is given to, among other things, the following:
(i)
future projected taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards;
(ii)
future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences;
(iii)
taxable income in prior carryback years; and
(iv)
tax planning strategies.
Any such changes could significantly affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements in the year these changes occur. The Company accounts for its total liability for uncertain tax positions considering the recognition and measurement thresholds established in general accounting principles for income taxes. The tax effects of a position are recognized in the consolidated statement of income only if it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the appropriate taxing authority. Unrecognized tax benefits due to tax uncertainties that do not meet the more likely than not criteria are included within other liabilities and are charged to earnings in the period that such determination is made. The Company classifies interest related to tax uncertainties as interest expense whereas penalties related to tax uncertainties are classified as a component of income tax.
U.S. and Latin America Operations
U.S. and Latin America operations consist of two major segments: Traditional and Non-Traditional. The Traditional segment primarily specializes in individual mortality-risk reinsurance and to a lesser extent, group, health and long-term care reinsurance. The Non-Traditional segment consists of Asset-Intensive and Financial Reinsurance. Asset-Intensive within the Non-Traditional segment provides coinsurance of annuities and corporate-owned life insurance policies and to a lesser extent also issues fee-based synthetic guaranteed investment contracts, which include investment-only, stable value contracts. Financial Reinsurance within the Non-Traditional segment primarily involves assisting ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements by enhancing the ceding companies’ financial strength and regulatory surplus position. Typically these transactions do not qualify as reinsurance under GAAP, due to the low-risk nature of the transactions, so only the related net fees are reflected in other revenues on the consolidated statements of income.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2015
 
 
 
Non-Traditional
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
Asset-Intensive
 
Financial
Reinsurance
 
Total U.S. and
Latin America
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net premiums
 
$
4,806,706

 
$
22,177

 
$

 
$
4,828,883

Investment income, net of related expenses
 
636,779

 
560,701

 
5,479

 
1,202,959

Investment related gains (losses), net
 
2,306

 
(118,482
)
 

 
(116,176
)
Other revenues
 
19,235

 
105,389

 
68,601

 
193,225

Total revenues
 
5,465,026

 
569,785

 
74,080

 
6,108,891

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claims and other policy benefits
 
4,366,696

 
66,146

 

 
4,432,842

Interest credited
 
77,500

 
244,318

 

 
321,818

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses
 
673,331

 
85,760

 
10,193

 
769,284

Other operating expenses
 
111,728

 
20,615

 
8,870

 
141,213

Total benefits and expenses
 
5,229,255

 
416,839

 
19,063

 
5,665,157

Income before income taxes
 
$
235,771

 
$
152,946

 
$
55,017

 
$
443,734


42


For the year ended December 31, 2014
 
 
 
Non-Traditional
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
Asset-Intensive
 
Financial
Reinsurance
 
Total U.S. and
Latin America
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net premiums
 
$
4,725,505

 
$
20,079

 
$

 
$
4,745,584

Investment income, net of related expenses
 
552,805

 
639,794

 
4,491

 
1,197,090

Investment related gains (losses), net
 
1,443

 
152,039

 
(111
)
 
153,371

Other revenues
 
3,515

 
115,032

 
82,819

 
201,366

Total revenues
 
5,283,268

 
926,944

 
87,199

 
6,297,411

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claims and other policy benefits
 
4,130,308

 
19,848

 

 
4,150,156

Interest credited
 
51,184

 
382,539

 

 
433,723

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses
 
641,785

 
256,989

 
25,256

 
924,030

Other operating expenses
 
108,346

 
16,882

 
9,685

 
134,913

Total benefits and expenses
 
4,931,623

 
676,258

 
34,941

 
5,642,822

Income before income taxes
 
$
351,645

 
$
250,686

 
$
52,258

 
$
654,589

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2013
 
 
 
Non-Traditional
 
 
 
 
Traditional
 
Asset-Intensive
 
Financial
Reinsurance
 
Total U.S. and
Latin America
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net premiums
 
$
4,563,490

 
$
22,521

 
$

 
$
4,586,011

Investment income, net of related expenses
 
543,824

 
716,658

 
4,624

 
1,265,106

Investment related gains (losses), net
 
4,921

 
44,416

 
(392
)
 
48,945

Other revenues
 
3,706

 
114,098

 
60,893

 
178,697

Total revenues
 
5,115,941

 
897,693

 
65,125

 
6,078,759

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claims and other policy benefits
 
3,963,168

 
28,244

 

 
3,991,412

Interest credited
 
53,285

 
415,149

 

 
468,434

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses
 
625,971

 
239,661

 
12,771

 
878,403

Other operating expenses
 
95,931

 
14,291

 
7,053

 
117,275

Total benefits and expenses
 
4,738,355

 
697,345

 
19,824

 
5,455,524

Income before income taxes
 
$
377,586

 
$
200,348

 
$
45,301

 
$
623,235

Income before income taxes for the U.S. and Latin America operations segment decreased by $210.9 million, or 32.2%, and increased by $31.4 million, or 5.0%, in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The decrease in income before income taxes in 2015 was primarily due to adverse claims experience in both the individual and group lines of business as well as changes in the value of the embedded derivatives associated with reinsurance treaties structured on a modco or funds withheld basis.
The increase in the income before income taxes in 2014 was primarily driven by favorable changes in credit spreads on the fair value of embedded derivatives associated with treaties written on a modified coinsurance or funds withheld basis within the Asset-Intensive line of business. In addition, the 2014 results benefited from prepayment fees associated with certain commercial mortgage loans, and from favorable net interest rate spread performance and overall experience on fixed and equity indexed annuities. Offsetting this somewhat was unfavorable mortality experience in the U.S. and Latin America Traditional segment.
Traditional Reinsurance
The U.S. and Latin America Traditional segment provides life and health reinsurance to domestic clients for a variety of products through yearly renewable term, coinsurance and modified coinsurance agreements. These reinsurance arrangements may involve either facultative or automatic agreements.
Income before income taxes for the U.S. and Latin America Traditional segment decreased by $115.9 million, or 33.0%, and $25.9 million, or 6.9% in 2015 and 2014, respectively. These decreases reflect deterioration in claims experience primarily due to elevated claims in both the individual life and group lines of business. In 2015, there was an increase in the average claim size, mostly in older issue-age policies. The group line of business experienced an increase in both new and reopened disability claims. The poor claims experience was somewhat offset by additional investment income primarily due to an increase in the overall asset base as well as pre-payments in the Traditional investment portfolios.

43


Net premiums increased $81.2 million, or 1.7%, and $162.0 million, or 3.6% in 2015 and 2014, respectively. These increases in net premiums were driven primarily by the growth in individual life business in force and health and group reinsurance. Offsetting the growth somewhat in 2015 and 2014 was a large retrocession transaction completed during the fourth quarter of 2014, which reduced U.S. Traditional premiums by approximately $451.1 million and $130.0 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The segment added new life business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $203.9 billion, $176.9 billion and $95.6 billion during 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Contributing to the increases in 2015 and 2014 were large in force block transactions of $114.5 billion and $101.9 billion, respectively. Total face amount of life business in force was $1,594.3 billion, $1,483.9 billion and $1,397.0 billion as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Premiums on health and group reinsurance contributed $84.5 million and $120.0 million to the increase in net premiums in 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Net investment income increased $84.0 million, or 15.2%, and $9.0 million, or 1.7%, in 2015 and 2014, respectively, primarily due to growth in the average invested asset base offset by lower yields in both years. Additionally in 2015, investment income benefited from the cumulative effect of investment income related to a funds withheld transaction retroactive to the beginning of the year. Investment related gains increased by $0.9 million in 2015, and decreased by $3.5 million in 2014. Investment income is allocated to the various operating segments based on average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations. Investment performance varies with the composition of investments and the relative allocation of capital to the operating segments.
Claims and other policy benefits as a percentage of net premiums (“loss ratios”) were 90.8%, 87.4% and 86.8% in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The increase in the loss ratio in 2015 was primarily due to an increase in the average claim size, most notably for older issue-age policies within its individual mortality block of business. Lower profit margins may emerge for the foreseeable future while this cohort of business fully runs its course. In addition, the group disability business was negatively affected by an increase in new and reopened claims. Although reasonably predictable over a period of years, claims experience can be volatile over shorter periods.
Interest credited expense increased by $26.3 million, or 51.4%, in 2015 and decreased by $2.1 million, or 3.9%, in 2014. The variances in interest credited expense are largely offset by variances in investment income. The increase in 2015 can be attributed to the acquisition of Aurora National. The decrease in 2014 can be attributed to one treaty in which the most prevalent credited loan rate decreased, partially offset by a slight increase in its asset base. Interest credited in this segment relates to amounts credited on cash value products which also have a significant mortality component. Income before income taxes is affected by the spread between the investment income and the interest credited on the underlying products.
Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums were 14.0%, 13.6% and 13.7% in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Overall, while these ratios are expected to remain in a predictable range, they may fluctuate from period to period due to varying allowance levels within coinsurance-type arrangements. In addition, the amortization pattern of previously capitalized amounts, which are subject to the form of the reinsurance agreement and the underlying insurance policies, may vary. Also, the mix of first year coinsurance business versus yearly renewable term business can cause the percentage to fluctuate from period to period. In recent years, the mix of business has been premiums weighted toward yearly renewable term which has contributed to relatively stable rates.
Other operating expenses increased $3.4 million, or 3.1%, and $12.4 million, or 12.9% in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Contributing to the increase in 2014 was both higher compensation costs and increased information technology costs. Other operating expenses, as a percentage of net premiums, were 2.3%, 2.3% and 2.1% in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The expense ratio tends to fluctuate only slightly from period to period due to maturity and scale of this segment.
Non-Traditional - Asset-Intensive Reinsurance
Asset-Intensive within the U.S. and Latin America Non-Traditional segment primarily assumes investment risk within underlying annuities and corporate-owned life insurance policies. Most of these agreements are coinsurance, coinsurance with funds withheld or modco whereby the Company recognizes profits or losses primarily from the spread between the investment income earned and the interest credited on the underlying deposit liabilities, as well as fees associated with variable annuity account values and guaranteed investment contracts.
Impact of certain derivatives
Income from the asset-intensive business tends to be volatile due to changes in the fair value of certain derivatives, including embedded derivatives associated with reinsurance treaties structured on a modco or funds withheld basis, as well as embedded derivatives associated with the Company’s reinsurance of EIAs and variable annuities with guaranteed minimum benefit riders. Fluctuations occur period to period primarily due to changing investment conditions including, but not limited to, interest rate movements (including risk-free rates and credit spreads), implied volatility and equity market performance, all of which are factors in the calculations of fair value. Therefore, management believes it is helpful to distinguish between the effects of changes in these derivatives, net of related hedging activity, and the primary factors that drive profitability of the underlying treaties, namely

44


investment income, fee income (included in other revenues), and interest credited. These fluctuations are considered unrealized by management and do not affect current cash flows, crediting rates or spread performance on the underlying treaties.
The following table summarizes the asset-intensive results and quantifies the impact of these embedded derivatives for the periods presented. Revenues before certain derivatives, benefits and expenses before certain derivatives, and income before income taxes and certain derivatives, should not be viewed as substitutes for GAAP revenues, GAAP benefits and expenses, and GAAP income before income taxes.
For the year ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues
 
$
569,785

 
$
926,944

 
$
897,693

Less:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Embedded derivatives – modco/funds withheld treaties
 
(101,300
)
 
201,464

 
68,285

Guaranteed minimum benefit riders and related free standing derivatives
 
(7,658
)
 
(34,825
)
 
(19,627
)
Revenues before certain derivatives
 
678,743

 
760,305

 
849,035

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total benefits and expenses
 
416,839

 
676,258

 
697,345

Less:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Embedded derivatives – modco/funds withheld treaties
 
(58,754
)
 
128,872

 
41,068

Guaranteed minimum benefit riders and related free standing derivatives
 
1,750

 
(9,461
)
 
(8,346
)
Equity-indexed annuities
 
(2,686
)
 
2,371

 
(30,082
)
Benefits and expenses before certain derivatives
 
476,529

 
554,476

 
694,705

Income (loss) before income taxes:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income before income taxes
 
152,946

 
250,686

 
200,348

Less:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Embedded derivatives – modco/funds withheld treaties
 
(42,546
)
 
72,592

 
27,217

Guaranteed minimum benefit riders and related free standing derivatives
 
(9,408
)
 
(25,364
)
 
(11,281
)
Equity-indexed annuities
 
2,686

 
(2,371
)
 
30,082

Income before income taxes and certain derivatives
 
$
202,214

 
$
205,829

 
$
154,330

Embedded Derivatives - Modco/Funds Withheld Treaties - Represents the change in the fair value of embedded derivatives on funds withheld at interest associated with treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis. The fair value changes of embedded derivatives on funds withheld at interest associated with treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis are reflected in revenues, while the related impact on deferred acquisition expenses is reflected in benefits and expenses. The Company's utilization of a credit valuation adjustment did not have a material effect on the change in fair value of these embedded derivatives for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
The change in fair value of the embedded derivatives - modco/funds withheld treaties decreased income before income taxes by $42.5 million in 2015, compared to increases of $72.6 million and $27.2 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The decrease in income in 2015 was primarily due to increasing risk-free rates and widening credit spreads. The increases in income in 2014 and 2013 were primarily due to tightening credit spreads and changes in risk free rates.
Guaranteed Minimum Benefit Riders - Represents the impact related to guaranteed minimum benefits associated with the Company’s reinsurance of variable annuities. The fair value changes of the guaranteed minimum benefits along with the changes in fair value of the free standing derivatives (interest rate swaps, financial futures and equity options), purchased by the Company to substantially hedge the liability are reflected in revenues, while the related impact on deferred acquisition expenses is reflected in benefits and expenses. The Company's utilization of a credit valuation adjustment did not have a material effect on the change in fair value of these embedded derivatives for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
The change in fair value of the guaranteed minimum benefits, after allowing for changes in the associated free standing derivatives, decreased income before income taxes by $9.4 million, $25.4 million and $11.3 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The decrease in income in 2015 was primarily due to updating policyholder assumptions. The decrease in income in 2014 was the result of declining interest rates and updating policyholder assumptions. The decrease in income in 2013 was due to updating policyholder assumptions which was partially offset by increasing interest rates and declining volatility.
Equity-Indexed Annuities - Represents changes in the liability for equity-indexed annuities in excess of changes in account value, after adjustments for related deferred acquisition expenses. The change in fair value of embedded derivative liabilities associated with equity-indexed annuities increased (decreased) income before income taxes by $2.7 million, $(2.4) million and $30.1 million, in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The increase in income in 2015 and decrease in 2014 was due to policyholder experience. The increase in income in 2013 was primarily due to rising equity markets.

45


Discussion and analysis before certain derivatives
Income before income taxes and certain derivatives decreased by $3.6 million and increased by $51.5 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The decrease in income in 2015 was primarily due to the impact of lower fees received from the prepayment of commercial mortgage loans, lower income associated with the reinsurance of variable annuities, and lower investment related gains (losses), net of the corresponding impact to deferred acquisition costs, associated with funds withheld and coinsurance portfolios. This decrease was largely offset by income associated with the acquisition of Aurora National. The increase in income in 2014 was primarily due to prepayment fees associated with certain commercial mortgage loans and higher investment related gains (losses), net of the corresponding impact to deferred acquisition costs, associated with funds withheld and coinsurance portfolios. Funds withheld capital gains (losses) are reported through investment income while coinsurance activity is reflected in investment related gains (losses), net.
Revenue before certain derivatives decreased by $81.6 million and $88.7 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. These decreases were primarily due to the decline in fair value of equity options associated with the reinsurance of certain EIAs. The decrease in 2015 was partially offset by an increase in investment income associated with the acquisition of Aurora National. The effect on investment income related to equity options is substantially offset by a corresponding change in interest credited.
Benefits and expenses before certain derivatives decreased by $77.9 million and $140.2 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. These decreases were primarily due to lower interest credited associated with the reinsurance of EIAs and fixed annuities. The decrease in 2015 was partially offset by the benefits associated with the acquisition of Aurora National. The effect on interest credited related to equity options is substantially offset by a corresponding change in investment income. Additionally, 2014 reflects a decrease in deferred acquisition expenses related to investment related gains and losses associated with funds withheld and coinsurance portfolios.
The invested asset base supporting this segment increased to $12.9 billion as of December 31, 2015 from $10.9 billion as of December 31, 2014. The increase of $2.0 billion in 2015 was primarily due to the acquisition of Aurora National. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, $4.1 billion and $4.3 billion, respectively, of the invested assets were funds withheld at interest, of which 98.6% and 98.7%, respectively, was associated with one client.
Non-Traditional - Financial Reinsurance
Financial Reinsurance within the U.S. Non-Traditional segment income before income taxes consists primarily of net fees earned on financial reinsurance transactions. Additionally, a portion of the business is brokered business in which the Company does not participate in the assumption of risk. The fees earned from financial reinsurance contracts and brokered business are reflected in other revenues, and the fees paid to retrocessionaires are reflected in policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses.
Income before income taxes increased by $2.8 million, or 5.3%, and $7.0 million, or 15.4%, in 2015 and 2014, respectively. The increases in 2015 and 2014 were primarily related to the growth from new transactions.
At December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, the amount of reinsurance assumed from client companies, as measured by pre-tax statutory surplus, risk based capital and other financial reinsurance structures, was $7.2 billion, $6.0 billion and $4.4 billion, respectively. The increases in both 2015 and 2014 can primarily be attributed to an increase in the number of new transactions executed each year and is consistent with the increase in related income. Fees earned from this business can vary significantly depending on the size of the transactions and the timing of their completion and, therefore, can fluctuate from period to period.
Canada Operations
The Company conducts reinsurance business in Canada primarily through RGA Canada, which assists clients with capital management activity and mortality and morbidity risk management. The Canada operations are primarily engaged in Traditional reinsurance, which consists mainly of traditional individual life reinsurance, as well as creditor, group life and health and living benefits (disability and critical illness) reinsurance. Creditor insurance covers the outstanding balance on personal, mortgage or commercial loans in the event of death, disability or critical illness and is generally shorter in duration than traditional individual life insurance. The Canada operations are also engaged in Non-Traditional reinsurance which consists of longevity and financial reinsurance.

 

46


For the year ended December 31, 2015
 
Traditional
 
Non-Traditional
 
Total Canada
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net premiums
 
$
838,894

 
$
37,969

 
$
876,863

Investment income, net of related expenses
 
182,621

 
1,436

 
184,057

Investment related gains (losses), net
 
(1,503
)
 

 
(1,503
)
Other revenues
 
3,000

 
5,629

 
8,629

Total revenues
 
1,023,012

 
45,034

 
1,068,046

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claims and other policy benefits
 
670,459

 
29,251

 
699,710

Interest credited
 
18

 

 
18

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses
 
192,729

 
552

 
193,281

Other operating expenses
 
35,631

 
1,329

 
36,960

Total benefits and expenses
 
898,837

 
31,132

 
929,969

Income before income taxes
 
$
124,175

 
$
13,902

 
$
138,077

For the year ended December 31, 2014
 
Traditional
 
Non-Traditional
 
Total Canada
(dollars in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net premiums
 
$
953,389

 
$
21,192

 
$
974,581

Investment income, net of related expenses
 
193,610

 
2,595

 
196,205

Investment related gains (losses), net:
 
4,445

 
80

 
4,525

Other revenues
 
2,071

 
4,483

 
6,554

Total revenues
 
1,153,515

 
28,350

 
1,181,865

Benefits and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Claims and other policy benefits
 
784,437

 
20,116

 
804,553

Interest credited
 
33

 

 
33

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses
 
234,599

 
581

 
235,180

Other operating expenses
 
39,011

 
1,388