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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 ________________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year endedJune 25, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-40863
__________________________________________ 
WOLFSPEED, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
North Carolina 56-1572719
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
4600 Silicon Drive 27703
DurhamNorth Carolina
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(919) 407-5300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.00125 par value WOLFNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
___________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of December 23, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $8,966,673,467 (based on the closing sale price of $72.27 per share).
The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.00125 par value per share, outstanding as of August 17, 2023 was 125,250,035.
__________________________________________ 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held October 23, 2023 are incorporated by reference into Part III.


Table of Contents
WOLFSPEED, INC.
FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 25, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  
Part I
Part II
Part III
PART IV

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Forward-Looking Information
Information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report") contains various “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). All information contained in this report relative to future markets for our products and trends in and anticipated levels of revenue, gross margins and expenses, as well as other statements containing words such as “believe,” “project,” “may,” “will,” “anticipate,” “target,” “plan,” “estimate,” “expect” and “intend” and other similar expressions constitute forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to business, economic and other risks and uncertainties, both known and unknown, and actual results may differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statements we make are as of the date made, and except as required under the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), we have no duty to update them if our views later change. These forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Annual Report. Examples of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical performance and any forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those described in “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report.
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PART I

Item 1. Business
Overview
Wolfspeed, Inc. (Wolfspeed, we, our, or us) is an innovator of wide bandgap semiconductors, focused on silicon carbide and gallium nitride (GaN) materials and devices for power and radio-frequency (RF) applications. Our product families include silicon carbide and GaN materials, power devices and RF devices, and our products are targeted for various applications such as electric vehicles, fast charging, 5G, renewable energy and storage, and aerospace and defense.
Our materials products and power devices are used in electric vehicles, motor drives, power supplies, solar and transportation applications. Our materials products and RF devices are used in military communications, radar, satellite and telecommunication applications.
The majority of our products are manufactured at our production facilities located in North Carolina, California and Arkansas. We also use contract manufacturers for certain products and aspects of product fabrication, assembly and packaging. We maintain captive lines at some of our contract manufacturers. Additionally, we recently opened a silicon carbide device fabrication facility in New York and started construction on a new materials manufacturing facility in North Carolina. We operate research and development facilities in North Carolina, California, Arkansas, Arizona and New York.
Wolfspeed, Inc. is a North Carolina corporation established in 1987, and our headquarters are in Durham, North Carolina. For further information about our consolidated revenue and earnings, please see our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Products
Silicon Carbide and GaN Materials
Our silicon carbide materials products consist of silicon carbide bare wafers, epitaxial wafers, and GaN epitaxial layers on silicon carbide wafers. Our silicon carbide materials are targeted for customers who use them to manufacture products for RF, power and other applications. Corporate, government and university customers also buy silicon carbide and GaN materials for research and development directed at RF and power devices.
Power Devices
Our power device products consist of silicon carbide Schottky diodes, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and power modules. Our silicon carbide power products provide increased efficiency and faster switching speeds and as a result, reduced system size and weight over comparable silicon power devices. Power products are sold to customers and distributors for use in applications such as electric vehicles, including charging infrastructure, server power supplies, solar inverters, uninterruptible power supplies, industrial power supplies and other applications.
RF Devices
Our RF devices consist of GaN-based die, high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), and laterally diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) power transistors that are optimized for next generation telecommunications infrastructure, military and other commercial applications. Our RF devices are made from silicon, silicon carbide and GaN and can provide improved efficiency, bandwidths and frequency of operation as compared to silicon or gallium arsenide (GaAs). We also provide custom die manufacturing for GaN HEMTs and MMICs that allow a customer to design its own custom RF circuits to be fabricated by us, or have us design and fabricate products that meet their specific requirements.

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As discussed more fully in Note 17, “Subsequent Events,” in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report, on August 22, 2023, we entered into a definitive agreement (the RF Purchase Agreement) to sell certain assets comprising our RF products line (the RF Business) to MACOM Technology Solutions Holdings, Inc. (MACOM) for approximately $75 million in cash, subject to a customary purchase price adjustment, and 711,528 shares of MACOM common stock (the Shares), valued at $50 million based on the trailing average closing price for MACOM’s common stock for the 30 trading days ending on August 21, 2023 (the RF Business Divestiture). We will retain certain pre-closing liabilities associated with the RF Business. In connection with the RF Business Divestiture, MACOM will assume control of the Company’s 100mm gallium nitride wafer fabrication facility in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (the RTP Fab) approximately two years following the closing of the transaction (the RTP Fab Transfer). The Company will continue to operate the RTP Fab and supply MACOM with Epi-wafers and fabrication services pursuant to a Master Supply Agreement (the RF MSA) between the date of the Closing and the date on which the RTP Fab Transfer is complete (RTP Fab Transfer Date). Prior to the RTP Fab Transfer Date, the Shares will be subject to restrictions on transfer and we will forfeit one-quarter of the Shares if the RTP Fab Transfer has not occurred by the fourth anniversary of the closing. The Company expects to close the transaction by the end of calendar 2023.
Research and Development
We invest significant resources in research and development. Our research and development activity includes efforts to:
develop silicon carbide materials and fabrication technology for a 200mm platform;
develop higher performance power and RF devices;
increase the quality, performance and diameter of our substrate and epitaxial materials; and
continually improve our manufacturing processes.
When our customers participate in funding our research and development programs, we recognize the amount funded as a reduction of research and development expenses to the extent that our customers’ funding does not exceed our respective research and development costs. For further information about our research and development costs, see “Research and Development” in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Annual Report.
Sales and Marketing
We have continued to make investments to expand our sales, marketing and technical applications support, as well as distribution capabilities to further enable new and existing customers to design and implement our silicon carbide and GaN materials, power, and RF technology into their products. We also have continued to make investments to promote and build market awareness of our Wolfspeed brand. Our sales, marketing and technical applications teams include personnel throughout North America, Asia and Europe.
Customers
In fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021, we had two, two, and three customers that represented more than 10% of our consolidated revenue, respectively. These customers, in the aggregate, accounted for 35%, 38%, and 41% of our total consolidated revenue in fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. For further discussion regarding customer concentration, please see Note 16, “Concentrations of Risk,” in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report. The loss of any large customer could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Distribution
A portion of our products are sold to distributors. Distributors stock inventory and sell our products to their own customer base, which may include: value added resellers, manufacturers who incorporate our products into their own manufactured goods and ultimate end users of our products. We also utilize third-party sales representatives who generally do not maintain a product inventory; instead, their customers place orders directly with us or through distributors.
Backlog
Our backlog at June 25, 2023 was approximately $2.9 billion, compared with a backlog of approximately $2.2 billion at June 26, 2022. Because of changes in a number of factors, including manufacturing lead times and customer order patterns, we do not believe that our backlog, as of any particular date, is necessarily indicative of actual revenue for any future period. Significant amounts of our backlog relate to agreements that extend past one year.
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Our June 25, 2023 backlog contained $18.4 million of research contracts signed with the U.S. Government, all of which were appropriated as of the last day of fiscal 2023. Our June 26, 2022 backlog contained $20.0 million of research contracts signed with the U.S. Government, all of which were appropriated as of the last day of fiscal 2022. Our backlog could be adversely affected if the U.S. Government exercises its rights to terminate our government contracts.
Design-ins
Design-ins for the fiscal year ended June 25, 2023 were $8.3 billion, compared with design-ins of approximately $6.4 billion for the fiscal year ended June 26, 2022. For further information about our design-ins, see “Research and Development” in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of this Annual Report.
Manufacturing
We manufacture silicon carbide substrates, silicon carbide MOSFETs, Schottky diodes and power modules as well as GaN on silicon carbide RF devices and LDMOS power transistors. We utilize manufacturing facilities located in the United States in combination with assembly and test subcontractors throughout Asia. Manufacturing assets are managed together through one centralized organization to ensure we leverage scale in asset utilization, purchasing volumes, and overhead costs across the business.
Silicon carbide substrate manufacturing occurs in our highly complex materials factory and involves production of a bare wafer substrate with or without epitaxy. Our front-end processes occur in manufacturing facilities called "wafer fabs". These processes involve several hundred manufacturing steps required for imprinting silicon carbide wafers with the precise circuitry required for semiconductor devices to function. Back-end processes include the assembly, test and packaging of semiconductors to make them suitable for use and sale.
Yields in our manufacturing process can vary and are dependent upon multiple factors including product complexity and performance requirements as well as the maturity of the process. In order to maximize both yield and quality, we maintain in-line process monitoring and testing.
Our substrate and wafer fab manufacturing facilities are certified to ISO 9001, IATF 16949 (automotive), and ISO 14001 (environmental). Our silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York is certified to ISO 9001 and is in the process of being certified for IATF 16949 and ISO 140001.
ISO 9001 is the international standard that specifies requirements for a quality management system and focuses on the ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer requirements. IATF 16949 is the highest international quality standard for the automotive industry. ISO 14001 is an internationally agreed upon standard for an environmental management system.
Sources of Raw Materials
We depend on a number of suppliers for certain raw materials, components and equipment used in manufacturing our products, including certain key materials and equipment used in critical stages of our manufacturing processes. In select cases, we have purchase contracts with suppliers in place to help ensure our supply. In other cases, we purchase items pursuant to discrete purchase orders. Our suppliers are located around the world and can be subject to constraints beyond our control that may limit supply. We believe our current supply of essential materials is sufficient to meet our needs. However, shortages have occurred from time to time and could occur again.
We are focused on forecasting demand with sufficient time necessary to secure raw materials that may have extended lead times and we continue to work with suppliers to develop purchase and capacity agreements that secure supply over extended time periods, including accommodating our suppliers' need for capital investment when needed.
We continue to experience higher prices on our raw materials as a result of inflation pressures, including base price increases and price surcharges. We have mitigated these increases by leveraging our growth to negotiate efficiencies and productivity-based cost reductions.
China recently announced an export restriction of gallium and germanium, two metals mined from the earth and used in the manufacturing of semiconductors and electronics. We do not purchase these metals directly. While we do purchase two products containing gallium, these products are not within the current export restrictions. We will continue to monitor our exposure but at this time we do not expect to be materially affected by China's current export restriction.
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We have continued to be successful in managing through these current issues and have shown the ability to navigate through significant supply challenges, including multiple COVID-19 pandemic supply chain constraints and natural gas supply limitations forced upon some of our European suppliers. We believe our operations are currently not materially impacted by our ability to source raw materials, components and equipment used in manufacturing our products.
Competition
Silicon Carbide and GaN Materials
We have continued to maintain a well-established leadership position in the sale of silicon carbide wafer and silicon carbide and GaN epitaxy products. As market adoption of the technology grows with rapidly expanding power and RF device designs, we have experienced increased competition from companies such as Coherent, Inc., SiCrystal GmbH, IQE plc and Showa Denko K.K (now Resonac Holdings Corporation). We believe our leading technology and leveraged production scale position us to reliably supply production volumes to the device manufacturers in the market.
Power Devices
Our silicon carbide power devices compete with silicon carbide power semiconductor solutions offered by Infineon Technologies AG, ON Semiconductor Corporation, Rohm Co. Ltd., and ST Microelectronics, as well as an increasing number of smaller competitors. Our silicon carbide products also compete with silicon semiconductor devices offered by a variety of manufacturers. Our power products compete in the power semiconductor market on the basis of performance, reliability and overall system price.
RF Devices
Our RF devices compete with Ampleon Netherlands B.V., MACOM Technology Solutions Inc., BOWEI Integrated Circuits Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, NXP Semiconductor N.V., RFHIC, Qorvo, Inc. and Sumitomo Corporation, which all offer competing RF products and solutions. Our products also compete with a variety of companies offering silicon and GaAs-based products. Our products compete in the RF semiconductor market on the basis of reliability, performance, design predictability and overall system price.
Patents and Other Intellectual Property Rights
We believe it is important to protect our investment in technology by obtaining and enforcing intellectual property rights, including rights under patent, trademark, trade secret and copyright laws. We seek to protect inventions we consider significant by applying for patents in the United States and other countries when appropriate. We have also acquired, through license grants, purchases and assignments, rights to patents on inventions originally developed by others. As of June 25, 2023, we owned or were the exclusive licensee of 703 issued U.S. patents and approximately 1,282 foreign patents with various expiration dates extending up to 2048, with certain patents expiring in the near term. We do not consider our business to be materially dependent upon any one patent, and we believe our business will not be materially adversely affected by the expiration of any one patent. For proprietary technology that is not patented, we generally seek to protect the technology and related know-how and information as trade secrets by keeping confidential the information that we believe provides us with a competitive advantage. We attempt to create strong brands for our products and promote our products through trademarks that distinguish them in the market. We may license to our customers use of our trademarks in connection with the sale of our products, and we monitor for the proper and authorized use of our trademarks.
Licensing activities and lawsuits to enforce intellectual property rights, particularly patent rights, are a common aspect of the semiconductor industry, and we attempt to ensure respect for our intellectual property rights through appropriate actions. The breadth of our intellectual property rights and the extent to which they can be successfully enforced varies across jurisdictions. We both make and receive inquiries regarding possible patent infringements and possible violations of other intellectual property rights in the normal course of business. Depending on the circumstances, we may seek to negotiate a license or other acceptable resolution. If we are unable to achieve a resolution by agreement, we may seek to enforce our rights or defend our position through litigation. Patent litigation in particular is expensive and the outcome is often uncertain. We believe that the strength of our portfolio of patent rights is important in helping us resolve or avoid such disputes with other companies in our industry.
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Governmental Regulation
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and foreign provisions regulating the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. These include statutory and regulatory provisions under which we are responsible for the management of hazardous materials we use and the disposition of hazardous wastes resulting from our manufacturing processes. Failure to comply with such provisions could result in fines and other liabilities to the government or third parties, injunctions requiring us to suspend or curtail operations or other remedies, and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Increasing public attention has been focused on the environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing operations. We, along with the rest of the semiconductor industry, are subject to variable interpretations and governmental priorities concerning environmental laws and regulations.
We endorse and adhere to Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) standards for all our sites. It is our EHS goal to design and develop products safely, that realize energy efficiency, minimize environmental impacts, and have sustainable life cycles. In this manner, we are striving to continuously improve our EHS performance and reduce the overall impacts of our manufacturing processes. To further ensure that we can implement such standards, we are dedicated to:
providing a safe and healthy work environment for our employees;
complying with regulatory and other requirements;
using natural resources, energy, and materials efficiently;
substituting sustainable resources in place of non-renewable resources;
reusing or recycling materials wherever technically possible and economically reasonable;
minimizing waste and disposing of waste safely and responsibly;
sourcing raw material responsibly;
implementing specific measures to prevent and minimize hazards to humans; and the environment including pollution prevention; and
consulting with and encouraging the participation of workers and workers’ representatives, as applicable.
Our EHS management systems in our manufacturing facilities in Durham and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina and Morgan Hill, California are certified to ISO 14001:2015 for environmental management. The benefits of implementing environmental and safety management systems include improved risk management, cost savings, meeting external stakeholder expectations, ensuring compliance with environmental and occupational safety laws, and decreasing our environmental footprint through discovering new possibilities for energy, water and waste usage reductions.
We are also subject to import-export controls, tariffs and other trade-related regulations and restrictions in countries in which we have operations or otherwise do business. These controls, tariffs, regulations, and restrictions (including those related to, or affected by, United States-China relations, as discussed below in Item 1A, "Risk Factors," of this Annual Report) may have a material impact on our business, including our ability to sell products and to manufacture or source components.
Working Capital
For a discussion of our working capital practices, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of this Annual Report.
Human Capital
Employees
As of June 25, 2023, we employed 4,802 regular full and part-time employees. We also employ individuals on a temporary full-time basis and use the services of contractors as necessary. Certain employees in various countries outside of the United States are subject to laws providing representation rights.
Employee Retention and Development
We believe that our future success largely depends upon our continued ability to identify, attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel. Core to our ability to attract and retain talent is our high-performance culture, which is based on our three central values of (1) safety, integrity and respect, (2) ownership and accountability, and (3) ingenuity and passion. We are committed to creating and sustaining a culture where all employees are engaged and can contribute to their full potential. We aim to provide
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our employees with competitive compensation, as well as opportunities for equity ownership and developmental programs that enable continued learning and growth. We endeavor to utilize recruiting practices that yield qualified and dedicated employees who are driven to achieve our vision.
We are committed to offering an environment in which employees are ensured equal job opportunities and have a chance for advancement. We also have initiatives in place to reduce our global employee turnover rates, which are monitored and reviewed quarterly. Our goal is to ensure employees can find development and career growth without having to leave Wolfspeed.
Compensation and Benefits
We are focused on offering competitive compensation and comprehensive benefit packages designed to promote the physical and emotional well-being and financial health of our employees. In addition to base pay, our total compensation package includes items such as bonuses, stock-based compensation, employee stock purchase plans and employee referral bonuses. Our benefits package includes employee learnings, health and welfare, tuition reimbursement, student loan repayment, several wellness and emotional support options, adoption assistance and a family care program. Additionally, we sponsor a 401(k) employee benefit plan for our U.S. based employees and we match a defined percentage of employee contributions.
Health and Safety
The safety, health, and overall well-being of our employees and contractors is integrated into the way we do business. We aim to provide a safe and healthy work environment through various measures, including accountability for health and safety performance with line management, setting acceptable levels of risk based on government regulation or industry best practice, and evaluating health and safety incidents to prevent recurrence, among other programs. We continue to maintain certain safety protocols and procedures put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including an extensively used 'work where it works' arrangement that allows employees who are able to perform their job duties from an off-campus location to continue to have the flexibility of working remotely full-time or part-time.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We believe diversity, equity, and inclusion drives better business results and makes all of us better employees and people. We are striving to build an environment where inclusivity is real and active, rather than theoretical and static. We celebrate our employees’ differences and authenticity, and understand that diverse ideas, perspectives, thinking styles, and backgrounds produce higher quality decisions, enabling us to solve problems other companies consider to be impossible. Our efforts to foster a diverse and inclusive workplace include Employee Resources Groups, a Diversity, Equity and Inclusion leadership team that partners with our Human Resources department and various scholarship programs in our surrounding communities. We believe these initiatives help contribute to the development of future leaders, increased employee engagement and expanded market reach.
Available Information
Our website address is www.wolfspeed.com and our investor relations website is located at https://investor.wolfspeed.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, statements of changes in beneficial ownership and amendments to those reports are available for free on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after these are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The contents of our website, including our investor relations website, is not incorporated by reference into this filing or any other report we file with or furnish to the SEC. We have no duty to update or revise any forward-looking statements in this Annual Report or in other reports filed with the SEC, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, unless we are required to do so by law. The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Described below are various risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. If any of the risks described below actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Risk categories and certain principal risks under each category (each described more fully below):
Risks related to our global operations, including global macroeconomic and market risks
Our business may be adversely affected by the state of the global economy, uncertainties in global financial markets, our ability, or our customers' or vendors' ability, to access funding, and possible trade tariffs and trade restrictions.
We are subject to risks related to international sales and purchases.
Risks related to sales, product development and manufacturing
We face significant challenges managing our growth strategy.
Variations in our production could impact our ability to reduce costs and could cause our margins to decline and our operating results to suffer.
Our results of operations, financial condition and business could be harmed if we are unable to balance customer demand and capacity.
Risks associated with our strategic transactions
If we fail to evaluate and execute strategic opportunities successfully, our business may suffer.
We are subject to a number of risks associated with the sale of the RF Business, and these risks could adversely impact our operations, financial condition and business.
Risks associated with cybersecurity, intellectual property and litigation
We may be subject to confidential information theft or misuse, which could harm our business and results of operations.
There are limitations on our ability to protect our intellectual property.
Risks related to legal, regulatory, accounting, tax and compliance matters
We may be required to recognize a significant charge to earnings if our goodwill or other assets become impaired.
The adoption of or changes in government and/or industry policies, standards or regulations relating to the efficiency, performance, vehicle range or other aspects of our products and the products in which they are utilized could impact the demand for our products.
General risk factors
We may be required to recognize a significant charge to earnings if our goodwill or other assets become impaired.
Risks related to our global operations, including global macroeconomic and market risks
Our business may be adversely affected by the state of the global economy, uncertainties in global financial markets, our ability, or our customers' or vendors' ability, to access funding, and possible trade tariffs and trade restrictions.
Our operations and performance depend significantly on worldwide economic and geopolitical conditions. Uncertainty about global economic conditions could result in customers postponing purchases of our products and services in response to tighter credit, unemployment, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values and other macroeconomic factors, which could have a material negative effect on demand for our products and services and, accordingly, on our business, results of operations or financial condition. For example, current global financial markets continue to reflect uncertainty, including recent bank failures in the United States, the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the COVID-19 pandemic. Given these uncertainties, there could be further disruptions to the global economy, financial markets and consumer confidence. If economic conditions deteriorate unexpectedly, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. For example, our customers, including our distributors and their customers, may experience difficulty obtaining the working capital and other financing necessary to support historical or projected purchasing patterns, which could negatively affect our results of operations.
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Recent global economic slowdowns could continue and potentially result in certain economies dipping into economic recessions, including in the United States. Additionally, increased inflation around the world, including in the United States, applies pressure to our costs. Continued economic slowdowns or recessions and inflationary pressures could have a negative impact on our business, including decreased demand, increased costs, and other challenges. Government actions to address economic slowdowns and increased inflation, including increased interest rates, also could result in negative impacts to our growth.
General trade tensions between the United States and China continue, and any economic and political uncertainty caused by the United States tariffs imposed on goods from China, among other potential countries, and any corresponding tariffs or currency devaluations from China or such other countries in response, has negatively impacted, and may in the future negatively impact, demand and/or increase the cost for our products. Additionally, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in early 2022 triggered significant sanctions from the U.S. and European countries. Resulting changes in U.S. trade policy could trigger retaliatory actions by Russia, its allies and other affected countries, including China, resulting in a potential trade war. Furthermore, if the conflict between Russia and Ukraine continues for a prolonged period of time, or if other countries, including the U.S., become involved in the conflict, we could face significant adverse effects to our business and financial condition. For example, if our supply or customer arrangements are disrupted due to expanded sanctions or involvement of countries where we have operations or relationships, our business could be materially disrupted. Further, the use of cyberattacks could expand as part of the conflict, which could adversely affect our ability to maintain or enhance our cyber-security and data protection measures.
Although we believe we have adequate liquidity and capital resources to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months, we expect to need additional funding to fully complete all of our intended expansion initiatives, which we may seek to obtain through, among other avenues, government funding in both the United States or Europe, public or private equity offerings, and debt financings (which may involve retiring some of our existing debt). If unfavorable capital market conditions exist, we may not be able to raise sufficient capital on favorable terms and on a timely basis, if at all. If we issue equity or convertible debt securities to raise additional funds, our existing shareholders may experience dilution and the new equity or debt securities may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of our then-existing shareholders. If we incur additional debt, it may impose financial and operating covenants that could restrict the operations of our business. In a rising interest rate environment, debt financing will become more expensive and may have higher transactional and servicing costs. In addition, our existing indebtedness may limit our ability to obtain additional financing in the future. The potential inability to obtain adequate funding from debt or capital sources in the future could force us to self-fund strategic initiatives or even forego certain opportunities, which in turn could potentially harm our performance.
We are subject to risks related to international sales and purchases.
In fiscal 2023, 80% of our revenue was from outside the United States and we expect that revenue from international sales will continue to represent a significant portion of our total revenue. As such, a significant slowdown or instability in relevant foreign economies or lower investments in new infrastructure could have a negative impact on our sales. We also purchase a portion of the materials included in our products from overseas sources.
Our international sales and purchases are subject to numerous United States and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, tariffs, trade sanctions, trade barriers, trade embargoes, regulations relating to import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, the International Traffic in Arms Regulation promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act. The U.S. Government has imposed, and in the future may impose, restrictions on shipments to some of our current customers. Government restrictions on sales to certain foreign customers will reduce company revenue and profit related to those customers in the short term and could have a potential long-term impact.
Our international sales are subject to variability as our selling prices become less competitive in countries with currencies that are declining in value against the U.S. Dollar and more competitive in countries with currencies that are increasing in value against the U.S. Dollar. In addition, our international purchases can become more expensive if the U.S. Dollar weakens against the foreign currencies in which we are billed. We may in the future enter into foreign currency derivative financial instruments in an effort to manage or hedge some of our foreign exchange rate risk. We may not be able to engage in hedging transactions in the future, and, even if we do, foreign currency fluctuations may still have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
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Our operations in foreign countries expose us to certain risks inherent in doing business internationally, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We have revenue, operations and contract manufacturing arrangements in foreign countries that expose us to certain risks. For example, fluctuations in exchange rates may affect our revenue, expenses and results of operations as well as the value of our assets and liabilities as reflected in our financial statements. We are also subject to other types of risks of doing business internationally, including the following:
protection of intellectual property and trade secrets;
tariffs, customs, trade sanctions, trade embargoes and other barriers to importing/exporting materials and products in a cost-effective and timely manner, or changes in applicable tariffs or custom rules;
the burden of complying with and changes in United States or international taxation policies;
timing and availability of export licenses;
rising labor costs;
disruptions in or inadequate infrastructure of the countries where we operate;
the impact of public health epidemics on employees and the global economy, such as COVID-19;
difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations; and
the burden of complying with foreign and international laws and treaties.
For example, the United States has imposed significant tariffs on Chinese-made goods, which the Biden administration has largely left in place. The tariffs imposed on Chinese goods, among other potential countries and any corresponding tariffs from China or such other countries in response has, and may in the future, negatively impact demand and/or increase the costs for our products. In some instances, we have received and may continue to receive incentives from foreign governments to encourage our investment in certain countries, regions or areas outside of the United States. Government incentives may include tax rebates, reduced tax rates, favorable lending policies and other measures, some or all of which may be available to us due to our foreign operations. Any of these incentives could be reduced or eliminated by governmental authorities at any time or as a result of our inability to maintain minimum operations necessary to earn the incentives. Any reduction or elimination of incentives currently provided for our operations could adversely affect our business and results of operations. These same governments also may provide increased incentives to or require production processes that favor local companies, which could further negatively impact our business and results of operations.
Changes in regulatory, geopolitical, social, economic, or monetary policies and other factors may have a material adverse effect on our business in the future, or may require us to exit a particular market or significantly modify our current business practices. Abrupt political change, terrorist activity and armed conflict pose a risk of general economic disruption in affected countries, which could also result in an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Risks related to sales, product development and manufacturing
We face significant challenges managing our growth strategy.
Our potential for growth depends significantly on the adoption of our products within the markets we serve and for other applications, and our ability to affect this rate of adoption. In order to manage our growth and business strategy effectively relative to the uncertain pace of adoption, we must continue to:
maintain, expand, construct and purchase adequate manufacturing facilities and equipment, as well as secure sufficient third-party manufacturing resources, to meet customer demand, including specifically the expansion of our silicon carbide capacity with the opening and ramping of a state-of-the-art, automated 200mm capable silicon carbide device fabrication facility in New York, an expansion of our materials factory in Durham, North Carolina, the construction of a new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina, and the planned construction of a new 200mm capable silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Saarland, Germany;
meet our production capacity and delivery commitments to our customers, including those customers who provide us with capacity reservation deposits or similar payments;
manage an increasingly complex supply chain (including managing the impacts of ongoing supply constraints in the semiconductor industry and meeting purchase commitments under take-or-pay arrangements with certain suppliers) that has the ability to supply an increasing number of raw materials, subsystems and finished products with the required specifications and quality, and deliver on time to our manufacturing facilities, our third-party manufacturing facilities, our logistics operations, or our customers;
expand the skills and capabilities of our current management team;
add experienced senior level managers and executives;
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attract and retain qualified employees;
expand the capability of our information systems to support a more complex business, such as our current implementation of a new company-wide enterprise resource planning (ERP) system;
be successful in securing design-ins across our end markets, including automotive applications;
realize our expected local, state and federal government incentives, including capital investment reimbursements, property tax reimbursements and sales tax exemptions from state, county and local governments;
confirm our eligibility for and receive the expected benefits from refundable income tax credits and capital grants through the U.S. CHIPS and Science Act of 2022 (the CHIPS Act), and receive and potentially sell any tax credits for which we may apply under the Inflation Reduction Act;
access capital markets to fund our growth initiatives, including our ongoing and planned capacity expansions;
expand research and development, sales and marketing, technical support, distribution capabilities, manufacturing planning and administrative functions;
safeguard confidential information and protect our intellectual property;
manage organizational complexity and communication; and
execute, maintain and adjust the operational and financial controls that support our business.
While we intend to continue to focus on managing our costs and expenses, we expect to invest to support our growth and may have additional unexpected costs. Such investments take time to become fully operational, and we may not be able to expand quickly enough to exploit targeted market opportunities. In connection with our efforts to cost-effectively manage our growth, we have increasingly relied on contractors for production capacity, logistics support and certain administrative functions including hosting of certain information technology software applications. If our contract manufacturers (including those at which we maintain captive lines) or other service providers do not perform effectively, we may not be able to achieve the expected cost savings and may incur additional costs to correct errors or fulfill customer demand. Depending on the function involved, such errors may also lead to business disruption, processing inefficiencies, the loss of or damage to intellectual property through security breach, or an impact on employee morale. Our operations may also be negatively impacted if any of these contract manufacturers or other service providers do not have the financial capability to meet our growing needs.
There are also inherent execution risks in starting up a new factory or expanding production capacity, whether one of our own factories or that of our contract manufacturers, as well as risks to moving production to different contract manufacturers, that could increase costs and reduce our operating results. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, we opened a new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York to complement the materials factory expansion underway at our United States campus headquarters in Durham, North Carolina. We also commenced work on our new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. The establishment and operation of a new manufacturing facility or expansion of an existing facility involves significant risks and challenges, some of which we have experienced and may experience in the future, including, but not limited to, the following:
design and construction delays and cost overruns;
issues in installing and qualifying new equipment and ramping production;
poor production process yields and reduced quality control; and
insufficient personnel with requisite expertise and experience to operate an automated silicon carbide device fabrication facility and a materials manufacturing facility.
We are also increasingly dependent on information technology to enable us to improve the effectiveness of our operations and to maintain financial accuracy and efficiency. Allocation and effective management of the resources necessary to successfully implement, integrate, train personnel and sustain our information technology platforms will remain critical to ensure that we are not subject to transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, loss of customers or suppliers, business disruptions or loss of or damage to intellectual property through a security breach in the near term. Additionally, we face these same risks if we fail to allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build, implement, upgrade, integrate and sustain appropriate technology infrastructure over the longer term.
Variations in our production could impact our ability to reduce costs and could cause our margins to decline and our operating results to suffer.
All of our products are manufactured using technologies that are highly complex. The number of usable items, or yield, from our production processes may fluctuate as a result of many factors, including but not limited to the following:
variability in our process repeatability and control;
contamination of the manufacturing environment;
equipment failure, power outages, fires, flooding, information or other system failures or variations in the
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manufacturing process;
lack of consistency and adequate quality and quantity of piece parts, other raw materials and other bill of materials items;
inventory shrinkage or human errors;
defects in production processes (including system assembly) either within our facilities or at our suppliers; and
any transitions or changes in our production process, planned or unplanned.
In the past, we have experienced difficulties in achieving acceptable yields on certain products, which has adversely affected our operating results. We may experience similar problems in the future, and we cannot predict when they may occur or their severity.
In some instances, we may offer products for future delivery at prices based on planned yield improvements or increased cost efficiencies from other production advances. Failure to achieve these planned improvements or advances could have a significant impact on our margins and operating results.
In addition, our ability to convert volume manufacturing to larger diameter substrates can be an important factor in providing a more cost-effective manufacturing process. We continue to prepare for production using 200mm substrates and if we are unable to make this transition in a timely or cost-effective manner, our results could be negatively impacted.
Our results of operations, financial condition and business could be harmed if we are unable to balance customer demand and capacity.
As customer demand for our products changes, we must be able to adjust our production capacity to meet demand. We are continually taking steps to address our manufacturing capacity needs for our products. Currently, we are focusing on increasing production capacity. If we are not able to increase our production capacity at our targeted rate, if there are unforeseen costs associated with increasing our capacity levels, or if we are unable to obtain advanced semiconductor manufacturing equipment in a timely manner, we may not be able to achieve our financial targets. We may be unable to build or qualify new capacity on a timely basis to meet customer demand and customers may fulfill their orders with one of our competitors instead. In addition, as we introduce new products and change product generations, we must balance the production and inventory of prior generation products with the production and inventory of new generation products, whether manufactured by us or our contract manufacturers, to maintain a product mix that will satisfy customer demand and mitigate the risk of incurring cost write-downs on the previous generation products, related raw materials and tooling. Significant or prolonged shortages or delivery delays of our products to our customers could delay their manufacturing and negatively impact our relationships with these customers.
Due to the proportionately high fixed cost nature of our business (such as facility costs), if demand does not materialize at the rate forecasted, we may not be able to scale back our manufacturing expenses or overhead costs quickly enough to correspond to the lower than expected demand. This could result in lower margins and adversely impact our business and results of operations. Additionally, if product demand decreases or we fail to forecast demand accurately, our results may be adversely impacted due to higher costs resulting from lower factory utilization, causing higher fixed costs per unit produced. Changes in product demand from our customers' forecasts may also cause variability in our supply costs if significant adjustments are needed to our forecasted or committed procurement and supply plans. Further, we may be required to recognize impairments on our long-lived assets or recognize excess inventory write-off charges, or excess capacity charges, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations.
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With the opening of our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York, we will experience increased pressure on margins during the period when production begins but before the facility is at full utilization, and in the initial periods we expect these underutilization costs to be substantial as we ramp up the facility. Additionally, our large upfront investment in the facility, or any other new facility, to increase capacity does not guarantee we will need the capacity and we may experience lower than expected capacity once the facility is in production, which could result in further margin pressures.
In addition, our efforts to improve quoted delivery lead-time performance may result in corresponding reductions in order backlog. A decline in backlog levels could result in more variability and less predictability in our quarter-to-quarter revenue and operating results.
Our operating results are substantially dependent on the acceptance of new products.
Our future success may depend on our ability to deliver new, higher performing and/or lower cost solutions for existing and new markets and for customers to accept those solutions. The development of new products is a highly complex process, and we have in some instances experienced delays in completing the development, introduction and qualification of new products which has impacted our results in the past. Our research and development efforts are aimed at solving increasingly complex problems, and we do not expect that all our projects will be successful. The successful development, introduction and acceptance of new products depend on a number of factors, including the following:
qualification and acceptance of our new product and systems designs, specifically entering into automotive applications which require even more stringent levels of qualification and standards;
our ability to effectively transfer increasingly complex products and technology from development to manufacturing, including the transition to 200mm substrates;
our ability to introduce new products in a timely and cost-effective manner;
achievement of technology breakthroughs required to make commercially viable products;
our ability to convert customer design-ins to sales of significant volume, and, if customer design-in activity does result in such sales, when such sales will ultimately occur and what the amount of such sales will be;
the accuracy of our predictions for market requirements;
our ability to predict, influence and/or react to evolving standards;
acceptance of new technology in certain markets;
our ability to protect intellectual property developed in new products;
the availability of qualified research and development personnel;
our timely completion of product designs and development;
our ability to develop repeatable processes to manufacture new products in sufficient quantities, with the desired specifications and at competitive costs;
our ability to secure volume purchase orders related to new products;
our customers’ ability to develop competitive products incorporating our products; and
market acceptance of our products and our customers’ products.
If any of these or other similar factors becomes problematic, we may not be able to deliver and introduce new products in a timely or cost-effective manner.
We face risks relating to our suppliers, including that we rely on a number of key sole source and limited source suppliers, are subject to high price volatility on certain commodity inputs, variations in parts quality, and raw material consistency and availability, and rely on independent shipping companies for delivery of our products.
We depend on a number of sole source and limited source suppliers for certain raw materials, components, services and equipment used in manufacturing our products, including key materials and equipment used in critical stages of our manufacturing processes. Although alternative sources generally exist for these items, qualification of many of these alternative sources could take up to six months or longer. Where possible, we attempt to identify and qualify alternative sources for our sole and limited source suppliers.
We generally purchase these sole or limited source items with purchase orders, and we have limited guaranteed supply arrangements with such suppliers, including take-or-pay arrangements and capacity reserve deposit agreements. Some of our sources can have variations in attributes and availability which can affect our ability to produce products in sufficient volume or quality. We do not control the time and resources that these suppliers devote to our business, and we cannot be sure that these suppliers will perform their obligations to us. Additionally, general shortages in the marketplace of certain raw materials or key components may adversely impact our business. In the past, we have experienced decreases in our production yields when
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suppliers have varied from previously agreed upon specifications or made other modifications we do not specify, which impacted our cost of revenue.
Additionally, the inability of our suppliers to access capital efficiently could cause disruptions in their businesses, thereby negatively impacting ours. This risk may increase from unpredictable and unstable changes in economic conditions, including recession, inflation, or other changes, which may negatively affect key suppliers or a significant number of our other suppliers. Any delay in product delivery or other interruption or variation in supply from these suppliers could prevent us from meeting commercial demand for our products. If we were to lose key suppliers, if our key suppliers were unable to support our demand for any reason or if we were unable to identify and qualify alternative suppliers, our manufacturing operations could be interrupted or hampered significantly.
We rely on arrangements with independent shipping companies for the delivery of our products from vendors and to customers both in the United States and abroad. The failure or inability of these shipping companies to deliver products or the unavailability of shipping or port services, even temporarily, could have a material adverse effect on our business. We may also be adversely affected by an increase in freight surcharges due to rising fuel costs, oil costs and added security.
In our fabrication process, we consume a number of precious metals and other commodities, which are subject to high price volatility and the potential impacts of increased inflation. Our operating margins could be significantly affected if we are not able to pass along price increases to our customers. In addition, production could be disrupted by the unavailability of the resources used in production such as water, silicon, electricity and gases. Future environmental regulations could restrict supply or increase the cost of certain of those materials.
We operate in industries that are subject to significant fluctuation in supply and demand and ultimately pricing, which affects our revenue and profitability.
The industries we serve are in different stages of adoption and are characterized by constant and rapid technological change, rapid product obsolescence and price erosion, evolving standards and fluctuations in product supply and demand. The semiconductor industry is characterized by rapid technological change, high capital expenditures, short product life cycles and continuous advancements in process technologies and manufacturing facilities. As the markets for our products mature, additional fluctuations may result from variability and consolidations within the industry’s customer base. These fluctuations have been characterized by lower product demand, production overcapacity, higher inventory levels and aggressive pricing actions by our competitors. These fluctuations have also been characterized by higher demand for key components and equipment used in, or in the manufacture of, our products resulting in longer lead times, supply delays and production disruptions. We have experienced these conditions in our business and may experience such conditions in the future, which could have a material negative impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
In addition, as we diversify our product offerings and as pricing differences in the average selling prices among our product lines widen, a change in the mix of sales among our product lines may increase volatility in our revenue and gross margin from period to period.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive and have evolving technical requirements.
The markets for our products are highly competitive. In the semiconductor market, we compete with companies that have greater market share, name recognition, distribution and sales channels, and/or technical resources than we do. Competitors continue to offer new products with aggressive pricing, additional features and improved performance. Aggressive pricing actions by our competitors in our businesses could reduce margins if we are not able to reduce costs at an equal or greater rate than the sales price decline.
As competition increases, we need to continue to develop new products that meet or exceed the needs of our customers. Therefore, our ability to continually produce more efficient and lower cost power and RF products that meet the evolving needs of our customers will be critical to our success. Competitors may also try to align with some of our strategic customers. This could lead to lower prices for our products, reduced demand for our products and a corresponding reduction in our ability to recover development, engineering and manufacturing costs. Any of these developments could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We depend on a limited number of customers, including distributors, for a substantial portion of our revenue, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in purchases by, one or more of these customers could adversely affect our operating results.
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We receive a significant amount of our revenue from a limited number of customers and distributors, two of which individually represented more than 10% of our consolidated revenue in fiscal 2023. Many of our customer orders are made on a purchase order basis, which does not generally require any long-term customer commitments. Therefore, these customers may alter their purchasing behavior with little or no notice to us for various reasons, including developing, or, in the case of our distributors, their customers developing, their own product solutions; choosing to purchase or distribute product from our competitors; incorrectly forecasting end market demand for their products; or experiencing a reduction in their market share in the markets for which they purchase our products. If our customers alter their purchasing behavior, if our customers’ purchasing behavior does not match our expectations or if we encounter any problems collecting amounts due from them, our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
Our revenue is highly dependent on our customers’ ability to produce, market and sell more integrated products.
Our revenue depends on getting our products designed into a larger number of our customers’ products and in turn, our customers’ ability to produce, market and sell their products. For example, we have current and prospective customers that create, or plan to create, power and RF products or systems using our substrates, die, components or modules. Even if our customers are able to develop and produce products or systems that incorporate our substrates, die, components or modules, there can be no assurance that our customers will be successful in marketing and selling these products or systems in the marketplace.
Our results may be negatively impacted if customers do not maintain their favorable perception of our brands and products.
Maintaining and continually enhancing the value of our brands is critical to the success of our business. Brand value is based in large part on customer perceptions. Success in promoting and enhancing brand value depends in large part on our ability to provide high-quality products. Brand value could diminish significantly due to a number of factors, including adverse publicity about our products (whether valid or not), a failure to maintain the quality of our products (whether perceived or real), the failure of our products to deliver consistently positive consumer experiences, the products becoming unavailable to consumers or consumer perception that we have acted in an irresponsible manner. Damage to our brand, reputation or loss of customer confidence in our brand or products could result in decreased demand for our products and have a negative impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
If our products fail to perform or fail to meet customer requirements or expectations, we could incur significant additional costs, including costs associated with the recall of those items.
The manufacture of our products involves highly complex processes. Our customers specify quality, performance and reliability standards that we must meet. If our products do not meet these standards, we may be required to replace or rework the products. In some cases, our products may contain undetected defects or flaws that only become evident after shipment and installation. Even if our products meet standard specifications, our customers may attempt to use our products in applications for which they were not designed or in products that were not designed or manufactured properly, resulting in product failures and creating customer satisfaction issues.
We have experienced product quality, performance or reliability problems from time to time and defects or failures may occur in the future. If failures or defects occur, they could result in significant losses or product recalls. A significant product recall could also result in adverse publicity, damage to our reputation and a loss of customer confidence in our products. We also may be the target of product liability lawsuits against us if the use of our products at issue is determined to have caused injury or contained a substantial product hazard.
We provide standard warranty periods of 90 days on our products, with longer periods under a limited number of customer contracts. Although we believe our reserves are appropriate, we are making projections about the future reliability of new products and technologies, and we may experience increased variability in warranty claims. Increased warranty claims could result in significant losses due to a rise in warranty expense and costs associated with customer support.
If we are unable to effectively develop, manage and expand our sales channels for our products, our operating results may suffer.
We sell a portion of our products to distributors, including a distributor that represented more than 10% of our revenue in fiscal 2023. We rely on distributors to develop and expand their customer base as well as to anticipate demand from their customers. If they are not successful, our growth and profitability may be adversely impacted. Distributors must balance the need to have enough products in stock in order to meet their customers’ needs against their internal target inventory levels and the risk of potential inventory obsolescence. The risks of inventory obsolescence are especially relevant to technological products. The distributors’ internal target inventory levels vary depending on market cycles and a number of factors within each distributor over which we have very little, if any, control. Distributors also have the ability to shift business to different manufacturers
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within their product portfolio based on a number of factors, including new product availability and performance. Similarly, we have the ability to add, consolidate, or remove distributors.
We typically recognize revenue on products sold to distributors when the item is shipped and title passes to the distributor (sell-in method). Certain distributors have limited rights to return inventory under stock rotation programs and have limited price adjustment rights for which we make estimates. We evaluate inventory levels in the distribution channel, current economic trends and other related factors in order to account for these factors in our judgments and estimates. As inventory levels and product return trends change or we make changes to our distributor roster, we may have to revise our estimates and incur additional costs, and our gross margins and operating results could be adversely impacted.
As a result of our continued expansion into new markets, we may compete with existing customers who may reduce their orders.
We continue to expand into new markets and new market segments. Many of our existing customers who purchase our silicon carbide substrate materials develop and manufacture devices, die and components using those wafers that are offered in the same power and RF markets. As a result, some of our current customers perceive us as a competitor in these market segments. In response, our customers may reduce or discontinue their orders for our substrate materials. This reduction in or discontinuation of orders could occur faster than our sales growth in these new markets, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Risks associated with our strategic transactions
If we fail to evaluate and execute strategic opportunities successfully, our business may suffer.
From time to time, including the present, we evaluate strategic opportunities available to us for product, technology or business transactions, such as business acquisitions, investments or capacity expansions, joint ventures, divestitures, or spin-offs. If we choose to enter into such strategic transactions, we face certain risks including:
the inability to realize the expected benefits, both from a timing and amount perspective, from our ongoing and planned capacity expansions, including the construction of a new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina and the planned construction of a new 200mm capable silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Saarland, Germany;
the failure of an acquired business, investee or joint venture to meet our performance and financial expectations;
identification of additional liabilities relating to an acquired business;
loss of customers due to perceived conflicts or competition with such customers or due to regulatory actions taken by governmental agencies;
that we are not able to enter into acceptable contractual arrangements in connection with the transaction;
difficulty integrating an acquired business's operations, personnel and financial and operating systems into our current business;
that we are not able to develop and expand customer bases and accurately anticipate demand from end customers, which can result in increased inventory and reduced orders if we experience wide fluctuations in supply and demand;
diversion of management attention;
difficulty separating the operations, personnel and financial and operating systems of a spin-off or divestiture from our current business;
the possibility we are unable to complete the transaction and expend substantial resources without achieving the desired benefit;
the inability to obtain required regulatory agency approvals;
reliance on a transaction counterparty for transition services for an extended period of time, which may result in additional expenses and delay the integration of the acquired business and realization of the desired benefit of the transaction;
uncertainty of the financial markets or circumstances that cause conditions that are less favorable and/or different than expected; and
expenses incurred to complete a transaction may be significantly higher than anticipated.
We may not be able to adequately address these risks or any other problems that arise from our prior or future acquisitions, investments, joint ventures, divestitures or spin-offs. Any failure to successfully evaluate strategic opportunities and address risks or other problems that arise related to any such business transaction could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
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We are subject to a number of risks associated with the sale of the RF Business, and these risks could adversely impact our operations, financial condition and business.
On August 22, 2023, we executed the RF Purchase Agreement with MACOM with respect to the RF Business Divestiture. We are subject to a number of risks associated with this transaction, including risks associated with:
the failure to satisfy, on a timely basis or at all, the closing conditions set forth in the RF Purchase Agreement, including the expiration of the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 and other customary closing conditions;
the separation of the RF Business, and related information technology, from the businesses we are retaining and the operation of our retained business without the RF Business;
issues, delays or complications in completing required transition activities to allow the RF Business to operate under MACOM after the closing, including incurring unanticipated costs to complete such activities;
unfavorable reaction to the sale by customers, competitors, suppliers and employees;
the disruption to and uncertainty in our business and our relationships with our customers, including attempts by our customers to terminate or renegotiate their relationships with us or decisions by our customers to defer or delay purchases from us;
difficulties in hiring, retaining and motivating key personnel during this process or as a result of uncertainties generated by this process or any developments or actions relating to it;
the diversion of our management’s attention away from the operation of the business we are retaining;
the need to incur significant transaction costs in connection with the transaction, regardless of whether it is completed;
the restrictions on and obligations with respect to our business set forth in the RF Purchase Agreement and, following closing, the RF MSA and the transition services agreement, in each case between us and MACOM;
the need to provide transition services in connection with the transaction, which may result in the diversion of resources and focus; and
our failure to realize the full purchase price anticipated under the RF Purchase Agreement, including due to fluctuations in the market price of MACOM’s common stock before we are able to sell the Shares following the RTP Fab Transfer and the forfeiture of one-quarter of the Shares in the event that the RTP Fab Transfer is not completed within four years following the closing of the transaction.
As a result of these risks, we may be unable to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction, including the total amount of cash we expect to realize. Our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction would adversely impact our operations, financial condition and business and could limit our ability to pursue additional strategic transactions.
We are subject to a number of risks associated with the sale of our former LED Products segment, and these risks could adversely impact our operations, financial condition and business.
On March 1, 2021, we completed the sale of our former LED Products segment to SMART Global Holdings, Inc. (SGH) pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement dated October 18, 2020 (the LED Purchase Agreement). We are subject to a number of risks associated with this transaction, including risks associated with:
the restrictions on and obligations with respect to our business set forth in the Wafer Supply Agreement between us and CreeLED; and
any required payments of indemnification obligations under the LED Purchase Agreement for retained liabilities and breaches of representations, warranties or covenants.
As a result of these risks, we may be unable to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction. Our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction would adversely impact our operations, financial condition and business and could limit our ability to pursue additional strategic transactions.
We are subject to risks associated with the sale of our former Lighting Products business unit, and these risks could adversely impact our financial condition.
On May 13, 2019, we closed the sale of our former Lighting Products business unit to IDEAL Industries, Inc. (IDEAL). We are subject to risks associated with this transaction, including risks associated with any required payments of indemnification obligations under the Purchase Agreement with IDEAL for retained liabilities and breaches of representations, warranties or covenants.
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As a result, we may be unable to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction. Our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of the transaction would adversely impact our financial condition and could limit our ability to pursue additional strategic transactions.
Risks associated with cybersecurity, intellectual property and litigation
We may be subject to confidential information theft or misuse, which could harm our business and results of operations.
We face attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to our information technology systems on which we maintain proprietary and other confidential information and such attempts may increase in terms of frequency and severity in light of the sanctions imposed on Russia in response to its invasion of Ukraine. Our security measures may be breached as the result of industrial or other espionage actions of outside parties, employees, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, and as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks, ransomware, or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as cyber-attacks have become more prevalent and harder to detect and fight against. Additionally, outside parties may attempt to access our confidential information through other means, for example by fraudulently inducing our employees to disclose confidential information. We actively seek to prevent, detect and investigate any unauthorized access, which sometimes occurs and is usually not recognized until after it has occurred. To date, we do not believe that such unauthorized access has caused us any material damage. We might be unaware of any such access or unable to determine its magnitude and effects. We are also at risk of security breaches and disruptions occurring at third parties that we work with, including our customers and suppliers. In addition, these threats are constantly evolving, thereby increasing the difficulty of successfully defending against them or implementing adequate preventative measures. The theft and/or unauthorized use or publication of our trade secrets and other confidential business information as a result of such an incident could adversely affect our competitive position, result in a loss of confidence in the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures, cause us to incur significant costs to remedy the damage caused by the incident, divert management's attention and other resources, and reduce the value of our investment in research and development. In addition, the increased prevalence of employees working from home may exacerbate the aforementioned cybersecurity risks. Our business could be subject to significant disruption and we could suffer monetary or other losses.
Our disclosure controls and procedures address cybersecurity and include elements intended to ensure that there is an analysis of potential disclosure obligations arising from security breaches. In addition, we are subject to data privacy, protection and security laws and regulations, including the European General Data Protection Act (GDPR) that governs personal information of European persons. We also maintain compliance programs to address the potential applicability of restrictions against trading while in possession of material, nonpublic information generally and in connection with a cyber-security breach. However, a breakdown in existing controls and procedures around our cyber-security environment may prevent us from detecting, reporting or responding to cyber incidents in a timely manner and could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and value of our stock.
There are limitations on our ability to protect our intellectual property.
Our intellectual property position is based in part on patents owned by us and patents licensed to us. We intend to continue to file patent applications in the future, where appropriate, and to pursue such applications with U.S. and certain foreign patent authorities.
Our existing patents are subject to expiration and re-examination and we cannot be sure that additional patents will be issued on any new applications around the covered technology or that our existing or future patents will not be successfully contested by third parties. Also, because issuance of a valid patent does not prevent other companies from using alternative, non-infringing technology, we cannot be sure that any of our patents, or patents issued to others and licensed to us, will provide significant commercial protection, especially as new competitors enter the market.
We periodically discover products that are counterfeit reproductions of our products or that otherwise infringe on our intellectual property rights. The actions we take to establish and protect trademarks, patents and other intellectual property rights may not be adequate to prevent imitation of our products by others, and therefore, may adversely affect our sales and our brand and result in the shift of customer preference away from our products. Further, the actions we take to establish and protect trademarks, patents and other intellectual property rights could result in significant legal expense and divert the efforts of our technical personnel and management, even if the litigation or other action results in a determination favorable to us.
We also rely on trade secrets and other non-patented proprietary information relating to our product development and manufacturing activities. We try to protect this information through appropriate efforts to maintain its secrecy, including requiring employees and third parties to sign confidentiality agreements. We cannot be sure that these efforts will be successful
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or that the confidentiality agreements will not be breached. We also cannot be sure that we would have adequate remedies for any breach of such agreements or other misappropriation of our trade secrets, or that our trade secrets and proprietary know-how will not otherwise become known or be independently discovered by others.
Litigation could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are often involved in litigation, primarily patent litigation, such as our patent dispute with The Trustees of Purdue University, as discussed further in Note 15, “Commitments and Contingencies,” in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report. Defending against existing and potential litigation will likely require significant attention and resources and, regardless of the outcome, result in significant legal expenses, which could adversely affect our results unless covered by insurance or recovered from third parties. If our defenses are ultimately unsuccessful or if we are unable to achieve a favorable resolution, we could be liable for damage awards that could materially affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Where necessary, we may initiate litigation to enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights, which could adversely impact our relationship with certain customers. Any such litigation may require us to spend a substantial amount of time and money and could distract management from our day-to-day operations. Moreover, there is no assurance that we will be successful in any such litigation.
Our business may be impaired by claims that we, or our customers, infringe the intellectual property rights of others.
Vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights characterize our industry. These traits have resulted in significant and often protracted and expensive litigation. Litigation to determine the validity of patents or claims by third parties of infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights could result in significant legal expense and divert the efforts of our technical personnel and management, even if the litigation results in a determination favorable to us. In the event of an adverse result in such litigation, we could be required to pay substantial damages; indemnify our customers; stop the manufacture, use and sale of products found to be infringing; incur asset impairment charges; discontinue the use of processes found to be infringing; expend significant resources to develop non-infringing products or processes; or obtain a license to use third party technology.
There can be no assurance that third parties will not attempt to assert infringement claims against us, or our customers, with respect to our products. In addition, our customers may face infringement claims directed to the customer’s products that incorporate our products, and an adverse result could impair the customer’s demand for our products. We have also promised certain of our customers that we will indemnify them in the event they are sued by our competitors for infringement claims directed to the products we supply. Under these indemnification obligations, we may be responsible for future payments to resolve infringement claims against them.
From time to time, we receive correspondence asserting that our products or processes are or may be infringing patents or other intellectual property rights of others. If we believe the assertions may have merit or in other appropriate circumstances, we may take steps to seek to obtain a license or to avoid the infringement. We cannot predict, however, whether a license will be available; that we would find the terms of any license offered acceptable; or that we would be able to develop an alternative solution. Failure to obtain a necessary license or develop an alternative solution could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and costs and to suspend the manufacture of affected products.
Risks related to legal, regulatory, accounting, tax and compliance matters
We may be required to recognize a significant charge to earnings if our goodwill or other assets become impaired.
Goodwill and other assets are reviewed for impairment annually and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. Factors that may indicate that the carrying value of our goodwill may not be recoverable include a significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization and slower growth rates in our industry. For other assets such as finite-lived intangible assets and fixed assets, we assess the recoverability of the asset balance when indicators of potential impairment are present. The recognition of a significant charge to earnings in our consolidated financial statements resulting from any impairment of our goodwill or other assets could adversely impact our results of operations.
The adoption of or changes in government and/or industry policies, standards or regulations relating to the efficiency, performance, vehicle range or other aspects of our products and the products in which they are utilized could impact the demand for our products.
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The adoption of or changes in government and/or industry policies, standards or regulations relating to the efficiency, performance, vehicle range or other aspects of our products and the products in which they are utilized or integrated may impact the demand for our products. For example, efforts to change, eliminate or reduce industry or regulatory standards could negatively impact our business. These constraints may be eliminated or delayed by legislative action, which could have a negative impact on demand for our products. Our ability and the ability of our competitors to meet evolving government and/or industry requirements could impact competitive dynamics in the market.
Changes in our effective tax rate or the ability to obtain future tax credits may affect our results and financial condition.
Our future effective tax rates and our ability to obtain future tax credits may affect our results and financial condition due to a number of factors, including:
the jurisdiction in which profits are determined to be earned and taxed;
potential changes in tax laws or alterations in the interpretation of such tax laws and changes in generally accepted accounting principles, for example interpretations and U.S. regulations issued as a result of the significant changes to the U.S. tax law included within the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the TCJA), the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act of 2020 and the Inflation Reduction Act (the IRA);
changes in available tax credits, including the eligibility for or the receipt of the expected benefits from refundable investment tax credits obtained through the CHIPS Act;
the implementation of international tax and profit shifting rules in countries in which we operate, as recommended by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Base Erosion, including the establishment of a minimum tax of 15% on global income;
the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various authorities;
changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
the ongoing restructuring of our existing legal entities, including the restructuring of our Luxembourg holding company;
adjustments to estimated taxes upon finalization of various tax returns;
increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including impairment of goodwill in connection with acquisitions;
the recognition and measurement of uncertain tax positions;
variations in realized tax deductions for certain stock-based compensation awards (such as non-qualified stock options and restricted stock) from those originally anticipated; and
the repatriation of non-U.S. earnings for which we have not previously provided for taxes or any changes in legislation that may result in these earnings being taxed, regardless of our decision regarding repatriation of funds. For example, the TCJA included a one-time tax on deemed repatriated earnings of non-U.S. subsidiaries.
Any significant increase or decrease in our future effective tax rates could impact net (loss) income for future periods. In addition, the determination of our income tax provision requires complex estimations, significant judgments and significant knowledge and experience concerning the applicable tax laws. To the extent our income tax liability materially differs from our income tax provisions due to factors, including the above, which were not anticipated at the time we estimated our tax provision, our net (loss) income or cash flows could be affected.
Failure to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations worldwide could harm our business and results of operations.
The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of hazardous materials that are subject to a broad array of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with any of these applicable laws or regulations could result in regulatory penalties, fines, legal liabilities and the forfeiture of certain tax benefits; suspension of production; alteration of our fabrication, assembly and test processes; and curtailment of our operations or sales.
In addition, our failure to manage the use, transportation, emission, discharge, storage, recycling or disposal of hazardous materials could subject us to significant costs or future liabilities. Existing and future environmental laws and regulations could also require us to acquire pollution abatement or remediation equipment, modify our product designs or incur other expenses, such as permit costs, associated with such laws and regulations. Many new materials that we are evaluating for use in our operations may be subject to regulation under existing or future environmental laws and regulations that may restrict our use of one or more of such materials in our manufacturing, assembly and test processes or products. Any of these restrictions could harm our business and results of operations by increasing our expenses or requiring us to alter our manufacturing processes.
New climate change laws and regulations could require us to change our manufacturing processes or procure substitute raw materials that may cost more or be more difficult to procure. Various jurisdictions in which we do business have implemented,
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or in the future could implement or amend, restrictions on emissions of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases, limitations or restrictions on water use, regulations on energy management and waste management, and other climate change-based rules and regulations, which may increase our expenses and adversely affect our operating results. We expect increased worldwide regulatory activity relating to climate change in the future. Future compliance with these laws and regulations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our results could vary as a result of the methods, estimates and judgments that we use in applying our accounting policies, including changes in the accounting standards to be applied.
The methods, estimates and judgments that we use in applying our accounting policies have a significant impact on our results (see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Annual Report). Such methods, estimates and judgments are, by their nature, subject to substantial risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and factors may arise over time that lead us to change our methods, estimates and judgments. Changes in those methods, estimates and judgments could significantly affect our results of operations or financial condition, such as the change in estimated useful lives of certain assets applied in the first quarter of fiscal 2022.
Likewise, our results may be impacted due to changes in the accounting standards to be applied, such as the changes in convertible debt recognition requirements.
Regulations related to conflict-free minerals may force us to incur additional expenses.
Rules adopted by the SEC under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act impose annual disclosure and reporting requirements for those companies who may use “conflict” minerals mined from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries in their products. We may face challenges with government regulators, our customers and our suppliers if we are unable to sufficiently verify that the metals used in our products are conflict free. Our most recent disclosure regarding our due diligence was filed on May 31, 2023 for calendar year 2022.
General risk factors
We have outstanding debt which could materially restrict our business and adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
As of June 25, 2023, our indebtedness consisted of $575.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 1.75% convertible senior notes due May 1, 2026 (the 2026 Notes), $750.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 0.25% convertible senior notes due February 15, 2028 (the 2028 Notes), $1,750.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 1.875% convertible senior notes due December 1, 2029 (the 2029 Notes) (collectively, the Outstanding Convertible Notes) and $1,250.0 million aggregate principal amount of senior secured notes due 2030 (the 2030 Senior Notes). In addition, on July 5, 2023, we entered into an Unsecured Customer Refundable Deposit Agreement (the “CRD Agreement”) with Renesas Electronics America Inc. (“Renesas America”) pursuant to which Renesas America provided the Company an initial deposit in an aggregate principal amount of $1 billion with a commitment to provide additional deposits in an aggregate principal amount of up to an additional $1 billion at our discretion in calendar year 2024, in connection with our entry into a wafer supply agreement with Renesas Electronics Corporation, an affiliate of Renesas America. Our ability to pay interest and repay the principal for any outstanding indebtedness under the Outstanding Convertible Notes, the 2030 Senior Notes and the CRD Agreement (if applicable) is dependent upon our ability to manage our business operations and generate sufficient cash flows to service such debt. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage any of these risks successfully.
The level of our outstanding debt may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition by, among other things:
increasing our vulnerability to downturns in our business, to competitive pressures and to adverse general economic and industry conditions;
requiring the dedication of an increased portion of our expected cash flows from operations to service our indebtedness, thereby reducing the amount of expected cash flow available for other purposes, including capital expenditures, research and development and stock repurchases;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our peers that may have less indebtedness than we have by limiting our ability to borrow additional funds needed to operate and grow our business; and
increasing our interest expense if interest rates increase.
The Indenture governing the 2030 Senior Notes (the 2030 Senior Notes Indenture) includes a liquidity maintenance financial covenant requiring us to have an aggregate amount of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents maintained in accounts over which the trustee and collateral agent for the 2030 Senior Notes has been granted a perfected first lien security interest of at least
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$500,000,000 as of the last day of any calendar month, which amount will be reduced over time upon the fulfillment of certain conditions. In addition, the 2030 Senior Notes Indenture contains certain restrictions that could limit our ability to, among other things: incur additional indebtedness, dispose of assets, create liens on assets, make acquisitions or engage in mergers or consolidations, and engage in certain transactions with our subsidiaries and affiliates. The 2030 Senior Notes Indenture also requires us to make an offer to repurchase the 2030 Senior Notes with 100% of the net cash proceeds of certain non-ordinary course asset sales and casualty events, subject to the ability to reinvest the proceeds of such casualty events and asset sales (subject to certain limitations), or upon a change of control. The Indentures governing the Outstanding Convertible Notes (the Convertible Notes Indentures) require us to repurchase the Outstanding Convertible Notes upon certain fundamental changes relating to our common stock, and also prohibit our consolidation, merger, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets except with or to a successor entity assuming our obligations under the Indentures. The CRD Agreement contains certain restrictions on our ability to incur debt and liens, consummate non-arm’s-length transactions with affiliates, mergers and consolidations whereby obligations under the CRD Agreement are not assumed, and change the nature of our business. The restrictions imposed by the 2030 Senior Notes Indenture, the Convertible Notes Indentures, and the CRD Agreement could limit our ability to plan for or react to changing business conditions, or could otherwise restrict our business activities and plans.
Our ability to comply with the provisions of the 2030 Senior Notes Indenture, the Convertible Notes Indentures, and the CRD Agreement may also be affected by events beyond our control and if any of these restrictions or terms is breached, it could lead to an event of default under the 2030 Senior Notes, the Outstanding Convertible Notes, and the CRD Agreement. A default, if not cured or waived, may permit acceleration of our indebtedness. In addition, our lenders could terminate their commitments to make further loans under the 2030 Senior Notes Indenture or the CRD Agreement. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we cannot be certain that we will have sufficient funds to pay the accelerated indebtedness or that we will have the ability to refinance accelerated indebtedness on terms favorable to us or at all.
The capped call transactions may not prevent dilution of our common stock upon conversion of the 2028 Notes or the 2029 Notes.
In connection with the pricing of the 2028 Notes and the 2029 Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions with the option counterparties. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of the 2028 Notes and 2029 Notes and/or offset any potential cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of the converted 2028 Notes and 2029 Notes, as the case may be, upon conversion of the 2028 Notes and 2029 Notes. If, however, the market price per share of our common stock, as measured under the terms of the capped call transactions, exceeds the cap price of the capped call transactions (currently $212.04 for the 2028 Notes and $202.538 for the 2029 Notes), there would nevertheless be dilution and/or there would not be an offset of such potential cash payments, in each case, to the extent that such market price exceeds the cap price of the capped call transactions.
Catastrophic events and disaster recovery may disrupt business continuity.
A disruption or failure of our systems or operations in the event of a natural disaster or severe weather event, including, but not limited to, earthquakes, wildfires, droughts, flooding, tornadoes, hurricanes or tsunamis, health pandemic, such as an influenza outbreak within our workforce, or man-made catastrophic event could cause delays in completing sales, continuing production or performing other critical functions of our business, particularly if a catastrophic event were to occur at our primary manufacturing locations or our subcontractors' locations. Global climate change could result in certain natural disasters occurring more frequently or with greater intensity. Any of these events could severely affect our ability to conduct normal business operations and, as a result, our operating results could be adversely affected. There may also be secondary impacts that are unforeseeable as well, such as impacts to our customers, which could cause delays in new orders, delays in completing sales or even order cancellations.
In order to compete, we must attract, motivate and retain key employees, and our failure to do so could harm our results of operations.
Hiring and retaining qualified executives, scientists, engineers, technical staff, sales personnel and production personnel is critical to our business, and competition for experienced employees in our industry can be intense. As a global company, this issue is not limited to the United States, but includes our other locations such as Europe and Asia. For example, there is substantial competition for qualified and capable personnel, particularly experienced engineers and technical personnel, which may make it difficult for us to recruit and retain qualified employees. If we are unable to staff sufficient and adequate personnel at our facilities, we may experience lower revenue or increased manufacturing costs, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
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To help attract, motivate and retain key employees, we use benefits such as stock-based compensation awards. If the value of such awards does not appreciate, as measured by the performance of the price of our common stock or if our stock-based compensation otherwise ceases to be viewed as a valuable benefit, our ability to attract, retain and motivate employees could be weakened, which could harm our business and results of operations.
Our stock price may be volatile.
Historically, our common stock has experienced substantial price volatility, particularly as a result of significant fluctuations in our revenue, earnings and margins over the past few years, and variations between our actual financial results and the published expectations of analysts. For example, the closing price per share of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange ranged from a low of $39.48 to a high of $122.07 during the twelve months ended June 25, 2023. If our future operating results or margins are below the expectations of stock market analysts or our investors, our stock price will likely decline.
Speculation and opinions in the press or investment community about our strategic position, financial condition, results of operations or significant transactions can also cause changes in our stock price. In particular, competition in some of the markets we address such as electric vehicles and 5G, the ramp up of our business, and the effect of tariffs or COVID-19 on our business, may have a dramatic effect on our stock price.
Additionally, actions taken by the option counterparties in the capped call transactions entered into in connection with the 2028 Notes and the 2029 Notes may affect our stock price, including the potential modifications of their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock.
We are exposed to fluctuations in the market value of our investment portfolio and in interest rates, and therefore, impairment of our investments or lower investment income could harm our earnings.
We are exposed to market value and inherent interest rate risk related to our investment portfolio. We have historically invested portions of our available cash in fixed interest rate securities such as high-grade corporate debt, commercial paper, municipal bonds, certificates of deposit, government securities and other fixed interest rate investments. The primary objective of our cash investment policy is preservation of principal. However, these investments are generally not Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured and may lose value and/or become illiquid regardless of their credit rating.
From time to time, we have also made investments in public and private companies that engage in complementary businesses.
We may be subject to volatility and uncertainty in customer demand, supply chains, worldwide economies and financial markets resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic or other outbreak of infectious disease or similar public health threat.
We have significant manufacturing operations in the United States and contract manufacturing agreements in Asia, which were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to try to contain it. We initially experienced some limited disruptions in supply from some of our suppliers, although the disruptions to date have not been significant. At some of our contract manufacturers in Asia, which include captive lines and contract packaging facilities, we have experienced, and may experience in the future, some disruptions in supply from containment measures.
Restrictions on access to our manufacturing facilities or on our support operations or workforce, or similar limitations for our vendors and suppliers, and restrictions or disruptions of transportation, such as reduced availability of air transport, port closures, and increased border controls or closures in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic or future outbreaks of infectious diseases or similar public health events could limit our ability to meet customer demand, lead to increased costs and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty. These uncertainties also make it more difficult for us to assess the quality of our product order backlog and to estimate future financial results. The COVID-19 pandemic initially caused an economic slowdown, and the continued spread of COVID-19 and its variants or future outbreaks of infectious diseases or similar public health events could contribute to or exacerbate a global economic slowdown or recession, which could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the state courts of North Carolina will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees or agents.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for all litigation relating to our internal affairs, including without limitation (i) any derivative action or
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proceeding brought on behalf of Wolfspeed, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of Wolfspeed to Wolfspeed or our shareholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the North Carolina Business Corporation Act (the NCBCA), our restated articles of incorporation, as amended, or our amended and restated bylaws, (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce, or determine the validity of our restated articles of incorporation, as amended, or our amended and restated bylaws, or (v) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, shall be the state courts of North Carolina, or if such courts lack jurisdiction, a federal court located within the State of North Carolina, in all cases subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. Any such action filed in a North Carolina state court shall be designated by the party filing the action as a mandatory complex business case. In any such action where the NCBCA specifies the division or county wherein the action must be brought, the action shall be brought in such division or county. Our amended and restated bylaws also provide that, notwithstanding the foregoing, (x) the provisions described above will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction, and (y) unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action against Wolfspeed or any director, officer, employee, or agent of Wolfspeed and arising under the Securities Act.
If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
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Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters, primary research and development operations, and primary manufacturing operations are located within our Durham, North Carolina facilities that we own, which sits on 141 acres of owned land.
Our products are also produced at owned manufacturing facilities located in Research Triangle Park (RTP), North Carolina and Marcy, New York and at leased facilities in Morgan Hill, California and Fayetteville, Arkansas. Our RTP facility sits on 55 acres of owned land and our Marcy, New York facility sits on 55 acres of leased land.
In addition, we recently purchased an existing facility in Farmers Branch, Texas, which will be used for materials production, and are in the process of constructing two new materials manufacturing facilities in North Carolina, including our materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina which sits on 446 acres of owned land.
Some of our products are also produced at contract manufacturing facilities throughout Asia. We maintain captive lines at some of our contract manufacturers.
We also maintain sales and support offices in leased office premises in North America, Asia, and Europe.
Details on our significant owned and leased facilities as of June 25, 2023 are as follows:
LocationPrincipal UseApproximate square footage
Owned Facilities
Durham, North Carolina - Silicon Drive SiteAdministrative, Production and R&D1,054,000 
Marcy, New YorkProduction560,000 
Research Triangle Park, North CarolinaProduction189,000 
Leased Facilities
Morgan Hill, CaliforniaProduction84,000 
Fayetteville, ArkansasR&D/Production40,000 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The information required by this item is set forth under Note 15, “Commitments and Contingencies,” in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Common Stock Market Information
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol WOLF. There were 231 holders of record of our common stock as of August 17, 2023. Holders of record are defined as those shareholders whose shares are registered in their names in our stock records and do not include beneficial owners of common stock whose shares are held in the names of brokers, dealers or clearing agencies.
Stock Performance Graph
The following information in this Item 5 of this Annual Report is not deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Exchange Act or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The following graph and related table compare the cumulative total return on our common stock with the cumulative total returns of the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Philadelphia Semiconductor Index, assuming an investment of $100.00 on June 24, 2018 and the reinvestment of dividends.
1755
6/24/20186/30/20196/28/20206/27/20216/26/20226/25/2023
Wolfspeed, Inc.$100.00 $117.88 $121.15 $206.86 $149.81 $103.74 
Nasdaq Composite Index100.00 105.24 129.57 192.09 156.35 183.37 
Philadelphia Semiconductor Index100.00 108.74 145.86 249.32 211.77 277.14 
Sale of Unregistered Securities
Other than as previously reported in our Current Reports on Form 8-K, there were no unregistered securities sold during fiscal 2023.
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Dividends
In the past, we have not declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not expect to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Instead, we anticipate that all of our earnings, if any, will be used for the operation and growth of our business. Any future determinations to declare cash dividends would be subject to the discretion of our board of directors and would depend upon various factors, including our results of operations, financial condition and capital requirements, restrictions that may be imposed by applicable law and our indebtedness, and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
Item 6. Reserved
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Executive Summary
The following discussion is designed to provide a better understanding of our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, including a brief discussion of our business and products, key factors that impacted our performance and a summary of our operating results. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report. Historical results and percentage relationships among any amounts in the financial statements are not necessarily indicative of trends in operating results for any future periods. Unless otherwise noted, the following information and discussion relates to our continuing operations.
Industry Dynamics and Trends
There are a number of industry factors that affect our business which include, among others:
Supply Constraints. The semiconductor industry has experienced supply constraints for certain items. While we have successfully managed through challenges relating to obtaining certain necessary raw materials and production and processing equipment thus far, and have continued to see supply availabilities and lead times stabilize across many direct materials, we expect the supply situation for certain items to remain tight for at least the next few quarters. In addition, the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine may further exacerbate supply constraints. The current high demand for our products has also led to supply constraints for our customers. We are working closely with our customer base to best match our supply to their demand. We have taken steps to provide continuity to our customers to the extent possible, including entering into purchase agreements and providing customer reserve deposits with our suppliers to secure future supply to us, although we expect that our production capacity constraints as we continue to bring additional capacity online may continue to limit our shipments to our customers in the near term.
Overall Demand for Products and Applications Using Our Wolfspeed Materials and Devices. Our potential for growth depends significantly on the continued adoption of silicon carbide and GaN materials and device products in the power and RF markets, the continued use of silicon devices in the RF telecommunications market and our ability to win new designs for these applications. Demand also fluctuates based on various domestic and global economic and market cycles, continuously evolving industry supply chains, trade and tariff terms, and inflationary impacts, as well as evolving competitive dynamics in each of the respective markets. These uncertainties make demand difficult to forecast for us and our customers. For example, decreasing consumer or industrial demand as a result of an economic slowdown or recession may lead our customers to delay designing in our products. Over the past six months, we have been seeing softening demand for our RF products but significantly higher demand for our power products. We believe the increased demand for our power products reflects the value that the industry places on a transition to silicon carbide materials and devices while also evidencing the growing global focus on adopting higher efficiency energy solutions, including electric vehicle and related technologies. We believe these trends could have a significant positive impact on revenues in future periods as we increase capacity to meet this increased demand, but in the short and near term we expect to face production capacity constraints while we continue to work to bring additional capacity online.
Intense and Constantly Evolving Competitive Environment. Competition in the industries we serve is intense. Many companies have made significant investments in product development, production equipment and production facilities. To remain competitive, market participants must continuously increase product performance, reduce costs and develop improved ways to serve their customers. To address these competitive pressures, we have invested in new production facilities, as well as research and development activities to support new product development, lower product costs and deliver higher levels of performance to differentiate our products in the market. In addition, we invest in systems, people and new processes to improve our ability to deliver a better overall experience for our customers. Market participants often undertake pricing strategies to gain or protect market share, increase the utilization of their production capacity and open new applications in the power and RF markets we serve.
Governmental Trade and Regulatory Conditions. Our potential for growth, as with most multi-national companies, depends on a balanced and stable trade, political, geopolitical, economic and regulatory environment among the countries where we do business. Changes in trade policy, such as the imposition or extension of tariffs or export bans to specific customers or countries, including China's recently announced export restriction of gallium and germanium, two metals used in the manufacturing of semiconductors and electronics, could reduce or limit demand, or increase the cost of production, of our products in certain markets.
Technological Innovation and Advancement. Innovations and advancements in materials, power, and RF technologies continue to expand the potential commercial application for our products. However, new technologies or standards could emerge or improvements could be made in existing technologies that could reduce or limit the demand for our products in certain markets.
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Intellectual Property Issues. Market participants rely on patented and non-patented proprietary information relating to product development, manufacturing capabilities and other core competencies of their business. Protection of intellectual property is critical. Therefore, steps such as additional patent applications, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements, as well as other security measures are generally taken. To enforce or protect intellectual property rights, litigation or threatened litigation is common.
Fiscal 2023 Overview
The following is a summary of our financial results for the year ended June 25, 2023:
Our year-over-year revenue increased by $175.7 million to $921.9 million.
Gross margin decreased to 30.3% from 33.4%. Gross profit increased to $279.5 million from $249.3 million.
Operating loss from continuing operations was $380.6 million in fiscal 2023 compared to $247.8 million in fiscal 2022.
Diluted loss per share from continuing operations was $2.65 in fiscal 2023 compared to $2.46 in fiscal 2022.
Combined cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments increased to $2,954.9 million at June 25, 2023 from $1,198.8 million at June 26, 2022.
Long-term debt, net, including convertible notes, was $4,175.1 million at June 25, 2023 and $1,021.6 million at June 26, 2022. As discussed further below and in Note 10, "Long-term Debt," in our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report, we sold $1,750.0 million aggregate principal amount of 2029 Notes in the second quarter of fiscal 2023 and $1,250.0 million aggregate principal amount of 2030 Senior Notes in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023.
Net cash used in operating activities of continuing operations was $142.6 million in fiscal 2023 compared to $154.2 million in fiscal 2022.
Purchases of property and equipment, net were $800.3 million (net of $155.5 million in reimbursements) in fiscal 2023 compared to $505.9 million (net of $139.0 million in reimbursements) in fiscal 2022.
Design-ins were $8.3 billion in fiscal 2023 compared to $6.4 billion in fiscal 2022.
Business Outlook
We believe we are uniquely positioned as an innovator in the global semiconductor industry. The strength of our balance sheet provides us the ability to invest in our business, as indicated by our new state-of-the-art, automated 200mm silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York, where we recently started revenue generating production. In addition, an expansion of our materials factory at our U.S. campus headquarters in Durham, North Carolina, the construction of a new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina, and the recently announced plan to construct a new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Saarland, Germany are all expected to increase our production capacity.
We are primarily focused on investing in our business to expand the scale, further develop the technologies, and accelerate the growth opportunities of silicon carbide materials, silicon carbide power devices and modules. We believe these efforts will support our goals of delivering higher revenue and shareholder returns over time.
In addition, we are focused on improving the number of usable items in a production cycle (yield) as our manufacturing technologies become more complex. Despite increased complexities in our manufacturing processes, we believe we are in a position to improve yield levels to support our future growth, particularly as we transition more production to our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York.
We believe we have the ability to navigate the current environment while maintaining our capital expenditure plans to support future growth to meet long-term demand, which demand in the short-term and mid-term appears to be ahead of the industry's supply capabilities. Our expansion plans to increase supply include the continued build out of our new facility in New York, the construction of additional production capacity in North Carolina and the planned construction of a new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Saarland, Germany. For fiscal 2024, we target approximately $2.0 billion of net capital investment.
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Design-ins
Design-ins are customer commitments to purchase our products and are one of the factors we use to forecast long-term demand and future revenue. To meet the qualification of a design-in, the customer provides us with documentation (e.g., a letter of intent, statement of work or developmental contract) that can include details such as the expected delivery timeline, estimated price, necessary capacity and required support. A design-in, even with a formal commitment, does not always convert to future revenue for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, the customer delaying or abandoning the project, capacity constraints, timeline challenges, and/or technology changes. Therefore, management uses the design-in amount as a guide to forecast future demand but it should not be taken as an absolute indicator of future revenue.
Results of Operations
Selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended June 25, 2023, June 26, 2022 and June 27, 2021 is as follows:
Fiscal Years Ended
 June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 2021
(in millions of U.S. Dollars, except share data)Amount% of RevenueAmount% of RevenueAmount% of Revenue
Revenue, net$921.9 100.0 %$746.2 100.0 %$525.6 100.0 %
Cost of revenue, net642.4 69.7 %496.9 66.6 %361.0 68.7 %
Gross profit279.5 30.3 %249.3 33.4 %164.6 31.3 %
Research and development225.4 24.4 %196.4 26.3 %177.8 33.8 %
Sales, general and administrative235.3 25.5 %203.5 27.3 %181.6 34.6 %
Factory start-up costs160.2 17.4 %70.0 9.4 %8.0 1.5 %
Amortization or impairment of acquisition-related intangibles10.9 1.2 %13.6 1.8 %14.5 2.8 %
Abandonment of long-lived assets— — %— — %73.9 14.1 %
Loss (gain) on disposal or impairment of other assets2.0 0.2 %(0.3)— %1.6 0.3 %
Other operating expense26.3 2.9 %13.9 1.9 %21.1 4.0 %
Operating loss(380.6)(41.3)%(247.8)(33.2)%(313.9)(59.7)%
Non-operating (income) expense, net(52.1)(5.7)%38.3 5.1 %26.3 5.0 %
Loss before income taxes(328.5)(35.6)%(286.1)(38.3)%(340.2)(64.7)%
Income tax expense1.4 0.2 %9.0 1.2 %1.1 0.2 %
Net loss from continuing operations(329.9)(35.8)%(295.1)(39.5)%(341.3)(64.9)%
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations— — %94.2 12.6 %(181.2)(34.5)%
Net loss(329.9)(35.8)%(200.9)(26.9)%(522.5)(99.4)%
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— — %— — %1.4 0.3 %
Net loss attributable to controlling interest($329.9)(35.8)%($200.9)(26.9)%($523.9)(99.7)%
Basic and diluted loss per share
Continuing operations($2.65)($2.46)($3.04)
Net loss attributable to controlling interest($2.65)($1.67)($4.66)
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Revenue
Revenue was comprised of the following:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Power Products$408.9 $276.4 $132.8 $132.5 48 %$143.6 108 %
Materials Products$349.3 $295.5 $241.6 $53.8 18 %$53.9 22 %
RF Products$163.7 $174.3 $151.2 ($10.6)(6)%$23.1 15 %
Revenue$921.9 $746.2 $525.6 $175.7 24 %$220.6 42 %
The increase in revenue for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to growth in our power product line, where we increased production capacity to meet strong demand. Increased production capacity for our materials product line also contributed to increased revenues, partially offset by decreased revenues for our RF product line as a result of softening demand.
The increase in revenue for fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to increased demand across all of our product lines, as well as increased production capacity for our power and materials product lines to meet the strong demand during the period.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Gross profit and gross margin were as follows:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Gross profit$279.5 $249.3 $164.6 $30.2 12 %$84.7 51 %
Gross margin30 %33 %31 %
The increase in gross profit for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to increased revenues in our power and materials product lines, partially offset by decreased revenue in our RF product line, increased production costs, unfavorable product mix and higher stock-based compensation costs.
The decrease in gross margin for fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to increased production costs and unfavorable product mix. These impacts were partially offset by a gross margin improvement in the current period resulting from realizing the full impact of our early fiscal 2022 change in estimate to increase our expected useful lives of certain machinery and equipment assets to more closely reflect the estimated economic lives of those assets.*
* The change in our expected useful lives was applied in the first quarter of fiscal 2022 but had limited impact on that period's gross profit and gross margin because the majority of the impact in the first quarter of fiscal 2022 resulted in a reduction of inventory.
The increase in gross profit for fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to increased revenues in the current period and lower production costs, including the impact of increasing the expected useful lives of certain machinery and equipment assets to more closely reflect the estimated economic lives of those assets. The increase in gross margin for fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to the same factors as the increase to gross profit, partly offset by product mix.
As explained further below, the operating costs of each of our new facilities will largely be reflected in cost of revenue, net once such facility reaches revenue generating production. During the period when production begins, but before the facility is at its expected utilization level, we expect some of the costs to operate the facility will not be absorbed into the cost of inventory. We expect that these costs will be substantial as we ramp up the facility to the expected or normal utilization level. The costs incurred to operate the facility in excess of the costs absorbed into inventory are referred to as underutilization costs and are expensed as incurred to cost of revenue, net. We expect gross profit and gross margin to be significantly impacted in future periods from these underutilization costs in connection with our new facility construction and expansion projects, the costs of which to date have solely been expensed as factory start-up costs.
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Research and Development
Research and development expenses include costs associated with the development of new products, enhancements of existing products and general technology research. These costs consisted primarily of employee salaries and related compensation costs, occupancy costs, consulting costs and the cost of development equipment and supplies. Research and development costs also include developing supporting technologies for expansion of our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York.
Research and development expenses were as follows:
Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Research and development$225.4 $196.4 $177.8 $29.0 15 %$18.6 10 %
Percent of revenue24 %26 %34 %
The increases in research and development expenses were primarily due to our continued investment in our silicon carbide and GaN technologies, including the development of existing silicon carbide materials and fabrication technology for next generation platforms and expansion of our power and RF product portfolio.
Our research and development expenses vary significantly from year to year based on a number of factors, including the timing of new product introductions and the number and nature of our ongoing research and development activities.
Sales, General and Administrative
Sales, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses are comprised primarily of costs associated with our sales and marketing personnel and our executive and administrative personnel (for example, finance, human resources, information technology and legal) and consist of salaries and related compensation costs; consulting and other professional services (such as litigation and other outside legal counsel fees, audit and other compliance costs); marketing and advertising expenses; facilities and insurance costs; and travel and other costs.
SG&A expenses were as follows:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Sales, general and administrative$235.3 $203.5 $181.6 $31.8 16 %$21.9 12 %
Percent of revenue26 %27 %35 %
The increase in SG&A expenses in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to increased salaries and benefits from increased headcount, including incentive based stock-based compensation, as well as increases in professional services, sponsorship, and travel costs.
The increase in SG&A expenses in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to increased salaries and benefits from increased headcount, including incentive based stock-based compensation, as well as increased consulting, legal and travel costs, partially offset by a decrease in costs related to transition services incurred in the first half of fiscal 2021 in connection with the sale of our former Lighting Products business unit.
Factory Start-up Costs
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Factory start-up costs$160.2 $70.0 $8.0 $90.2 129 %$62.0 775 %
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Factory start-up costs relate to expanding our production footprint to support expected growth. Increases in all periods presented are primarily due to the progression of construction and start-up of our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York, the start of construction on our new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina and the materials expansion activities at our Durham, North Carolina location.
Factory start-up costs relate to facilities that have not yet started revenue generating production. When a new facility begins revenue generating production, the operating costs of that facility previously expensed as start-up costs will instead be primarily expensed as part of the cost of the production within the cost of revenue, net line item in our statement of operations. For example, our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York began revenue generating production at the end of fiscal 2023 and the costs of this facility will be primarily reflected in cost of revenue, net in future periods.
Amortization or Impairment of Acquisition-Related Intangibles
As a result of our acquisitions, we have recognized various amortizable intangible assets, including customer relationships, developed technology and non-compete agreements.
Amortization of intangible assets related to our acquisitions was as follows:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Customer relationships$6.1 $6.1 $6.1 $— — %$— — %
Developed technology4.8 5.4 5.4 (0.6)(11)%— — %
Non-compete agreements— 2.1 3.0 (2.1)(100)%(0.9)(30)%
Total$10.9 $13.6 $14.5 ($2.7)(20)%($0.9)(6)%
Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets decreased in all periods presented due to certain intangible assets reaching the end of their useful lives. No other significant acquisition-related intangible activity or impairments occurred between the periods.
Abandonment of Long-Lived Assets
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, we modified our long-range plan regarding a portion of our Durham, North Carolina campus originally intended for expanding our LED production capacity that we had considered using to expand the manufacturing footprint for our silicon carbide materials product line. After we complete our current ongoing silicon carbide materials production capacity expansion in Durham, we plan on further expansion of our silicon carbide materials production capacity outside of the Durham campus. As a result, we decided we will no longer complete the construction of certain buildings on the Durham campus. Accordingly, an expense of $73.9 million was recorded based upon an updated valuation of the property in connection with the preparation of our financial statements for the fiscal year ended June 27, 2021.
Loss (gain) on Disposal or Impairment of Other Assets
We operate a capital-intensive business. As such, we dispose of a certain level of our equipment in the normal course of business as our production processes change due to production improvement initiatives or product mix changes. Due to the risk of technological obsolescence or changes in our production process, we regularly review our long-lived assets and capitalized patent costs for possible impairment.
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Loss (gain) on disposal or impairment of other assets were as follows:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Loss (gain) on disposal or impairment of other assets$2.0 ($0.3)$1.6 $2.3 (767)%($1.9)(119)%
Loss (gain) on disposal or impairment of other assets primarily relate to proceeds from asset sales offset by write-offs of fixed asset projects, as well as the write-offs of impaired or abandoned patents. Additionally, the gain on disposal or impairment of other assets for the fiscal year ended June 26, 2022 includes a $0.7 million net gain related to consideration received from the early payment of the unsecured promissory note (the Purchase Price Note) issued by SGH at the closing of the LED Business Divestiture (as defined below), as discussed in Note 3, "Discontinued Operations," in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Other Operating Expense
Other operating expense was comprised of the following:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Project, transformation and transaction costs22.9 6.6 7.3 16.3 247 %(0.7)(10)%
Factory optimization restructuring costs— 6.1 7.6 (6.1)(100)%(1.5)(20)%
Severance costs3.4 1.2 6.2 2.2 183 %(5.0)(81)%
Other operating expense$26.3 $13.9 $21.1 $12.4 89 %($7.2)(34)%
Project, transformation and transaction costs primarily relate to professional services fees associated with completed and potential acquisitions and divestitures, as well as internal transformation programs focused on optimizing our administrative processes.
Factory optimization restructuring costs relate to our multi-year factory optimization restructuring plan, which was implemented in connection with our expansion activities between fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2022. As part of the factory optimization restructuring plan, we incurred restructuring charges associated with the movement of equipment as well as disposals on certain long-lived assets. The factory optimization restructuring plan concluded in fiscal 2022.
The increase in other operating expense in all periods is primarily due to increased professional service fees associated with completed and potential acquisitions and divestitures.
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Non-Operating (Income) Expense, net
Non-operating (income) expense, net was comprised of the following:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Interest income($58.2)($11.8)($10.1)($46.4)393 %($1.7)(17)%
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest42.6 25.1 45.4 17.5 70 %(20.3)(45)%
Gain on arbitration proceedings(50.3)— — (50.3)(100)%— — %
Loss on debt extinguishment— 24.8 — (24.8)(100)%24.8 100 %
Gain on equity investment— — (8.3)— — %8.3 100 %
Loss on Wafer Supply Agreement13.6 0.8 0.8 12.8 1,600 %— — %
Gain on sale of investments, net— (0.3)(0.4)0.3 100 %0.1 25 %
Other, net0.2 (0.3)(1.1)0.5 167 %0.8 73 %
Non-operating (income) expense, net($52.1)$38.3 $26.3 ($90.4)(236)%$12.0 46 %
Interest income. The increase in interest income in both periods was primarily driven by increased short-term investment balances, as well as increased returns on our short-term investments. Our short-term investment balances increased significantly in the second quarter of fiscal 2023 resulting from the net proceeds we received from the sale of the 2029 Notes.
The increase in interest income in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to interest income received on our previously held note receivable from SGH in connection with the LED Business Divestiture, partially offset by decreased investment returns from our short-term investment securities.
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest. The increase in interest expense in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to interest from our 2029 Notes and 2030 Senior Notes, which were not outstanding as of June 26, 2022. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in interest expense from our 2028 Notes, primarily due to the adoption of ASU 2020-06, which eliminated interest expense relating to the accretion on discount in the current period. In addition, an increase in interest expense from our 1.75% convertible senior notes due May 1, 2026 (the 2026 Notes), the interest of which was fully capitalized in fiscal 2022 but was almost fully expensed in fiscal 2023, was offset by a decrease in interest expense from our 0.875% convertible senior notes due September 1, 2023 (the 2023 Notes), which were extinguished in the second quarter of fiscal 2022.
The decrease in interest expense in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to capitalizing interest on the 2026 Notes in connection with the building of our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in New York, which we began capitalizing in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021. The decrease in interest expense resulting from the extinguishment of the 2023 Notes in the second quarter of fiscal 2022 was mostly offset by an increase in interest expense from the sale of the 2028 Notes in the third quarter of fiscal 2022.
Gain on arbitration proceedings. In the first quarter of fiscal 2023, we received an arbitration award in relation to a former customer failing to fulfill contractual obligations to purchase a certain amount of product over a period of time. In the second quarter of fiscal 2023, a final payment was received. The gain recognized is net of legal fees incurred.
Loss on debt extinguishment. In the second quarter of fiscal 2022, all of our then-outstanding 2023 Notes were converted into shares of our common stock, which resulted in a loss on extinguishment of $24.8 million. See Note 10, "Long-term Debt," to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report for additional information.
Gain on equity investment. The gain on equity investment for fiscal 2021 relates to changes in fair value of our previously held ENNOSTAR Inc. (ENNOSTAR) investment. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, we liquidated our common stock ownership interest in ENNOSTAR. We no longer hold any equity interest in ENNOSTAR.
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Loss on Wafer Supply Agreement. In connection with the completed sale of our former LED Products business unit to SGH and its wholly owned subsidiary CreeLED, Inc. (CreeLED and collectively with SGH, SMART) in fiscal 2021, we entered into a Wafer Supply and Fabrication Services Agreement (the Wafer Supply Agreement), pursuant to which we supply CreeLED with certain silicon carbide materials and fabrication services for up to four years. We recognized a supply agreement liability in connection with this agreement, which reached full amortization in the second quarter of fiscal 2023. We expect losses from this agreement to continue through December 2025.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense and our effective tax rate was as follows:
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Income tax expense$1.4 $9.0 $1.1 (7.6)(84)%7.9 718 %
Effective tax rate— %(3)%— %
The change in the effective tax rate from (3)% in fiscal 2022 as compared to 0% in fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2021 was primarily due to $7.3 million of income tax expense recognized in the second quarter of fiscal 2022 related to the restructuring of our Luxembourg holding company.
In general, the variation between our effective income tax rate and the current U.S. statutory rate of 21.0% is primarily due to: (i) changes in our valuation allowances against deferred tax assets, (ii) income derived from international locations with differing tax rates than the U.S., and (iii) tax credits generated.
Net Loss from Discontinued Operations
We have classified the results of our former LED Products segment (the LED Business) as discontinued operations in our consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. We ceased recording depreciation and amortization of long-lived assets of the LED Business upon classification as discontinued operations in October 2020.
We recorded net income from discontinued operations of $94.2 million and net loss from discontinued operations of $181.2 million in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Net income from discontinued operations in fiscal 2022 related to the receipt of an unsecured promissory note from CreeLED as additional consideration to satisfy the earnout obligations pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement (the LED Purchase Agreement), dated October 18, 2020, as amended. The additional consideration was based upon the revenue and gross profit performance of the LED Products Business in the first four full fiscal quarters following the closing.
Net loss from discontinued operations in fiscal 2021 included a $112.6 million goodwill impairment, a $19.5 million impairment to assets held for sale associated with the LED Business Divestiture and a $29.1 million loss on sale.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
We require cash to fund our operating expenses and working capital requirements, including the purchase of goods and services in the ordinary course of business such as raw materials, supplies and capital equipment, as well as outlays for research and development, strategic acquisitions and investments. Our principal sources of liquidity are cash on hand, marketable securities and our ability to issue additional 2030 Senior Notes, subject to certain conditions precedent, as discussed in Note 10, "Long-term Debt," to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Based on past performance and current expectations, we believe our current working capital and anticipated cash flows from operations will be adequate to meet our cash needs for our daily operations and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. With the strength of our working capital position, we believe that we have the ability to continue to invest in the near-term expansion of our production capacity, further develop our product portfolio and, when necessary or appropriate, make selective acquisitions or other strategic investments to strengthen our product portfolio or secure key intellectual properties. However, even with our strong working capital position, we expect to need additional funding to fully complete all of our intended capacity expansions.
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Sources of Liquidity
The following table sets forth our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments:
(in millions of U.S. Dollars)June 25, 2023June 26, 2022Change
Cash and cash equivalents$1,757.0 $449.5 $1,307.5 
Short-term investments1,197.9 749.3 448.6 
Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments$2,954.9 $1,198.8 $1,756.1 
The significant components of our working capital are liquid assets such as cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable and inventories reduced by accounts payable and accrued expenses.
In the second quarter of fiscal 2022, all outstanding 2023 Notes were surrendered for conversion following our issuance on December 8, 2021 of a notice to holders of the 2023 Notes calling for the redemption of all outstanding 2023 Notes, resulting in the settlement of the previously outstanding $424.8 million aggregate principal amount of 2023 Notes in approximately 7.1 million shares of our common stock.
In the third quarter of fiscal 2022, we issued and sold a total of $750.0 million aggregate principal amount of 2028 Notes, as discussed in Note 10, "Long-term Debt," to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report. The total net proceeds of the 2028 Notes was $732.3 million, of which we used $108.2 million to fund the cost of entering into capped call transactions.
In the second quarter of fiscal 2023, we issued and sold a total of $1,750.0 million aggregate principal amount of 2029 Notes, as discussed in Note 10, "Long-term Debt," to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report. The total net proceeds of the 2029 Notes was $1,718.6 million, of which we used $273.9 million to fund the cost of entering into capped call transactions.
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, we sold $1,250 million aggregate principal amount of 2030 Senior Notes, as discussed in Note 10, "Long-term Debt," to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report. The total net proceeds of the 2030 Senior Notes was approximately $1,149.3 million. We expect to use the net proceeds for general corporate purposes.
In connection with the sale of our 2030 Senior Notes, we terminated the $125.0 million secured revolving line of credit under which we were able to borrow, repay and reborrow loans from time to time prior to its scheduled maturity date of January 9, 2026.
In addition, we received early payments on two unsecured promissory notes issued to us in connection with the sale of certain assets and subsidiaries comprising the LED Business to SMART on March 1, 2021 (the LED Business Divestiture). In the third quarter of fiscal 2022, we received an early payment in the amount of $125.0 million, along with outstanding accrued and unpaid interest as of the payment date, relating to the unsecured promissory note issued with the completion of the transaction. In the first quarter of fiscal 2023, we received an early payment in the amount of $101.8 million in connection with the unsecured promissory note issued in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022 as an earn-out payment.
As of June 25, 2023, we had unrealized losses on our short-term investments of $22.7 million. All of our short-term investments had investment grade ratings, and any such investments that were in an unrealized loss position at June 25, 2023 were in such position due to interest rate changes, sector credit rating changes or company-specific rating changes. We evaluate our short-term investments for expected credit losses. We believe we are able to and we intend to hold each of the investments held with an unrealized loss as of June 25, 2023 until the investments fully recover in market value. No allowance for credit losses was recorded as of June 25, 2023.
From time to time, we evaluate strategic opportunities, including potential acquisitions, joint ventures, divestitures, spin-offs or investments in complementary businesses, and we have continued to make such evaluations. We may also access capital markets through the issuance of debt or equity, which we may use in connection with the acquisition of complementary businesses or other significant assets or for other strategic opportunities or general corporate purposes.
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Expected Uses of Liquidity
We recently opened our new silicon carbide device fabrication facility in Marcy, New York, to expand capacity for production of our silicon carbide devices. We now expect to invest approximately $2.0 billion in construction, equipment and other related costs for the new facility, of which approximately $500 million is expected to be reimbursed over time by the State of New York Urban Development Corporation (doing business as Empire State Development) under a Grant Disbursement Agreement (the GDA). As of June 25, 2023, we have spent approximately $900 million and received $305.2 million in reimbursements.
Additionally, we recently started construction on a new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina. Through fiscal 2024, we expect to invest approximately $1.3 billion in construction, equipment and other related costs for the new facility, net of estimated refundable federal investment tax credits and capital grants we expect to receive through the CHIPS Act. The timing and amount of these estimated CHIPS Act incentives is uncertain and could happen after fiscal 2024. In addition, the facility is also further supported by an approximately $1.0 billion long-term incentive package from state, county and local governments, primarily in the form of property tax reimbursements and sales tax exemptions.
We also recently announced the intention to build a highly automated, cutting-edge wafer fabrication facility in Saarland, Germany. We expect to invest approximately $3.5 billion in construction, equipment and other related costs for the new facility, with the vast majority of such investment occurring after fiscal 2024.
For fiscal 2024, we target approximately $2.0 billion of net capital investment, which is primarily related to capacity and infrastructure projects to support longer-term growth and strategic priorities. This target is highly dependent on the timing and overall progress on our new silicon carbide fabrication facility in New York and the construction of our new materials manufacturing facility in Siler City, North Carolina. Our target net capital investment figure is net of approximately $150 million of expected reimbursements from the GDA during the fiscal year.
For more details on the GDA, see Note 15, "Commitments and Contingencies," in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
In addition, we may also apply for and potentially sell tax credits as part of the Inflation Reduction Act to further fund our expansion initiatives.
We have a take-or-pay supplier agreement that requires a minimum of $200 million of purchases over the next five years, as outlined further in Note 15, "Commitments and Contingencies," to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Given our current cash position, we believe we will be able to fund daily operations for at least the next 12 months but we expect to need additional funding to fully complete all of our previously announced planned expansion initiatives described above. We may seek to obtain funding through, among other avenues, government funding in both the United States or Europe, public or private equity offerings and debt financings (which may involve retiring some of our existing debt).
In addition to ordinary operating expenses, our estimated future obligations consist of leases, debt, and interest on long-term debt. For a description of contractual obligations, including lease and debt obligations, see Note 5, "Leases," Note 10, "Long-term Debt," and Note 15, "Commitments and Contingencies," in our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Cash Flows
In summary, our cash flows were as follows (in millions of U.S. Dollars):
 Fiscal Years EndedYear-Over-Year Change
 June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 20212022 to 20232021 to 2022
Cash used in operating activities($142.6)($154.2)($125.5)$11.6 ($28.7)
Cash used in investing activities(1,147.0)(391.0)(448.6)(756.0)57.6 
Cash provided by financing activities2,597.1 615.9 504.1 1,981.2 111.8 
Effect of foreign exchange changes— (0.2)0.2 0.2 (0.4)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents$1,307.5 $70.5 ($69.8)$1,237.0 $140.3 
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Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities decreased in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 primarily due to a smaller increase in working capital in the current period compared to the prior period, which was primarily driven by increased customer reserve deposits received and a smaller increase in accounts receivable, net, both of which offset increased inventory growth. This was partially offset by an increase in net loss during the period.
Net cash used in operating activities increased in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 primarily due to decreased working capital as a result of inventory growth and increased receivables as a result of revenue growth.
Total cash flows from operating activities in fiscal 2021 includes $13.0 million of cash used in operating activities of discontinued operations.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Our investing activities primarily relate to short-term investment transactions, purchases of property and equipment, and property and equipment related reimbursements.
The increase in net cash used in investing activities in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 was primarily due to an increase in net purchases of short-term investments of $436.2 million and an increase in net property and equipment purchases of $294.4 million.
The decrease in net cash used in investing activities in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily due to a $53.9 million decrease in net property and equipment purchases and a $81.3 million net increase in proceeds from the LED Business Divestiture, partially offset by a $12.5 million increase in net purchases of short-term investments. Additionally, we received $66.4 million in net proceeds from the liquidation of our ENNOSTAR equity investment in fiscal 2021.
Total cash used in investing activities in fiscal 2021 includes $0.3 million of cash used in investing activities of discontinued operations.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities in fiscal 2023 primarily consisted of $2.9 billion in net proceeds from issuing the 2029 Notes and the 2030 Senior Notes, partially offset by $273.9 million in cash paid for the capped call transactions in connection with issuing the 2029 Notes.
Net cash provided by financing activities in fiscal 2022 primarily consisted of $732.3 million in net proceeds from issuing the 2028 Notes, partially offset by $108.2 million in cash paid for the capped call transactions.
Net cash provided by financing activities in fiscal 2021 primarily consisted of net proceeds of $503.5 million from issuances of common stock in connection with an at-the-market program in the third quarter of fiscal 2021 and issuances of common stock pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options.
Financial and Market Risks
We are exposed to financial and market risks, including changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates and commodities risk. We have entered, and may in the future enter, into foreign currency derivative financial instruments in an effort to manage or hedge some of our foreign exchange rate risk. We may not be able to engage in hedging transactions in the future, and even if we do, foreign currency fluctuations may still have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial performance. All of the potential changes noted below are based on sensitivity analysis performed on our financial positions at June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022. Actual results may differ materially.
Interest Rate Risk
We maintain an investment portfolio principally composed of money market funds, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, U.S. agency securities, U.S. treasury securities, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and variable rate demand notes. In order to minimize risk, our cash management policy permits us to acquire investments rated “A” grade or better. As of June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022, our cash equivalents and short-term investments had a fair value of $1,456.0 million and $993.6 million, respectively. If interest rates were to hypothetically increase by 100 basis points, the fair value of our short-term investments would decrease by $14.6 million at June 25, 2023 and $9.9 million at June 26, 2022.
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Currency Rate and Price Risk
All of our operations have a functional currency of the U.S. Dollar. However, we operate internationally and have transactions denominated in foreign currencies, and therefore we are exposed to currency exchange rate risks. Fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect our expenses and results of operations as well as the value of our assets and liabilities.
Commodities
We utilize significant amounts of precious metals, gases and other commodities in our manufacturing processes. General economic conditions, market specific changes or other factors outside of our control may affect the pricing of these commodities. We do not use financial instruments to hedge commodity prices.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not use off-balance sheet arrangements with unconsolidated entities or related parties, nor do we use any other forms of off-balance sheet arrangements. Accordingly, our liquidity and capital resources are not subject to off-balance sheet risks from unconsolidated entities. As of June 25, 2023, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in Item 303(b) of SEC Regulation S-K.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In the application of U.S. GAAP, we are required to make estimates that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements. Changes in the accounting estimates from period to period are reasonably likely to occur. Accordingly, actual results could differ significantly from the estimates made by management. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation of our financial condition or results of operations may be affected.
We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis, including those related to revenue recognition, valuation of inventories, tax related contingencies, valuation of stock-based compensation, valuation of long-lived and intangible assets, other contingencies and litigation, among others. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions, including expected trends that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.
Our significant accounting policies and a description of recent accounting pronouncements are discussed in Note 2, “Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report. We believe that the following are our most critical accounting estimates, each of which is critical to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and requires our most difficult, subjective and complex judgments. Our management has reviewed our critical accounting estimates and the related disclosures with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.
Revenue Recognition
For the year ended June 25, 2023, approximately a third of our revenue was from sales to distributors. Distributors stock inventory and sell our products to their own customer base, which may include: value added resellers; manufacturers who incorporate our products into their own manufactured goods; or ultimate end users of our products. We recognize revenue upon shipment of our products to our distributors. This arrangement is often referred to as a “sell-in” or “point-of-purchase” model as opposed to a “sell-through” or “point-of-sale” model, where revenue is deferred and not recognized until the distributor sells the product through to their customer.
Our distributors may be provided limited rights that allow them to return or scrap a portion of inventory (product exchange rights or stock rotation rights) and receive credits for changes in selling prices (price protection rights) or customer pricing arrangements under our “ship and debit” program or other targeted sales incentives. When determining our net revenue, we make significant judgments and estimates corresponding with product shipments. We recognize a reserve for estimated future returns, changes in selling prices, and other targeted sales incentives when product ships. We also recognize an asset for the estimated value of product returns that we believe will be returned to inventory in the future and resold, and these estimates are based upon historical data, current economic trends, distributor inventory levels and other related factors. Our financial condition and operating results are dependent upon our ability to make reliable estimates. Actual results may vary and could have a significant impact on our operating results.
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Under the ship and debit program, products are sold to distributors at negotiated prices and the distributors are required to pay for the products purchased within our standard commercial terms. Subsequent to the initial product purchase, a distributor may request a price allowance for a particular part number(s) for certain target customers, prior to the distributor reselling that particular part to the customer. If we approve an allowance and the distributor resells the product to the target customer, we credit the distributor according to the allowance we approved. These credits are applied against a reserve we establish upon initial shipment of product to the distributor.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We write-down our inventories for estimated obsolescence equal to the difference between the cost of the inventory and its estimated market value based upon an aging analysis of the inventory on hand, specifically known inventory-related risks (such as technological obsolescence), and assumptions about future demand. We also analyze sales levels by product type, including historical and estimated future customer demand for those products to determine if any additional reserves are appropriate. For example, we adjust for items that are considered obsolete based upon changes in customer demand, manufacturing process changes or new product introductions that may eliminate demand for the product. In addition, our international sales and purchases are subject to numerous United States and foreign laws and regulations which may limit or restrict our sales and shipments to foreign customers. Any adjustment to our inventories as a result of an estimated obsolescence or net realizable condition is reflected as a component of our cost of revenue.
In order to determine what costs can be included in the valuation of inventories, we determine normal capacity for our manufacturing facilities based on historical patterns. If our estimates regarding customer demand are inaccurate, or market conditions or technology change in ways that are less favorable than those projected by management, we may be required to take excess capacity charges in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results.
Deferred Tax Asset Valuation Allowances
In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 740, “Income Taxes” (ASC 740), we evaluate all available evidence, both positive and negative, to determine whether, based on the weight of that evidence, a deferred tax asset is more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the adequacy of a recognized valuation allowance, we consider all available positive and negative evidence to estimate if sufficient future taxable income of the right character will be generated to utilize the existing deferred tax assets by jurisdiction. This consideration includes a variety of factors such as historical and projected future taxable income and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. When we establish or increase a valuation allowance, our income tax expense increases in the period such determination is made. If we decrease a valuation allowance, our income tax expense decreases in the period such a determination is made.
Tax Contingencies
We are subject to periodic audits of our income tax returns by federal, state, local and foreign agencies. These audits typically include questions regarding our tax filing positions, including the timing and amount of deductions and the allocation of income among various tax jurisdictions. In accordance with ASC 740, we regularly evaluate the exposures associated with our various tax filing positions. ASC 740 states that a tax benefit should not be recognized for financial statement purposes for an uncertain tax filing position where it is not more likely than not (likelihood of greater than 50%) of being sustained by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position.
In accordance with the provisions of ASC 740, we establish unrecognized tax benefits (as a reduction to the deferred tax asset or as an increase to other liabilities) to reduce some or all of the tax benefit of any of our tax positions at such time that we determine the position has become uncertain based upon one of the following: the tax position is not “more likely than not” to be sustained; the tax position is “more likely than not” to be sustained, but for a lesser amount; or the tax position is “more likely than not” to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, we presume the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and case law and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. We adjust these unrecognized tax benefits, including any impact on the related interest and penalties, in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the progress of a tax audit.
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A number of years may elapse before a particular matter for which we have established an unrecognized tax benefit is audited and fully resolved. To the extent we prevail in matters for which we have established an unrecognized benefit or are required to pay amounts in excess of what we have recognized, our effective tax rate in a given financial statement period could be materially affected. An unfavorable tax settlement might require use of our cash, existing deferred tax assets, and/or result in an increase in our effective tax rate in the year of resolution. A favorable tax settlement would be recognized as a reduction in our effective tax rate in the year of resolution.
Stock-Based Compensation
We account for awards of stock-based compensation under our employee stock-based compensation plans using the fair value method. Accordingly, we estimate the grant date fair value of our stock-based awards and amortize this fair value to compensation expense over the requisite service period or vesting term. We currently use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP) awards. The grant date fair value of performance stock units that vest upon meeting certain market conditions is estimated using the Monte Carlo valuation model. The determination of the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our then current stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include the expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors, the risk-free interest rate and expected dividends.
Due to the inherent limitations of option-valuation models, future events that are unpredictable and the estimation process utilized in determining the valuation of the stock-based awards, the ultimate value realized by award holders may vary significantly from the amounts expensed in our financial statements. For restricted stock and stock unit awards, grant date fair value is based upon the market price of our common stock on the date of the grant. This fair value is then amortized to compensation expense over the requisite service period or vesting term. As of June 25, 2023, we have $119.1 million of unrecognized compensation cost related to nonvested awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.19 years.
We estimate expected forfeitures at the time of grant and revise this estimate, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from initial estimates. Our determination of an estimated forfeiture rate is primarily based upon a review of historical experience but may also include consideration of other facts and circumstances we believe are indicative of future activity. The assessment of an estimated forfeiture rate will not alter the total compensation expense to be recognized, only the timing of this recognition as compensation expense is adjusted to reflect instruments that actually vest.
Long-Lived Assets
We evaluate long-lived assets such as property, equipment and finite-lived intangible assets, such as patents, for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets recognized in our financial statements may not be recoverable. Factors that we consider include whether there has been a significant decrease in the market value of an asset, a significant change in the way an asset is being used, or a significant change, delay or departure in our strategy for that asset. Our assessment of the recoverability of long-lived assets involves significant judgment and estimation. These assessments reflect our assumptions, which, we believe, are consistent with the assumptions hypothetical marketplace participants use. Factors that we must estimate when performing recoverability and impairment tests include, among others, the economic life of the asset, sales volumes, prices, cost of capital, tax rates, and capital spending. These factors are often interdependent and therefore do not change in isolation. If impairment is indicated, we first determine if the total estimated future cash flows on an undiscounted basis are less than the carrying amounts of the asset or assets. If so, an impairment loss is measured and recognized. Our impairment loss calculations require that we apply judgment in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, including estimating useful lives of the assets. To make these judgments, we may use internal discounted cash flow estimates, quoted market prices when available and independent appraisals as appropriate to determine fair value. If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be required to recognize additional impairment losses which could be material to our results of operations.
After an impairment loss is recognized, a new, lower cost basis for that long-lived asset is established. Subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the reversal of a previously recognized impairment loss.
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Goodwill
We test goodwill for impairment at least annually as of the first day of the fiscal fourth quarter, or when indications of potential impairment exist. We monitor for the existence of potential impairment indicators throughout the fiscal year. We conduct impairment testing for goodwill at the reporting unit level. Reporting units, as defined by FASB ASC 350, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other,” may be operating segments as a whole or an operation one level below an operating segment, referred to as a component. We have determined that we have one reporting unit.
We may initiate goodwill impairment testing by considering qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s carrying value is greater than its fair value. Such factors may include the following, among others: a significant decline in the reporting unit’s expected future cash flows; a sustained, significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization; a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate, unanticipated competition; and slower growth rates; as well as changes in management, key personnel, strategy, and customers. If our qualitative assessment indicates that goodwill impairment is more likely than not, we determine the amount by which the reporting unit's carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill.
We compare the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. We derive a reporting units fair value through a combination of the market approach (a guideline transaction method) and the income approach (a discounted cash flow analysis). The market and income approaches require significant judgment, including estimation of future revenues, gross margins, and operating expenses, which are dependent on internal forecasts, current and anticipated economic conditions and trends, selection of market multiples through assessment of the reporting unit’s performance relative to peer competitors, the estimation of the long-term revenue growth rate and discount rate from the capital asset pricing model and the determination of our weighted average cost of capital. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the fair value of the goodwill reporting unit, potentially resulting in a non-cash impairment charge. The fair values are reconciled back to our consolidated market capitalization.
If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, then we conclude that no goodwill impairment has occurred. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value, we recognize an impairment loss in an amount equal to the excess, not to exceed the carrying value of the reporting units goodwill. Once an impairment loss is recognized, the adjusted carrying value of the goodwill becomes the new accounting basis of the goodwill for the reporting unit.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
See the section entitled “Financial and Market Risks” included in Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Annual Report.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
 

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Wolfspeed, Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Wolfspeed, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, shareholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 25, 2023, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of June 25, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended June 25, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of June 25, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Changes in Accounting Principle

As discussed in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for convertible debt on June 27, 2022.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the
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company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Reserves for Distributor Programs - Ship and Debit

As described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, products are sold to distributors at negotiated prices and the distributors are required to pay for the products purchased within the Company’s standard commercial terms. Certain distributors are provided customer pricing arrangements under the Company’s “ship and debit” program. Distributor sales approximate a third of total net revenue of $921.9 million for the year ended June 25, 2023. Management makes estimates of changes in selling prices when the corresponding product ships. These estimates are calculated based upon historical experience, product shipment analysis, current economic conditions, on-hand inventory at the distributor, and customer contractual arrangements. Accordingly, estimates for these rights are recognized at the time of sale as a contract liability and a reduction of product revenue. The associated reserves for ship and debit program to distributors make up a significant portion of the accrued contract liabilities account balance of $43.0 million.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to ship and debit reserves for distributor programs is a critical audit matter are the high degree of auditor effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to current economic conditions, historical experience and on-hand inventory at the distributor.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s estimate of the reserves for the ship and debit program. These procedures also included, among others (i) testing management’s process for determining the estimate for ship and debit reserve, (ii) testing the completeness and accuracy of data inputs to the ship and debit reserve calculation, and (iii) evaluating the reasonableness of the significant assumptions used by management related to current economic conditions, historical experience and on-hand inventory at the distributor. Evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to current economic conditions, historical experience and on-hand inventory at the distributor involved evaluating whether the significant assumptions used by management were reasonable considering management’s historical claim experience and whether the assumptions were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit.

/s/PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Raleigh, North Carolina
August 23, 2023

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2013.
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WOLFSPEED, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
June 25, 2023June 26, 2022
in millions of U.S. Dollars, except share data in thousands
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$1,757.0 $449.5 
Short-term investments1,197.9 749.3 
Total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments2,954.9 1,198.8 
Accounts receivable, net154.8 150.2 
Inventories327.5 227.0 
Income taxes receivable0.8 1.3 
Prepaid expenses36.8 32.1 
Other current assets131.7 151.4 
Current assets held for sale 1.6 
Total current assets3,606.5 1,762.4 
Property and equipment, net2,191.4 1,481.1 
Goodwill359.2 359.2 
Intangible assets, net115.9 125.4 
Long-term receivables2.6 104.7 
Deferred tax assets1.2 1.0 
Other assets309.9 83.7 
Total assets$6,586.7 $3,917.5 
Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$536.9 $307.7 
Accrued contract liabilities43.0 37.0 
Income taxes payable9.6 11.6 
Finance lease liabilities0.5 0.5 
Other current liabilities37.9 31.7 
Total current liabilities627.9 388.5 
Long-term liabilities:
Long-term debt1,149.5  
Convertible notes, net3,025.6 1,021.6 
Deferred tax liabilities3.9 3.2 
Finance lease liabilities - long-term9.2 9.6 
Other long-term liabilities148.7 55.3 
Total long-term liabilities4,336.9 1,089.7 
Commitments and contingencies
Shareholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, par value $0.01; 3,000 shares authorized at June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022; none issued and outstanding
  
Common stock, par value $0.00125; 200,000 shares authorized at June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022; 124,794 and 123,795 shares issued and outstanding at June 25, 2023 and June 26, 2022, respectively
0.2 0.2 
Additional paid-in-capital3,711.0 4,228.4 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(25.1)(25.3)
Accumulated deficit(2,064.2)(1,764.0)
Total shareholders’ equity1,621.9 2,439.3 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$6,586.7 $3,917.5 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements
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WOLFSPEED, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
 Fiscal Years Ended
 June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 2021
in millions of U.S. Dollars, except share data
Revenue, net$921.9 $746.2 $525.6 
Cost of revenue, net642.4 496.9 361.0 
Gross profit279.5 249.3 164.6 
Operating expenses:
Research and development225.4 196.4 177.8 
Sales, general and administrative235.3 203.5 181.6 
Factory start-up costs160.2 70.0 8.0 
Amortization or impairment of acquisition-related intangibles10.9 13.6 14.5 
Abandonment of long-lived assets  73.9 
Loss (gain) on disposal or impairment of other assets2.0 (0.3)1.6 
Other operating expense26.3 13.9 21.1 
Operating loss(380.6)(247.8)(313.9)
Non-operating (income) expense, net(52.1)38.3 26.3 
Loss before income taxes(328.5)(286.1)(340.2)
Income tax expense1.4 9.0 1.1 
Net loss from continuing operations(329.9)(295.1)(341.3)
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations 94.2 (181.2)
Net loss(329.9)(200.9)(522.5)
Net income from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interest  1.4 
Net loss attributable to controlling interest($329.9)($200.9)($523.9)
Basic and diluted loss per share
Continuing operations($2.65)($2.46)($3.04)
Net loss attributable to controlling interest($2.65)($1.67)($4.66)
Weighted average shares - basic and diluted (in thousands)124,374 120,120 112,346 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements
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WOLFSPEED, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
 Fiscal Years Ended
 June 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 2021
in millions of U.S. Dollars
Net loss($329.9)($200.9)($522.5)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Reclassification of currency translation gain to loss on sale of discontinued operations  (9.5)
Net unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities0.2 (28.0)(3.8)
Comprehensive loss(329.7)(228.9)(535.8)
Net income from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interest  1.4 
Comprehensive loss attributable to controlling interest($329.7)($228.9)($537.2)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements
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WOLFSPEED, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS<
 Fiscal Years Ended
in millions of U.S. DollarsJune 25, 2023June 26, 2022June 27, 2021
Operating activities:
Net loss($329.9)($200.9)($522.5)
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations 94.2 (181.2)
Net loss from continuing operations(329.9)(295.1)(341.3)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization164.0 129.8 120.9 
Amortization of debt issuance costs and discount, net of non-cash capitalized interest7.5 20.1 32.8 
Loss on extinguishment of debt 24.8  
Stock-based compensation81.9 60.9 53.2 
Abandonment of long-lived assets  73.9 
Loss on disposal or impairment of long-lived assets, including loss on disposal portion of factory optimization and start-up costs3.8 1.0 5.0 
Amortization of (premium) discount on investments, net(4.7)6.1 6.9 
Realized gain on sale of investments (0.3)(0.4)
Gain on equity investment  (8.3)
Foreign exchange gain on equity investment  (2.2)
Deferred income taxes0.5 0.7 0.9 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net(4.6)(54.3)(23.5)
Inventories(97.5)(68.8)(44.6)