EX-99.1 14 eh2000373_ex9901.htm EXHIBIT 99.1
EXHIBIT 99.1



Annual Information Form
February 26, 2020




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Nomenclature
In this Annual Information Form, unless the context otherwise dictates, “we”, “Teck” or the “Company” refers to Teck Resources Limited and its subsidiaries.  All dollar amounts expressed throughout this Annual Information Form are in Canadian dollars unless otherwise noted.
Cautionary Statement on Forward-Looking Information
This Annual Information Form contains certain forward-looking information and forward-looking statements as defined in applicable securities laws (collectively referred to as forward-looking statements). These statements relate to future events or our future performance. All statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. The use of any of the words “anticipate”, “plan”, “continue”, “estimate”, “expect”, “may”, “will”, “project”, “predict”, “potential”, “should”, “believe” and similar expressions is intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. These statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Information Form. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning:

forecast production;

forecast operating costs and capital costs;

sales forecasts;

our strategies, objectives and goals;

future prices and price volatility for steelmaking coal, copper, zinc, blended bitumen and other products and commodities that we produce and sell, as well as oil, natural gas and petroleum products;

the demand for and supply of steelmaking coal, copper, zinc, blended bitumen and other products and commodities that we produce and sell;

expected receipt of regulatory approvals and the expected timing thereof, including our expectations relating to the requested modification to Antamina’s current Environmental Impact Assessment certificate;

expectations regarding our ability to maintain and renew existing licenses and leases for our properties;

expected receipt or completion of prefeasibility studies, feasibility studies and other studies and the expected timing thereof;

proposed or expected changes in regulatory frameworks and their anticipated impact on our business;

our interest and other expenses;

our tax position and the tax rates applicable to us;

pipeline capacity for Canadian crude oil and the adequacy of our logistics arrangements related to Fort Hills, including our participation in the crude-by-rail initiative;

curtailment measures imposed by the Government of Alberta and their impact on Fort Hills;
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 1


the timing and costs of construction and production with respect to, and the issuance of the necessary permits and other authorizations required for, certain of our development and expansion projects, including, among others, the Quebrada Blanca Phase 2 (QB2) project, the NuevaUnión copper project and our Project Satellite projects;

expected mine lives and the possibility of extending mine lives through the development of new areas or otherwise;

the closure of our Cardinal River operations and our expectation that we will be able to increase production capacity at our other Elk Valley mines in order to offset production losses from this closure;

our estimates of the quantity and quality of our mineral and oil reserves and resources;

our expectation that a portion of coal lands associated with the Swift region of Fording River may be developed and mined under the Greenhills mine plan;

the production capacity, planned production levels and future production of our operations and development projects, including QB2 and Quebrada Blanca Phase 3;

availability of transportation for our products from our operations to our customers, including our expectations regarding the benefits of our agreements with transportation providers;

potential impact of transportation, port or pipeline disruptions or production disruptions;

our expectations for our RACE21™ innovation driven efficiency program, the associated implementation costs and the expected benefits to our business from the program;

availability of our credit facilities;

financial assurance requirements related to our projects and related agreements;

our planned capital expenditures and capital spending and timing for completion of our capital projects;

our estimates of reclamation and other costs related to environmental protection;

our future capital and mine production costs, including the costs and potential impact of complying with existing and proposed environmental laws and regulations in the operation and closure of various operations;

the costs, steps and potential impact of managing water quality at our coal operations, including but not limited to statements under “Description of the Business — Individual Operations — Steelmaking Coal — Elk Valley Water Quality Management” including our expectations regarding our ability to expand our water treatment capacity using active water treatment facilities and saturated rock fill technology, expected timing of construction and completion of our various proposed active water treatment and saturated rock fill facilities, capital spending guidance, our expectations for water treatment capacity in the future, the regulatory process relating to active water treatment and estimates of our long-term costs of water management;

our expectation that we can upgrade Neptune Bulk Terminals’ operational coal capacity, the benefits associated therewith and our anticipated capital costs and timing for completion thereof;
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 2


expectations regarding the QB2 project, including expectations regarding financing, timing and amount of contributions. capacity, mine life, regulatory approvals, projected expenditures and our expectation that the operation will eventually transition to a fully autonomous fleet and that we will be able to transition to renewable energy for approximately half of the power required for the operation of QB2;

expected spending and activities at our Project Satellite properties;

anticipated benefits, timing and costs of the Red Dog mill upgrade project;

anticipated benefits from our newly completed No. 2 Acid Plant at our Trail Operations;

our financial and operating objectives;

our exploration, environmental, community, health and safety initiatives;

the outcome of legal and regulatory proceedings and other disputes in which we are involved, including potential charges under the Fisheries Act and the Upper Columbia River Basin litigation, and any timing or other expectations in respect thereof;

the outcome of our coal sales negotiations and negotiations with metals and concentrate customers concerning treatment charges, price adjustments and premiums;

our dividend policy and capital allocation framework; and

general business and economic conditions.
Inherent in forward-looking statements are risks and uncertainties beyond our ability to predict or control, including risks that may affect our operating or capital plans; risks generally encountered in the permitting and development of mineral and oil and gas properties such as unusual or unexpected geological formations, unanticipated metallurgical difficulties, delays associated with permit appeals or other regulatory processes, ground control problems, adverse weather conditions, process upsets and equipment malfunctions; risks associated with any damage to our reputation; risks associated with the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act and similar worldwide bribery laws; risks associated with labour disturbances and availability of skilled labour; risks associated with fluctuations in the market prices of our principal commodities, which are cyclical and subject to substantial price fluctuations; risks associated with changes to the tax and royalty regimes in which we operate; risks created through competition for mining and oil and gas properties; risks associated with lack of access to markets; risks associated with mineral and oil and gas reserve estimates; risks posed by fluctuations in exchange rates and interest rates, as well as general economic conditions; risks associated with access to capital; risks associated with changes to our credit ratings; risks associated with our material financing arrangements and our covenants thereunder; risks associated with climate change, environmental compliance, changes in environmental legislation and regulation and changes to our reclamation obligations; risks associated with our dependence on third parties for the provision of transportation, port, pipeline. and other critical services; risks associated with non-performance by contractual counterparties; risks associated with potential disputes with partners and co-owners; risks associated with Indigenous People claims and other title risks; social and political risks associated with operations in foreign countries; risks associated with the preparation of our financial statements; risks related to trade barriers or import restrictions; risks of changes in tax laws or their interpretation; risks associated with information technology, including cybersecurity risks and risks associated with the failure of such information technology to achieve the benefits we expect; and risks associated with tax reassessments and legal proceedings. See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of additional risks we face.  The amount and timing of actual capital expenditures is dependent upon, among other matters, being able to secure permits, equipment, supplies, materials and labour on a timely basis and at expected costs to enable the related capital
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 3

project to be completed as currently anticipated. Certain of our operations and projects are operated through joint arrangements where we may not have control over all decisions, which may cause outcomes to differ from current expectations. Further factors associated with our Elk Valley Water Quality Plan are discussed under the heading “Description of the Business — Individual Operations — Steelmaking Coal — Elk Valley Water Quality Management”. Declaration and payment of dividends and capital allocation generally, is at the discretion of the Board, and our dividend policy and capital allocation framework will be reviewed regularly and may change.
Actual results and developments are likely to differ, and may differ materially, from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Information Form. Such statements are based on a number of assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, including, but not limited to, assumptions regarding:

general business and economic conditions;

interest rates;

commodity and power prices;

acts of foreign or domestic governments and the outcome of legal proceedings;

the supply and demand for, deliveries of, and the level and volatility of prices of copper, coal, zinc and blended bitumen and our other metals and minerals, as well as oil, natural gas and other petroleum products;

the timing of the receipt of permits and other regulatory and governmental approvals for our development projects and other operations, including mine extensions;

the results from studies on our expansion and development projects;

our costs of production and our production and productivity levels, as well as those of our competitors;

our ability to secure adequate transportation, pipeline and port services for our products;

continuing availability of water and power resources for our operations;

credit market conditions and conditions in financial markets generally;

the availability of funding to refinance our borrowings as they become due or to finance our development projects on reasonable terms;

our ability to procure equipment and operating supplies in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis;

the availability of qualified employees and contractors for our operations, including our new developments and our ability to attract and retain skilled employees;

the satisfactory negotiation of collective agreements with unionized employees;

the impact of changes in Canadian-U.S. dollar and other foreign exchange rates on our costs and results;

engineering and construction timetables and capital costs for our development and expansion projects;

the benefits of technology for our operations and development projects, including the impact of our RACE21™ program;

costs of closure, and environmental compliance costs generally, of operations;
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market competition;

the accuracy of our reserve and resource estimates (including, with respect to size, grade and recoverability) and the geological, operational and price assumptions on which these are based;

tax benefits and tax rates;

the outcome of our coal price and volume negotiations with customers;

the outcome of our copper, zinc and lead concentrate treatment and refining charge negotiations with customers;

curtailment measures on oil production taken by the Government of Alberta;

the resolution of environmental and other proceedings or disputes;

the future supply of low-cost power to the Trail smelting and refining complex;

our ability to obtain, comply with and renew permits, licenses and leases in a timely manner; and

our ongoing relations with our employees and with our business and joint venture partners.
In addition, assumptions regarding the Elk Valley Water Quality Plan include assumptions that additional treatment will be effective at scale, and that the technology and facilities operate as expected, as well as additional assumptions discussed under the heading “Description of the Business — Individual Operations — Steelmaking Coal — Elk Valley Water Quality Management”. Assumptions regarding QB2 include current project assumptions and assumptions regarding the final feasibility study.  Expectations regarding our operations are based on numerous assumptions regarding the operations.  Assumptions regarding the costs and benefits of the Neptune Bulk Terminals expansion and other projects include assumptions that the relevant project is constructed and operated in accordance with current expectations.  Statements regarding the availability of our credit facilities are based on assumptions that we will be able to satisfy the conditions for borrowing at the time of a borrowing request and that the credit facilities are not otherwise terminated or accelerated due to an event of default.  Statements concerning future production costs or volumes are based on numerous assumptions of management regarding operating matters and on assumptions that demand for products develops as anticipated, that customers and other counterparties perform their contractual obligations, that operating and capital plans will not be disrupted by issues such as mechanical failure, unavailability of parts and supplies, labour disturbances, interruption in transportation or utilities, adverse weather conditions, and that there are no material unanticipated variations in the cost of energy or supplies. Statements regarding anticipated steelmaking coal sales volumes and average steelmaking coal prices depend on timely arrival of vessels and performance of our steelmaking coal-loading facilities, as well as the level of spot pricing sales.
We caution you that the foregoing list of important factors and assumptions is not exhaustive. Other events or circumstances could cause our actual results to differ materially from those estimated or projected and expressed in, or implied by, our forward-looking statements. You should also carefully consider the matters discussed under “Risk Factors” in this Annual Information Form and in our “Cautionary Statement on Forward-Looking Statements” section of our Management’s Discussion and Analysis for the year ended December 31, 2019, and subsequent filings, which can be found under our profile on SEDAR (www.sedar.com) and on EDGAR (www.sec.gov). Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly or otherwise revise any forward-looking statements or the foregoing list of factors, whether as a result of new information or future events or otherwise.
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Scientific and technical information in this Annual Information Form regarding our coal properties was reviewed, approved and verified by Messrs. Don Mills P.Geo. and Robin Gold P.Eng., each employees of Teck Coal Limited and each a Qualified Person under National Instrument 43-101.  Scientific and technical information in this Annual Information Form regarding our other properties was reviewed, approved and verified by Rodrigo Alves Marinho, P.Geo., an employee of Teck and a Qualified Person under National Instrument 43-101.
Cautionary Note to U.S. Investors Concerning Estimates of Measured, Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources and Oil and Gas Reserves
This Annual Information Form has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the securities laws in effect in Canada, which differ from the requirements of U.S. securities laws.
In this Annual Information Form we use the term “mineral resources” and its subcategories “measured”, “indicated”, and “inferred” mineral resources. Readers are advised that, while such terms are required by Canadian regulations, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) does not currently require U.S. mining companies in their filings with the SEC to disclose estimates of mineral resources. Investors are cautioned not to assume that any part or all of the mineral resources in these categories will ever be converted into reserves. “Inferred mineral resources” have a great amount of uncertainty as to their existence, and great uncertainty as to their economic and legal feasibility. Under Canadian rules, issuers must not make any disclosure of results of an economic evaluation that includes inferred mineral resources, except in very limited cases. Investors are cautioned not to assume that part or all of an inferred mineral resource exists, or is, or will be, economically or legally mineable.  Recent SEC rule changes applicable for fiscal years beginning on or after January 1, 2021 will require U.S. mining companies to disclose in their SEC filings mineral resources for material properties. In addition, these revised rules also recognize the subcategories of “measured”, “indicated” and “inferred” mineral resources.
Canadian standards of oil and gas disclosure also differ significantly from the requirements of the SEC, and oil and gas reserve and resource information contained in this Annual Information Form may not be comparable to similar information disclosed by U.S. companies. The oil and gas reserves estimates in this Annual Information Form have been prepared in accordance with National Instrument 51-101 — Standards of Disclosure for Oil and Gas Activities, which has been adopted by securities regulatory authorities in Canada and imposes oil and gas disclosure standards for Canadian public issuers engaged in oil and gas activities and differs from the oil and gas disclosure standards of the SEC under Subpart 1200 of Regulation S-K. The SEC definitions of proved and probable reserves are different than the definitions contained in National Instrument 51‑101. Therefore, proved and probable reserves disclosed in, or in the documents incorporated by reference into, this Annual Information Form in compliance with National Instrument 51‑101 may not be comparable to those disclosed by U.S. companies.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 6

Glossary of Technical Terms
bitumen: a naturally occurring heavy viscous crude oil.
blended bitumen: bitumen blended with diluent to reduce its viscosity, such that the combined product can be easily pumped through a pipeline and placed in storage facilities.
cathode: an electrode in an electrolytic cell where electrons enter and which represents the final product of an electrolytic metal refining process.
clean coal: coal that has been processed to separate impurities and is in a form suitable for sale.
coking coal: coal possessing physical and chemical characteristics that facilitate the conversion into coke, which is used in the steelmaking process. Coking coal may also be referred to as metallurgical coal.
concentrate: a product containing valuable minerals from which most of the waste rock in the ore has been eliminated in a mill or concentrator.
crude oil: unrefined liquid hydrocarbons, excluding natural gas liquids.
dump leach: a process that involves dissolving and recovering minerals from typically lower-grade uncrushed ore from a mine dump.
flotation: a method of mineral separation in which a variety of reagents facilitate the attachment of certain minerals on to the surface of a froth while other minerals sink, thus effecting the separation of valuable minerals from non-valuable minerals.
grade: the classification of an ore according to its content of economically valuable material, expressed as grams per tonne for precious metals and as a percentage for most other metals.
hard coking coal: a type of coking coal used primarily for making high-strength coke for use in integrated steel mills.
heap leach: a process whereby metals are leached from a heap of crushed ore by leaching solutions seeping through the heap into a container or liner beneath the heap.
hypogene: primary sulphide ore located beneath shallow zones of ore affected by weathering processes.
LME: London Metals Exchange.
mill:  a plant in which ore is ground to reduce particle size and physically liberating valuable from non-valuable minerals.
oil sands: sand and rock material that contains bitumen.
ore: naturally occurring material from which minerals of economic value can be extracted at a reasonable profit.
orebody: a contiguous, well-defined mass of material of sufficient ore content to make extraction economically feasible.
pulverized coal injection (PCI) coal: coal that is pulverized and injected into a blast furnace. Those grades of coal used in the PCI process are generally non-coking. PCI grade coal is used primarily as a heat source in the steelmaking process in partial replacement for high-quality coking coals, which are typically more expensive.
semi-autogenous grinding (SAG): a method of grinding rock in which particle size reduction is achieved through tumbling action of a rotating grinding mill that primarily utilizes the contact of rock-on-rock supplemented with steel grinding balls to breakdown particles.
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slag: a substance formed by way of chemical action and fusion at furnace operating temperatures; a by‑product of the smelting process.
smelter: a plant in which concentrates are processed into an upgraded product by application of heat.
steelmaking coal: the various grades of coal that are used in the steelmaking process, including both coals to produce coke and coals that are pulverized for injection into the blast furnace as a fuel.
sulphide: a mineral compound containing sulphur but no oxygen.
supergene: near-surface ore that has been subject to secondary enrichment by weathering.
SX-EW: an abbreviation for solvent extraction-electrowinning, a hydrometallurgical process to produce cathode copper from leached copper ores.
tailings: the slurry that remains after selected minerals have been removed from the ore during processing.
thermal coal: coal that is used primarily for its heating value. Thermal coals tend not to have the carbonization properties possessed by coking coals. Most thermal coal is used to produce electricity in thermal power plants.
treatment and refining charges: the charge a mine pays to a smelter as a fee for conversion of concentrates into refined metal.

Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 8

Corporate Structure
Name, Address and Incorporation
Teck Resources Limited was continued under the Canada Business Corporations Act in 1978. It is the continuing company resulting from the merger in 1963 of the interests of The Teck-Hughes Gold Mines Ltd., Lamaque Gold Mines Limited and Canadian Devonian Petroleum Ltd., companies incorporated in 1913, 1937 and 1951, respectively. Over the years, several other reorganizations have been undertaken. These include our merger with Brameda Resources Limited and The Yukon Consolidated Gold Corporation in 1979, the merger with Highmont Mining Corporation and Iso Mines Limited in 1979, the consolidation with Afton Mines Ltd. in 1981, the merger with Copperfields Mining Corporation in 1983, and the acquisition of 100% of Cominco Ltd. in 2001. On July 23, 2001, Cominco Ltd. changed its name to Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. and on September 12, 2001, we changed our name to Teck Cominco Limited. On January 1, 2008, we amalgamated with our wholly owned subsidiary, Aur Resources Inc., by way of vertical short-form amalgamation under the name Teck Cominco Limited. On April 23, 2009, we changed our name to Teck Resources Limited from Teck Cominco Limited. On June 1, 2009, Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. changed its name to Teck Metals Ltd.
Since 1978, the Articles of Teck have been amended on several occasions to provide for various series of preferred shares and for other corporate purposes. On January 19, 1988, our Articles were amended to provide for the subdivision of our Class A common shares and Class B subordinate voting shares on a two-for-one basis. On September 12, 2001, the Articles were amended to effect the name change to Teck Cominco Limited and to convert each outstanding Class A common share into one new Class A common share and 0.2 Class B subordinate voting shares and to enact “coattail” provisions for the benefit of the Class B subordinate voting shares. Effective May 7, 2007, our Articles were amended to subdivide our Class A common shares and Class B subordinate voting shares on a two-for-one basis. See “Description of Capital Structure” below for a description of the attributes of the Class A common shares and Class B subordinate voting shares. On April 23, 2009, our Articles were amended to effect the name change to Teck Resources Limited as described above.
The registered and principal offices of Teck are located at Suite 3300, 550 Burrard Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6C 0B3.


Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 9

Intercorporate Relationships
Our financial statements consolidate the accounts of all of our subsidiaries. Our material subsidiaries as at December 31, 2019 are listed below. Unless otherwise indicated, all subsidiaries listed below are wholly owned by Teck. Indentation indicates that the majority of the voting securities of the relevant subsidiary are held by the subsidiary listed above.
Company Name
Jurisdiction of Organization or Formation
Teck South American Holdings Ltd.
Canada
Teck Chilean Holdings Ltd.
Canada
Teck Resources Chile Limitada
Chile
Teck Base Metals Ltd.
Canada
Teck Metals Ltd.
Canada
Teck Resources Coal Partnership
British Columbia
Fording Partnership
Alberta
Teck Coal Partnership
Alberta
Elkview Mine Limited Partnership(1)
Alberta
Teck Highland Valley Copper Partnership
British Columbia
TCL U.S. Holdings Ltd.
Canada
TCAI Incorporated
Washington, U.S.A.
Teck American Incorporated
Washington, U.S.A.
Teck Alaska Incorporated
Alaska, U.S.A.
(1)
95% held, directly or indirectly, by Teck

In addition to the above, we own, directly or indirectly:

a 21.3% limited partnership interest in Fort Hills Energy Limited Partnership;

a 60% indirect share interest in Compañía Minera Teck Quebrada Blanca S.A.;

a 90% indirect share interest in Compañía Minera Teck Carmen de Andacollo S.A.; and

a 22.5% indirect share interest in Compañía Minera Antamina S.A.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 10

The following chart sets out the relationships among our material subsidiaries as at December 31, 2019. Certain aspects of the ownership structure have been simplified.  All material subsidiaries are wholly owned unless otherwise specified.
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General Development of the Business
Three-Year History
2017
In 2017, average annual prices for our principal products increased compared to 2016. Annual average prices in 2017 for steelmaking coal, copper and zinc were US$174 per tonne, US$2.80 and US$1.31 per pound, respectively, compared with US$115 per tonne, and US$2.21 and US$0.95 per pound in 2016.  During the year we announced a new dividend policy, completed and announced a number of dispositions of non-core assets, acquired further interests in a number of our projects and advanced various initiatives and projects intended to strengthen our financial position and our core business.
In April we announced a new dividend policy and the doubling of our annualized base dividend to $0.20 per share, which was declared at $0.05 per quarter. See “Dividends” below for a further discussion of our dividend policy. We also announced a normal course issuer bid, which allowed us to purchase up to 20 million Class B subordinate voting shares through to September 2018. In December, we paid a dividend of $0.45 per share consisting of a supplemental dividend of $0.40 per share and our regular base quarterly dividend of $0.05 per share, which totalled approximately $260 million. In addition, taking into account our strong cash position, we also announced our intention to apply an additional $230 million to the repurchase of shares through March 31, 2018, of which 5.9 million Class B subordinate voting shares for $175 million were repurchased in the fourth quarter.  In May we announced the sale of our two-thirds interest in the Waneta Dam and related transmission assets to Fortis Inc. for $1.2 billion cash. BC Hydro subsequently exercised its right of first offer over the assets, and the sale of the Waneta Dam and associated assets to BC Hydro closed in July 2018. We also completed the sale of our 49% interest in the Wintering Hills wind power facility in 2017, for proceeds of $59 million.
Acquisitions during the year included the closing of our purchase of AQM Copper Inc., which held an indirect 30% interest in our Zafranal copper-gold project located in Peru, and the acquisition of the minority 21% interest in our San Nicolás copper-zinc project located in Mexico. Zafranal and San Nicolás are part of our Project Satellite initiative launched in 2017, which is focused on surfacing value from substantial base metal assets in Teck’s portfolio. See “Description of the Business ― Copper” for a further discussion of Project Satellite. In addition, we increased our interest in the Fort Hills oil sands mining and processing operations from 20% to 20.89% in 2017, and our interest ultimately increased to approximately 21.3% in 2018.
Work advanced on a number of projects through 2017. At our Fort Hills oil sands mining and processing operation, the mine, primary extraction, utilities and froth assets were commissioned. An intermediate product, bitumen froth, was produced in September 2017, and first oil was achieved on January 27, 2018. We commenced a $72 million project to install an additional ball mill at our Highland Valley Copper Operations and a US$110 million upgrade project at our Red Dog zinc operations, and continued to advance through the regulatory process for our Quebrada Blanca Phase 2 project. We also commenced and advanced studies and expansion work in respect of other projects.
We also continued to strengthen our liquidity and financial position in 2017. Over the course of the year we retired US$1.3 billion of debt through open market repurchases, tender offers and retirement at maturity. In October, we extended the maturity of our US$3.0 billion revolving credit facility to October 2022 (from July 2020) and US$1.2 billion revolving credit facility to October 2020 (from June 2019).
Our cash and cash equivalents as at December 31, 2017 were $952 million against total debt of $6.4 billion.
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2018
In 2018, average annual prices for our principal products increased compared to 2017. Average realized annual prices in 2018 for steelmaking coal, copper and zinc were US$187 per tonne, US$2.96 per pound and US$1.33 per pound, respectively, compared with US$174 per tonne, US$2.80 per pound and US$1.31 per pound, respectively, in 2017.  The average realized annual price for our blended bitumen in 2018 was US$35 per barrel.
During the year we achieved first oil at Fort Hills; completed the sale of our interest in the Waneta Dam; acquired an additional 13.5% interest in Compañía Minera Teck Quebrada Blanca, S.A. (QBSA), our subsidiary that holds the Quebrada Blanca Phase 2 project (QB2) and subsequently announced a transaction through which Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. and Sumitomo Corporation agreed to subscribe for a 30% interest in QBSA; received regulatory approval for, and approved the construction of, our QB2 project; announced the retirement of our long-time Chairman and the appointment of his replacement; and advanced various initiatives and projects intended to strengthen our financial position and our core business.
In January, first oil was produced at Fort Hills. Start-up exceeded our expectations with respect to both production volumes and product quality.  In April, we acquired an additional 13.5% interest in QBSA, bringing our interest to 90%, and in August we received regulatory approval to develop the QB2 project.  In July, we completed the sale of our two-thirds interest in the Waneta Dam and related transmission assets to BC Hydro for $1.2 billion cash. In connection with the sale, we entered into a 20-year arrangement with BC Hydro, with an option to extend for an additional 10 years, to purchase power for our Trail Operations.  Work advanced on a number of projects through 2018. Our project to install an additional ball mill at our Highland Valley Copper Operations progressed, targeting commissioning in 2019, and installation of our new acid plant at our Trail Operations advanced towards commissioning in mid-2019.  Work also continued on an upgrade project at our Red Dog zinc operations with planned start-up in the first quarter of 2020.
In December our Board approved the QB2 project for full construction, with first production targeted for late 2021. Concurrently, we announced a transaction through which Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. and Sumitomo Corporation subscribed for a 30% indirect interest in QBSA, which holds the QB2 project, by contributing US$1.2 billion to the project with additional contingent consideration payable in certain circumstances.  In September, Dominic S. Barton joined our Board of Directors and, in October, Mr. Barton became Chair of the Board, replacing our long-standing Chairman of the Board, Dr. Norman B. Keevil, who retired, along with Mr. Warren S. R. Seyffert, Q.C., at the end of the year.
In October, we announced a normal course issuer bid, which allowed us to purchase up to 40 million Class B subordinate voting shares through to October 2019. In December, we paid a dividend of $0.15 per share consisting of a supplemental dividend of $0.10 per share and our regular base quarterly dividend of $0.05 per share, which totalled approximately $86 million. In addition, taking into account our strong cash position, we announced that the Board had directed management to apply an additional $400 million to the repurchase of shares, of which 4.7 million Class B subordinate voting shares were repurchased in the fourth quarter for $131 million.
We also continued to strengthen our liquidity and financial position in 2018. Over the course of the year we retired US$1.0 billion of debt through open market repurchases, tender offers and retirement at maturity. In light of our strong financial position, we were able to terminate the subsidiary guarantees of our various credit facilities and public notes that were introduced during the commodity downturn in 2016.
Our cash and cash equivalents as at December 31, 2018 were $1.7 billion against total debt of $5.5 billion.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 13

2019
In 2019, average prices for steelmaking coal, copper and zinc were 12%, 8% and 13% lower than in 2018, while blended bitumen prices were up 29%. Average realized annual prices in 2019 for steelmaking coal, copper, zinc and blended bitumen were US$164 per tonne, US$2.72 per pound, US$1.16 per pound and US$45.20 per barrel, respectively, compared US$187 per tonne, US$2.96 per pound, US$1.33 per pound and US$35.12 per barrel, respectively, in 2018.
During the year we were reinstated to investment grade by Moody’s Investors Service and Fitch Ratings; completed the previously announced partnering transaction in respect of QBSA; began implementing our RACE21™ program; announced the resignation of Dominic Barton as Chair of our Board due to his appointment as Canada’s Ambassador to China; and advanced various initiatives and projects intended to strengthen our financial position and our core business.
In March, we closed our previously announced transaction through which Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. and Sumitomo Corporation subscribed for a 30% indirect interest in QBSA, which holds the QB2 project, by contributing US$1.2 billion to the project with additional contingent consideration payable in certain circumstances.  In November, we closed a US$2.5 billion limited recourse project financing facility to fund the development of our QB2 project.
In May, we began implementing our innovation-driven business transformation program known as RACE21™ aimed at Renewing our technology infrastructure, Accelerating and scaling automation and robotics, Connecting data systems to enable broad application of advanced analytics and artificial intelligence, and Empowering our employees, all with a focus on improving our operating results and EBITDA between now and 2021.
Work advanced on a number of projects through 2019. In the second quarter of 2019, we completed the installation of an additional ball mill at our Highland Valley Copper Operations and the installation of a new No. 2 Acid Plant at our Trail Operations.  Construction progressed on the US$135 million mill upgrade project at our Red Dog operations, called VIP2, with planned start-up on schedule for the first quarter of 2020 and work to upgrade Neptune Bulk Terminal’s operational coal capacity continued with the upgrades expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2021.
In September, Dominic S. Barton resigned as Chair of our Board of Directors to assume the role of Canada’s Ambassador to China.  On February 6, 2020, Sheila Murray was appointed as independent Chair of our Board of Directors.  Ms. Murray had been acting as Board Chair since the resignation of Dominic Barton and has served on Teck’s Board since April 2018.  In September, Toru Higo joined our Board, replacing Takeshi Kubota who resigned in June 2019.
Our liquidity remained strong in 2019.  In 2019, we purchased and cancelled approximately 24.4 million Class B subordinate voting shares at a cost of $654 million under our normal course issuer bids.  In October, we announced a new normal course issuer bid, which allows us to purchase up to 40 million Class B subordinate voting shares through to October 2020.  We also retired US$600 million of debt through the redemption of our outstanding 8.500% notes due in 2024 and paid our regular base quarterly dividend of $0.05 per share each quarter, which totalled approximately $111 million.
Our cash and cash equivalents as at December 31, 2019 were $1.0 billion against total debt of $4.8 billion.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 14

Description of the Business
General
Teck’s business is exploring for, acquiring, developing and producing natural resources. Our activities are organized into business units focused on copper, steelmaking coal, zinc and energy. These are supported by Teck’s corporate offices, which manage corporate growth initiatives and provide marketing, administrative, technical, financial and other services. We have interests in the following operations:
 
Type of Operation
Jurisdiction
Elkview
Steelmaking Coal Mine
British Columbia, Canada
Fording River
Steelmaking Coal Mine
British Columbia, Canada
Greenhills
Steelmaking Coal Mine
British Columbia, Canada
Line Creek
Steelmaking Coal Mine
British Columbia, Canada
Cardinal River
Steelmaking Coal Mine
Alberta, Canada
Highland Valley
Copper/Molybdenum Mine
British Columbia, Canada
Antamina
Copper/Zinc Mine
Ancash, Peru
Quebrada Blanca
Copper Mine
Region I, Chile
Carmen de Andacollo
Copper/Gold Mine
Region IV, Chile
Trail Operations
Zinc/Lead Refinery
British Columbia, Canada
Red Dog
Zinc/Lead Mine
Alaska, U.S.A.
Fort Hills
Oil Sands Mining and Processing Operation
Alberta, Canada
Our principal products are steelmaking coal, copper, zinc and blended bitumen. In addition we produce lead, silver, molybdenum, and various specialty and other metals, chemicals and fertilizers. We also actively explore for copper, zinc and gold. The following table sets out our revenue by product for each of our last two financial years:
   
2019
$(Billions)
   
%
   
2018
$(Billions)
   
%
 
Copper(1)
   
2.158
     
18
     
2.242
     
18
 
Coal
   
5.522
     
46
     
6.349
     
50
 
Zinc(2)
   
2.084
     
17
     
2.391
     
19
 
Blended Bitumen
   
0.975
     
8
     
0.407
     
3
 
Other(3)
   
1.195
     
11
     
1.175
     
10
 
Total
   
11.934
     
100
     
12.564
     
100
 

(1)
Copper revenues include sales of copper contained in concentrates and cathode copper.
(2)
Zinc revenues include sales of refined zinc and zinc concentrate.
(3)
Other revenues include sales of silver, lead, gold, molybdenum, various specialty metals, chemicals, energy and fertilizer.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 15

Product Summary
STEELMAKING COAL
Teck is the second-largest seaborne exporter of steelmaking coal in the world. Our hard coking coal, a type of steelmaking coal, is used primarily for making coke by integrated steel mills in Asia, Europe and the Americas. In 2019, sales to Asia accounted for approximately 80% of our annual coal sales volume, a record high, mainly due to increased sales volumes to areas with the greatest demand growth, such as India, and reduced sales to Europe due to the impact of steel production curtailments implemented in July. Approximately 75% of all coal we produce is high-quality hard coking coal, although the percentages can vary from period to period. We also produce lesser quality semi-hard coking coal, semi-soft coking coal and PCI coal products, which in aggregate accounted for almost 25% of our annual sales volume in 2019.  A by-product of our steelmaking coal production is thermal coal which accounted for approximately 2% of our total coal sales volume in 2019.
Coal is processed at our mine sites and primarily shipped westbound from our mines by rail to terminals along the coast of British Columbia and from there by vessel to overseas customers. In 2019, approximately 5% of our processed coal was shipped eastbound directly by rail, or by rail and by ship via Thunder Bay, to customers in North America.
Globally, we compete in the steelmaking coal market primarily with producers based in Australia and the United States. For sales to China, we also compete with Mongolian and Chinese domestic coal producers. Coal pricing is generally established in U.S. dollars.  Our competitive position in the coal market continues to be determined by the quality of our various coal products, our reputation as a reliable supplier and our production and transportation costs compared to other producers throughout the world.
The high-quality seaborne steelmaking coal markets are cyclical, being driven by a combination of demand, production and export capacity. Strong steel market fundamentals support demand and pricing for high-quality seaborne steelmaking coal. Conversely, in difficult steel markets, steelmakers can use a higher proportion of lower-cost semi-soft and PCI coal products in their production process, which can result in reduced pricing premiums for higher quality hard coking coals.
Steel production and demand for seaborne steelmaking coal remained strong through the first half of 2019 before market conditions deteriorated in the second half. Steelmaking coal spot prices were affected by pressure on steelmakers’ margins, created by lower steel pricing and continued high iron ore pricing. The steelmaking coal market remains fundamentally supported by demand from steel capacity growth in India and increased imports into China. Market sentiment has improved slightly for 2020 as steel margins are expected to improve, with higher steel prices and lower iron ore and coking coal costs. While investment in steelmaking coal capacity increased in the past two years, it currently remains low.  Permitting processes for steelmaking coal mines remain challenging and capital markets are rationing capital to coal, limiting the supply response.
Quarterly priced sales represent approximately 40% of our sales, with the balance of our sales priced at levels reflecting market conditions when sales are concluded. Lower-grade semi-soft coals and PCI pricing continues to be negotiated on a quarterly benchmark basis.
Substantially all of our revenues from sales of coal products were derived from sales to third-party end users, most of which are steelmakers.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 16

COPPER
We produce both copper concentrates and copper cathode. Our principal market for copper concentrates is Asia, with a lesser amount sold in Europe. Copper concentrates produced at the Highland Valley Copper mine are distributed to customers in Asia by rail to a port in Vancouver, British Columbia, and from there by ship. Copper concentrates produced at Antamina are transported by a slurry pipeline to a port at Huarmey, Peru, and from there go by ship to customers in Asia and Europe. Copper concentrates produced at Carmen de Andacollo are trucked to the port of Coquimbo, Chile, and from there go by ship to customers in Asia and Europe. Copper concentrates are sold primarily under long-term contracts, with treatment and refining charges negotiated on an annual basis. Copper cathode from our Quebrada Blanca and Carmen de Andacollo mines is trucked from the mines and sold primarily under annual contracts to customers in Asia, Europe and North America.
The copper business is cyclical. Copper concentrate treatment charges rise and fall depending upon the supply of copper concentrates in the market and the demand for custom copper concentrates by the copper smelting and refining industry. Prices for copper cathode also rise and fall as a result of changes in demand for, and supply of, refined copper metal.  Copper consumption is primarily tied to its electrical conductivity properties accounting for over 60% of global demand.   Copper in a variety of forms, shapes and alloys is split globally with about one quarter each going to electrical networks, construction industries and consumer goods with the remainder split between auto and transportation sectors and industrial machinery.  Copper electrical conductivity properties make it a key component in building the technologies and infrastructure needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, through its use in solar panels, wind turbines, energy storage or electric cars.  We compete with other producers of copper concentrates and cathodes, as well as copper sourced through scrap sources.
Global demand for copper metal is estimated by Wood Mackenzie, a commodity research consultancy, to have remained relatively similar to levels seen in 2018 growing only slightly in 2019 to reach an estimated 23.5 million tonnes. Demand improved slightly in Asia with Chinese copper cathode demand growth estimated to have increased by 0.8% over 2018 to 11.9 million tonnes, lower than initial projections at the beginning of the year. Demand growth in Europe came under pressure during the year, with demand falling 4.4%, while demand in North America was up only 0.8% despite domestic exchange stocks on the LME and the CME (Comex) falling 116,600 tonnes during the year.  Copper demand in South East Asia improved with several countries able to take advantage of the breakdown in US-China trade talks.   Demand was stronger in Indonesia, Vietnam and Malaysia during the year with the three countries growing a combined 14% or close to 100,000 tonnes over the previous year to a combined 786,000 tonnes.  India remained undersupplied due to the continued suspension during the year of one of its two domestic smelters, but was able to grow copper cathode demand by 2.5% on the year through imports from South East Asia and East Africa.  Copper scrap availability decreased in 2019 as global trade patterns continued to be disrupted by environmental restrictions and quotas on scrap imports into China. Scrap and unrefined copper imports into China, including blister and anode, were down 9% year-over-year to December 2019.
Wood Mackenzie estimates that global refined copper production grew 0.5% in 2019, while global refined copper demand remained unchanged from 2018. They are projecting that refined cathode production will increase 2.1% in 2020, reaching 24.0 million tonnes. Fundamentals for copper demand are expected to improve over the coming year. Wood Mackenzie forecasts that global copper cathode demand will increase by 1.8% in 2020, reaching 24.0 million tonnes, suggesting the refined copper market will be relatively balanced in 2020.
All of our revenues from sales of copper concentrates and cathode copper were derived from sales to third parties.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 17

ZINC
We produce refined zinc through our metallurgical operations at Trail and zinc concentrates through our mining operations. Our principal markets for refined zinc are North America and Asia. Refined zinc produced at our metallurgical operations at Trail, British Columbia, is distributed to customers in North America by rail and/or truck and to customers in Asia by ship.
Our principal markets for zinc concentrates are Asia and Europe. Zinc concentrates from our Red Dog mine in Alaska are moved via truck from the mine to our port where they are stored until the summer shipping season and then loaded onto ships to Asia and Europe.  Zinc concentrates produced at Antamina are transported by a slurry pipeline to a port at Huarmey, Peru, and from there go by ship to customers in Asia and Europe.  In 2019 approximately 30% of zinc concentrate produced at Red Dog was sold to our metallurgical operations at Trail for treatment and refining. All of the production from our Pend Oreille mine in 2019 was trucked from the mine and sold to Trail.
The zinc business is cyclical. Treatment and refining charges rise and fall depending upon the supply of zinc concentrates in the market and the demand for custom zinc concentrates by the zinc smelting and refining industry. Refined zinc is used primarily for galvanizing steel, and prices and premiums are highly dependent on the demand for steel products.  Zinc consumption is primarily tied to its use in the protection of steel against corrosion through galvanizing.  Galvanizing steel makes up close to 60% of global zinc demand, with almost half of zinc demand going into construction with about 20% each going into the transportation sector and infrastructure.   Zinc’s galvanic properties provide protection to steel to reduce the cost of corrosion, extend the service life of steel components and infrastructure, thus reducing the need to replace them.  Zinc is also an essential element for human health and can be used in fertilizers as a sustainable approach to increasing crop yields.   We compete with other producers of both zinc concentrates and refined zinc metal globally.
In 2019, global zinc mine production increased 3.1% according to Wood Mackenzie, with total production reaching 13.3 million tonnes. Wood Mackenzie expects global zinc mine production to grow to 14.0 million tonnes in 2020, largely attributable to several new mines that were ramping up in 2019, reaching full production in 2020. 
Wood Mackenzie estimates that the global zinc metal market remained in deficit in 2019, recording a shortfall of 0.5 million tonnes. Global refined zinc demand was lower at 14.0 million tonnes, an estimated drop of 1.1% from 2018.
Wood Mackenzie estimates that global refined zinc production increased 1.9% in 2019, with refined production reaching 13.5 million tonnes. They also estimate that refined zinc production will see a 5.2% increase in 2020 over 2019 levels, to 14.2 million tonnes. With global metal demand forecast to grow 1.0%, metal demand will also reach 14.2 million tonnes, resulting in the expectation that the refined metal market will be relatively balanced in 2020.
All of our 2019 revenues from sales of refined zinc and zinc concentrates (other than zinc concentrates produced at Red Dog or Pend Oreille that are sold to Trail) were derived from sales to third parties. We strive to differentiate our refined metal products by producing the alloys, sizes and shapes best suited to our customers’ needs.  We have substantial long-term frame contracts for the sale of zinc concentrates from the Red Dog and Antamina mines to customers in Asia and Europe.
Trail’s supply of zinc and lead concentrates, other than those sourced from Red Dog or Pend Oreille, is provided primarily through long-term contracts with mine producers in North America, South America and Australia.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 18

ENERGY
Our 21.3% share of Fort Hills bitumen production is transported on the Northern Courier Pipeline to the East Tank Farm (ETF) in Alberta. The ETF, owned by the Thebacha Limited Partnership and operated by an affiliate of Suncor, blends bitumen with diluent to meet pipeline viscosity specifications. The diluent is sourced by Teck at Edmonton and delivered to the ETF on the Norlite Pipeline.
Our proprietary blended bitumen is transported from the ETF on the Wood Buffalo Pipeline to Hardisty, Alberta, where it is marketed as Fort Hills Reduced Carbon Lifecycle Dilbit Blend, or FRB. Teck’s FRB blend is processed into finished products at refineries throughout North America.
Teck’s principal markets for our FRB are refinery operators throughout North America.  Our contracted tankage at Hardisty is connected to major export pipelines, including the Enbridge common carrier pipeline, the existing Keystone pipeline and the Express crude oil pipeline; it is also connected to a large unit train loading facility.  We sell approximately 80% of our FRB to a variety of customers at the Hardisty market hub and approximately 20% on the U.S. Gulf Coast.  We have entered into a long-term take-or-pay transportation agreement on the existing Keystone pipeline to ship 10,000 barrels per day of blended bitumen to customers on the U.S. Gulf Coast. The balance of our production is either sold at Hardisty or shipped to customers via the Enbridge common carrier pipeline, or transported by rail if required.
Export pipeline capacity for Canadian crude oil versus overall supply was in deficit through 2019 and is expected to remain so through 2020 and beyond, until new export capacity is developed. Citing continued delays in the development of export pipeline capacity, the Government of Alberta has maintained its mandatory production curtailment to the end of December 2020, with the option to terminate earlier. Crude by rail capacity is expected to make up the shortfall until new export pipeline capacity is developed. Canadian crude-by-rail shipments increased throughout 2019 and are now forecast to exceed 400,000 barrels per day in 2020. Throughout 2019, we participated in the crude-by-rail initiative through an agreement to load 10,000 barrels per day of FRB blend onto customers’ railcars at Hardisty, and expect to continue to do so in 2020.
In support of future export pipeline expansions, we have entered into long-term transportation contracts on the proposed TransMountain and Keystone XL pipeline expansions which, if built, will deliver blended bitumen to Burnaby, British Columbia and the US Gulf Coast, respectively.
Prices for our blended bitumen are market based, and determined through a combination of global and Canadian benchmark indices. Like our other commodities, the oil price is cyclical and highly competitive. Blended bitumen prices are influenced by a combination of North American crude oil benchmark prices, including the New York Mercantile Exchange West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a light sweet crude oil. Canadian heavy crude oil of the kind we produce trades at a differential to WTI, and is known as Western Canadian Select or WCS. WCS is a widely-marketed crude grade with transparent market price references quoted at the Hardisty market hub in Canada and the U.S. Gulf Coast. The WCS discount to WTI varies over time depending on the supply and demand for heavy crude production and the markets available to producers of those products, which are in turn influenced by available pipelines and other transportation options.
WCS at Hardisty values were volatile in 2019 with differentials widening in the third and fourth quarter. The widening was the result of overall increased Canadian crude production relative to the first half of the year due to the reduction of the Government of Alberta’s mandated production curtailments, planned refinery maintenance and an unplanned outage of the Keystone pipeline.  The impact of these wider differentials at Hardisty to our sales values is somewhat mitigated by our sales into the U.S. Gulf Coast market.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 19

Individual Operations
STEELMAKING COAL
Our coal mineral holdings consist of a mix of fee simple lands owned by us and Crown leases and licences, which are subject to leasing and licensing fees.  Coal licenses are renewed annually on their anniversary date; coal leases are typically held for thirty-year terms and are renewed accordingly. In the past, renewals of these licences and leases have generally been granted, although there can be no assurance that this will continue in the future.
Four of Teck’s five operating steelmaking coal mines are in British Columbia and are therefore subject to the B.C. Mineral Tax which is a two-tier tax with a minimum rate of 2% and a maximum rate of 13%. A minimum tax of 2% applies to operating cash flows, as defined by the regulations. A maximum tax rate of 13% applies to cash flows after taking available deductions for capital expenditures and other permitted deductions. The Alberta Coal Royalty, which is assessed on a similar basis, at rates of 1% and 13%, apply to the Cardinal River mine in Alberta.
All of Teck’s coal mines are conventional open pit operations and are designed to operate on a continuous basis, 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Operating schedules can be varied depending on market conditions and are subject to shutdowns for maintenance activities. Capacity may be restricted for a variety of reasons and actual production will depend on sales volumes. All of the mines are accessed by two-lane all-weather roads that connect to public highways. All the mines operate under permits granted by provincial and/or federal regulatory authorities. Each of our B.C. mines will require additional permits as they progress through their long-term mine plans; whereas mining at our Cardinal River operations in Alberta is expected to conclude in the second half of 2020. The issuance of certain permits for mine life extensions may depend on a number of factors including our ability to meet the water quality targets set out in the Elk Valley Water Quality Plan, as discussed below. All permits necessary for the current operations of the mines are in hand and in good standing. Annual infill drilling programs are conducted to confirm and update the geological models used to develop the yearly mine plans.
Following mining, the coal is washed in coal preparation plants using a variety of conventional techniques and conveyed to coal or gas-fired dryers for drying. Processed coal is conveyed to clean coal silos or other storage facilities for intermediate storage and load-out to railcars.
Our 2019 production of 25.7 million tonnes was a slight decrease of 500,000 tonnes from 2018, primarily due to logistics chain issues, combined with mining challenges experienced at Cardinal River and Fording River operationsAs planned, our Coal Mountain operations transitioned to closure in the second quarter of 2019; however, we have offset the loss of production from Coal Mountain through higher production and improved processing at our other Elk Valley operations. In May 2019 we announced that we will not proceed with the MacKenzie Redcap extension at our Cardinal River operations, which are expected to close in the second half of 2020 and then transition to care and maintenance.
Steelmaking coal production in 2020 is expected to be between 23.0 and 25.0 million tonnes. The business unit will continue to evaluate raw coal processing opportunities through the latent production capacity of Elk Valley processing plants.  As in prior years, annual production volumes can be adjusted to reflect market demand for our products, subject to adequate rail and port service.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 20

Elk Valley Water Quality Management
We continue to implement the water quality management measures required by the Elk Valley Water Quality Plan (the Plan), an area-based management plan that was approved in 2014 by the British Columbia Minister of Environment. The Plan establishes short-, medium- and long-term water quality targets for selenium, nitrate, sulphate and cadmium to protect the environment and human health, as well as a plan to manage calcite formation. In 2019, the B.C. Government endorsed the use of our Saturated Rock Fill (SRF) technology and we have received approval to construct an expansion of SRF water treatment capacity at Elkview Operations. Elkview Operations’ SRF has been successfully operating since January 2018, treating up to 10 million litres per day and achieving near-complete removal of nitrate and selenium from mine-impacted waters.
To the end of 2019, we have spent approximately $437 million on the implementation of the Elk Valley Water Quality Plan, including construction of the first active water treatment facility (AWTF) at our Line Creek Operations, treating up to 7.5 million litres per day. Our second AWTF, at our Fording River Operations, with an expected capacity of 20 million litres per day, is under construction and scheduled to be completed in the fourth quarter of 2020.  We have commenced construction of Elkview SRF Phase 2, which has a projected completion date in the fourth quarter of 2020, and, in conjunction with Phase 1, is expected to treat up to an additional 20 million litres per day.  By the end of the fourth quarter 2020, we expect to have the capacity to treat up to 47.5 million litres per day.
Capital spending in 2020 on water treatment is expected to be approximately $290 million.  The majority of the planned spend relates to the completion of our Fording AWTF and Elkview Phase 2 SRF.  In addition, we continue to invest in various innovative technical solutions to address water quality issues.  Additional research and development projects are ongoing to continue to improve our understanding of water quality, source control and treatment options.
Over the following four years, from 2021 to 2024, we plan to invest an additional $350 to $400 million of capital to further increase water treatment capacity to 90 million litres per day by the end of 2024.  In addition, during the same period we plan to spend approximately $85 million in capital on source control and calcite management, and approximately $90 million on tributary-specific treatment.  Following the completion of both the Elkview SRF Phase 2 and the AWTF at Fording River Operations in 2020, the plan includes the construction of 30 million litres per day of additional SRF capacity at the north end of the Elk Valley and 12.5 million litres per day at our Line Creek Operations.  The first phase of our next SRF at the north end of the Elk Valley is designed to treat 15 million litres per day and completion is expected in the first quarter of 2021.
Operating costs associated with water treatment are projected to increase gradually over the long-term to approximately $3 per tonne as additional AWTFs and SRFs become operational.  After 2024, ongoing capital costs for construction of additional treatment facilities are expected to average approximately $2 per tonne annually.
All of the foregoing estimates are uncertain. Final costs of implementing the Plan and managing water quality will depend in part on the technologies applied and on the results of ongoing environmental monitoring and modelling. The timing of expenditures will depend on resolution of technical issues, permitting timelines and other factors. Our current plan is that the Fording River AWTF will be the last full-scale AWTF and that future treatment facilities will be SRFs.  Implementation of this plan will require additional operating permits.  We expect that, in order to maintain water quality, some form of water treatment will continue for an indefinite period after mining operations end. The Plan contemplates ongoing monitoring to ensure that the water quality targets set out in the Plan are in fact protective of the environment and human health, and provides for adjustments if warranted by monitoring results. This ongoing monitoring, as well as our continued research into treatment technologies, could reveal
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 21

unexpected environmental impacts, technical issues or advances associated with potential treatment technologies that could substantially increase or decrease both capital and operating costs associated with water quality management or that could materially affect our ability to permit mine life extensions in new mining areas.
Fish census data obtained in late 2019 showed unexpected and substantial reductions in populations of westslope cutthroat trout in certain mine-affected waters in the Elk Valley.  The causes of the reductions are unclear and substantial technical effort is underway to determine whether the reductions are associated with water quality issues, flow conditions and habitat availability, or predation or other natural causes, and to develop a response plan.  Until the results of this additional work are available, and appropriate mitigation measures in place, we may face delays in permitting or restrictions on our mining activities in the Elk Valley.
Inability to meet targets in the Plan or new information regarding environment inputs could adversely affect our ability to extend mining operations into new areas. See “Risk Factors — We face risks associated with the issuance and renewal of permits”, “Risk Factors - Failure to comply with environmental, health and safety laws may have a material adverse effect on our operations and projects” and “Risk Factors — Changes in environmental, health and safety laws may have a material adverse effect on our operations” for a further discussion of permitting and water quality management risks.
During the third quarter of 2018, we received notice from Canadian federal prosecutors of potential charges under the Fisheries Act in connection with discharges of selenium and calcite from steelmaking coal mines in the Elk Valley. Since 2014, compliance limits and site performance objectives for selenium and other constituents, as well as requirements to address calcite, in surface water throughout the Elk Valley and in the Koocanusa Reservoir have been established under a regional permit issued by the Provincial government, which references the Plan. If Federal charges are laid, potential penalties may include fines as well as orders with respect to operational matters. We expect that discussions with respect to the draft charges will continue through the first quarter of 2020.  It is not possible at this time to fully assess the viability of our potential defences to any charges, or to estimate the potential financial impact on us of any conviction. Nonetheless, that impact may be material.  See “Risk Factors - We are subject to legal proceedings, the outcome of which may affect our business” for a further discussion of risks associated with this issue.
Coal Transportation
Most of the coal produced at the mines in the Elk Valley region of British Columbia and at the Cardinal River mine in west-central Alberta is shipped to west coast ports in British Columbia.
Westbound rail service from the mines located in the Elk Valley is currently provided by Canadian Pacific Railway Company (CPR) pursuant to a 10-year agreement that expires in 2021. CPR transports a portion of these westbound shipments to Kamloops, B.C., and interchanges the trains with Canadian National Railway Company (CN) for further transportation to the west coast. CN also provides rail service from the Cardinal River mine to the west coast.
In December 2019, we entered into a new long-term agreement with CN for shipping steelmaking coal from our four B.C. operations between Kamloops and Neptune Bulk Terminals and other west coast ports, including Ridley Terminals Inc.  The agreement runs from April 2021 to December 2026 and will enable us to increase shipment volumes significantly through an expanded Neptune Bulk Terminals.  The agreement also provides for investments by CN of more than $125 million to enhance rail infrastructure and support shipment volumes to Neptune Bulk Terminals and Ridley Terminals Inc.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 22

Teck exports its seaborne coal primarily through three west coast terminals (Westshore, Neptune and Ridley). Westshore Terminals provides ship-loading services at Roberts Bank, British Columbia, and in 2019 provided services for approximately two-thirds of Teck’s coal shipments. Our contract with Westshore Terminals currently provides us with 19 million tonnes of annual capacity through to March 2021, and our current agreement with Ridley Terminals near Prince Rupert provides for steelmaking coal shipments from our Cardinal River Operations in Alberta and surge capacity to manage interruptions throughout the supply chain.  In January 2020, we announced an expanded commercial agreement with Ridley Terminals for shipments of steelmaking coal from Teck’s B.C. operations.  The agreement runs from January 2021 to December 2027 and increases contracted capacity from 3 million to 6 million tonnes per annum with an option for Teck to extend up to 9 million tonnes per annum.
Neptune Bulk Terminals, in which we have a 46% ownership interest, provides ship-loading services for steelmaking coal shipments loaded on a cost-of-service basis.  Coal capacity at Neptune is exclusive to Teck and is currently 12.5 million tonnes per annum.  Construction work to upgrade Neptune’s operational coal capacity commenced in 2018.  These upgrades are expected to increase operational coal capacity and improve our capability to meet our delivery commitments to our customers while lowering our overall logistics costs.
In order to match port capacity with reduced production and improve productivity and safety during the upgrade project, we intend to suspend operations at Neptune Bulk Terminals for five months beginning in the second quarter.  These upgrades are expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2021 and we are evaluating opportunities to gradually increase port capacity earlier.  There is a risk that if completion is delayed, we may limit our production and sales temporarily on the expiry of our contract with Westshore Terminals in March 2021.
A small portion of the coal produced at the mines in the Elk Valley is transported by rail and ship via Thunder Bay Terminals in Thunder Bay, Ontario, to customers in the Great Lakes region of Canada and by direct rail to the United States. CPR transports the United States shipments directly or via the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railway, in which case CPR transports the coal from Elk Valley to Coutts, Alberta, and then interchanges the trains with the Burlington Northern Santa Fe for further transport to the United States. Rail shipments destined for Thunder Bay and the United States are transported under rail agreements.
Property Description
In the mines in the Elk Valley Region of British Columbia, coal is contained within the sedimentary Mist Mountain Formation of the lower Cretaceous Kootenay Group. The Mist Mountain sediments were involved in the mountain-building movements of the late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Laramide orogeny and are approximately 500 metres thick, with the depth of burial ranging from zero to 1,500 metres. The major structural features are north-south trending synclines with near horizontal to steep westerly dipping thrust faults and a few high-angle normal faults. This faulting has allowed for the Mist Mountain sequence to be repeated throughout the Elk Valley.
The following sections cover details for each of our operating steelmaking coal mines and potential steelmaking coal projects. For the operating mines, the remaining reserve life is calculated by dividing remaining reserves by current annual production rates. As mine plans and capacities change, these reserve lives will also change. Because each mine covers a substantial lease area, the development required for accessing the reserves can be substantial, and can involve a range of expenditures in terms of pit access and development and infrastructure to support the development. The reserve lives also assume that the required permits for life extensions will be obtained in a timely fashion to maintain production continuity, as has been the case in previous years.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 23

Fording River Mine, B.C., Canada
The Fording River mine is located 29 kilometres northeast of the community of Elkford, in southeastern British Columbia.  The mine site consists of approximately 23,000 hectares of coal lands, including four operating surface coal pits along with several areas planned for surface mine development held under multiple contiguous coal leases and licences.  The leases and licences relating to Fording River are held by Teck Coal.  Teck Coal also controls the surface and subsurface rights to the properties that are in operation and those that are planned for development.
Coal mined at Fording River is primarily steelmaking coal, although lesser quantities of lower-grade hard coking coal are also produced.  The current annual production capacities of the mine and preparation plant are approximately 9.0 million and 9.5 million tonnes of clean coal, respectively.
Fording River’s reserve areas include Eagle Mountain, Swift, Turnbull, and Castle Mountain.  Approximately half of the current production is derived from the Eagle Mountain pit area with the other half produced from the Swift pit area.  Proven and probable reserves at Fording River are projected to support mining for a further 29 years.  Work is ongoing to upgrade Castle inferred resources to reserve status and further extend the mine life.  Approximately 1,100 hectares of the coal lands associated with the Swift region may be developed and mined under the Greenhills mine plan.  The reserves associated with that area have been removed from the Fording River mine plan, as reflected in the life of mine estimate above.
In 2019, 79 reverse circulation drillholes, totalling approximately 19.1 kilometres, were drilled in the Lake, Swift and Eagle active pit areas.  In addition, 35 holes, totalling 18.8 kilometres, were drilled on Castle Mountain mine development area. Of the 35 holes on Castle, 27 were reverse circulation drillholes and the remaining 8 were diamond drillholes.  Bulk samples from two coal seams on Castle were obtained via large diameter (9 inch) coring; this method provides sufficient sample for pilot scale washing and carbonization in a 350kg moveable wall Carbolite pilot scale coke oven.  Downhole geophysical logs of all drillholes were utilized to identify coal seam intercepts and validate sample intervals. Coal samples are obtained on 0.5 metre intervals from all reverse circulation drillholes.  Intervals are then composited by seam to produce representative seam samples for further analysis and simulated washability.  Retrieval of coal samples from diamond drill core is completed occasionally, depending on the drillhole location.
To improve operational efficiency, raw coal from Greenhills may be processed at the Fording River plant.
2020 projected capital costs for Fording River are approximately $88 million. The major components of the projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Sustaining
56
Major Enhancement
32


Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 24

2020 projected cash operating costs for Fording River are approximately $587 million. The major components of the projected cash operating costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Labour
254
Supplies
256
Energy
142
Other (including general & administrative, inventory changes)
46
Less amounts associated with projected capitalized stripping
(111)
Total
587
The cash operating costs presented above do not include transportation or royalties.
Elkview Mine, B.C., Canada
Teck Coal has a 95% partnership interest in the Elkview Mine. The remaining 5% is indirectly held equally by Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, a Japanese steel producer, and POSCO, a Korean steel producer, each of which acquired a 2.5% interest in 2005. The Elkview mine is an open pit coal mine located approximately 3 kilometres east of Sparwood in southeastern British Columbia. The mine site consists of approximately 27,100 hectares of coal lands.
The coal produced is a high-quality mid-volatile hard coking coal. Lesser quantities of lower-grade hard coking coal are also produced. The current annual production capacity of the mine and preparation plant (on a 100% basis) is approximately 7.4 million tonnes of clean coal.  Work is underway to increase production capacity of the mine and preparation plant to 9.0 million tonnes of clean coal in order to offset production losses from the closure of Coal Mountain and Cardinal River operations.
In 2019, 27 reverse circulation drillholes, totalling approximately 5.4 kilometres, were drilled in the Baldy and Natal pit areas.  In addition, five holes, totalling 2.0 kilometres, were drilled on Adit Ridge mine development area.  Downhole geophysical logs of all drillholes were utilized to identify coal seam intercepts and validate sample intervals.  Coal samples are obtained on 0.5 metre intervals from all reverse circulation drillholes.  Intervals are then composited by seam to produce representative seam samples for further analysis and simulated washability.
Proven and probable reserves at Elkview are projected to support mining for a further 36 years.
2020 projected capital costs for Elkview are approximately $160 million. The major components of the projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Sustaining
67
Major Enhancement
93

Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 25

2020 projected cash operating costs for Elkview are approximately $427 million. The major components of the projected cash operating costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Labour
194
Supplies
197
Energy
88
Other (including general & administrative, inventory changes)
67
Less amounts associated with projected capitalized stripping
(119)
Total
427
The cash operating costs presented above do not include transportation or royalties.
Greenhills Mine, B.C., Canada
Greenhills is operated under a joint venture agreement among Teck Coal, POSCO Canada Limited (POSCAN) and POSCAN’s parent, POSCO. Pursuant to the joint venture agreement, Teck Coal has an 80% interest in the joint venture while POSCAN has a 20% interest. Teck Coal and POSCAN own the mine equipment and preparation plant in proportion to their respective joint venture interests. Under the joint venture agreement, Teck Coal is the manager and operator of Greenhills and takes 80% of all coal produced at Greenhills. POSCAN takes the remaining 20% and pays a quarterly royalty based on the price achieved for Greenhills coal sales.
Teck Coal and POSCAN bear all costs and expenses incurred in operating Greenhills in proportion to their respective joint venture interests. POSCAN, pursuant to a property rights grant, has a right to 20% of all coal mined from certain defined lands at Greenhills until the end of the operational phase of the joint venture; POSCAN pays Teck a royalty for access to other coal reserves owned by Teck that are processed by Greenhills equipment and facilities. The joint venture agreement provides for a review of the terms of the agreement in 2022 and, in the event the parties disagree on the continuation of the terms of the agreement, the operational phase will come to an end. Pursuant to a 2018 review of the joint venture agreement, on February 11, 2019, we agreed with POSCAN to substantially increase the royalty paid by POSCAN in respect of its 20% share of production.  The amount paid by POSCAN in respect of the royalty increased by approximately $74 million, from $21 million in 2018 to $95 million for 2019.
The Greenhills mine is located 8 kilometres northeast of the community of Elkford, in southeastern British Columbia. The mine site consists of approximately 11,800 hectares of coal lands.  In addition, the current life of mine plan contemplates that Greenhills may develop and mine an area of approximately 1,100 hectares associated with Fording River’s Swift region. The reserves associated with that area are reflected in Greenhills’ reserves and the life of mine estimates below. Coal mined at Greenhills is primarily steelmaking coal, although lesser quantities of lower-grade hard coking coal are also produced. The current annual production capacities of the mine and preparation plant (on a 100% basis) are 5.9 million and 5.4 million tonnes of clean coal, respectively.
To improve operational efficiency, raw coal from Greenhills may be processed at the Fording River plant.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 26

Current production is derived primarily from the Cougar pit area. Proven and probable reserves at Greenhills are projected to support mining for a further 50 years or less depending on the extent of Greenhills’ raw coal processed at Fording River.
In 2019, eight reverse circulation drillholes, totalling approximately 2.2 kilometres, and 11 diamond drillholes, totalling 3.2 kilometres, were drilled in the Phase 4 and 7 active pit areas.  In addition, eight reverse circulation drillholes, totalling 3.0 kilometres, were drilled in the Phase 5 mine development area.  A bulk sample from one coal seam in Phase 8 was obtained via large diameter (9 inch) coring; this method provides sufficient sample for pilot scale washing and carbonization in a 350kg moveable wall Carbolite pilot scale coke oven. Downhole geophysical logs of all drillholes were utilized to identify coal seam intercepts and validate sample intervals.  Coal samples are obtained on 0.5 metre intervals from all reverse circulation drillholes.  Intervals are then composited by seam to produce representative seam samples for further analysis and simulated washability. Retrieval of coal samples from diamond drill core is completed occasionally, depending on the drillhole location.
Our 80% share of 2020 projected capital costs for Greenhills is approximately $33 million. The major components of our share of projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Sustaining
22
Major Enhancement
11
Our 80% share of 2020 projected cash operating costs for Greenhills is approximately $275 million. The major components of our share of projected cash operating costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Labour
108
Supplies
115
Energy
60
Other (including general & administrative, inventory changes)
46
Less amounts associated with projected capitalized stripping
(54)
Total
275
The cash operating costs presented above do not include transportation or royalties.

Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 27

Line Creek Mine, B.C., Canada
The Line Creek mine is located approximately 25 kilometres north of Sparwood in southeastern British Columbia. Line Creek supplies steelmaking and thermal coal to a variety of international and domestic customers. The Line Creek property consists of approximately 8,200 hectares of coal lands.
Bargaining continues with the International Union of Operating Engineers, Local 115 at Line Creek, whose collective agreement expired on May 31, 2019.
The current annual production capacity of the mine and preparation plant is approximately 4.0 million tonnes of clean coal. Proven and probable reserves at Line Creek are projected to support mining for a further 15 years.
Cardinal River Mine, Alberta, Canada
The Cardinal River mine is located approximately 42 kilometres south of Hinton, Alberta. Prior to 2003 the mine was owned by Luscar and CONSOL, each of which retained a net revenue royalty of 2.5% based on any coal mined from the Cheviot pit and certain other former Luscar properties. The Cardinal River mine property consists of approximately 15,300 hectares of coal lands.
Coal mined at Cardinal River is primarily steelmaking coal, although a small amount of thermal coal is also produced. The current annual production capacities of the mine and preparation plant are approximately 2.0 million and 3.5 million tonnes of clean coal, respectively.
In 2019, Teck decided not to proceed with the Cardinal River Operations MacKenzie Redcap extension.  Mining is expected to conclude at Cardinal River in the second half of 2020.
Quintette Coal Project, B.C., Canada
Our Quintette mine in northeastern British Columbia has been closed since 2000 and remains on care and maintenance.
Coal Mountain Mine, B.C., Canada
Our Coal Mountain mine in southeastern British Columbia transitioned to care and maintenance in the second quarter of 2019.
Other Coal Projects, B.C., Canada
Other coal properties include Mt. Duke (92.6% interest) south of Tumbler Ridge, B.C., Elco (75% interest) at the north end of the Elk Valley, and the Coal Mountain Phase II Property (100% interest) situated between Elkview and the recently closed Coal Mountain Operations.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 28

COPPER
Copper Operations
Highland Valley Copper Mine, Canada (Copper)
We hold a 100% interest in the Highland Valley Copper mine located near Kamloops, British Columbia through our wholly owned subsidiary Teck Highland Valley Copper Partnership (HVC).
Highland Valley’s primary product is copper concentrate; it also produces molybdenum in concentrate.  The property comprising the Highland Valley Copper mine covers a surface area of approximately 34,000 hectares and is held pursuant to various mineral leases, mineral claims and Crown grants.  Mineral claims are renewed annually or as required based on the amount of exploration related expenses applied on a given claim which can extend the claim renewal requirements by several years at a time.  Mineral leases are typically held for twenty or thirty-year terms and are renewed accordingly. In the past, renewals of these licences and leases have generally been granted, although there can be no assurance that this will continue in the future.  Crown grants are held indefinitely and are subject to annual taxes.
The Highland Valley Copper mine is located adjacent to Highway 97C connecting Merritt, Logan Lake and Ashcroft, British Columbia. Access to the mine is from a 1-kilometre access road from Highway 97C. The mine is approximately 50 kilometres southwest of Kamloops, and approximately 200 kilometres northeast of Vancouver. The mine operates throughout the year. Power is supplied by BC Hydro through a 138-kilovolt line which terminates at the Trans-Canada Highway west of Spuzzum in the Thompson Valley. Mine personnel live in nearby areas, primarily Logan Lake, Kamloops, Ashcroft, Cache Creek and Merritt.
The mine is an open pit operation. The processing plant, which uses autogenous and semi‑autogenous grinding and flotation to produce metal in concentrate from the ore, has the capacity to process up to 145,000 tonnes of ore per day, depending on ore hardness. Water from mill operations is collected and contained in a tailings impoundment area. Mill process water is reclaimed from the tailings pond. The operation is subject to water and air permits issued by the Province of British Columbia and is in material compliance with those permits. The operation holds all of the permits that are material to its current operations.
An autonomous haulage pilot project was successfully started during the second half of 2018 in the Lornex pit, with nine autonomous haulage trucks now fully operational. A $73 million project to install an additional ball mill to increase grinding circuit capacity was completed in May 2019, with commissioning and ramp-up continuing into the first quarter of 2020.
Concentrates from the operation are transported first by truck to Ashcroft and then by rail to a port in Vancouver for export overseas, with the majority being sold under long-term sales contracts to smelters in Asia. The price of copper concentrate under these long-term sales agreements is based on LME prices during quotation periods determined with reference to the time of delivery, with treatment and refining charges negotiated annually. The balance is sold on the spot market. Molybdenum concentrates are sold to third-party roasters on market terms.
Ore is currently mined from the Valley, Lornex and Highmont pits. The pits are located in the Guichon batholith, which hosts all of the orebodies located in the area. The host rocks of the Valley deposit are mainly porphyritic quartz monzonites and granodiorites of the Bethsaida phase of the batholith. These rocks are medium-to-coarse-grained with large phenocrysts of quartz and biotite. The rocks of the deposit were subjected to hydrothermal alteration followed by extensive quartz veining, quartz-sericite veining, and silicification. Bornite, chalcopyrite and molybdenum were
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 29

introduced with the quartz and quartz-sericite veins and typically fill angular openings in them. Accessory minerals consist of hornblende, magnetite, hematite, sphene, apatite and zircon. Pre‑mineral porphyry and aplite dykes intrude the host rocks of the deposit.
The Lornex orebody occurs in skeena quartz diorite host rock, intruded by younger pre‑mineral quartz porphyry and aplite dykes. The skeena quartz diorite is an intermediate phase of the Guichon batholith and is generally a medium-to-coarse grained equigranular rock distinguished by interstitial quartz and moderate ferromagnesian minerals. The sulphide ore is primarily fracture fillings of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite with minor pyrite, magnetite, sphalerite and galena.
The Highmont deposit is entirely hosted within the Skeena granodiorite and the Gnawed Mountain Composite Dyke (GMCD) that has traditionally been described as a multiphase intrusion. The Bethsaida phase of the batholith occurs 750 metres southwest of the deposit with historical logged intercepts of Bethsaida within the deposit interpreted to be phases of the GMCD. The lithology of dykes in Highmont is less well constrained than the Valley-Lornex deposit. Copper mineralization occurs dominantly as chalcopyrite or bornite within quartz and white mica veins and to a lesser degree as breccia infill. The generalized sulphide distribution indicates a roughly concentric distribution of bornite-chalcopyrite and pyrite centered in the east of the deposit and extending northwest along the contacts of the GMCD.
Since 2015, additional drilling and engineering studies have been conducted to define resources near the existing Valley, Lornex and Highmont pits, and to examine other options to optimize and extend production past the current mine life. These activities have focused on evaluating the viability of a substantial expansion of the Valley and Highmont pits.
In 2019, nine diamond drillholes, totalling approximately 1,900 metres, were drilled in the Lornex pit area to further refine geoscience and resource models; 33 diamond drill holes, totaling approximately 8,000 meters, were drilled in the Valley pit to support geotechnical assessment and modeling of the Valley Tertiary basin and five holes, totalling 1,200 metres, were drilled near the pits and in the surrounding district to condemnate future planned waste dump areas.  Quick logs and assay results of these holes indicate no material impacts on the quantity or grade of reserves and resources. Diamond drill core is split in halves using core saws and sampled in two-metre intervals (HQ diameter core). One half is sent to an independent, off-site laboratory for analysis and the other is retained for future reference. Field duplicates and external umpire checks of approximately 5% of pulp samples are elements of the Highland Valley quality assurance/quality control program procedures.
Highland Valley Copper’s 2019 copper production was 121,300 tonnes, compared to 100,800 tonnes in 2018 and 92,800 tonnes in 2017. The increase in 2019 was primarily due to higher copper grades and improved mill recoveries.  Molybdenum production was 24% lower in 2019 at 6.6 million pounds, compared to 8.7 million pounds in 2018, primarily due to lower molybdenum grades and recovery, as anticipated in the mine plan.
Copper production is expected to continue to increase in 2020 due to higher recoveries from improving ore characteristics, the realization of additional throughput and recovery benefits from the implementation of mill analytics as part of our RACE21TM innovation-driven business transformation program and continued ramp up of the additional D3 ball mill.
Copper production in 2020 is anticipated to be between 133,000 and 138,000 tonnes, with lower production in the first half of 2020. Annual copper production from 2021 to 2023 is expected to be between 155,000 and 165,000 tonnes per year.  Copper production is anticipated to average about 150,000 tonnes per year after 2023, through to the end of the current mine plan in 2027.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 30

Molybdenum production in 2020 is expected to be between 4.5 and 5.5 million pounds contained in concentrate, with annual production expected to be between 3.5 and 5.0 million pounds per year afterwards.  We continue to advance studies to assess the potential economic viability of extending the Highland Valley Copper mine life to 2040.
The Highland Valley copper mine is subject to the B.C. Mineral Tax which is a two-tier tax with a minimum rate of 2% and a maximum rate of 13%. A minimum tax of 2% applies to operating cash flows, as defined by the regulations. A maximum tax rate of 13% applies to cash flows after taking available deductions for capital expenditures and other permitted deductions.
2020 projected capital costs for Highland Valley are approximately $74 million. The major components of the projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Sustaining
52
Major Enhancement
22
2020 projected aggregate cash operating costs for Highland Valley are approximately $543 million. The major components of the projected cash operating costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
Labour
258
Supplies
217
Energy
114
Other (including general & administrative, inventory changes)
65
Less amounts associated with projected capitalized stripping
(111)
Total
543
The cash operating costs presented above do not include transportation or royalties.
Antamina Mine, Peru (Copper, Zinc)
We indirectly own 22.5% of the Antamina copper/zinc mine in Peru, with the balance held indirectly by BHP Billiton plc (33.75%), Glencore plc (33.75%) and Mitsubishi Corporation (10%). The participants’ interests are represented by shares of Compañía Minera Antamina S.A. (CMA), the Peruvian company that owns and operates the project. Our interest is subject to a net profits royalty of 1.667% on CMA’s free cash flow.
The Antamina property consists of numerous mining concessions and mining claims covering an area of approximately 82,200 hectares and an area of approximately 15,000 hectares of surface rights. These rights concessions and claims can be held indefinitely, contingent upon the payment of annual licence fees and provision of certain production and investment information. CMA also owns a port facility located at Huarmey and an electrical substation located at Huallanca. In addition, CMA holds title to all easements and rights of way for the 302-kilometre concentrate pipeline from the mine to CMA’s port at Huarmey.
The deposit is located at an average elevation of 4,200 metres, 385 kilometres by road and 270 kilometres by air north of Lima, Peru. Antamina lies on the eastern side of the Western
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 31

Cordillera in the upper part of the Rio Marañon basin. Mine personnel live in a camp facility while at work and commute from both local communities and larger population centres, including Lima.
The mine is an open pit, truck-and-shovel operation. The ore is crushed within the pit and conveyed through a 2.7-kilometre tunnel to a coarse ore stockpile at the mill. It is then processed utilizing two SAG mills, followed by ball mill grinding and flotation to produce separate copper, zinc, molybdenum and lead/bismuth concentrates. The mill has the capacity to process approximately 145,000 tonnes per day, depending on ore hardness. A 302-kilometre-long slurry concentrate pipeline, approximately 22 centimetres in diameter with a single pump station at the mine site, transports copper and zinc concentrates to the port where they are dewatered and stored prior to loading onto vessels for shipment to smelters and refineries worldwide.
The mine is accessible via an access road maintained by CMA. Power for the mine is taken from the Peru national energy grid through an electrical substation constructed at Huallanca. Fresh water requirements are sourced from a dam-created reservoir upstream from the tailings impoundment facility. The tailings impoundment facility is located next to the mill. Water reclaimed from the tailings impoundment is used as process water in the mill operation. The operation is subject to water and air permits issued by the Government of Peru and is in material compliance with those permits. The operation holds all of the permits that are material to its current operations.
The Antamina polymetallic deposit is skarn-hosted. It is unusual in its persistent mineralization and predictable zonation, and has a SW-NE strike length of more than 2,500 metres and a width of up to 1,000 metres. The skarn is well-zoned symmetrically on either side of the central intrusion with the zoning used as the basis for four major subdivisions being a brown garnet skarn, green garnet skarn, wollastonite/diopside/green garnet skarn and a marbleized limestone with veins or mantos of wollastonite. Other types of skarn, including the massive sulphides, massive magnetite, and chlorite skarn, represent the remainder of the skarn and are randomly distributed throughout the deposit. The variability of ore types can result in significant changes in the relative proportions of copper and zinc produced in any given year.
In 2019, a total of 95 drillholes were completed within the Antamina pit, for a total of approximately 41,334 metres.  This included 44 conventional infill holes totalling approximately 15,328 metres, 16 primary infill holes totalling approximately 5,512 metres, 32 branch infill holes totalling approximately 17,674 metres and three conventional deep holes totalling approximately 2,820 metres. Quick logs and assay results of these holes indicate no material impacts on the quantity or grade of reserves and resources.  For diamond core, three-metre samples of half core (HQ or NQ) are collected and prepared for assay at an external laboratory. The remaining half of the core is retained for future reference. The assay program includes approximately 20% of quality-control samples, comprising reference materials, duplicates and blanks, as well as samples for external control at a secondary laboratory. The reference materials consist of matrix-matched material from Antamina, homogenized and certified in accordance with industry practice.
Antamina’s copper production (100% basis) in 2019 was 448,500 tonnes, compared to 446,100 tonnes in 2018 as a result of slightly higher copper grades offset by slightly lower recoveries. Zinc production (100% basis) was 303,300 tonnes in 2019, a decrease from 409,300 tonnes produced in 2018, due to mining a lower proportion of copper-zinc ore versus copper ore as a result of mine sequencing as well as lower zinc grades.  In 2019, molybdenum production (100% basis) was 7.8 million pounds, which was 24% lower than 2018.
Our 22.5% share of 2020 production at Antamina is expected to be in the range of 88,000 to 92,000 tonnes of copper, 100,000 to 105,000 tonnes of zinc and approximately 2.0 million pounds of molybdenum in concentrate.  Our share of copper production is expected to average 90,000 tonnes
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 32

per year from 2021 to 2023.  Our share of zinc production is expected to be between 90,000 and 100,000 tonnes per year from 2021 to 2023, although annual production will fluctuate due to feed grades and the amount of copper-zinc ore processed. Our share of annual molybdenum production is expected to be between 2.0 and 3.0 million pounds per year between 2021 and 2023.
CMA has entered into long-term off-take agreements with affiliates of the Antamina shareholders on market terms for copper, zinc and molybdenum concentrates. Under a long-term streaming agreement with FN Holdings ULC (FNH), a subsidiary of Franco-Nevada Corporation, Teck has agreed to deliver silver to FNH equivalent to 22.5% of the payable silver sold by CMA. FNH made a payment of US$610 million on closing of the arrangement in 2015 and will pay 5% of the spot price at the time of delivery for each ounce of silver delivered under the agreement, in addition to an upfront acquisition price paid in a previous year. After 86 million ounces of silver have been delivered under the agreement, the stream will be reduced by one-third.  A total of 15.2 million ounces of silver have been delivered under the agreement from the effective date in 2015 to December 31, 2019.  The streaming agreement restricts distributions from Teck Base Metals, our subsidiary that holds our 22.5% interest in CMA, to the extent of unpaid amounts under the agreement if there is an event of default under the streaming agreement or an insolvency of Teck. Compañía Minera Antamina S.A., which owns and operates Antamina, is not a party to the agreement and operations will not be affected by it.
In June 2019, CMA signed a new three-year collective agreement which will expire on July 31, 2021.
In Peru, the mining tax regime includes the Special Mining Tax and the Modified Mining Royalty, which apply to CMA’s operating margin based on a progressive sliding scale ranging from 3% to 20.4%. CMA is also subject to Peruvian income tax.
Based on current designed tailings storage capacity, the mine life is expected to continue until 2028. CMA is currently conducting engineering studies for additional tailings storage options and alternative mine plans that could result in significant mine life extensions.  Any mine life extension will require a modification of Antamina’s current Environmental Impact Assessment certificate, a process which began in October 2019 with the submission of the study area and common terms of reference to Peruvian regulators for a mine life extension to 2036.  A decision in respect of the requested modification is anticipated in 2022.
Our 22.5% share of 2020 projected capital costs for Antamina is approximately US$98 million. The major components of the projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost (US$/million)
Sustaining
78
Major Enhancement
20

Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 33

Our 22.5% share of 2020 projected cash operating costs for Antamina is approximately US$181 million. The major components of the projected cash operating costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost (US$/million)
Labour
82
Supplies
91
Energy
49
Other (including general & administrative, inventory changes)
16
Less amounts associated with projected capitalized stripping
(57)
Total
181
The cash operating costs presented above do not include transportation or royalties.
Quebrada Blanca Mine, Chile (Copper)
The Quebrada Blanca mine is owned by a Chilean private company, Compañía Minera Teck Quebrada Blanca S.A. (QBSA).  On March 29, 2019, we closed a transaction whereby Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. and Sumitomo Corporation collectively (SMM/SC) subscribed for a 30% indirect interest in QBSA. SMM/SC contributed $1.3 billion (US$966 million) to QBSA on closing of the transaction and a further $444 million (US$336 million) over the remainder of 2019. As of December 31, 2019, Teck holds a 60% interest in QBSA (66.67% of the Series A shares); SMM/SC collectively hold a 30% interest in QBSA (33.33% of the Series A shares) and Empresa Nacional de Minería (ENAMI), a Chilean government entity, holds a 10% carried interest (100% of the Series B shares), which does not require ENAMI to fund capital spending.
QBSA owns the exploitation and/or exploration rights in the immediate area of the Quebrada Blanca deposit pursuant to various mining concessions and other rights. There are currently 119,587 hectares of mining rights incorporating exploitation and exploration mining concessions held in the name of QBSA.  The exploitation mining concessions have no expiry date. In addition, QBSA holds surface rights covering the mine site and other areas aggregating approximately 3,150 hectares as well as certain other exploration rights in the surrounding area and certain water rights.
The Quebrada Blanca property is located in the Tarapacá Region of northern Chile approximately 240 kilometres southeast of the port city of Iquique and 1,500 kilometres north of the city of Santiago, the capital of Chile. The Quebrada Blanca property is located approximately 4,400 metres above sea level. The local topography is represented by rounded hills disrupted by steep gulches. Vegetation cover consists of sparse tufts of grass and small shrubs. Access to the mine site is via road from Iquique. Mine personnel are based in a camp facility, and the majority commute from large population centres, including Iquique and Santiago.
Previously mined for its surficial supergene mineralization, the Quebrada Blanca Cu-Mo sulfide deposit is characterized by a series of Eocene-Oligocene aged intrusions, hydrothermal breccias and vein-related mineralization over an area of ~5 x 3 km and controlled primarily by a north-east oriented structures. Alteration associated with the emplacement of the porphyritic and related intrusions includes chalcopyrite- and bornite-related veins, disseminations, and cement fill associated with potassic alteration. A large, vertically zoned hydrothermal breccia developed in associated with the potassic event. This breccia has biotite, biotite-magnetite, chalcopyrite and
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 34

locally bornite preserved at depth, whilst at shallower levels it transitions to a tourmaline-rich breccia with pyrite and chalcopyrite. A series of quartz-molybdenite veins are commonly associated with the biotite-magnetite breccia on the east side of the deposit. A subsequent chalcopyrite and molybdenite event cuts across the system and is characterized by grey-green sericite and quartz veins. This type of transitional alteration is best-preserved in the western part of the deposit. A late quartz-sericite-pyrite assemblage cuts the copper-bearing stages, and is strongly controlled by northwest-oriented structures. This phyllic event also occurs along northeast-oriented structures, which were a key control in the location of the supergene mineralization at surface.
The Quebrada Blanca orebody occurs within a 2-kilometre by 5-kilometre quartz monzonite intrusive stock. Supergene enrichment processes have dissolved and redeposited primary (hypogene) chalcopyrite as a blanket of supergene copper sulphides, the most important being chalcocite and covellite, with lesser copper oxides/silicates such as chrysocolla in the oxide zone. Irregular transition zones, with locally faulted contacts separate the higher and lower-grade supergene/dump leach ores from the leached cap and hypogene zones.
In 2019, we signed a new 36-month agreement with Quebrada Blanca Union 1.
Taxes payable in Chile that affect the operation include the Chilean Specific Mining Tax, which applies to operating margin based on a progressive sliding scale from 5% to 14%. QBSA is also subject to federal income tax in Chile.
Quebrada Blanca Operations
Quebrada Blanca is an open pit mine that produces ore that, since the first quarter of 2017, has been sent directly to the dump leach circuit. Copper-bearing solutions are collected from the dump leach pads for processing in an SX-EW plant that produces copper cathode. Mining operations ceased in the fourth quarter of 2018 as the supergene ore was exhausted and mining equipment and personnel have been redeployed to the QB2 project.  The existing operation is now focused on leaching the dump material and secondary extraction. Copper cathode production is expected to continue through 2020. Copper cathode is trucked to Iquique for shipment to purchasers.
The majority of copper cathode produced at Quebrada Blanca is sold under annual contracts to metal consumers and metal trading companies. The remaining copper cathode is sold on the spot market. The price of copper cathodes is based on LME prices plus a premium based on market conditions.
Quebrada Blanca operations produced 21,100 tonnes of copper cathode in 2019, compared to 25,500 tonnes in 2018. Cathode production is expected to continue until late 2020 at declining production rates.  We expect production of approximately 7,000 to 8,000 tonnes of copper cathode in 2020.
Quebrada Blanca Phase 2
As previously outlined, Quebrada Blanca Phase 2 (QB2) is expected to extend the life of the existing mine as a large-scale concentrate-producing operation.
The project was approved for full construction in December 2018. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we closed the US$2.5 billion limited recourse project financing to fund the development of QB2.  With funding from the project financing and the partnering transaction with SMM/SC, our next contributions to project capital are not expected until early 2021.
There are currently over 7,500 people actively working across the six major construction areas on the project, with all major contractors progressing in the field. With earthworks and concrete well advanced the project has commenced steel erection and the placement of mechanical equipment,
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 35

including the first grinding mill. In addition, construction of the tailings dam facility and pipelines is progressing.  Although the project continues to target first production in the fourth quarter of 2021 with ramp-up to full production expected during 2022, there has been delays in the schedule primarily due to permitting and social unrest in Chile, which will also affect cost.  A new baseline schedule is being developed in conjunction with an updated capital cost estimate for the first quarter of 2020.
Mining operations will continue to use open pit methods and conventional truck-and-shovel operations. The production fleet will be a combination of the existing traditional trucks and autonomous trucks, eventually transitioning to fully autonomous fleet as the traditional trucks reach the end of their useful life.  From an operational standpoint, QB2 represents a continuation of the existing supergene mining activities; however, there are significant differences between the two mining operations, such as the significant increase in the ultimate pit depth, the change in mineralization type from enriched supergene to hypogene, and the proposed increase to the mining extraction rate.
The project scope includes the construction of a 143,000 tonne per day concentrator and related facilities, which will be connected to a new port and desalination plant by 165 kilometre concentrate and desalinated water pipelines. An additional access road, known as the A-97 bypass, will be constructed from the A-97B highway to the mine. In addition, there will be construction of a new overhead high voltage electric power transmission line. The primary crushing facility will contain a single primary crusher with a double-sided dump pocket for dumping ore from the mine haulage trucks. The coarse ore conveyor facility will consist of two overland conveyors to transport the crushed ore from the primary crusher to the coarse ore stockpile. The coarse ore stockpile will have a live capacity of 80,000 tonnes, and an overall 270,000 tonne capacity. The concentrator facility will contain two semi-autogenous grinding mills and four ball mills, cyclone feed pumps, and cyclone clusters.
On a 100% basis, average annual production capacity is expected to be 316,000 tonnes of copper equivalent per year for the first full five years of mine life.
QBSA has signed a number of power purchase agreements for electric power supply for QB2. There are three primary power purchase agreements for QB2 with staggered supply dates. Each of these agreements imposes a take-or-pay obligation on QBSA, under which QBSA is required to pay for the contracted power regardless of whether it is required in the operations. Supply from the first contract commenced in the fourth quarter of 2016 and the other supply dates commenced in early 2018. QBSA’s obligations under the power purchase agreements are guaranteed by Teck until QB2 enters production.
The aggregate fixed commitment of the current three primary power supply agreements is approximately US$6.9 million per month, determined as of December 31, 2019. QBSA is taking steps to manage its exposure, and may sell power at spot market rates or under contract to offset its exposure under these take-or-pay contracts until power is required for the QB2 project. Based on current spot market rates, current mitigation efforts and QBSA’s projected power consumption, its net estimated aggregate monthly exposure under its power arrangements is anticipated to be in the range of US$5.5 to US$7.0 million in 2020.  Teck has agreed to cover SMM/SC’s share of the cost of power under these existing power purchase agreements in excess of QBSA’s actual needs until the earlier of the start-up of the first grinding line in the mill or September 30, 2022.
In February 2020, QBSA entered into long-term arrangements with AES Gener S.A., to enable QBSA to transition to renewable energy for approximately half of the power required for the operation of QB2.
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In 2019, 28 diamond drillholes were completed within the Quebrada Blanca deposit for a total of approximately 20.6 kilometers. Assay results from these holes have had no impact on the quantity or grade of reserves, nor have they materially impacted the grade of the resource; however, these drillholes have increased the resource volume for Quebrada Blanca - Mill.  See “Mineral Reserves and Resources” for details. For diamond core, 2-metre samples of half core are taken and crushed for assay at an external laboratory. The remaining half of the core is retained for future reference. The assay program includes approximately 15% of quality-assurance/quality-control samples, comprising reference materials, duplicates and blanks.  An additional 5% of sample pulps are assayed in a second laboratory for cross-checks.  The reference materials consist of matrix-matched material from Quebrada Blanca, homogenized and certified in accordance with industry practice.
2020 projected capital costs for QB2 are estimated at approximately $2,420 million.  Our share of $1,613 million is expected to be funded from the remaining contributions made by SMM/SC in connection with the partnering transaction and from the project finance loans entered into in 2019.  The major components of the projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost ($/million)
New Mine Development
2,420
QB2 has a 28 year mine life and the Sanction Case (described below) includes 199 million tonnes of inferred resources within the life of mine plan. The majority of this inferred material is not scheduled to be mined until late in the mine life and is displacing lower grade economic material within the pit. Teck refers to the planned development of the QB2 project that includes these inferred resources as the "Sanction Case”.  Inferred resources are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserve. Inferred resources are subject to greater uncertainty than measured or indicated resources and it cannot be assumed that they will be successfully upgraded to measured and indicated through further drilling. Based on Teck’s understanding of the deposit and history of resource to reserve conversion, the Sanction Case is regarded as a realistic and financeable development plan; however, key information regarding the reserve-only case is included in the table below for reference.
The table below summarizes the financial projections of the planned operation of QB2 for both the reserve case and the Sanction Case:
100% Project Basis(1)(2)
Units
Reserve Case
Sanction case
IRR
%
13.5%
14.1%
NPV
US$ M 
$2,030
$2,426
Average Annual Cash Flow – 1st Five Years(3)
US$ M
$935
$956
Average Annual Cash Flow – After 1st Five Years(4)
US$ M
$496
$585
Payback Period
 years
5.7
5.6
Copper Equivalent Production(5)
tonnes
313,000
316,000

 
(1)
Assumes US$3.00 per pound of copper; US$10.00 per pound of molybdenum and US$18.00 per ounce of silver
 
(2)
As at January 1, 2019 on an unlevered, after-tax basis for a Chilean domiciled entity assuming an optimized funding structure
 
(3)
Excludes the first partial year of operation
 
(4)
Excludes the last partial year of operation
 
(5)
Copper equivalent production calculated assuming US$3.00/lb copper, US$10.00/lb molybdenum and US$18.00/oz silver without adjusting for payability.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 37

Quebrada Blanca Phase 3
Drilling and engineering studies for the Quebrada Blanca Phase 3 project are ongoing. In support of our cost reduction program, we are delaying the start of the prefeasibility study and will continue with targeted development trade-off analysis.
Carmen de Andacollo Mine, Chile (Copper)
The Carmen de Andacollo property is owned by a Chilean private company, Compañía Minera Teck Carmen de Andacollo (CDA). We own 100% of the Series A shares of CDA while ENAMI owns 100% of the Series B shares of CDA. Our Series A shares of CDA equate to 90% of CDA’s total share equity and ENAMI’s Series B shares comprise the remaining 10% of total share equity. ENAMI’s interest is a carried interest and, as a result, ENAMI is not required to contribute further funding to CDA.
CDA owns the exploitation and/or exploration rights over an area of approximately 206 square kilometres in the area of the Carmen de Andacollo supergene and hypogene deposits pursuant to various mining concessions and other rights. In addition, CDA owns the surface rights covering the mine site and other areas aggregating approximately 21 square kilometres as well as certain water rights. Since 1996, CDA has been conducting mining operations on the supergene deposit on the Carmen de Andacollo property that overlies the hypogene deposit and since 2010 has been processing hypogene ore through a concentrator on the site.
The Carmen de Andacollo property is located in Coquimbo Province in central Chile. The site is adjacent to the town of Carmen de Andacollo, approximately 55 kilometres southeast of the city of La Serena and 350 kilometres north of Santiago. Access to the Carmen de Andacollo mine is by paved roads from La Serena. The mine is located near the southern limit of the Atacama Desert at an elevation of approximately 1,000 metres. The climate around Carmen de Andacollo is transitional between the desert climate of northern Chile and the Mediterranean climate of the Santiago area. The majority of mine personnel live in the town of Carmen de Andacollo, immediately adjacent to the mine, or in the nearby cities of Coquimbo and La Serena.
The Carmen de Andacollo orebody is a porphyry copper deposit consisting of disseminated and fracture-controlled copper mineralization contained within a gently dipping sequence of andesitic to trachytic volcanic rocks and sub-volcanic intrusions. The mineralization is spatially related to a feldspar porphyry intrusion and a series of deeply rooted fault structures. A primary copper-gold sulphide hypogene deposit containing principally disseminated and quartz vein-hosted chalcopyrite mineralization lies beneath the supergene deposit. The hypogene deposit was subjected to surface weathering processes, resulting in the formation of a barren leached zone 10 to 60 metres thick. The original copper sulphides leached from this zone were re‑deposited below the barren leached zone as a copper-rich zone comprised of copper silicates (chrysocolla) and supergene copper sulphides (chalcocite with lesser covellite).
The Carmen de Andacollo mine is an open pit mine. Copper concentrate is produced by processing hypogene ore through semi-autogenous grinding and a flotation plant with the capacity to process up to 55,000 tonnes of ore per day depending on ore hardness. Some supergene ore is also mined, which is transported to heap leach pads. Copper-bearing solutions are processed in an SX-EW plant to produce grade A copper cathode.
The majority of copper cathode produced at Carmen de Andacollo is sold under annual contracts with metal trading companies. The remaining Carmen de Andacollo copper cathode production is sold in the spot market. The price of copper cathodes is based on LME prices plus a premium based on market conditions. Copper concentrates are sold under long-term contracts to smelters in Asia
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 38

and Europe, using the LME price as the basis for copper pricing, and with treatment and refining charges negotiated on an annual basis.
During 2019, 54 diamond drillholes totalling approximately 8,100 metres were drilled at the Carmen de Andacollo mine. Forty of these drillholes, totalling approximately 6,000 meters, were infill drilling for geology and grade modelling purposes, eight of these drillholes, totalling approximately 900 meters, were for metallurgical testing, and six of these drillholes, totalling approximately 1,200 meters, were for geotechnical and hydrogeological purposes.  Diamond drill core is split in halves and sampled in 2.5-metre intervals. One half is sent to the external lab for analysis and the other is retained for future reference. For the infill drilling campaign, one in five samples was submitted for hardness proxy testing; subsequently, these samples were returned to the mechanical preparation process. For the metallurgical drillholes, one in five samples was submitted for metallurgical testing. Coarse blank, field duplicated (prior to shipment to the laboratory), crushing duplicated, fine coarse blank, pulp duplicated and standards were used as part of the quality assurance/quality control program.
Carmen de Andacollo produced, on a 100% basis, 51,600 tonnes of copper contained in concentrate in 2019, 19% less than 2018, primarily due to a temporary work stoppage in the fourth quarter. Copper cathode production, on a 100% basis, was 2,400 tonnes in 2019, compared with 3,700 tonnes in 2018. Gold production, on a 100% basis, of 46,800 ounces was lower than the 59,600 ounces produced in 2018, with 100% of the gold produced for the account of RGLD Gold AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Gold, Inc. In effect, 100% of gold production from the mine has been sold to RGLD Gold AG, which pays a cash price of 15% of the monthly average gold price at the time of each delivery, in addition to an upfront acquisition price paid in previous years.
Copper grades are expected to continue to decline towards reserve grades in 2020 and future years. Carmen de Andacollo’s production in 2020 is expected to be in the range of 57,000 to 62,000 tonnes of copper, including approximately 3,000 tonnes of copper cathode. Annual copper in concentrate production is expected to average between 55,000 and 60,000 tonnes for the subsequent three-year period. Cathode production is uncertain beyond 2020, although there is some potential to extend production.
The current life of mine for Carmen de Andacollo is expected to continue until 2035. Additional permitting or amendments will be required to execute the life of mine plan.
Taxes payable in Chile that affect the operation include the Chilean Specific Mining Tax which applies to operating margin based on a progressive sliding scale from 5% to 14%. CDA is also subject to federal income tax in Chile.
In August 2019, CDA signed a new 36 month collective agreement with the Supervisory Union.  A regulated bargaining process with the Workers’ Union commenced in September 2019 but did not result in an agreement. The Workers’ Union subsequently commenced strike action on October 14, 2019. Following ratification of a new 36-month collective agreement, on December 5, 2019, operations resumed.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 39

Project Satellite
Teck and our partners continue to advance five substantial base metals assets (copper, zinc, nickel) all of which are located in the Americas: Zafranal, San Nicolás, Galore Creek, Mesaba, and Schaft Creek.
Zafranal, Peru
The Zafranal property, located in southern Peru, 85 kilometres northwest of Arequipa within the Provinces of Castilla and Caylloma, is a mid-sized copper-gold porphyry deposit. The project is held by Compañía Minera Zafranal S.A.C., in which Teck holds an 80% interest, with Mitsubishi Materials Corporation holding the other 20%.
In 2019 we completed a feasibility study, together with sufficient environmental and social baseline studies, community engagement programs, and engineering and design work to finalize a social and environmental impact assessment in December 2019, which is expected to be submitted in the first half of 2020. Community engagement and investment activities, carried out in partnership with several communities of interest in 2019, focused on addressing local access to potable water, health and wellness, basic infrastructure and education. Water specific discussions were informed with information collected from a multi-year study of the Majes aquifer as the preferred source of operations water.
Teck’s share of spending in 2019 was $32.7 million and Teck’s share of planned spending in 2020 is $9.3 million, which will be included in capital expenditures for new mine development within our copper business unit.
San Nicolás, Mexico
The San Nicolás property, located in Zacatecas State, is a massive sulphide deposit with significant copper, zinc, gold and silver. The property is held by Minas de San Nicolás, S.A. de C.V. which is a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Teck.
In 2019, as part of a prefeasibility study, a multi-disciplinary team focused on land acquisition, community engagement, environment studies, and a wide range of engineering studies. The scope of the prefeasibility study has been slightly adjusted to include power transmission, archaeology, updated metallurgical studies and development of an updated mine plan. The prefeasibility study and the social and environmental impact assessment are expected to be completed in the second half of 2020.
The community office, which was established in November 2018 in the San Nicolás community, was very active during 2019 with 1,180 community members and stakeholders visiting the office. Information gained from these visits has been incorporated into the project’s social baseline study.
Spending in 2019 was $26.5 million and planned spending in 2020 is $17.1 million that will be included in capital expenditures for new mine development within our copper business unit.
Galore Creek, Canada
The Galore Creek property, located in the territory of the Tahltan in northwestern British Columbia approximately 150 kilometres northwest of the Port of Stewart, BC and 370 kilometres northwest of Smithers, BC, is a significant copper-gold-silver porphyry deposit. The project is owned by the Galore Creek Partnership, a 50/50 partnership between Teck and Newmont Corporation (Newmont), and is managed by Galore Creek Mining Corporation (GCMC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Galore Creek Partnership.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 40

Following Newmont’s acquisition of a 50% interest in Galore Creek in July 2018, Teck and Newmont agreed to fund future work programs over a three-to-four year period and to reinitiate permitting activities as appropriate. A project team was established to carry out the necessary work and studies to inform the basis for an updated prefeasibility study.
In 2019, a 24,600-metre detailed drilling program was completed along with an expanded environmental, social and archaeological work program. Conceptual and scoping studies on site access, metallurgy, processing, geotechnical, hydrology and water management, and mining were also completed that will be used to inform the project description and narrow options for study in the planned prefeasibility study.  The prefeasibility study, expected to take approximately 24 months to complete, is scheduled to commence in the first half of 2020.
Teck’s share of spending in 2019 was $17.5 million and Teck’s share of planned spending in 2020 is $14.1 million which is included in capital expenditures for new mine development within our copper business unit.
Mesaba, United States
The Mesaba property, located in northeastern Minnesota 100 kilometres north of Duluth, is part of a potentially significant copper, nickel and platinum-palladium-cobalt mining district in the United States. Known ore deposits in the district, including Mesaba, consist of metallurgically complex disseminated copper-nickel sulphides that require a range of mineral processing steps to make saleable concentrate or metal products while meeting state and federal requirements to protect the environment. Mineral rights over the Mesaba deposit are held 100% by Teck through lease agreements with private interests and the State of Minnesota.
Drill core logging, extensive re-assaying, sample analysis, geometallurgical modeling work and preliminary economic analysis resulted in the issuance of the project’s first mineral resource estimate in early 2019.  See “Mineral Reserves and Resources” for further details.  In addition to resource estimation work, baseline environmental studies, including waste and tailings characterization, were initiated in 2019.  In addition, a new access road was constructed to the property to carry out detailed hydrogeological, hydrology and expanded baseline studies.
Spending in 2019 was $9.1 million and planned spending in 2020 of $9.1 million will be included in exploration expenses.
Schaft Creek, Canada
The Schaft Creek property, located in the territory of the Tahltan in northwestern British Columbia, approximately 61 kilometres south of Telegraph Creek and 37 kilometres northeast of the Galore Creek property, is a Joint Venture between Teck and Copper Fox Metals Inc., with Teck holding a 75% interest and acting as the operator.
A multi-disciplinary team was established in early 2018 to describe and further characterize several development scenarios for the Schaft Creek deposit that stemmed from the primary development option outlined in the 2013 feasibility study. Based on the work completed in 2018, additional scoping level engineering and design work was carried out in 2019. Multi-disciplinary field program work collected environmental data and maintained the camp, facilities, and existing permits. A significant asset preservation program, consisting of approximately 1,000 metres of berm construction, was completed as part of this field program. In addition, an integrated scoping-level engineering study was completed on select elements of the 2013 feasibility study targeting capital and operating cost reductions. The results of this study will be compiled in early 2020. Obligations to
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 41

the Tahltan, outlined in a Communications and Exploration Agreement signed in early 2019, were met.
Spending on Schaft Creek has been included in capital expenditures for new mine development within our copper business unit.
Other Copper Projects
NuevaUnión, Chile
NuevaUnión is a 50/50 partnership between Teck and Newmont, consisting of the copper-gold La Fortuna deposit and the copper-molybdenum Relincho deposit and located approximately 40 kilometres apart in the Huasco Province in the Atacama region of Chile.  In 2019, NuevaUnión continued to advance its feasibility study, which is expected to be completed during the first quarter of 2020.  The partners agreed to defer submission of the Environmental Impact Assessment from the previously announced fourth quarter of 2019 time frame. Work in 2020 will focus on a review of study results and an assessment of optimization opportunities.
ZINC
Mining Operations
Red Dog Mine, United States (Zinc, Lead)
The Red Dog zinc-lead mine, concentrator and shipping facility in the Northwest Arctic Borough, approximately 144 kilometres north of Kotzebue, Alaska, commenced production in December 1989 and began shipping concentrates in July 1990. The Red Dog mine is operated by Teck Alaska Incorporated (Teck Alaska) on lands owned by, and leased from, the NANA Regional Corporation (NANA), a Regional Alaska Native corporation. The Red Dog mine covers approximately 1,000 hectares.
Red Dog mine is located on a ridge between the middle and south forks of Red Dog Creek, in the DeLong Mountains of the Western Brooks Range. The topography is moderately sloping, with elevations ranging from 260 metres to 1,200 metres above sea level. Vegetation is classified as woody tundra. The mine is accessible from a paved airstrip, five kilometres from the Red Dog mine, which allows jet access from Anchorage and Kotzebue. Mine personnel are generally drawn from surrounding communities as well as from other locations within the State and in North America. Power for the mine is produced on-site by diesel generators with a maximum capacity of 30 megawatts, sufficient for present and expected future power requirements. Potable water is sourced from Bons Creek.
Red Dog is comprised of a number of sedimentary hosted exhalative lead-zinc sulphide deposits hosted in Mississippian-age to Pennsylvanian-age sedimentary rocks. The orebodies are lens shaped and occur within structurally controlled (thrust faults) plates, are relatively flat-lying and are hosted by marine clastic rocks (shales, siltstones, turbidites) and lesser chert and carbonate rocks. Barite rock is common in and above the sulphide units. Silicification is the dominant alteration type.
The sulphide mineralization consists of semi-massive to massive sphalerite, pyrite, marcasite and galena. Common textures within the sulphide zone include massive, fragmental, veined and, rarely, sedimentary layering.
Ore is currently mined from the Aqqaluk and Qanaiyaq pits. All future ore production is also expected to be mined from these pits. The mining method employed is conventional open pit drill-and-blast
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 42

and truck-and-shovel technology. The mineral processing facilities employ conventional grinding and sulphide flotation methods to produce zinc and lead concentrates.
Tailings storage and waste disposal areas have adequate design capacity to sustain the current life of mine plan. All contaminated water from the mine area and waste dumps is collected and contained in a tailings impoundment and seasonally discharged through a water treatment plant. Mill process water is reclaimed from the tailings pond.
In 2019, eight holes totalling approximately 1,170 metres were drilled in the Aqqaluk pit for geotechnical data collection. Quick logs and assay results of these holes indicate no material impacts on the quantity or grade of reserves and resources.  Diamond drill core is sawn into halves and sampled in 1.5-metre intervals, with one half being sent to Bureau Veritas in Vancouver for analysis and the other half retained at Red Dog for future reference. The quality assurance/quality control program consists of standards and blanks inserted at regular intervals as well as core, coarse crush and pulp duplicates all analyzed by Bureau Veritas. Five percent of core sample pulps are split and sent to a second lab as a check.
The mine and concentrator properties are leased from, and are being operated under the terms of a development and operating agreement with, NANA. Since the third quarter of 2007, we have paid NANA a percentage of the net proceeds of production from the mine, starting at 25% and increasing by successive increments of 5% at five-year intervals to a maximum of 50%. The most recent increase occurred in October 2017, bringing the royalty to 35%. The NANA royalty charge in 2019 was US$231 million, compared with US$252 million in 2018. NANA has advised us that it ultimately shares approximately 60% of this royalty, net of allowable costs, with other Regional Alaska Native Corporations pursuant to section 7(i) of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.  The development and operating agreement also provides for employment and contracting preferences and additional lease rental payments. In addition to the royalties payable to NANA, the operation is subject to federal and state income taxes and the Alaska Mining Licence tax, which applies at 7% of taxable income.
Teck Alaska and the Northwest Arctic Borough agreed to a 10-year payment in lieu of taxes agreement (PILT) effective January 1, 2016. This agreement replaced the previous PILT agreement that expired on December 31, 2015. Under the agreement, PILT payments to the Northwest Arctic Borough, are calculated based on the net book value of the mine lands, buildings and equipment in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, and are generally between US$14 million and US$18 million per year. In addition, Teck Alaska remits annual payments to a separate fund aimed at social investment in villages in the region. These payments, based on mine profitability, are between US$4 million and US$8 million per year.
The mine is in material compliance with all of its permits and related regulatory instruments, and has obtained all of the permits that are material to its current operations.
In 2019, approximately 30% of the zinc concentrate produced at Red Dog was shipped to our metallurgical facilities at Trail, British Columbia, and the balance to customers in Asia and Europe. The lead concentrate production is also shipped to Trail and to customers in Asia. The majority of concentrate sales are pursuant to long-term contracts at market prices, subject to annually negotiated treatment charges. The balance is sold on the spot market at prices based on prevailing market quotations. The shipping season at Red Dog is restricted to approximately 100 days per year because of sea ice conditions and Red Dog’s sales are seasonal, with the majority of sales in the last five months of each year. Concentrate is stockpiled at the port facility and is typically shipped between July and October.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 43

In 2019, zinc production at Red Dog was 552,400 tonnes compared to 583,200 tonnes in 2018, primarily due to lower throughput and zinc grades. Lead production in 2019 of 102,800 tonnes, compared to 98,400 tonnes in 2018.
Construction progressed on the US$135 million mill upgrade project, called VIP2, with planned start-up on schedule for the first quarter of 2020.  The project started construction in late 2017, and is expected to increase average mill throughput by about 15% over the remaining mine life, helping to offset lower grades and harder ore.  We are also realizing additional throughput and recovery benefits from the implementation of mill analytics as part of our RACE21TM innovation-driven business transformation program.
Because the upgrade project will permit lower-grade material to be processed, the current mine life, based on existing developed deposits, will extend through to 2032. In 2019, we continued an exploration drilling program and various studies focused on extending the life of Red Dog past 2032, including possible development of the Paalaaq, Anarraaq and Aktigiruq deposits.
Red Dog’s production of contained metal in 2020 is expected to be in the range of 500,000 to 535,000 tonnes of zinc and 95,000 to 100,000 tonnes of lead. From 2021 to 2023, Red Dog’s production of contained metal is expected to be in the range of 500,000 to 540,000 tonnes of zinc and 80,000 to 90,000 tonnes of lead per year.
2020 projected capital costs for Red Dog are approximately US$105 million. The major components of the projected capital costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost (US$/million)
Sustaining
94
Major Enhancement
11
2020 projected cash operating costs for Red Dog are approximately US$299 million. The major components of the projected cash operating costs are:
Component
Approximate projected cost (US$/million)
Labour
128
Supplies
81
Energy
44
Other (including general & administrative, inventory changes)
88
Less amounts associated with projected capitalized stripping
(42)
Total
299
The cash operating costs presented above do not include transportation or royalties.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 44

Pend Oreille Mine, United States (Zinc, Lead)
Pend Oreille mine, located in Washington State, suspended mining operations on July 31, 2019, due to the exhaustion of its current reserves. The mine has been placed on care and maintenance.
Zinc production for 2019 was 19,400 tonnes, lower than 29,700 tonnes in 2018, as a result of the suspension of operations. The suspension of concentrate production at Pend Oreille has not had a significant impact on our Trail Operations.
Other Zinc Projects
We have a 100% interest in the Teena/Reward project which is located eight kilometres west of the McArthur River Mine in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Refining and Smelting
Trail Operations
Teck Metals owns and operates the integrated smelting and refining complex at Trail, British Columbia. The complex’s major products are refined zinc, lead and silver. It also produces a variety of precious and specialty metals, chemicals and fertilizer products.
The zinc refinery consists of six major metallurgical plants, one fertilizer plant and two specialty metal plants. Depending on the mix of feeds, the facility has an annual capacity of approximately 300,000 to 315,000 tonnes of refined zinc. Zinc concentrates are initially treated in either roasters or pressure leach plants, where sulphur is separated from the metal-bearing solids. The zinc is put into solution where it is first purified to remove other metal impurities and then electroplated onto cathodes in an electrolytic refining plant. The zinc cathodes are melted and then the zinc is cast into various shapes, grades and alloys to meet customer requirements. Other valuable metals, including indium and germanium, are also recovered as co-products in the zinc plant. The lead smelting operation consists of two major metallurgical plants and one specialty metal plant. Lead concentrates, recycled lead acid batteries, residues from the zinc circuits and various other lead- and silver-bearing materials are treated in the KIVCET flash furnace to produce lead bullion. The bullion is electro-refined in the refinery to produce high-purity lead. The valuable silver and gold are also recovered in this circuit after further processing. Shutdown of the KIVCET furnace for regular maintenance is scheduled to occur approximately every four years.
Refined zinc production in 2019 was 287,400 tonnes, compared with 302,900 tonnes the previous year, primarily due to an electrical equipment failure. Refined lead production was 69,000 tonnes, compared with 61,000 tonnes in 2018.  Silver production rose to 14.0 million ounces in 2019 from 11.6 million ounces in 2018 due to higher silver contained in purchased concentrates.
Our recycling process treated 41,000 tonnes of material during the year, and we plan to treat about 46,500 tonnes in 2020. Our focus remains on treating lead acid batteries and cathode ray tube glass, plus small quantities of zinc alkaline batteries and other post-consumer waste.
In the second quarter of 2019, Trail Operations completed the installation of a new No. 2 Acid Plant at a total investment of $174 million. The new plant will significantly improve operating reliability and flexibility, reducing downtime and maintenance costs.
In 2020, we expect Trail Operations to produce 305,000 to 315,000 tonnes of refined zinc and approximately 60,000 to 70,000 tonnes of refined lead. Zinc production from 2021 to 2023 is expected to increase slightly to 310,000 to 315,000 tonnes per year, while annual lead production is expected to remain similar at 65,000 to 70,000 tonnes.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 45

Metallurgical effluent, together with site rainfall drainage water, is collected in ponds and treated through an effluent treatment plant before discharge into the Columbia River. The smelter operates under a variety of permits, including effluent and air emission permits issued by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment. The operation is in material compliance with all of its environmental permits and has obtained all of the permits that are material to its operations.
In July 2018, we sold our two-thirds interest in the Waneta Dam to BC Hydro.  In connection with the sale, we entered into a 20-year arrangement with BC Hydro, with an option to extend for an additional 10 years, to purchase power for our Trail Operations. Our arrangement with BC Hydro retains our prior obligation to provide for the firm delivery of energy and capacity from Waneta to BC Hydro until 2036. If Teck Metals fails to deliver power as provided for in the agreement, it could be liable to pay liquidated damages to BC Hydro based on the market rate for power at the time of the shortfall. The costs of the liquidated damages could be significant if the shortfall continues and is not covered by our insurance policies.
We also own the related 15-kilometre transmission and distribution system from Waneta to the United States, which BC Hydro has agreed to purchase on a deferred schedule.
ENERGY
Fort Hills Mine
Fort Hills mines, extracts and sells the recoverable bitumen found in certain oil sands deposits underlying six Alberta Oil Sands Leases No.’s 7404080933, 7404080932, 7400120008, 7406020438, 7405090634 and 7406020437.  The Fort Hills leases are located approximately 90 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and cover a contiguous area of approximately 23,675 hectares on the east bank of the Athabasca River.
We hold a 21.3% limited partnership interest in Fort Hills Energy L.P. (the Fort Hills Partnership), which owns the Fort Hills mine. The other limited partners are Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) with a 54.1% interest and Total E&P Canada Ltd. (Total) with a 24.6% interest. Relations among the partners are governed by a limited partnership agreement and a unanimous shareholder agreement pertaining to the governance of Fort Hills Energy Corporation, the general partner of the Fort Hills Partnership, in which the limited partners hold pro rata share interests.
Suncor Energy Operating Inc., an affiliate of Suncor, acts as contract operator of Fort Hills pursuant to an operating services contract. The contract operator has exclusive authority to operate Fort Hills, subject to the oversight of a management committee on which each of the shareholders of the general partner are represented. Certain fundamental decisions concerning Fort Hills require super-majority, and in certain cases, unanimous, approval of the management committee. Subject to certain exceptions, limited partners have a right of first refusal in the event of a transfer of another’s limited partnership interest.
Our 21.3% share of bitumen production from Fort Hills was 33,593 barrels per day in 2019. This compares to 31,955 barrels produced in 2018 from when Fort Hills became operational, on June 1, 2018. Although higher than 2018, production continues to be lower than design capacity due to the Government of Alberta mandatory production curtailments that came into effect on January 1, 2019.  The effect of the curtailments was partially offset by the purchase of 1,502 barrels per day of curtailment credits from other producers during the year.
To meet pipeline viscosity requirements Teck, along with the other Fort Hills partners, is required to purchase diluent blend-stock.  In order to facilitate this and the transportation of blended bitumen to
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 46

the market hub at Hardisty, the Fort Hills partners have jointly entered into long-term take-or-pay agreements with regional pipelines, terminals and blend facilities. These agreements relate to:

hot bitumen transportation from Fort Hills to the East Tank Farm on the Northern Courier Pipeline, operated by TransCanada;

diluent transportation from Edmonton to the East Tank Farm on the Norlite Pipeline, operated by Enbridge;

use of diluent and bitumen blending facility at the East Tank Farm, operated by the Thebacha partnership, a joint venture between Suncor and regional First Nations (Fort McKay First Nation and Mikisew Cree First Nation); and

blended bitumen transportation from the East Tank Farm to the market hub at Hardisty, Alberta, on the Wood Buffalo Pipeline, operated by Enbridge.
We have separately contracted a 425,000-barrel working-capacity storage tank for our share of blended bitumen at Hardisty, Alberta, and 100,000 barrels of diluent storage capacity at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta.
We sell our blended bitumen to customers at Hardisty and on the U.S. Gulf Coast.  Our tankage at Hardisty is connected to major export pipelines, including the Enbridge common carrier pipeline, the existing Keystone pipeline and the Express crude oil pipeline. Our tankage is also connected to a large unit train loading facility. We have entered into a long-term take-or-pay agreement on the existing Keystone pipeline to ship 10,000 barrels per day of blended bitumen to our customers on the U.S. Gulf Coast.  We have also entered into agreements to ship an additional 10,000 barrels per day on the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion and an additional 12,500 barrels per day on the proposed TransMountain pipeline expansion to customers on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Burnaby, B.C., respectively. The balance of our production will be sold at Hardisty, shipped to customers via the Enbridge common carrier pipeline, or transported by rail if required.
Due to extreme price volatility for Alberta crude oil, the Government of Alberta announced a temporary curtailment of provincial crude oil and bitumen production effective January 1, 2019.  Citing continued delays in the development of export pipeline capacity, the Government of Alberta maintained its mandatory production curtailment to the end of December 2020, with the option to terminate earlier. Due to wider differentials and higher than expected inventory levels at the beginning of the year, there continues to be uncertainty around the affect and duration of the mandatory production curtailments.
Teck engaged GLJ Petroleum Consultants Ltd. (GLJ) to prepare an independent evaluation of the reserves at Fort Hills effective as of December 31, 2019. The best estimate of Teck’s share of the proved plus probable reserves at Fort Hills as at December 31, 2019 is 537.5 million barrels of bitumen. The decrease of 28.6 million barrels compared to December 31, 2018 was primarily due to production in the year and model revisions. The revised mine plan is expected to support mining at design production rates for over 38 years. See “Oil and Gas Resources” below for a further discussion of the reserves for Fort Hills.
Fort Hills is subject to the royalty framework issued by the Government of Alberta (the Oil Sands Royalty), and regulated by the Oil Sands Royalty Regulation 2009 and related regulations. Under the Oil Sands Royalty, royalties for Fort Hills are based on a sliding scale of 25% to 40% of net revenue, subject to a minimum royalty within a range of 1% to 9% of gross revenue. Revenues used in royalty formulas are driven by realized net prices to arm’s-length customers or, if there are insufficient arm’s-length sales, benchmark prices for Western Canadian Select while sliding-scale percentages in royalty formulas depend on prices for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) from CAD$55/bbl for the
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 47

minimum rate to the maximum rate at a WTI price of CAD$120/bbl. Fort Hills remains subject to the minimum royalty (the pre-payout phase) until Fort Hills’ cumulative gross revenue exceeds its cumulative costs, including an annual investment allowance. After the pre-payout phase, the higher of the minimum and regular royalty rates will apply.
Fort Hills is required to upgrade the bitumen produced from the second phase of the project in Alberta or to pay a penalty to the Government of Alberta.
Our share of Fort Hills major enhancement capital expenditures for 2020 is expected to be $50 million and our share of sustaining capital expenditures for 2020 is expected to be $100 million.
Frontier Project
The Frontier oil sands project is wholly owned by Teck and consists of approximately 56,000 hectares of oil sands leases and is located on the west side of the Athabasca River. On February 23, 2020, Teck announced that it was withdrawing the Frontier project from the regulatory review process.
Lease 421 Area
We own a 50% interest in the Lease 421 Area — oil sands leases 7406120421, 7408070022, 7408070023 and 7407010899 — east of the Athabasca River (approximately 17,900 hectares on a 100% basis). To date, a total of 89 core holes have been completed in the Lease 421 Area.
Exploration
In 2019, we incurred exploration expenditures of $67 million including $5 million in support of mine site and development/engineering projects. Approximately 40% of the project expenditures were dedicated to exploration for copper, 53% for zinc and 7% for gold, with less than 1% dedicated to other commodities, including coal. Of the total exploration expenditures, approximately 35% was spent in South America, 33% in North America, 18% in Australia and 14% in Europe. In 2020, planned exploration expenditures are expected to be approximately $59 million, including $5 million in support of mine site and development/engineering projects.
Exploration is carried out through sole funding and joint ventures with major and junior exploration companies. Exploration is focused on areas in proximity to our existing operations or development projects in regions that we consider have high potential for discovery.
Corporate
For financial reporting purposes, we report on a corporate segment that includes all of our activities in commodities other than copper, coal, zinc and energy, our corporate development and growth initiatives, and groups that provide administrative, technical, financial and other support to all of our business units.
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 48

Mineral Reserves and Resources
See “Notes to Mineral Reserves and Resources Tables” below, after the Mineral Resources tables.
MINERAL RESERVES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Proven
   
Probable
   
Total
   
Teck
Interest
(%)
   
Recoverable Metal
(000 t) (7)
 
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
 
Copper
 
  Highland Valley Copper
   
328,700
     
0.32
     
155,300
     
0.28
     
484,000
     
0.31
     
100.0
     
1,310
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper only ore OP
   
148,300
     
0.94
     
107,100
     
0.99
     
255,400
     
0.96
     
22.5
     
510
 
    Copper-zinc ore OP
   
75,900
     
0.88
     
98,300
     
0.82
     
174,300
     
0.85
     
22.5
     
260
 
    Total
   
224,200
     
0.92
     
205,500
     
0.91
     
429,700
     
0.91
     
22.5
     
770
 
  Quebrada Blanca
     
    Heap leach ore(2)
   
1,200
     
0.09
                     
1,200
     
0.09
     
60.0
     
1
 
    Dump leach ore(2)
   
3,700
     
0.31
                     
3,700
     
0.31
     
60.0
     
5
 
    Total leachable ore
   
4,900
     
0.25
                     
4,900
     
0.25
     
60.0
     
6
 
  Quebrada Blanca - Mill
   
710,900
     
0.51
     
689,800
     
0.46
     
1,400,700
     
0.48
     
60.0
     
3,700
 
  Andacollo
     
    Heap leach ore(2)
   
600
     
0.25
     
200
     
0.16
     
800
     
0.22
     
90.0
     
1
 
  Andacollo - Mill
   
96,800
     
0.34
     
217,800
     
0.31
     
314,600
     
0.32
     
90.0
     
790
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    Relincho
   
576,400
     
0.34
     
977,400
     
0.35
     
1,553,800
     
0.35
     
50.0
     
2,390
 
    La Fortuna
   
396,900
     
0.57
     
285,400
     
0.41
     
682,200
     
0.51
     
50.0
     
1,500
 
    Total
   
973,300
     
0.43
     
1,262,700
     
0.37
     
2,236,000
     
0.40
     
50.0
     
3,890
 
Molybdenum
 
  Highland Valley Copper
   
328,700
     
0.006
     
155,300
     
0.009
     
484,000
     
0.007
     
100.0
     
20
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper only ore OP
   
148,300
     
0.037
     
107,100
     
0.033
     
255,400
     
0.035
     
22.5
     
10
 
  Quebrada Blanca
     
    Quebrada Blanca - Mill
   
710,900
     
0.018
     
689,800
     
0.019
     
1,400,700
     
0.018
     
60.0
     
120
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    Relincho
   
576,400
     
0.014
     
977,400
     
0.017
     
1,553,800
     
0.016
     
50.0
     
60
 
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 49

MINERAL RESERVES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Proven
   
Probable
   
Total
   
Teck Interest
(%)
   
Recoverable Metal
(000 t) (7)
 
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
 
Zinc
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper-zinc ore OP
   
75,900
     
2.1
     
98,300
     
2.2
     
174,300
     
2.2
     
22.5
     
690
 
  Red Dog
     
    Mine
                   
50,900
     
12.9
     
50,900
     
12.9
     
100.0
     
5,370
 
Lead
 
  Red Dog
     
    Mine
                   
50,900
     
3.6
     
50,900
     
3.6
     
100.0
     
920
 
MINERAL RESERVES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Proven
   
Probable
   
Total
   
Teck Interest
(%)
   
Recoverable Metal
(000 oz) (7)
 
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
 
Gold
 
  Andacollo
     
    Andacollo - Mill(6)
   
96,800
     
0.11
     
217,800
     
0.10
     
314,600
     
0.10
     
90.0
     
640
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    La Fortuna
   
396,900
     
0.54
     
285,400
     
0.37
     
682,200
     
0.47
     
50.0
     
3,400
 
Silver
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper only ore OP(9)
   
148,300
     
6.4
     
107,100
     
8.1
     
255,400
     
7.1
     
22.5
     
10,630
 
    Copper-zinc ore OP(9)
   
75,900
     
14.2
     
98,300
     
13.3
     
174,300
     
13.7
     
22.5
     
10,910
 
    Total(9)
   
224,200
     
9.1
     
205,500
     
10.6
     
429,700
     
9.8
     
22.5
     
21,540
 
  Quebrada Blanca
     
    Quebrada Blanca-Mill
   
710,900
     
1.4
     
689,800
     
1.2
     
1,400,700
     
1.3
     
60.0
     
24,500
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    Relincho
   
576,400
     
1.6
     
977,400
     
1.5
     
1,553,800
     
1.5
     
50.0
     
24,990
 
  Red Dog
     
    Mine
                   
50,900
     
67.7
     
50,900
     
67.7
     
100.0
     
69,430
 


Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 50


MINERAL RESERVES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Proven
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Probable
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Total
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Teck Interest
(%)
   
Clean Coal
(000 t)
 
Metallurgical Coal (3)
 
  Fording River
   
74,000
     
191,200
     
265,200
     
100.0
     
265,200
 
  Elkview
   
11,900
     
258,000
     
269,900
     
95.0
     
256,400
 
  Greenhills
   
11,600
     
283,400
     
295,000
     
80.0
     
236,000
 
  Line Creek
   
3,200
     
41,900
     
45,100
     
100.0
     
45,100
 
  Cardinal River
   
1,200
     
200
     
1,400
     
100.0
     
1,400
 
  Quintette (Mt Babcock)
   
700
     
35,400
     
36,000
     
100.0
     
36,000
 
Thermal Coal (3)
 
  Line Creek
   
500
     
12,700
     
13,200
     
100.0
     
13,200
 
  Quintette (Mt Babcock)
           
900
     
900
     
100.0
     
900
 

MINERAL RESERVES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Proven
   
Probable
   
Total
   
Teck Interest
(%)
   
Recoverable Metal
(000 t) (7)
 
Project Satellite
 
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
 
Copper
 
  Zafranal
   
408,800
     
0.39
     
32,000
     
0.21
     
440,700
     
0.38
     
80.0
     
1,150
 
 
                                                               
   
Proven
   
Probable
   
Total
   
Teck Interest
(%)
   
Recoverable Metal
(000 oz) (7)
 
Project Satellite
 
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
 
Gold
 
  Zafranal
   
408,800
     
0.07
     
32,000
     
0.05
     
440,700
     
0.07
     
80.0
     
440
 

Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 51

MINERAL RESOURCES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Measured
   
Indicated
   
Inferred
   
Teck Interest
(%)
 
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
 
Copper
 
  Highland Valley Copper
   
552,300
     
0.29
     
861,600
     
0.23
     
270,500
     
0.20
     
100.0
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper only ore OP
   
90,800
     
0.68
     
311,900
     
0.77
     
588,300
     
0.81
     
22.5
 
    Copper-zinc ore OP
   
28,600
     
0.79
     
132,800
     
1.00
     
234,800
     
1.00
     
22.5
 
    Copper only ore UG
                                   
300,700
     
1.31
     
22.5
 
    Copper-zinc ore UG
                                   
171,400
     
1.28
     
22.5
 
    Total
   
119,400
     
0.70
     
444,800
     
0.84
     
1,295,200
     
1.02
     
22.5
 
  Quebrada Blanca
     
  Quebrada Blanca - Mill
   
61,700
     
0.41
     
1,829,200
     
0.40
     
3,491,600
     
0.37
     
60.0
 
  Andacollo
     
    Heap leach ore(2)
   
9,300
     
0.38
     
26,900
     
0.15
                     
90.0
 
  Andacollo - Mill
   
41,800
     
0.28
     
311,600
     
0.25
     
62,600
     
0.25
     
90.0
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    Relincho
   
319,000
     
0.19
     
463,000
     
0.26
     
724,700
     
0.36
     
50.0
 
    La Fortuna
   
6,600
     
0.38
     
151,800
     
0.53
     
533,900
     
0.37
     
50.0
 
    Total
   
325,600
     
0.19
     
614,900
     
0.33
     
1,258,500
     
0.37
     
50.0
 
Molybdenum
 
  Highland Valley Copper
   
552,300
     
0.008
     
861,600
     
0.009
     
270,500
     
0.008
     
100.0
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper only ore OP
   
90,800
     
0.018
     
311,900
     
0.024
     
588,300
     
0.029
     
22.5
 
    Copper only ore UG
                                   
300,700
     
0.021
     
22.5
 
    Total
   
90,800
     
0.018
     
311,900
     
0.024
     
889,000
     
0.026
     
22.5
 
  Quebrada Blanca
     
    Quebrada Blanca - Mill
   
61,700
     
0.013
     
1,829,200
     
0.016
     
3,491,600
     
0.018
     
60.0
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    Relincho
   
319,000
     
0.006
     
463,000
     
0.009
     
724,700
     
0.012
     
50.0
 
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 52

MINERAL RESOURCES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Measured
   
Indicated
   
Inferred
    Teck Interest
(%)
 
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
 
Zinc
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper-zinc ore OP
   
28,600
     
1.4
     
132,800
     
1.7
     
234,800
     
1.5
     
22.5
 
    Copper-zinc ore UG
                                   
171,400
     
1.5
     
22.5
 
    Total
   
28,600
     
1.4
     
132,800
     
1.7
     
406,200
     
1.5
     
22.5
 
  Red Dog
     
    Red Dog Mine
                   
6,600
     
9.0
     
10,900
     
11.1
     
100.0
 
    Red Dog District
                                   
19,400
     
14.4
     
100.0
 
  Pend Oreille
   
100
     
8.3
     
100
     
7.5
     
2,400
     
6.6
     
100.0
 
Lead
 
  Red Dog
     
    Red Dog Mine
                   
6,600
     
3.0
     
10,900
     
6.0
     
100.0
 
    Red Dog District
                                   
19,400
     
4.2
     
100.0
 
  Pend Oreille
   
100
     
2.0
     
100
     
1.0
     
2,400
     
1.4
     
100.0
 

Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 53

MINERAL RESOURCES as at 31 December 2019(1)
 
   
Measured
   
Indicated
   
Inferred
    Teck Interest
(%)
 
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(g/t) (4)
 
Gold
 
  Andacollo
     
    Andacollo - Mill (6)
   
41,800
     
0.11
     
311,600
     
0.09
     
62,600
     
0.08
     
90.0
 
  NuevaUnión
     
    La Fortuna
   
6,600
     
0.31
     
151,800
     
0.62
     
533,900
     
0.37
     
50.0
 
Silver
 
  Antamina
     
    Copper only ore OP(9)
   
90,800
     
6.6
     
311,900
     
8.3
     
588,300
     
7.6
     
22.5
 
    Copper-zinc ore OP(9)
   
28,600
     
21.4
     
132,800
     
17.9
     
234,800
     
15.2
     
22.5
 
    Copper only ore UG(9)
                                   
300,700
     
11.3
     
22.5
 
    Copper-zinc ore UG(9)
                                   
171,400
     
17.4
     
22.5
 
    Total(9)
   
119,400
     
10.1
     
444,800
     
11.2
     
1,295,200
     
11.2
     
22.5
 
  Quebrada Blanca
     
    Quebrada Blanca - Mill
   
61,700
     
1.2
     
1,829,200
     
1.1
     
3,491,600
     
1.1
     
60.0
 
NuevaUnión
     
    Relincho
   
319,000
     
1.0
     
463,000
     
1.2
     
724,700
     
1.3
     
50.0
 
  Red Dog
     
    Red Dog Mine
                   
6,600
     
55.5
     
10,900
     
111.9
     
100.0
 
    Red Dog District
                                   
19,400
     
73.4
     
100.0
 
Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 54

MINERAL RESOURCES as at 31 December 2019 (1)
 
   
Measured
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Indicated
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Inferred
Tonnes
(000's)
    Teck Interest
(%)
 
Metallurgical Coal (5)
 
  Fording River
   
418,300
     
921,600
     
711,300
     
100.00
 
  Elkview
   
320,900
     
146,800
     
219,000
     
95.00
 
  Greenhills
   
179,500
     
227,600
     
168,500
     
80.00
 
  Line Creek
   
305,100
     
405,300
     
417,900
     
100.00
 
  Cardinal River
   
33,600
     
2,500
     
500
     
100.00
 
  Quintette (Mt Babcock)
   
31,800
     
92,000
     
114,400
     
100.00
 
  Mt Duke
   
24,300
     
102,400
     
122,600
     
92.68
 
  Elco
   
25,100
     
115,300
     
112,300
     
75.00
 
  CMO Phase II (Martin Wheeler)
   
102,200
     
71,700
     
7,900
     
100.00
 
PCI Coal (5)
 
  Cardinal River
   
1,500
     
300
             
100.00
 
  Coal Mountain
   
56,600
     
22,900
     
4,800
     
100.00
 
Thermal Coal (5)
 
  Line Creek
   
7,200
     
5,800
     
3,300
     
100.00
 
  Quintette (Mt Babcock)
           
200
     
200
     
100.00
 
  Mt Duke
   
200
     
700
     
1,300
     
92.68
 
  Elco
   
700
     
6,100
     
6,000
     
75.00
 
  CMO Phase II (Martin Wheeler)
   
2,800
     
3,700
     
900
     
100.00
 

   
Measured
   
Indicated
   
Inferred
   
 
Project Satellite
 
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
   
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)
    Teck Interest
(%)
 
Copper
 
  Galore Creek
   
256,800
     
0.72
     
846,700
     
0.39
     
198,100
     
0.27
     
50.0
 
  Schaft Creek
   
166,000
     
0.32
     
1,127,200
     
0.25
     
316,700
     
0.19
     
75.0
 
  Mesaba
   
244,100
     
0.47
     
1,334,100
     
0.42
     
1,462,000
     
0.35
     
100.0
 
  Zafranal
   
5,100
     
0.19
     
2,300
     
0.21
     
62,800
     
0.24
     
80.0
 
  San Nicolás
   
32,400
     
1.27
     
76,500
     
1.12
     
4,700
     
1.25
     
100.0
 
Molybdenum
 
  Schaft Creek
   
166,000
     
0.021
     
1,127,200
     
0.016
     
316,700
     
0.019
     
75.0
 
Zinc
 
  San Nicolás
   
32,400
     
1.9
     
76,500
     
1.5
     
4,700
     
0.8
     
100.0
 


Teck Resources Limited 2019 Annual Information Form – Page 55

 
Measured
   
Indicated
   
Inferred
     
 
Project Satellite
 
Tonnes
(000's)
   
Grade
(%)