424B2 1 gs-424b2.htm 424B2 gs-424b2.htm

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)

Registration Statement No. 333-239610

Underlier Supplement No. 15 to the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, each as may be amended from time to time, that form a part of Registration Statement No. 333-239610

GS Finance Corp.

Medium-Term Notes, Series E

Medium-Term Notes, Series F

Warrants, Series G

guaranteed by

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

 

Underlier Supplement

Securities Linked to the Performance of One or More Indices or Exchange-Traded Funds

 

 

GS Finance Corp. may from time to time offer and sell notes or warrants (which we refer to collectively as securities), the payments and performance of which will be linked to the performance of one or more indices or exchange-traded funds. We refer to these indices and exchange-traded funds as underliers.

The accompanying prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, each as may be amended from time to time, that form a part of Registration Statement No. 333-239610 describe some of the terms that may apply generally to the securities, including any securities you purchase. A separate pricing supplement, which we refer to as the applicable pricing supplement and, if specified in the applicable pricing supplement, a separate product supplement, which we refer to as the applicable product supplement, and, if specified in the applicable pricing supplement, a separate general terms supplement, which we refer to as the applicable general terms supplement, will describe additional terms that apply to your securities. The applicable pricing supplement will identify whether any of the underliers described herein will be used to calculate a return on your securities. If the description in the applicable pricing supplement of any underlier to which your securities are linked is inconsistent with the description herein, the description of the underlier in the applicable pricing supplement is controlling.

This underlier supplement no. 15 contains the following:

Certain underlier risks applicable to the securities. You should read these risks in conjunction with the risks described in the applicable pricing supplement, the applicable product supplement, if any, the applicable general terms supplement, if any, the accompanying prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

A description of the following underliers to which your securities may be linked:

Indices

Exchange-Traded Funds

Dow Jones Industrial Average®

Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund

Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index

iShares® MSCI EAFE ETF

EURO STOXX 50® Index

iShares® MSCI Emerging Markets ETF

FTSE® 100 Index

iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF

Hang Seng China Enterprises Index

SPDR® S&P® Biotech ETF

MSCI Indices

SPDR® S&P® Oil & Gas Exploration & Production ETF

Nasdaq-100 Index®

 

Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index

 

Nikkei 225

 

Russell 2000® Index

 

S&P/ASX 200 Index

 

S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD  Excess Return Index

 

S&P 500® Index

 

S&P MidCap 400® Index

 

Swiss Market Index

 

TOPIX

 

Your investment in the securities involves certain risks. See “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Securities” beginning on page S-2 to read about investment risks relating to the securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this underlier supplement no. 15, the applicable pricing supplement, the applicable product supplement, if any, the applicable general terms supplement, if any, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The securities are not bank deposits and are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency, nor are they obligations of, or guaranteed by, a bank.

GS Finance Corp. may use this underlier supplement no. 15 in the initial sale of the securities. In addition, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (GS&Co.), or any other affiliate of GS Finance Corp., may use this underlier supplement no. 15 in a market-making transaction in a security after its initial sale. Unless GS Finance Corp. or its agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this underlier supplement no. 15 is being used in a market-making transaction.

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

Underlier Supplement No. 15 dated December 22, 2020.

 


 

 

 

Additional Risk Factors Specific to the SECURITIES

In this underlier supplement no. 15, when we refer to a “security” we mean a security linked to one of the underliers specified herein unless the context requires otherwise. Please note that in this underlier supplement no. 15, references to “GS Finance Corp.”, “we”, “our” and “us” refer only to GS Finance Corp. and do not include its consolidated subsidiaries or affiliates. Also, references to “The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.”, our ultimate parent company, refer only to The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and do not include its consolidated subsidiaries, while references to “Goldman Sachs” mean The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiaries and affiliates, including us. References to “holders” mean those who own securities registered in their own names, on the books that we or the trustee maintain for this purpose, and not those who own beneficial interests in securities registered in street name or in securities issued in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”).

An investment in your securities is subject to the risks described below as well as the risks and considerations described in the applicable pricing supplement, the applicable product supplement, if any, the applicable general terms supplement, if any, the accompanying prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Your securities are a riskier investment than ordinary debt securities. Also, your securities are not equivalent to investing directly in the underlier stocks, i.e., with respect to an underlier to which your securities are linked, the stocks comprising such underlier. You should carefully consider whether the offered securities are appropriate given your particular circumstances.

 

Risks Relating to Securities Linked to Underliers

The Estimated Value of Your Securities At the Time the Terms of Your Securities Are Set On the Trade Date (as Determined By Reference to Pricing Models Used By GS&Co.) Is Less Than the Original Issue Price Of Your Securities

The original issue price for your securities exceeds the estimated value of your securities as of the time the terms of your securities are set on the trade date, as determined by reference to GS&Co.’s pricing models and taking into account our credit spreads. Such estimated value on the trade date will be set forth under “Estimated Value of Your Securities” in the applicable pricing supplement; after the trade date, the estimated value as determined by reference to these models will be affected by changes in market conditions, the creditworthiness of GS Finance Corp., as issuer, the creditworthiness of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor, and other relevant factors. If specified in the applicable pricing supplement, the price at which GS&Co. would initially buy or sell your securities (if GS&Co. makes a market, which it is not obligated to do), and the value that GS&Co. will initially use for account statements and otherwise, also exceeds the estimated value of your securities as determined by reference to these models. If specified in the applicable pricing supplement, as agreed by GS&Co. and the distribution participants, this excess (i.e., the additional amount described under “Estimated Value of Your Securities” in the applicable pricing supplement) will decline to zero on a straight line basis over the period from the date thereof through the applicable date set forth under “Estimated Value of Your Securities” in the applicable pricing supplement. Thereafter, if GS&Co. buys or sells your securities it will do so at prices that reflect the estimated value determined by reference to such pricing models at that time. The price at which GS&Co. will buy or sell your securities at any time also will reflect its then current bid and ask spread for similar sized trades of structured securities.

In estimating the value of your securities as of the time the terms of your securities are set on the trade date, as disclosed under “Estimated Value of Your Securities” in the applicable pricing supplement, GS&Co.’s pricing models consider certain variables, including principally our credit spreads, interest rates (forecasted, current and historical rates), volatility, price-sensitivity analysis and the time to maturity of the securities. These pricing models are proprietary and rely in part on certain assumptions about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold your securities in the secondary market, if any, to others may differ, perhaps materially, from the estimated value of your securities determined by reference to our models due to, among other things, any

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differences in pricing models or assumptions used by others. See “— The Market Value of Your Securities May Be Influenced by Many Unpredictable Factors” below.

The difference between the estimated value of your securities as of the time the terms of your securities are set on the trade date and the original issue price is a result of certain factors, including principally the underwriting discount and commissions, the expenses incurred in creating, documenting and marketing the securities, and an estimate of the difference between the amounts we pay to GS&Co. and the amounts GS&Co. pays to us in connection with your securities. We pay to GS&Co. amounts based on what we would pay to holders of a non-structured security with a similar maturity. In return for such payment, GS&Co. pays to us the amounts we owe under your securities.

In addition to the factors discussed above, the value and quoted price of your securities at any time will reflect many factors and cannot be predicted. If GS&Co. makes a market in the securities, the price quoted by GS&Co. would reflect any changes in market conditions and other relevant factors, including any deterioration in our creditworthiness or perceived creditworthiness or the creditworthiness or perceived creditworthiness of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. These changes may adversely affect the value of your securities, including the price you may receive for your securities in any market making transaction. To the extent that GS&Co. makes a market in the securities, the quoted price will reflect the estimated value determined by reference to GS&Co.’s pricing models at that time, plus or minus its then current bid and ask spread for similar sized trades of structured securities (and, if applicable, subject to the declining excess amount described above).

Furthermore, if you sell your securities, you will likely be charged a commission for secondary market transactions, or the price will likely reflect a dealer discount. This commission or discount will further reduce the proceeds you would receive for your securities in a secondary market sale.

There is no assurance that GS&Co. or any other party will be willing to purchase your securities at any price and, in this regard, GS&Co. is not obligated to make a market in the securities. See “— Your Securities May Not Have an Active Trading Market” below.

Your Securities Are Subject to the Credit Risk of GS Finance Corp., as Issuer, and the Credit Risk of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as Guarantor

Although the return on the securities will be based on the performance of one or more underliers, the payment of any amount due on the securities is subject to the credit risk of GS Finance Corp., as issuer of the securities, and the credit risk of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor of the securities. The securities are our unsecured obligations. Investors are dependent on our ability to pay all amounts due on the securities, and therefore investors are subject to our credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of our creditworthiness. Similarly, investors are dependent on the ability of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., as guarantor of the securities, to pay all amounts due on the securities, and therefore are also subject to its credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of its creditworthiness. See “Description of Notes We May Offer — How the Notes Rank Against Other Debt” or “Description of Warrants We May Offer — How the Warrants Rank Against Other Debt”, as applicable, in the accompanying prospectus supplement and “Description of Debt Securities We May Offer — Guarantee by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.” or “Description of Warrants We May Offer — Guarantee by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.”, as applicable, in the accompanying prospectus.

The Market Value of Your Securities May Be Influenced by Many Unpredictable Factors

The following factors, among others, many of which are beyond our control, may influence the market value of your securities:

the volatility — i.e., the frequency and magnitude of changes — of the values of the underlier or underliers;

whether your securities are linked to one or more underliers;

the level of the underlier or underliers to which your securities are linked;

the dividend rates of the underlier stocks;

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economic, financial, regulatory, political, military, public health and other events that affect stock markets generally and the underlier stocks, and which may affect the closing level of the underlier or underliers;

interest rates and yield rates in the market;

the time remaining until your securities mature; and

our creditworthiness and the creditworthiness of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., whether actual or perceived, and including actual or anticipated upgrades or downgrades in our credit ratings or the credit ratings of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. or changes in other credit measures.

These factors may influence the market value of your securities if you sell your securities before maturity, including the price you may receive for your securities in any market making transaction. If you sell your securities prior to maturity, you may receive less than the face amount of your securities. You cannot predict the future performance of the applicable underlier or underliers based on their historical performance.

If the Value of an Underlier Changes, the Market Value of Your Securities May Not Change in the Same Manner

Your securities may trade quite differently from the performance of the applicable underlier or underliers. Changes in the values of the underlier or underliers may not result in a comparable change in the market value of your securities. We discuss some of the reasons for this disparity under “ — The Market Value of Your Securities May Be Influenced by Many Unpredictable Factors” above.

The Return on Your Securities Will Not Reflect Any Dividends Paid on Any Underlier, or Any Underlier Stock, as Applicable

If the underlier is an index, the level of which the underlier sponsor calculates by reference to the prices of its underlier stocks without taking account of the value of dividends paid on those underlier stocks, the return on your securities will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the underlier stocks and received the dividends paid on those underlier stocks. In addition, if the underlier is an exchange-traded fund, the return on your securities will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the exchange-traded fund and received the distributions paid on the shares of such exchange-traded fund. You will not receive any dividends that may be paid on any of the underlier stocks by the underlier stock issuers or, in case of an underlier that is an exchange-traded fund, on the shares of such exchange-traded fund. See “—You Have No Shareholder Rights or Rights to Receive Any Shares of an Underlier or Any Underlier Stock, as Applicable” below for additional information.

You Have No Shareholder Rights or Rights to Receive Any Shares of an Underlier or Any Underlier Stock, as Applicable

Investing in your securities will not make you a holder of any shares of an underlier or the underlier stocks, as applicable. Neither you nor any other holder or owner of your securities will have any rights with respect to the underlier or the underlier stocks, including any voting rights, any rights to receive dividends or other distributions, any rights to make a claim against the underlier or the underlier stocks or any other rights of a holder of any shares of an underlier or the underlier stocks, as applicable. Your securities will be paid in cash, and you will have no right to receive delivery of any shares of the underlier or the underlier stocks, as applicable.

Past Performance is No Guide to Future Performance

The actual performance of the underlier or underliers over the life of the securities, as well as the amount payable on your securities, may bear little relation to the historical closing levels of the underlier or underliers set forth in the applicable pricing supplement or to the hypothetical return examples set forth in the applicable product supplement, if any, and the applicable pricing supplement. We cannot predict the future performance of the underlier or underliers.

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The Policies of an Underlier Sponsor, if Applicable, and Changes that Affect an Underlier to Which Your Securities are Linked, or the Constituent Indices or Underlier Stocks Comprising Such Underlier, Could Affect the Amount Payable on Your Securities and Their Market Value

The policies of the applicable underlier sponsor concerning the calculation of the level of an underlier to which your securities are linked, additions, deletions or substitutions of the constituent indices, if applicable, and/or the underlier stocks comprising such underlier, and the manner in which changes affecting the underlier stocks or their issuers, such as stock dividends, reorganizations or mergers, are reflected in the underlier level, could affect the level of the applicable underlier and, therefore, the amount payable on your securities and the market value of your securities. The amount payable on your securities and their market value could also be affected if the applicable underlier sponsor changes these policies, for example, by changing the manner in which it calculates the underlier level or, in the case of an index, the method by which it constructs the underlier, or if any underlier sponsor discontinues or suspends calculation or publication of the underlier level, in which case it may become difficult to determine the market value of your securities. If events such as these occur, the calculation agent — which initially will be GS&Co., our affiliate — may determine the underlier level — and thus the amount payable on your securities — in a manner it considers appropriate, in its sole discretion. We describe the discretion that the calculation agent will have in determining an underlier level on any trading day and the amount payable on your securities more fully under “Discontinuance or Modification of an Underlier” in any applicable product supplement, any applicable general terms supplement or the applicable pricing supplement.

Except to the Extent The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Is One of the Companies Whose Common Stock Comprises an Underlier, and Except to the Extent That We or Our Affiliates May Currently or in the Future Own Securities of, or Engage in Business With, the Applicable Underlier Sponsor or the Underlier Stock Issuers, There Is No Affiliation Between the Underlier Stock Issuers or Any Underlier Sponsor and Us

The common stock of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is one of the underlier stocks comprising the S&P 500® Index and one of the underlier stocks comprising the Dow Jones Industrial Average®, and its common stock may be represented in any number of underliers that are not specifically described herein. In addition, we or our affiliates may currently or from time to time in the future own securities of, or engage in business with, the applicable underlier sponsor or the underlier stock issuers. Unless otherwise disclosed in the applicable pricing supplement, we are not otherwise affiliated with the issuers of the underlier stocks or the underlier sponsors. Neither we nor any of our affiliates have participated in the preparation of any publicly available information or made any “due diligence” investigation or inquiry with respect to any other underlier or underlier stock issuer. You, as an investor in your securities, should make your own investigation into the underliers and the underlier stock issuers. See “The Underliers” below for additional information about certain underliers to which your securities may be linked.

Neither the underlier sponsors nor the other underlier stock issuers are involved in the offering of your securities in any way and none of them have any obligation of any sort with respect to your securities. Thus, neither the underlier sponsors nor the underlier stock issuers have any obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including in taking any corporate actions that might affect the market value of your securities.

If Your Securities Are Linked to Certain Types of Underliers, Your Investment in the Securities May Be Subject to Concentration Risks

The underlier stocks may be stocks of companies representing a particular market sector, a particular geographic region or some other sector. As a result, your investment in the securities may be concentrated in a single sector. Although your investment in the securities will not result in the ownership or other direct interest in the underlier stocks, if the underlier stocks are concentrated in this manner, the return on your investment in the securities will be subject to certain risks similar to those associated with direct equity investments in the market, geographic region or sector represented by the relevant underlier stocks.

 

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Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to Underliers Denominated in Foreign Currencies or that Contain Foreign Stocks

If Your Securities Are Linked to Underliers Denominated in a Non-U.S. Dollar Currency and Such Underliers Are Adjusted to Reflect Their U.S. Dollar Value, Your Securities Will Be Subject to Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk

Your securities may be linked to one or more underliers denominated in a non-U.S. dollar currency. If specified in the applicable pricing supplement, the level of an underlier denominated in a non-U.S. dollar currency will be adjusted to reflect its U.S. dollar value by converting the level of such underlier from the non-U.S. dollar underlying currency to U.S. dollars. Consequently, if the value of the U.S. dollar strengthens against the non-U.S. dollar currency in which such underlier is denominated, you may lose a significant part of your investment in the securities, even if the value of such underlier increases over the life of your securities.

Foreign currency exchange rates vary over time, and may vary considerably during the life of your securities. Changes in a particular exchange rate result from the interaction of many factors directly or indirectly affecting economic and political conditions. Of particular importance are:

rates of inflation;

interest rate levels;

the balance of payments among countries;

the extent of government surpluses or deficits in the relevant foreign country and the United States; and

other financial, economic, military, public health and political factors.

All of these factors are, in turn, sensitive to the monetary, fiscal and trade policies pursued by the governments of the relevant foreign countries and the U.S. and other countries important to international trade and finance.

The price of the securities and any payment on the securities could also be adversely affected by delays in, or refusals to grant, any required governmental approval for conversions of a local currency and remittances abroad with respect to the underlier or underliers or other de facto restrictions on the repatriation of U.S. dollars.

Even Though Currencies Trade Around-The-Clock, Your Securities Will Not

Your securities may be linked to one or more underliers denominated in a non-U.S. dollar currency and adjusted to reflect its U.S. dollar value. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, around-the-clock market. Therefore, the hours of trading for your securities, if any trading market develops, will not conform to the hours during which the currencies in which such underlier is denominated or in which the underlier stocks of such underlier trade. Significant price and rate movements may take place in the underlying foreign currency exchange markets that will not be reflected immediately in the price of your securities. The possibility of these movements should be taken into account in relating the value of your securities to those in the underlying foreign currency exchange markets. There is no systematic reporting of last-sale information for foreign currencies. Reasonably current bid and offer information is available in certain brokers’ offices, in bank foreign currency trading offices and to others who wish to subscribe for this information, but this information will not necessarily be reflected in the value of the underlier or underliers used to calculate the amount payable on your securities. There is no regulatory requirement that those quotations be firm or revised on a timely basis. The absence of last-sale information and the limited availability of quotations to individual investors may make it difficult for many investors to obtain timely, accurate data about the state of the underlying foreign currency exchange markets.

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If Your Securities Are Linked to Certain U.S. Dollar Denominated Indices, Your Investment in the Securities Will Be Subject to Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk

For securities linked to one or more U.S. dollar denominated indices whose underlier stock prices are converted by the underlier sponsor into U.S. dollars for purposes of calculating the value of the underlier, investors of the securities will be exposed to currency exchange rate risk with respect to each of the currencies represented in the underlier which are converted in such manner. An investor’s net exposure will depend on the extent to which the currencies represented in such an underlier strengthen or weaken against the U.S. dollar and the relative weight of each relevant currency represented in the overall underlier. If, taking into account such weighting, the dollar strengthens against the component currencies, the value of the underlier will be adversely affected and the amount payable on your securities may be reduced.

Regulators Are Investigating Potential Manipulation of Published Currency Exchange Rates

It has been reported that the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority and regulators from other countries, including the U.S., are in the process of investigating the potential manipulation of published currency exchange rates. If such manipulation has occurred or is continuing, certain published exchange rates may have been, or may be in the future, artificially lower (or higher) than they would otherwise have been. Any such manipulation could have an adverse impact on any payments on, and the value of, your securities and the trading market for your securities. In addition, we cannot predict whether any changes or reforms affecting the determination or publication of exchange rates or the supervision of currency trading will be implemented in connection with these investigations. Any such changes or reforms could also adversely impact your securities.

For considerations relating to foreign currency exchange rate risk, please see the applicable product supplement, if any, the applicable general terms supplement, if any, or the applicable pricing supplement.

If Your Securities Are Linked to Underliers Denominated in Non-U.S. Dollars and the Calculation Agent Adjusts Such Underliers to Reflect Their U.S. Dollar Value, a Decline in the Currency of One Underlier Against the U.S. Dollar May Offset Increases in the Currency of Other Underliers Against the U.S. Dollar Over the Life of the Securities

Your securities may be linked to two or more underliers that are denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies and that the calculation agent adjusts to reflect their U.S. dollar value. The applicable pricing supplement will specify whether a non-U.S. dollar denominated underlier will be so adjusted. Declines in the currency in which one underlier is denominated (i.e., if the value of the U.S. dollar strengthens against the non-U.S. dollar currency in which that underlier is denominated) may offset increases in the currencies in which the other underlier(s) are denominated. As a result, even if the non-U.S. dollar currencies in which certain of the underliers are denominated have appreciated against the U.S. dollar over the term of your securities, you may lose a significant amount of your investment if some or all of the currencies in which the other underlier(s) are denominated decline versus the U.S. dollar.

If Your Securities Are Linked to Underliers Denominated in Non-U.S. Dollars or the Underlier Stocks of Which Trade in Foreign Currencies and Such Underliers Are Adjusted to Reflect Their U.S. Dollar Value, Intervention in the Foreign Currency Exchange Markets by the Countries Issuing any Underlying Currency Could Materially and Adversely Affect the Value of Your Securities

Specific foreign currencies’ exchange rates are volatile and are affected by numerous factors specific to each foreign country. Foreign currency exchange rates can be fixed by the sovereign government, allowed to float within a range of exchange rates set by the government, or left to float freely. Governments, including those issuing the currencies in which the underliers are denominated or in which the underlier stocks of the underlier trade, use a variety of techniques, such as intervention by their central bank or imposition of regulatory controls or taxes, to affect the exchange rates of their respective currencies. Currency developments may occur in any of the countries issuing the currencies in which the underliers are denominated or in which the underlier stocks of the underlier trade to which your securities

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are linked. Often, these currency developments impact foreign currency exchange rates in ways that cannot be predicted.

Governments may also issue a new currency to replace an existing currency, fix the exchange rate or alter the exchange rate or relative exchange characteristics by devaluation or revaluation of a currency. Thus, a special risk in purchasing securities linked to underliers that are denominated in a non-U.S. dollar currency or that convert the currencies in which non-U.S. dollar underlier stocks trade is that their liquidity, trading value and payment amount could be affected by the actions of sovereign governments that could change or interfere with previously freely determined currency valuations, fluctuations in response to other market forces and the movement of currencies across borders.

The calculation agent is not obligated to make any offsetting adjustment or change in the event of any other devaluation or revaluation or imposition of exchange or other regulatory controls or taxes or in the event of other developments affecting any underliers that are denominated in a non-U.S. dollar currency or that convert the currencies in which non-U.S. dollar underlier stocks trade.

If the applicable pricing supplement specifies that you are exposed to foreign currency risk (because the calculation agent converts the underlier level into U.S. dollars, a U.S. dollar-denominated underlier itself converts the prices of underlier stocks that trade in foreign currencies to their U.S. dollar equivalents, or otherwise), a weakening in the exchange rate of any such foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar may have a material adverse effect on the value of your securities and the return on an investment in your securities.

If Your Securities Are Linked to Underliers Denominated in Non-U.S. Dollars or the Underlier Stocks of Which Trade in Foreign Currencies and Such Underliers Are Adjusted to Reflect Their U.S. Dollar Value, Suspensions or Disruptions of Market Trading in One or More Foreign Currencies May Adversely Affect the Value of Your Securities

The foreign currency exchange markets are subject to temporary distortions or other disruptions due to various factors, including government regulation and intervention, the lack of liquidity in the markets and the participation of speculators. If the applicable pricing supplement specifies that you are exposed to foreign currency risk (because the calculation agent converts the underlier level into U.S. dollars, a U.S. dollar-denominated underlier itself converts the prices of its underlier stocks that trade in foreign currencies to their U.S. dollar equivalents, or otherwise), these circumstances could adversely affect the relevant foreign currency exchange rates and, therefore, the value of your securities.

If Your Securities Are Linked to Underliers That Are Comprised of Underlier Stocks Which Are Traded in Foreign Currencies But Are Not Adjusted to Reflect Their U.S. Dollar Value, the Return on Your Securities Will Not Be Adjusted for Changes in the Foreign Currency Exchange Rate

If your securities are linked to one or more underliers whose underlier stocks are traded in foreign currencies but are not adjusted to reflect their U.S. dollar value, the amount payable on your securities will not be adjusted for changes in the applicable foreign currency/U.S. dollar exchange rates. The amount payable on your securities will be based solely upon the overall change in the level of the applicable underlier or underliers. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates, however, may reflect changes in the economy of the foreign countries in which the underlier stocks are listed that, in turn, may affect the levels of the applicable underlier or underliers.

If Your Securities Are Linked to Underliers Which Are Listed or Located Outside the U.S. or to Underliers Which Have Underlier Stocks Listed or Located Outside the United States, Your Investment in the Securities Will Be Subject to Risks Associated with Foreign Securities Markets

Your securities may be linked to one or more underliers, or to one or more underliers which have underlier stocks, that have their primary listing on an exchange located outside the U.S. or may include stocks issued by foreign companies. Investments linked to the value of foreign equity securities involve particular risks. Any foreign securities market may be less liquid, more volatile and affected by global or domestic market developments in a different way than the U.S. securities market or other foreign securities markets. Both government intervention in a foreign securities market, either directly or indirectly, and cross-shareholdings in foreign companies, may affect trading prices and volumes in that

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market. Also, there is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies than about those U.S. companies that are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Further, foreign companies are subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements that differ from those applicable to U.S. reporting companies. 

The prices of securities in a foreign country are subject to political, economic, financial and social factors that are unique to such foreign country's geographical region. These factors include: recent changes, or the possibility of future changes, in the applicable foreign government's economic and fiscal policies; the possible implementation of, or changes in, currency exchange laws or other laws or restrictions applicable to foreign companies or investments in foreign equity securities; fluctuations, or the possibility of fluctuations, in currency exchange rates; and the possibility of outbreaks of hostility, political instability, natural disaster or adverse public health developments. For example, the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the European Union on January 31, 2020 (an event commonly referred to as “Brexit”). The effects of Brexit are uncertain, and, among other things, Brexit has contributed, and may continue to contribute, to volatility in the prices of securities of companies located in Europe (or elsewhere) and currency exchange rates, including the valuation of the euro and British pound in particular.  Any one of these factors, or the combination of more than one of these factors, could negatively affect such foreign securities market and the price of securities therein. Further, geographical regions may react to global factors in different ways, which may cause the prices of securities in a foreign securities market to fluctuate in a way that differs from those of securities in the U.S. securities market or other foreign securities markets. Foreign economies may also differ from the U.S. economy in important respects, including growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources and self-sufficiency, which may have a positive or negative effect on foreign securities prices.

Some underliers may have a primary listing in a country that may be considered to be a country with an emerging market. Countries with emerging markets may have relatively less stable governments, may present the risks of nationalization of businesses, restrictions on foreign ownership and prohibitions on the repatriation of assets, and may have less protection of property rights than more developed countries. The economies of countries with emerging markets may be based on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions, and may suffer from extreme and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of holdings difficult or impossible at times.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to Underliers that are Exchange-Traded Funds

If Your Securities are Linked to an Exchange-Traded Fund, You Will Have Limited Anti-dilution Protection

If your securities are linked to one or more exchange-traded funds, GS&Co., as calculation agent for your securities, may adjust the underlier or the closing level of such underlier, as applicable, for certain events that may affect the underlier or underliers, but only in the situations we describe in “Anti-dilution Adjustments for Exchange-Traded Funds” in any applicable product supplement, any applicable general terms supplement or the applicable pricing supplement. The calculation agent will not be required to make an adjustment for every event that may affect an underlier and will have broad discretion to determine whether and to what extent an adjustment is required.

The Value of the Shares of an Underlier that is a Passively-Managed Exchange-Traded Fund May Not Track the Level of the Index Underlying the Exchange-Traded Fund

Although the trading characteristics and valuations of shares of a passively-managed exchange-traded fund will usually mirror the characteristics and valuations of its underlying index, the value of the shares of such exchange-traded fund may not closely track the level of its underlying index. The value of a share of an exchange-traded fund may reflect transaction costs and fees incurred or imposed by the issuer of the exchange-traded fund that are not included in the calculation of its underlying index. Additionally, because the exchange-traded fund may not actually hold all of the stocks that comprise its underlying index, but may invest in a representative sample of securities which have a similar investment profile as the stocks

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that comprise its underlying index, and may hold investments that are not included in its underlying index, the exchange-traded fund may not fully replicate the performance of its underlying index.

If Your Securities Are Linked to an Exchange-Traded Fund, the Policies of the Investment Advisor and Changes that Affect the Underlier, or the Underlying Index Tracked by Such Underlier, Could Affect the Amount Payable on Your Securities and Their Market Value

If your securities are linked to an underlier that is an exchange-traded fund, the policies of the applicable investment advisor concerning the underlier, the method by which such underlier attempts to track the underlying index, the investment objective, the other investment policies of the investment advisor, and similar matters could affect the level of the such underlier and, therefore, the amount payable on your securities and the market value of your securities. If events such as these occur, the calculation agent — which initially will be GS&Co., our affiliate — may determine the underlier or underlier levels — and thus the amount payable on your securities — in a manner it considers appropriate, in its sole discretion. We describe the discretion that the calculation agent will have in determining the underlier levels on any trading day and the amount payable on your securities more fully under “Discontinuance or Modification of an Underlier” and “Anti-dilution Adjustments for Exchange-Traded Funds” in any applicable product supplement, any applicable general terms supplement or the applicable pricing supplement.

If Your Securities are Linked to an Exchange-Traded Fund, There is No Assurance That an Active Trading Market Will Continue for the Exchange-Traded Fund or That There Will Be Liquidity in Any Such Trading Market; Further, the Exchange-Traded Fund is Subject to Management Risks, Securities Risks, Lending Risks and Custody Risks

If your securities are linked to an underlier that is an exchange-traded fund, there are risks associated with such underlier. Although all of the shares of an exchange-traded fund may be listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (NYSE Arca) or the Nasdaq Stock Market (Nasdaq) and a number of similar products have been traded on the NYSE Arca, Nasdaq or other securities exchanges for varying periods of time, there is no assurance that an active trading market will continue for the shares of the exchange-traded fund or that there will be liquidity in any such trading market.

In addition, an exchange-traded fund is subject to management risk, which is the risk that the exchange traded fund investment advisor’s investment strategy, the implementation of which is subject to a number of constraints, may not produce the intended results. In addition, the investment advisor may be permitted to engage in securities lending with respect to a portion of an exchange-traded fund's total assets, which could subject the exchange-traded fund to the risk that the borrower of such loaned securities fails to return the securities in a timely manner or at all.

In addition, an exchange-traded fund is subject to custody risk, which refers to the risks in the process of clearing and settling trades and to the holding of securities by local banks, agents and depositories. If your securities are linked to an underlier that is an exchange-traded fund which is listed or has underlier stocks listed in a country that may be considered to be a country with an emerging market, low trading volumes and volatile prices in less developed markets make trades harder to complete and settle, and governments or trade groups may compel local agents to hold securities in designated depositories that are not subject to independent evaluation. The less developed a country’s securities market is, the greater the likelihood of custody problems.

Further, each exchange-traded fund is subject to listing standards adopted by NYSE Arca or Nasdaq, as applicable. There can be no assurance that an exchange-traded fund will continue to meet the applicable listing requirements, or that an exchange-traded fund will not be delisted.

 


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Except to the Extent GS&Co. and One or More of Our Other Affiliates Act as Authorized Participants in the Distribution of, and, at Any Time, May Hold, Shares of, an Exchange-Traded Fund to Which Your Securities Are Linked, There Is No Affiliation Between the Investment Advisor of such Exchange-Traded Fund and Us

If an underlier to which your securities are linked is an exchange-traded fund, GS&Co. and one or more of our other affiliates may act, from time to time, as authorized participants in the distribution of shares of such exchange-traded fund, and, at any time, may hold shares of the exchange-traded fund. Unless otherwise disclosed in the applicable pricing supplement, Goldman Sachs is not otherwise affiliated with the investment advisor of such exchange-traded fund or the issuers of the underlier stocks. Our affiliates may currently or from time to time in the future engage in business with issuers of the underlier stocks. Nevertheless, neither we nor any of our affiliates have participated in the preparation of any publicly available information or made any “due diligence” investigation or inquiry with respect to the exchange-traded fund, its underlying index or the issuers of the underlier stocks. You, as an investor in your securities, should make your own investigation into such exchange-traded fund, its underlying index and the issuers of the underlier stocks.

Neither the investment advisor of such exchange-traded fund nor any issuer of the underlier stocks are involved in this offering of your securities in any way and none of them have any obligation of any sort with respect to your securities. Neither the exchange-traded fund investment advisor nor any such issuer have any obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including when taking any corporate actions that might affect the value of your securities.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index

Although the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index Is Designed To Measure the Stock Performance of 100 High Dividend-Paying Stocks Trading in the U.S., the Return on Your Securities Will Not Reflect Any Dividends Paid on the Underlier Stocks

The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is designed to measure the stock performance of 100 high dividend-paying stocks trading in the U.S. Although the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index measures the performance of high dividend-paying stocks, it is a “price return index” and the return on the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index will not include any dividends paid on the stocks that make up the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index. Therefore, the return on your securities will not reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the stocks that make up the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index and received the dividends paid on those stocks.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to the Nasdaq-100 Index®

As Compared to Other Index Sponsors, Nasdaq, Inc. Retains Significant Control and Discretionary Decision-Making Over the Nasdaq-100 Index®, Which May Have an Adverse Effect on the Level of the Nasdaq-100 Index® and on Your Securities

Pursuant to the Nasdaq-100 Index® methodology, Nasdaq, Inc. retains the right, from time to time, to exercise reasonable discretion as it deems appropriate in order to ensure Nasdaq-100 Index® integrity, including, but not limited to, changes to quantitative inclusion criteria. Nasdaq, Inc. may also, due to special circumstances, apply discretionary adjustments to ensure and maintain quality of the Nasdaq-100 Index®. Although it is unclear how and to what extent this discretion could or would be exercised, it is possible that it could be exercised by Nasdaq, Inc. in a manner that materially and adversely affects the level of the Nasdaq-100 Index® and therefore your securities. Nasdaq, Inc. is not obligated to, and will not, take account of your interests in exercising the discretion described above.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index

As Compared to Other Index Sponsors, Nasdaq, Inc. Retains Significant Control and Discretionary Decision-Making Over the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, Which May Have an Adverse Effect on the Level of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index and on Your Securities

Pursuant to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index methodology, Nasdaq, Inc. retains the right, from time to time, to exercise reasonable discretion as it deems appropriate in order to ensure Nasdaq-100

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Technology Sector Index integrity, including, but not limited to, changes to quantitative inclusion criteria. Nasdaq, Inc. may also, due to special circumstances, apply discretionary adjustments to ensure and maintain quality of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index. Although it is unclear how and to what extent this discretion could or would be exercised, it is possible that it could be exercised by Nasdaq, Inc. in a manner that materially and adversely affects the level of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index and therefore your securities. Nasdaq, Inc. is not obligated to, and will not, take account of your interests in exercising the discretion described above.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD  Excess Return Index

Notwithstanding That the Title of the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Includes the Phrase “Risk Control,” the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index May Decrease Significantly More or Increase Significantly Less Than the S&P 500® Total Return Index

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index, through the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Total Return Index (Risk Control index), is intended to provide investors with exposure to the S&P 500® Total Return Index (Total Return index) subject to a risk control strategy that dynamically increases or decreases the exposure to the Total Return index in an attempt to achieve a 10% volatility target. The Risk Control index’s exposure to the Total Return index can be greater than, less than or equal to 100%. The performance of the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index is not taken into account when implementing the risk control strategy and could result in leveraged exposure to the Total Return index in a falling stock market or deleveraged exposure to the Total Return index in a rising stock market. Additionally, the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index is the excess return version of the Risk Control index. As an excess return index, the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index is designed to measure the return on a hypothetical investment in the Risk Control index that is made with hypothetically borrowed funds. Borrowing costs for these funds are assessed at a rate of overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR. Any positive performance of the Risk Control index will be offset by such hypothetical borrowing costs. Therefore, although the title of the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index includes the phrase “Risk Control,” the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index may decrease significantly more or increase significantly less than the Total Return index and your securities are not necessarily less risky than, and will not necessarily have better returns than, securities linked to the Total Return index.

The Return on Your Securities is Based on the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Which Reflects Excess Return and Will Be Reduced By Borrowing Costs at the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Level

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index is the excess return version of the Risk Control index, meaning that it is designed to measure the return on a hypothetical investment in the Risk Control index that is made with hypothetically borrowed funds. Borrowing costs for these funds are assessed at a rate of overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR. Such costs will reduce any positive performance of the Risk Control index (and, thereby, the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) and will increase any negative performance of the Risk Control index (and, thereby, the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index). In order to receive a positive return on your securities, the return of the Risk Control index must exceed the borrowing costs at the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index level. Because the return of the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index is equal to the return of the Risk Control index minus borrowing costs, the return of the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index will always be less than the return of the Risk Control index.

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There Is No Assurance that Calculating Realized Volatility as the Greater of Short-Term Volatility and Long-Term Volatility Is the Best Way to Measure Realized Volatility

With regard to the Risk Control index, “realized volatility” is a measurement of variations in the historical daily returns of the Total Return index from the day that is two Risk Control index calculation days before the inception date (May 13, 2009) of the Risk Control index to the day that is two Risk Control index calculation days before the current Risk Control index calculation day. As a result, the measurement period for realized volatility will always have the same start date and will continue to get longer with each new Risk Control index calculation day. Realized volatility is calculated as the greater of short-term volatility and long-term volatility. When the volatility of the Total Return index increases (or decreases), short-term volatility will increase (or decrease) more quickly than long-term volatility. Because realized volatility is the greater of short-term volatility and long-term volatility, realized volatility will increase quickly when volatility increases, which will quickly reduce exposure to the Total Return index. Conversely, because realized volatility is the greater of short-term volatility and long-term volatility, realized volatility will decrease slowly when volatility decreases, which in turn will gradually increase exposure to the Total Return index. There is no assurance that calculating realized volatility as the greater of short-term volatility and long-term volatility or using a measurement period with a set start date that continues to get longer with each new Risk Control index calculation day is the best way to measure realized volatility. It is possible that exclusively relying on short-term volatility or long-term volatility or on the lesser of short-term volatility and long-term volatility is a more reliable way to measure realized volatility.

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Will Not Reflect the Most Current Volatility of the Total Return Index

The Risk Control index is rebalanced using a leverage factor at the close of each Risk Control index calculation day in order to adjust its exposure to the Total Return index based on the applicable realized volatility. Although the Risk Control index is rebalanced at the close of each Risk Control index calculation day, because of how the leverage factor is calculated, there is a lag of two Risk Control index calculation days between the calculation of the leverage factor and the rebalancing of the Risk Control index in accordance with that leverage factor. Therefore, on any given Risk Control index calculation day, the leverage factor that determines the Risk Control index’s exposure to the Total Return index for such Risk Control index calculation day will be based on the realized volatility of the Total Return index from two Risk Control index calculation days prior. Due to this two-day lag and the fact that realized volatility can fluctuate significantly during this period, and even during a single day, the Risk Control index will not be rebalanced to reflect (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index will not reflect) the realized volatility of the Total Return index as of the rebalancing day and will not have an actual volatility of 10%. As a result, if there is a rapid and severe decline in the level of the Total Return index, due to the two-day lag, the Risk Control index may not rebalance into the hypothetical cash position until the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index has declined by a substantial amount.

There Is No Guarantee that the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Will Achieve the 10% Volatility Target

The exposure of the Risk Control index (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) to the Total Return index is subject to a maximum leverage factor of 150%, which may limit the ability of the Risk Control index (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) to fully achieve a volatility target of 10% if achieving such volatility target would require a leverage factor in excess of 150%. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the Risk Control index (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) will achieve the 10% volatility target.

You May be Exposed to Borrowing Costs at the Risk Control Index Level

The exposure of the Risk Control index to the Total Return index can be greater than, less than or equal to 100%. Exposure in excess of 100% (i.e., leverage) is achieved by hypothetically borrowing cash at a

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rate of overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR for the exposure above 100%. As leverage increases, borrowing costs increase.

The cost of borrowing is ignored when determining leverage above 100% (subject to a maximum leverage factor of 150%), even if a prudent investor would choose not to borrow money to invest in the Total Return index at such time. The cost of borrowing may exceed the returns from the Total Return index if the return of the Total Return index decreases or if the rate of the overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR increases (or both). Since May 1, 2012 (when the information first became publicly available), the Risk Control index’s exposure to the Total Return index has been as high as 150% (the maximum exposure).

Controlled Volatility Does Not Mean the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Will Have Lower Volatility than the Total Return Index

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index, through the Risk Control index, employs a risk-control strategy that uses mathematical equations to target 10% volatility. The strategy does not have a goal of achieving lower volatility than the Total Return index. In fact, if the realized volatility of the Total Return index is less than the volatility target of 10%, the exposure to the Total Return index will be increased in an attempt to raise the volatility of the Risk Control index to 10%. Any time the exposure to the Total Return index is greater than 100%, the Risk Control index would be more volatile than the Total Return index.

Low Volatility Does Not Necessarily Mean the Risk Control Index Will Outperform the Total Return Index or that the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index Will Have Positive Performance

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index, through the Risk Control index, employs a risk-control strategy that uses mathematical equations to target 10% volatility. Even if the Risk Control index achieves its 10% volatility target, there is no guarantee that the Risk Control index will outperform the Total Return index or that the underlier return will be positive. For example, if the performance of the Total Return index remains stable or steadily decreases over time, the 10% volatility target will not cause the Risk Control index to outperform the Total Return index or result in a positive Risk Control index return. Moreover, the underlier return will be less than the Risk Control index return due to its excess return feature and the borrowing costs thereof.

There May Be Overexposure to the Total Return Index in Falling Stock Markets or Underexposure in Rising Stock Markets

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index, through the Risk Control index, is designed to achieve a volatility target of 10% regardless of the direction of price movements in the market. Therefore, in rising stock markets if realized volatility is higher than the volatility target, some of the Risk Control index’s exposure (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index’s exposure) will be moved from the Total Return index to the hypothetical cash position, and the Risk Control index (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) will experience lower returns than if the full exposure was maintained in the Total Return index. In contrast, if realized volatility is less than the volatility target in a falling stock market, the Risk Control index (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) will be exposed to more than 100% of the losses in the Total Return index and the Risk Control index (and therefore the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index) will experience lower returns than the Total Return index. The hypothetical cash position has represented a very significant portion, up to 67%, of the Risk Control index in the past. Any rebalancing into a hypothetical cash position will limit your return on the securities.

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The Exposure to the Total Return Index May Be Rebalanced into a Hypothetical Cash Position on Any or All Days During the Term of the Securities

The S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index, through the Risk Control index, has a daily rebalancing feature which can result in a rebalancing between the exposure to the Total Return index and the hypothetical cash position. This could have the effect of reducing the exposure of the Total Return index to less than 100% in an attempt to reduce the volatility to 10%. The minimum leverage factor is 0%. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the Risk Control index will not be rebalanced so that the hypothetical cash position represents a significant portion of the Risk Control index (up to 100% of the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index). Any rebalancing into a hypothetical cash position will limit your return on the securities.

Since May 1, 2012 (when the information first became publicly available), on average, approximately 14% of the Risk Control index’s exposure has been to the hypothetical cash position. The Risk Control index’s exposure to the Total Return index has been as low as approximately 33% (an approximately 67% exposure to the hypothetical cash position).

The Historical Levels of Overnight U.S. Dollar LIBOR Are Not an Indication of the Future Levels of Overnight U.S. Dollar LIBOR

In the past, the level of overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR has experienced significant fluctuations. You should note that historical levels, fluctuations and trends of overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR is not necessarily indicative of future levels. Any historical upward or downward trend in overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR is not an indication that overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR is more or less likely to increase or decrease at any time, and you should not take the historical levels of overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR as an indication of its future performance.

U.K. Regulators Will No Longer Persuade or Compel Banks to Submit Rates for Calculation of LIBOR After 2021; Interest Rate Benchmark May Be Discontinued

On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR (which includes the overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR rate) after 2021. Such announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Notwithstanding the foregoing, it appears highly likely that LIBOR will be discontinued or modified by 2021. It is not possible to predict the effect that this announcement or any such discontinuance or modification will have on the overnight U.S. dollar LIBOR rate, the S&P 500® Daily Risk Control 10% USD Excess Return Index or your securities.

Regulation and Reform of “Benchmarks”, Including LIBOR and Other Types of Benchmarks, May Cause such “Benchmarks” to Perform Differently Than in the Past, or to Disappear Entirely, or Have Other Consequences Which Cannot be Predicted

LIBOR and other interest rate, equity, foreign exchange rate and other types of indices which are deemed to be “benchmarks” are the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. Some of these reforms are already effective while others are still to be implemented. These reforms may cause such “benchmarks” to perform differently than in the past, or to disappear entirely, or have other consequences which cannot be predicted. Any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on your securities.

Any of the international, national or other proposals for reform or the general increased regulatory scrutiny of “benchmarks” could increase the costs and risks of administering or otherwise participating in the setting of a “benchmark” and complying with any such regulations or requirements. Such factors may have the effect of discouraging market participants from continuing to administer or contribute to certain “benchmarks”, trigger changes in the rules or methodologies used in certain “benchmarks” or lead to the disappearance of certain “benchmarks”. The disappearance of a “benchmark” or changes in the manner

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of administration of a “benchmark” could result in discretionary valuation by the underlier sponsor or the calculation agent or other consequence in relation to your securities. Any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on the value of and return on your securities.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund

The Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund Was Reconstituted in September 2016 and No Longer Provides Exposure to the Real Estate Sector

Effective as of the close of business on September 16, 2016, the Financials Select Sector Index was reconstituted to eliminate the stocks of companies involved in the real estate industry (other than mortgage real estate investment trusts) (“real estate stocks”). In order to facilitate an efficient transition to the reconstituted underlying index, the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund exchanged its real estate stocks for shares of the Real Estate Select Sector SPDR® Fund and then distributed those shares to its holders as a special share distribution with an ex-date of September 19, 2016. The Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund now tracks the performance of only those financial company stocks that remain in the Financials Select Sector Index following its reconstitution, which exclude real estate stocks. Consequently, the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund is less diversified than it was before this change to its portfolio.

The distributed shares of the Real Estate Select Sector SPDR® Fund represented a significant percentage (approximately 18.8%) of the net asset value of the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund as of September 16, 2016 and the reconstitution of the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund could adversely affect the performance of the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund and the return on the securities. In addition, because the reconstituted Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund has no historical closing levels prior to September 19, 2016, limited historical information regarding the reconstituted Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund will be available for you to consider in making an independent investigation of the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund performance, which may make it difficult for you to make an informed decision with respect to the securities.

Moreover, the historical performance of the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund prior to its reconstitution might have been meaningfully different had the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund not held real estate stocks at that time.

Additional Risks Relating to Securities Linked to the iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF

There Is No Guarantee That the Methodology of the Index that the iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF Tracks Will Be Successful

The iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF seeks investment results which correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Russell 1000® Value Index. The Russell 1000® Value Index is composed of large- and mid-capitalization U.S. equities and is predominantly comprised of value stocks, meaning stocks issued by companies thought to be undervalued by the market relative to comparable companies. There is no guarantee that the iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF will outperform any other exchange-traded fund or any index or strategy that tracks U.S. small capitalization stocks selected using other criteria. Stocks that are considered to be value oriented may have lower growth potential than other securities, which may cause the price of the iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF to decrease over the term of the securities. Accordingly, the investment strategy represented by the iShares® Russell 1000 Value ETF may not be successful, and your investment in the securities may result in a loss. An investment in the securities may also underperform an investment linked to the Russell 1000® Index as a whole.


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THE UNDERLIERS

All information contained in this underlier supplement and the applicable pricing supplement regarding any underlier, including, without limitation, its make-up, its method of calculation (if applicable) and changes in its components and its historical closing levels, is derived from information prepared by the applicable underlier sponsor. Such information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, the applicable underlier sponsor. Each underlier is calculated and maintained by its respective underlier sponsor. Neither GS Finance Corp., The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. nor GS&Co., in its role as calculation agent, has participated in the preparation of such documents or made any due diligence inquiry with respect to any underlier or underlier sponsor in connection with the offering of the securities. In connection with the offering of the securities, neither GS Finance Corp., The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. nor GS&Co., in its role as calculation agent, makes any representation that such information regarding any underlier or underlier sponsor is accurate or complete. Furthermore, we cannot give any assurance that all events occurring prior to the date of any offering of securities (including events that would affect the accuracy or completeness of the information described in this underlier supplement or in the applicable pricing supplement) that would affect the level of any underlier have been publicly disclosed. Subsequent disclosure of any such events could affect the value received on your securities and therefore the market value of the securities.

Our affiliates may presently or from time to time engage in business with one or more of the issuers of the underlier stocks of any underlier without regard to your interests, including extending loans to or entering into loans with, or making equity investments in, one or more of such issuers or providing advisory services to one or more of such issuers, such as merger and acquisition advisory services. In the course of our affiliates’ business, we or our affiliates may acquire non-public information about one or more of such issuers and neither we nor any of our affiliates undertakes to disclose any such information to you. In addition, our affiliates from time to time have published and in the future may publish research reports with respect to such issuers. These research reports may or may not recommend that investors buy or hold the securities of such issuers. As a prospective purchaser of securities, you should undertake an independent investigation of the applicable underlier or of the issuers of the underlier stocks of the applicable underlier to the extent required, in your judgment, to allow you to make an informed decision with respect to an investment in any securities.

In this underlier supplement and the applicable product supplement, if any, the applicable general terms supplement, if any, and/or the applicable pricing supplement, unless the context requires otherwise, references to any underlier listed below will include any successor underlier to such underlier and references to the underlier sponsor include any index sponsor, underlier investment advisor or underlier trustee, as applicable, and, in each case, will include any successor thereto.

Some Initial and Common Concepts

An equity index is a hypothetical calculation of stocks that fit certain selection criteria and are selected for inclusion in the index by the index sponsor. One example might be an index that seeks to include all of the large capitalization stocks traded on the stock market in a certain country or region. The level of an index is calculated using a methodology developed by the index sponsor. Typically, the closing prices of each of the stocks included in the index on each trading day are the basis for the index level. Although it is not possible to invest directly into an index, buying an index-linked product such as an index-linked security allows an investor to gain exposure to the performance of the relevant portions of a stock market or markets without owning all of the stocks that underlie the index.

Some indices limit themselves to companies having a certain size of market capitalization, as described below. You will see these terms in the descriptions below.

Large cap — a company with a large market capitalization (market capitalization is the number of shares outstanding, which may be adjusted to exclude certain shares, multiplied by the stock’s trading price) relative to other common stocks traded within the same market

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Mid cap — a company with a market capitalization that is within range of the median relative to other common stocks traded within the same market

Small cap — a company with a small market capitalization relative to large cap and mid cap common stocks traded within the same market

Developed market — a developed, high income country with a formally regulated equity market that is characterized by having developed custody settlement mechanisms, dealing landscape and a relatively high total market capitalization; decisions on whether a market is developed, emerging or otherwise, and as to other categorization matters, are made by the underlier sponsor only and not by us or our affiliates

Emerging market — a developing country that is in the process of rapid industrialization with an income level that is generally less than developed countries and an equity market with reasonable or advanced market infrastructure

The companies included in each of the underliers, whether the underlier is an index or an exchange-traded fund (“ETF”), may be divided into industry sectors by the applicable underlier sponsor. Sector designations are determined by the underlier sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Any underlier sponsor may use very different standards from another underlier sponsor to determine sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between underliers with different underlier sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the underliers.

An ETF attempts to track the performance of a particular index and actually purchases many of the stocks in the index and holds them. The ETF may or may not hold all of the stocks in the index. The ETF itself is typically listed on the New York Stock Exchange and has a trading price like a stock. Unlike an index, it is possible to invest directly in an ETF by buying the shares of the ETF. The trading price is usually, although not always, closely correlated with the net asset value of the assets held by the ETF (which are the stocks underlying the index the ETF tracks).The investment objective of the ETFs is to achieve investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the index. That type of ETF, sometimes called a “tracking ETF,” uses a passive or indexing approach to try to achieve the ETF’s investment objective. The ETF has an investment advisor, but the advisor does not try to outperform the index. This means, among other things, that a tracking ETF typically will not sell a particular holding just because it is performing poorly. Instead, the ETF seeks to track the index regardless of whether the index level is increasing or decreasing. The investment advisor makes decisions, subject to the ETF’s applicable limitations, about the stocks and other investments to be held by ETF in order to track the index. The investment advisor charges fees that impact the price of the ETF’s shares, as do transaction and other costs relating to the trading of the portfolio.

ETFs are registered investment companies and file information with the SEC. Information filed by the ETFs with the SEC electronically can be reviewed through a web site maintained by the SEC. The address of the SEC’s web site is sec.gov. The descriptions below will provide the “CIK number” for the ETFs, which is an identifying number that will assist you in finding information about them filed with the SEC.  

The ETFs also have certain concepts in common with each other. We have described some of these common concepts below.

Tracking Error

The difference between the performance of an ETF over a period of time and the performance of the index over such period of time is called the “tracking error” over that period of time. This is typically measured as the difference between the ETF’s returns and the index returns over the same period of time. This is also sometimes referred to as the “correlation” between the index and the ETF. An index and ETF are perfectly correlated if the correlation is 1.00 (i.e., the tracking error is 0.00%). Tracking errors can result for a variety of reasons, but one of the common reasons is that an index is a theoretical financial calculation of the performance of certain assets, but an ETF holds an actual investment portfolio. The

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description of the ETF(s) to which your securities are linked, either below or in the accompanying pricing supplement, will discuss some of the additional reasons for tracking errors and provide information about the tracking error or information about the performance of the index and the performance of the ETF for the same period.

Creation Units

Prior to trading in the secondary market, shares of an ETF are issued at net asset value to certain institutional investors (typically market makers or other broker-dealers) only in large block-size units, known as creation units. As a practical matter, only institutions, market makers or large investors purchase or redeem creation units. Except when aggregated in creation units (or upon the liquidation of an ETF), shares of the ETFs are not redeemable securities. The description of the ETF(s) to which your securities are linked, either below or in the accompanying pricing supplement, describe the size of the creation units for the ETFs. For most investors, the important thing to know is that redemptions of creation units may cause temporary dislocations in tracking errors.

Net Asset Value and Share Prices

ETFs calculate a net asset value, or NAV, at the end of each trading day. This value represents the value of their respective assets less any applicable fees and expenses. The actual trading price of an ETF’s shares in the secondary market generally differs (and may deviate significantly during periods of market volatility) from the ETF’s daily net asset value. This is because the trading price is affected by market forces such as supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors. For purposes of your securities, the trading prices of the shares or units of the ETFs included in the calculation of the index will be based on the trading prices alone and not the NAV or any indicative values.

Additional Information

No underlier sponsor is under any obligation to continue to publish or sponsor an underlier and may discontinue it at any time. Additional information regarding underliers may be obtained from other sources including, but not limited to, press releases, newspaper articles, other publicly available documents, and underlier sponsor websites. We are not incorporating by reference any underlier sponsor website, the sources listed above or below or any material they include in this underlier supplement or any applicable pricing supplement.

Licensing

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable pricing supplement, GS Finance Corp. or its affiliate has contracted or, to the extent required, will seek to acquire a contract with the sponsor or publisher of the index or indices to which your securities may be linked for the rights to use such index or indices and certain associated trademarks or service marks for each index. GS Finance Corp. or its affiliate generally obtains these licenses either on an individual basis for a particular offering of securities or for a term of years. Although each of GS Finance Corp. and its affiliates anticipates that it will continue to enter into and renew such licenses, any such license could be terminated upon the occurrence of certain events in the future.

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Dow Jones Industrial Average®

The Dow Jones Industrial Average®, which we also refer to in this description as the “DJIA” or the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first calculated on May 26, 1896 with a base value of 40.94 and twelve constituent stocks; and

is sponsored by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (“Dow Jones Indices”).

The DJIA is a price-weighted index composed of 30 stocks that measures the performance of some of the largest U.S. companies. The stocks are selected at the discretion of an Averages Committee comprised of three representatives of Dow Jones Indices and two representatives of The Wall Street Journal. While stock selection is not governed by quantitative rules, a stock typically is added to the DJIA only if the Averages Committee believes the company has an excellent reputation, demonstrates sustained growth and is of interest to a large number of investors. Each company should be incorporated and headquartered in the U.S. and a plurality of such company’s revenue should be derived from the U.S. Maintaining adequate sector representation within the indices is also a consideration in the selection process.  The DJIA covers all industries with the exception of the transportation industry group and the utilities sector.

The U.S. dollar price return calculation (which does not include dividends or other distributions, only the trading prices of the stocks) of the DJIA is reported by Bloomberg under the ticker symbol “INDU Index”. Dow Jones is under no obligation to continue to publish the DJIA and may discontinue publication of the DJIA at any time.  Additional information regarding the DJIA may be obtained the following website: djindexes.com/averages/. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this underlier supplement.

Dow Jones intends for the DJIA to serve as a measure of the entire U.S. market, and therefore the economy, and the DJIA is not limited to traditionally defined industrial stocks. Changes in the composition of the DJIA are made on an as-needed basis by the Averages Committee without consultation with the component companies represented in the DJIA, any stock exchange, any official agency or us. There is no annual or semi-annual reconstitution and changes in response to corporate actions and market developments can be made at any time. In order to maintain continuity, changes to the index stocks included in the DJIA tend to be made infrequently and generally occur only after a component company goes through a major change, such as a shift in its core business, corporate acquisition, or merger. Index reviews do not occur on any established or regular schedule, but only when corporate events with respect to a constituent stock require it. When one component stock is replaced, the entire index is reviewed. As a result, multiple component changes are often implemented simultaneously. The component stocks of the DJIA may be changed at any time for any reason. Constituent changes are typically announced one to five days before they are scheduled to be implemented.

Components with more than one listing of common stock outstanding will only be represented by their designated listing, which is the share class with both the highest one-year (or all available data if less than one year of trading data is available as of the reference date, as defined below) trading liquidity (as defined by median daily value traded) and largest float-adjusted market capitalization. All other share classes are referred to as secondary listings. When the liquidity and market capitalization indicators are in conflict, Dow Jones analyzes the relative differences between the two values, placing a greater importance on liquidity. Once established, the designated listing is only changed if both the liquidity and market capitalization of a secondary listing exceed the liquidity and market capitalization of the designated listing by more than 20%. If only one measure exceeds 20%, Dow Jones analyzes the data as described above to determine if the designated listing should be changed. Otherwise, the designated listing remains unchanged. Dow Jones Indices reviews designated listings on an annual basis and any changes are implemented after the close of the third Friday of September. The last trading day in July is used as the reference date for the liquidity and market capitalization data.

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The top ten constituent stocks of the DJIA as of December 14, 2020, by weight, are: UnitedHealth Group Incorporated (7.41%), The Home Depot, Inc. (5.85%), The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (5.24%), Amgen Inc. (5.06%), The Boeing Company (5.04%), Salesforce.com, Inc. (4.88%), Microsoft Corporation (4.72%), McDonald´s Corporation (4.67%), Honeywell International Inc (4.67%) and Visa Inc. - Class A (4.57%).

As of December 14, 2020, the 30 companies included in the DJIA were divided into eleven Global Industry Classification Sectors. The Global Industry Classification Sectors include (with the approximate percentage currently included in such sectors indicated in parentheses): Communication Services (5.05%), Consumer Discretionary (13.52%), Consumer Staples (8.29%), Energy (1.97%), Financials (13.38%), Health Care (17.52%), Industrials (17.44%), Information Technology (21.65%), Materials (1.17%), Real Estate (0.00%) and Utilities (0.00%). (Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor, or by the sponsor of the classification system, using criteria it has selected or developed. Index and classification system sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.)

The DJIA is price weighted rather than market capitalization weighted. Therefore, the component stock weightings are affected only by changes in the stocks’ prices, in contrast with the weightings of other indices that are affected by both price changes and changes in the number of shares outstanding. The value of the DJIA is the sum of the primary exchange prices of each of the 30 common stocks included in the DJIA, divided by a divisor. The divisor is changed in accordance with a mathematical formula to adjust for any price impacting corporate action on one of its member stocks; this includes price adjustments, special dividends, stock splits, rights offerings, constituent additions and constituent deletions. The current divisor of the DJIA is published daily in the WSJ and other publications. While this methodology reflects current practice in calculating the DJIA, no assurance can be given that Dow Jones will not modify or change this methodology in a manner that may affect the return on your securities. In addition to its daily governance of indices and maintenance of the DJIA methodology, at least once within any 12 month period, the Averages Committee reviews the DJIA methodology to ensure the DJIA continues to achieve the stated objective, and that the data and methodology remain effective. Where any index component stock price is unavailable on any trading day, the index sponsor will generally use the last reported price for such component stock.

Adjustments for Corporate Actions

There is a large range of corporate actions that may affect companies included in the DJIA. Certain corporate actions require Dow Jones Indices to make an adjustment to the divisor to prevent the value of the DJIA from changing as a result of the corporate action. Corporate actions are applied after the close of trading on the day prior to the ex-date. Several types of corporate actions, and their related adjustments, are listed in the table below.

 

Corporate Action

Adjustment Made To Index

Divisor Adjustment?

Spin-off

 

The price of the parent company is adjusted to the price of the parent company minus the price of the spun-off company/share exchange ratio.  Any potential impacts on index constituents from a spin-off are evaluated by the Index Committee on a case by case basis.

Yes

Rights Offering

 

The price is adjusted according to the terms of the rights offering.

Yes

Stock dividend, stock split, reverse stock split

The price is adjusted according to the terms of the stock split.

Yes

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Share Issuance, Share Repurchase, Equity Offering or Warrant Conversion

Index does not use a number of shares or investable weight factors – no impact

 

No

Special Dividends

 

Price of the stock making the special dividend payment is reduced by the per share special dividend amount after the close of trading on the day before the dividend ex-date.

Yes

Constituent Change

 

Deletions due to delistings, acquisition or any other corporate event resulting in the deletion of the stock from the index will be replaced on the effective date of the drop. In the case of a zero price spin-off, the spun-off company is not replaced.

Yes

 

Recalculation Policy

Dow Jones Indices reserves the right to recalculate an index under certain limited circumstances. Dow Jones Indices may choose to recalculate and republish an index if it is found to be incorrect or inconsistent within two trading days of the publication of the index level in question for one of the following events:

1.

Incorrect or revised closing price of a stock on a given day

2.

Missed  or misapplied corporate event

3.

Incorrect application of an index methodology

4.

Late announcement of a corporate event

5.

Incorrect calculation or data entry error

Late information that does not impact the divisor is applied at the earliest opportunity Dow Jones Indices becomes aware of the event. Late information impacting the divisor results in a correction and reposting within two trading days. All errors due to Dow Jones Indices’s mistakes (e.g., data entry, methodology misapplication, etc.) are corrected and reposted, provided the error is identified within two trading days. Any other restatements or recalculations beyond two trading days will be determined by the Index Committee, which will review the possible market impact or disruption of such recalculations.

Unexpected Exchange Closures

An unexpected exchange closure is when an exchange fully or partially fails to open or trading is temporarily halted. This can apply to a single exchange or to a market as a whole, when all of the primary exchanges are closed and/or not trading. Unexpected exchange closures are usually due to unforeseen circumstances, such as natural disasters, inclement weather, outages, or other events.

To a large degree, Dow Jones Indices is dependent on the exchanges to provide guidance in the event of an unexpected exchange closure. Dow Jones Indices’s decision making is dependent on exchange guidance regarding pricing and mandatory corporate actions.

NYSE Rule 123C provides closing contingency procedures for determining an official closing price for listed securities if the exchange is unable to conduct a closing transaction in one or more securities due to a system or technical issue.

3:00 PM ET is the deadline for an exchange to determine its plan of action regarding an outage scenario. As such, Dow Jones Indices also uses 3:00 PM ET as the cutoff.

If all exchanges fail to open or unexpectedly halt trading intraday due to unforeseen circumstances, Dow Jones Indices will take the following actions:

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Market Disruption Prior to Open of Trading:

(i)

If all exchanges indicate that trading will not open for a given day, Dow Jones Indices will treat the day as an unscheduled market holiday. The decision will be communicated to clients as soon as possible through the normal channels. Indices containing multiple markets will be calculated as normal, provided that at least one market is open that day. Indices which only contain closed markets will not be calculated.

(ii)

If exchanges indicate that trading, although delayed, will open for a given day, Dow Jones Indices will begin index calculation when the exchanges open.

Market Disruption Intraday:

(i)

If exchanges indicate that trading will not resume for a given day, the index level will be calculated using prices determined by the exchanges based on the NYSE Rule 123C hierarchy. Intraday index values will continue to use the last traded composite price until the primary exchange publishes official closing prices.

License Agreement between Dow Jones Opco, LLC, a subsidiary of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and GS Finance Corp.

Standard & Poor’s® and S&P® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”) and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). The Dow Jones Industrial Average® is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and/or its affiliates, and has been licensed for use by GS Finance Corp. (“Goldman”). The securities are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P, any of their third party licensors, or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the securities or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the securities particularly or the ability of the Dow Jones Industrial Average® to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Goldman with respect to the Dow Jones Industrial Average® is the licensing of the Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices. The Dow Jones Industrial Average® is determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to Goldman or the securities. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take the needs of Goldman or the owners of the securities into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Dow Jones Industrial Average®. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the securities or the timing of the issuance or sale of the securities or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the securities are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the securities. There is no assurance that investment products based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average® will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its subsidiaries are not  investment advisors. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice.

S&P DOW JONES INDICES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY GOLDMAN, OWNERS OF THE SECURITIES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO,

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LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND GOLDMAN OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.

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Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index

The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was launched on November 3, 2003, based on an initial index value of 100 as of December 31, 1991; and

is sponsored by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC.

The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index measures the stock performance of 100 high dividend-paying stocks trading in the U.S. The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is calculated in U.S. dollars on a price return basis. As of December 14, 2020, the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index had 100 constituents. Additional information regarding the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index may be obtained from the following websites: us.spindices.com/indices/strategy/dow-jones-us-select-dividend-index and spdji.com. We are not incorporating by reference the websites, the sources listed above or any material they include in this underlier supplement.

As of December 14, 2020, the 100 companies included in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index were divided into ten sectors. The proprietary sector classification system used by the index sponsor divides the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index into the following sectors (with the approximate percentage currently included in such sectors indicated in parentheses): Consumer Services (6.12%), Consumer Goods (10.09%), Oil & Gas (9.35%), Financials (26.94%), Health Care (1.96%), Industrials (10.70%), Technology (8.35%), Basic Materials (3.62%), Telecommunications (2.91%) and Utilities (19.97%). (Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.)

Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index Universe

The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index universe is defined as all dividend-paying companies in the Dow Jones U.S. Index, excluding real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). For more information about the Dow Jones U.S. Index, see “Dow Jones U.S. Index” below.

All stocks included in the Dow Jones U.S. Index must pass the following screens to be included in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index universe: (i) a dividend-per-share for the current year (trailing 12 months) that is greater than or equal to the company’s five-year average dividend-per-share; (ii) a five-year average dividend coverage ratio (the average of the earnings per share divided by the annual dividend per share for the previous five years) of greater than or equal to 167%; (iii) paid dividends in each of the previous five years; (iv) a non-negative trailing 12-month earnings-per-share; (v) a float-adjusted market capitalization of at least US$3 billion (US$2 billion for current constituents); and (vi) a three-month average daily volume of at least 200,000 shares (100,000 shares for current constituents).

Current Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index constituents are included in the universe regardless of their dividend growth rate, coverage ratio, and current year earnings-per-share. With the exception of float-adjusted market capitalization and average daily trading volume, the reference date for the above data points is the last business day of December. The reference date for float-adjusted market capitalization and average daily trading volume is the last business day of February.

Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index Construction

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The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index has an annual rebalancing constituent selection process. Stocks passing all screens are ranked in descending order by indicated annual dividend (“IAD”) yield, defined as a stock’s IAD (not including any special dividends) divided by its price. All remaining current constituent stocks ranked 200 and above are retained in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index assuming they continue to meet all other eligibility requirements. The highest ranked stocks that are not current constituents are added to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index until the constituent count reaches 100. The IAD and stock price used in the calculation of a stock’s dividend yield are as of the last business day of February.

Constituent Weightings

Constituent weightings are assigned annually based on IAD yield, subject to the following restrictions: (i) the weight of any individual company is restricted to the lower of (a) 10% or (b) five times a constituent’s float-adjusted market capitalization divided by the sum of the float-adjusted market capitalizations of all index constituents, as measured at the time of the annual reconstitution; and (ii) each Global Industry Classification Standard (“GICS”) sector is restricted to 30% within the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index, as measured at the time of the annual reconstitution.

Additionally, on a quarterly basis, any company whose weight exceeds 10% of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is capped at 10% with the excess weight distributed proportionately. Such quarterly capping, if required, is effective after the close of the third Friday of June, September, and December. The reference pricing date is after the close of the Wednesday prior to second Friday of the quarterly review month.

Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index Calculation

The discussion below describes the “price return” calculation of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index. The applicable pricing supplement will describe the calculation if the underlier for your securities is not the price return calculation. The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is a non-market capitalization weighted index, which is an index where index constituents have a user-defined weight (based on IAD yield, as described above). Between index rebalancings, most corporate actions generally have no effect on stock weights. As stock prices move, the weights will shift and the modified weights will change. Therefore, the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index must be rebalanced from time to time to re-establish the user-defined weights.

The value of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index on any day for which an index value is published is determined by a fraction, the numerator of which is the sum of, for each index stock, the market price of the index stock times the number of shares of such index stock times the investable weight factor (“IWF”) of such index stock times the adjustment factor of such index stock, and the denominator of which is the divisor. The “adjustment factor” for any index stock is the number that is needed to adjust (multiply) the float-adjusted market value of an index stock so that the weight of the index stock in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index equals the user-defined weight. The float-adjusted market value of a stock in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is the float-adjusted market value of a stock in the Dow Jones U.S. Index. See “Dow Jones U.S. Index — Float Adjustment” below. The divisor is a value calculated by the index sponsor that is intended to maintain conformity in index values over time and is adjusted for all changes in the index stocks’ share capital, as described below.

The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is rebalanced quarterly in March, June, September and December to re-establish the user-defined weights. The index level is not altered by index rebalancings. However, since prices and outstanding shares will have changed since the last rebalancing, the divisor will change at the rebalancing.

Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index Maintenance

Constituents with significant negative dividend growth and negative earnings from continuing operations over the past 12-month period are reviewed to determine if the affected company can sustain an

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appropriate dividend program to remain in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index. In the event that the index committee determines that the company’s dividend program is at significant risk, the company will be removed from the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index after the close of trading on the third Friday of March, June, September or December. Constituent changes and their weights resulting from the quarterly review process are announced on the second Friday of the quarterly review month.

Additionally, on a quarterly basis, any company whose weight exceeds 10% of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is capped at 10% with the excess weight distributed proportionately. Such quarterly capping, if required, is effective after the close of the third Friday of June, September, and December. The reference pricing date is after the close of the Wednesday prior to second Friday of the quarterly review month.

Securities under consideration for addition to, or deletion from, the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index are assessed by the index committee on the basis of the six-month data ending the month prior to the quarterly review. The quarterly rebalancing changes take effect on the first business day following the third Friday of March, June, September and December. Intra-quarter changes are made on an as-needed basis. IWF updates are only made annually at the September quarterly review. Changes also occur in response to corporate actions and market developments, as described below.

Corporate Actions and Index Adjustments

A constituent stock is immediately removed from the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index, independent of the annual rebalancing, if the constituent stock is affected by a corporate action such as a delisting or bankruptcy. In addition, constituent stocks are reviewed on a monthly basis and at the discretion of the index sponsor, may be removed effective prior to the open of the first business day of the following month and not replaced, if (i) the constituent stock publicly announces a suspension or cancellation of its dividend program; or (ii) the constituent company lowers but does not eliminate its dividend, and its new yield is significantly lower than the lowest yielding constituent. This is subject to the constituent stock’s announcement being made a minimum of seven business days prior to month-end. Any changes are announced five business days prior to month-end. Constituent stocks that are removed from the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index as a result of ongoing maintenance are replaced only at the subsequent annual rebalancing in March.

Spin-Offs

In the case of a spin-off involving a constituent stock, the spun-off company is added to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index, at a zero price at the market close of the day before the ex-date (with no divisor adjustment). If a spun-off company is determined to be ineligible for continued index inclusion, it is removed after at least one day of regular way trading (with a divisor adjustment).

For merger and acquisition events, the index sponsor, at its discretion, may retain dividend history for newly formed entities from their predecessor companies.

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Several additional types of corporate actions, and their related treatment, are listed in the table below.

Corporate Action

Treatment

Company Addition/Deletion

Addition

Generally, no companies are added to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index between annual reconstitutions except for IPOs and spin-offs.

Deletion

The weights of all stocks in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index will proportionately change but relative weights will stay the same. The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index divisor will change due to the net change in the index market capitalization.

Change in shares outstanding

Shares outstanding changes are offset by an adjustment factor. There is no change to the index market capitalization and no divisor adjustment.

Split/Reverse Split

Shares outstanding are adjusted by split ratio. Stock price is adjusted by split ratio. There is no change to the index market capitalization and no divisor adjustment.

Spin-off

The spin-off is added to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index on the ex-date at a price of zero. The spin-off index shares are based on the spin-off ratio. On the ex-date the spin-off will have the same attributes and capping adjustment factor as its parent company, and will remain in the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index for at least one trading day. As a result, there will be no change to the index divisor on the ex-date.

If the spin-off is ineligible for continued inclusion, it will be removed after the ex-date. The weight of the spin-off being deleted is reinvested across all the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index components proportionately such that the relative weights of all Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index components are unchanged. The net change in index market capitalization will cause a divisor change.

Change in IWF

IWF changes are offset by an adjustment factor. There is no change to the index market capitalization and no divisor adjustment.

Special dividend

The stock price is adjusted by the amount of the dividend. The net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Rights offering

All rights offerings that are in the money on the ex-date are applied under the assumption the rights are fully subscribed. The stock price is adjusted by the value of the rights and the shares outstanding are increased by the rights ratio. The change in price and shares is offset by an adjustment factor to keep the index market capitalization (stock weight) unchanged. There is no change to the index market capitalization and no divisor adjustment.

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Other Adjustments

In cases where there is no achievable market price for a stock being deleted, it may be removed at a zero or minimal price at the index committee’s discretion, in recognition of the constraints faced by investors in trading bankrupt or suspended stocks.

Index Governance

The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is maintained by an index committee. The index committee meets regularly. All committee members are full-time professional members of the index sponsor’s staff. At each meeting, the index committee may review pending corporate actions that may affect index constituents, statistics comparing the composition of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index to the market, companies that are being considered as candidates for addition to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index, and any significant market events. In addition, the index committee may revise index policy covering rules for selecting companies, treatment of dividends, share counts or other matters.

The index sponsor considers information about changes to its indices and related matters to be potentially market moving and material. Therefore, all index committee discussions are confidential. The index committee reserves the right to make exceptions when applying the methodology if the need arises.

In addition to the daily governance of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index and maintenance of index methodology, at least once within any 12-month period the index committee reviews the methodology to ensure the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index continues to achieve the stated objectives, and that the data and methodology remain effective.

Recalculation Policy

The index sponsor reserves the right to recalculate and republish the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index at its discretion in the event one of the following issues has occurred: (1) incorrect or revised closing price of one or more constituent securities; (2) missed or misapplied corporate event; (3) late announcement of a corporate action; (4) incorrect calculation or data entry error;  or (5) incorrect application of an index methodology. The decision to recalculate the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is made at the discretion of the index manager and/or index committee, as further discussed below. The potential market impact or disruption resulting from the potential recalculation is considered when making any such decision. In the event of an incorrect closing price, a missed or misapplied corporate action, a late announcement of a corporate action, or an incorrect calculation or data entry error that is discovered within two trading days of its occurrence, generally the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is recalculated. In the event any such event is discovered beyond the two trading day period, the index committee shall decide whether the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index should be recalculated. In the event of an incorrect application of the methodology that results in the incorrect composition and/or weighting of index constituents, the index committee shall determine whether or not to recalculate the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index following specified guidelines. In the event that the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index is recalculated, it shall be done within a reasonable timeframe following the detection and review of the issue.

Calculations and Pricing Disruptions

Prices used for the calculation of real time index values are based on the “Consolidated Tape”. The Consolidated Tape is an aggregation of trades for each constituent over all regional exchanges and trading venues and includes the primary exchange. If there is a failure or interruption on one or more exchanges, real-time calculations will continue as long as the “Consolidated Tape” is operational.

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If an interruption is not resolved prior to the market close, official closing prices will be determined by following the hierarchy set out in NYSE Rule 123C.

A notice is published on the index sponsor’s website at spdji.com indicating any changes to the prices used in Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index calculations. In extreme circumstances, the index sponsor may decide to delay index adjustments or not publish the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index. Real-time indices are not restated.

Unexpected Exchange Closures

An unexpected market/exchange closure occurs when a market/exchange fully or partially fails to open or trading is temporarily halted. This can apply to a single exchange or to a market as a whole, when all of the primary exchanges are closed and/or not trading. Unexpected market/exchange closures are usually due to unforeseen circumstances, such as natural disasters, inclement weather, outages, or other events.

To a large degree, the index sponsor is dependent on the exchanges to provide guidance in the event of an unexpected exchange closure. The index sponsor’s decision making is dependent on exchange guidance regarding pricing and mandatory corporate actions.

NYSE Rule 123C provides closing contingency procedures for determining an official closing price for listed securities if the exchange is unable to conduct a closing transaction in one or more securities due to a system or technical issue.

3:00 PM ET is the deadline for an exchange to determine its plan of action regarding an outage scenario. As such, the index sponsor also uses 3:00 PM ET as the cutoff.

If all major exchanges fail to open or unexpectedly halt trading intraday due to unforeseen circumstances, the index sponsor will take the following actions:

Market Disruption Prior to Open of Trading:

(i)If all exchanges indicate that trading will not open for a given day, the index sponsor will treat the day as an unscheduled market holiday. The decision will be communicated to clients as soon as possible through the normal channels. Indices containing multiple markets will be calculated as normal, provided that at least one market is open that day. Indices which only contain closed markets will not be calculated.

(ii)If exchanges indicate that trading, although delayed, will open for a given day, the index sponsor will begin index calculation when the exchanges open.

Market Disruption Intraday:

(i)If exchanges indicate that trading will not resume for a given day, the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index level will be calculated using prices determined by the exchanges based on NYSE Rule 123C. Intraday Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index values will continue to use the last traded composite price until the primary exchange publishes official closing prices.

Dow Jones U.S. Index

The Dow Jones U.S. Index is a float-adjusted market capitalization index that is calculated, published and disseminated by the index sponsor. The Dow Jones U.S. Index aims to provide 95% market capitalization coverage of U.S.-traded stocks. The Dow Jones U.S. Index is calculated in U.S. dollars on a price return basis. As of December 14, 2020, the Dow Jones U.S. Index had 1,042 constituents. The Dow Jones U.S. Index was launched on February 14, 2000, based on an initial index value of 100 as of December 31, 1991. Additional information regarding the Dow Jones U.S. Index may be obtained from the following websites: us.spindices.com/indices/equity/dow-jones-us-index and spdji.com. We are not incorporating by reference the websites, the sources listed above or any material they include in this underlier supplement.

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Calculation and Dissemination

The closing values of the Dow Jones U.S. Index are calculated on a 24-hour day that ends at 5:30 p.m. New York time and, following the determination of the previous day’s closing price, the Dow Jones U.S. Index values for the current day are updated and disseminated on a real-time basis beginning at 5:30 p.m. whenever any of the exchanges represented in the Dow Jones U.S. Index are open.

If trading in a stock is suspended while its market is open, the last traded price for that stock is used for all subsequent index computations until trading resumes. If trading is suspended before the opening, the stock’s adjusted closing price from the previous day is used to calculate the Dow Jones U.S. Index. Until a particular stock opens, its adjusted closing price from the previous day is used in the Dow Jones U.S. Index computation.

If a market is closed due to an exchange holiday, the previous adjusted closing price for each of its index underlying assets, coupled with the most-recent intraday currency bid price, is used to determine the Dow Jones U.S. Index’s current U.S. dollar value.

To be included in the Dow Jones U.S. Index, a stock must be part of the index universe, defined as all stocks traded on major U.S. stock exchanges minus any non-common issues and illiquid stocks. Dow Jones U.S. Index candidates must be common shares or other securities that have the characteristics of common equities. All classes of common shares, both fully and partially paid, are eligible. Fixed-dividend shares and securities such as convertible securities, warrants, rights, mutual funds, unit investment trusts, closed-end fund shares, shares in limited partnerships and shares in business development companies (“BDCs”) are not eligible. Temporary issues arising from corporate actions, such as “when-issued shares,” are considered on a case-by-case basis when necessary to maintain continuity in a company’s index membership. REITs, listed property trusts, and similar real-property-owning pass-through structures taxed as REITs by their domiciles also are eligible.

Each stock must also meet two separate liquidity criteria to be considered eligible for inclusion in the Dow Jones U.S. Index. Stocks must have a 12-month median value traded ratio (MVTR) of at least 20% to be eligible, or at least 14% for current constituents to remain eligible. The MVTR for a stock is calculated by taking the median daily value traded amount for each of the 12 months preceding the rebalancing reference date, multiplying the amount by the number of days that the stock traded during that month, and then dividing the result by its end-of-month float-adjusted market capitalization. The sum of the 12 monthly values is the MVTR for such stock. If a stock has traded for less than 12 months, the average of the available monthly values is taken and multiplied by 12 to obtain the MVTR. In addition, stock must have a 6-month median daily traded value (MDVT) over the 6 months prior to the rebalancing reference date of at least $250,000 to be eligible, or at least $175,000 for current constituents to remain eligible. If a stock has traded for less than 6 months, the MDVT amount for as long as the stock has been trading is used.

After determination of the Dow Jones U.S. Index universe, the Dow Jones U.S. Index universe is then sorted by float-adjusted market capitalization and stocks in the top 95% of the Dow Jones U.S. Index universe are categorized into 10 Industries, 19 Supersectors, 41 Sectors and 114 Subsectors as defined by a proprietary classification system used by the index sponsor. Segments are designed to capture the risk characteristics of a specific market by grouping together constituents that respond in similar ways to economic, political and environmental factors.

The Dow Jones U.S. Index level is calculated using a fraction, the numerator of which is the price of each stock in the Dow Jones U.S. Index multiplied by the number of shares used in the Dow Jones U.S. Index calculation (total shares outstanding times the IWF), and summed across all the stocks in the Dow Jones U.S. Index. The denominator is the Dow Jones U.S. Index divisor.

The Dow Jones U.S. Index Divisor

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To assure that the Dow Jones U.S. Index’s value, or level, does not change when stocks are added or deleted, the divisor is adjusted to offset the change in market value of the Dow Jones U.S. Index. Thus, the divisor plays a critical role in the Dow Jones U.S. Index’s ability to provide a continuous measure of market valuation when faced with changes to the stocks included in the Dow Jones U.S. Index. In a similar manner, some corporate actions that cause changes in the market value of the stocks in an index should not be reflected in the Dow Jones U.S. Index level. Adjustments are made to the divisor to eliminate the impact of these corporate actions. Any change to the stocks in the Dow Jones U.S. Index that alters the total market value of the Dow Jones U.S. Index while holding stock prices constant will require a divisor adjustment.

Divisor adjustments are made “after the close” meaning that after the close of trading the closing prices are used to calculate the new divisor based on whatever changes are being made. It is, then, possible to provide two complete descriptions of the Dow Jones U.S. Index – one as it existed at the close of trading and one as it will exist at the next opening of trading. If the same stock prices are used to calculate the Dow Jones U.S. Index level for these two descriptions, the Dow Jones U.S. Index levels are the same.

With prices constant, any change that changes the total market value included in the Dow Jones U.S. Index will require a divisor change. For cataloging changes, it is useful to separate changes caused by the management of the Dow Jones U.S. Index from those stemming from corporate actions of the constituent companies. Among those changes driven by index management are adding or deleting companies, adjusting share counts and changes to IWFs and other factors affecting share counts or stock prices.

When a company is added to or deleted from the Dow Jones U.S. Index, the net change in the market value of the Dow Jones U.S. Index is calculated and this is used to calculate the new divisor. The market values of stocks being added or deleted are based on the prices, shares outstanding, IWFs and any other share count adjustments.

There are a large range of different corporate actions ranging from routine share issuances or buy backs to unusual events like spin-offs or mergers. These are listed on the table below with a description of the adjustments, if any.

Corporate Action

Effects

Divisor Adjustments?

Company added/deleted

Net change in market value determines the divisor adjustment.

Yes

Change in shares outstanding

Any combination of secondary issuance, share repurchase or buy back – share counts revised to reflect change.

Yes

Stock split

Share count revised to reflect new count. Divisor adjustment is not required since the share count and price changes are offsetting.

No

Spin-off

If the spun-off company is not being added to the Dow Jones U.S. Index, the divisor adjustment reflects the decline in Dow Jones U.S. Index market value (i.e., the value of the spun-off unit).

Yes

Spin-off

Spun-off company added to the Dow Jones U.S. Index, no company removed from the Dow Jones U.S. Index.

No

Spin-off

Spun-off company added to the Dow Jones U.S. Index, another company removed to keep number of names fixed. Divisor adjustment reflects deletion.

Yes

Change in IWF

Increasing (decreasing) the IWF increases (decreases) the total market value of the Dow Jones U.S. Index. The divisor change reflects the change in market value caused by the change to an IWF.

Yes

Special Dividend

When a company pays a special dividend the share price is assumed to drop by the amount of the dividend; the divisor adjustment reflects this drop in index market value.

Yes

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Rights offering

Each shareholder receives the right to buy a proportional number of additional shares at a set (often discounted) price. The calculation assumes that the offering is fully subscribed. Divisor adjustment reflects increase in market cap measured as the shares issued multiplied by the price paid.

Yes

Annual Reconstitution, Quarterly Reviews and Dow Jones U.S. Index Maintenance

The Dow Jones U.S. Index is reconstituted annually in September. The process includes the review of all stocks in their respective markets to determine eligibility according to the existing criteria. The reference date for data used in the annual reconstitution is the last business day in July. In addition, the investable weight factor (“IWF”), for each stock is reviewed and updated as needed. Changes are implemented at the opening of trading on the Monday following the third Friday of September. Changes in IWFs resulting from corporate actions which exceed 5% are implemented as soon as possible; changes of less than 5% are implemented at the next annual review.

Generally, no companies are added to the Dow Jones U.S. Index between annual reconstitutions except for initial public offerings and spinoffs. Any exceptions to this rule are announced with ample lead time. Any stocks considered for addition at the quarterly rebalance must have a float market cap larger than the smallest stock included in the Dow Jones U.S. Index at the time of the previous reconstitution.

Changes to shares and IWFs are implemented at the open of trading on the Monday following the third Friday of March, June, September and December. Size classification is reviewed as part of the quarterly update, with the reference date for size classification being five weeks prior to the rebalancing effective date. Confirmed share changes that are at least 5% of the total shares outstanding are implemented weekly. Total shares outstanding (not float-adjusted shares) are used to determine whether the share change meets this 5% threshold. The 5% rule applies to share changes only. IWF changes are only considered if a share change meets the 5% threshold. Share changes of 5% or greater resulting from aggregated smaller share change events are implemented when the index sponsor is able to validate the cumulative change.

Corporate actions (such as stock splits, stock dividends, spin-offs and rights offerings) are applied after the close of trading on the day prior to the ex-date. Share changes resulting from exchange offers are applied on the ex-date.

Initial public offerings and new listings on eligible exchanges are added to at the next quarterly update if the new listing occurs on or before the final trading day of February, May, August or November and meets all other eligibility requirements. Spinoffs of Dow Jones U.S. Index constituents are added to the Dow Jones U.S. Index at a zero price at the market close on the day before the ex-date (with no divisor adjustment). If a spun-off company is determined not to be eligible to remain in the Dow Jones U.S. Index, it will be removed after at least one day of regular way trading (with a divisor adjustment). Spinoffs are assigned the same size and style as the parent company at the time of the action. All spinoff sizes are evaluated at the next quarterly update.

Whenever possible, the index sponsor will announce changes in the Dow Jones U.S. Index at least two business days prior to their implementation date.

If a Dow Jones U.S. Index constituent is suspended by its primary market, it may be removed from the Dow Jones U.S. Index at the discretion of the Index Committee. When this occurs, the index sponsor will use the best-available alternate pricing source to determine the value at which the company should be removed from the Dow Jones U.S. Index.

Float Adjustment

The Dow Jones U.S. Index is float-adjusted, meaning that the share counts used in calculating the Dow Jones U.S. Index reflect only those shares available to investors rather than all of a company’s

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outstanding shares. The index sponsor seeks to exclude shares held by long-term, strategic shareholders concerned with the control of a company, a group that generally includes the following: officers and directors and related individuals whose holdings are publicly disclosed, private equity, venture capital, special equity firms, asset managers and insurance companies with board of director representation, publicly traded companies that hold shares in another company, holders of restricted shares (except for shares held as part of a lock-up agreement), company-sponsored employee share plans/trusts, defined contribution plans/savings, investment plans, foundations or family trusts associated with the company, government entities at all levels (except government retirement or pension funds), sovereign wealth funds and any individual person listed as a 5% or greater stakeholder in a company as reported in regulatory filings (collectively, “strategic holders”). To this end, the index sponsor excludes all share-holdings (other than depositary banks, pension funds (including government pension and retirement funds), mutual funds, exchange traded fund providers, investment funds, asset managers (including hedge funds with no board of director representation), investment funds of insurance companies and independent foundations not associated with the company) with a position greater than 5% of the outstanding shares of a company from the float-adjusted share count to be used in Dow Jones U.S. Index calculations.

The exclusion is accomplished by calculating an IWF for each stock that is part of the numerator of the float-adjusted index fraction described above:

IWF = (available float shares)/(total shares outstanding)

where available float shares is defined as total shares outstanding less shares held by strategic holders. In most cases, an IWF is reported to the nearest one percentage point. For companies with multiple share class lines, a separate IWF is calculated for each share class line.

 

License Agreement between Dow Jones Opco, LLC, a subsidiary of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and GS Finance Corp.

 

Standard & Poor’s® and S&P® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”) and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Index are products of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and/or its affiliates, and have been licensed for use by GS Finance Corp. (“Goldman”). The securities are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P, any of their third party licensors, or any of their respective affiliates (collectively, “S&P Dow Jones Indices”). S&P Dow Jones Indices make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the securities or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the securities particularly or the ability of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index or the Dow Jones U.S. Index to track general market performance. S&P Dow Jones Indices’ only relationship to Goldman with respect to the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index or the Dow Jones U.S. Index is the licensing of the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Index and certain trademarks, service marks and/or trade names of S&P Dow Jones Indices. The Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Index are determined, composed and calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices without regard to Goldman or the securities. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation to take the needs of Goldman or the owners of the securities into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index or the Dow Jones U.S. Index. S&P Dow Jones Indices are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the prices, and amount of the securities or the timing of the issuance or sale of the securities or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the securities are to be converted into cash. S&P Dow Jones Indices have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the securities. There is no assurance that investment products based on the Dow Jones U.S. Select Dividend Index or the Dow Jones U.S. Index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its subsidiaries are not investment advisors. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice.

 

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S&P DOW JONES INDICES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ORAL OR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS) WITH RESPECT THERETO. S&P DOW JONES INDICES SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. S&P DOW JONES INDICES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY GOLDMAN, OWNERS OF THE SECURITIES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL S&P DOW JONES INDICES BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. THERE ARE NO THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES OF ANY AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN S&P DOW JONES INDICES AND GOLDMAN OTHER THAN THE LICENSORS OF S&P DOW JONES INDICES.


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EURO STOXX 50® Index

 

The EURO STOXX 50® Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first published on February 26, 1998, based on an initial index value of 1,000 as of December 31, 1991; and

was created and is sponsored and maintained by STOXX Limited.

The EURO STOXX 50® Index is a free-float market capitalization-weighted index of 50 European blue-chip stocks. The 50 stocks included in the EURO STOXX 50® Index trade in Euros, and are allocated, based on their country of incorporation, primary listing and largest trading volume, to one of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, which we refer to collectively as the Eurozone. Companies allocated to a Eurozone country but not traded in Euros are not eligible for inclusion in the EURO STOXX 50® Index. The level of the EURO STOXX 50® Index is disseminated on the STOXX Limited website.  STOXX Limited is under no obligation to continue to publish the EURO STOXX 50® Index and may discontinue publication of it at any time. Additional information regarding the EURO STOXX 50® Index may be obtained from the STOXX Limited website: stoxx.com.  We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this underlier supplement.

The top ten constituent stocks of the EURO STOXX 50® Index as of December 14, 2020, by weight, are: ASML Holding N.V. (6.28%), LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE (5.30%), LINDE PLC (4.45%), SAP SE (4.29%), Total SE (3.81%), Sanofi S.A. (3.48%), Siemens (3.31%), Allianz SE (3.14%), L'Oréal (2.89%) and Iberdrola SA (2.57%); constituent weights may be found at stoxx.com/download/indices/factsheets/SX5GT.pdf under “Factsheets and Methodologies” and are updated periodically.

As of December 14, 2020, the nineteen industry sectors which comprise the EURO STOXX 50® Index represent the following weights in the index: Automobiles & Parts (3.76%), Banks (6.36%), Chemicals (9.29%), Construction & Materials (2.90%), Consumer Products and Services (10.30%), Energy (4.66%), Financial Services (1.03%), Food & Beverage (4.50%), Health Care (8.34%), Industrial Goods & Services (14.15%), Insurance (6.05%), Media (0.87%), Personal Care, Drug and Grocery Stores (1.01%), Real Estate (1.16%), Retail (2.85%), Technology (13.19%), Telecommunications (2.61%), Travel & Leisure (1.02%) and Utilities (5.95%); industry weightings may be found at stoxx.com/download/indices/factsheets/SX5GT.pdf under “Factsheets and Methodologies” and are updated periodically. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding. Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

As of December 14, 2020, the eight countries which comprise the EURO STOXX 50® Index represent the following weights in the index: Belgium (1.91%), Finland (1.79%), France (37.26%), Germany (32.07%), Ireland (2.04%), Italy (4.70%), Netherlands (13.61%) and Spain (6.60%); country weightings may be found at stoxx.com/download/indices/factsheets/SX5GT.pdf under “Factsheets and Methodologies” and are updated periodically.

EURO STOXX 50® Index Composition.

The EURO STOXX 50® Index is composed of 50 index stocks chosen by STOXX Limited from the 20 EURO STOXX Supersector indices, which represent the Eurozone portion of the STOXX Europe 600 Supersector indices. The 20 supersectors from which stocks are selected for the EURO STOXX 50® Index are: Automobiles & Parts; Banks; Basic Resources; Chemicals; Construction & Materials;

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Consumer Products & Services; Energy; Financial Services; Food, Beverages & Tobacco; Health Care; Industrial Goods & Services; Insurance; Media; Personal Care, Drug & Grocery Stores; Real Estate; Retailers; Technology; Telecommunications; Travel & Leisure; and Utilities; although stocks from each of these supersectors are not necessarily included at a given time.

Component Selection

The composition of the EURO STOXX 50® Index is reviewed by STOXX Limited annually in September. Within each of the 20 EURO STOXX Supersector indices, the respective index component stocks are ranked by free-float market capitalization. The largest stocks are added to the selection list until the coverage is close to, but still less than, 60% of the free-float market capitalization of the corresponding EURO STOXX Total Market Index Supersector Index. If the next highest-ranked stock brings the coverage closer to 60% in absolute terms, then it is also added to the selection list. All remaining stocks that are current EURO STOXX 50® Index components are then added to the selection list. The stocks on the selection list are then ranked by free-float market capitalization. The 40 largest stocks on the selection list are chosen as index components. The remaining 10 stocks are then selected from the largest current stocks ranked between 41 and 60. If the number of index components is still below 50, then the largest remaining stocks on the selection list are added until the EURO STOXX 50® Index contains 50 stocks. In exceptional cases, the STOXX Limited Management Board may make additions and deletions to the selection list.

Ongoing Maintenance of Component Stocks

The component stocks of the EURO STOXX 50® Index are monitored on an ongoing monthly basis for deletion and quarterly basis for addition. Changes to the composition of the EURO STOXX 50® Index due to corporate actions (including mergers and takeovers, spin-offs, sector changes and bankruptcy) are announced immediately, implemented two trading days later and become effective on the next trading day after implementation.

The component stocks of the EURO STOXX 50® Index are subject to a “fast exit” rule. A component stock is deleted if it ranks 75 or below on the monthly selection list and it ranked 75 or below on the selection list of the previous month. Additionally, any component stocks that are not traded for 10 consecutive days, are suspended from trading for 10 consecutive days, are officially delisted or are the subject of ongoing bankruptcy proceedings will be deleted from the EURO STOXX 50® Index. The highest-ranked non-component stock will replace the exiting component stock.  The EURO STOXX 50® Index is also subject to a “fast entry” rule. All stocks on the latest selection lists and initial public offering (IPO) stocks are reviewed for a fast-track addition on a quarterly basis. A stock is added if it qualifies for the latest blue-chip selection list generated at the end of February, May, August or November and if it ranks within the lower buffer (between 1 and 25) on the selection list. If added, the stock replaces the smallest component stock.

A deleted stock is replaced immediately to maintain the fixed number of stocks. The replacement is based on the latest monthly selection list. In the case of a merger or takeover where a component stock is involved, the original component stock is replaced by the new component stock. Generally, non-surviving stock(s) are deleted at the last traded price of the security. If any non-surviving stock is not trading anymore (delisted or suspended before its deletion), a new artificial price based on the acquisition/merger terms is calculated and the company is kept/deleted with this price instead of the last traded one. For the calculation of the artificial price only ordinary cash and stock terms will be used. Other instruments such as contingent value rights will not be considered. In the case of a spin-off, if the original stock was a component stock, then each spin-off stock qualifies for addition if it lies within the upper buffer (between 1 and 40) on the latest selection list. The largest qualifying spin-off stock replaces the original component stock, while the next qualifying spin-off stock replaces the lowest ranked component stock and likewise for other qualifying spin-off stocks.

The free float factors and outstanding number of shares for each index stock that STOXX Limited uses to calculate the EURO STOXX 50® Index, as described below, are reviewed, calculated and implemented on a quarterly basis and are fixed until the next quarterly review.  Certain extraordinary adjustments to the free float factors and/or the number of outstanding shares are implemented and made effective more

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quickly. The timing depends on the magnitude of the change. Each component’s weight is capped at 10% of the EURO STOXX 50® Index’s total free float market capitalization. The free float factor reduces the index stock’s number of shares to the actual amount available on the market. All holdings that are larger than five percent of the total outstanding number of shares and held on a long-term basis are excluded from the index calculation (including, but not limited to, stock owned by the company itself, stock owned by governments, stock owned by certain individuals or families, and restricted shares).

 

 

Index Calculation

STOXX Limited calculates the EURO STOXX 50® Index using the “Laspeyres formula,” which measures the aggregate price changes in the index stocks against a fixed base quantity weight. The discussion below describes the “price return” calculation of the EURO STOXX 50® Index. The applicable pricing supplement will describe the calculation of the EURO STOXX 50® Index if the underlier for your securities is not the price return calculation. The formula for calculating the EURO STOXX 50® Index value can be expressed as follows:

 

 

EURO STOXX 50® Index =

Free Float Market Capitalization of the

EURO STOXX 50® Index

 

Divisor

 

The “free float market capitalization of the EURO STOXX 50® Index” is equal to the sum of the product of the price, the number of shares, the free float factor and the weighting cap factor for each index stock as of the time the EURO STOXX 50® Index is being calculated. The index stocks trade in Euros and thus, no currency conversion is required. Where any index component stock price is unavailable on any trading day, the index sponsor will generally use the last reported price for such component stock.

In case the investability and tradability of the EURO STOXX 50® Index and index based products is affected by an upcoming market or company event that is considered significant or “extreme”  by the STOXX Management Board, the following actions or a combination of the following actions are taken. For all such changes a minimum notification period of two full trading days will be observed. The action scope may include but is not limited to:

application of expert judgment for index component pricing data,

adjustment of operational procedures,

postponement of index adjustments,

adjustment of selection lists,

change of weights of index constituents by adjusting the number of shares, free-float factors or weighting cap-factors, or

adjustment of index compositions.

 

EURO STOXX 50 Divisor

The EURO STOXX 50® Index is calculated using a divisor that helps to maintain the continuity of the EURO STOXX 50® Index’s value so that corporate actions do not artificially increase or decrease the level of the EURO STOXX 50® Index.

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The divisor is calculated by starting with the previous divisor in effect for the EURO STOXX 50® Index (which we call the “original divisor value”) and multiplying it by a fraction, the numerator of which is the previous free float market capitalization of the  EURO STOXX 50® Index, plus or minus the difference between the closing market capitalization of the EURO STOXX 50® Index and the adjusted closing market capitalization of the EURO STOXX 50® Index, and the denominator of which is the previous free float market capitalization of the EURO STOXX 50. The adjusted free float market capitalization is calculated for stocks of companies that have experienced a corporate action of the type described below as of the time the new divisor value is being calculated using the free float market capitalization calculated with adjusted closing prices, the new number of shares, and the new free float factor minus the free float market capitalization calculated with that stock’s original closing price, number of shares, and free float factor, in each case as used in calculating the original divisor value. Errors in divisor calculation are corrected on an intraday basis if discovered on the same day the new divisor is effective. If the error is discovered later, the error is corrected on an intraday basis if feasible and only if the error is considered significant by the STOXX Limited Management Board.

 

Divisor Adjustments

STOXX Limited adjusts the divisor for the EURO STOXX 50® Index to maintain the continuity of the EURO STOXX 50® Index values across changes due to corporate actions. Changes in weights due to corporate actions are distributed proportionally across all index components and equal an investment into the portfolio. The following is a summary of the adjustments to any index stock made for corporate actions and the effect of such adjustments on the divisor, where shareholders of the index stock will receive “B” new shares for every “A” share held (where applicable) and assuming that the version of the EURO STOXX 50® Index to which your securities are linked is the price return version. If your securities are linked to the total return calculation of the EURO STOXX 50® Index, please see the discussion in your pricing supplement regarding divisor adjustments. All adjusted prices consider withholding taxes based on the new shares being distributed, using “B * (1 – withholding tax where applicable)”.

 

(1) Special cash dividend:

Adjusted price = closing price – dividend announced by the company * (1- withholding tax if applicable)

 

Divisor: decreases

 

(2) Split and reverse split:

Adjusted price = closing price * A / B

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * B / A

 

Divisor: no change

 

(3) Rights offering:

Adjusted price = (closing price * A + subscription price * B) / (A + B)

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * (A + B) / A

 

Divisor: increases

 

If the subscription price is not available or if the subscription price is equal to or greater than the closing price on the day before the effective date, then no adjustment is made.

 

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If the subscription price is available as a price range and not as a fixed price, the price and share adjustment is performed only if both lower and upper range are in the money. The average value between lower and upper range will be used as a subscription price.

 

Extremely dilutive rights issues having a share ratio larger or equal to 2000% (B/A>20) are treated as follows:

 

STOXX will announce the deletion of the company from the EURO STOXX 50® Index following the standard rules for index replacements if sufficient notice of two trading days before the ex-date can be given.

The company may enter the EURO STOXX 50® Index again at the next periodic index review, but only after the new rights issue shares have been listed.

 

Extremely dilutive rights issues for which two trading days' notice before the ex-date cannot be given, and all highly dilutive rights issues having a share ratio larger or equal to 200% (B/A>2) are treated as follows:

 

The rights issue shares are included into the EURO STOXX 50® Index with a theoretical price on the ex-date;

The rights issue shares must be listed on an eligible stock exchange and tradable starting on the ex-date, otherwise, only a price adjustment is made and the rights are not included;

The rights issue shares will have the same parameters as the parent company;

The rights issue shares will be removed at the close of the day they start to trade with traded price being available; and

The number of shares and weighting factors will be increased after the new rights issue shares have been listed.

 

(4) Stock dividend:

Adjusted price = closing price * A / (A + B)

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * (A + B) / A

 

Divisor: no change

 

(5) Stock dividend from treasury stock if treated as extraordinary dividend:

 Adjusted close = close – close * B / (A + B)

 

Divisor: decreases

 

(6) Stock dividend (from redeemable shares) if treated as extraordinary dividend.

Stock dividends from redeemable shares will be adjusted as cash dividends. In such a case redeemable shares are considered as:

A separated share line with a fixed price

Ordinary shares that are self-tendered on the same ex-date

Adjusted close = close - close * B / (A + B)

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Divisor: decreases

(7) Stock dividend of another company:

Adjusted price = (closing price * A – price of other company * B) / A

 

Divisor: decreases

 

(8) Return of capital and share consolidation:

Adjusted price = [closing price – capital return announced by company * (1– withholding tax)] * A / B

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * B / A

 

Divisor: decreases

 

(9) Repurchase of shares / self-tender:

Adjusted price = [(price before tender * old number of shares) – (tender price * number of tendered shares)] / (old number of shares – number of tendered shares)

 

New number of shares = old number of shares – number of tendered shares

 

Divisor: decreases

 

 (10) Spin-off:

Adjusted price = (closing price * A – price of spun-off shares * B) / A

 

Divisor: decreases

 

(11) Combination stock distribution (dividend or split) and rights offering:

 For this corporate action, the following additional assumptions apply:

 

Shareholders receive B new shares from the distribution and C new shares from the rights offering for every A share held; and

 

If A is not equal to one, all the following “new number of shares” formulae need to be divided by A.

 

If rights are applicable after stock distribution (one action applicable to another):

 

Adjusted price = [closing price * A + subscription price * C * (1 + B / A)] / [(A + B) * (1 + C / A)]

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * [(A + B) * (1 + C / A)] / A

 

Divisor: increases

 

If stock distribution is applicable after rights (one action applicable to another):

 

Adjusted price = (closing price * A + subscription price * C) / [(A + C) * (1 + B / A)]

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * [(A + C) * (1 + B / A)]

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Divisor: increases

 

Stock distribution and rights (neither action is applicable to the other):

 

Adjusted price = (closing price * A + subscription price * C) / (A + B + C)

 

New number of shares = old number of shares * (A + B + C) / A

 

Divisor: increases

 

(12)  Addition/deletion of a company

No price adjustments are made.  The net change in market capitalization determines the divisor adjustment.

 

(13) Free float and shares changes

No price adjustments are made.  The net change in market capitalization determines the divisor adjustment.

License Agreement between STOXX Limited and Goldman Sachs

STOXX and its licensors (the “Licensors”) have no relationship to GS Finance Corp., other than the licensing of the EURO STOXX 50® Index and the related trademarks for use in connection with the securities.

 STOXX and its Licensors do not:

 

Sponsor, endorse, sell or promote the securities.

 

Recommend that any person invest in the securities or any other securities.

 

Have any responsibility or liability for or make any decisions about the timing, amount or pricing of the securities.

 

Have any responsibility or liability for the administration, management or marketing of the securities.

 

Consider the needs of the securities or the owners of the securities in determining, composing or calculating the EURO STOXX 50® Index or have any obligation to do so.


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STOXX and its Licensors will not have any liability in connection with the securities. Specifically,

 

STOXX and its Licensors do not make any warranty, express or implied and disclaim any and all warranty about:

The results to be obtained by the securities, the owner of the securities or any other person in connection with the use of the EURO STOXX 50® Index and the data included in the EURO STOXX 50® Index;

The accuracy or completeness of the EURO STOXX 50® Index and its data;

The merchantability and the fitness for a particular purpose or use of the EURO STOXX 50® Index and its data;

STOXX and its Licensors will have no liability for any errors, omissions or interruptions in the EURO STOXX 50® Index or its data;

Under no circumstances will STOXX or its Licensors be liable for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special or consequential damages or losses, even if STOXX or its Licensors knows that they might occur.

The licensing agreement between Goldman Sachs International and STOXX is solely for their benefit, and the benefit of certain affiliates of Goldman Sachs International, and not for the benefit of the owners of the securities or any other third parties.

 


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FTSE® 100 Index

 

The FTSE® 100 Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first launched with a base level of 1,000 as of December 30, 1983; and

is sponsored, calculated, published and disseminated by FTSE Russell, a company owned by the London Stock Exchange Group companies (the “Exchange”) that we refer to as FTSE.

The FTSE® 100 Index is a market capitalization-weighted index of the 100 most highly capitalized U.K.‑listed blue chip companies traded on the London Stock Exchange. Additional information on the FTSE® 100 Index is available from the following website: ftse.com/products/indices/uk. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this underlier supplement.

FTSE divides the 100 companies included in the FTSE® 100 Index into 10 Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB) industries: Oil & Gas, Basic Materials, Industrials, Consumer Goods, Health Care, Consumer Services, Telecommunications, Utilities, Financials and Technology.

FTSE® 100 Index Stock Weighting by Sector as of December 14, 2020ǂ

 

 

Sector:*

Percentage (%)**

Oil & Gas

9.07%

Basic Materials

11.06%

Industrials

10.66%

Consumer Goods

19.90%

Health Care

10.76%

Consumer Services

12.30%

Telecommunications

2.69%

Utilities

3.55%

Financials

19.27%

Technology

0.73%

ǂ As provided by FTSE Russell. Although FTSE Russell has implemented changes to the ICB structure effective as of July 1, 2019, the industries structure above will remain in place for the FTSE® 100 Index until the March semi-annual index review, after market close on March 19, 2021. The aforementioned changes (which are not reflected above) include the addition of an 11th industry, Real Estate, to the ICB, an expansion and reorganization of the current Telecommunications industry, a reorganization of the Consumer Goods and Consumer Services industries into Consumer Staples and Consumer Discretionary industries, respectively, and the renaming of the Oil & Gas industry to the Energy industry. The Real Estate industry contains the Real Estate Investment & Services sector and the Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) sector. However, because Mortgage REITs derive revenue from real estate financing rather than from real estate itself, they remain in the Financials industry. The Telecommunications industry was expanded via the addition of companies from the Technology industry and the Media sector and reorganized by creating a new Telecommunications Equipment sector and new Telecommunications Services (which includes Fixed Line Telecommunications and Mobile Telecommunications companies) and Cable Television Services subsectors, which are grouped at the sector level as the Telecommunications Service Providers sector. The new Consumer Staples and Consumer Discretionary industries are a blend of the existing Consumer Goods and Consumer Services industries, with a majority of the weight in the existing Consumer Goods industry shifting to the new Consumer Staples industry and a majority of the weight in the existing Consumer Services industry shifting to the new Consumer Discretionary industry.

* Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

** Information provided by FTSE. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

 

 

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The top ten constituent stocks of the FTSE® 100 Index as of December 14, 2020, by weight, are: Unilever (6.37%); AstraZeneca PLC (5.80%); HSBC Holdings PLC (4.72%); Diageo PLC (3.95%); GlaxoSmithKline PLC (3.95%); British American Tobacco PLC (3.79%); Rio Tinto (3.46%); Royal Dutch Shell PLC Class A (3.21%); BP PLC (3.07%) and Royal Dutch Shell PLC Class B (2.79%).

FTSE® 100 Index Composition and Selection Criteria

The FTSE® 100 Index consists of the 100 largest U.K.-listed blue chip companies, based on full market capitalization, that pass screening tests for free-float and liquidity. The FTSE® 100 Index is reviewed on a quarterly basis in March, June, September and December based on data from the close of business on the Tuesday before the first Friday of the review month. The FTSE Russell Europe, Middle East & Africa Regional Equity Advisory Committee, which we refer to as the Committee, meets quarterly to approve the constituents of the FTSE® 100 Index. Any constituent changes are implemented after the close of business on the third Friday of the review month (i.e. effective Monday), following the expiration of the Intercontinental Exchange Futures Europe futures and options contracts.

Eligibility Standards

Only “premium listed” equity shares, as defined by the Financial Conduct Authority in its Listing Rules Sourcebook, are eligible for inclusion in the FTSE® 100 Index. Eligible stocks must pass free-float and liquidity screens before being included in the FTSE® 100 Index.

Free-Float Screen  — With regard to free-float, a stock must have a minimum free float (as described below) of 25% if the issuing company is incorporated in the United Kingdom and 50% if it is a non-United Kingdom incorporated company. A new company may be initially included in the FTSE® 100 Index with a free float outside of the above parameters so long as it has an initial free float above 5% and it is expected to meet the minimum free float requirements within 12 months of its first day of trading.

Foreign Ownership Restrictions and Minimum Headroom Requirement — For the avoidance of doubt, a stock which restricts the number of shares that a UK investor can hold may be included in the FTSE 100 Index with an investability weight equal to the foreign ownership limit. However, the actual calculated free float will be referenced to determine if the stock meets the minimum free float criteria for index eligibility.

Minimum Voting Rights Screen — Companies are required to have greater than 5% of the company’s voting rights (aggregated across all of its equity securities, including, where identifiable, those that are not listed or trading) in the hands of unrestricted shareholders in order to be eligible for index inclusion.  Current constituents who do not meet this requirement will have until the September 2022 review to meet the requirement or they will be removed from the FTSE® 100 Index.

Liquidity Screen — With regard to liquidity, each eligible stock is tested for liquidity annually in June by calculating its median daily trading per month. When calculating the median of daily trades per month of any security, a minimum of 5 trading days in each month must exist, otherwise the month is excluded from the test. Liquidity is tested from the first business day in May of the previous year to the last business day of April. The median trade is calculated by ranking each daily trade total and selecting the middle-ranking day. Any period of suspension is not included in the test. Where a security has a market quote in multiple currencies, only volume data from the eligible Sterling quote will be used in the liquidity test. The liquidity test is applied on a pro-rata basis where the testing period is less than 12 months. A stock not presently included in the FTSE® 100 Index that does not turnover at least 0.025% of its shares in issue (after application of any investability weightings) based on its median daily trade per month in at least ten of the 12 months prior to the annual index review in June will not be eligible for inclusion until the next annual review. An existing constituent failing to trade at least 0.015% of its shares in issue (after the application of any investability weightings) based on its median daily trade per month for at least eight of the 12 months prior to the annual index review will be removed from the FTSE® 100 Index and will not be eligible for inclusion until the next annual review. New issues must have a minimum trading record of at least 20 trading days prior to the review date and that they have turned over at least 0.025% of their shares in issue (after the application of any investability weightings) based on their median daily trade each month, on a pro-rata basis since premium listing or UK Nationality allocation date if non-UK incorporated.

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Price— With regard to price, the Committee must be satisfied that an accurate and reliable price exists for purposes of determining the market value of a company. To be eligible for inclusion in the FTSE® 100 Index, a stock must have a full listing on the London Stock Exchange with a Sterling-denominated price on SETS (SETS is the London Stock Exchange’s trading service for among other securities, those included in the FTSE® 100 Index).

Market Capitalization Ranking — Eligible stocks that pass the free-float and liquidity screens and that have an accurate and reliable price are ranked by the Committee according to their market capitalization before the application of any adjustments based on the extent to which the shares are publicly traded. Only the quoted equity capital of a constituent company will be included in the calculation of its market capitalization. Where a company has two or more classes of equity, secondary lines will be included in the calculation of the market capitalization of the company only if those lines are significant and liquid. The Committee will add a stock to the FTSE® 100 Index at the quarterly review if it has risen to 90th place or above on the full market capitalization rankings and will delete a stock at the quarterly review if it has fallen to 111th place or below on these rankings. Market capitalization rankings are calculated using data as of the close of business on the day before the review.

100 Constituent Limitation — The FTSE® 100 Index always contains 100 constituents. If a greater number of companies qualify to be inserted in the FTSE® 100 Index than qualify to be removed, the lowest ranking constituents of the FTSE® 100 Index will be removed so that the total number of stocks remains at 100 following inclusion of those that qualify to be inserted. Likewise, if a greater number of companies qualify to be removed than to be inserted at the quarterly review, securities of the highest ranking companies that are then not included in the FTSE® 100 Index will be inserted to match the number of companies being removed, in order to maintain the total at 100.

Index Calculation

The FTSE® 100 Index is a market capitalization weighted index. This means that the price movement of a larger company (that is, one representing larger percentage of the index) will have a greater effect on the price of the index than will the price movement of a smaller company (that is, one representing a smaller percentage of the index).

The value of the FTSE® 100 Index is represented by a fraction, (a) the numerator of which is the sum of the product of (i) the price of each component stock, (ii) the number of shares issued for each such component and (iii) a free float factor for each such component (described more fully below), and (b) the denominator of which is a divisor. The divisor represents the total issued share capital of the FTSE® 100 Index on the base date; the divisor may be adjusted as necessary to allow for changes in issued share capital of individual securities without distorting the FTSE® 100 Index.

As noted above, a free float factor is applied to each index component. By employing this approach, FTSE uses the investable market capitalization, not the total market capitalization, of each constituent to determine the value of the FTSE® 100 Index. Investable market capitalization depends on free float. The following are excluded from free float: shares directly owned by state, regional, municipal and local governments (excluding shares held by independently managed pension schemes for governments); shares held by sovereign wealth funds where each holding is 10% or greater of the total number of shares in issue; shares held by directors, senior executives and managers of the company, and by their family and direct relations, and by companies with which they are affiliated; shares held within employee share plans; shares held by public companies or by non-listed subsidiaries of public companies; shares held by founders, promoters, former directors, founding venture capital and private equity firms, private companies and individuals (including employees) where the holding is 10% or greater of the total number of shares in issue; all shares where the holder is subject to a lock-up clause or has a stated incentive to retain the shares (for the duration of that clause or incentive, after which free float changes resulting from the expiration of a lock-up clause or incentive will be implemented at the next quarterly review subject to the expiration date of such lock-up clause or incentive occurring on or prior to the share and float change information cut-off date; shares held by an investor, investment company or an investment fund for publicly announced strategic reasons and shares held by an investor, investment company or an investment fund that has an employee on the board of directors of a company, has a shareholder

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agreement, has successfully placed a current member to the board of directors or has nominated a current member to the board of directors alongside a shareholder agreement with the company; and shares that are subject to ongoing contractual agreements (such as swaps) where they would ordinarily be treated as restricted. Shares disclosed as being held by a nominee account are typically regarded as free float, unless a restricted shareholder is identified as holding shares through such nominee account, in which case that portion of shares will be restricted from free float. In addition, while portfolio holdings such as pension funds, insurance funds or investment companies will generally not be considered as restricted from free float, where a single portfolio holding is 30% or greater it will be regarded as strategic and therefore restricted (and will remain restricted until the holding falls below 30%).

The FTSE® 100 Index is recalculated whenever errors or distortions occur that are deemed to be significant. Users of the FTSE® 100 Index are notified through appropriate media.

Index Maintenance

The FTSE® 100 Index is reviewed quarterly for changes in free float. A constituent’s free float is updated during the June review regardless of the size of the change. At the March, September and December quarterly updates, a constituent with a free float greater than 15% will have its free float updated if it moves by more than 3% above or below the existing free float.  A constituent with a free float of 15% or below will be subject to a 1% threshold. Free float changes resulting from corporate events will not be subject to the percentage change requirements, and will be implemented in line with the event. If a constituent is the target of a tender offer but the conditions for removal from the FTSE® 100 Index are not met, FTSE may implement a free float change when (i) the minimum acceptance level as stipulated by the acquirer has been met, (ii) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment, and (iii) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met.

If a merger or takeover results in one index constituent being absorbed by another constituent, the resulting company will remain a constituent and a vacancy will be created. This vacancy will be filled by selecting the highest ranking constituent of the FTSE All-Share Index (which is not currently a member of the FTSE® 100 Index) as at the close of the FTSE® 100 Index calculation two days prior to the deletion and related index adjustment. If an index constituent is taken over by a non-constituent company, the original constituent will be removed and may be replaced by the acquiring company where eligible for the FTSE® 100 Index. Otherwise the highest ranking constituent of the FTSE All-Share Index (which is not currently a member of the FTSE® 100 Index) will serve as the replacement. If a constituent company is split to form two or more companies, both eligible for the FTSE® 100 Index, then the resulting companies’ index memberships will be re-assessed in order to rebalance the FTSE® 100 Index back to 100. The full market capitalizations at the close on the first day of trading of the spun-off company will be used to determine the most appropriate index memberships for continued inclusion. The changes will then be applied at market close giving two days’ notice. Consequently, the FTSE® 100 Index may have more than 100 companies for three days (or more if the spun-off company does not trade on effective date). If the market price of a company resulting from a split is unavailable it may be retained in the FTSE® 100 Index for up to 20 business days and if trading has not commenced, it will be deleted at zero value. If a split results in the inclusion of an ineligible company, then the ineligible company will remain in the FTSE® 100 Index for two trading days and then be deleted at the market price. The eligible company will be retained in the FTSE® 100 Index as the replacement company and its continued index membership will be reviewed at the next quarterly index review. If a constituent is delisted or ceases to have a firm quotation or is subject to a takeover offer which has been declared wholly unconditional or has ceased to be a viable constituent as defined by the index methodology, it will be removed from the list of constituents and be replaced by the highest ranking constituent of the FTSE All-Share Index (which is not currently a member of the FTSE® 100 Index).

Adjustments due to mergers and acquisitions are applied to the FTSE® 100 Index after the action is determined to be final. In the event that a constituent is being acquired for cash or is delisted subsequent to an index review, such constituent will be removed from the FTSE® 100 Index in conjunction with the index review, assuming that the action is determined to be final and a minimum of two days’ notice can be provided.

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Between constituents:  When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of the FTSE® 100 Index for cash, the target company is deleted from the FTSE® 100 Index at the last traded price. When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of the FTSE® 100 Index for stock, the target company is deleted from the FTSE® 100 Index and the shares of the acquiring stock are increased according to the offer terms. When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of the FTSE® 100 Index for cash or stock or a combination thereof, the target company is deleted from the FTSE® 100 Index and the shares of the acquiring company are simultaneously increased per the merger terms.

Between a constituent and a non-constituent:  If the target company is a member of the FTSE® 100 Index, it is deleted from the FTSE® 100 Index and the acquiring company will be included initially in the FTSE® 100 Index provided it is eligible in all other respects at the time of the merger, regardless of previous eligibility screenings. If the acquiring company is deemed eligible it will be added to the FTSE® 100 Index on the effective date and the opening price will be calculated using the offer terms. When a FTSE® 100 index constituent acquires a non-constituent that is a FTSE Russell Universe member, the shares of the member acquiring company will be updated to reflect the merger. Any share update will be made giving appropriate notice.

Given sufficient market hours after the confirmation of a merger or acquisition, FTSE effects the action after the close on the last day of trading of the target company, or at an appropriate time once the transaction has been deemed to be final.

If a constituent is the target of a tender offer, it will normally be removed from the FTSE® 100 Index with a minimum T+2 notice when (i)(a) offer acceptances reach 90%, (b) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment, and (c) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met and the acquirer has not explicitly stated that it does not intend to acquire or squeeze out the remaining shares; (ii) there is reason to believe that the remaining free float is under 5% based on information available at the time; or (iii) following completion of the offer, the acquirer has stated that the offer has been declared wholly unconditional.

Where the conditions for index deletion are not met, FTSE Russell may implement a free float change based on the reported acceptance results at the expiration of the initial, subsequent or final offer period where (i) the minimum acceptance level as stipulated by the acquiror has been met; (ii) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment; (iii) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met and (iv  the change to the current float factor is greater than 3%.  FTSE Russell uses the published results of the offer to determine the new free float of the target company. If no information is published in conjunction with the results from which FTSE Russell can determine which shareholders have and have not tendered, the free float change will reflect the total shares now owned by the acquiring company. A minimum T+2 notice period of the change is generally provided. Any subsequent disclosure on the updated shareholder structure will be reviewed during the quarterly review cycle. If the offer includes a stock consideration, the acquiring company’s shares will be increased proportionate to the free float change of the target company.  If the target company’s free float change is greater than 3%, the associated change to the acquiring company’s shares will be implemented regardless of size. Additionally, if the change to the target company is less than 3%, then no change will be implemented to the target or the acquiring company at the time of the event, regardless of any change to the acquiring company’s shares. The target company will then be deleted as a second-step, if the conditions for deletion are achieved at the expiration of a subsequent offer period.  

In exceptional circumstances, any review changes due to be effective for the companies involved in a tender offer may be retracted if FTSE Russell becomes aware of a tender offer which is due to complete on or around the effective date of such index review changes. Such exceptional circumstances may include undue price pressure being placed on the companies involved, or if proceeding with the review changes would compromise the replicability of the FTSE® 100 Index.

A stock will be deleted as a constituent if it is delisted from all eligible exchanges, becomes bankrupt, files for bankruptcy protection, is insolvent or is liquidated, or where evidence of a change in circumstances makes it ineligible for index inclusion. Any security which has been deleted from the FTSE 100® Index as

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a result of bankruptcy or any non-constituent which was previously in bankruptcy will only be considered for index eligibility after a period of 12 months following it exiting bankruptcy protection. For the purpose of index eligibility, the security will be treated as a new issue.

Capitalization Adjustments

A secondary line of a company will be considered for index inclusion if its total market capitalization before the application of any adjustments based on the extent to which the shares are publicly traded, is greater than 25% of the total market capitalization of the company’s principal line and the secondary line is eligible, in its own right. Should the total market capitalization of a secondary line fall below 20% of the total market capitalization of the company’s principal line at an annual review, the secondary line will be deleted from the FTSE® 100 Index unless its total market capitalization remains above the qualification level for continued inclusion as a constituent of the FTSE® 100 Index at that review. Where a company has partly paid shares, these shares, together with the outstanding call(s), are both included in the FTSE® 100 Index.

Share Weighting Changes — For the purposes of computing the FTSE® 100 Index, to prevent a large number of insignificant weighting changes, the number of shares in issue for each constituent security is amended only when the total shares in issue held within the index system changes by more than 1% on a cumulative basis or the total free float changes by more than 3% on a cumulative basis. A company with a free float of 15% or below will not be subject to the 3% threshold and will instead be updated if the change is greater than 1%. Changes will be made quarterly after the close of business on the third Friday of March, June, September and December.  The data for these changes will be taken from the close of business on the Friday five weeks prior to the review implementation. If a corporate action is applied to a constituent which involves a change in the number of shares in issue, the change in shares will be applied simultaneously with the corporate action.

Shares in Issue Increase — When a company increases the number of shares it has in issue, the market capitalization of that company increases and the total market capitalization will rise accordingly. The FTSE® 100 Index divisor is adjusted to maintain a constant index value.

Weighting Amendments — The market capitalization of a company is adjusted to take account of various corporate actions. To prevent the value of the FTSE® 100 Index from changing due to such an event, all corporate actions which affect the market capitalization of the FTSE® 100 Index require an offsetting divisor adjustment. By adjusting the divisor, the value of the FTSE® 100 Index remains constant before and after the event. Below is a summary of the more frequent corporate actions and their resulting adjustment.

 

Type of Corporate Action

 

Adjustment

 

Adjustment to Divisor

 

 

 

 

 

Issue of new shares

 

Share weighting increased

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bonus issue of same stock or stock split

 

Number of shares held before issue or split divided by number of shares held after issue or split

 

No

 

Rights Issues/Entitlement Offers  - These are an entitlement issued to shareholders which give them the right to buy additional shares directly from the company in proportion to existing holdings. FTSE will only adjust the FTSE® 100 Index to account for a right if the subscription price of the right is at a discount to the market price of the stock.  Provided FTSE has been alerted to the rights offer prior to the ex-date, a price adjustment and share increase proportionate to the terms of the offer will be implemented before the open on the ex-date. The rights become attached to the shares on the ex-date.

 

Where the rights issue/entitlement offer subscription price remains unconfirmed on the ex-date, FTSE will estimate the subscription price using the value being raised and the offer terms. If the rights issue is greater than ten to one, FTSE will consider this “highly dilutive” and, to facilitate replication, will include on

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the ex-date a separate temporary line to reflect the market value of the rights (together with a temporary line at a fixed value to reflect the subscription cash) until the end of the subscription period, at which point the temporary lines will be deleted and the new shares will be consolidated into the existing share line.

 

Where the shares being issued are not entitled to the next dividend, FTSE will deviate from the standard index treatment and include on the ex-date a separate temporary line to reflect the market value of the rights (together with a temporary line at a fixed value to reflect the subscription cash).  If the dividend ex-date occurs prior to the end of the rights subscription period, the temporary lines will be deleted and the new shares assimilated into the ordinary line at the open on the dividend ex-date.  If the dividend ex-date occurs after the expiration of the rights subscription period, the temporary rights and cash line will be deleted after the close on the last day of the rights subscription period, and replaced by a temporary dummy line equal to the ordinary line close price minus the upcoming dividend. On the open of the ex-dividend date, the dummy line is deleted and the shares are aggregated with the ordinary line.  

 

In the event the rights issue involves a non-constituent (including non-equity) and the value of the right cannot be determined, there will be no adjustment on the ex-date. If the rights are scheduled to trade, a rights line will be added to the FTSE® 100 Index at a value of zero on the ex-date and will be deleted from the FTSE® 100 Index at the market price when it commences trading, with T+5 notice. If the rights have not commenced trading within 20 business days of the ex-date, they will be removed at zero value. No cash temporary line will be included as the FTSE® 100 Index will not subscribe to the rights.

 

Where a company announces an open offer or a rights issue with an ex-entitlement date on the same day, FTSE will apply an index adjustment either before the market-open on the ex-entitlement day or as an intra-day adjustment as soon as possible thereafter.  The adjustment will be applied based on the previous day’s closing price with the new shares included in the index weighting at the open offer price.

 

In the case of an accelerated rights offer, where the ex-date is theoretical and typically not quoted by the exchange, shares are increased and a price adjustment is applied according to the terms of the offer before the open on the day the security resumes trading.

 

Market Disruption

 

If there is a system problem or situation in the market that is judged by FTSE to affect the quality of the constituent prices at any time when an index is being calculated, the index will be declared indicative (e.g. normally where a “fast market” exists in the equity market). The message “IND” will be displayed against the index value calculated by FTSE.

 

License Agreement between FTSE and GS Finance Corp.

 

The securities are not in any way sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”) or the London Stock Exchange Group companies (“LSEG”) (together the “Licensor Parties”) and none of the Licensor Parties make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to (i) the results to be obtained from the use of the FTSE® 100 Index (the “Index”) (upon which the securities are based), (ii) the figure at which the Index is said to stand at any particular time on any particular day or otherwise, or (iii) the suitability of the Index for the purpose to which it is being put in connection with the securities. None of the Licensor Parties have provided or will provide any financial or investment advice or recommendation in relation to the Index to GS Finance Corp. or to its clients. The Index is calculated by FTSE or its agent. None of the Licensor Parties shall be (a) liable (whether in negligence or otherwise) to any person for any error in the Index or (b) under any obligation to advise any person of any error therein.

 

All rights in the Index vest in FTSE. “FTSE®” is a trade mark of LSEG and is used by FTSE under license.


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Hang Seng China Enterprises Index

The Hang Seng China Enterprises Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first launched on August 8, 1994 based on an initial value of 1,000 but was rebased with a value of 2,000 as at January 3, 2000; and

is sponsored by Hang Seng Indexes Company Limited (“HSI Company Limited”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hang Seng Bank.

The Hang Seng China Enterprises Index is a free-float market capitalization weighted stock market index compiled, published and managed by HSI Company Limited. The Hang Seng China Enterprises Index serves as a benchmark to track the performance of mainland securities primarily listed on the Main Board of the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Ltd. (“HKEX”). A mainland security is defined as a Hong Kong-listed security that has at least 50% of its sales revenue (or profit or assets, if relevant) derived from the mainland. Additional information about the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index is available on the following website: hsi.com.hk/HSI-Net/HSI-Net. Additional information about the HKEX is available on the following website: hkex.com.hk. We are not incorporating by reference the websites or any material they include in this underlier supplement.

The index sponsor divides the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index into industry sectors: Conglomerates, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Healthcare, Industrials, Information Technology, Materials, Properties & Construction, Telecommunications and Utilities. Sector designations are determined by HIS Company Limited using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

Top Ten Constituent Stocks by Weight

as of December 14, 2020

Stock 

Percentage (%)*

Tencent

10.08%

China Construction Bank

8.97%

PING AN

8.03%

Xiaomi Corp – Class B

5.70%

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited

5.01%

Alibaba Group Holding Limited

4.99%

Meituan Dianping – Class B

4.99%

China Mobile Limited

3.91%

Bank of China Limited

3.01%

China Merchants Bank

2.73%

*Information on constituent stocks is available at hsi.com.hk/static/uploads/contents/en/dl_centre/factsheets/hsceie.pdf


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Stock Weightings by Sector

as of November 30, 2020

Sector

 

Percentage (%)*

Energy

 

5.09%

Industrials

 

2.62%

Consumer Staples

 

4.10%

Healthcare

 

2.39%

Consumer Discretionary

 

5.33%

Telecommunications

 

6.09%

Utilities

 

3.25%

Financials

 

37.79%

Properties & Construction

 

7.77%

Information Technology

 

24.45%

Conglomerates

 

1.11%

*Information on industry weightings is available at

hsi.com.hk/static/uploads/contents/en/dl_centre/factsheets/hsceie.pdf

Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

 

Composition and Selection Criteria

 

The universe of possible constituent stocks of the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index is comprised of mainland securities primarily listed on the Main Board of the HKEX only. It includes the primary or secondary listed shares of companies and real estate investment trusts and excludes stapled securities, foreign companies, biotech companies with stock names with marker “B” and investment companies listed under Chapter 21 of the listing rules.

 

Stock Selection

 

From the universe of all eligible companies, constituent stocks are removed from or added to the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index quarterly based on the following eligibility screening and selection process:

 

Listing history requirement.  Constituent stocks should be listed for at least one month starting from the listing date to the review cut-off date (both dates inclusive). List history from overseas exchanges does not count.

 

Turnover screening.  Turnover velocity in each of the past 12 months is calculated for each stock as the quotient of the median of daily traded shares in a specific calendar month divided by the free-float-adjusted issued shares at month end. A stock is regarded as passing the monthly turnover test if it attains a minimum velocity of 0.1% in that month. 

 

High shareholding concentration.  Constituent stocks with high shareholding concentration according to the “High Shareholding Concentration Announcement” posted on the Securities and Futures Commission’s website will not be eligible for inclusion in the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index.

 

New constituents.  A new constituent stock must have maintained a 0.1% turnover velocity for at least ten out of the past 12 months and in each of the three most recent months. 

 

Existing constituents.  An existing constituent stock must have maintained 0.1% turnover velocity for at least ten out of the past 12 months or, for months when an existing constituent does not meet the 0.1% turnover velocity, it must have had a monthly aggregate turnover among the top 90th percentile of the total market, where the total market is defined as including securities in the universe of the Hang Seng Composite Index.

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Constituents with less than 12 months trading history.  A stock with a trading history of less than six months must have attained a minimum turnover velocity of 0.1% for all trading months.  A stock with a trading history of at least six months, but less than 12 months, may not have more than one month in which it has failed to attain a velocity of at least 0.1% and, for the latest three months, must have attained 0.1% for all trading months if the stock is not an existing constituent.  The criteria in the preceding two sentences also applies to a stock that has transferred from Growth Enterprise Market to the Main Board of the HKEX in the 12 months before the data review cut-off date at the end of each fiscal quarter (March, June, September and December).

 

Buffer Zone. The eligible stocks are ranked by highest combined market capitalization (market capitalization equals the number of issued shares times the share price; for secondary-listed companies, the number of issued shares refers to the number of shares registered in Hong Kong).  Existing constituents ranked 61st or lower are removed from the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index while non-constituents ranked 40th or higher are included.  Stocks will thereafter be removed (by lowest combined market capitalization) or added (by highest combined market capitalization) until the number of constituents reaches 50.

 

Combined market capitalization is the sum of (i) full market capitalization, in terms of average month-end market capitalization in the past 12 months, and (ii) free-float-adjusted market capitalization, in terms of 12-month average market capitalization after free-float adjustment, each weighted by 50%. The average of the past month-end market capitalization since listing is used for stocks with a listing history of less than 12 months. If two stocks have the same combined market capitalization ranking, a higher rank is assigned to the stock with the higher full market capitalization.

 

Fast Entry Rule

A newly listed mainland security will be added to the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index out of regular review periods if its market capitalization ranks within the top 10 of the existing constituents at the market close of its first trading day. The ad hoc addition will normally be implemented after the close of the 10th trading day of the new issue. No existing constituent will be removed from the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index under the fast entry rule. The constituent number will be reset in the next regular rebalancing. 

Calculation Methodology

 

Buffer Zone from the June 2019 Rebalancing Onwards. The eligible stocks are ranked by highest combined market capitalization. Existing constituents ranked 61st or lower will be removed from the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index while non-constituents ranked 40th or higher will be included. Stocks will thereafter be removed (by lowest combined market capitalization) or added (by highest combined market capitalization) until the number of constituents reaches 50. In the September 2020 rebalancings, the maximum number of constituent changes were limited to three. This limit will not be applicable from the December 2020 rebalancing onwards.

 

The Hang Seng China Enterprises Index is calculated using a free-float-adjusted market-weighted capitalization methodology. The discussion below describes the “price return” calculation of the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index. The applicable pricing supplement will describe the calculation if the underlier for your securities is not the price return calculation. Under this methodology, the following shareholdings (excluding custodians, trustees, mutual funds and investment companies), when exceeding 5% of shareholdings in the company on an individual basis, are viewed as non-free float and are excluded for index calculation purposes:

 

Strategic holdings: shares held by governments and affiliated entities or any other entities which hold substantial shares in a company are considered as non-free float unless otherwise proved;

 

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Directors’ and management holdings: shares held by directors, members of the board committee, principal officers or founding members;

 

Corporate cross-holdings:  shares held by publicly traded companies or private firms/institutions; and

 

Lock-up shares: shares that are subject to a publicly disclosed lock up arrangement.

 

A free-float adjustment factor representing the proportion of shares that is free floated as a percentage of the issued shares is rounded up to the nearest whole percentage for free-float adjustment factors of less than 10% and is otherwise rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5%. Free-float adjustment factors are reviewed quarterly. For companies with more than one class of shares, free-float adjustment factors will be calculated separately for each class of shares. A cap of 5% on secondary-listed constituents and weighted voting rights (“WVR”) constituents and a cap of 10% on other constituents is applied, such that no individual constituent in the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index will have a weighting exceeding a predetermined cap level on the index capping date. The weightings of the constituents will be derived in the following manner:

 

(a)

Initial weightings of the constituents are derived in accordance with the free-float adjusted

market value and are capped at 10%

 

(b)

Any excessive weightings will be re-distributed to constituents with weightings less than

10% in proportion to their original weightings in step (a)

 

(c)

Step (b) will be repeated until no constituents have a weighting higher than 10%

 

(d)

If, subsequent to the re-distribution, WVR and/ or secondary-listed constituents with weightings more than 5% emerge, they will be capped at 5% and the excessive weightings will be re-distributed to WVR and/ or secondary-listed constituents with weightings less than 5% and other constituents with weightings less than 10% in proportion to their redistributed weightings in step (c)

 

(e)

Step (d) will be repeated until no constituents have a weighting higher than the corresponding cap level of 5% on secondary-listed constituents and WVR constituents and a cap of 10% on other constituents.

 

The Hang Seng China Enterprises Index is calculated and disseminated every 2 seconds during trading hours on each trading day of the HKEX and is calculated as the product of (i) the current aggregate free-float-adjusted market capitalization of constituents divided by the previous trading day’s aggregate free-float-adjusted market capitalization of constituents, (ii) multiplied by the previous trading day’s closing index level. The current aggregate free-float-adjusted market capitalization of constituents on any trading day is the sum of the current free-float-adjusted market capitalizations of the constituents, which for each constituent is the product of the current price of the constituent, the actual total number of each class of shares issued by the constituent, the free-float adjustment factor for the constituent (which is between zero and 1) and the cap factor for the constituent (which is between zero and 1). A cap factor is calculated quarterly, such that no individual constituent in the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index will have a weighting exceeding the applicable cap level on the index capping date. The previous trading day’s aggregate free-float-adjusted market capitalization of constituents is the sum of the previous trading day’s free-float-adjusted market capitalizations of the constituents, which for each constituent is the product of the closing price of the constituent on the previous trading day, the actual total number of each class of shares issued by the constituent, the free-float adjustment factor for the constituent (which is between zero and 1) and the cap factor for the constituent (which is between zero and 1), in each case as determined on that trading day.

Index Rebalancing

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The adjustment of the free-float adjustment factor, the calculation of the cap factor, and the update of issued shares is undertaken quarterly.

The Hang Seng China Enterprises Index may also be adjusted on an ad hoc basis in the event of certain corporate actions and events. A minimum notice period of two trading days will be given to index users for any ad hoc rebalancing. For events which have a clear ex-date or effective date, e.g. bonus, rights issues, consolidation, etc., index adjustment will be implemented after market close on the trading day immediately prior to the ex-date or effective date. Other corporate events, including placing and issuance of new shares, will result in an adjustment to the free-float factor if the number of free-float issued shares changes by more than 10%. After the update, the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index will be recapped if the weighting of any capped constituent fell below 5 percentage points from the cap level, or the weighting of any constituent is higher than 5 percentage points above the cap level.

In the event of ad hoc constituent changes, the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index will only be recapped if the weighting of a newly included constituent is higher than the cap level. For ad hoc constituent deletion, no recapping will be undertaken.

Trading Halt or Suspension

Whether or not to remove a suspended constituent from the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index and replace it with an appropriate candidate will be determined in the regular index reviews. Should a suspended constituent be removed from the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index, its last traded price may be adjusted down to the lowest price in the system (i.e. $0.0001 in the security’s price currency) or an official residual price (if available) will be used for index calculation on the trading day preceding the effective date of the constituent changes. In the event of a trading halt or suspension, the last traded price will be used for index calculation. In exceptional circumstances, a suspended constituent may be retained in the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index only if it is believed that its shares are highly likely to resume trading in the near future.

License Agreement between Hang Seng Indexes Company Limited and GS Finance Corp.

 

GS Finance Corp. has entered into a non-exclusive license agreement with Hang Seng Indexes Company Limited (“HSI Company Limited”) and Hang Seng Data Services Limited, in exchange for a fee, whereby GS Finance Corp. will be permitted to use the index in connection with the offer and sale of the securities. GS Finance Corp. is not affiliated with HSI Company Limited and Hang Seng Data Services Limited; the only relationship between HSI Company Limited and Hang Seng Data Services Limited and GS Finance Corp. is the licensing of the use of the index and related trademarks.

 

Neither GS Finance Corp. nor any of its affiliates accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the index or any successor index.

 

The index is published and compiled by HSI Company Limited pursuant to a license from Hang Seng Data Services Limited. The mark and name “Hang Seng China Enterprises Index” are proprietary to Hang Seng Data Services Limited. HSI Company Limited and Hang Seng Data Services Limited have agreed to the use of, and reference to, the index by GS Finance Corp. in connection with the securities, BUT NEITHER HSI COMPANY LIMITED NOR HANG SENG DATA SERVICES LIMITED WARRANTS OR REPRESENTS OR GUARANTEES TO ANY BROKER OR HOLDER OF THE PRODUCT OR ANY OTHER PERSON (i) THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX AND ITS COMPUTATION OR ANY INFORMATION RELATED THERETO; OR (ii) THE FITNESS OR SUITABILITY FOR ANY PURPOSE OF THE INDEX OR ANY COMPONENT OR DATA COMPRISED IN IT; OR (iii) THE RESULTS WHICH MAY BE OBTAINED BY ANY PERSON FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR ANY COMPONENT OR DATA COMPRISED IN IT FOR ANY PURPOSE, AND NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION OR GUARANTEE OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER RELATING TO THE INDEX IS GIVEN OR MAY BE IMPLIED. The process and basis of computation and compilation of the index and any of the related formula or formulae, constituent stocks and factors may at any time be changed or altered by HSI Company Limited without notice. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, NO RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY IS ACCEPTED BY HSI COMPANY LIMITED OR HANG SENG

S-55


 

DATA SERVICES LIMITED (i) IN RESPECT OF THE USE OF AND/ OR REFERENCE TO THE INDEX BY GS FINANCE CORP. IN CONNECTION WITH THE SECURITIES; OR (ii) FOR ANY INACCURACIES, OMISSIONS, MISTAKES OR ERRORS OF HSI COMPANY LIMITED IN THE COMPUTATION OF THE INDEX; OR (iii) FOR ANY INACCURACIES, OMISSIONS, MISTAKES, ERRORS OR INCOMPLETENESS OF ANY INFORMATION USED IN CONNECTION WITH THE COMPUTATION OF THE INDEX WHICH IS SUPPLIED BY ANY OTHER PERSON; OR (iv) FOR ANY ECONOMIC OR OTHER LOSS WHICH MAY BE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY SUSTAINED BY ANY BROKER OR HOLDER OF THE PRODUCT OR ANY OTHER PERSON DEALING WITH THE SECURITIES AS A RESULT OF ANY OF THE AFORESAID, AND NO CLAIMS, ACTIONS OR LEGAL PROCEEDINGS MAY BE BROUGHT AGAINST HSI COMPANY LIMITED AND/OR HANG SENG DATA SERVICES LIMITED in connection with the securities in any manner whatsoever by any broker, holder or other person dealing with the securities. Any broker, holder or other person dealing with the securities does so therefore in full knowledge of this disclaimer and can place no reliance whatsoever on HSI Company Limited and Hang Seng Data Services Limited. For the avoidance of doubt, this disclaimer does not create any contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between any broker, holder or other person and HSI Company Limited and/or Hang Seng Data Services Limited and must not be construed to have created such relationship.


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MSCI Indices

The MSCI EAFE Index, MSCI Singapore Free Index, MSCI Taiwan Index and MSCI Emerging Markets Index (each, an “index” and, collectively, the “MSCI Indices”):

are equity indices, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

do not file reports with the SEC because they are not issuers; and

are sponsored, calculated, published and disseminated daily by MSCI Inc., which we refer to as “MSCI”, through numerous data vendors, on the MSCI website and in real time on Bloomberg Financial Markets and Reuters Limited.

The MSCI Indices are all free float adjusted market capitalization indices and are part of the MSCI Global Investable Market Indices. The MSCI Indices are considered “standard” indices, which means they consist of all eligible large capitalization and mid-capitalization stocks, as determined by MSCI, in the relevant market. MSCI divides the companies included in the MSCI Indices into eleven Global Industry Classification Sectors: Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Information Technology, Materials, Real Estate and Utilities. Additional information about the MSCI Global Investable Market Indices is available on the following website: msci.com/index-methodology. Daily closing level information for the MSCI Indices is available on the following website: msci.com. We are not incorporating by reference the websites or any material they include in this underlier supplement.

MSCI EAFE Index.  The MSCI EAFE Index is intended to provide performance benchmarks for the developed equity markets in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The constituent stocks of the MSCI EAFE Index are derived from the constituent stocks in the 21 MSCI standard single country indices for the developed market countries listed above. The MSCI EAFE Index has a base date of December 31, 1969.

MSCI EAFE Index Stock Weighting by Country as of December 14, 2020

Country:

Percentage (%)*

Australia

7.14%

Austria

0.17%

Belgium

1.01%

Denmark

2.45%

Finland

1.05%

France

11.19%

Germany

9.19%

Hong Kong

3.25%

Ireland

0.72%

Israel

0.60%

Italy

2.36%

Japan

25.40%

Netherlands

3.81%

New Zealand

0.30%

Norway

0.58%

Portugal

0.17%

Singapore

1.06%

Spain

2.50%

Sweden

3.36%

Switzerland

9.51%

United Kingdom

14.18%

*Information provided by MSCI. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

 

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MSCI EAFE Index Stock Weighting by Sector as of December 14, 2020

Sectorǂ

Percentage (%)*

Communication Services

5.29%

Consumer Discretionary

12.50%

Consumer Staples

10.98%

Energy

3.24%

Financials

16.40%

Health Care

12.88%

Industrials

15.26%

Information Technology

8.64%

Materials

7.83%

Real Estate

3.14%

Utilities

3.84%

ǂ Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed.  Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

*Information provided by MSCI.  Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

MSCI Singapore Free Index.  The MSCI Singapore Free Index is a developed market index that is designed to measure the market performance of equity securities in Singapore. The constituent stocks of the MSCI Singapore Free Index are selected from an eligible universe of equity securities listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange that includes companies listed on the Singapore Exchange Mainboard and Catalist market segments. Eligible classes of securities include ordinary shares, business trusts and stapled securities. The MSCI Singapore Free Index has a base date of December 31, 1987.

Top Ten Constituent Stocks by Weight

as of December 14, 2020

Stock

Percentage (%)*

DBS Group Holdings

20.83%

OCBC Bank

15.27%

United Overseas Bank

12.30%

Singapore Telecom

8.75%

Capitaland Integrated

4.46%

Ascendas Reit

4.35%

Capitaland

3.93%

Wilmar International

3.71%

Keppel Corp

3.51%

Singapore Exchange

3.43%

*Information on constituent stocks is available at msci.com/documents/

MSCI Singapore Free Index Stock Weighting by Sector as of December 14, 2020

Sectorǂ

Percentage (%)*

Communication Services

8.75%

Consumer Discretionary

2.34%

Consumer Staples

3.71%

Financials

51.83%

Industrials

8.97%

Information Technology

2.39%

Real Estate

22.02%

ǂ Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed.  Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons

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between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

* Information provided by MSCI.  Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

MSCI Taiwan Index.  The MSCI Taiwan Index is an emerging market index that is designed to measure the market performance of equity securities in Taiwan. The constituent stocks of the MSCI Taiwan Index are selected from an eligible universe of stocks listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and the Taipei Exchange. Eligible classes of securities include ordinary shares and preferred shares that exhibit characteristics of equity securities. The MSCI Taiwan Index has a base date of December 31, 1987.

 

Top Ten Constituent Stocks by Weight

as of December 14, 2020

Stock

Percentage (%)*

Taiwan Semiconductor MFG

45.98%

Hon Hai Precision Ind Co

4.02%

Mediatek Inc

3.89%

United Microelectronics

1.97%

Delta Electronics Inc.

1.76%

Chunghwa Telecom Co

1.52%

Nan Ya Plastic

1.28%

Formosa Plastic Corp

1.26%

CTBC Financial Holding

1.25%

Cathay Financial Holding

1.21%

*Information on constituent stocks is available at msci.com/documents/

MSCI Taiwan Index Stock Weighting by Sector as of December 14, 2020

Sectorǂ

Percentage (%)*

Communication Services

2.47%

Consumer Discretionary

2.31%

Consumer Staples

1.80%

Financials

12.14%

Health Care

0.17%

Industrials

1.50%

Information Technology

73.22%

Real Estate

0.25%

Materials

5.74%

Energy

0.40%

ǂ Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed.  Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

* Information provided by MSCI.  Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

MSCI Emerging Markets Index.  The MSCI Emerging Markets Index is intended to provide performance benchmarks for the emerging equity markets in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia, which are, as of the date of this underlier supplement, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. The constituent stocks of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index are derived from the constituent stocks in the 26 MSCI standard single country indices for the emerging market countries listed above. The MSCI Emerging Markets Index has a base date of December 31, 1987.


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MSCI Emerging Markets Index Stock Weighting by Country as of December 14, 2020

Country:

Percentage (%)*

Argentina

0.12%

Brazil

5.16%

Chile

0.49%

China

38.70%

Colombia

0.20%

Czech Republic

0.09%

Egypt

0.09%

Greece

0.11%

Hungary

0.22%

India

9.23%

Indonesia

1.40%

Korea, Republic Of

13.28%

Kuwait

0.50%

Malaysia

1.58%

Mexico

1.75%

Pakistan

0.02%

Peru

0.24%

Philippines

0.78%

Poland

0.70%

Qatar

0.73%

Russian Federation

3.06%

Saudi Arabia

2.52%

South Africa

3.49%

Taiwan, Province Of China

12.70%

Thailand

1.94%

Turkey

0.35%

United Arab Emirates

0.56%

* Information provided by MSCI. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

MSCI Emerging Markets Index Stock Weighting by Sector as of December 14, 2020

Sectorǂ

Percentage (%)*

Communication Services

11.84%

Consumer Discretionary

18.47%

Consumer Staples

5.94%

Energy

5.18%

Financials

18.33%

Health Care

4.54%

Industrials

4.31%

Information Technology

19.76%

Materials

7.50%

Real Estate

2.12%

Utilities

2.02%

ǂ Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed.  Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

* Information provided by MSCI.  Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

 

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MSCI announced that it will reclassify the MSCI Kuwait Index to emerging markets status as part of the November 2020 semi-annual Index review in one step. As a result, the Kuwaiti equity market is expected to have an initial estimated weight in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index of 0.58%.

Construction of the MSCI Indices

 

MSCI undertakes an index construction process at an individual market level, which involves: (i) defining the equity universe for each market; (ii) determining the market investable equity universe for each market; (iii) determining market capitalization size segments for each market; (iv) applying index continuity rules for the standard index; and (v) classifying securities under the Global Industry Classification Standard. The index construction methodology differs in some cases depending on whether the relevant market is considered a developed market or an emerging market. The MSCI EAFE Index and the MSCI Singapore Free Index are developed market indices, and the MSCI Taiwan Index and the MSCI Emerging Markets Index are emerging markets indices. All of the MSCI Indices are standard indices, meaning that only securities that would qualify for inclusion in a large cap index or a mid cap index will be included as described below.

 

Defining the Equity Universe

 

(i)

Identifying Eligible Equity Securities: The equity universe initially looks at securities listed in any of the countries in the MSCI global index series, which will be classified as either “developed markets” or “emerging markets”. All listed equity securities, including real estate investment trusts and certain income trusts in Canada are eligible for inclusion in the equity universe. Limited partnerships, limited liability companies and business trusts, which are listed in the U.S. and are not structured to be taxed as limited partnerships, are likewise eligible for inclusion in the equity universe. Conversely, mutual funds, exchange traded funds, equity derivatives and most investment trusts are not eligible for inclusion in the equity universe.  Preferred shares that exhibit characteristics of equity securities are eligible. Securities for which the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission has issued high shareholding concentration notices are not eligible.

 

(ii)

Country Classification of Eligible Securities: Each company and its securities (i.e., share classes) are classified in one and only one country, which allows for a distinctive sorting of each company by its respective country.

 

Determining the Market Investable Equity Universes

 

A market investable equity universe for a market is derived by (i) identifying eligible listings for each security in the equity universe; and (ii) applying investability screens to individual companies and securities in the equity universe that are classified in that market. A market is generally equivalent to a single country. The global investable equity universe is the aggregation of all market investable equity universes.

(i)

Identifying Eligible Listings: A security may have a listing in the country where it is classified (a “local listing”) and/or in a different country (a “foreign listing”). A security may be represented by either a local listing or a foreign listing (including a depositary receipt) in the global investable equity universe.  A security may be represented by a foreign listing only if the security is classified in a country that meets the foreign listing materiality requirement (as described below), and the security’s foreign listing is traded on an eligible stock exchange of a developed market country if the security is classified in a developed market country or, if the security is classified in an emerging market country, an eligible stock exchange of a developed market country or an emerging market country.

 

In order for a country to meet the foreign listing materiality requirement, the following is determined: all securities represented by a foreign listing that would be included in the country’s MSCI Country Investable Market Index if foreign listings were eligible from that country. The aggregate free-float adjusted market capitalization for all such securities should represent at least (i) 5% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization of the relevant MSCI Country Investable Market Index and (ii) 0.05% of

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the free-float adjusted market capitalization of the MSCI ACWI Investable Market Index. If a country does not meet the foreign listing materiality requirement, then securities in that country may not be represented by a foreign listing in the global investable equity universe.

 

(ii)

Applying Investability Screens: The investability screens used to determine the investable equity universe in each market are:

 

 

(a)

Equity Universe Minimum Size Requirement: This investability screen is applied at the company level. In order to be included in a market investable equity universe, a company must have the required minimum full market capitalization. The equity universe minimum size requirement applies to companies in all markets and is derived as follows:

 

 

First, the companies in the developed market equity universe are sorted in descending order of full market capitalization and the cumulative coverage of the free float-adjusted market capitalization of the developed market equity universe is calculated for each company. Each company’s free float-adjusted market capitalization is represented by the aggregation of the free float-adjusted market capitalization of the securities of that company in the equity universe.

 

Second, when the cumulative free float-adjusted market capitalization coverage of 99% of the sorted equity universe is achieved, by adding each company’s free float-adjusted market capitalization in descending order, the full market capitalization of the company that reaches the 99% threshold defines the equity universe minimum size requirement.

 

                  The rank of this company by descending order of full market capitalization within the developed market equity universe is noted, and will be used in determining the equity universe minimum size requirement at the next rebalance.

 

As of November 2020, the equity universe minimum size requirement was set at US$260,000,000. Companies with a full market capitalization below this level are not included in any market investable equity universe. The equity universe minimum size requirement is reviewed and, if necessary, revised at each semi-annual index review, as described below.

 

(b)

Equity Universe Minimum Free Float-Adjusted Market Capitalization Requirement: This investability screen is applied at the individual security level. To be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, a security must have a free float-adjusted market capitalization equal to or higher than 50% of the equity universe minimum size requirement.

(c)

Minimum Liquidity Requirement: This investability screen is applied at the individual security level. To be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, a security must have at least one eligible listing that has adequate liquidity as measured by its 12-month and 3-month annualized traded value ratio (“ATVR”) and 3-month frequency of trading. The ATVR attempts to mitigate the impact of extreme daily trading volumes and takes into account the free float-adjusted market capitalization of securities. A minimum liquidity level of 20% of the 3-month ATVR and 90% of 3-month frequency of trading over the last 4 consecutive quarters, as well as 20% of the 12-month ATVR, are required for inclusion of a security in a market investable equity universe of a developed market. A minimum liquidity level of 15% of the 3-month ATVR and 80% of 3-month frequency of trading over the last 4 consecutive quarters, as well as 15% of the 12-month ATVR, are required for inclusion of a security in a market investable equity universe of an emerging market. Securities in the MSCI China equity universe will not be eligible for inclusion in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index if the security is suspended or has been suspended for 50 consecutive days or more in the past 12 months.

Only one listing per security may be included in the market investable equity universe. In instances where a security has two or more eligible listings that meet the above liquidity requirements, then the

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following priority rules are used to determine which listing will be used for potential inclusion of the security in the market investable equity universe:

 

 

(1)

Local listing (if the security has two or more local listings, then the listing with the highest 3-month ATVR will be used).

 

 

(2)

Foreign listing in the same geographical region (MSCI classifies markets into three main geographical regions: EMEA, Asia Pacific and Americas.  If the security has two or more foreign listings in the same geographical region, then the listing with the highest 3-month ATVR will be used).

 

 

(3)

Foreign listing in a different geographical region (if the security has two or more foreign listings in a different geographical region, then the listing with the highest 3-month ATVR will be used).

 

Due to liquidity concerns relating to securities trading at very high stock prices, a security that is currently not a constituent of a MSCI Global Investable Markets Index that is trading at a stock price above US$10,000 will fail the liquidity screening and will not be included in any market investable equity universe.

 

(d)  Global Minimum Foreign Inclusion Factor Requirement: This investability screen is applied at the individual security level. To determine the free float of a security, MSCI considers the proportion of shares of such security available for purchase in the public equity markets by international investors. In practice, limitations on the investment opportunities for international investors include: strategic stakes in a company held by private or public shareholders whose investment objective indicates that the shares held are not likely to be available in the market; limits on the proportion of a security’s share capital authorized for purchase by non-domestic investors; or other foreign investment restrictions which materially limit the ability of foreign investors to freely invest in a particular equity market, sector or security.

 

MSCI will then derive a “foreign inclusion factor” for the company that reflects the proportion of shares outstanding that is available for purchase in the public equity markets by international investors. MSCI will then “float-adjust” the weight of each constituent company in an index by the company’s foreign inclusion factor.

 

Once the free float factor has been determined for a security, the security’s total market capitalization is then adjusted by such free float factor, resulting in the free float-adjusted market capitalization figure for the security.

 

(e)  Minimum Length of Trading Requirement: This investability screen is applied at the individual security level. For an initial public offering to be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, the new issue must have started trading at least three months before the implementation of a semi-annual index review. This requirement is applicable to small new issues in all markets. Large initial public offerings are not subject to the minimum length of trading requirement and may be included in a market investable equity universe and a standard index, such as the MSCI Indices, outside of a quarterly or semi-annual index review.

 

(f)   Minimum Foreign Room Requirement: This investability screen is applied at the individual security level. For a security that is subject to a foreign ownership limit to be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, the proportion of shares still available to foreign investors relative to the maximum allowed (referred to as “foreign room”) must be at least 15%.

 

Determining Market Capitalization Size Segments for Each Market

 

Once a market investable equity universe is defined, it is segmented into the following size-based indices:

 

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                  Investable Market Index (Large Cap + Mid Cap + Small Cap)

                  Standard Index (Large Cap + Mid Cap)

                  Large Cap Index

                  Mid Cap Index

                  Small Cap Index

 

Creating the size segment indices in each market involves the following steps: (i) defining the market coverage target range for each size segment; (ii) determining the global minimum size range for each size segment; (iii) determining the market size segment cutoffs and associated segment number of companies; (iv) assigning companies to the size segments; and (v) applying final size-segment investability requirements. For developed market indices and emerging market indices, the market coverage for a standard index is 85% and 42.5% respectively. As of October 2020, the global minimum size range for a developed market standard index is a full market capitalization of USD 3.66 billion to USD 8.42 billion, and the global minimum size range for an emerging market standard index is a full market capitalization of USD 1.83 billion to USD 4.21 billion.

 

Index Continuity Rules for Standard Indices

 

In order to achieve index continuity, as well as provide some basic level of diversification within a market index, notwithstanding the effect of other index construction rules, a minimum number of five constituents will be maintained for a developed market standard index and a minimum number of three constituents will be maintained for an emerging market standard index, and involves the following steps:

 

                  If after the application of the index construction methodology, a developed market standard index contains fewer than five securities or an emerging market standard index contains fewer than three securities, then the largest securities by free float-adjusted market capitalization are added to the index in order to reach the minimum number of required constituents.

 

                  At subsequent index reviews, if the minimum number of securities described above is not met, then after the market investable equity universe is identified, the securities are ranked by free float-adjusted market capitalization, however, in order to increase stability the free float-adjusted market capitalization of the existing index constituents (prior to review) is multiplied by 1.50, and securities are added until the desired minimum number of securities is reached.

 

Classifying Securities under the Global Industry Classification Standard

 

All securities in the global investable equity universe are assigned to the industry that best describes their business activities. The GICS classification of each security is used by MSCI to construct additional indices.

 

Calculation Methodologies for the MSCI Indices

 

Price Return Methodology

 

The performance of each of the MSCI EAFE Index, the MSCI Singapore Free Index, the MSCI Taiwan Index and the MSCI Emerging Markets Index is a free float weighted average of the U.S. dollar values of their component securities.

 

Prices used to calculate the component securities are the official exchange closing prices or prices accepted as such in the relevant market. In the case of a market closure, or if a security does not trade on a specific day or during a specific period, MSCI carries the latest available closing price. In the event of a market outage resulting in any component security price to be unavailable, MSCI will generally use the

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last reported price for such component security for the purpose of performance calculation. If MSCI determines that another price is more appropriate based on the circumstances, an announcement would be sent to clients with the related information. Closing prices are converted into U.S. dollars, as applicable, using the closing spot exchange rates calculated by WM/Reuters at 4:00 P.M. London Time.

 

Net Daily Total Return Methodology

 

The applicable pricing supplement will specify if the underlier for your securities follows the net daily total return methodology. A daily total return index measures the market performance, including price performance discussed under “Price Return Methodology” above and income from regular cash distributions, while a net daily total return index measures the price performance and income from dividends, net of certain withholding taxes. MSCI calculates withholding taxes using the highest applicable withholding tax rate applicable to institutional investors. The current withholding tax rate used by MSCI to calculate the MSCI Singapore Free Index is 0% except for real estate investment trusts, in which case the rate is 10%, and the withholding tax rate used to calculate the MSCI Taiwan Index is 20% except for real estate investment trusts, in which case the rate is 15%. This net income is reinvested among all the constituents in the index and thus makes up part of the total index performance. MSCI’s net daily total return methodology reinvests net cash dividends in indices the day the security is quoted ex-dividend, or on the ex-date (converted to US dollars, as applicable). Certain dividends, including special/extraordinary dividends and commemorative dividends, are reinvested in the index if, a day prior to the ex-date, the dividend impact on price is less than 5%. If the impact is 5% or more, the dividend will be reinvested in the index through a price adjustment on the ex-date. A specific price adjustment is always applied for stock dividends that are issued at no cost to the shareholders, an extraordinary capital repayment or a dividend paid in the shares of another company. Cash payments related to corporate events, such as mergers and acquisitions, are considered on a case-by-case basis.

 

Maintenance of the MSCI Indices

 

In order to maintain the representativeness of the MSCI Indices, structural changes to each MSCI Index as a whole may be made by adding or deleting component securities. Currently, such changes in the MSCI Indices may generally only be made on four dates throughout the year: after the close of the last business day of each February, May, August and November.

 

Each country index is maintained with the objective of reflecting, on a timely basis, the evolution of the underlying equity markets. In maintaining each component country index, emphasis is also placed on its continuity, continuous investability of constituents and replicability of the index and on index stability and minimizing turnover.

 

MSCI classifies index maintenance in three broad categories. The first consists of ongoing event related changes, such as mergers and acquisitions, which are generally implemented in the country indices in which they occur. The second category consists of quarterly index reviews, aimed at promptly reflecting other significant market events. The third category consists of semi-annual index reviews that systematically re-assess the various dimensions of the equity universe.

 

Ongoing event-related changes to the country indices are the result of mergers, acquisitions, spin-offs, bankruptcies, reorganizations and other similar corporate events. They can also result from capital reorganizations in the form of rights issues, stock bonus issues, public placements and other similar corporate actions that take place on a continuing basis. MSCI will remove from the index as soon as practicable securities of companies that file for bankruptcy or other protection from their creditors, that are suspended and for which a return to normal business activity and trading is unlikely in the near future, or that fail stock exchange listing requirements with a delisting announcement. Securities may also be considered for early deletion in other significant cases, such as decreases in free float and foreign ownership limits, or when a constituent company acquires or merges with a non-constituent company or spins-off another company. In practice, when a constituent company is involved in a corporate event which results in a significant decrease in the company’s free float-adjusted market capitalization or the

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company decreases its foreign inclusion factor to below 0.15, the securities of that constituent company are considered for early deletion from the indices simultaneously with the event unless, in either case, it is a standard index constituent with a minimum free float-adjusted market capitalization meeting at least two-thirds of 1.8 times one-half of the standard index interim size segment cut-off. Share conversions may also give rise to an early deletion. Changes in number of shares and foreign inclusion factors resulting from primary equity offerings representing at least 5% of the security’s pre-event number of shares are implemented as of the close of the first trading day of the new shares, if all necessary information is available at that time. Otherwise, the event is implemented as soon as practicable after the relevant information is made available. MSCI implements pending number of shares and/or free float updates simultaneously with the event, unless the change in number of shares is less than 1% on a post-event number of shares basis, in which case it will be implemented at a subsequent index review. Changes in the number of shares smaller than 5% are implemented at a subsequent index review. Secondary offerings/block sales with sizes representing at least 5% of the security’s pre-event number of shares are implemented at the time of the event. All changes resulting from corporate events are announced prior to their implementation, provided all necessary information on the event is available.

 

MSCI’s quarterly index review process is designed to ensure that the country indices continue to be an accurate reflection of evolving equity markets. This goal is achieved by timely reflecting significant market driven changes that were not captured in each index at the time of their actual occurrence and that should not wait until the semi-annual index review due to their importance. These quarterly index reviews may result in additions and deletions of component securities from a country index (or a security being removed from one country listing and represented by a different country listing) and changes in “foreign inclusion factors” and in number of shares. Additions and deletions to component securities may result from: the addition of large companies that did not meet the minimum size criterion for inclusion at the time of their initial public offering or secondary offering; the replacement of companies which are no longer suitable industry representatives; the deletion of securities whose overall free float has fallen to less than 15% and that do not meet specified criteria; the deletion of securities that have become very small or illiquid; and the addition or deletion of securities as a result of other market events. Significant changes in free float estimates and corresponding changes in the foreign inclusion factor for component securities may result from: corporate events that should have been implemented at the time of such event but could not be reflected immediately due to lack of publicly available details at the time of the event; exercise of IPO over-allotment options which result in an increase in free float; increases in foreign ownership limits; decreases in foreign ownership limits which did not require foreign investors to immediately sell shares in the market; re-estimates of free float figures resulting from the reclassification of shareholders from strategic to non-strategic, and vice versa; the end of lock-up periods or expiration of loyalty incentives for non-strategic shareholders; and conversion of a non-index constituent share class or an unlisted line of shares which has an impact on index constituents. However, no changes in foreign inclusion factors are implemented for any of the above events if the change in free float estimate is less than 1%, except in cases of correction. As discussed above, small changes in the number of shares resulting from, for example, exercise of options or warrants and employee stock option plans, conversion of convertible bonds or other instruments (including periodic conversion of preferred stocks), conversion of a non-index constituent share class or an unlisted line of shares which has an impact on index constituents, periodical conversion of a share class into another share class, exercise of over-allotment options, periodic share buybacks, the cancellation of shares, acquisition for shares of non-listed companies or assets, or other events that could not be implemented on or near the effective dates where no price adjustment factor is necessary, are generally updated at the quarterly index review rather than at the time of the event. The results of the quarterly index reviews are announced at least two weeks in advance of their effective implementation dates as of the close of the last business day of February and August. MSCI has noted that consistency is a factor in maintaining each component country index.

 

MSCI’s semi-annual index review is designed to systematically reassess the component securities of the index. During each semi-annual index review, the universe of component securities is updated and the global minimum size range for the index is recalculated, which is based on the full market capitalization and the cumulative free float-adjusted market capitalization coverage of each security that is eligible to be included in the index. The following index maintenance activities, among others, are undertaken during

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each semi-annual index review: the list of countries in which securities may be represented by foreign listings is reviewed; the component securities are updated by identifying new equity securities that were not part of the index at the time of the previous quarterly index review; the minimum size requirement for the index is updated and new companies are evaluated relative to the new minimum size requirement; existing component securities that do not meet the minimum liquidity requirements of the index may be removed (or, with respect to any such security that has other listings, a determination is made as to whether any such listing can be used to represent the security in the market investable universe); and changes in “foreign inclusion factors” are implemented (provided the change in free float is greater than 1%, except in cases of correction). During a semi-annual index review, component securities may be added or deleted from a country index for a range of reasons, including the reasons discussed with respect to component securities changes during quarterly index reviews as discussed above. Foreign listings may become eligible to represent securities only from the countries that met the foreign listing materiality requirement during the previous semi-annual index review (this requirement is applied only to countries that do not yet include foreign listed securities). Once a country meets the foreign listing materiality requirement at a given semi-annual index review, foreign listings will remain eligible for such country even if the foreign listing materiality requirements are not met in the future.

 

The results of the semi-annual index reviews are announced at least two weeks in advance of their effective implementation date as of the close of the last business day of May and November.

 

Index maintenance also includes monitoring and completing adjustments for share changes, stock splits, stock dividends, and stock price adjustments due to company restructurings or spin-offs as well as deleting constituents that enter ineligible alert boards.

 

These guidelines and the policies implementing the guidelines are the responsibility of, and, ultimately, subject to adjustment by, MSCI.

 

License Agreement between MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”) and GS Finance Corp.

 

The MSCI indices are the exclusive property of MSCI. MSCI and the MSCI index names are service mark(s) of MSCI or its affiliates and have been licensed for use for certain purposes by GS Finance Corp. Securities referred to herein are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by MSCI, and MSCI bears no liability with respect to any such securities. No purchaser, seller or holder of securities, or any other person or entity, should use or refer to any MSCI trade name, trademark or service mark to sponsor, endorse, market or promote securities without first contacting MSCI to determine whether MSCI’s permission is required. Under no circumstances may any person or entity claim any affiliation with MSCI without the prior written permission of MSCI.

 

THE SECURITIES ARE NOT SPONSORED, ENDORSED, SOLD OR PROMOTED BY MSCI, ANY AFFILIATE OF MSCI INC. OR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX. THE MSCI INDEXES ARE THE EXCLUSIVE PROPERTY OF MSCI. MSCI AND THE MSCI INDEX NAMES ARE SERVICE MARK(S) OF MSCI OR ITS AFFILIATES AND HAVE BEEN LICENSED FOR USE FOR CERTAIN PURPOSES BY GS FINANCE CORP. NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX MAKES ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, TO THE OWNERS OF SECURITIES OR ANY MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC REGARDING THE ADVISABILITY OF INVESTING IN FINANCIAL SECURITIES GENERALLY OR IN SECURITIES PARTICULARLY OR THE ABILITY OF ANY MSCI INDEX TO TRACK CORRESPONDING STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE. MSCI OR ITS AFFILIATES ARE THE LICENSORS OF CERTAIN TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES AND OF THE MSCI INDEXES WHICH ARE DETERMINED, COMPOSED AND CALCULATED BY MSCI WITHOUT REGARD TO SECURITIES OR THE ISSUER OR OWNER OF SECURITIES. NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HAS ANY OBLIGATION TO TAKE THE NEEDS OF THE ISSUERS OR OWNERS OF SECURITIES INTO CONSIDERATION IN DETERMINING, COMPOSING OR CALCULATING THE MSCI INDEXES.

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NEITHER MSCI, ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX IS RESPONSIBLE FOR OR HAS PARTICIPATED IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE TIMING OF, PRICES AT, OR QUANTITIES OF SECURITIES TO BE ISSUED OR IN THE DETERMINATION OR CALCULATION OF THE EQUATION BY WHICH SECURITIES ARE REDEEMABLE FOR CASH. NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, THE MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HAS ANY OBLIGATION OR LIABILITY TO THE OWNERS OF SECURITIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE ADMINISTRATION, MARKETING OR OFFERING OF SECURITIES.

 

ALTHOUGH MSCI SHALL OBTAIN INFORMATION FOR INCLUSION IN OR FOR USE IN THE CALCULATION OF THE MSCI INDEXES FROM SOURCES WHICH MSCI CONSIDERS RELIABLE, NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX WARRANTS OR GUARANTEES THE ORIGINALITY, ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY GS FINANCE CORP., ITS CUSTOMERS OR COUNTERPARTIES, ISSUERS OF UNDERLIER LINKED-SECURITIES, OWNERS OF SECURITIES OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY, FROM THE USE OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN IN CONNECTION WITH THE RIGHTS LICENSED HEREUNDER OR FOR ANY OTHER USE. NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR INTERRUPTIONS OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. FURTHER, NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, AND MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES AND ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO ANY MSCI INDEX AND ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES OR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS) EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.


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Nasdaq-100 Index®

The Nasdaq-100 Index®, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

has a base date of January 31, 1985, with a base value of 125.00, as adjusted; and

is calculated, maintained and published by Nasdaq, Inc.

The Nasdaq-100 Index® is designed to measure the performance of 100 of the largest Nasdaq listed non-financial stocks. The Nasdaq-100 Index® is a “price return” index and is calculated using a modified market capitalization-weighted methodology. We have derived all information contained in this underlier supplement regarding the Nasdaq-100 Index® from publicly available information. Additional information about the Nasdaq-100 Index® is available on the following website: indexes.nasdaqomx.com/Index/Overview/NDX. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this underlier supplement.

As of December 14, 2020, the 103 stocks included in the Nasdaq-100 Index® were classified into eight industry sectors (with the approximate percentage currently included in such sectors indicated in parentheses): Technology (55.94%), Consumer Services (21.70%), Health Care (6.05%), Consumer Goods (9.40%), Industrials (4.79%), Telecommunications (1.29%), Utilities (0.59%) and Basic Materials (0.22%). (Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.)

The top ten constituent stocks of the Nasdaq-100 Index® as of December 14, 2020, by weight, are: Apple Inc. (12.90%), Microsoft Corporation (10.04%), Amazon.com Inc. (9.79%), Tesla Inc (4.71%), Facebook Inc. (4.08%), Alphabet Inc. Class A (3.74%), Alphabet Inc. Class C (3.64%), NVIDIA Corporation (2.60%), Paypal Holdings Inc. (2.05%) and Adobe Inc. (1.84%).

Security Eligibility Criteria

Eligible security types generally include American depositary receipts, common stocks, ordinary shares, tracking stocks, shares of beneficial interest, and limited partnership interests. If the security is a depositary receipt representing a security of a non-U.S. issuer, then references to the "issuer" are references to the underlying security and the total shares outstanding (“TSO”) is the actual depositary shares outstanding as reported by the depositary banks.

If an issuer has listed multiple security classes, all security classes are eligible, subject to meeting all other security eligibility criteria.

The issuer of the security's primary U.S. listing must exclusively be listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the Nasdaq Global Market. If the issuer of the security is organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the U.S., then such security must have listed options on a registered options market in the U.S. or be eligible for listed options trading on a registered options market in the U.S.

The security must be classified as a non-financial company (those companies that are classified under any industry code other than 8000) according to the Industry Classification Benchmark, a product of FTSE International Limited licensed for this use.

There is no market capitalization eligibility criterion. Each security must have a minimum average daily trading volume of 200,000 shares (measured over the three calendar months ending with the month that includes the reconstitution reference date).

The security must have traded for at least three full calendar months, not including the month of initial listing, on an eligible exchange, which includes Nasdaq (Nasdaq Global Select Market, Nasdaq Global

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Market, or Nasdaq Capital Market), NYSE, NYSE American or CBOE BZX. Eligibility is determined as of the constituent selection reference date, and includes that month. There is no float eligibility criterion.

The issuer of the security generally may not currently be in bankruptcy proceedings.

The issuer of the security generally may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement that would make it ineligible for index inclusion and where the transaction is imminent as determined by the Nasdaq Index Management Committee.

Index Calendar

Nasdaq selects constituents once annually in December. The security eligibility criteria are applied using market data as of the end of October and TSO as of the end of November. Index reconstitutions are announced in early December and become effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in December.

The Nasdaq-100 Index® is rebalanced on a quarterly basis in March, June, September and December. The Nasdaq-100 Index® rebalance uses the TSO and last sale price of all index securities as of the prior month-end (February, May, August and November respectively). Index rebalance changes are announced in early March, June, September and December and become effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in March, June, September and December. A special rebalance may be conducted at any time based on the weighting restrictions described in the index rebalance procedure if it is determined to be necessary to maintain the integrity of the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

 

Constituent Selection

 

A reconstitution is conducted on an annual basis, at which time all eligible issuers, ranked by market capitalization, are considered for index inclusion based on the following order of criteria.

The top 75 ranked issuers will be selected for inclusion in the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

Any other issuers that were already members of the Nasdaq-100 Index® as of the reconstitution reference date and are ranked within the top 100 are also selected for inclusion in the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

In the event that fewer than 100 issuers pass the first two criteria, the remaining positions will first be filled, in rank order, by current index members that were in the top 100 at the previous reconstitution but are ranked in positions 101-125 in the current reconstitution.

In the event that fewer than 100 issuers pass the first three criteria, the remaining positions will be filled, in rank order, by any issuers ranked in the top 100 that were not already members of the Nasdaq-100 Index® as of the reference date.

 

Constituent Weighting

Constituent Weighting Scheme

The Nasdaq-100 Index® is a modified market capitalization-weighted index.

Constituent Weighting Process

The Nasdaq-100 Index®’s quarterly weight adjustment employs a two-stage weight adjustment scheme according to issuer- level constraints.

Index securities’ initial weights are determined using up to two calculations of market capitalization: TSO-derived market capitalization and index share-derived market capitalization. TSO-derived market capitalization is defined as a security’s last sale price times its total shares outstanding. Index share-derived market capitalization is defined as a security’s last sale price times its updated index shares as of the prior month end. Both TSO-derived and index share-derived market capitalizations can be used to calculate TSO-derived and index share-derived initial index weights by dividing each index security’s (TSO- or index share-derived) market capitalization by the aggregate (TSO- or index share-derived) market capitalization of all index securities.

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When the rebalance coincides with the reconstitution, only TSO-derived initial weights are used. When the rebalance does not coincide with the reconstitution, index share-derived initial weights are used when doing so results in no weight adjustment; otherwise, TSO-derived weights are used in both stages of the weight adjustment procedure. Issuer weights are the aggregated weights of the issuers’ respective index securities.

Stage 1. If no initial issuer weight exceeds 24%, initial weights are used as Stage 1 weights; otherwise, initial weights are adjusted to meet the following Stage 1 constraint, producing the Stage 1 weights:

No issuer weight may exceed 20% of the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

 

Stage 2. If the aggregate weight of the subset of issuers whose Stage 1 weights exceed 4.5% does not exceed 48%, Stage 1 weights are used as final weights; otherwise, Stage 1 weights are adjusted to meet the following Stage 2 constraint, producing the final weights:

 

The aggregate weight of the subset of issuers whose Stage 1 weights exceed 4.5% is set to 40%.

 

Annual Weight Adjustment

The Nasdaq-100 Index®’s annual weight adjustment employs a two-stage weight adjustment scheme according to security-level constraints. Index securities’ initial weights are determined via the quarterly weight adjustment procedure.

Stage 1. If no initial security weight exceeds 15%, initial weights are used as Stage 1 weights; otherwise, initial weights are adjusted to meet the following Stage 1 constraint, producing the Stage 1 weights:

No security weight may exceed 14% of the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

 

Stage 2. If the aggregate weight of the subset of index securities with the five largest market capitalizations is less than 40%, Stage 1 weights are used as final weights; otherwise, Stage 1 weights are adjusted to meet the following constraints, producing the final weights:

The aggregate weight of the subset of index securities with the five largest market capitalizations is set to 38.5%.

No security with a market capitalization outside the largest five may have a final index weight exceeding the lesser of 4.4% or the final index weight of the index security ranked fifth by market capitalization.

Nasdaq-100 Index® Calculation

The discussion below describes the “price return” calculation of the Nasdaq-100 Index®. As compared to the gross total return or net total return versions of the Nasdaq-100 Index®, the price return version is ordinarily calculated without regard to ordinary cash dividends on the Nasdaq-100 Index® stocks. However, all Nasdaq-100 Index® calculations reflect special cash dividends.

The Nasdaq-100 Index® is a modified market capitalization-weighted index. The value of the Nasdaq- 100 Index® equals the Nasdaq-100 Index® market value divided by the Nasdaq-100 Index® divisor. The overall Nasdaq-100 Index® market value is the aggregate of each Nasdaq-100 Index® stock’s market value, as may be adjusted for any corporate actions. A Nasdaq-100 Index® stock’s market value is determined by multiplying the last sale price by the number of shares of the index security included in the Nasdaq-100 Index®. In other words, the value of the Nasdaq-100 Index® is equal to (i) the sum of the products of (a) the index shares of each of the Nasdaq-100 Index® stocks multiplied by (b) each such stock’s last sale price (adjusted for corporate actions, if any), divided by (ii) the divisor of the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

The price return Nasdaq-100 Index® divisor is calculated as the ratio of (i) the start of day market value of the Nasdaq-100 Index® divided by (ii) the previous day Nasdaq-100 Index® value.

If an index security does not trade on the relevant Nasdaq exchange on a given day or the relevant Nasdaq exchange has not opened for trading, the previous index calculation day’s closing price for index

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security (adjusted for corporate actions occurring prior to market open on the current day, if any) is used. If an index security is halted during the trading day, the most recent last sale price is used until trading resumes. For securities where the Nasdaq Stock Market is the relevant Nasdaq exchange, the last sale price may be the Nasdaq Official Closing Price when it is closed.

Index Maintenance

Deletion Policy

If, at any time other than an index reconstitution, Nasdaq determines that an index security has or will undergo a fundamental alteration that would make it ineligible for index inclusion, the index security is removed as soon as practicable.

Such alterations may include:

A listings switch to an ineligible index exchange.

Merger, acquisition, or other major corporate event that would adversely impact the integrity of the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

If the security is reclassified as a financial company (those companies that are classified under Industry code 8000).

If the issuer has an adjusted market capitalization below 0.10% of the aggregate adjusted market capitalization of the Nasdaq-100 Index® for two consecutive month ends.

In the case of mergers and acquisitions, the effective date for the removal of an index issuer or security will be largely event-based, with the goal to remove the issuer or security as soon as completion of the acquisition or merger has been deemed highly probable. Notable events include, but are not limited to, completion of various regulatory reviews, the conclusion of material lawsuits and/or shareholder and board approvals.

If at the time of the removal of the index issuer or security there is not sufficient time to provide advance notification of the replacement issuer or security so that both the removal and replacement can be effective on the same day, the index issuer or security being removed will be retained and persisted in the index calculations at its last sale price until the effective date of the replacement issuer or security’s entry to the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

Replacement Policy

 

Securities may be added to the Nasdaq-100 Index® outside of the index reconstitution when there is a deletion. The index security (or all index securities under the same issuer, if appropriate) is replaced as soon as practicable if the issuer in its entirety is being deleted from the Nasdaq-100 Index®. The issuer with the largest market capitalization as of the prior month end which is not in the Nasdaq-100 Index® will replace the deleted issuer.

For pending deletions set to occur soon after an index reconstitution and/or index rebalance effective date, Nasdaq may decide to remove the index security from the Nasdaq-100 Index® in conjunction with the index reconstitution and/or index rebalance effective date.

Corporate Actions

In the periods between scheduled index reconstitution and rebalancing events, individual index securities may be subject to a variety of corporate actions and events that require maintenance and adjustments to the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

At the quarterly rebalancing, no changes are made to the Nasdaq-100 Index® from the previous month end until the quarterly share change effective date, with the exception of corporate actions with an ex-date.

Special Cash Dividends

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A special cash dividend is a cash payment by the issuer of the index security to shareholders that the issuer does not consider to be part of its regular dividend paying cycle. A dividend is considered special in the Nasdaq-100 Index® if the information provided by the vendor or the index exchange indicates that the dividend is special. Other nomenclature for a special dividend may include but not be limited to extra, extraordinary, non-recurring, one-time, unusual, etc.

The start of day price of the index security is adjusted downward for the amount of the special cash dividend with no adjustment to the index shares resulting in a change to the divisor.

Return of Capital

A return of capital is a cash distribution paid from the company’s capital surplus rather than its net income or retained earnings. For the purposes of index calculation, Nasdaq will determine the treatment (regular vs. special) of each return of capital event based on whether the payment fits with the company’s regular pattern of dividend payments, or if the payment appears to be extraordinary in nature.

Liquidation Distributions

A liquidation distribution, sometimes referred to as a “liquidating dividend” is a cash distribution made by an issuer in conjunction with the dissolution of its business. Bankruptcy liquidations rarely result in liquidation payments to equity shareholders. Voluntary liquidations, on the other hand, will generally produce one or more liquidation payment events. For the purposes of index calculation, Nasdaq treats liquidation distributions in the same manner as special dividends.

Stock Split / Stock Dividend / Bonus Issue

A stock split, stock dividend and bonus issue are similar transactions which generally result in no change to the market capitalization of the security. They essentially imply the same event and the only difference is in the way the terms are quoted. A stock split or bonus issue is quoted in terms of shares received to shares held and stock dividends are quoted in percentages. This event increases the index shares of the index security based on an adjustment factor, while simultaneously reducing its per share price by applying a corresponding inverse adjustment factor, such that the weight of the index security remains similar before and after the event resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

Cash and Stock Dividend

An issuer of a security may pay a cash and stock dividend on the same security on the same date. In this case, the cash dividend is processed in the Nasdaq-100 Index® before the stock dividend unless otherwise indicated.

Optional Dividend

An issuer of a security may permit the shareholder to choose between receiving a dividend in cash or stock. In this case, the adjustment is made to the index security in the manner the dividend is announced.

Reverse Stock Split / Consolidation

A reverse split generally results in no change to the market capitalization of the security. Reverse splits are quoted in terms of shares received to shares held. This event decreases the number of index shares of the index security based on an adjustment factor while simultaneously increasing its per share price by applying a corresponding inverse adjustment factor, such that the weight of the index security remains similar before and after the event resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

Rights Offering / Issue

An issuer may offer to existing shareholders the right to participate in a new issuance of shares in proportion to each shareholder’s existing holdings of the security at a set price (the subscription price) during a subscription period. Shareholders are allotted rights in accordance with the ratio set by the company. The rights may trade for a certain period of time during the subscription period, allowing shareholders the opportunity to sell their rights in the market. Failure to subscribe to the rights prior to the end of the subscription period will result in their expiration and the shareholders forfeiture of the opportunity to purchase new shares under the rights issuance.

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Renounceable rights offering: The rights issued to an existing shareholder are transferable in the open market and are able to be sold separately from the shares to other investors during the life of the right. Renounceable rights are referred to as “transferable” or “tradable”.

Non-renounceable rights offering: The rights issued to an existing shareholder cannot be traded. Shareholders must either subscribe to the rights or they lapse upon expiration of the subscription period.

Whether the rights offering is renounceable or non-renounceable, if the distribution is of the same index security, the price and index shares are adjusted if the rights have a subscription price on an equivalent per share basis that is less than its last sale price (in-the money) of the index security. The price is adjusted downward for the value of the right.

The index shares are increased to reflect the full exercise of the rights offering. The number of additional index shares is determined by multiplying the number of rights issued per index security by the current number of index shares, then dividing that product by the number of rights required to purchase one new index security. This results in a divisor adjustment.

If the rights have a subscription price on an equivalent per share basis that is greater than the last sale price (out of the money) of the index security on the day before the ex-distribution date, no adjustment will be made to the price or index shares of the index security, even if the offering is underwritten or otherwise guaranteed in some way. If the distribution is not available to all shareholders, then no adjustment is made to either the price or index shares of the index security.

Stock Distribution of Another Security

An issuer may distribute shares of a different class or class of shares of another existing company to shareholders of the index security.

The price of the index security will be adjusted downward to reflect the value of the distribution. The value of the distribution is calculated as the last sale price of the distributed security multiplied by the distribution ratio and no adjustment will be made to the index shares. This will result in a divisor adjustment.

Spin-offs

A spin-off or de-merger occurs when an issuer (the parent) “spins off” a business it owns into a separate new issuer (the spinco). The spinco takes assets, intellectual property, technology, and/or existing products from the parent and forms its own company. Shares of the spinco are distributed to the shareholders of the parent at a ratio established by the parent. It is expressed as the ratio of new shares in the spinco to the existing shares in the parent.

If the parent is an index security and there is a when-issued market for the spinco, the price of the parent is adjusted downward for the value of the spinco. The value of the spinco is calculated as the spin-off ratio multiplied by the when-issued last sale price of the spinco. There is no adjustment to the index shares of the parent. This will result in a divisor adjustment. The spinco is not added to the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

If there is no when-issued market for the spinco, then no price or index share adjustment is made to the index security. The spinco is not added to the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

Tracking Stocks

A separate line of stock which is issued for the purpose of “tracking” the financial performance of a particular business line, division or subsidiary of a company is often referred to as a “tracking stock.” The pro-rata distribution of a newly issued tracking stock to existing shareholders of the “parent” company is handled in accordance with the guidelines for spin-offs. A similar distribution of a pre-existing tracking stock is handled as a stock distribution of another security.

Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A)

A merger/acquisition is the combination of two (or more) companies into one larger company, involving an exchange of stock and/or cash payment to the shareholders of the acquired company.

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If the issuer of the index security is the company being acquired, the index security is removed the day following the shareholder vote or the expected expiration of the tender offer, provided the acquisition is not contested. In the event the acquisition is contested, the deletion occurs once results have been received that indicate the acquisition will likely be successful. If the approval is by written consent, then the removal occurs as soon as reasonably practical thereafter.

When the acquiring company is an index security, it may incur an increase in its index shares if the acquisition involves an exchange of stock as payment.

Additions / Deletions

The addition or deletion of a security will generally result in a divisor change. Index securities are added or removed from the Nasdaq-100 Index® at their last sale price on the day prior to the effective date of the change.

Halted Securities

If an index security, at the time of its removal from the Nasdaq-100 Index®, is halted from trading on its index exchange and its current last sale price cannot readily be determined, the index security may, at Nasdaq’s discretion, be removed at a price of 0.00000001 (“zero price”). This price is applied to the index security after the close of all the trading markets in the Nasdaq-100 Index® but prior to the time the official closing value of the Nasdaq-100 Index® is disseminated.

Index Share and TSO Changes

A security’s index shares may change as a result of events other than those corporate actions/events noted above. If a change in TSO arising from other corporate events is greater than or equal to 10%, an adjustment to index shares is made as soon as practicable after being sufficiently verified. If the change in TSO is less than 10%, then all such changes are accumulated and made effective at one time on a quarterly basis after the close of trading on the third Friday in each of March, June, September and December. The index shares are adjusted by the same percentage amount by which the TSO has changed.

Bankruptcy

In the event that an existing index constituent files for bankruptcy or equivalent protection from creditors, affected securities will be removed from their respective indexes, on a best-efforts basis, as soon as practicable after Nasdaq becomes aware of the filing.

If the index constituent is still available for trading on its primary exchange, it is removed from the Nasdaq-100 Index® at the security’s last trading price. If the security is no longer trading per its primary exchange, the constituent may be removed at an OTC price, if judged reliable. When no sufficiently reliable price exists, the security is removed at a price of zero.

Sanctions

Generally, Nasdaq Indices will approach the treatment of sanctions through the lens of United States, United Kingdom, and/or European Union based investors. Most sanctions can be thought of as being either comprehensive or selective:

Comprehensive sanctions programs are geographically oriented, and often apply broad-based financial restrictions on entire countries. Examples include Cuba, North Korea, Iran, and Syria. Companies in countries targeted by comprehensive sanctions are not eligible for inclusion in the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

Other sanctions programs are more selective, and target specific companies and individuals regardless of their locations. Nasdaq consults multiple sources in order to identify and interpret relevant sanctions on a best-efforts basis.

Because different sanctions programs include a variety of evolving restrictions and requirements, sanctions generally require a case-by-case review. Any resulting index adjustments, if necessary, will be made at the sole discretion of the Nasdaq Index Management Committee.

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Other Adjustments

Nasdaq may make adjustments in circumstances other than those detailed in the index methodology, but not limited to adjustments necessary to ensure Nasdaq-100 Index® and/or market integrity. Nasdaq may exercise discretion or expert judgement (other than that which is purely mechanical and, where relevant, implemented in accordance with the index methodology) when the situation calls for the interpretation of data in calculating and maintaining the Nasdaq-100 Index®, including application of corporate actions. The use of expert judgement is overseen by the index governance process and mandates that the discretion or expert judgement would be exercised (i) in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner and (ii) in such a manner as to ensure, as far as commercially reasonable, consistency in the approach it adopts with regard to the exercise of such discretion or expert judgement.

Index Governance

The Nasdaq Index Management Committee approves all new index methodologies. This committee is comprised of full-time professional members of Nasdaq. The committee meets regularly, and reviews items including, but not limited to, pending corporate actions that may affect index constituents, statistics comparing the composition of the indexes to the market, companies that are being considered as candidates for addition to an index, and any significant market events.

Discretionary Adjustment

The index methodology was created by Nasdaq to achieve the aforementioned objective of measuring the underlying purpose of the Nasdaq-100 Index®. Any deviations from the index methodology are made in the sole judgment and discretion of Nasdaq so that the Nasdaq-100 Index® continues to achieve its objective.

License Agreement between Nasdaq, Inc. and GS Finance Corp.

The Product(s) is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Nasdaq, Inc. or its affiliates (Nasdaq, with its affiliates, are referred to as the “Corporations”). The Corporations have not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Product(s).  The Corporations make no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the Product(s) or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Product(s) particularly, or the ability of the Nasdaq-100® Index to track general stock market performance.  The Corporations' only relationship to GS Finance Corp. (“Licensee”) is in the licensing of the Nasdaq®, Nasdaq-100 Index®, and certain trade names of the Corporations and the use of the Nasdaq-100 Index® which is determined, composed and calculated by Nasdaq without regard to Licensee or the Product(s).  Nasdaq has no obligation to take the needs of the Licensee or the owners of the Product(s) into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Nasdaq-100 Index®.  The Corporations are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Product(s) to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Product(s) is to be converted into cash.  The Corporations have no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Product(s).

The Corporations do not guarantee the accuracy and/or uninterrupted calculation of Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein.  The Corporations make no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by Licensee, owners of the product(s), or any other person or entity from the use of the Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein.  The Corporations make no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein.  Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Corporations have any liability for any lost profits or special, incidental, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

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Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index

The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

has a base date of February 22, 2006, with a base value of 1000.00, as adjusted; and

is calculated, maintained and published by Nasdaq, Inc.

The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is designed to measure the performance of the technology companies in the Nasdaq-100 Index®. The Nasdaq-100 Index® is designed to measure the performance of 100 of the largest Nasdaq listed non-financial stocks. Each issuer of a stock in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is classified as a Technology company according to the Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB). The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is a “price return” index and is an equal weighted index. We have derived all information contained in this underlier supplement regarding the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index from publicly available information. Additional information about the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is available on the following website: indexes.nasdaqomx.com/Index/Overview/NDXT. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this underlier supplement.

As of December 14, 2020, 40 stocks were included in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index. The top ten constituent stocks of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index as of December 14, 2020, by weight, are: Lam Research Corporation (3.44%), Applied Materials Inc. (3.39%), Xilinx Inc. (3.18%), Kla Corporation (3.13%), Micron Technology Inc. (3.03%), Microchip Technology Inc. (3.00%), Qualcomm Inc. (2.84%), Baidu Inc.-Spon Adr (2.81%), Maxim Integrated Products (2.78%) and Autodesk Inc. (2.76%).

 

Security Eligibility Criteria

In order to be eligible for the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, a security must be a member of the Nasdaq-100 Index®. Each security must be classified as a Technology company (any company classified under the Technology Industry) according to the ICB.

Index Calendar

The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index follows the same reconstitution and rebalancing schedule as the Nasdaq-100 Index®.

Constituent Selection

All securities that meet the security eligibility criteria are included in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index.

Constituent Weighting

Constituent Weighting Scheme

The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is an equal-weighted index.

Constituent Weighting Process

The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is rebalanced quarterly such that all issuers within the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index have an equal index market capitalization. In cases where multiple share classes of an issuer are included in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, the index market capitalization of that issuer will be divided equally among the securities representing it. Index shares are calculated by dividing each index security's market capitalization by its last sale price at the close of trading on the third Friday in March, June, September and December.

Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index Calculation

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The discussion below describes the “price return” calculation of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index. The applicable pricing supplement will describe the calculation if the underlier for your securities is not the price return calculation. As compared to the gross total return or net total return versions of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, the price return version is ordinarily calculated without regard to ordinary cash dividends on the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index stocks. However, all Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index calculations reflect special cash dividends.

The Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is an equal weighted index. The value of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index equals the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index market value divided by the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index divisor. The overall Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index market value is the aggregate of each Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index stock’s market value, adjusted by the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index stock’s equal-weighting factor used to assign an equal weight at the previous rebalancing, as may be adjusted for any corporate actions. A Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index stock’s market value is determined by multiplying the last sale price by the number of shares of the index security included in the Nasdaq-100 Index®. In other words, the value of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is equal to (i) the sum of the products of (a) the index shares of each of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index stocks multiplied by (b) each such stock’s last sale price (adjusted for corporate actions, if any) multiplied by (c) such stock’s equal weighting factor, divided by (ii) the divisor of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index.

The price return Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index divisor is calculated as the ratio of (i) the start of day market value of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index divided by (ii) the previous day Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index value.

If an index security does not trade on the relevant Nasdaq exchange on a given day or the relevant Nasdaq exchange has not opened for trading, the previous index calculation day’s closing price for index security (adjusted for corporate actions occurring prior to market open on the current day, if any) is used. If an index security is halted during the trading day, the most recent last sale price is used until trading resumes. For securities where the Nasdaq Stock Market is the relevant Nasdaq exchange, the last sale price may be the Nasdaq Official Closing Price when it is closed.

Index Maintenance

Deletion Policy

If a component of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is removed from the Nasdaq-100 Index® for any reason, it is also removed from the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index at the same time.

Replacement Policy

When a component of the Nasdaq-100 Index® that is classified as Technology according to ICB is removed from the Nasdaq-100 Index®, it is also removed from the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index and as such, if the replacement company being added to the Nasdaq-100 Index® is classified as Technology according to ICB, it is added to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index and will assume the weight of the removed company on the index effective date.

When a component of the Nasdaq-100 Index® that is not classified as Technology according to ICB is removed and the replacement company being added to the Nasdaq-100 Index® is classified as Technology according to ICB, the replacement company is added to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index at the next quarterly rebalancing.

When a component of the Nasdaq-100 Index® that is classified as Technology according to ICB is removed from the Nasdaq-100 Index® and the replacement company being added to the Nasdaq-100 Index® is not classified as Technology according to ICB, the company is removed from the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index and the divisor of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is adjusted to ensure index continuity.

Corporate Actions

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In the interim periods between scheduled index reconstitution and rebalancing events, individual index securities may be the subject to a variety of corporate actions and events that require maintenance and adjustments to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index.

Special Cash Dividends

A special cash dividend is a cash payment by the issuer of the index security to shareholders that the issuer does not consider to be part of its regular dividend paying cycle. A dividend is considered special in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index if the information provided by the vendor or the index exchange indicates that the dividend is special. Other nomenclature for a special dividend may include but not be limited to extra, extraordinary, non-recurring, one-time, unusual, etc.

The start of day price of the index security is adjusted downward for the amount of the special cash dividend and a corresponding adjustment is made to the index shares such that the market value of the security does not change, or changes only minimally resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

Return of Capital

A return of capital is a cash distribution paid from the company’s capital surplus rather than its net income or retained earnings. For the purposes of index calculation, Nasdaq will determine the treatment (regular vs. special) of each return of capital event based on whether the payment fits with the company’s regular pattern of dividend payments, or if the payment appears to be extraordinary in nature.

Liquidation Distributions

A liquidation distribution, sometimes referred to as a “liquidating dividend” is a cash distribution made by an issuer in conjunction with the dissolution of its business. Bankruptcy liquidations rarely result in liquidation payments to equity shareholders. Voluntary liquidations, on the other hand, will generally produce one or more liquidation payment events. For the purposes of index calculation, Nasdaq treats liquidation distributions in the same manner as special dividends.

Stock Split / Stock Dividend / Bonus Issue

A stock split, stock dividend and bonus issue are similar transactions which generally result in no change to the market capitalization of the security. They essentially imply the same event and the only difference is in the way the terms are quoted. A stock split or bonus issue is quoted in terms of shares received to shares held and stock dividends are quoted in percentages. This event increases the index shares of the index security based on an adjustment factor, while simultaneously reducing its per share price by applying a corresponding inverse adjustment factor, such that the weight of the index security remains similar before and after the event resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

Cash and Stock Dividend

An issuer of a security may pay a cash and stock dividend on the same security on the same date. In this case, the cash dividend is processed in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index before the stock dividend unless otherwise indicated.

Optional Dividend

An issuer of a security may permit the shareholder to choose between receiving a dividend in cash or stock. In this case, the adjustment is made to the index security in the manner the dividend is announced.

Reverse Stock Split / Consolidation

A reverse split generally results in no change to the market capitalization of the security. Reverse splits are quoted in terms of shares received to shares held. This event decreases the number of index shares of the index security based on an adjustment factor while simultaneously increasing its per share price by applying a corresponding inverse adjustment factor, such that the weight of the index security remains similar before and after the event resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

Rights Offering / Issue

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An issuer may offer to existing shareholders the right to participate in a new issuance of shares in proportion to each shareholder’s existing holdings of the security at a set price (the subscription price) during a subscription period. Shareholders are allotted rights in accordance with the ratio set by the company. The rights may trade for a certain period of time during the subscription period, allowing shareholders the opportunity to sell their rights in the market. Failure to subscribe to the rights prior to the end of the subscription period will result in their expiration and the shareholders forfeiture of the opportunity to purchase new shares under the rights issuance.

Renounceable rights offering: The rights issued to an existing shareholder are transferable in the open market and are able to be sold separately from the shares to other investors during the life of the right. Renounceable rights are referred to as “transferable” or “tradable”.

Non-renounceable rights offering: The rights issued to an existing shareholder cannot be traded. Shareholders must either subscribe to the rights or they lapse upon expiration of the subscription period.

Whether the rights offering is renounceable or non-renounceable, if the distribution is of the same index security, the price and index shares are adjusted if the rights have a subscription price on an equivalent per share basis that is less than its last sale price (in-the money) of the index security. The price is adjusted downward for the value of the right.

The index shares are increased by applying a corresponding inverse adjustment factor, such that the weight of the security remains similar before and after the event resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

If the rights have a subscription price on an equivalent per share basis that is greater than the last sale price (out of the money) of the index security on the day before the ex-distribution date, no adjustment will be made to the price or index shares of the index security, even if the offering is underwritten or otherwise guaranteed in some way. If the distribution is not available to all shareholders, then no adjustment is made to either the price or index shares of the index security.

Stock Distribution of Another Security

An issuer may distribute shares of a different class or class of shares of another existing company to shareholders of the index security.

The price of the index security will be adjusted downward to reflect the value of the distribution. The value of the distribution is calculated as the last sale price of the distributed security multiplied by the distribution ratio. The index shares will be increased by applying a corresponding inverse adjustment factor, such that the weight of the index security remains similar before and after the event resulting in no change or a minimal change to the divisor.

Spin-offs

A spin-off or de-merger occurs when an issuer (the parent) “spins off” a business it owns into a separate new issuer (the spinco). The spinco takes assets, intellectual property, technology, and/or existing products from the parent and forms its own company. Shares of the spinco are distributed to the shareholders of the parent at a ratio established by the parent. It is expressed as the ratio of new shares in the spinco to the existing shares in the parent.

If the parent is an index security and there is a when-issued market for the spinco, the price of the parent is adjusted downward for the value of the spinco. The value of the spinco is calculated as the spin-off ratio multiplied by the when-issued last sale price of the spinco. There is no adjustment to the index shares of the parent. This will result in a divisor adjustment. The spinco is not added to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index.

If there is no when-issued market for the spinco, then no price or index share adjustment is made to the index security. The spinco is not added to the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index.

Tracking Stocks

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A separate line of stock which is issued for the purpose of “tracking” the financial performance of a particular business line, division or subsidiary of a company is often referred to as a “tracking stock.” The pro-rata distribution of a newly issued tracking stock to existing shareholders of the “parent” company is handled in accordance with the guidelines for spin-offs. A similar distribution of a pre-existing tracking stock is handled as a stock distribution of another security.

Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A)

A merger/acquisition is the combination of two (or more) companies into one larger company, involving an exchange of stock and/or cash payment to the shareholders of the acquired company.

If the issuer of the index security is the company being acquired, the index security is removed the day following the shareholder vote or the expected expiration of the tender offer, provided the acquisition is not contested. In the event the acquisition is contested, the deletion occurs once results have been received that indicate the acquisition will likely be successful. If the approval is by written consent, then the removal occurs as soon as reasonably practical thereafter.

When the acquiring company is an index security no increase in index shares will occur.

Additions / Deletions

The deletion and simultaneous addition at other than the index evaluation where the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index will not result in a divisor change as the addition will assume the weight of the deletion. Securities are added or removed from the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index at their last sale price on the day prior to the effective date of the change.

If an index security, at the time of its removal from the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, is halted from trading on its index exchange and its current last sale price cannot readily be determined, the index security may, at Nasdaq’s discretion, be removed at a price of 0.00000001 (“zero price”). This price is applied to the index security after the close of all the trading markets in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index but prior to the time the official closing value of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index is disseminated.

Index Share Adjustments

Other than as a direct result of corporate actions, the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index does not normally experience share adjustments between scheduled index rebalance and reconstitution events.

Bankruptcy

In the event that an existing index constituent files for bankruptcy or equivalent protection from creditors, affected securities will be removed from their respective indexes, on a best-efforts basis, as soon as practicable after Nasdaq becomes aware of the filing.

If the index constituent is still available for trading on its primary exchange, it is removed from the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index at the security’s last trading price. If the security is no longer trading per its primary exchange, the constituent may be removed at an OTC price, if judged reliable. When no sufficiently reliable price exists, the security is removed at a price of zero.

Sanctions

Generally, Nasdaq Indices will approach the treatment of sanctions through the lens of United States, United Kingdom, and/or European Union based investors. Most sanctions can be thought of as being either comprehensive or selective:

Comprehensive sanctions programs are geographically oriented, and often apply broad-based financial restrictions on entire countries. Examples include Cuba, North Korea, Iran, and Syria. Companies in countries targeted by comprehensive sanctions are not eligible for inclusion in the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index.

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Other sanctions programs are more selective, and target specific companies and individuals regardless of their locations. Nasdaq consults multiple sources in order to identify and interpret relevant sanctions on a best-efforts basis.

Because different sanctions programs include a variety of evolving restrictions and requirements, sanctions generally require a case-by-case review. Any resulting index adjustments, if necessary, will be made at the sole discretion of the Nasdaq Index Management Committee.

Other Adjustments

Nasdaq may make adjustments in circumstances other than those detailed in the index methodology, but not limited to adjustments necessary to ensure Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index and/or market integrity. Nasdaq may exercise discretion or expert judgement (other than that which is purely mechanical and, where relevant, implemented in accordance with the index methodology) when the situation calls for the interpretation of data in calculating and maintaining the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, including application of corporate actions. The use of expert judgement is overseen by the index governance process and mandates that the discretion or expert judgement would be exercised (i) in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner and (ii) in such a manner as to ensure, as far as commercially reasonable, consistency in the approach it adopts with regard to the exercise of such discretion or expert judgement.

Index Governance

The Nasdaq Index Management Committee approves all new index methodologies. This committee is comprised of full-time professional members of Nasdaq. The committee meets regularly, and reviews items including, but not limited to, pending corporate actions that may affect index constituents, statistics comparing the composition of the name of our index to the market, companies that are being considered as candidates for addition to the name of our index, and any significant market events.

Discretionary Adjustment

The index methodology was created by Nasdaq to achieve the aforementioned objective of measuring the underlying purpose of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index. Any deviations from the index methodology are made in the sole judgment and discretion of Nasdaq so that the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index continues to achieve its objective.

For information about the construction, calculation methodology and maintenance of the Nasdaq-100 Index®, please see “Nasdaq-100 Index®” above.

License Agreement between Nasdaq, Inc. and GS Finance Corp.

The Product(s) is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Nasdaq, Inc. or its affiliates (Nasdaq, with its affiliates, are referred to as the “Corporations”). The Corporations have not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Product(s). The Corporations make no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the Product(s) or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Product(s) particularly, or the ability of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index to track general stock market performance. The Corporations' only relationship to GS Finance Corp. (“Licensee”) is in the licensing of the Nasdaq®, the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index, Nasdaq-100 Index®, and certain trade names of the Corporations and the use of the Nasdaq-100 Index® which is determined, composed and calculated by Nasdaq without regard to Licensee or the Product(s). Nasdaq has no obligation to take the needs of the Licensee or the owners of the Product(s) into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index or the Nasdaq-100 Index®. The Corporations are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Product(s) to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Product(s) is to be converted into cash. The Corporations have no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Product(s).

The Corporations do not guarantee the accuracy and/or uninterrupted calculation of Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein. The Corporations make no warranty, express or implied, as to results

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to be obtained by Licensee, owners of the product(s), or any other person or entity from the use of the Nasdaq-100 Technology Sector Index or the Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein. The Corporations make no express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Nasdaq-100 Index® or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Corporations have any liability for any lost profits or special, incidental, punitive, indirect, or consequential damages, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.


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Nikkei 225

The Nikkei Stock Average, more commonly known as the Nikkei 225:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first published on September 7, 1950 and was originally calculated by the Tokyo Stock Exchange but has been calculated by Nikkei Inc. since 1970; and

is calculated, published and disseminated daily by Nikkei Inc.

The Nikkei 225 is comprised of 225 highly liquid stocks of the Tokyo Stock Exchange First Section and aims to maintain long-term continuity and reflect changes in industry structure. The real-time price return Japanese yen value of the Nikkei 225 is reported by Bloomberg under the ticker symbol “NKY”. According to Nikkei Inc., the Nikkei 225 has been widely followed throughout its history as a barometer of the Japanese equity markets and the Japanese economy following World War II.  Additional information about the Nikkei 225 can be found on Nikkei Inc.’s website at: indexes.nikkei.co.jp/en/nkave. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this document.  Nikkei Inc. is under no obligation to continue to publish the Nikkei 225 and may discontinue the Nikkei 225 at any time as further described below.

Nikkei Inc. maintains an industry classification system of 36 industries, which it reclassifies into six industry sectors for purposes of the Nikkei 225.  The six industry sectors, and the underlying 36 industry classifications, are as follows:

Technology — Pharmaceuticals, Electric Machinery, Automobiles and Automobile Parts, Precision Instruments and Communications;

Financials — Banking, Other Financial Services, Securities and Insurance;

Consumer Goods — Fishery, Foods, Retail and Services;

Materials — Mining, Textiles and Apparel, Pulp and Paper, Chemicals, Petroleum, Rubber, Glass and Ceramics, Steel, Nonferrous Metals and Trading Companies;

Capital Goods/Others — Construction, Machinery, Shipbuilding, Transportation Equipment, Other Manufacturing and Real Estate; and

Transportation and Utilities — Railway and Bus, Land Transport, Marine Transport, Air Transport, Warehousing, Electric Power and Gas.

As of December 14, 2020, the following sectors had the following weights in the Nikkei 225: Technology (47.01%), Financials (1.93%), Consumer Goods (25.74%), Materials (12.91%), Capital Goods/Others (10.28%) and Transportation and Utilities (2.14%). Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.  (Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed.  Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations.  In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ.  As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.)


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As of December 14, 2020, the top ten constituents of the Nikkei 225 and their respective weights were:  

Company

Weight (%)

Fast Retailing Co., Ltd.

11.36%

Softbank Group Corp.

6.54%

Tokyo Electron Ltd.

4.94%

FANUC Corp.

3.48%

Daikin Industries, Ltd.

3.05%

M3, Inc.

2.90%

KDDI Corp.

2.39%

Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.

2.29%

Terumo Corp.

2.16%

Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

2.05%

The information in the table and paragraph above was derived from sources we deem reputable but without independent verification by us. The other information regarding the index methodology described herein was derived from English language documents on Nikkei Inc.’s website but without independent verification.  Please note that in any case where differences arise between the English version of Nikkei Inc.’s index guide and the original Japanese version, the original Japanese document will prevail.

Construction of the Nikkei 225

In order to be eligible for the Nikkei 225, a stock must be an ordinary share of a domestic company listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange First Section.  Non-ordinary shares such as exchange-traded funds, real estate investment trusts, preferred stock, preferred securities and tracking stocks are not eligible.  The constituents of the Nikkei 225 are reviewed once each year at the beginning of October (the “annual review”) and changes are typically implemented on the first trading day of October.  There is no limit to the number of additions or deletions that may result from the annual review. The annual review focuses on 1) a stock’s liquidity in the market and 2) industry sector balance. The purpose of the annual review is to maintain market representativeness of the constituents.  

First, Nikkei Inc. assesses the liquidity of all eligible stocks by considering two factors: trading value of the preceding 5 years and magnitude of price fluctuation by volume of the preceding 5 years. Magnitude of price fluctuation by volume is calculated as the quotient of (1) the quotient of (i) the stock’s high price divided by (ii) such stock’s low price divided by (2) such stock’s trading volume. After performing the liquidity assessment, the stocks are then ranked in descending order of liquidity and the top 450 stocks constitute the “high liquidity group” and remain eligible for inclusion in the Nikkei 225. Any current constituents falling outside of the high liquidity group (ranked 451 or lower based on liquidity) are deleted from the Nikkei 225. Of those stocks in the high liquidity group, the top 75 with the highest liquidity and not already a constituent are added to the Nikkei 225.

Second, the 450 stocks within the high liquidity group are categorized into the six industrial sectors described above: technology, financials, consumer goods, industrial materials, capital goods/others and transportation/utilities. Once the number of stocks in each sector is determined, such number is divided in half to determine the target number of stocks from each sector that shall constitute the 225 constituents in the Nikkei 225. If any of the sectors are over-represented at that stage (i.e., there are a greater number of actual constituents in the Nikkei 225 for the sector relative to the target number of stocks for such sector), current constituents in the Nikkei 225 are deleted in order of ascending liquidity so those constituents with

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the lowest liquidity are removed from the Nikkei 225 until the overage is corrected. If any of the sectors are under-represented (i.e., there are a lesser number of actual constituents in the Nikkei 225 for the sector relative to the target number of stocks for such sector), non-constituent stocks within the high liquidity group are added in order of descending liquidity so those stocks with the highest liquidity are added to the Nikkei 225 until the shortage is corrected. This process is performed to achieve a group of 225 constituents that reflect the intended sector balance.

Calculation of the Nikkei 225

The Nikkei 225 is a weighted price average index in which the level of the Nikkei 225 is calculated as the quotient of (i) the sum of all constituents’ adjusted stock prices divided by (ii) the divisor (as described below). A constituent’s adjusted stock price is its stock price as adjusted by the presumed par value and such adjusted stock price is equal to the quotient of (i) the product of (a) the stock’s price times (b) 50 yen divided by (ii) the presumed par value of such stock (in yen). The Nikkei 225 level is rounded to the nearest hundredth and is calculated and published every 5 seconds beginning at 9 am (Tokyo time) daily.

The stock price used in the calculation is typically the last traded price of the constituent.  In some cases, however, the Tokyo Stock Exchange publishes a special quote for the constituent, and the special quote price will be used.  When this occurs, the special quote tends to be, but is not always, an intraday price.  If neither a special quote price nor a traded price is available, Nikkei Inc. will use the base price, which is usually the price used in calculating the Nikkei 225 on the prior day.  In the case of a stock that is trading ex-rights (e.g., after a stock split) for the first time on that day, however, Nikkei Inc. calculates an ex-rights theoretical price based on the price used for calculation on the preceding day and the appropriate adjustment to reflect the change in the stock.  Nikkei Inc. does not adjust for dividends in calculating the Nikkei 225.

The presumed par value of the constituent is intended to reflect the historical basis on which the stock is traded.  Japanese law abolished the concept of par value for stocks in 2001, but many stock prices reflect the former par value, such as 50, 500 or 50,000 yen. For example, stocks traded in units of 1 share (ex-par value of 50,000 yen) and stocks traded in units of 100 or 1000 shares have different price levels.  Therefore, in order to calculate the Nikkei 225 on a consistent basis, Nikkei Inc. adjusts the constituent prices, usually to a presumed par value of 50 yen.  Most of the constituents have a presumed par value of 50 yen, which means their original prices are simply used for purposes of calculating the Nikkei 225. However, not all constituents have a presumed par value of 50 yen – presumed par values of current constituents range from 25 yen to 500 yen. The presumed par value for each constituent is published on Nikkei Inc.’s website.

The presumed par value also may be adjusted to reflect large scale stock splits or reverse splits.  In these situations, Nikkei Inc. believes a divisor adjustment will not ensure continuity of the Nikkei 225.  Instead of adjusting the divisor, Nikkei Inc. adjusts the presumed par value or, in some cases, the constituent price.  For example, if a stock with a presumed par value of 50 yen splits 1 to 2, the presumed par value will be changed to 25 yen.  In calculating the Nikkei 225, the constituent price will be doubled to reflect the 50 par yen basis for calculating the Nikkei 225. In the case of a small scale split (such as a split of 1 to 1.1), the divisor will be adjusted instead of the presumed par value.

Divisor Adjustments

As noted above, the Nikkei 225 is calculated as an adjusted price average index, where the weight is based on the presumed par value. The divisor is intended to maintain continuity of the Nikkei 225 and is the denominator of the fraction used to calculate the average.  The divisor was initially the number of constituents, but has been changed over time to reflect stock splits, reverse splits, paid-in capital increases and other changes in the constituents.

When a stock splits or reverse splits, the level of paid-in capital increases, or there are other non-market corporate events affecting the constituents, the level of stock price changes. Also, when constituents are changed, the sum of stock prices (the numerator of the fraction prior to adjustment) changes based upon the prices of additions and deletions to the Nikkei 225. Therefore, the divisor is changed except in the

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case of large scale splits and reverse splits, in which the presumed par value is changed as discussed above.

The divisor for the next index day is calculated as the product of (i) the current day’s divisor times (ii) the quotient of (a) the sum of the base prices for the next day’s constituents divided by (b) the sum of the closing prices of the current day’s constituents used to calculate the Nikkei 225 level for the current day.  For purposes of calculating the divisor, the base prices for the next day’s constituents are calculated as follows:

The base price for stocks the prices of which are not changed based on non-market events will be the same as the current day’s price used in calculating the Nikkei 225.

The base price for stocks the presumed par value of which are changed will be the same as the current day’s price used in calculating the Nikkei 225 (and as a result of the presumed par value change, no change in the divisor will occur).

The base price for stocks the prices of which will change for non-market corporate events will be a theoretical price calculated based on the current day’s prices and the ex-rights change in the stock.

The base price for stocks becoming new index constituents on the next day will be the prices calculated for those stocks as if they were current constituents as discussed above.

As of December 14, 2020, the divisor of the Nikkei 225 was 27.769. The divisor is published on Nikkei Inc.’s website on each Tokyo Stock Exchange trading day and is rounded to the nearest one-thousandth.  For additional information about the divisor, as well as calculation examples of divisor changes, please see the index guide on Nikkei Inc.’s website.

Maintenance of the Nikkei 225

Extraordinary Replacement

In addition to additions and deletions of constituents resulting from the annual review, changes to index constituents may also be made as a result of certain extraordinary events. Stocks designated by the Tokyo Stock Exchange as a “security to be delisted,” stocks affected by corporate restructuring (including mergers, share exchanges and share transfers), or stocks transferred to the Tokyo Stock Exchange Second Section will be deleted from the Nikkei 225. Constituents that are designated by the Tokyo Stock Exchange as “a security under supervision” will remain constituents of the Nikkei 225 at the time of designation. However, Nikkei may replace such a constituent with a pre-announcement when it is highly inappropriate to keep the stock as a constituent, e.g. when the probability of delisting is extremely high.

If a constituent has been deleted from the Nikkei 225 based on an event described above, a stock will be added to replace the deleted constituent by selecting the highest liquidity stock in the same sector as the deleted constituent from the high liquidity group determined during the last annual review. However, if a deletion is scheduled close to an annual review, additional stocks may be selected as part of the applicable annual review process.  Additionally, if there are multiple deletions in a short period of time not close to a scheduled annual review, the standard annual review process assessing liquidity and sector balance will be followed to select new constituents rather than referring to the last annual review list.

Special Rules for Additions Resulting from Other Corporate Actions

Notwithstanding the process above, the following procedures may be applied in certain cases of corporate restructuring. Application of these special rules is determined for each particular case. Where (i) a constituent is merged and delisted or (ii) a newly established listed parent company receives its shares by transfer or exchange from another constituent, the delisted stock may be replaced by the successor company’s stock if it is or will be listed within a short period on the Tokyo Stock Exchange First Section. In the case of spin-offs where multiple companies remain listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange First Section, the stock of the company that succeeds to the major operations of the former company will become a constituent of the Nikkei 225.

Except for constituent changes resulting from the annual review and from the circumstances described above under “Extraordinary Replacement” and “Special Rules for Additions Resulting from Other

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Corporate Actions”, there is no process for adding new constituents to the Nikkei 225.  After consultation with academics and market professionals, Nikkei Inc. decides and announces the list of deletions and additions. As discussed above under “Calculation of the Nikkei 225”, the divisor is adjusted accordingly to maintain continuity when constituents are added or deleted from the Nikkei 225. Deletions and additions to the Nikkei 225 resulting from either the annual review or extraordinary events are generally effective on the same day in an effort to maintain the number of constituents at 225. However, when necessary, additions may be made after the deletions take effect and during the interim period, the Nikkei 225 may be calculated with less than 225 constituents. For example, when a constituent is delisted by share exchange or transfer and the succeeding company such as the newly formed parent company or an unlisted company becomes the parent by receiving the shares of the delisted company and listing its shares in a short period of time.

Changes to the Nikkei 225 Methodology

Although the Nikkei 225 is calculated and maintained in accordance with the information provided in the methodology maintained on Nikkei Inc.’s website, Nikkei Inc. has discretion to take measures it deems appropriate upon the occurrence of events which are not covered in the methodology or in circumstances where it is difficult to continue to calculate the Nikkei 225 using the rules described in such methodology.

License Agreement between Nikkei Inc. and GS Finance Corp.

Goldman Sachs has entered into a non-exclusive license agreement with Nikkei Inc. (“NKI”) whereby GS Finance Corp., in exchange for a fee, will be permitted to use the Nikkei 225 in connection with the offer and sale of your security.  Any intellectual property rights relating to the Nikkei 225 belong to NKI. Goldman Sachs is not affiliated with NKI; the only relationship between NKI and Goldman Sachs is the licensing of the use of the Nikkei 225 and trademarks relating to the Nikkei 225.

NKI is under no obligation to continue the calculation and dissemination of the Nikkei 225.  Your security is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or otherwise promoted by NKI.  No inference should be drawn from the information contained herein that NKI makes any representation or warranty, express or implied, to us or any holder of your security or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in your security in particular or the ability of the Nikkei 225 to track generally stock market performance.

NKI determines, composes and calculates the Nikkei 225 without regard to your security.  NKI has no obligation to take into account your interest, or that of anyone else having an interest, in your security in determining, composing or calculating the Nikkei 225 or any successor index.  NKI is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the terms, prices or amount of your security and will not be responsible for or participate in any determination or calculation regarding the principal amount of your security payable at the stated maturity date. NKI has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of your security.  

Neither NKI nor any of its affiliates accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the Nikkei 225.  NKI disclaims all responsibility for any errors or omissions in the calculation and dissemination of the Nikkei 225 or the manner in which the Nikkei 225 is applied in determining the level of the Nikkei 225 or any amount payable upon maturity of your security.

NKI DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE NIKKEI 225 OR ANY DATA INCLUDED IN THE NIKKEI 225.  NKI ASSUMES NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS OR OMISSIONS.


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Russell 2000® Index

 

The Russell 2000® Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first launched in 1984 based on an initial value of 100 as of December 31, 1978; and

is sponsored by FTSE Russell (“FTSE Russell”)

 

The Russell 2000® Index measures the composite price performance of stocks of 2,004 companies in the U.S. equity market. It is generally considered to be a “small-cap” index.  Additional information about the Russell 2000® Index is available on the following website: ftse.com/analytics/factsheets/Home/Search#. We are not incorporating by reference the website or any material it includes in this underlier supplement.

 

As of December 14, 2020, the 2,004 companies included in the Russell 2000® Index were divided into eleven Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB) industries. The ICB industries include (with the approximate percentage currently included in such industries indicated in parentheses): Basic Materials (3.89%), Consumer Discretionary (15.34%), Consumer Staples (3.17%), Energy (2.81%), Financials (15.19%), Health Care (20.49%), Industrials (15.36%), Real Estate (6.41%), Technology (11.88%), Telecommunications (1.76%) and Utilities (3.69%). (Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.) As of the close of business on September 18, 2020, FTSE Russell transitioned from the Russell Global Sectors to the ICB.

 

The Russell 2000® Index includes approximately 2,000 of the smallest securities that form the Russell 3000® Index. The Russell 3000® Index is comprised of the 3,000 largest U.S. companies, or 98% based on market capitalization, of the investable U.S. equity market. The Russell 2000® Index is designed to track the performance of the small capitalization segment of the U.S. equity market.

 

Selection of Constituent Stocks of the Russell 2000® Index

 

The Russell 2000® Index is a sub-index of the Russell 3000® Index. To be eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index, and, consequently, the Russell 2000® Index, a company’s stocks must be listed on the rank day in May of a given year (the timetable is announced each spring) and FTSE Russell must have access to documentation verifying the company’s eligibility for inclusion. Eligible initial public offerings (“IPOs”) are added to Russell U.S. Indices quarterly, based on total market capitalization rankings within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established during the most recent reconstitution. To be added to any Russell U.S. index during a quarter outside of reconstitution, IPOs must meet additional eligibility criteria.

 

A company is included in the U.S. equity markets and is eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index, and consequently, the Russell 2000® Index, if that company incorporates in the U.S., has its headquarters in the U.S. and also trades with the highest liquidity in the U.S.  If a company does not satisfy all of the above criteria, it can still be included in the U.S. equity market if any one of the following home country indicators is in the United States: (i) country of incorporation, (ii) country of headquarters and (iii) country in which the company trades with the highest liquidity (as defined by a two-year average daily dollar trading volume from all exchanges within the country), and the primary location of that company’s assets or its revenue, based on an average of two years of assets or revenues data, is also in the United States. In addition, if there is insufficient information to assign a company to the U.S. equity markets based on its

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assets or revenue, the company may nonetheless be assigned to the U.S. equity markets if the headquarters of the company is located in the United States or if the headquarters of the company is located in certain “benefit-driven incorporation countries”, or “BDIs”, and that company’s most liquid stock exchange is in the United States. The BDI countries are Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Cook Islands, Curaçao, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Panama, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Turks and Caicos Islands. A U.S.-listed company is not eligible for inclusion within the U.S. equity market if it has been classified by FTSE Russell as a China N share on the rank date of the index reconstitution. A company will be considered a China N share if the following criteria are satisfied: (i) the company is incorporated outside of the People’s Republic of China, (ii) the company is listed on the NYSE, the Nasdaq or the NYSE American (formerly the NYSE MKT), (iii) over 55% of the revenue or assets of the company are derived from the People’s Republic of China, and (iv) the company is controlled by a mainland Chinese entity, company or individual (if the shareholder background cannot be determined with publicly available information, FTSE Russell will consider whether the establishment and origin of the company are in mainland China and whether the company is headquartered in mainland China). An existing China N Share which fails one or more of the following criteria will cease to be classified as a China N share: (i) the company is no longer incorporated outside the People’s Republic of China, (ii) the company is no longer listed on the NYSE, the Nasdaq exchange, or the NYSE American, (iii) the percentages of revenue and assets derived from the People’s Republic of China have both fallen below 45 percent, or (iv) the company is acquired/a controlling stake is held by a non-Mainland Chinese state entity, company or individual. Only asset and revenue data from the most recent annual report is considered when evaluating whether a company should be classified a China N share (i.e., there will be no two year averaging). ADRs and ADSs are not eligible for inclusion in the Russell 2000® Index.

 

In addition, all securities eligible for inclusion in the Russell 3000® Index, and consequently, the Russell 2000® Index, must trade on an eligible exchange (CBOE (formerly BATS), NYSE, NYSE American (formerly NYSE MKT), NYSE Arca and Nasdaq).

 

Exclusions from the Russell 2000® Index

 

FTSE Russell specifically excludes the following companies and securities from the Russell 2000® Index: (i) preferred and convertible preferred stock, redeemable shares, participating preferred stock, warrants, rights, depositary receipts, installment receipts and trust receipts; (ii) royalty trusts, U.S. limited liability companies, closed-end investment companies, companies that are required to report Acquired Fund Fees and  Expenses (as defined by the SEC), including business development companies, blank check companies, special-purpose acquisition companies and limited partnerships; (iii) companies with a total market capitalization less than $30 million; (iv) companies with only a small portion of their shares available in the marketplace (companies with less than an absolute 5% of shares available); (v) bulletin board, pink sheets or over-the-counter traded securities, including securities for which prices are displayed on the FINRA ADF; (vi) real estate investment trusts and publicly traded partnerships that generate, or have historically generated, unrelated business taxable income and have not taken steps to block their unrelated business taxable income to equity holders; and (vii) companies with 5% or less of the company’s voting rights in the hands of unrestricted shareholders (existing constituents that do not currently have more than 5% of the company’s voting rights in the hands of unrestricted shareholders have until the September 2022 review to meet this requirement).

 

Initial List of Eligible Securities

 

The primary criterion FTSE Russell uses to determine the initial list of securities eligible for the Russell 3000® Index and, consequently, the Russell 2000® Index, is total market capitalization, which is calculated by multiplying the total outstanding shares for a company by the market price as of the rank day for those securities being considered at annual reconstitution.  IPOs may be added between constitutions as noted below.  All common stock share classes are combined in determining a company’s total shares outstanding. If multiple share classes have been combined, the number of total shares outstanding will be

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multiplied by the primary exchange close price and used to determine the company’s total market capitalization. In cases where the common stock share classes act independently of each other (e.g., tracking stocks), each class is considered for inclusion separately. Stocks must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on their primary exchange or an eligible secondary exchange on the last trading day of May of each year to be eligible for inclusion in the Russell 2000® Index. In order to reduce unnecessary turnover, if an existing member’s closing price is less than $1.00 on the rank day in May, it will be considered eligible if the average of the daily closing prices from their primary exchange during the 30 days prior to the rank day is equal to or greater than $1.00. If an existing member does not trade on the rank day, it must price at $1.00 or above on another eligible U.S. exchange to remain eligible.

 

Multiple Share Classes

 

If an eligible company trades under multiple share classes or if a company distributes shares of an additional share class to its existing shareholders through a mandatory corporate action, each share class will be reviewed independently for inclusion. Share classes in addition to the primary vehicle (the pricing vehicle) that have a total market capitalization larger than $30 million, an average daily dollar trading value that exceeds that of the global median, and a float greater than 5% of shares available in the market place are eligible for inclusion.  

 

The pricing vehicle will generally be designated as the share class with the highest two-year trading volume as of the rank day. In the absence of two years’ worth of data, all available data will be used for this calculation.  If the difference between trading volumes for each share class is less than 20%, the share class with the most available shares outstanding will be used as the pricing vehicle.  At least 100 day trading volume is necessary to consider the class as a pricing vehicle for existing members.  New members will be analyzed on all available data, even if that data is for less than 100 days.

 

Annual Reconstitution

 

The Russell 2000® Index is reconstituted annually by FTSE Russell to reflect changes in the marketplace. The list of companies is ranked based on total market capitalization on the last trading day in May, with the actual reconstitution occurring on the final Friday of June each year, unless the final Friday in June is the 29th or 30th, in which case reconstitution will occur on the preceding Friday. A full calendar for reconstitution is made available each spring.

 

A company’s total shares are multiplied by the primary exchange close price of the pricing vehicle and used to determine the company’s total market capitalization for the purpose of ranking of companies and determination of index membership. If no volume exists on the primary exchange on the rank day, the last trade price from an eligible secondary exchange will be used where volume exists (using the lowest trade price above $1.00 if multiple secondary markets exist). The company’s rank will be determined based on the cumulative market capitalization. As of the June 2016 reconstitution, any share class not qualifying for eligibility independently will not be aggregated with the pricing vehicle within the available shares calculation.

 

For mergers and spin-offs that are effective between the rank day and the business day immediately before the index lock down takes effect ahead of the annual reconstitution in June, the market capitalizations of the impacted securities are recalculated and membership is reevaluated as of the effective date of the corporate action.  For corporate events that occur during the reconstitution lock down period (which takes effect from the open on the first day of the lock down period onwards), market capitalizations and memberships will not be reevaluated. Non index members that have been considered ineligible as of rank day will not be reevaluated in the event of a subsequent corporate action that occurs between rank day and the reconstitution effective date.

 

Index Calculation and Capitalization Adjustments

 

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As a capitalization-weighted index, the Russell 2000® Index reflects changes in the capitalization, or market value, of the index stocks relative to the capitalization on a base date. This discussion describes the “price return” calculation of the Russell 2000® Index. The applicable pricing supplement will describe the calculation if the underlier for your securities is not the price return calculation. The current Russell 2000® Index value is the compounded result of the cumulative daily (or monthly) return percentages, where the starting value of the Russell 2000® Index is equal to the base value (100) and base date (December 31, 1978). Returns between any two dates can then be derived by dividing the ending period index value (IV1) by the beginning period (IV0) index value, so that the return equals [(IV1 / IV0) –1]*100.

 

Constituent stocks of the index are weighted in the Russell 2000® Index by their free-float market capitalization, which is calculated by multiplying the primary closing price by the number of free-float shares. Free-float shares are shares that are available to the public for purchase as determined by FTSE Russell. Adjustments to shares are reviewed quarterly (including at reconstitution) and for major corporate actions such as mergers. Total shares and adjustments for available shares are based on information recorded in SEC corporate filings.

 

The following are excluded from free float: shares directly owned by state, regional, municipal and local governments (excluding shares held by independently managed pension schemes for governments); shares held by sovereign wealth funds where each holding is 10% or greater of the total number of shares in issue; shares held by directors, senior executives and managers of the company, and by their family and direct relations, and by companies with which they are affiliated; shares held within employee share plans; shares held by public companies or by non-listed subsidiaries of public companies; shares held by founders, promoters, former directors, founding venture capital and private equity firms, private companies and individuals (including employees) where the holding is 10% or greater of the total number of shares in issue; all shares where the holder is subject to a lock-up clause (for the duration of that clause, after which free float changes resulting from the expiry of a lock-up will be implemented at the next quarterly review subject to the lock-up expiry date occurring on or prior to the share and float change information cut-off date); shares held by an investor, investment company or an investment fund that is actively participating in the management of a company or is holding shares for publicly announced strategic reasons, or has successfully placed a current member to the board of directors of a company; and shares that are subject to ongoing contractual agreements (such as swaps) where they would ordinarily be treated as restricted. In addition, while portfolio holdings such as pension funds, insurance funds or investment companies will generally not be considered as restricted from free float, where a single portfolio holding is 30% or greater it will be regarded as strategic and therefore restricted (and will remain restricted until the holding falls below 30%).

 

Corporate Actions Affecting the Index

 

FTSE Russell adjusts the Russell 2000® Index on a daily basis in response to certain corporate actions and events. Therefore, a company’s membership in the Russell 2000® Index and its weight in the Russell 2000® Index can be impacted by these corporate actions. The adjustment is applied based on sources of public information, including press releases and Securities and Exchange Commission filings. Prior to the completion of a corporate action or event, FTSE Russell estimates the effective date. FTSE Russell will then adjust the anticipated effective date based on public information until the date is considered final. Depending on the time on a given day that an action is determined to be final, FTSE Russell will generally either (1) apply the action before the open on the ex-date or (2) apply the action after providing appropriate notice. If FTSE Russell has confirmed the completion of a corporate action, scheduled to become effective subsequent to a rebalance, the event may be implemented in conjunction with the rebalance to limit turnover, provided appropriate notice can be given. FTSE Russell applies the following methodology guidelines when adjusting the Russell 2000® Index in response to corporate actions and events:

 

“No Replacement” Rule — Securities that are deleted from the Russell 2000® Index between reconstitution dates, for any reason (e.g., mergers, acquisitions or other similar corporate activity) are not

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replaced. Thus, the number of securities in the Russell 2000® Index over the past year will fluctuate according to corporate activity.

 

 

Mergers and Acquisitions

 

Adjustments due to mergers and acquisitions are applied to the Russell 2000® Index after the action is determined to be final. In the event that a constituent is being acquired for cash or is delisted subsequent to an index review, such constituent will be removed from the Russell 2000® Index in conjunction with the index review, assuming that the action is determined to be final and a minimum of two days’ notice can be provided.

 

Between constituents:  When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of a Russell index for cash, the target company is deleted from the Russell 2000® Index at the last traded price. When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of a Russell index for stock, the target company is deleted from the Russell 2000® Index and the shares of the acquiring stock are increased according to the offer terms. When mergers and acquisitions take place between companies that are both constituents of a Russell index for cash or stock or a combination thereof, the target company is deleted from the Russell 2000® Index and the shares of the acquiring company are simultaneously increased per the merger terms.

 

Between a constituent and a non-constituent:  If the target company is a member of the Russell 2000® Index, it is deleted from the Russell 2000® Index and the acquiring company will be included initially in the Russell 2000® Index provided it is eligible in all other respects at the time of the merger, regardless of previous eligibility screenings. If the acquiring company is deemed eligible it will be added to the Russell 2000® Index on the effective date and the opening price will be calculated using the offer terms. When the target company is a FTSE Russell Universe member, the shares of the member acquiring company will be updated to reflect the merger. Any share update will be made giving appropriate notice.

 

Given sufficient market hours after the confirmation of a merger or acquisition, FTSE Russell effects the action after the close on the last day of trading of the target company, or at an appropriate time once the transaction has been deemed to be final.

  

Rights Offerings — Rights offered to shareholders are reflected in the Russell 2000® Index only if the subscription price of the rights is at a discount to the market price of the stock. Provided that FTSE Russell has been alerted to the rights offer prior to the ex-date, it will adjust the price of the stock for the value of the rights and increased shares according to the terms of the offering before the open on the ex-date.

 

Spin-offs— If the spin-off entity meets the eligibility requirements for the Russell 2000® Index, the spin-off entity will be added to the Russell 2000® Index on the ex-date of the distribution. The spin-off entity will be retained in the Russell 2000® Index until the next annual reconstitution, when it will be evaluated for inclusion. If the spin-off entity does not meet the eligibility requirements for the Russell 2000® Index, the spin-off entity will be added to the Russell 2000® Index on the ex-date of the distribution. It will remain in the Russell 2000® Index until listing and settlement and then deleted at market price with notice.

 

Initial Public Offerings — Eligible IPOs are added to the Russell 2000® Index based on total market capitalization ranking within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established at the most recent annual reconstitution.

An IPO of additional share classes will be considered for eligibility and must meet the same eligibility criteria for all other multiple share classes.  If at the time of the IPO the additional share class does not meet the eligibility criteria for separate index membership, it will not be added to the Russell 2000® Index and will subsequently be reviewed for index membership during the next annual reconstitution.

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Once IPO additions have been announced, an IPO may be added to the Russell 2000® Index prior to the previously announced schedule, if a corporate action has deemed this to be appropriate and notice can be provided (e.g. an index member automatically receives shares via a stock distribution into a projected IPO add). 

 

Tender Offers — A company acquired as a result of a tender offer is removed when (i) (a) offer acceptances reach 90%; (b) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment; and (c) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met and the acquirer has not explicitly stated that it does not intend to acquire the remaining shares; (ii) there is reason to believe that the remaining free float is under 5% based on information available at the time; or (iii) following completion of the offer the acquirer has stated intent to finalize the acquisition via a short-form merger, squeeze-out, top-up option or any other compulsory mechanism.

 

Where the conditions for index deletion are not met, FTSE Russell may implement a free float change based on the reported acceptance results at the expiration of the initial, subsequent or final offer period where (i) the minimum acceptance level as stipulated by the acquiror is met; (ii) shareholders have validly tendered and the shares have been irrevocably accepted for payment; (iii) all pertinent offer conditions have been reasonably met and (iv) the change to the current float factor is greater than 3%. FTSE Russell uses the published results of the offer to determine the new free float of the target company. If no information is published in conjunction with the results from which FTSE Russell can determine which shareholders have and have not tendered, the free float change will reflect the total shares now owned by the acquiring company. A minimum T+2 notice period of the change is generally provided. . Any subsequent disclosure on the updated shareholder structure will be reviewed during the quarterly review cycle. If the offer includes a stock consideration, the acquiring company’s shares will be increased proportionate to the free float change of the target company.  If the target company’s free float change is greater than 3%, the associated change to the acquiring company’s shares will be implemented regardless of size. Additionally, if the change to the target company is less than 3%, then no change will be implemented to the target or the acquiring company at the time of the event, regardless of any change to the acquiring company’s shares. The target company will then be deleted as a second-step, if the conditions for deletion are achieved at the expiration of a subsequent offer period.  

 

In the event that a tender offer results in an additional listed and active “tendered” line prior to the tendered shares being accepted and exchanged for settlement, FTSE Russell will generally evaluate the following factors to determine whether to switch to the tendered line: (i) the objective of the offer is to fully acquire and delist the target company (and FTSE Russell is not aware of any obstacles designed to prevent this objective; e.g. there are no major shareholders who have publicly disclosed that they will not be tendering); (ii) the offer is deemed to be successful (i.e. the minimum acceptance threshold has been achieved); (iii) more than 50% of the shares subject to the offer have been tendered; (iv) there is an additional tender offer period to provide a window for index users to tender into the tendered shares’ line; and (v) there are outstanding regulatory or other substantive hurdles preventing the transaction completing immediately at the conclusion of the tender offer, with the results not expected to be known for some time. Index implementation will generally occur immediately after the opening of the additional offer period (with the provision of appropriate notice) – with an informative notice published announcing the change, to supplement the information within the applicable tracker files. In the event that the tendered line is halted prior to index implementation, its close price will be updated to reflect the deal terms until implementation. In the event that the prerequisites for deletion are not achieved and the target company is retained within the Russell 2000® Index at a reduced weight, the tendered line will be removed at deal terms (if no active market) with the ordinary line being re-added at a reduced weight at its last close price.

 

In exceptional circumstances, any review changes due to be effective for the companies involved in a tender offer may be retracted if FTSE Russell becomes aware of a tender offer which is due to complete on or around the effective date of such index review changes. Such exceptional circumstances may include undue price pressure being placed on the companies involved, or if proceeding with the review changes would compromise the replicability of the Russell 2000® Index.

 

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Delisted and Suspended Stocks — A stock will be deleted as a constituent if it is delisted from all eligible exchanges, becomes bankrupt, files for bankruptcy protection, is insolvent or is liquidated, or where evidence of a change in circumstances makes it ineligible for index inclusion. If, however, a stock is suspended, FTSE Russell will determine its treatment as follows:

 

if a constituent is declared bankrupt without any indication of compensation to shareholders, the last traded price will be adjusted to zero value and the constituent will be removed from the Russell 2000® Index with notice (typically T+2);

in all other cases, a constituent will continue to be included in the Russell 2000® Index for a period of up to 20 business days at its last traded price;

if a constituent continues to be suspended at the end of the 20 business day period, it will be subject to review and a decision will be taken to either allow the constituent to remain in the Russell 2000® Index for a further period of up to 20 business days or to remove it at zero value.  In making this determination, FTSE Russell will take into account the stated reasons for the suspension. These reasons may include announcements made by the company regarding a pending acquisition or restructuring, and any stated intentions regarding a date for the resumption of trading;

if the suspension period reaches 60 business days, the constituent will be removed from the Russell 2000® Index at zero value at the next index review, subject to the 60th business day of suspension occurring on or before the Friday which falls four weeks prior to the index review implementation date. Where the 60th business day of suspension occurs after such date, the constituent will be reviewed for removal at the subsequent index review;

in certain limited circumstances where the index weight of the constituent is significant and FTSE Russell determines that a market-related value can be established for the suspended constituent, for example because similar company securities continue to trade, deletion may take place at the market-related value instead. In such circumstances, FTSE Russell will set out its rationale for the proposed treatment of the constituent at the end of the 60 business day period;

if, following the end of the 60 business day period, a suspended constituent resumes trading in advance of the index review lock-down period (i.e., the two week period prior to the index review effective date) in March, June, September or December, the deletion notice will be rescinded and the constituent will be retained in the Russell 2000® Index. However, where the constituent resumes trading during the index review lock-down period, the constituent will continue to be removed from the Russell 2000® Index as previously announced but in these circumstances the deletion will instead be implemented at market value unless there are barriers that render a market value irreplicable. In this event, the company will continue to be removed at zero; and

if a constituent has been removed from the Russell 2000® Index and trading is subsequently restored, the constituent will only be reconsidered for inclusion after a period of 12 months from its deletion. For the purposes of index eligibility it will be treated as a new issue.

Bankruptcy and Voluntary Liquidations — Companies that file for a Chapter 7 bankruptcy or have filed a liquidation plan will be removed from the Russell 2000® Index at the time of the bankruptcy filing (except when shareholder approval is required to finalize the liquidation plan, in which case the company will be removed once shareholder approval has been granted). Companies filing for a Chapter 11 reorganization bankruptcy will remain a member of the Russell 2000® Index, unless the company is delisted from the primary exchange, in which case normal delisting rules apply. If a company files for bankruptcy, is delisted and it can be confirmed that it will not trade on any market, including OTC, FTSE Russell may remove the stock at a nominal price of $0.0001.

 

Stock Distributions and distributions in specie— A price adjustment for stock distributions is applied on the ex-date of the distribution. Where FTSE Russell is able to value a distribution in specie prior to the ex-date, a price adjustment is made to the company paying the dividend at the open on the ex-date.  If no valuation of the distribution exists prior to the ex-date, no price adjustment is applied.  Where the company whose holders are receiving the distribution is an index member, its shares will be increased

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according to the terms of the distribution.  If such company is not an index member, the distributed shares will be added to the Russell 2000® Index until they have been settled and have listed, at which point they will be removed at the last traded price giving appropriate notice.

 

Special Cash Dividends — If a constituent pays out a special cash dividend, the price of the stock is adjusted to deduct the dividend amount before the open on the ex-date. No adjustment for regular cash dividends is made in the price return calculation of the Russell 2000® Index.  

 

Updates to Shares Outstanding and Free Float — FTSE Russell reviews the Russell 2000® Index quarterly for updates to shares outstanding and to free floats used in calculating the Russell 2000® Index. The changes are implemented quarterly in March, June, September and December after the close on the third Friday of such month. The June reconstitution will be implemented on the last Friday of June (unless the last Friday occurs on the 29th or 30th of the month, in which case reconstitution will occur on the Friday prior).

 

In March, September and December shares outstanding and free floats are updated to reflect (i) cumulative share changes greater than 1%, (ii) for constituents with a free float less than or equal to 15%, cumulative free float changes greater than 1%, and (iii) for constituents with a free float greater than 15%, cumulative free float changes greater than 3%. Updates to shares outstanding and free floats will be implemented each June regardless of size (i.e., the percentage change thresholds above will not be applied). FTSE Russell implements the June updates using data sourced primarily from the companies’ publicly available information filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Outside of the quarterly update cycle, outstanding shares and free float will be updated with at least two days’ notice if prompted by primary or secondary offerings if (i) there is a USD $1 billion investable market capitalization change related to a primary/secondary offering measured by multiplying the change to index shares by the subscription price or (ii) there is a resultant 5% change in index shares related to a primary or secondary offering and a USD $250 million investable market capitalization change measured by multiplying the change to index shares by the subscription price. The pricing date will serve as the trigger for implementation; i.e. once FTSE Russell is aware that an offering has priced, the update will be implemented with two days’ notice from market close (contingent on the thresholds described above being triggered). If discovery of the pricing date occurs more than two days after the pricing date, the update will be deferred until the next quarterly review.

 

If a company distributes shares of an additional share class to its existing shareholders through a mandatory corporate action, the additional share class will be evaluated for separate index membership. The new share class will be deemed eligible if the market capitalization of the distributed shares meets the minimum size requirement (the market capitalization of the smallest member of the Russell 3000E Index from the previous rebalance as adjusted for performance to date). If the additional share class is not eligible at the time of distribution, it will not be added to the Russell 2000® Index.

 

License Agreement between Frank Russell Company (doing business as FTSE Russell) and GS Finance Corp.

 

Frank Russell Company doing business as FTSE Russell (“Russell”) and Goldman Sachs International have entered into a non-exclusive license agreement, granting GS Finance Corp., in exchange for a fee, permission to use the Russell 2000® Index in connection with the offer and sale of the securities. GS Finance Corp. is not affiliated with Russell; the only relationship between Russell and GS Finance Corp. is the licensing of the use of the Russell 2000® Index (a trademark of Russell) and trademarks relating to the Russell 2000® Index.

 

GS Finance Corp. does not accept any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of the Russell 2000® Index or any successor index.

 

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The securities are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Russell. Russell makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the securities or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the securities particularly or the ability of the Russell 2000® Index to track general stock market performance or a segment of the same. Russell’s publication of the Russell 2000® Index in no way suggests or implies an opinion by Russell as to the advisability of investment in any or all of the securities upon which the Russell 2000® Index is based. Russell’s only relationship to GS Finance Corp. is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of Russell and of the Russell 2000® Index which is determined, composed and calculated by Russell without regard to GS Finance Corp. or the securities. Russell is not responsible for and has not reviewed the securities nor any associated literature or publications and Russell makes no representation or warranty express or implied as to their accuracy or completeness, or otherwise. Russell reserves the right, at any time and without notice, to alter, amend, terminate or in any way change the Russell 2000® Index. Russell has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the securities.

 

RUSSELL DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE RUSSELL 2000® INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN AND RUSSELL SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR INTERRUPTIONS THEREIN. RUSSELL MAKES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY GS FINANCE CORP., INVESTORS, OWNERS OF THE SECURITIES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE RUSSELL 2000® INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. RUSSELL MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE RUSSELL 2000® INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL RUSSELL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS), EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

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S&P/ASX 200 Index

The S&P/ASX 200 Index, which we also refer to in this description as the “index”:

is an equity index, and therefore cannot be invested in directly;

does not file reports with the SEC because it is not an issuer;

was first launched in 1979 by the Australian Securities Exchange and was acquired and re-launched by its current index sponsor on April 3, 2000; and

is sponsored, calculated, published and disseminated by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a part of McGraw Hill Financial (“S&P”).

The S&P/ASX 200 Index includes 200 of the largest and most liquid stocks listed on the Australian Securities Exchange, which we refer to as the ASX, by float-adjusted market capitalization. As discussed below, the S&P/ASX 200 Index is not limited solely to companies having their primary operations or headquarters in Australia or to companies having their primary listing on the ASX. All ordinary and preferred shares (if such preferred shares are not of a fixed income nature) listed on the ASX, including secondary listings, are eligible for the S&P/ASX 200 Index. Hybrid stocks such as convertible stocks, bonds, warrants, preferred stock that provides a guaranteed fixed return and listed investment companies are not eligible for inclusion. Stocks currently under consideration for merger or acquisition are not eligible for inclusion or promotion to the S&P/ASX 200 Index. Additional information is available on the following websites: spglobal.com/spdji/en//indices/equity/sp-asx-200 and spglobal.com. We are not incorporating by reference the websites or any material they include in this underlier supplement.

As of December 14, 2020, the top 10 index stocks by weight were the following: Commonwealth Bank of Australia (8.03%), CSL Ltd. (7.03%), BHP Group Ltd. (6.81%), National Australia Bank Ltd. (4.19%), Westpac Banking Corp. (3.91%), ANZ Banking Group (3.55%), Wesfarmers Ltd. (3.12%), Woolworths Ltd. (2.68%), Macquarie Group Ltd. (2.53%) and Rio Tinto Ltd. (2.29%).

As of December 14, 2020, the 11 GICS industry sectors represented by the stocks in the S&P/ASX 200 Index include: Financials (28.29%), Materials (20.03%), Health Care (10.77%), Real Estate (6.97%), Industrials (7.14%), Consumer Staples (5.96%), Consumer Discretionary (7.29%), Energy (3.88%), Communication Services (3.93%), Information Technology (4.26%) and Utilities (1.49%).

Sector designations are determined by the index sponsor using criteria it has selected or developed. Index sponsors may use very different standards for determining sector designations. In addition, many companies operate in a number of sectors, but are listed in only one sector and the basis on which that sector is selected may also differ. As a result, sector comparisons between indices with different index sponsors may reflect differences in methodology as well as actual differences in the sector composition of the indices.

As of December 14, 2020, the countries of domicile included in the S&P/ASX 200 Index and their relative weights were: Australia (97.26%), New Zealand (0.74%), United Kingdom (0.94%), Ireland (0.89%), United States (0.11%) and Netherlands (0.06%). The S&P/ASX 200 Index is intended to provide exposure to the largest 200 eligible securities that are listed on the ASX by float-adjusted market capitalization. Constituent companies for the S&P/ASX 200 Index are chosen based on market capitalization, public float and liquidity. All index-eligible securities that have their primary or secondary listing on the ASX are included in the initial selection of stocks from which the 200 index stocks may be selected.

 

The float-adjusted market capitalization of companies is determined based on the daily average market capitalization over the last six months. The security’s price history over the last six months, the latest available shares on issue and the investable weight factor, which we refer to as the IWF, are the factors relevant to the calculation of daily average market capitalization. The IWF is a variable that is primarily used to determine the available float of a security for ASX listed securities.

 

Number of Shares

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When considering the index eligibility of securities for inclusion or promotion into S&P/ASX indices, the number of index securities under consideration is based upon the latest available ASX quoted securities. For domestic securities (companies incorporated in Australia and traded on the ASX, companies incorporated overseas but exclusively listed on the ASX and companies incorporated overseas and traded on other markets but most of its trading activity is on the ASX), this figure is purely based upon the latest available data from the ASX.

 

Foreign-domiciled securities may quote the total number of securities on the ASX that is representative of their global equity capital; whereas other foreign-domiciled securities may quote securities on the ASX on a partial basis that represents their Australian equity capital. In order to overcome this inconsistency, S&P will quote the number of index securities that are represented by CHESS Depositary Interests (CDIs) for a foreign entity. When CDIs are not issued, S&P will use the total securities held on the Australian register (CHESS and, where supplied, the issuer sponsored register). This quoted number for a foreign entity is representative of the Australian equity capital, thereby allowing the S&P/ASX 200 Index to be reflective of the Australian market.

 

The number of CDIs or shares of a foreign entity quoted on the ASX can experience more volatility than is typically the case for ordinary shares on issue. Therefore, an average number on issue will be applied over a three-month period.

Where CDI information is not supplied to the ASX by the company or the company’s share register, estimates for Australian equity capital will be drawn from CHESS data and, ultimately, registry-sourced data.

 

IWF

 

The S&P/ASX 200 Index is float-adjusted, meaning that the share counts used in calculating the S&P/ASX 200 Index reflect only those shares available to investors rather than all of a company’s outstanding shares. S&P seeks to exclude shares held by certain shareholders concerned with the control of a company, a group that generally includes the following: officers and directors and related individuals whose holdings are publicly disclosed; private equity, venture capital and special equity firms; asset managers and insurance companies with board of directors representation; shares held by another publicly traded company; holders of restricted shares; company-sponsored employee share plans or trusts, defined contribution plans/savings and investment plans; foundations or family trusts associated with the company; government entities at all levels except government retirement or pension funds; sovereign wealth funds; and any individual person listed as a 5% or greater stakeholder in a company as reported in regulatory filings (collectively, “control holders”). To this end, S&P excludes all share-holdings (other than depositary banks; pension funds, including government pension and retirement funds; mutual funds, exchange traded fund providers, investment funds and asset managers, including hedge funds with no board of director representation; investment funds of insurance companies; and independent foundations not associated with the company) with a position greater than 5% of the outstanding shares of a company from the float-adjusted share count to be used in index calculations.

The exclusion is accomplished by calculating an investable weight factor (IWF) for each stock that is included in the S&P/ASX 200 Index as follows:

IWF = (available float shares)/(total shares outstanding)

where available float shares is defined as total shares outstanding less shares held by strategic holders. In most cases, an IWF is reported to the nearest one percentage point. For companies with multiple share class lines, a separate IWF is calculated for each share class line.

A company must have a minimum IWF of 0.3 to be eligible for index inclusion, however an IWF at or above that level is not necessary for ongoing index membership.

IWFs are reviewed annually as part of the September quarterly review.

Liquidity Test

 

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Only stocks that are regularly traded are eligible for inclusion. Eligible stocks are considered for index inclusion based on their stock median liquidity (median daily value traded divided by its average float-adjusted market capitalization for the last six months) relative to the market capitalization weighted average of the stock median liquidities of the 500 companies of the All Ordinaries index, another member of the S&P/ASX index family.

 

Index Maintenance

 

S&P rebalances the S&P/ASX 200 Index constituents quarterly to ensure adequate market capitalization and liquidity. The reference date used for the trading data is the last Friday of the month prior to the rebalancing, except for the September rebalancing where the reference date for data used is the second to last Friday of August. Quarterly review changes take effect after the market close on the third Friday of March, June, September and December. Eligible stocks are considered for index inclusion based on their float-adjusted market capitalization rank relative to the stated quota of 200 securities. For example, a stock that is currently in the S&P/ASX 300 and is ranked at 175, based on float-adjusted market capitalization, within the universe of eligible securities may be considered for inclusion into the S&P/ASX 200 Index, provided that liquidity hurdles are met. Stocks that fail the relative liquidation criteria are typically removed from the float-adjusted market capitalization rankings.

 

In order to limit the level of index turnover, eligible non-constituent securities will generally only be considered for index inclusion once a current constituent stock is excluded due to a sufficiently low rank and/or liquidity, based on the float-adjusted market capitalization. Potential index inclusions and exclusions need to satisfy buffer requirements in terms of the rank of the stock relative to a given index. In order to be added to the S&P/ASX 200 Index, a stock must be ranked 179th or higher, and in order to be deleted from the S&P/ASX 200 Index, a stock must be ranked 221st or lower. The buffers are established to limit the level of index turnover that may take place at each quarterly rebalancing. The buffers serve as guidelines for arriving at any potential constituent changes to the S&P/ASX 200 Index, however, these rules can be by-passed when circumstances warrant.

 

Between rebalancing dates, an index addition is generally made only if a vacancy is created by an index deletion. Index additions are made according to float-adjusted market capitalization and liquidity. An initial public offering is added to the S&P/ASX 200 Index only when an appropriate vacancy occurs and is subject to proven liquidity for at least eight weeks. An exception may be made for extraordinary large offerings where sizeable trading volumes justify index inclusion.

 

Deletions can occur between index rebalancing dates due to acquisitions, mergers and spin-offs or due to suspension or bankruptcies. The decision to remove a stock from the S&P/ASX 200 Index will be made once there is sufficient evidence that the transaction will be completed. Stocks that are removed due to mergers & acquisitions activity are removed from the S&P/ASX 200 Index at the cash offer price for cash-only offers. Otherwise the best available price in the market is used.

Share numbers for all index constituents are updated quarterly and are rounded to the nearest thousand for all domestic Australian stocks.

Share updates for foreign-domiciled securities will take place at each quarterly rebalancing. The update to the number of index shares will only take place when the 3-month average of CDIs or the total securities held in the Australian branch of the issuer sponsored register (where supplied) and in CHESS, on the rebalancing reference date, differs from the current index shares by 5% or more. Where CDI information is not supplied to the ASX by the company or the company’s share register, estimates for Australian equity capital will be drawn from CHESS data and, ultimately, registry-sourced data.

Intra-Quarter Changes to the Number of Shares of a Constituent

Changes as a result of mandatory events, such as mergers or acquisition driven share/IWF changes, stock splits and mandatory distributions are not subject to a minimum threshold for implementation and are implemented when the transaction occurs. At S&P’s discretion, however, de minimis merger and acquisition changes may be accumulated and implemented with the updates made with the quarterly

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share updates as described below. Material share/IWF changes resulting from certain non-mandatory corporate actions follow the accelerated implementation rule.

Accelerated Implementation Rule

1. Public offerings. Public offerings of new company-issued shares and/or existing shares offered by selling shareholders, including block sales and spot secondaries, will be eligible for accelerated implementation treatment if the size of the event meets the materiality threshold criteria:

(a) at least US $150 million, and

(b) at least 5% of the pre-event total shares.

In addition to the materiality threshold, public offerings must satisfy the following conditions:

be underwritten.

have a publicly available prospectus, offering document, or prospectus summary filed with the relevant authorities.

have a publicly available confirmation from an official source that the offering has been completed.

For public offerings that involve a concurrent combination of new company shares and existing shares offered by selling shareholders, both events are implemented if either of the public offerings represent at least 5% of total shares and US $150 million. Any concurrent share repurchase by the affected company will also be included in the implementation.

2. Dutch Auctions, self-tender offer buybacks, and split-off exchange offers. These nonmandatory corporate action types will be eligible for accelerated implementation treatment regardless of size once their results are publicly announced and verified by S&P.

Exception to the Accelerated Implementation Rule

For non-mandatory corporate actions subject to the accelerated implementation rule with a size of at least US $1 billion, S&P will apply the share change, and any resulting IWF change, using the latest share and ownership information publicly available at the time of the announcement, even if the offering size is below the 5% threshold. This exception ensures that very large events are recognized in a timely manner using the latest available information.

All non-mandatory events not covered by the accelerated implementation rule (including but not limited to private placements, acquisition of private companies, and conversion of non-index share lines) will be implemented quarterly coinciding with the third Friday of the third month in each calendar quarter. In addition, events that were not implemented under the accelerated implementation rule but were found to have been eligible, (e.g. due to lack of publicly available information at the time of the event) are implemented as part of a quarterly rebalancing.

Announcement Policy

For accelerated implementation, S&P will provide two (2) business days’ notice for all non-US domiciled stocks, and one (1) business days’ notice for all US domiciled stocks.

IWF Updates

Accelerated implementation for events less than US $1 billion will include an adjustment to the company’s IWF only to the extent that such an IWF change helps the new float share total mimic the shares available in the offering. To minimize unnecessary turnover, these IWF changes do not need to meet any minimum

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threshold requirement for implementation. Any IWF change resulting in an IWF of 0.96 or greater is rounded up to 1.00 at the next annual IWF review.

IWF changes will only be made at the quarterly review if the change represents at least 5% of total current shares outstanding and is related to a single corporate action that did not qualify for the accelerated implementation rule.

Quarterly share change events resulting from the conversion of derivative securities, acquisitions of private companies, or acquisitions of non-index companies that do not trade on a major exchange are considered to be available to investors unless there is explicit information stating that the new owner is a strategic holder.

Other than the situations described above, please note that IWF changes are only made at the annual IWF review.

Share Updates

When total shares outstanding increase by at least 5%, but the new share issuance is to a strategic or major shareholder, it implies that there is no change in float- adjusted shares. However, in such instances, S&P will apply the share change and resulting IWF change regardless of whether the float change is greater than or equal to 5%.

For companies with multiple share class lines, the 5% share change threshold is based on each individual multiple share class line rather than total company shares.

Changes to share counts that total less than 5% of total shares are accumulated and made quarterly on the third Friday of March, June, September, and December.

Exceptions:

Any non- fully paid or non-fully settled offering such as forward sales agreements are not eligible for accelerated implementation. Share updates resulting from completion of subscription receipts terms or the settlement of forward sale agreements are updated at a future quarterly share rebalance.

Rebalancing Guidelines – Share/IWF Freeze

A share/IWF freeze period is implemented during each quarterly rebalancing. The freeze period begins after the market close on the Tuesday prior to the second Friday of each rebalancing month (i.e. March, June, September, and December) and ends after the market close on the third Friday of the rebalancing month. Pro-forma files are normally released after the market close on the second Friday, one week prior to the rebalancing effective date. In September, preliminary share and float data is released on the first Friday of the month. However, the share freeze period for September follows the same schedule as the other three quarterly share freeze periods. For illustration purposes, if rebalancing pro-forma files are scheduled to be released on Friday, March 13, the share/IWF freeze period will begin after the close of trading on Tuesday, March 10 and will end after the close of trading the following Friday, March 20 (i.e. the third Friday of the rebalancing month).

During the share/IWF freeze period, shares and IWFs are not changed except for mandatory corporate action events (such as merger activity, stock splits, and rights offerings), and the accelerated implementation rule is suspended. The suspension includes all changes that qualify for accelerated implementation and would typically be announced or effective during the share/IWF freeze period. At the end of the freeze period all suspended changes will be announced on the third Friday of the rebalancing month and implemented five business days after the quarterly rebalancing effective date.

Index Calculation

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The S&P/ASX 200 Index is calculated using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The value of the S&P/ASX 200 Index on any day for which an index value is published is determined by a fraction, the numerator of which is the sum for all index stocks of the products of the price of each stock in the S&P/ASX 200 Index times the number of shares of such stock included in the S&P/ASX 200 Index times that stock’s IWF, and the denominator of which is the divisor, which is described more fully below.  

In order to prevent the value of the S&P/ASX 200 Index from changing due to corporate actions, all corporate actions may require S&P to make an index or divisor adjustment. This helps maintain the value of the S&P/ASX 200 Index and ensures that the movement of the S&P/ASX 200 Index does not reflect the corporate actions of the individual companies that comprise the S&P/ASX 200 Index.

The table below summarizes the types of index adjustments and indicates whether the corporate action will require a divisor adjustment:

Corporate Action

Treatment

Company addition/deletion

Addition

Companies are added at the float market capitalization weight. The net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Deletion

The weights of all stocks in the index will proportionally change. Relative weights will stay the same. The index divisor will change due to the net change in the index market capitalization

Change in shares outstanding

Increasing (decreasing) the shares outstanding increases (decreases) the market capitalization of the index. The change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Split/reverse split

Shares outstanding are adjusted by split ratio. Stock price is adjusted by split ratio. There is no change to the index market capitalization and no divisor adjustment.

Spin-off

The spin-off is added to the index on the ex-date at a price of zero. The spin-off index shares are based on the spin-off ratio. On the ex-date the spin-off will have the same attributes as its parent company, and will remain in the index for at least one trading day. As a result, there will be no change to the index divisor on the ex-date.

If the spin-off is ineligible for continued inclusion, it will be removed after the ex-date. The weight of the spin-off being deleted is reinvested across all the index components proportionally such that the relative weights of all index components are unchanged. The net change in index market capitalization will cause a divisor change.

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Change in IWF

Increasing (decreasing) the IWF increases (decreases) the market capitalization of the index. A net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

Ordinary dividend

When a company pays an ordinary cash dividend, the index does not make any adjustments to the price or shares of the stock. As a result there are no divisor adjustments to the index.

Special dividend

The stock price is adjusted by the amount of the dividend. The net change to the index market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment

Rights offering

All rights offerings that are in the money on the ex-date are applied under the assumption the rights are fully subscribed. The stock price is adjusted by the value of the rights and the shares outstanding are increased by the rights ratio. The net change in market capitalization causes a divisor adjustment.

 

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