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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
 
FORM 10-K
 
 
 
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 001-33251 
 
 
 
a01uvelogo.jpg
UNIVERSAL INSURANCE HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
 
Delaware
65-0231984
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1110 West Commercial Blvd., Suite 100, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309
(Address of principal executive offices)                 (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (954) 958-1200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class 
Name of each exchange on which registered 
Common Stock, $.01 Par Value
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
 
 
 
  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller Reporting Company
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    ☐  Yes    ☒  No




State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was sold as of June 30, 2018: $1,121,994,034.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of Common Stock of Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc. as of February 21, 2019: 34,902,179.

 





UNIVERSAL INSURANCE HOLDINGS, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
Item 16.
 
 
 
Exhibit 21:
 
List of Subsidiaries
 
 
Exhibit 23.1:
 
CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
 
Exhibit 31.1:
 
CERTIFICATION
 
 
Exhibit 31.2:
 
CERTIFICATION
 
 
Exhibit 32:
 
CERTIFICATION
 
 

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DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Information called for in PART III of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed within 120 days of the close of the registrant’s fiscal year in connection with the registrant’s annual meeting of shareholders.
 
 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In addition to historical information, this report may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The forward-looking statements anticipate results based on our estimates, assumptions and plans that are subject to uncertainty. These forward-looking statements may be identified by their use of words like “plans,” “seeks,” “expects,” “will,” “should,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “believes,” “likely,” “targets” and other words with similar meanings. These statements may address, among other things, our strategy for growth, catastrophe exposure management, product development, investment results, regulatory approvals, market position, expenses, financial results, litigation and reserves. We believe that these statements are based on reasonable estimates, assumptions and plans. However, if the estimates, assumptions or plans underlying the forward-looking statements prove inaccurate or if other risks or uncertainties arise, actual results could differ materially from those communicated in these forward-looking statements. A detailed discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included in the section titled “Risk Factors” (Part I, Item 1A of this report). We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.



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PART I

ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
Overview
Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc. (“UVE,” and together with its wholly-owned subsidiaries, “we,” “our,” “us,” or “the Company”) is a holding company offering property and casualty (“P&C”) insurance and value-added insurance services. We develop, market and underwrite insurance products for consumers predominantly in the personal residential homeowners lines of business and perform substantially all other insurance-related services for our primary insurance entities, including risk management, claims management, and distribution. Our primary insurance entities, Universal Property & Casualty Insurance Company (“UPCIC”) and American Platinum Property and Casualty Insurance Company (“APPCIC” and together with UPCIC, the “Insurance Entities”), offer insurance products through both our appointed independent agent network and our online distribution channels across 17 states (primarily in Florida), with licenses to write insurance in an additional three states. The Insurance Entities seek to produce an underwriting profit over the long term (defined as earned premium less losses, loss adjustment expense, policy acquisition costs and other operating costs); maintain a strong balance sheet to prepare for years in which the Insurance Entities are not able to achieve an underwriting profit; and generate investment income on assets exceeding short-term operating needs.
Business Strategy
UVE’s strategic focus is on creating a best-in-class experience for our customers, which is supported by our experience of more than 20 years providing protection solutions. Our business strategy leverages our differentiated capabilities to support the Insurance Entities across all aspects of the insurance value chain to provide our customers with a streamlined experience. We continue to evaluate ways in which we can improve the customer experience, provide disciplined underwriting, maintain a strong balance sheet backed by our reinsurance programs and geographic diversification, and maximize earnings stability through inversely correlated or complementary high-quality earnings streams. In 2019 we rebranded certain of our subsidiaries to better serve our Insurance Entities, distinctly identify our capabilities, and position us for continued growth in the future. We have made substantial efforts in recent years to improve our claims operation, including reductions in our claim resolution time and an intensified effort to collect subrogation for the benefit of the Insurance Entities and their policyholders.
Products and Services
Insurance Products
UPCIC (which accounts for the vast majority of our Insurance Entities’ business) currently offers the following types of personal residential insurance: homeowners, renters/tenants, condo unit owners, and dwelling/fire. UPCIC also offers allied lines, coverage for other structures, and personal property, liability and personal articles coverages. APPCIC currently writes the same lines of insurance as UPCIC, but for properties valued in excess of $1 million. In addition, APPCIC writes, to a much lesser degree, commercial residential multi-peril insurance.
Risk Management
Our subsidiary, Evolution Risk Advisors (“ERA”, formerly Universal Risk Advisors, Inc.), is the managing general agent (“MGA”) for the Insurance Entities. In this capacity, ERA advises on actuarial issues, oversees distribution, administers claims payments, performs policy administration and underwriting, and assists with reinsurance negotiations. ERA’s underwriting service evaluates insurance risk and exposures on an individual and portfolio basis and assists the Insurance Entities with pricing risks. All underwriting is performed utilizing our state-approved underwriting manuals as the basis of our rate-making and risk assessment. ERA collects fees from the Insurance Entitles for the services it provides, as well as certain policy fees from insureds. Our subsidiary, Wicklow Inspection Corporation (“WIC”, formerly known as Universal Inspection Corporation), supports ERA by conducting inspections as part of our underwriting process.
The Insurance Entities rely heavily on reinsurance to limit potential exposure to catastrophic events, and in most years our single largest cost is the expense for our reinsurance coverage . In conjunction with ERA, our fully-licensed reinsurance intermediary, Blue Atlantic Reinsurance Corporation (“BARC”), partners with third-party reinsurance brokers to place and manage its reinsurance program for the Insurance Entities. BARC receives commission revenue, net of third-party co-broker fees, from reinsurers in connection with these services.

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Claims Management
Our subsidiary, Alder Adjusting Corporation (“AAC”, formerly known as Universal Adjusting Corporation), manages our claims processing and adjustment functions from claim inception to conclusion for our Insurance Entities, which we believe allows us to increase efficiency and provide a high level of customer service. AAC’s Fast Track initiative (“Fast Track”) has expedited the claims settlement process to close certain types of claims in as little as 24 hours through analysis and on-site field adjusting. In addition to our in-house claims operation, we assign a small percentage of field inspections to third-party adjusters to enable us to continue to provide high quality and timely service following a catastrophe, such as a hurricane in coastal states, and during any other period of unusually high claim volume. Through our continuous improvement and operational excellence initiatives, we continue to evaluate ways in which we can improve the customer’s claims experience on a rolling basis. AAC’s data intelligence allows the Insurance Entities, ERA and our reinsurance partners to identify trends and refine the underwriting process and guidelines to adequately price risk. Our claims management operations provide cost-effective solutions in servicing claims for the Insurance Entities and generates additional fee income from adjusting claims ceded to reinsurers.
We have substantially grown our claims litigation team to more effectively and efficiently protect our rights in litigation, including through subrogation. Subrogation is the act of pursuing a third party that caused an insurance loss to the insured in order to recover from the third party the amount the insurance carrier paid to the insured.
Distribution
We market and sell our products primarily through our network of over 9,300 licensed independent agents (4,300 in Florida). In addition to our independent agent force, we offer policies through our direct-to-consumer online distribution platforms. Our strong relationships with our independent agents and their relationships with their customers are critical to our ability to identify, attract and retain profitable business. We actively participate in the recruitment and training of our independent agents and provide each agency with training sessions on topics such as underwriting guidelines and submitting claims. We also engage a third-party market representative to assist in ongoing training and recruitment initiatives in all of the states in which we write business.
We utilize an attractive commission-based compensation plan as an incentive for independent agents to place business with us. We also strive to provide excellent service to our independent agents and brokers, which has yielded long-standing partnerships with our independent agents, a number of which have relationships that span more than a decade) that benefit the Company in our target markets through hard and soft market cycles. Our internal staff and specialists provide support to our independent agents by providing access to our in-house technology systems to assist with the delivery of service to our policyholders. This arrangement creates a collaborative environment between the Company and our independent agents on continuous improvement initiatives and allows our independent agents to provide quotes within minutes. Our technology systems have evolved into a highly valued tool that enables agents to quickly understand the status of a policy and assist their clients with policy-related questions.
In addition to distributing our products through our independent agent network, we also utilize our differentiated direct-to-consumer online distribution platforms. Universal DirectSM was launched in 2016 to enable homeowners to directly purchase, pay for and bind homeowners policies online without the need to directly interface with any intermediaries. Universal DirectSM was offered in all 17 states in which we do business as of December 31, 2018.
Lastly, we recently introduced a multi-purpose online distribution platform in Florida, CloveredSM, which enables consumers to “Prepare, Protect, and Recover” from the unexpected with educational resources that we plan to eventually supplement with the ability to purchase a policy online.
Financing
Our subsidiary, Atlas Premium Finance Company (“Atlas”), generates fee income by offering premium financing to consumers of insurance products in Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina.
Real Estate
The Grand Palm Development Group (“Grand Palm”) is UVE’s real estate development entity, which we have created to diversify UVE’s investment portfolio. Grand Palm developed and operates a 16-unit condominium development in Tequesta, Florida, and is developing a high-end five-unit condominium project on Singer Island, Florida. Grand Palm also evaluates undeveloped parcels of land for investment opportunities on an ongoing basis.

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Investments

Excess funds from the Insurance Entities and UVE are invested with third-party investment advisers. The Investment Committee of our Board of Directors (the “Board of Directors” or the “Board”) oversees these advisers and reports overall investment results to our Board, at least on a quarterly basis. The investment activities of the Insurance Entities are subject to regulation and supervision by the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation (“FLOIR”). See below under “—Government Regulation.” The Insurance Entities may only make investments that are consistent with regulatory guidelines, and our investment policies for the Insurance Entities accordingly limit the amount of investments in, among other things, non-investment grade fixed maturity securities (including high-yield bonds), preferred stock and common stock, and prohibit purchasing securities on margin. The primary objectives of our investment portfolio are the preservation of capital and providing adequate liquidity for claims payments and other cash needs. Our investment portfolio’s secondary investment objective is to provide a sufficient total rate of return with an emphasis on investment income. We focus on relatively short-term investments, with approximately 14.9% of the fair value of our portfolio with contractual maturities due in one year or less, and another 48.2% due after one year but before five years. While we seek to appropriately limit the size and scope of investments in our portfolio, UVE is not similarly restricted by statutory investment guidelines governing insurance companies. Therefore, the investments made by UVE may differ from those made by the Insurance Entities.

See “Part II, Item 8—Note 3 (Investments)” and “Part I, Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Investments” for more information about our investments.

Markets and Competition
Markets
We sell insurance products in the following 17 states: Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia. We have additional licenses to write on an admitted basis in Illinois, Iowa and West Virginia. During 2018, our total direct premiums written was 85.1% in Florida and 14.9% in other states. The Florida market as a whole tends to consistently be a top-three personal residential homeowners insurance market in the United States based on direct premium written, due in large part to pricing levels that seek to address the hurricane risk exposure in the state (from June 1 through November 30), population, and property ownership, which consequentially leads to an increase in real estate development activity.
We have historically experienced higher direct premiums written just prior to the second quarter of our fiscal year and lower direct premiums written approaching the fourth quarter, as a result of consumer behaviors in the Florida residential real estate market and the hurricane season affecting coastal states. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Our financial condition and operating results and the financial condition and operating results of our Insurance Entities may be adversely affected by the cyclical nature of the property and casualty insurance business.”
Hurricanes or other catastrophic events can significantly impact earnings for insurance carriers in Florida and other coastal states, depending on the strength of their reinsurance programs and partners and the level of net retention to which the carriers subscribe. This volatility and market dislocation was evident in Florida following Hurricane Andrew in 1992 and the 2004 and 2005 hurricane seasons (during which eight hurricanes made landfall in coastal states). Given the potential for significant personal property damage, the availability of homeowners insurance and claims servicing are vitally important to coastal states’ residents. The benefits of UVE’s reinsurance strategy in 2018 and the specific programs are further discussed below and in “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations.”
Competition
The market for homeowners insurance is highly competitive. We compete with numerous private and publicly traded participants from Florida as well as large national carriers, some of which have subsidiaries with brand awareness that is distinctly separate from their parent brand and may have greater capital resources. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Our future results are dependent in part on our ability to successfully operate in a highly competitive insurance industry.”
The personal residential homeowners insurance industry is strictly regulated. As a result, it is difficult for insurance companies to differentiate their products, which creates low barriers to entry (other than regulatory capital and other requirements) and results in a highly competitive market based largely on price and the customer experience. The nature, size and experience of our primary competitors varies across the states in which we do business.

7



Price
Pricing has generally been defined by “hard” and “soft” cyclical markets. Hard markets are those in which policy premiums are increasing (as a result of periods of capital shortages resulting in a lack of insurance availability, relatively low levels of price competition, and more selective underwriting of risks). Soft markets are those in which pricing has stabilized or is decreasing (as a result of periods of relatively high levels of price competition and less restrictive underwriting standards). Many factors influence the pricing environment, including, but not limited to, catastrophic events, loss experience, GDP growth/contraction, inflation, interest rates, primary insurance and reinsurance capacity and availability, share-of-wallet competition, litigious matters including assignment of benefits, technological advancements in distribution, underwriting, claims management and overall operational efficiencies, and the risk appetite of competitors.
Our successful track record in writing homeowners insurance in catastrophe-exposed areas has enabled us to develop sophisticated risk selection and pricing techniques that strive to identify desirable risks and accurately price the risk of loss while allowing us to be competitive in our target markets. This risk selection and pricing approach allows us to offer competitive products in areas that have a high demand for property insurance.
The premiums we charge are based on rates specific to individual risks and locations and are generally subject to regulatory review and approval before they are implemented. We periodically submit our rate revisions to regulators as required by law or as we deem necessary or appropriate for our business. The premiums we charge to policyholders are affected by legislative enactments and administrative rules, including state-mandated programs in Florida requiring residential property insurance companies like us to provide premium discounts when policyholders verify that insured properties have certain construction features or windstorm loss reduction features.
Customer Experience
Drivers of the customer experience include reliability and value, financial strength and ease-of-use. We strive to provide excellent reliability and value through the strength of our distribution networks, high-quality service to our policyholders and independent agents, our claims handling ability and product features tailored to our markets.
Our Insurance Entities, UPCIC and APPCIC, are both currently rated “A” (“Exceptional”) by Demotech, Inc. (“Demotech”), which is a rating agency specializing in evaluating the financial stability of insurers. In addition, our combined capital surplus was approximately $307.4 million at December 31, 2018.
The current trends in the industry in regards to ease-of-use suggest an increased focus on utilizing technology in the distribution channel, enabling technology and machine learning in the underwriting domain, as well as utilizing actionable intelligence in claims management services. We believe there is significant opportunity to improve the customer experience across all consumer touch points. We are committed to delivering solutions to enable the consumer to prepare, protect, recover and learn about insurance. We believe effective integration and knowledge transfer to the consumer will result in improved customer satisfaction and encourage consumer retention. In addition, UVE’s strong operating teams and streamlined in-house value-added services drive competitive rates and value to the end users. Our monthly weighted average renewal retention rate for the year ended December 31, 2018 was 88.4%.
Reinsurance
Reinsurance enables UVE’s Insurance Entities to limit potential exposures to catastrophic events. Reinsurance contracts are typically classified as treaty or facultative contracts. Treaty reinsurance provides coverage for all or a portion of a specified group or class of risks ceded by the primary insurer, while facultative reinsurance provides coverage for specific individual risks. Within each classification, reinsurance can be further classified as quota-share or excess. Quota-share reinsurance is where the primary insurer and the reinsurer share proportionally or pro-rata in the direct premiums and losses of the insurer. Excess reinsurance indemnifies the direct insurer or reinsurer for all or a portion of the loss in excess of an agreed upon amount or retention.
Developing and implementing our reinsurance strategy to adequately protect our balance sheet and Insurance Entities in the event of one or more catastrophes while maintaining efficient reinsurance costs has been a key strategic priority for UVE. For 2018, UVE utilized excess of loss reinsurance. The benefits of the reinsurance strategy in 2018 and the specific programs are further discussed in “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations.” In recent years, the property and casualty insurance market has experienced a substantial increase in the availability of property catastrophe reinsurance resulting from the increased supply of capital from non-traditional reinsurance providers, including private capital and hedge funds. This increased capital supply has helped to mitigate upward pressure on reinsurance pricing following the recent significant catastrophic activity in Florida and elsewhere around the world.

8



In order to limit our potential exposure to catastrophic events, we purchase significant reinsurance from third-party reinsurers and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (the “FHCF”). The FLOIR requires us, like all insurance companies doing business in Florida, to have a certain amount of capital and reinsurance coverage in order to cover losses upon the occurrence of a single catastrophic event and a series of catastrophic events occurring in the same hurricane season. Our 2018-2019 reinsurance program meets and provides reinsurance in excess of the FLOIR’s requirements, which are based on, among other things, the probable maximum loss that we would incur from an individual catastrophic event estimated to occur once in every 100 years based on our portfolio of insured risks and a series of stress test catastrophe loss scenarios based on past historical events. In respect to the single catastrophic event, the nature, severity and location of the event giving rise to such a probable maximum loss differs for each insurer depending on the insurer’s portfolio of insured risks, including, among other things, the geographic concentration of insured value within the insurer’s portfolio. Accordingly, a particular catastrophic event could be a one-in-100 year loss event for one insurance company while having a greater or lesser probability of occurrence for another insurance company.
We believe our retention under the reinsurance program is appropriate and structured to protect our customers. We test the sufficiency of our reinsurance program by subjecting our personal residential exposures to statistical testing using a third-party hurricane model, RMS RiskLink v17.0 (Build 1825). This model combines simulations of the natural occurrence patterns and characteristics of hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and other catastrophes with information on property values, construction types and occupancy classes. The model outputs provide information concerning the potential for large losses before they occur, so companies can prepare for their financial impact. Furthermore, as part of our operational excellence initiatives, we continually look to enable new technology to refine our data intelligence on catastrophe risk modeling.

Seasonality
The nature of our business tends to be seasonal during the year, reflecting consumer behaviors in connection with the Florida residential real estate market and the hurricane season. The amount of direct premiums written tends to increase just prior to the second quarter and tends to decrease approaching the fourth quarter.

Government Regulation
We are subject to extensive regulation in the markets we serve, primarily at the state level, and will become subject to the regulations of additional states in which we seek to conduct business in the future. These regulations cover all aspects of our business and are generally designed to protect the interests of policyholders, as opposed to the interests of shareholders. Such regulations relate to authorized lines of business, capital and surplus requirements, allowable rates and forms, investment parameters, underwriting limitations, transactions with affiliates, dividend limitations, changes in control, market conduct, maximum amount allowable for premium financing service charges and a variety of other financial and non-financial components of our business. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry—We are subject to extensive regulation and potential further restrictive regulation may increase our operating costs and limit our growth and profitability.”
Examinations
As part of their regulatory oversight process, state insurance departments conduct periodic financial examinations of the books, records, accounts and operations of insurance companies that are authorized to transact business in their states. In general, insurance regulatory authorities defer to the insurance regulatory authority in the state in which an insurer is domiciled; however, insurance regulatory authorities in any state in which we operate may conduct examinations at their discretion. Under Florida law, the periodic financial examinations generally occur every five years, although the FLOIR or other states may conduct limited or full scope reviews more frequently. The financial examination reports are typically available to the public at the conclusion of the examination process. In addition, state insurance regulatory authorities may make inquiries, conduct investigations and administer market conduct examinations with respect to insurers’ compliance with applicable insurance laws and regulations. These inquiries or examinations may address, among other things, the form and content of disclosures to consumers, advertising, sales practices, claims practices and complaint handling. The reports arising from insurance authorities’ examination processes typically are available to the public at the conclusion of the examinations.
Insurance Holding Company Laws
UVE, as the ultimate parent company of the Insurance Entities, is subject to the insurance holding company laws of the State of Florida. These laws, among other things, (i) require us to file periodic information with the FLOIR, including information concerning our capital structure, ownership, financial condition and general business operations, (ii) regulate certain transactions between us and our affiliates, including the amount of dividends and other distributions, the terms of surplus notes and amounts that our affiliates can charge the Insurance Entities for services such as policy administration and claims administration, and (iii) restrict the ability of any one person to acquire certain levels of our voting securities without prior regulatory approval.

9



The Florida Insurance Code prohibits any person from acquiring control of the Insurance Entities or their holding companies unless that person has filed a notification with specified information with the FLOIR and has obtained the FLOIR’s prior approval. Under the Florida Insurance Code, acquiring 10% or more of the voting securities of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered an acquisition of control of the insurance company, although such presumption may be rebutted. Some state insurance laws require prior notification to state insurance regulators of an acquisition of control of a non-domiciliary insurance company doing business in that state.
Insurance holding company regulations also govern the amount any affiliate of the holding company may charge insurance affiliates for services (e.g., claims adjustment, administration, management fees and commissions). Further, insurance holding company regulations may also require prior approval of insurance regulators for amendments to or terminations of certain affiliate agreements.
Florida holding company laws also require certain insurers annually to submit an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment, or ORSA, summary report to the FLOIR each year beginning in 2017, summarizing the insurer’s evaluation of the adequacy of its risk management framework. In December 2017, the Company completed and filed its first ORSA summary report with FLOIR. The Company filed its most recent ORSA summary report in December 2018.
Capital Requirements
State insurance authorities monitor insurance companies’ solvency and capital requirements using various statutory requirements and industry ratios. Initially, states require minimum capital levels based on the lines of business written by a company and set requirements regarding the ongoing amount and composition of capital. State regulators also require the deposit of state deposits in each state. See “Part II—Item 8—Note 5 (Insurance Operations)” for more information about state deposits. As a company grows, additional capital measures and standards may be implemented by a regulator. Regulatory authorities use a risk-based capital (“RBC”) model published by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) to monitor and regulate the solvency of licensed property and casualty insurance companies. These guidelines measure three major areas of risk facing property and casualty insurers: (i) underwriting risks, which encompass the risk of adverse loss developments and inadequate pricing, (ii) declines in asset values arising from credit risk and (iii) other business risks. Most states, including Florida, have enacted the NAIC guidelines as statutory requirements, and insurers having less surplus than required by applicable statutes and ratios are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending on the level of capital inadequacy. As of December 31, 2018, the Insurance Entities’ RBC ratios exceed applicable statutory requirements. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry—The amount of statutory capital and surplus that each of the Insurance Entities has and the amount of statutory capital and surplus it must hold can vary and are sensitive to a number of factors outside our control, including market conditions and the regulatory environment and rules.”
Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions
As a holding company with no significant business operations of its own, UVE relies on dividend payments from its subsidiaries as its principal sources of cash to pay dividends, purchase UVE common shares and meet its obligations. Dividends paid by our subsidiaries other than the Insurance Entities are not subject to the statutory restrictions set forth in the Florida Insurance Code. However, insurance holding company regulations govern the amount that any affiliate within the holding company system may charge any of the Insurance Entities for services. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry—We are subject to extensive regulation and potential further restrictive regulation may increase our operating costs and limit our growth.” Dividends paid to our shareholders in 2018 were paid from the earnings of UVE and its subsidiaries. State insurance laws govern the payment of dividends by insurance companies. The maximum amount of dividends that can be paid by Florida insurance companies without prior approval of the Commissioner of the FLOIR is subject to restrictions relating to statutory surplus. The maximum dividend that may be paid by the Insurance Entities to UVE without prior approval is limited to the lesser of statutory net income from operations of the preceding calendar year or statutory unassigned surplus as of the preceding year end.
Underwriting and Marketing Restrictions
During the past several years, various regulatory and legislative bodies in Florida and in other states have adopted or proposed new laws or regulations to address the cyclical nature of the insurance industry, catastrophic events and insurance capacity and pricing. These regulations (i) restrict certain policy non-renewals or cancellations and require advance notice on certain policy non-renewals and (ii) from a practical standpoint, limit or delay rate changes for a specified period during or after a catastrophe event. Most states, including Florida, also have insurance laws requiring that rate schedules and other information be filed and approved by the insurance regulatory authority in advance of being implemented. The insurance regulatory authority may disapprove a rate filing if it finds that the proposed rates would be inadequate, excessive or unfairly discriminatory. Rates, which are not necessarily uniform for all insurers, vary by class of business, hazard covered and size of risk.

10



Most states, including Florida, require licensure or insurance regulatory authority approval prior to the marketing of new insurance products. Typically, licensure review is comprehensive and includes a review of a company’s business plan, solvency, reinsurance, character and experience of its officers and directors, rates, forms and other financial and non-financial aspects of a company. The insurance regulatory authorities may prohibit entry into a new market by not granting a license or by withholding approval for an insurer to write new lines of business. The Company is subject to comprehensive regulatory oversight, regulations and the payment of fees, premium taxes and assessments in order to maintain its licenses which includes periodic reporting to regulators and regulatory exams to assure the Company maintains compliance with statutory requirements.
Privacy and Information Security Regulation
Federal and state laws and regulations require financial institutions to protect the security and confidentiality of non-public personal information and to notify customers and other individuals about their policies and practices relating to their collection and disclosure of customer information and their practices relating to protecting the security and confidentiality of that information. In late 2017, the NAIC issued a model law on cybersecurity, which is leading to adoption of the same or similar provisions in the states where we do business. In addition, some states have adopted, and others might adopt, cybersecurity regulations that differ from proposed model acts or from the laws enacted in other states. Federal and state lawmakers and regulatory bodies may be expected to consider additional or more detailed regulation regarding these subjects and the privacy and security of non-public personal information. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Breaches of our information systems or denial of service on our website could have an adverse impact on our business and reputation.”
Statutory Insurance Organizations
Many states in which the Insurance Entities operate have statutorily-mandated insurance organizations or other insurance mechanisms in which the Insurance Entities are required to participate or to potentially pay assessments. Each state has insurance guaranty association laws providing for the payment of policyholders’ claims when insurance companies doing business in that state become insolvent. These guaranty associations typically are funded by assessments on insurance companies transacting business in the respective states. When the Insurance Entities are subject to assessments they generally must remit the assessed amounts to the guaranty associations. The Insurance Entities subsequently seek to recover the assessed amounts through recoupments from policyholders. In the event the Insurance Entities are not able to fully recoup the amounts of those assessments, such unrecovered amounts can be credited against future assessments, or the remaining receivable may be written off. While we cannot predict the amount or timing of future guaranty association assessments, we believe that any such assessments will not have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry—Regulations limiting rate changes and requiring us to participate in loss sharing or assessments may decrease our profitability.”
Several states, including Florida, have insurance mechanisms that provide insurance to consumers who are not otherwise able to obtain coverage in the private insurance market. The largest such insurance mechanism is Florida’s Citizens Property Insurance Corporation. The degree to which these state-authorized insurance mechanisms compete with private insurers such as the Insurance Entities varies over time depending on market and public policy considerations beyond our control. In addition, these insurance mechanisms often rely on assessments of insurers to cover any operating shortfalls.
FHCF is a state-sponsored entity in Florida that provides a layer of reinsurance protection at a price that is typically lower than what would otherwise be available in the third-party reinsurance market. The purpose of the FHCF is to protect and advance the state’s interest in maintaining insurance capacity in Florida by providing reimbursements to insurers for a portion of their catastrophe hurricane losses. Most property and casualty insurers operating in Florida, including the Insurance Entities, are subject to assessment if the FHCF lacks sufficient claims-paying resources to meet its reimbursement obligations to insurers. FHCF assessments are added to policyholders’ premiums and are collected and remitted by the Insurance Entities. In addition, all homeowner insurance companies that write business in Florida, including the Insurance Entities, are required to obtain a form of reinsurance through the FHCF. Currently, the FHCF provides $17 billion of aggregate capacity annually to its participating insurers, which may be adjusted by statute from time to time.
Employees
As of February 19, 2019, we had 734 full-time employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union.
Available Information
UVE was incorporated in Delaware in 1990, with UPCIC becoming licensed in Florida in 1997. Our corporate headquarters are located in Fort Lauderdale, FL. Our investor website is https://Universal Insurance Holdings.com. Our annual reports on Form

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10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments thereto, are available, free of charge, through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after their filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These filings are also available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.


ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
We are subject to a variety of risks, the most significant of which are described below. Our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks or additional risks.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS
As a property and casualty insurer, we may face significant losses from catastrophes and severe weather events.
Because of the exposure of our property and casualty business to catastrophic events, our operating results and financial condition may vary significantly from one period to the next, and historical results of operations may not be indicative of future results of operations. Property damage resulting from catastrophes is the greatest risk of loss we face in the ordinary course of our business. Catastrophes can be caused by various natural and man-made disasters, including hurricanes, wildfires, tornadoes, tropical storms, sinkholes, windstorms, hailstorms, explosions, earthquakes and acts of terrorism. Because of our concentration in Florida, and in particular in Broward, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties, we are exposed to hurricanes and windstorms, and other catastrophes affecting Florida. We may incur catastrophe losses in excess of those experienced in prior years; those estimated by catastrophe models we use; the average expected level used in pricing; and our current reinsurance coverage limits. We are also subject to claims arising from weather events such as rain, hail and high winds. The nature and level of catastrophes and the incidence and severity of weather conditions in any period cannot be predicted and could be material to our operations.
The loss estimates developed by the models we use are dependent upon assumptions or scenarios incorporated by a third-party developer and by us. However, if these assumptions or scenarios do not reflect the characteristics of future catastrophic events that affect areas covered by our policies or the resulting economic conditions, then we could have exposure for losses not covered by our reinsurance program, which could adversely affect our financial condition, profitability and results of operations. Further, although we use widely recognized and commercially available models to estimate hurricane loss exposure, other models exist that might produce higher or lower loss estimates. See “—The inherent uncertainty of models and our reliance on such models as a tool to evaluate risk may have an adverse effect on our financial results.” Despite our catastrophe management programs, we retain material exposure to catastrophic events. Our liquidity could also be constrained by a catastrophe, or multiple catastrophes, which could have a negative impact on our business. Catastrophes may also negatively affect our ability to write new or renewal business. Catastrophic claim severity could be impacted by the effects of inflation and increases in insured value and factors such as the overall claims, legal and litigation environments in affected areas, in addition to the geographic concentration of insured property.
Actual claims incurred may exceed current reserves established for claims and may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We maintain loss reserves to cover our estimated ultimate liability for unpaid losses and LAE for reported and unreported claims incurred as of the end of each accounting period. The reserve for losses and LAE is reported net of receivables for subrogation. Recorded claim reserves in the property and casualty business are based on our best estimates of what the ultimate settlement and administration of claims will cost, both reported and incurred but not reported (“IBNR”). These estimates, which generally involve actuarial projections, are based on management’s assessment of known facts and circumstances, including our experience with similar cases, actual claims paid, historical trends involving claim payment patterns, pending levels of unpaid claims and contractual terms. External factors are also considered, which include but are not limited to changes in the law, court decisions, changes to regulatory requirements, economic conditions and consumer behavior. Many of these factors are not quantifiable and are subject to change over time.
Additionally, there may be a significant reporting lag between the occurrence of an event and the time it is reported to us. The inherent uncertainties of estimating reserves are greater for certain types of liabilities, particularly those in which the various considerations affecting the type of claim are subject to change and in which long periods of time may elapse before a definitive determination of liability is made. We continually refine reserve estimates as experience develops, and subsequent claims are reported and settled. Adjustments to reserves are reflected in the financial statement results of the periods in which such estimates are changed. Because setting reserves is inherently uncertain and claims conditions may change over time, the ultimate cost of

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losses may vary materially from recorded reserves, and such variance may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
 
Subrogation is a significant component of our total net reserves for losses and LAE. Starting in 2016, there has been a significant increase in our efforts to pursue subrogation against third parties responsible for property damage losses to our insureds. Our ability to recover these amounts is subject to significant uncertainty, including risks inherent in litigation and in the collectability of recorded amounts.
Our success depends in part on our ability to accurately and adequately price the risks we underwrite.
Our results of operations and financial condition depend on our ability to underwrite and set premium rates accurately for a variety of risks. Rate adequacy is necessary to generate sufficient premiums to pay losses, LAE, reinsurance costs and underwriting expenses and to earn a profit. In order to price our products accurately and adequately, we must collect and properly analyze a substantial amount of data; develop, test and apply appropriate rating formulas; closely monitor and timely recognize changes in trends; and project both severity and frequency of losses with reasonable accuracy. Our ability to price our products accurately and adequately is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which are outside our control, including:
the availability of sufficient and reliable data;
regulatory review periods or delays in approving filed rate changes or our failure to gain regulatory approval;
the uncertainties that inherently underlie estimates and assumptions;
changes in legal standards, claim resolution practices and restoration costs; and
legislatively imposed consumer initiatives.
In addition, we could underprice risks, which would negatively affect our profit margins and result in significant underwriting losses. We could also overprice risks, which could reduce the number of policies we write and our competitiveness. In either event, our profitability could be materially and adversely affected. If our policies are overpriced or underpriced by geographic area, policy type or other characteristics, we also might not be able to achieve desirable diversification in our risks.
Unanticipated increases in the severity or frequency of claims may adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.
Changes in the severity or frequency of claims may affect our profitability. Changes in homeowners’ claim severity can be driven by inflation in the construction industry, in building materials and in home furnishings and by other economic and environmental factors, including increased demand for services and supplies in areas affected by catastrophes, market conditions and prevailing attitudes towards insurers and the claims process, including increases in the number of litigated claims or claims involving representation. However, changes in the level of the severity of claims are not limited to the effects of inflation and demand surge in these various sectors of the economy. Increases in claim severity can also arise from unexpected events that are inherently difficult to predict. A significant long-term increase in claim frequency could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Further, the level of claim frequency we experience may vary from period to period, or from region to region, and may not be sustainable over the longer term. Although we pursue various loss management initiatives in order to mitigate future increases in claim severity, there can be no assurances that these initiatives will successfully identify or reduce the effect of future increases in claim severity.
The failure of the risk mitigation strategies we utilize could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
We utilize a number of strategies to mitigate our risk exposure, such as:
engaging in rigorous underwriting;
carefully evaluating terms and conditions of our policies and binding guidelines; and
ceding risk to reinsurers.
However, there are inherent limitations in all of these strategies, and no assurance can be given that an event or series of events will not result in loss levels in excess of our probable maximum loss models, or that our non-catastrophe forecasts or modeling is accurate, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. It is also possible that losses could manifest themselves in ways that we do not anticipate and that our risk mitigation strategies are not designed to address. Such a manifestation of losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Because we rely on independent insurance agents, the loss of these independent agent relationships and the business they control or our ability to attract new independent agents could have an adverse impact on our business.

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We currently market our policies to a broad range of prospective policyholders through approximately 4,300 independent insurance agents in Florida as well as approximately 5,000 independent insurance agents outside of Florida. As a result, our business depends on the marketing efforts of these independent agents and on our ability to offer products and services that meet their and their customers’ requirements. These independent insurance agents maintain the primary customer relationship. Independent agents typically represent other insurance companies in addition to representing us, and such agents are not obligated to sell or promote our products. Other insurance companies may pay higher commissions than we do, provide services to the agents that we do not provide, or may be more attractive to the agents than we are. We cannot provide assurance that we will retain our current relationships, or be able to establish new relationships, with independent agents. The loss of these marketing relationships could adversely affect our ability to attract new agents, retain our agency network, or write new or renewal insurance policies, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The inherent uncertainty of models and our reliance on such models as a tool to evaluate risk may have an adverse effect on our financial results.
Along with other insurers in the industry, we use models developed by third-party vendors in assessing our exposure to catastrophe losses, and these models assume various conditions and probability scenarios, most of which are not known to us or are not within our control. These models may not accurately predict future losses or accurately measure losses incurred. Catastrophe models, which have been evolving since the early 1990s, use historical information about various catastrophes, detailed information about our in-force business and certain assumptions or judgments that are proprietary to the modeling firms. While we use this information in connection with our pricing and risk management activities, there are limitations with respect to their usefulness in predicting losses in any reporting period. Examples of these limitations are significant variations in estimates between models and modelers and material increases and decreases in model results due to changes and refinements of the underlying data elements and assumptions. Such limitations lead to questionable predictive capability and post-event measurements that have not been well understood or proven to be sufficiently reliable. In addition, the models are not necessarily reflective of company or state-specific policy language, demand surge for labor and materials, consumer behavior, prevailing or changing claims, legal and litigation environments, or loss settlement expenses, all of which are subject to wide variation by catastrophe.
Reinsurance may be unavailable in the future at current levels and prices, which may limit our ability to write new business or to adequately mitigate our exposure to loss.
Our reinsurance program is designed to mitigate our exposure to catastrophes. Market conditions beyond our control determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance we purchase. No assurances can be made that reinsurance will remain continuously available to us to the same extent and on the same or similar terms and rates as are currently available. In addition, our ability to afford reinsurance to reduce our catastrophe risk may be dependent upon our ability to adjust premium rates for our costs, and there are no assurances that the terms and rates for our current reinsurance program will continue to be available next year or that we will be able to adjust our premiums. The Insurance Entities are responsible for losses related to catastrophic events with incurred losses in excess of coverage provided by our reinsurance program and the FHCF, and for losses that otherwise are not covered by the reinsurance program. If we are unable to maintain our current level of reinsurance or purchase new reinsurance protection in amounts that we consider sufficient and at prices that we consider acceptable, we would have to either accept an increase in our exposure risk, reduce our insurance writings, seek rate adjustments at levels that might not be approved or might adversely affect policy retention, or develop or seek other alternatives, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability and results of operations.
Reinsurance subjects us to the credit risk of our reinsurers, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Reinsurance does not legally discharge us from our primary liability for the full amount of the risk we insure, although it does make the reinsurer liable to us in the event of a claim. As such, we are subject to credit risk with respect to our reinsurers. The collectability of reinsurance recoverables is subject to uncertainty arising from a number of factors, including (i) our reinsurers’ financial capacity and willingness to make payments under the terms of a reinsurance treaty or contract or (ii) whether insured losses meet the qualifying conditions and are recoverable under our reinsurance contracts for covered events or are excluded. Further, if a reinsurer fails to pay an amount due to us within 90 days of such amount coming due, we are required by certain accounting rules to account for a portion of this unpaid amount as a non-admitted asset, which would negatively impact our statutory surplus. Our inability to collect a material recovery from a reinsurer, or to collect such recovery in a timely fashion, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition, liquidity and surplus.
Our financial condition and operating results and the financial condition and operating results of our Insurance Entities may be adversely affected by the cyclical nature of the property and casualty insurance business.

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The property and casualty insurance market is cyclical and has experienced periods characterized by relatively high levels of price competition, less restrictive underwriting standards and relatively low premium rates, followed by periods of relatively lower levels of competition, more selective underwriting standards and relatively high premium rates. As premium levels increase, and competitors perceive an increased opportunity for profitability, there may be new entrants to the market or expansion by existing participants, which could then lead to increased competition, a reduction in premium rates, less favorable policy terms and fewer opportunities to underwrite insurance risks. This could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition to these considerations, changes in the frequency and severity of losses suffered by insureds and insurers, including changes resulting from multiple and/or catastrophic hurricanes, may affect the cycles of the property and casualty insurance business significantly. Negative market conditions may impair our ability to write insurance at rates that we consider adequate and appropriate relative to the risk written. If we cannot write insurance at appropriate rates, our business would be materially and adversely affected. We cannot predict whether market conditions will improve, remain constant or deteriorate. An extended period of negative market conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because we conduct the substantial majority of our business in Florida, our financial results depend on the regulatory, economic and weather conditions in Florida.
Though we are licensed to transact insurance business in other states, we write a substantial majority of our premium in Florida. Therefore, prevailing regulatory, consumer behavior, legal, economic, political, demographic, competitive, weather and other conditions in Florida disproportionately affect our revenues and profitability. Changes in conditions could make doing business in Florida less attractive for us and would have a more pronounced effect on us than it would on other insurance companies that are more geographically diversified throughout the United States. Further, a single catastrophic event, or a series of such events, specifically affecting Florida, particularly in the more densely populated areas of the state, could have a disproportionately adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. This is particularly true in certain Florida counties where we write a high concentration of policies. We currently have a large concentration of in-force policies written in the coastal counties of Broward, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade such that a catastrophic event, or series of catastrophic events, in these counties could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While we actively manage our exposure to catastrophic events through our underwriting process and the purchase of reinsurance, the fact that our business is concentrated in Florida subjects us to increased exposure to certain catastrophic events and destructive weather patterns such as hurricanes, tropical storms and tornadoes.
Changing climate conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, profitability or cash flows.
Although the incidence and severity of weather conditions are largely unpredictable, the frequency and severity of property claims generally increase when severe weather conditions occur. Longer-term weather trends may be changing and new types of catastrophe losses may be developing due to climate change, a phenomenon that has been associated with extreme weather events linked to rising temperatures, including effects on global weather patterns, greenhouse gases, sea, land and air temperature, sea levels, rain and snow. The science regarding climate change and how it may impact weather patterns or events is still emerging and developing. However, to the extent the frequency or severity of weather events is exacerbated due to climate change, we may experience increases in catastrophe losses in both coastal and non-coastal areas. This may cause an increase in claims-related and/or reinsurance costs or may negatively affect our ability to provide homeowners insurance to our policyholders in the future. Governmental entities may also respond to climate change by enacting laws and regulations that may adversely affect our cost of providing homeowners insurance in the future.
We have entered new markets and may continue to do so, but there can be no assurance that our diversification and growth strategy will be effective.
We seek to take advantage of prudent opportunities to expand our core business into other states where we believe the independent agent distribution channel is strong. As a result of a number of factors, including the difficulties of finding appropriate expansion opportunities and the challenges of operating in an unfamiliar market, we may not be successful in this diversification even after investing significant time and resources to develop and market products and services in additional states. Initial timetables for expansion may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not be feasible. Because our business and experience are based substantially on the Florida insurance market, we may not understand all of the risks associated with entering into an unfamiliar market. For example, the occurrence of significant winter storms in certain states we have expanded into may limit the effectiveness of our revenue and risk diversification strategy by decreasing revenue we expected to receive outside of the Florida hurricane season or increasing our overall risk in ways we had not anticipated when entering those markets. This inexperience could affect our ability to price risks adequately and develop effective underwriting standards. External factors, such as compliance with state regulations, obtaining new licenses, competitive alternatives and shifting customer preferences, may also affect the successful implementation of our geographic growth strategy. Such external factors and requirements may increase our costs and potentially affect the speed with which we will be able to pursue new market opportunities. There can be no assurance that we

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will be successful in expanding into any one state or combination of states. Failure to manage these risks successfully could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain talented employees, and the loss of any one of our key personnel could adversely impact our operations.
The success of our business depends, in part, on the leadership and performance of our executive management team and key employees. Our ability to attract, retain and motivate talented employees. An absence of the leadership and performance of the executive management team or our inability to retain talented employees could significantly impact our future performance. Competition for these individuals is intense and our ability to successfully operate may be impaired if we are not effective in filling critical leadership positions, in developing the talent and skills of our human resources, in assimilating new executive talent into our organization, or in deploying human resource talent consistent with our business goals.
We could be adversely affected if our controls designed to ensure compliance with guidelines, policies and legal and regulatory standards are not effective.
Our business is highly dependent on the ability to engage on a daily basis in a large number of insurance underwriting, claims processing and investment activities, many of which are highly complex, must be performed expeditiously and may involve opportunities for human judgment and errors. These activities often are subject to internal guidelines and policies, as well as legal and regulatory standards. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Our failure to comply with these guidelines, policies or standards could lead to financial loss, unanticipated risk exposure, regulatory sanctions or penalties, civil or administrative litigation, or damage to our reputation.
The failure of our claims professionals to effectively manage claims could adversely affect our insurance business and financial results.
We rely primarily on our claims professionals to facilitate and oversee the claims adjustment process for our policyholders. Many factors could affect the ability of our claims professionals to effectively manage claims by our policyholders, including:
the accuracy of our adjusters as they make their assessments and submit their estimates of damages;
the training, background and experience of our claims representatives;
the ability of our claims professionals to ensure consistent claims handling;
the ability of our claims professionals to translate the information provided by adjusters into acceptable claims resolutions; and
the ability of our claims professionals to maintain and update its claims handling procedures and systems as they evolve over time based on claims and geographical trends in claims reporting as well as consumer behaviors affecting claims handling.
Any failure to effectively manage the claims adjustment process, including failure to pay claims accurately and failure to oversee third-party claims adjusters, could lead to material litigation, regulatory penalties or sanctions, undermine our reputation in the marketplace and with our network of independent agents, impair our corporate image and negatively affect our financial results.
Litigation or regulatory actions could have a material adverse impact on us.
From time to time, we are subject to civil or administrative actions and litigation. Although we strive to pay meritorious claims in a fair and prompt manner, civil litigation can result when we do not pay insurance claims in the amounts or at the times asserted to have been required by policyholders or their representatives. We also may be subject to litigation or administrative actions arising from the conduct of our business and the regulatory authority of state insurance departments. Further, we are subject to other types of litigation inherent in operating our businesses, employing personnel, contracting with vendors and otherwise carrying out our affairs. As industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may arise, including judicial expansion of policy coverage and the impact of new theories of liability, plaintiffs targeting property and casualty insurers in purported class-action litigation relating to claims-handling and other practices, and adverse changes in loss cost trends, including inflationary pressures in home repair costs or other legal or regulatory conditions incentivizing increases in disputed or litigated claims. Multiparty or class action claims may present additional exposure to substantial economic, non-economic or punitive damage awards. Current and future litigation or regulatory matters may negatively affect us by resulting in the payment of substantial awards or settlements, increasing legal and compliance costs, requiring us to change certain aspects of our business operations, diverting

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management attention from other business issues, harming our reputation with agents and customers or making it more difficult to retain current customers and to recruit and retain employees or agents.
Our future results are dependent in part on our ability to successfully operate in a highly competitive insurance industry.
The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive. We compete against large national carriers that have greater capital resources and longer operating histories, regional carriers and managing general agencies, as well as newly formed and less-capitalized companies that might have more aggressive underwriting or pricing strategies. Many of these entities may also be affiliated with other entities that have greater financial and other resources than we have. Competitors may attempt to increase market share by lowering rates. In that case, we would experience reductions in our underwriting margins, or sales of our insurance policies could decline as customers purchase lower-priced products from our competitors. Because of the competitive nature of the insurance industry, including competition for producers such as independent agents, there can be no assurance that we will continue to develop and maintain productive relationships with independent agents, effectively compete with our industry rivals, or that competitive pressures will not have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
A downgrade in our Financial Stability Rating® may have an adverse effect on our competitive position, the marketability of our product offerings, and our liquidity, operating results and financial condition.
Financial Stability Ratings® and similar ratings are important factors in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies and generally have an effect on an insurance company’s business. On an ongoing basis, rating agencies review the financial performance and condition of insurers and could downgrade or change the outlook on an insurer’s ratings due to, for example, a change in an insurer’s statutory capital; a change in a rating agency’s determination of the amount of risk-adjusted capital required to maintain a particular rating; a change in the perceived adequacy of an insurer’s reinsurance program; an increase in the perceived risk of an insurer’s investment portfolio; a reduced confidence in management or a host of other considerations that may or may not be within an insurer’s knowledge or control. Demotech has assigned a Financial Stability Rating® of A for each Insurance Entity. Because these ratings are subject to continuous review, the retention of these ratings cannot be assured. A downgrade in or withdrawal of these ratings, or a decision by Demotech to require us to make a capital infusion into the Insurance Entities to maintain their ratings, may adversely affect our liquidity, operating results and financial condition. In addition, our failure to maintain a financial strength rating acceptable in the secondary mortgage market would adversely affect our ability to write new and renewal business. Financial Stability Ratings® are primarily directed towards policyholders of the Insurance Entities, and are not evaluations directed toward the protection of our shareholders, and are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold securities.
Breaches of our information systems or denial of service on our website could have an adverse impact on our business and reputation.
Our ability to effectively operate our business depends on our ability, and the ability of certain third-party vendors and business partners, to access our computer systems to perform necessary business functions, such as providing quotes and product pricing, billing and processing premiums, administering claims and reporting our financial results. Our business and operations rely on the secure and efficient processing, storage and transmission of customer and company data, including policyholders’ personally identifiable information and proprietary business information, on our computer systems and networks. There have been several highly publicized cases involving financial services companies, consumer-based companies and other companies, as well as governmental and political organizations, reporting breaches in the security of their websites, networks or other systems. Some of the publicized breaches have involved sophisticated and targeted attacks intended to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information, destroy data, disrupt or degrade service, sabotage systems or cause other damage, including through the introduction of computer viruses or malware, cyberattacks and other means. There have also been several highly publicized cases where hackers have requested “ransom” payments in exchange for not disclosing customer information. Other publicized breaches have involved human error, such as employees falling victim to phishing schemes.
Our computer systems may be vulnerable to unauthorized access and hackers, computer viruses and other scenarios in which our data may be compromised. Cyberattacks can originate from a variety of sources, including third parties who are affiliated with foreign governments or employees acting negligently or in a manner adverse to our interests. Third parties may seek to gain access to our systems either directly or using equipment or security passwords belonging to employees, customers, third-party service providers or other users of our systems.
Our computer systems have been, and likely will continue to be, subject to computer viruses, other malicious codes or other computer-related penetrations. To date, we are not aware of a material breach of cybersecurity. We commit significant resources

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to administrative and technical controls to prevent cyber incidents and protect our information technology, but our preventative actions to reduce the risk of cyber threats may be insufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins and other cyberattacks or security breaches, including those due to human vulnerabilities. Any such event could damage our computers or systems; compromise our confidential information as well as that of our customers and third parties with whom we interact; significantly impede or interrupt business operations, including denial of service on our website; and could result in violations of applicable privacy and other laws, financial loss to us or to our policyholders, loss of confidence in our security measures, customer dissatisfaction, significant litigation exposure and reputational harm, all of which could have a material adverse effect on us. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities, exposures, or information security events. Due to the complexity and interconnectedness of our systems, the process of enhancing our protective measures can itself create a risk of systems disruptions and security issues.
The increase in the use of cloud technologies and in consumer preference for online transactions can heighten these and other operational risks. Certain aspects of the security of such technologies are unpredictable or beyond our control, and this lack of transparency may inhibit our ability to discover a failure by cloud service providers to adequately safeguard their systems and prevent cyberattacks that could disrupt our operations and result in misappropriation, corruption or loss of confidential and other information. In addition, there is a risk that encryption and other protective measures, despite their sophistication, may be defeated, particularly to the extent that new computing technologies vastly increase the speed and computing power available.
In addition, any data security breach of our independent agents or third-party vendors could harm our business and reputation.
We may not be able to effectively implement or adapt to changes in technology.
 
Developments in technology are affecting the insurance business. We believe that the development and implementation of new technologies will require additional investment of our capital resources in the future, and it is possible that we may not be able to effectively implement or adapt to new technologies. We have not determined the amount of resources and the time that this development and implementation may require, which may result in short-term, unexpected interruptions to our business, or may result in a competitive disadvantage in price and/or efficiency, as we endeavor to develop or implement new technologies.
Lack of effectiveness of exclusions and other loss limitation methods in the insurance policies we write could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or our results of operations.
 
Many of the policies we issue include exclusions or other conditions that define and limit coverage, which exclusions and conditions are designed to manage our exposure to certain types of risks and expanding theories of legal liability. In addition, our policies and applicable law limit the period during which a policyholder may bring a claim under the policy. It is possible that a court or regulatory authority could nullify or void an exclusion or limitation or interpret existing coverages more broadly than we anticipate, or that legislation could be enacted modifying or barring the use of these exclusions or limitations. This could result in higher than anticipated losses and LAE by extending coverage beyond our underwriting intent or increasing the number or size of claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until sometime after we have issued the insurance policies that are affected by the change. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance contracts may not be known for many years after a policy is issued.
RISKS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS
We are subject to market risk, which may adversely affect investment income.
Our primary market risk exposures are changes in equity prices and interest rates, which impact our investment income and returns. A decline in market interest rates could have an adverse effect on our investment income as we invest cash in new interest-bearing investments that may yield less than our portfolio’s average rate of return. A decline in market interest rates could also lead us to purchase longer-term or riskier assets in order to obtain adequate investment yields resulting in a duration gap when compared to the duration of liabilities. An increase in market interest rates could also have an adverse effect on the value of our investment portfolio by decreasing the fair values of the available-for-sale debt securities that comprise a large portion of our investment portfolio. Similarly, a decline in the equities markets could adversely affect our existing portfolio. Increases in the equities markets might increase returns on our existing portfolio but could reduce the attractiveness of future investments.
Our overall financial performance is dependent in part on the returns on our investment portfolio.
The performance of our investment portfolio is independent of the revenue and income generated from our insurance operations, and there is typically no direct correlation between the financial results of these two activities. Thus, to the extent

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that our investment portfolio does not perform well due to the factors discussed above or otherwise, our results of operations may be materially adversely affected even if our insurance operations perform favorably. Further, because the returns on our investment portfolio could be volatile, our overall results of operations could likewise be volatile from period to period even if we do not experience significant financial variances in our insurance operations.
RISKS RELATING TO THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
We are subject to extensive regulation and potential further restrictive regulation may increase our operating costs and limit our growth and profitability.
The laws and regulations affecting the insurance industry are complex and subject to change. Compliance with these laws and regulations may increase the costs of running our business and may even slow our ability to respond effectively and quickly to operational opportunities. Moreover, these laws and regulations are administered and enforced by a number of different governmental authorities, including state insurance regulators, the U.S. Department of Justice, and state attorneys general, each of which exercises a degree of interpretive latitude. Consequently, we are also subject to the risk that compliance with any particular regulator’s or enforcement authority’s interpretation of a legal issue may not result in compliance with another’s interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. In addition, there is risk that any particular regulator’s or enforcement authority’s interpretation of a legal issue may change over time to our detriment, or that changes in the overall legal environment may cause us to change our views regarding the actions we need to take from a legal risk management perspective, thus necessitating changes to our practices that may, in some cases, limit our ability to grow and achieve or improve the profitability of our business. Furthermore, in some cases, these laws and regulations are designed to protect or benefit the interests of a specific constituency rather than a range of constituencies. For example, state insurance laws and regulations are generally intended to protect or benefit purchasers or users of insurance products, and not shareholders. In many respects, these laws and regulations limit our ability to grow and improve the profitability of our business or effectively respond to changing market conditions, and may place constraints on our ability to meet our revenue and net profit goals.
The Insurance Entities are highly regulated by state insurance authorities in Florida, the state in which each is domiciled, and UPCIC is also regulated by state insurance authorities in the other states in which it conducts business. Such regulations, among other things, require that certain transactions between the Insurance Entities and their affiliates must be fair and reasonable and require prior notice and non-disapproval of such transactions by the applicable state insurance authority. State regulations also limit the amount of dividends and other payments that can be made by the Insurance Entities without prior regulatory approval and impose restrictions on the amount and type of investments the Insurance Entities may have. Other state regulations require insurance companies to file insurance premium rate schedules and policy forms for review and approval, restrict our ability to cancel or non-renew policies and determine the accounting standards we use in preparation of our consolidated financial statements. These regulations also affect many other aspects of the Insurance Entities’ businesses. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations is time consuming and personnel-intensive, and changes in these laws and regulations may materially increase our direct and indirect compliance efforts and other expenses of doing business. If the Insurance Entities fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, the regulatory agencies can revoke or suspend the Insurance Entities’ licenses, withhold required approvals, require corrective action, impose operating limitations, impose penalties and fines or pursue other remedies available under applicable laws and regulations.
Regulatory authorities have relatively broad discretion to deny or revoke licenses for various reasons, including the violation of regulations. If we do not have the requisite licenses and approvals or do not comply with applicable regulatory requirements, insurance regulatory authorities could preclude or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or otherwise penalize us. This could adversely affect our ability to operate our business both directly and potentially indirectly through reputational damage.
State legislatures and insurance regulators regularly re-examine existing laws and regulations applicable to insurance companies and their products. Changes in these laws and regulations, or in interpretations thereof, can be made for the benefit of the consumer, or for other reasons, at the expense of insurers, and thus could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Over the course of many years, the state insurance regulatory framework has come under public scrutiny and members of Congress have discussed proposals to provide for federal chartering of insurance companies. We can make no assurances regarding the potential impact of state or federal measures that may change the nature or scope of insurance regulation.
UVE is a holding company and, consequently, its cash flow is dependent on dividends and other permissible payments from its subsidiaries.

19



UVE is a holding company that conducts no insurance operations of its own. All operations are conducted by the Insurance Entities and by other operating subsidiaries, most of which support the business of the Insurance Entities. As a holding company, UVE’s sources of cash flow consist primarily of dividends and other permissible payments from its subsidiaries. The ability of our non-insurance company subsidiaries to pay dividends may be adversely affected by reductions in the premiums or number of policies written by the Insurance Entities, by changes in the terms of the parties’ contracts, or by changes in the regulation of insurance holding company systems. UVE depends on such payments for general corporate purposes, for its capital management activities and for payment of any dividends to its common shareholders. The ability of the Insurance Entities to make such payments is limited by applicable law, as set forth in “Item 1—Business—Government Regulation—Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions.” For more details on our cash flows, see “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Regulations limiting rate changes and requiring us to participate in loss sharing or assessments may decrease our profitability.
From time to time, public policy preferences and perceptions affect the insurance market, including insurers’ efforts to effectively maintain rates that allow us to reach targeted levels of rate adequacy and profitability. Despite efforts to address rate needs and other operational issues analytically, facts and history demonstrate that public policymakers, when faced with untoward events and adverse public sentiment, can act in ways that impede a satisfactory correlation between rates and risk. Such acts may affect our ability to obtain approval for rate changes that may be required to attain rate adequacy along with targeted levels of profitability and returns on equity. Our ability to afford reinsurance required to reduce our catastrophe risk also may be dependent upon the ability to adjust rates for our cost.
Additionally, we are required to participate in guaranty funds for insolvent insurance companies and other statutory insurance entities. The guaranty funds and other statutory entities periodically levy assessments against all applicable insurance companies doing business in the state and the amounts and timing of those assessments are unpredictable. Although we seek to recoup these assessments from our policyholders, we might not be able to fully do so and at any point in time or for any period, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected by any of these factors.
The amount of statutory capital and surplus that each of the Insurance Entities has and the amount of statutory capital and surplus it must hold can vary and are sensitive to a number of factors outside of our control, including market conditions and the regulatory environment and rules.
The Insurance Entities are subject to RBC standards and other minimum capital and surplus requirements imposed under applicable state laws. The RBC standards, based upon the Risk-Based Capital Model Act adopted by the NAIC, require us to report our results of RBC calculations to the FLOIR and the NAIC. These RBC standards provide for different levels of regulatory attention depending upon the ratio of an insurance company’s total adjusted capital, as calculated in accordance with NAIC guidelines, to its authorized control level RBC. Authorized control level RBC is determined using the NAIC’s RBC formula, which measures the minimum amount of capital that an insurance company needs to support its overall business operations.
An insurance company with total adjusted capital that (i) is at less than 200% of its authorized control level RBC, or (ii) falls below 300% of its RBC requirement and also fails a trend test, is deemed to be at a “company action level,” which would require the insurance company to file a plan that, among other things, contains proposals of corrective actions the company intends to take that are reasonably expected to result in the elimination of the company action level event. Additional action level events occur when the insurer’s total adjusted capital falls below 150%, 100%, and 70% of its authorized control level RBC. The lower the percentage, the more severe the regulatory response, including, in the event of a mandatory control level event (total adjusted capital falls below 70% of the insurer’s authorized control level RBC), placing the insurance company into receivership.
In addition, the Insurance Entities are required to maintain certain minimum capital and surplus and to limit premiums written to specified multiples of capital and surplus. Our Insurance Entities could exceed these ratios if their volume increases faster than anticipated or if their surplus declines due to catastrophe or non-catastrophe losses or excessive underwriting and operational expenses.
Any failure by the Insurance Entities to meet the applicable RBC or minimum statutory capital requirements imposed by the laws of Florida (or other states where we currently or may eventually conduct business) could subject them to further examination or corrective action imposed by state regulators, including limitations on our writing of additional business, state supervision or liquidation, which could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and financial condition. Any such failure also could adversely affect our Financial Stability Ratings®.

20



Any changes in existing RBC requirements, minimum statutory capital requirements, or applicable writings ratios may require us to increase our statutory capital levels, which we may be unable to do, or require us to reduce the amount of premiums we write, which could adversely affect our business and our operating results.
Our Insurance Entities are subject to examination and actions by state insurance departments.
The Insurance Entities are subject to extensive regulation in the states in which they do business. State insurance regulatory agencies conduct periodic examinations of the Insurance Entities on a wide variety of matters, including policy forms, premium rates, licensing, trade and claims practices, investment standards and practices, statutory capital and surplus requirements, reserve and loss ratio requirements and transactions among affiliates. Further, the Insurance Entities are required to file quarterly, annual and other reports with state insurance regulatory agencies relating to financial condition, holding company issues and other matters. If an insurance company fails to obtain required licenses or approvals, or if the Insurance Entities fail to comply with other regulatory requirements, the regulatory agencies can suspend or revoke their licenses, withdraw or withhold required approvals, require corrective action and impose operating limitations, penalties or other remedies available under applicable laws and regulations. See “Item 1—Business—Government Regulation.”

ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
 
 
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
We conduct our operations primarily from our company-owned campus located at 1110 West Commercial Boulevard, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309, which contains approximately 68,500 square feet of office space. The facilities on our campus are suitable and adequate for our operations.
There are no mortgages or lease arrangements for the buildings on our campus and all are adequately covered by insurance.
 
 
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
Lawsuits are filed against the Company from time to time. Many of these lawsuits involve claims under policies that we underwrite and reserve for as an insurer. We are also involved in various other legal proceedings and litigation unrelated to claims under our policies that arise in the ordinary course of business operations. Management believes that any liabilities that may arise as a result of these legal matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. The Company contests liability and/or the amount of damages as appropriate in each pending matter.
In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, the Company establishes an accrued liability for legal matters when those matters present loss contingencies that are both probable and estimable.
Legal proceedings are subject to many uncertain factors that generally cannot be predicted with assurance, and the Company may be exposed to losses in excess of any amounts accrued. The Company currently estimates that the reasonably possible losses for legal proceedings, whether in excess of a related accrued liability or where there is no accrued liability, and for which the Company is able to estimate a possible loss, are immaterial. This represents management’s estimate of possible loss with respect to these matters and is based on currently available information. These estimates of possible loss do not represent our maximum loss exposure, and actual results may vary significantly from current estimates.

ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable


21



PART II
 
 
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, is quoted and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “UVE.” As of February 15, 2019, there were 32 registered shareholders of record of our common stock. A substantially greater number of holders of our common stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
 
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, there was one shareholder of our Series A Cumulative Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series A Preferred Stock”). We declared and paid aggregate dividends to this holder of record of the company’s Series A Preferred Stock of $10,000 for each of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.

Stock Performance Graph
The following graph and table compare the cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock from December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018 with the performance of: (i) Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index, (ii) Russell 2000 Index and (iii) S&P Insurance Select Industry Index. We are a constituent of the Russell 2000 Index and it provides an appropriate small and mid-cap benchmark index. The S&P Insurance Select Industry Index consists of all publicly traded insurance underwriters in the property and casualty sector in the United States.
totalperformance.jpg
 
 
Period Ended
Index
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018
Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc.
 
$
146.57

 
$
170.75

 
$
216.03

 
$
214.13

 
$
302.86

S&P 500 Index
 
113.69

 
115.26

 
129.05

 
157.22

 
150.33

Russell 2000 Index
 
104.89

 
100.26

 
121.63

 
139.44

 
124.09

S&P Insurance Select Industry Index
 
108.01

 
114.91

 
139.97

 
158.57

 
149.74


22



We have generated these comparisons using data supplied by S&P Global Market Intelligence (Centennial, Colorado). The graph and table assume an investment of $100 in our common stock and in each of the three indices on December 31, 2013 with all dividends being reinvested on the ex-dividend date. The closing price of our common stock as of December 31, 2018 (the last trading day of the year) was $37.92 per share. The stock price performance in the graph and table are not intended to forecast the future performance of our stock and may not be indicative of future price performance.
The stock prices used to calculate total shareholder return for UVE are based upon the prices of our common shares quoted and traded on NYSE.
We believe that the increase in stock price and increase in the total return performance relative to other indices is generally attributable to the changes made in the Company’s executive leadership in the first quarter of 2013, which has led to an increase in our profitability, as well as to our focus on long-term capital growth and strategic initiatives intended to increase shareholder value such as share repurchases and increasing cash dividends per share over that time frame. Other contributing factors may include moving to the NYSE, obtaining greater analyst coverage and engaging a leading global investment adviser to manage our investment portfolio, greater awareness of the benefits of our vertically integrated structure under harsh conditions, among other factors.
Dividend Policy
Future cash dividend payments are subject to business conditions, our financial position and requirements for working capital and other corporate purposes. Subject to these qualifications, we expect to continue our regular practice of paying a quarterly dividend to our stockholders. Applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may affect our ability to declare and pay dividends on our common stock. In particular, pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, a company may pay dividends out of its surplus, as defined, or out of its net profits, for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding year. Surplus is defined in the Delaware General Corporation Law to be the excess of net assets of the company over capital. Capital is defined to be the aggregate par value of shares issued. See “Part I-Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions,” “Item 1A-Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Insurance Industry” and “Part II, Item 7-Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
The table below presents our common stock repurchased by UVE during the three months ended December 31, 2018.
 
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per Share (1)
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of
Publicly
Announced
Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Number
of Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Plans or
Programs (2)
10/1/2018 - 10/31/2018
 
55,924

 
$
41.94

 
55,924

 

11/1/2018 - 11/30/2018
 
67,816

 
$
42.64

 
67,816

 

12/1/2018 - 12/31/2018
 
222,200

 
$
40.10

 
222,200

 
382,846

Total for the three months ended December 31, 2018
 
345,940

 
$
40.90

 
345,940

 
382,846

 
(1)
Average price paid per share does not reflect brokerage commissions paid to acquire shares in open market transactions.
(2)
Number of shares was calculated using a closing price at December 31, 2018 of $37.92 per share.
We may repurchase shares from time to time at our discretion, based on ongoing assessments of our capital needs, the market price of our common stock and general market conditions. We will fund the share repurchase program with cash from operations. During 2018, there were two authorized repurchase plans in effect:
On September 5, 2017, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $20 million of our outstanding common stock through December 31, 2018 (the “2018 Share Repurchase Program”) pursuant to which we repurchased 558,647 shares of our common stock at an aggregate cost of approximately $20.0 million. We completed the 2018 Share Repurchase Program in December 2018.
On December 12, 2018, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $20 million of our outstanding common stock through May 31, 2020 (the “2019-2020 Share Repurchase Program”). We repurchased 138,234 shares of our common stock under the 2019-2020 Share Repurchase Program during the year ended December 31, 2018 at an aggregate cost of approximately $5.5 million.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased an aggregate of 688,689 shares of our common stock in the open market.

23




ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected historical consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” set forth elsewhere in the Annual Report on Form 10-K. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period.
The following tables present historical selected consolidated financial data of Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries for the five years ended December 31, 2018 (in thousands, except per share data):
 

24



 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Statement of Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct premiums written
 
$
1,190,875

 
$
1,055,886

 
$
954,617

 
$
883,409

 
$
789,577

Change in unearned premium
 
(69,235
)
 
(56,688
)
 
(33,390
)
 
(46,617
)
 
(12,260
)
Direct premium earned
 
1,121,640

 
999,198

 
921,227

 
836,792

 
777,317

Ceded premium earned
 
(353,258
)
 
(310,405
)
 
(288,811
)
 
(332,793
)
 
(450,440
)
Premiums earned, net
 
768,382

 
688,793

 
632,416

 
503,999

 
326,877

Net investment income (1)
 
24,816

 
13,460

 
9,540

 
5,155

 
2,375

Other revenues (2)
 
49,876

 
47,093

 
41,039

 
36,330

 
34,397

Total revenue
 
823,816

 
751,916

 
685,289

 
546,544

 
369,276

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Losses and loss adjustment expenses
 
414,455

 
350,428

 
301,229

 
187,739

 
123,275

Policy acquisition costs
 
157,327

 
138,846

 
125,979

 
88,218

 
33,502

Other operating costs
 
99,161

 
92,158

 
95,198

 
95,564

 
84,895

Total expenses
 
670,943

 
581,432

 
522,406

 
371,521

 
241,672

Income before income taxes
 
152,873

 
170,484

 
162,883

 
175,023

 
127,604

Income tax expense
 
35,822

 
63,549

 
63,473

 
68,539

 
54,616

Net income
 
$
117,051

 
$
106,935

 
$
99,410

 
$
106,484

 
$
72,988

Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per common share
 
$
3.36

 
$
3.07

 
$
2.85

 
$
3.06

 
$
2.17

Diluted earnings per common share
 
$
3.27

 
$
2.99

 
$
2.79

 
$
2.97

 
$
2.08

Dividends declared per common share
 
$
0.73

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.63

 
$
0.55

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total invested assets
 
$
908,154

 
$
730,023

 
$
651,601

 
$
489,435

 
$
423,581

Cash and cash equivalents
 
166,428

 
213,486

 
105,730

 
197,014

 
115,397

Total assets
 
1,858,390

 
1,454,999

 
1,060,007

 
993,548

 
911,774

Unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses
 
472,829

 
248,425

 
58,494

 
98,840

 
134,353

Unearned premiums
 
601,679

 
532,444

 
475,756

 
442,366

 
395,748

Long-term debt
 
11,397

 
12,868

 
15,028

 
24,050

 
30,610

Total liabilities
 
1,356,757

 
1,015,011

 
688,817

 
700,456

 
692,858

Total stockholders’ equity
 
$
501,633

 
$
439,988

 
$
371,190

 
$
293,092

 
$
199,916

Shares outstanding end of period
 
34,783

 
34,735

 
35,052

 
35,110

 
34,102

Book value per share
 
$
14.42

 
$
12.67

 
$
10.59

 
$
8.35

 
$
5.86

Return on average equity (ROE)
 
24.1
%
 
25.7
%
 
29.4
%
 
41.8
%
 
38.4
%
Selected Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loss and loss adjustment expense ratio (3)
 
53.9
%
 
50.9
%
 
47.6
%
 
37.2
%
 
37.7
%
General and administrative expense ratio (4)
 
33.4
%
 
33.5
%
 
34.9
%
 
36.3
%
 
35.8
%
Combined Ratio (5)
 
87.3
%
 
84.4
%
 
82.5
%
 
73.5
%
 
73.5
%
(1)
Net investment income excludes net realized gains (losses) on sale of securities and net change in unrealized gains (losses) of equity securities.
(2)
Other revenue consists of commission revenue, policy fees, and other revenue.
(3)
The loss and loss adjustment expense ratio is calculated by dividing losses and loss adjustment expenses by premiums earned, net.
(4)
The general and administrative expense ratio is calculated by dividing general and administrative expense, excluding interest expense, by premiums earned, net. Interest expense was $346 thousand, $348 thousand, $421 thousand, $963 thousand and $1.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
(5)
The combined ratio is the sum of the losses and loss adjustment expense ratio and the general and administrative expense ratio.


25



ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in Part II, Item 8 below. The discussion below contains forward-looking statements that are based upon current expectations and are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from these expectations. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Overview
We develop, market, and underwrite insurance products for consumers predominantly in the personal residential homeowners lines of business and perform substantially all other insurance-related services for our primary insurance entities, including risk management, claims management and distribution. Our primary insurance entities, Universal Property & Casualty Insurance Company (UPCIC) and American Platinum Property and Casualty Insurance Company (APPCIC), offer insurance products through both our appointed independent agent network and our online distribution channels across 17 states (primarily in Florida), with licenses to write insurance in an additional three states. The Insurance Entities seek to produce an underwriting profit over the long term (defined as earned premium less losses, loss adjustment expense, policy acquisition costs and other operating costs); maintain a conservative balance sheet to prepare for years in which the Insurance Entities are not able to achieve an underwriting profit; and generate investment income from invested assets.
Revenues
We generate revenue primarily from the collection of insurance premiums. Other sources of revenue include: commissions paid by our reinsurers to our reinsurance intermediary subsidiary BARC on reinsurance it places for the Insurance Entities; policy fees collected from policyholders by our managing general agent subsidiary, ERA (formerly Universal Risk Advisors, Inc.); and financing fees charged to policyholders who choose to defer premium payments. In addition, our subsidiary, AAC (formerly known as Universal Adjusting Corporation), receives fees from the Insurance Entities for claims-handling services. The Insurance Entities are reimbursed for these fees on claims that are subject to recovery under the Insurance Entities’ respective reinsurance programs. These fees, after expenses, are recorded in the consolidated financial statements as an adjustment to LAE. We also generate income by investing our assets.
The nature of our business tends to be seasonal during the year, reflecting consumer behaviors in connection with the Florida residential real estate market and the hurricane season. The amount of direct premiums written tends to increase just prior to the second quarter and tends to decrease approaching the fourth quarter.
Trends and Geographical Distribution
As a result of our business strategy, rate changes and marketing and underwriting initiatives, we have seen increases in policy count, in-force premium and total insured value in all states for the past three years. Direct premiums written for states outside of Florida increased 34.6% representing a $45.7 million increase during 2018. Direct premium for Florida increased 9.7% representing a $89.3 million increase during 2018. The following table provides direct premiums written for Florida and other states for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 (dollars in thousands):
 
 
 
For the Years Ended
 
Growth
Year Over Year
 
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
State
 
Direct Premiums Written
 
%
 
Direct Premiums Written
 
%
 
$
 
%
Florida
 
$
1,013,290

 
85.1
%
 
$
923,962

 
87.5
%
 
$
89,328

 
9.7
%
Other states
 
177,585

 
14.9
%
 
131,924

 
12.5
%
 
45,661

 
34.6
%
Grand total
 
$
1,190,875

 
100.0
%
 
$
1,055,886

 
100.0
%
 
$
134,989

 
12.8
%


26



The geographical distribution of our policies in-force, in-force premium and total insured value for Florida by county were as follows as of December 31, 2018 (dollars in thousands, rounded to the nearest thousand): 
 
 
As of December 31, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
In-Force
 
 
 
Total Insured
 
 
County
 
Policy Count
 
%
 
Premium
 
%
 
Value
 
%
South Florida
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Broward
 
101,706

 
16.0
%
 
$
215,126

 
21.2
%
 
$
27,174,430

 
17.4
%
Miami-Dade
 
90,038

 
14.1
%
 
194,531

 
19.2
%
 
20,595,764

 
13.2
%
Palm Beach
 
85,692

 
13.4
%
 
163,959

 
16.1
%
 
24,316,423

 
15.6
%
South Florida exposure
 
277,436

 
43.5
%
 
573,616

 
56.5
%
 
72,086,617

 
46.2
%
Other significant* Florida counties
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pinellas
 
41,421

 
6.5
%
 
47,314

 
4.7
%
 
7,683,043

 
4.9
%
Hillsborough
 
26,495

 
4.1
%
 
35,098

 
3.5
%
 
6,565,146

 
4.2
%
Escambia
 
18,410

 
2.9
%
 
30,302

 
3.0
%
 
5,426,918

 
3.5
%
Pasco
 
24,647

 
3.9
%
 
27,881

 
2.7
%
 
8,279,011

 
5.3
%
Collier
 
20,832

 
3.3
%
 
26,503

 
2.6
%
 
3,545,544

 
2.3
%
Polk
 
16,798

 
2.6
%
 
25,751

 
2.5
%
 
5,329,879

 
3.4
%
Lee
 
25,712

 
4.0
%
 
25,506

 
2.5
%
 
4,076,423

 
2.6
%
Total other significant* counties
 
174,315

 
27.3
%
 
218,355

 
21.5
%
 
40,905,964

 
26.2
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
In-Force
 
 
 
Total Insured
 
 
Summary for all of Florida
 
Policy Count
 
%
 
Premium
 
%
 
Value
 
%
South Florida exposure
 
277,436

 
43.5
%
 
573,616

 
56.5
%
 
72,086,617

 
46.2
%
Total other significant* counties
 
174,315

 
27.3
%
 
218,355

 
21.5
%
 
40,905,964

 
26.2
%
Other Florida counties
 
186,175

 
29.2
%
 
223,695

 
22.0
%
 
43,126,374

 
27.6
%
Total Florida
 
637,926

 
100.0
%
 
$
1,015,666

 
100.0
%
 
$
156,118,955

 
100.0
%
*
Significant counties defined as greater than 2.5% of total in-force premium as of December 31, 2018.

27



The geographical distribution of our policies in-force, in-force premium and total insured value across all states were as follows, as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 (dollars in thousands, rounded to the nearest thousand):
 
 
As of December 31, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
In-Force
 
 
 
Total Insured
 
 
State
 
Policy Count
 
%
 
Premium
 
%
 
Value
 
%
Florida
 
637,926

 
77.0
%
 
$
1,015,666

 
85.1
%
 
$
156,118,955

 
68.3
%
North Carolina
 
55,047

 
6.6
%
 
43,770

 
3.7
%
 
17,124,104

 
7.5
%
Georgia
 
37,652

 
4.6
%
 
40,395

 
3.4
%
 
14,584,974

 
6.4
%
Massachusetts
 
11,796

 
1.4
%
 
15,522

 
1.3
%
 
7,020,121

 
3.1
%
South Carolina
 
15,117

 
1.8
%
 
14,477

 
1.2
%
 
4,818,760

 
2.1
%
Indiana
 
16,059

 
1.9
%
 
13,305

 
1.1
%
 
5,464,439

 
2.4
%
Pennsylvania
 
15,454

 
1.9
%
 
10,762

 
0.9
%
 
6,158,602

 
2.7
%
Minnesota
 
9,466

 
1.1
%
 
10,632

 
0.9
%
 
4,352,908

 
1.9
%
Virginia
 
10,354

 
1.3
%
 
8,437

 
0.7
%
 
5,053,973

 
2.2
%
Alabama
 
6,817

 
0.8
%
 
7,187

 
0.6
%
 
2,304,683

 
1.0
%
New Jersey
 
3,683

 
0.4
%
 
3,763

 
0.3
%
 
1,870,394

 
0.8
%
Michigan
 
2,388

 
0.3
%
 
2,879

 
0.2
%
 
940,051

 
0.4
%
Maryland
 
3,070

 
0.4
%
 
2,539

 
0.2
%
 
1,161,678

 
0.5
%
Hawaii
 
2,176

 
0.3
%
 
1,937

 
0.2
%
 
887,555

 
0.4
%
Delaware
 
1,073

 
0.1
%
 
1,230

 
0.1
%
 
555,055

 
0.2
%
New York
 
461

 
0.1
%
 
432

 
0.1
%
 
228,334

 
0.1
%
New Hampshire
 
114

 
0.0
%
 
86

 
0.0
%
 
62,436

 
0.0
%
Total
 
828,653

 
100.0
%
 
$
1,193,019

 
100.0
%
 
$
228,707,022

 
100.0
%
 
 
 
As of December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
In-Force
 
 
 
Total Insured
 
 
State
 
Policy Count
 
%
 
Premium
 
%
 
Value
 
%
Florida
 
618,280

 
80.9
%
 
$
926,087

 
87.6
%
 
$
146,624,470

 
73.9
%
North Carolina
 
48,866

 
6.4
%
 
36,993

 
3.5
%
 
14,275,508

 
7.2
%
Georgia
 
31,305

 
4.1
%
 
32,343

 
3.1
%
 
11,380,109

 
5.7
%
Massachusetts
 
10,132

 
1.3
%
 
13,162

 
1.2
%
 
5,857,450

 
3.0
%
South Carolina
 
13,769

 
1.8
%
 
13,372

 
1.3
%
 
4,120,728

 
2.1
%
Indiana
 
11,622

 
1.5
%
 
9,236

 
0.9
%
 
3,768,044

 
1.9
%
Pennsylvania
 
10,554

 
1.4
%
 
7,292

 
0.7
%
 
4,047,997

 
2.1
%
Minnesota
 
4,769

 
0.6
%
 
5,198

 
0.5
%
 
2,103,731

 
1.1
%
Virginia
 
4,908

 
0.6
%
 
3,867

 
0.4
%
 
2,263,923

 
1.1
%
Alabama
 
2,861

 
0.4
%
 
2,934

 
0.3
%
 
895,380

 
0.5
%
New Jersey
 
877

 
0.1
%
 
858

 
0.0
%
 
428,072

 
0.2
%
Michigan
 
1,330

 
0.2
%
 
1,574

 
0.1
%
 
491,906

 
0.2
%
Maryland
 
2,354

 
0.3
%
 
1,901

 
0.2
%
 
869,685

 
0.4
%
Hawaii
 
2,009

 
0.3
%
 
1,830

 
0.2
%
 
842,740

 
0.4
%
Delaware
 
828

 
0.1
%
 
903

 
0.0
%
 
400,076

 
0.2
%
New York
 
54

 
0.0
%
 
52

 
0.0
%
 
27,191

 
0.0
%
New Hampshire
 

 

 

 

 

 

Total
 
764,518

 
100.0
%
 
$
1,057,602

 
100.0
%
 
$
198,397,010

 
100.0
%

28



 
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
In-Force
 
 
 
Total Insured
 
 
State
 
Policy Count
 
%
 
Premium
 
%
 
Value
 
%
Florida
 
577,783

 
84.6
%
 
$
862,332

 
90.2
%
 
$
134,493,470

 
79.1
%
North Carolina
 
41,393

 
6.1
%
 
30,858

 
3.2
%
 
11,972,066

 
7.0
%
Georgia
 
24,257

 
3.6
%
 
23,849

 
2.5
%
 
8,450,315

 
5.0
%
Massachusetts
 
7,451

 
1.1
%
 
9,964

 
1.0
%
 
4,352,990

 
2.6
%
South Carolina
 
12,230

 
1.8
%
 
12,393

 
1.3
%
 
3,592,203

 
2.1
%
Indiana
 
6,835

 
1.0
%
 
5,381

 
0.6
%
 
2,162,967

 
1.3
%
Pennsylvania
 
5,303

 
0.8
%
 
3,677

 
0.4
%
 
1,925,226

 
1.1
%
Minnesota
 
2,089

 
0.3
%
 
2,251

 
0.2
%
 
896,969

 
0.5
%
Virginia
 
269

 
0.0
%
 
224

 
0.0
%
 
130,556

 
0.1
%
Alabama
 
624

 
0.1
%
 
624

 
0.1
%
 
182,456

 
0.1
%
New Jersey
 

 

 

 

 

 

Michigan
 
538

 
0.1
%
 
651

 
0.1
%
 
190,360

 
0.1
%
Maryland
 
1,756

 
0.2
%
 
1,413

 
0.1
%
 
640,919

 
0.4
%
Hawaii
 
1,767

 
0.2
%
 
1,689

 
0.2
%
 
756,428

 
0.4
%
Delaware
 
621

 
0.1
%
 
663

 
0.1
%
 
289,941

 
0.2
%
New York
 

 

 

 

 

 

New Hampshire
 

 

 

 

 

 

Total
 
682,916

 
100.0
%
 
$
955,969

 
100.0
%
 
$
170,036,866

 
100.0
%
Also see “Results of Operations” below and “Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Because we conduct the substantial majority of our business in Florida, our financial results depend on the regulatory, economic and weather conditions in Florida” for discussion on geographical diversification.



REINSURANCE
Developing and implementing our reinsurance strategy to adequately protect us in the event of one or more catastrophes while maintaining efficient reinsurance costs has been a key focus for our leadership team. In recent years, the property and casualty insurance market has experienced a substantial increase in the availability of property catastrophe reinsurance resulting from the increased supply of capital from non-traditional reinsurance providers, including private capital and hedge funds. This increased capital supply, coupled with the lack of significant catastrophic activity in Florida and elsewhere around the world up to 2016, and core underwriting improvements, such as Florida’s wind mitigation efforts to strengthen homes subject to wind events, reduced the cost of property catastrophe reinsurance for several years, directly benefiting significant reinsurance buyers, such as us.
In order to limit our potential exposure to catastrophic events, we purchase significant reinsurance from third-party reinsurers. We rely on third-party reinsurers and the FHCF, and do not have any captive or affiliated reinsurance arrangements in place. The FLOIR requires us and all insurance companies doing business in Florida to have a certain amount of capital and reinsurance coverage in order to cover losses upon the occurrence of a single catastrophic event and a series of catastrophic events occurring in the same hurricane season. Our 2018-2019 reinsurance program meets and provides reinsurance in excess of the FLOIR’s requirements, which are based on, among other things, the probable maximum loss that we would incur from an individual catastrophic event estimated to occur once in every 100 years based on our portfolio of insured risks and a series of stress test catastrophe loss scenarios based on past historical events. As respects to the single catastrophic event, the nature, severity and location of the event giving rise to such a probable maximum loss differs for each insurer depending on the insurer’s portfolio of insured risks, including, among other things, the geographic concentration of insured value within the insurer’s portfolio. Accordingly, a particular catastrophic event could be a one-in-100 year loss event for one insurance company while having a greater or lesser probability of occurrence for another insurance company.
We believe our retention under the reinsurance program is appropriate and structured to protect our policyholders. We test the sufficiency of our reinsurance program by subjecting our personal residential exposures to statistical testing using a third-party

29



hurricane model, RMS RiskLink v17.0 (Build 1825). This model combines simulations of the natural occurrence patterns and characteristics of hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and other catastrophes with information on property values, construction types and occupancy classes. The model outputs provide information concerning the potential for large losses before they occur, so companies can prepare for their financial impact.
UPCIC’s 2018-2019 Reinsurance Program
Third-Party Reinsurance
Our annual reinsurance program, which is segmented into layers of coverage, as is industry practice, protects us against excess property catastrophe losses. Our 2018-2019 reinsurance program includes the mandatory coverage required by law to be placed with the FHCF, in which we have elected to participate at 90%, the highest level, and also includes private reinsurance described below, alongside and above the FHCF layer. In placing our 2018-2019 reinsurance program, we obtained multiple years of coverage for an additional portion of the program. We believe this multi-year arrangement will allow us to capitalize on favorable pricing and contract terms and conditions and allow us to mitigate uncertainty with respect to the price of future reinsurance coverage, one of our largest costs.
The total cost of UPCIC’s private catastrophe reinsurance program for all states as described below, effective June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2019, is $175.30 million. In addition, UPCIC has purchased reinstatement premium protection as described below, the cost of which is $14.97 million. The largest private participants in UPCIC’s reinsurance program include leading reinsurance companies and providers such as Nephila Capital, Everest Re, RenaissanceRe, Chubb Tempest Re and Lloyd’s of London syndicates.
We have used the model results noted above to stress test the completeness of the program by simulating a recurrence of the 2004 calendar year, in which four large catastrophic hurricanes made landfall in Florida. This season is considered to be the worst catastrophic year in Florida’s recorded history. Assuming the reoccurrence of the 2004 calendar year events, including the same geographic path of each such hurricane, the modeled estimated net loss to us in 2018 with the reinsurance coverage described herein would be approximately $110 million (after tax, net of all reinsurance recoveries). We estimate that, based on our portfolio of insured risks as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, a repeat of the four 2004 calendar year events would have exhausted approximately 20.0% and 27.0%, respectively, of our property catastrophe reinsurance coverage.
UPCIC’s Retention
UPCIC has a net retention of $35 million per catastrophe event for losses incurred, in all states, up to a first event loss of $3.146 billion. UPCIC also purchases a separate underlying catastrophe program to further reduce its retention for all losses occurring in any state other than Florida (the “Other States Reinsurance Program”). UPCIC retains only $5 million under its Other States Reinsurance Program in the first event, $3 million in the second event and only $1 million under its Other States Reinsurance Program for the third through fifth events. These retention amounts are gross of any potential tax benefit we would receive in paying such losses.
First Layer
Immediately above UPCIC’s net retention, we have reinsurance coverage from third-party reinsurers for up to four separate catastrophic events for all states. Specifically, we have purchased reinsurance coverage for the first and third catastrophic events, and each such coverage allows for one reinstatement upon the payment of reinstatement premiums, which would cover the second and fourth catastrophic events. This coverage has been obtained from four contracts as follows:
59% of $76 million in excess of $35 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period;
20% of $55 million in excess of $35 million provides coverage on a multi-year basis through May 31, 2021;
21% of $55 million in excess of $35 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period; and
100% of $76 million in excess of $35 million and in excess of $152 million otherwise recoverable (from the first and second events) provides the third and fourth event coverage for the 2018-2019 period.
For the first three contracts above, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages. All of these contracts extend coverage to all states.
Second Layer
Above the first layer, for losses exceeding $90 million and $111 million, we have purchased a second layer of coverage for losses up to $445 million—in other words, for the next $355 or $334 million of losses. This coverage has been obtained from three contracts as follows:

30



58% of $355 million in excess of $90 million provides coverage on a multi-year basis through May 31, 2020;
19.5% of $334 million in excess of $111 million provides coverage on a multi-year basis through May 31, 2021; and
22.5% of $334 million in excess of $111 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period.
In these layers, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages. All of these contracts extend coverage to all states.
Third Layer
Above the first and second layers, we have purchased a third layer of coverage for losses up to $529 million—in other words, for the next $84 million of losses. This coverage was obtained from two contracts as follows:
65% of $84 million in excess of $445 million provides coverage on a multi-year basis through May 31, 2021; and
35% of $84 million in excess of $445 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period.
In these layers, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages. Both of these contracts extend coverage to all states.
Fourth Layer
Above the first, second and third layers, we have purchased a fourth layer of coverage for losses up to $635 million—in other words, for the next $106 million of losses. This coverage was obtained from two contracts as follows:
65% of $106 million in excess of $529 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period; and
35% of $106 million in excess of $529 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period.
In these layers, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages. Both of these contracts extend coverage to all states.
Fifth Layer
Above the first, second, third and fourth layers, we have purchased a fifth layer of coverage for losses up to $680 million—in other words, for the next $45 million of losses. This coverage was obtained from two contracts as follows:
65% of $45 million in excess of $635 million provides coverage on a multi-year basis through May 31, 2021; and
35% of $45 million in excess of $635 million provides coverage for the 2018-2019 period.
In these layers, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages. Both of these contracts extend coverage to all states.
Sixth and Seventh Layers
In the sixth and seventh layers, we have purchased reinsurance for $218 million of coverage in excess of $680 million in losses incurred by us (net of the FHCF layer) and $140 million of coverage in excess of $898 million (net of the FHCF layer), respectively, for a total of $1.0 billion of coverage (net of the FHCF layer) by third-party reinsurers. In these layers, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages. Both of these contracts extend coverage to all states.
UPCIC structures its reinsurance coverage into layers and utilizes a cascading feature such that the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reinsurance layers all attach at $111 million. Any layers above the $111 million attachment point are excess of loss over the immediately preceding layer. If the aggregate limit of the preceding layer is exhausted, the next layer cascades down in its place for future events. This means that, unless losses exhaust the top layer of our coverage, we are exposed to only $35 million in losses, pre-tax, per catastrophe for each of the first four events. In addition to tax benefits that could reduce our ultimate loss, we anticipate that certain fees paid to our subsidiary service providers by our Insurance Entities and, indirectly, our reinsurers would also increase during an active hurricane season.

31



Other States Reinsurance Program
The total cost of UPCIC’s private catastrophe reinsurance program for other states as described below, effective June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2019, is $9.74 million. In addition, UPCIC has purchased reinstatement premium protection as described below, the cost of which is $2.25 million.
Effective June 1, 2018 through June 1, 2019, under an excess catastrophe contract specifically covering risks located outside the state of Florida and intended to further reduce UPCIC’s $35 million net retention, as noted above, UPCIC has obtained catastrophe coverage of $30 million in excess of $5 million covering certain loss occurrences, including hurricanes, in states outside of Florida. This catastrophe coverage has a second full limit available with additional premium calculated pro rata as to amount and 100% as to time, as applicable. For this catastrophe coverage, which is placed in three layers, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, we have purchased reinstatement premium protection to pay the required premium necessary for the reinstatement of this coverage. All catastrophe layers are placed with a cascading feature so that all capacity could be made available in excess of $5 million under certain loss scenarios. Further, UPCIC purchased subsequent catastrophe event excess of loss reinsurance specifically covering risks outside of Florida to cover certain levels of loss through five catastrophe events including hurricanes. Specifically, UPCIC obtained catastrophe coverage that covers 100% of $4,000,000 excess of $1,000,000 in excess of $6,000,000 otherwise recoverable. This coverage has two and a half free reinstatements and a total of $14,000,000 of coverage available to UPCIC.
In certain circumstances involving a first catastrophic event impacting both Florida and other states, UPCIC’s retention could result in pre-tax net liability as low as $5,000,000—the $35 million net retention under the all states reinsurance program could be offset by as much as $30 million in coverage under the Other States Reinsurance Program—or 1.7% of UPCIC’s statutory policyholders’ surplus as of December 31, 2018.
FHCF
UPCIC’s third-party reinsurance program supplements the FHCF coverage we are required to purchase every year. The limit and retention of the FHCF coverage we receive each year is subject to upward or downward adjustment based on, among other things, submitted exposures to the FHCF by all participants. As of December 31, 2018, we estimate our FHCF coverage includes a maximum provisional limit of 90% of $2.33 billion, or $2.1 billion, in excess of $727 million. The estimated premium that UPCIC plans to cede to the FHCF for the 2018 hurricane season is $136.8 million.
Coverage purchased from third-party reinsurers, as described above, adjusts to provide coverage for certain losses not otherwise covered by the FHCF. The FHCF coverage cannot be reinstated once exhausted, but it does provide coverage for multiple events. The FHCF coverage extends only to losses to our Florida portfolio due to a land falling hurricane.
The third-party reinsurance we purchase for UPCIC is therefore net of FHCF recovery. When our FHCF and third-party reinsurance coverages are taken together, UPCIC has reinsurance coverage of up to $3.146 billion for the first event, as illustrated by the graphic below. Should a catastrophic event occur, we would retain up to $35 million pre-tax for each catastrophic event, and would also be responsible for any additional losses that exceed our top layer of coverage.
Reinsurers
The following table below provides the A.M. Best and S&P financial strength ratings for each of the largest third-party reinsurers in UPCIC’s 2018-2019 reinsurance program:
Reinsurer
 
A.M. Best
 
S&P
Allianz Risk Transfer
 
A+
 
AA
Everest Reinsurance Company
 
A+
 
A+
Renaissance Re
 
A+
 
A+
Chubb Tempest Reinsurance Ltd.
 
A++
 
AA
Various Lloyd’s of London Syndicates
 
A
 
A+
Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund
 
N/A
 
N/A


32



All States 1st Event

upcicreinsurancetable.jpg


33



Non-Florida 1st Event

upcicpcreinsurance.jpg 
 APPCIC’s 2018-2019 Reinsurance Program
Third-Party Reinsurance
The total cost of APPCIC’s private catastrophe and multiple line excess reinsurance program, effective June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2019, is $2.27 million. In addition, APPCIC has purchased reinstatement premium protection as described below, the cost of which is $103,950. The largest private participants in APPCIC’s reinsurance program include leading reinsurance companies such as Everest Re, Chubb Tempest Re, Hiscox, Hannover