10-K 1 kai201510k.htm KADANT INC 10-K 01-02-2016 10-K


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_________________
FORM 10-K
(mark one)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended January 2, 2016
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 1-11406
KADANT INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
52-1762325
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Technology Park Drive
 
 
Westford, Massachusetts
 
01886
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (978) 776-2000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes    ¨    No    x
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes    ¨    No    x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes    x  No    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes    x     No    ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ¨
Accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer ¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes    ¨    No    x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant as of July 4, 2015, was approximately $501,385,000.
As of February 19, 2016, the Registrant had 10,773,380 shares of common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement pursuant to Regulation 14A promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, to be used in connection with the Registrant's 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.




Kadant Inc.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
for the Fiscal Year Ended January 2, 2016
Table of Contents

 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
PART II
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
PART III
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
PART IV
 
 
 
Item 15.
 


 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

PART I

Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this Report include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. These forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact, and may include statements regarding possible or assumed future results of operations. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management, using information currently available to our management. When we use words such as "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "plans," "estimates," "seeks," "should," "likely," "will," "would," "may," "continue," "could," or similar expressions, we are making forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. They involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. Our future results of operations may differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. Many of the important factors that will determine these results and values are beyond our ability to control or predict. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. For a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements, you should read carefully the section captioned "Risk Factors" in Part I, Item 1A, of this Report.

Item 1.    Business
The terms "we," "us," "our," "Registrant," or "Company" in this Report refer to Kadant Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Description of Our Business
We are a leading global supplier of equipment used in process industries, including papermaking, paper recycling, and oriented strand board (OSB), an engineered wood panel product used primarily in home construction. In addition, we manufacture granules made from papermaking byproducts. We have a large customer base that includes most of the world's major paper and OSB manufacturers. We believe our large installed base provides us with a spare parts and consumables business that yields higher margins than our capital equipment business.
Our continuing operations are comprised of two reportable operating segments, Papermaking Systems and Wood Processing Systems, and a separate product line, Fiber-based Products. Through our Papermaking Systems segment, we develop, manufacture, and market a range of equipment and products for the global papermaking, paper recycling, and other process industries. Through our Wood Processing Systems segment, we design, manufacture, and market stranders and related equipment used in the production of OSB and sell debarking and wood chipping equipment used in the forest products and the pulp and paper industries. Through our Fiber-based Products business, we manufacture and sell granules derived from pulp fiber for use as carriers for agricultural, home lawn and garden, and professional lawn, turf and ornamental applications, as well as for oil and grease absorption.

Papermaking Systems Segment
Our Papermaking Systems segment has a long and well-established history of developing, manufacturing, and marketing equipment for the global papermaking and paper recycling industries. Some of our businesses or their predecessor companies have been in operation for more than 100 years. Our customer base includes major global paper manufacturers and we believe we have one of the largest installed bases of equipment in the markets we serve within the pulp and paper industry. We manufacture our products in nine countries in Europe, North and South America, and Asia.
Our Papermaking Systems segment consists of the following product lines: Stock-Preparation; Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration; and Fluid-Handling.

Stock-Preparation
We develop, manufacture, and market complete custom-engineered systems and equipment, as well as standard individual components, for pulping, de-inking, screening, cleaning, and refining primarily recycled fiber for preparation for entry into the paper machine, and recausticizing and evaporation equipment and systems used in the production of virgin pulp. Our principal stock-preparation products include:
 
Recycling and approach flow systems: Our equipment includes pulping, screening, cleaning, and de-inking systems that blend pulp mixtures and remove contaminants, such as ink, glue, metals, and other impurities, to prepare them for entry into the paper machine during the production of recycled paper.

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Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

 
Virgin pulping process equipment: Our equipment includes pulp washing, evaporator, recausticizing, and condensate treatment systems used to remove lignin, concentrate and recycle process chemicals, and remove condensate gases.

Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration
We develop, manufacture, and market a wide range of doctoring, cleaning, and filtration systems and related consumables that continuously clean rolls to keep paper machines running efficiently; doctor blades made of a variety of materials to perform functions including cleaning, creping, web removal, flaking, and the application of coatings; profiling systems that control moisture, web curl, and gloss during paper converting; and systems and equipment used to continuously clean paper machine fabrics and rolls, drain water from pulp mixtures, form the sheet or web, and filter the process water for reuse. Our principal doctoring, cleaning, and filtration products include:
 
Doctor systems and holders: Our doctor systems clean papermaking rolls to maintain the efficient operation of paper machines and other equipment by placing a blade against the roll at a constant and uniform pressure. A doctor system consists of the structure supporting the blade and the blade holder. A large paper machine may have as many as 100 doctor systems.
 
Profiling systems: We offer profiling systems that control moisture, web curl, and gloss during paper converting.
 
Doctor blades: We manufacture doctor and scraper blades made of a variety of materials including metal, bi-metal, or synthetic materials that perform a variety of functions including cleaning, creping, web removal, flaking, and applying coatings. A typical doctor blade has a life ranging from eight hours to two months, depending on the application.
 
Shower and fabric-conditioning systems: Our shower and fabric-conditioning systems assist in the removal of contaminants that collect on paper machine fabrics used to convey the paper web through the forming, pressing, and drying sections of the paper machine. A typical paper machine has between three and 12 fabrics. These fabrics can easily become contaminated with fiber, fillers, pitch, and dirt that can have a detrimental effect on paper machine performance and paper quality. Our shower and fabric-conditioning systems assist in the removal of these contaminants.
 
Formation systems: We supply structures that drain, purify, and recycle process water from the pulp mixture during paper sheet and web formation.
 
Water-filtration systems: We offer a variety of filtration systems and strainers that remove contaminants from process water before reuse and recover reusable fiber for recycling back into the pulp mixture.

Fluid-Handling
We develop, manufacture and market rotary joints, precision unions, steam and condensate systems, components, and controls used primarily in the dryer section of the papermaking process and during the production of corrugated boxboard, metals, plastics, rubber, textiles, chemicals, and food. Our principal fluid-handling systems include:
 
Rotary joints: Our mechanical devices, used with rotating shafts, allow the transfer of pressurized fluid from a stationary source into and out of rotating machinery for heating, cooling, or the transfer of fluid power.
 
Syphons: Our devices, installed primarily inside the rotating cylinders of paper machines, are used to remove condensate from the drying cylinders through rotary joints located on either end of the cylinder.
 
Turbulator® bars: Our steel or stainless steel axial bars, installed on the inside of cylinders, are used to induce turbulence in the condensate layer to improve the uniformity and rate of heat transfer through the cylinders.
 
Engineered steam and condensate systems: Our steam systems control the flow of steam from the boiler to the paper drying cylinders, collect condensed steam, and return it to the boiler to improve energy efficiency during the paper drying process. Our systems and equipment are also used to efficiently and effectively distribute steam in a wide variety of industrial processing applications.


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Wood Processing Systems Segment
We design and manufacture stranders and related equipment used in the production of OSB. We also supply debarking and wood chipping equipment used in the forest products and the pulp and paper industries. Our principal wood-processing products include:
 
Stranders: Our disc and ring stranders cut tree-length or batch-fed logs into strands for OSB production and are used to manage strands in real time using our patented conveying and feeding equipment.
 
Rotary Debarkers: Our rotary debarkers employ a combination of mechanical abrasion and log-to-log contact to efficiently remove bark from logs of all shapes and species.
 
Chippers: Our disc, drum, and veneer chippers are high-quality, robust chipper systems for waste-wood and whole-log applications found in pulp woodrooms, chip plants, sawmill, and planer mill sites.
 
Fiber-based Products
We produce biodegradable, absorbent granules from papermaking byproducts for use primarily as carriers for agricultural, home lawn and garden, and professional lawn, turf and ornamental applications, as well as for oil and grease absorption.

Fiscal Year
Typically, our fiscal quarters and fiscal year consist of 13 and 52 weeks, respectively, ending on the Saturday closest to the end of the corresponding calendar quarter for our fiscal quarters and on the Saturday closest to December 31 for our fourth fiscal quarter and fiscal year. As a result of the difference between the fiscal and calendar periods, a 53rd week is added to our fiscal year every five or six years. In a 53-week fiscal year, our fourth fiscal quarter contains 14 weeks. Our fiscal year ended January 2, 2016 (fiscal 2015) contained 52 weeks, our fiscal year ended January 3, 2015 (fiscal 2014) contained 53 weeks, and our fiscal year ended December 28, 2013 (fiscal 2013) contained 52 weeks. Each quarter of fiscal 2015, 2014, and 2013 contained 13 weeks, except the fourth quarter of 2014, which contained 14 weeks.

Research and Development
We develop a broad range of products for all facets of the markets we serve. We operate research and development facilities in Europe, Canada, and the U.S., and focus our product innovations on process industry challenges and the need for improved fiber processing, heat transfer, showering, filtration, doctoring, fluid handling, and engineered wood processing. In addition to internal product development activities, our research centers allow customers to simulate their own operating conditions and applications to identify and quantify opportunities for improvement.
Our research and development expenses were $6.7 million, $6.2 million, and $6.7 million in 2015*, 2014, and 2013, respectively.

Raw Materials
The primary raw materials used in our Papermaking Systems segment are steel, stainless steel, ductile iron, brass, and bronze, which have generally been available through a number of suppliers. To date, we have not needed to maintain raw material inventories in excess of our current needs to ensure availability.
The primary raw materials used in our Wood Processing Systems segment are steel and stainless steel, which have generally been available through a number of suppliers.
The raw material used in the manufacture of our fiber-based granules is a by-product from the production of paper that we obtain from two paper mills. If the mills were unable or unwilling to supply us sufficient fiber, we would be forced to find one or more alternative suppliers for this raw material.

Patents, Licenses, and Trademarks
We protect our intellectual property rights by applying for and obtaining patents when appropriate. We also rely on technical know-how, trade secrets, and trademarks to maintain our competitive position. We also enter into license agreements with others to grant and/or receive rights to patents and know-how. No particular patent, or related group of patents, is so important that its expiration or loss would significantly affect our operations.

___________________________________
*            Unless otherwise noted, references to 2015, 2014, and 2013 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are for the fiscal years ended January 2, 2016, January 3, 2015, and December 28, 2013, respectively.

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2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Papermaking Systems Segment
We have numerous U.S. and foreign patents, including foreign counterparts to our U.S. patents, expiring on various dates ranging from 2016 to 2034. From time to time, we enter into licenses of products with other companies that serve the pulp, papermaking, converting, and paper recycling industries.

Wood Processing Systems Segment
We currently hold several U.S. and Canadian patents, expiring on various dates ranging from 2017 to 2032, related to wood processing and debarking equipment.

Fiber-based Products
We currently hold several U.S. patents, expiring on various dates ranging from 2018 to 2027, related to various aspects of the processing of fiber-based granules and the use of these materials in the agricultural, professional turf, home lawn and garden, general absorption, oil and grease absorption, and catbox filler markets.

Seasonal Influences
Papermaking Systems Segment
There are no material seasonal influences on this segment's sales of products and services.
Wood Processing Systems Segment
Our Wood Processing Systems business is subject to seasonal variations, with demand for many of our products tending to be greater during the building season, which generally occurs in the second and third quarters in North America.
Fiber-based Products
Our Fiber-based Products business experiences fluctuations in sales, usually in the third and fourth quarters, when sales decline due to the seasonality of the agricultural and home lawn and garden markets.

Working Capital Requirements
There are no special inventory requirements or credit terms extended to customers that would have a material adverse effect on our working capital.

Dependency on a Single Customer
No single customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues in any of the past three years. In addition, revenues in our Papermaking Systems and Wood Processing Systems segments were not dependent on any one customer. During 2015, 2014, and 2013, approximately 50%, 57%, and 63%, respectively, of our sales were to customers outside the United States, principally in Europe and Asia.

Backlog
Our backlog of firm orders for the Papermaking Systems segment was $94.9 million and $115.0 million at year-end 2015 and 2014, respectively. The total consolidated backlog of firm orders was $102.6 million and $124.2 million at year-end 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2015, we reduced our backlog for an order totaling $16.1 million due to uncertainty regarding financing for a project in China, originally recorded in 2014. We anticipate that substantially all of the backlog at year-end 2015 will be shipped or completed during 2016. Some of these orders can be canceled by the customer upon payment of a cancellation fee.


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2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Competition
We are a leading supplier of systems and equipment in each of our product lines within our Papermaking Systems segment and there are several global and numerous local competitors in each market. In our Wood Processing Systems segment, we compete with one primary global competitor in the OSB market for stranding equipment and several global and local competitors for our other products. Because of the diversity of our products, we face many different types of competitors and competition. We compete primarily on the basis of technical expertise, product innovation, and product performance. We believe the reputation that we have established for high-performance, high-reliability products supported by our in-depth process knowledge and application expertise provides us with a competitive advantage. In addition, a significant portion of our business is generated from our worldwide customer base. To maintain this base, we have emphasized our global presence, local support, and a problem-solving relationship with our customers. Our success primarily depends on the following factors:
 
Technical expertise and process knowledge;
 
Product innovation;
 
Product quality, reliability, and performance;
 
Operating efficiency of our products;
 
Customer service and support; and
 
Relative price of our products.

Environmental Protection Regulations
We believe that our compliance with federal, state, and local environmental protection regulations will not have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, earnings, or competitive position.

Employees
As of year-end 2015, we had approximately 1,800 employees worldwide.

Financial Information About Geographic Areas
Financial information concerning our segment and product lines is summarized in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements, which begin on page F-1 of this Report.
Financial information about exports by domestic operations and about foreign operations is summarized in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements, which begin on page F-1 of this Report.

Available Information
We file annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements, and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The public also may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, we make available free of charge through our website at www.kadant.com our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and, if applicable, amendments to these Reports filed with or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these materials with, or furnish them to, the SEC. We are not including the information contained on our website as part of this Report nor are we incorporating the information on our website into this Report by reference.


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Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following table summarizes certain information concerning individuals who are our executive officers as of March 1, 2016:
Name
 
Age
 
Present Title (Fiscal Year First Became Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
Jonathan W. Painter
 
57
 
President and Chief Executive Officer (1997)
Eric T. Langevin
 
53
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (2006)
Jeffrey L. Powell
 
57
 
Executive Vice President (2009)
Michael J. McKenney
 
54
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2002)
Sandra L. Lambert
 
60
 
Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary (2001)
Deborah S. Selwood
 
47
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (2015)

Mr. Painter has been our chief executive officer and a director since January 2010 and our president since September 1, 2009. Between 1997 and September 2009, Mr. Painter served as an executive vice president and from March 2007 through September 2009 had supervisory responsibility for our stock-preparation and fiber-based products businesses. He served as president of our composite building products business from 2001 until its sale in 2005. He also served as our treasurer and the treasurer of Thermo Electron from 1994 until 1997. Prior to 1994, Mr. Painter held various managerial positions with us and Thermo Electron.
Mr. Langevin has been an executive vice president and our chief operating officer since January 2010. Prior to January 2010, Mr. Langevin had been a senior vice president since March 2007 and had supervisory responsibility for our paperline business, consisting of our Fluid-Handling and our Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration product lines. He served as vice president, with responsibility for our Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration product lines, from 2006 to 2007. From 2001 to 2006, Mr. Langevin was president of Kadant Web Systems Inc. (now our Kadant Solutions division) and before that served as its senior vice president and vice president of operations. Prior to 2001, Mr. Langevin managed several product groups and departments within Kadant Web Systems after joining us in 1986 as a product development engineer.
Mr. Powell has been an executive vice president since March 2013 and has supervisory responsibility for our stock-preparation, wood processing, and fiber-based products businesses. From September 2009 to March 2013, he was a senior vice president. From January 2008 to September 2009, Mr. Powell was vice president, new ventures, with principal responsibility for acquisition-related activities. Prior to joining us, Mr. Powell was the chairman and chief executive officer of Castion Corporation from April 2003 through December 2007.
Mr. McKenney has been a senior vice president and our chief financial officer since June 2015. He served as our vice president, finance and chief accounting officer from 2002 to 2015 and as corporate controller from 1997 to 2007. Mr. McKenney was controller of Kadant AES, our division acquired from Albany International Inc., from 1993 to 1997. Prior to 1993, Mr. McKenney held various financial positions at Albany International.
Ms. Lambert has been a vice president and our general counsel since 2001, and our secretary since our incorporation in 1991. Prior to joining us, she was a vice president and the secretary of Thermo Electron from 1999 and 1990, respectively, to 2001 and before that was a member of Thermo Electron's legal department.
Ms. Selwood has been a vice president and our chief accounting officer since June 2015. She served as our corporate controller from 2007 to 2015 and as assistant controller from 2004 to 2007. Prior to 2004, Ms. Selwood held various financial positions at Arthur Andersen LLP and Genuity Inc.


 

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Our business, results of operations and financial condition, and an investment in our securities, are subject to a number of risks. Among the risks that could materially negatively affect our results or cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected or indicated in any forward-looking statements are the following.
Adverse changes in global and local economic conditions may negatively affect our industry, business and results of operations.
We sell products worldwide to global process industries and a significant portion of our revenues are from customers based in North America, Europe and China. Uncertainties in global and regional economic outlooks have negatively affected, and may in the future negatively affect, demand for our customers' products and, as a consequence, our products and services, especially our capital equipment systems and products, and our operating results. Also, uncertainty regarding economic conditions has caused, and may in the future cause, liquidity and credit issues for many businesses, including our customers in the pulp and paper industry as well as other process industries, and may result in their inability to fund projects, capacity expansion plans, and to some extent, routine operations and capital expenditures. These conditions have resulted, and may in the future result, in a number of structural changes in process industries, including decreased spending, mill closures, consolidations, and bankruptcies, all of which negatively affect our business, revenue, and profitability. Financial and economic turmoil affecting the worldwide economy or the banking system and financial markets, in particular due to political or economic developments, could cause the expectations for our business to differ materially in the future.
Revenues from the sale of large capital equipment and systems projects are often difficult to predict accurately, especially in periods of economic uncertainty.
We manufacture capital equipment and systems used in process industries, including the paper industry. The demand for capital equipment is variable and depends on a number of factors, including consumer demand for end products, existing manufacturing capacity, the level of capital spending by our customers and economic conditions. As a consequence, our bookings and revenues for capital projects tend to be variable and difficult to predict. It is especially difficult to accurately forecast our operating results during periods of economic uncertainty. Paper and OSB companies curtail their capital and operating spending during periods of economic uncertainty and are cautious about resuming spending as market conditions improve. Levels of consumer spending on non-durable goods, demand for food and beverage packaging, and demand for new housing and remodeling are all factors that affect paper and OSB companies' demand for our products, and reductions in these demand levels can negatively impact our business. As paper and OSB companies consolidate operations in response to market weakness, they frequently reduce capacity, increase downtime, defer maintenance and upgrades, and postpone or even cancel capacity additions or expansion projects. Capacity growth and investment can be uneven and the larger paper producers have delayed, and may in the future delay, additional new capacity start-ups in reaction to softer market conditions. In general, as significant capacity additions come online and the economic growth rate slows, paper producers have deferred and could in the future defer further investments or the delivery of previously-ordered equipment until the market absorbs the new production. This has negatively affected our bookings and revenues in the past, particularly in China, and may negatively affect our operating results in the future.
Our sales of capital equipment in China tend to be more variable and are subject to a number of uncertainties.
Our bookings and revenues from China tend to be more variable than in other geographic regions, as the Chinese pulp and paper industry experiences periods of significant capacity expansion to meet demand followed by periods of reduced activity while overcapacity is absorbed. These cycles result in periods of significant bookings activity for our capital products and increased revenues followed by a significant decrease in bookings or potential delays in shipments and order placements by our customers as they attempt to balance supply and demand.
In addition, orders from customers in China, particularly for large stock-preparation systems that have been tailored to a customer's specific requirements, have credit risks higher than we generally incur elsewhere, and some orders are subject to the receipt of financing approvals from the Chinese government or can be impacted by the availability of credit and more restrictive monetary policies. For example, we reversed a booking of $16 million in the fourth quarter of 2015 due to uncertainty regarding financing for a project in China. We generally do not record bookings for signed contracts from customers in China for large stock-preparation systems until we receive the down payments for such contracts. The timing of the receipt of these orders and the down payments are uncertain and there is no assurance that we will be able to recognize revenue on these contracts. Delays in the receipt of payments and letters of credit affect when revenues can be recognized on these contracts, making it difficult to accurately forecast our future financial performance. We may experience a loss if a contract is canceled prior to the receipt of a down payment if we have commenced engineering or other work associated with the contract. We typically have inventory awaiting shipment to customers. We could incur a loss if contracts are canceled and we cannot re-sell the equipment. In addition, we may experience a loss if the contract is canceled, or the customer does not fulfill its obligations under the contract, prior to the receipt of a letter of credit or final payments covering the remaining balance of the contract, which could represent 80% or more of the total order.
A significant portion of our revenue in China is recognized upon shipment once we have secured final payment. In some cases, we will be unable to recognize any revenue on completed orders until after installation or acceptance of the equipment.

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Furthermore, customers in China often demand that deliveries of previously-ordered equipment be delayed to future periods for any number of reasons. As a result of these factors, our revenues recognized in China have varied, and will in the future vary, greatly from period to period and be difficult to predict.
Our results of operations may be adversely affected by currency fluctuations.
As a multinational corporation, we are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that impact our business in many ways. We are exposed to both translation as well as transaction risk associated with transactions denominated in currencies that differ from our subsidiaries' functional currencies. Although in general our subsidiaries' costs are in the same currency as their revenues, changes in the relative values of currencies occur from time to time and can adversely affect our operating results. Some of the foreign currency translation risk is mitigated when foreign subsidiaries have revenue and expenses in the same foreign currency. Further, certain foreign subsidiaries may hold U.S. dollar assets or liabilities which, as the U.S. dollar strengthens versus the applicable functional currencies, will result in currency transaction gains on assets or losses on liabilities. While some foreign currency risks can be hedged using derivatives or other financial instruments, or may be insurable, such attempts to mitigate these risks may be costly and not always successful.
When we translate the local currency results of our foreign subsidiaries into U.S. dollars during a period in which the U.S. dollar is strengthening, our financial results will reflect decreases due to foreign currency translation. In addition, our consolidated financial results are adversely affected when foreign governments devalue their currencies, and we expect our consolidated financial results to be adversely affected in 2016 by the recent devaluation of the Chinese currency. Our major foreign currency translation exposures involve the currencies in Europe, China, Brazil, and Canada. Foreign currency translation had a negative effect on our financial results in 2015, and is expected to continue to adversely affect our operating results in 2016. We do not enter into derivatives or other financial instruments to hedge this type of foreign currency translation risk.
The inability of our customers to obtain financing for capital equipment projects may affect our ability to recognize revenue and income.
Approximately 35% of our revenue in 2015 was from the sale of capital equipment to be used in process industries. Large capital equipment projects require a significant investment and may require our customers to secure financing from external sources. Our financial performance will be negatively impacted if there are delays in customers securing financing or our customers become unable to secure such financing due to any number of factors, including a tightening of monetary policy. For example, we reversed a booking of $16 million in the fourth quarter of 2015 due to uncertainty regarding financing for a project in China, originally recorded in 2014. Financing has been a significant problem for customers in Russia and China, and has caused us to delay the booking of some pending orders, as well as the shipment of some orders currently in our backlog. The inability of our customers to obtain credit may affect our ability to recognize revenue and income, particularly on large capital equipment orders from new customers for which we may require letters of credit. We may also be unable to issue letters of credit to our customers, which are required in some cases to guarantee performance, during periods of economic uncertainty.
Our global operations subject us to economic risk as our results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in government regulations and policies.
Operating globally subjects us to changes in government regulations and policies in multiple jurisdictions around the world, including those related to tariffs and trade barriers, taxation, exchange controls and political risks. Changes in government policies, political unrest, economic sanctions, trade embargoes, or other adverse trade regulations can negatively impact our business. For example, we operate significant manufacturing facilities in and derive significant revenue from China. Changes in the policies of the Chinese government, devaluation of the Chinese currency, political unrest, unstable economic conditions, or other developments in China or in U.S.-China relations that are adverse to trade, including enactment of protectionist legislation or trade or currency restrictions, could negatively impact our business and operating results. Policies of the Chinese government to target slower economic growth may negatively affect our business in China if customers are unable to expand capacity or obtain financing for expansion or improvement projects.
We manufacture equipment used in the production of OSB and our financial performance may be adversely affected by lower levels of residential construction activity.
We manufacture stranders and related equipment used in the production of OSB, an engineered wood panel product used primarily in home construction. Our customers produce OSB principally for new residential construction, home repair and remodeling activities. As such, the operating results for our Wood Processing Systems segment correlate to a significant degree to the level of this residential construction activity, primarily in North America and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. Residential construction activity is influenced by a number of factors, including the supply of and demand for new and existing homes, new housing starts, unemployment rates, interest rate levels, availability of mortgage financing, mortgage foreclosure rates, seasonal and unusual weather conditions, general economic conditions and consumer confidence. A significant increase in long-term interest

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rates, tightened lending standards, high unemployment rates and other factors that reduce levels of residential construction activity could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.
The OSB market is highly concentrated and the market for building products is highly competitive. The loss of a significant customer or our customers' reductions in capital spending or OSB production could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.
The OSB market is highly concentrated and there are a limited number of OSB manufacturers. The loss of one or more of these customers to a competitor could adversely affect our revenues and profitability. In addition, the market for building products is highly competitive. Competitive products with OSB include other wood panel products and substitutes for wood building products, such as nonfiber-based alternatives. For example, plastic, wood/plastic or composite materials may be used by builders as alternatives to OSB products. Changes in component prices, such as energy, chemicals, wood-based fibers, and nonfiber alternatives can change the competitive position of OSB relative to other available alternatives and could increase substitution. Our customers' OSB production can be adversely affected by lower-cost producers of other wood panel products and substitutes for wood building products. Lower demand for OSB products or a decline in the profitability of one or more of our customers could result in a reduction in spending on capital equipment or the shutdown or closure of an OSB mill, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.
The development and increasing use of digital media has had, and will continue to have, an adverse impact on our Papermaking Systems segment.
Developments in digital media have adversely affected demand for newsprint and for printing and writing grades of paper, particularly in North America and Europe, a trend which is expected to continue. Approximately 12% of our revenue in 2015 was to customers producing newsprint and printing and writing grades of paper. Significant declines in the production of printing and writing paper grades has also led to a drop in the construction of recycled tissue mills, as those mills use printing and writing grades of waste paper as their fiber source. The increased use of digital media has had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on demand for our products in those markets.
Price increases and shortages in raw materials and components could adversely impact our operating results.
We use a variety of raw materials and commodities to manufacture our products. Increases in the prices of such raw materials and commodities could adversely affect our operating results if we were unable to fully offset the effect of these increased costs through price increases, productivity improvements, or cost reduction programs.
We rely on suppliers to secure commodity and component products required for the manufacture of our products. A disruption in deliveries to or from suppliers or decreased availability of such components or commodities could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers or increase our operating costs. We believe our sources of raw materials and component products will generally be sufficient for our needs in the foreseeable future. However, our operating results could be negatively impacted if supply is insufficient for our operations.
The raw material used in the manufacture of our fiber-based granules is obtained from two paper mills. Although we believe that our relationships with the mills are good, the mills may not continue to supply sufficient raw material. From time to time, we have experienced some difficulty in obtaining sufficient raw material to operate at optimal production levels. We continue to work with the mills to ensure a stable supply of raw material. To date, we have been able to meet all of our customer delivery requirements, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to meet future delivery requirements. If the mills were to be unable or unwilling to supply us sufficient fiber, we would be forced to find one or more alternative suppliers for this raw material.
We are dependent upon certain suppliers for components and raw materials.
Some of our businesses depend on certain suppliers to provide raw materials or other critical components of our equipment. If we could not obtain sufficient supplies of these components or these sources of supply ceased to be available to us, we could experience shortages in raw materials or be unable to meet our delivery commitments. Alternative sources of supply could be more expensive. Such events would have an adverse effect on our operating results.
Our business is subject to economic, currency, political, and other risks associated with international sales and operations.
We operate multiple manufacturing operations worldwide, including operations in Canada, China, Europe, Mexico, and Brazil, and sell our products globally. International revenues and operations are subject to a number of risks, including the following:

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agreements may be difficult to enforce and receivables difficult to collect through a foreign country's legal system;
 
foreign customers may have longer payment cycles;
 
foreign countries may impose additional withholding taxes or otherwise tax our foreign income, impose tariffs, adopt other restrictions on foreign trade, impose currency restrictions or enact other protectionist or anti-trade measures;
 
worsening economic conditions may result in worker unrest, labor actions, and potential work stoppages;
 
political unrest may disrupt commercial activities of ours or our customers;
 
it may be difficult to repatriate funds, due to unfavorable domestic and foreign tax consequences or other restrictions or limitations imposed by foreign governments; and
 
the protection of intellectual property in foreign countries may be more difficult to enforce.
We operate manufacturing facilities throughout the world, which subjects us to varying risks of disrupted production.
We operate businesses with significant manufacturing facilities throughout the world. Our manufacturing facilities and operations could be disrupted by natural disaster, failure of equipment and operating systems, labor strike, war, political unrest, terrorist activity, or economic upheaval. Some of these conditions are more likely to occur in certain geographic regions in which we operate. In addition, equipment and operating systems necessary for our manufacturing businesses may break down, perform poorly, or fail. Any such disruption could cause losses in efficiencies, delays in shipments of our products and the loss of sales and customers, and insurance proceeds may not adequately compensate us for our losses.
Our inability to successfully identify and complete acquisitions or successfully integrate any new or previous acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our strategy includes the acquisition of technologies and businesses that complement or augment our existing products and services or may involve entry into a new process industry. Any such acquisition involves numerous risks that may adversely affect our future financial performance and cash flows. These risks include:
 
competition with other prospective buyers resulting in our inability to complete an acquisition or in our paying a substantial premium over the fair value of the net assets of the acquired business;
 
inability to obtain regulatory approvals, including antitrust approvals;
 
difficulty in assimilating operations, technologies, products and the key employees of the acquired business;
 
inability to maintain existing customers or to sell the products and services of the acquired business to our existing customers;
 
inability to retain key management of the acquired business;
 
diversion of management's attention from other business concerns;
 
inability to improve the revenues and profitability or realize the cost savings and synergies expected of the acquisition;
 
assumption of significant liabilities, some of which may be unknown at the time;
 
potential future impairment of the value of goodwill and intangible assets acquired; and
 
identification of internal control deficiencies of the acquired business.
We are required to record transaction and acquisition-related costs in the period incurred. Once completed, acquisitions may involve significant integration costs. These acquisition-related costs could be significant in a reporting period and have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Any acquisition we complete may be made at a substantial premium over the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the acquired business. We are required to assess the realizability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. These events or circumstances would generally include operating losses or a significant decline in earnings associated with the acquired business or asset, and our ability to realize the value of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of these businesses. We may incur impairment charges to write down the value of our goodwill and acquired intangible assets in the future if the assets are not deemed recoverable, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
It may be difficult for us to implement our strategies for improving internal growth.
Some of the markets in which we compete are mature and have relatively low growth rates. We pursue a number of strategies to improve our internal growth, including:

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strengthening our presence in selected geographic markets, including emerging markets and existing markets where we see opportunities;
 
focusing on parts and consumables sales;
 
using low-cost manufacturing bases, such as China and Mexico;
 
allocating research and development funding to products with higher growth prospects;
 
developing new applications for our technologies;
 
combining sales and marketing operations in appropriate markets to compete more effectively;
 
finding new markets for our products; and
 
continuing to develop cross-selling opportunities for our products and services to take advantage of our depth of product offerings.
We may not be able to successfully implement these strategies and these strategies may not result in the expected growth of our business.
We are subject to intense competition in all our markets.
We believe that the principal competitive factors affecting the markets for our products include technical expertise and process knowledge, product innovation, product quality, and price. Our competitors include a number of large multinational corporations that may have substantially greater financial, marketing, and other resources than we do. As a result, they may be able to adapt more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, or to devote greater resources to the promotion and sale of their services and products. Competitors' technologies may prove to be superior to ours. Our current products, those under development, and our ability to develop new technologies may not be sufficient to enable us to compete effectively. Competition, especially in China, has increased as new companies enter the market and existing competitors expand their product lines and manufacturing operations.
Adverse changes to the soundness of our suppliers and customers could affect our business and results of operations.
All of our businesses are exposed to risk associated with the creditworthiness of our key suppliers and customers, including pulp and paper manufacturers and other industrial customers, many of which may be adversely affected by volatile conditions in the financial markets, worldwide economic downturns, and difficult economic conditions. These conditions could result in financial instability, bankruptcy, or other adverse effects at any of our suppliers or customers. The consequences of such adverse effects could include the interruption of production at the facilities of our suppliers, the reduction, delay or cancellation of customer orders, delays in or the inability of customers to obtain financing to purchase our products or pay amounts due, and bankruptcy of customers or other creditors. Any adverse changes to the soundness of our suppliers or customers may adversely affect our cash flows, profitability, or financial condition.
Changes in our effective tax rate may impact our results of operations.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue and earnings from our international operations, and are subject to income and other taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. A number of factors may cause our effective tax rate to fluctuate, including: changes in tax rates in various jurisdictions; unanticipated changes in the amount of profit in jurisdictions with low statutory tax rates; the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various tax authorities; changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; adjustments to income taxes upon finalization of various tax returns; increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including impairments of goodwill in connection with acquisitions; changes in available tax credits or our ability to utilize foreign tax credits; and changes in tax laws or the interpretation of such tax laws. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from that of prior periods or current expectations, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations or cash flows.
We may be required to reorganize our operations in response to changing conditions in the worldwide economy and the pulp and paper industry, and such actions may require significant expenditures and may not be successful.
We have undertaken various restructuring measures in the past in response to changing market conditions in the countries in which we operate and we may engage in additional cost reduction programs in the future. The costs of these programs may be significant and we may not recoup the costs of these programs. In connection with any future plant closures, delays or failures in the transition of production from existing facilities to our other facilities in other geographic regions could also adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, it is difficult to accurately forecast our financial performance in periods of economic uncertainty in a region or globally, and the efforts we have made or may make to align our cost structure may not be sufficient or able to keep pace with rapidly changing business conditions. Our profitability may decline if our restructuring efforts do not sufficiently reduce our future costs and position us to maintain or increase our sales.

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 Adverse changes to the soundness of financial institutions could affect us.
We have relationships with many financial institutions, including lenders under our credit facilities and insurance underwriters, and from time to time we execute transactions with counterparties in the financial industry, such as our interest rate swap arrangements and other hedging transactions. In addition, our subsidiaries in China often hold banker's acceptance drafts that are received from customers in the normal course of business. These drafts may be discounted or used to pay vendors prior to the scheduled maturity date or submitted to an acceptance bank for payment at the scheduled maturity date. These financial institutions or counterparties could be adversely affected by volatile conditions in the financial markets, economic downturns, and difficult economic conditions. These conditions could result in financial instability, bankruptcy, or other adverse effects at these financial institutions or counterparties. We may not be able to access credit facilities in the future, complete transactions as intended, or otherwise obtain the benefit of the arrangements we have entered into with such financial parties, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our debt may adversely affect our cash flow and may restrict our investment opportunities.
We entered into a five-year unsecured revolving credit facility (2012 Credit Agreement) in the aggregate principal amount of up to $100 million on August 3, 2012 and amended it on November 1, 2013. The 2012 Credit Agreement also includes an uncommitted unsecured incremental borrowing facility of up to an additional $50 million. We have borrowed amounts under the 2012 Credit Agreement and under other agreements to fund our operations. We may also obtain additional long-term debt and working capital lines of credit to meet future financing needs, which would have the effect of increasing our total leverage. Our indebtedness could have negative consequences, including:
 
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
 
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing;
 
limiting our ability to pay dividends on or to repurchase our capital stock;
 
limiting our ability to complete a merger or an acquisition;
 
limiting our ability to acquire new products and technologies through acquisitions or licensing agreements; and
 
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industries in which we compete.
Our existing indebtedness bears interest at floating rates and as a result, our interest payment obligations on our indebtedness will increase if interest rates increase. A portion of our variable rate interest payment obligations is hedged through interest rate swap agreements entered into in May 2006 and January 2015. The counterparty to the swap agreements could demand an early termination of the swap agreements if we were to be in default under the 2012 Credit Agreement, or any agreement that amends or replaces the 2012 Credit Agreement in which the counterparty is a member, and we were unable to cure the default. If either of these swap agreements were to be terminated prior to the scheduled maturity date and if we were required to pay cash for the value of the swap, we would incur a loss, which would adversely affect our financial results.
Our ability to satisfy our obligations and to reduce our total debt depends on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flows to meet these obligations or to successfully execute our business strategy. The 2012 Credit Agreement includes certain financial covenants, and our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default under the 2012 Credit Agreement, the swap agreements, and our other credit facilities, and would have significant negative consequences for our current operations and our future ability to fund our operations and grow our business. If we were unable to service our debt and fund our business, we could be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures or research and development expenditures, seek additional financing or equity capital, restructure or refinance our debt, curtail or eliminate our cash dividend to stockholders, or sell assets.
Restrictions in our 2012 Credit Agreement may limit our activities.
Our 2012 Credit Agreement contains, and future debt instruments to which we may become subject may contain, restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that could otherwise benefit us, including restrictions on our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to:
 
incur additional indebtedness;
 
pay dividends on, redeem, or repurchase our capital stock;
 
make investments;
 
create liens;
 
sell assets;
 
enter into transactions with affiliates; and
 
consolidate, merge, or transfer all or substantially all of our assets and the assets of our subsidiaries.

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We are also required to meet specified financial covenants under the terms of our 2012 Credit Agreement. Our ability to comply with these financial restrictions and covenants is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, including factors that are beyond our control such as currency exchange rates, interest rates, changes in technology, and changes in the level of competition. Our failure to comply with any of these restrictions or covenants may result in an event of default under our 2012 Credit Agreement and other loan obligations, which could permit acceleration of the debt under those instruments and require us to repay the debt before its scheduled due date. If an event of default were to occur, we might not have sufficient funds available to make the payments required under our indebtedness. If we are unable to repay amounts owed under our debt agreements, those lenders may be entitled to foreclose on and sell the collateral that secures our borrowings under the agreements.
Furthermore, our 2012 Credit Agreement requires that any amounts borrowed under the facility be repaid by the maturity date in 2018. If we are unable to roll over the amounts borrowed into a new credit facility and we do not have sufficient cash in the U.S. to repay our borrowings, we may need to repatriate cash from our overseas operations to fund the repayment and we would be required to pay taxes on the repatriated amounts. Such repatriation would have an adverse effect on our effective tax rate and cash flows.
Our future success is substantially dependent on the continued service of our senior management and other key employees.
Our future success is substantially dependent on the continued service of our senior management and other key employees. The loss of the services of our senior management or other key employees could make it more difficult to successfully operate our business and achieve our business goals. We also may be unable to retain existing management, product development, sales, operational and other support personnel that are critical to our success, which could result in harm to key customer relationships, loss of key information, expertise, or know-how, and unanticipated recruitment and training costs.
We have not independently verified the results of third-party research or confirmed assumptions or judgments on which they may be based, and the forecasted and other forward-looking information contained therein is subject to inherent uncertainties.
We refer in this report and other documents that we file with the SEC to historical, forecasted and other forward-looking information published by sources such as Resource Information Systems Inc., Forest Economic Advisors, the U.S. Census Bureau, and various market news agencies that we believe to be reliable. However, we have not independently verified this information, and with respect to the forecasted and forward-looking information, have not independently confirmed the assumptions and judgments upon which such information is based. Forecasted and other forward-looking information is necessarily based on assumptions regarding future occurrences, events, conditions and circumstances and subjective judgments relating to various matters, and is subject to inherent uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from the results expressed or implied by, or based upon, such forecasted and forward-looking information.
Our inability to protect our intellectual property or defend ourselves against the intellectual property claims of others could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, litigation to enforce our intellectual property and contractual rights or defend ourselves could result in significant litigation or licensing expense.
We seek patent and trade secret protection for significant new technologies, products, and processes because of the length of time and expense associated with bringing new products through the development process and into the marketplace. We own numerous U.S. and foreign patents and we intend to file additional applications, as appropriate, for patents covering our products. Patents may not be issued for any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us, and the claims allowed under any issued patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. Any issued patents owned by or licensed to us may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, and the rights under these patents may not provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, competitors may design around our technology or develop competing technologies. Intellectual property rights may also be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture increased market share. In addition, as our patents expire, we rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how to protect our products. We cannot be sure the steps we have taken, or will take in the future, will be adequate to deter misappropriation of our proprietary information and intellectual property. Of particular concern are developing countries, such as China, where the laws, courts, and administrative agencies may not protect our intellectual property rights as fully as in the U.S. or Europe.
We seek to protect trade secrets and proprietary know-how, in part, through confidentiality and non-competition agreements with our collaborators, employees, and consultants. These agreements may be breached, we may not have adequate remedies for any breach, and our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors, or our competitors may otherwise gain access to our intellectual property.
We could incur substantial costs to defend ourselves in suits brought against us, including for alleged infringement of third-party rights, or in suits in which we may assert our intellectual property or contractual rights against others. An unfavorable outcome of any such litigation could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

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Failure of our information systems or breaches of data security could impact our business.
We operate a geographically dispersed business and rely on the electronic storage and transmission of proprietary and confidential information, including technical and financial information, among our operations, customers and suppliers. In addition, for some of our operations, we rely on information systems controlled by third parties. As part of our ongoing effort to upgrade our current information systems, we are implementing new enterprise resource planning software to manage certain of our business operations. As we implement and add functionality, problems could arise that we have not foreseen. System failures, network disruptions, and breaches of data security could limit our ability to conduct business as usual, including our ability to communicate and transact business with our customers and suppliers; result in the loss or misuse of this information, the loss of business or customers, or damage to our brand or reputation; or interrupt or delay reporting our financial results. Such system failures or unauthorized access could be caused by external theft or attack, misconduct by our employees, suppliers, or competitors, or natural disasters. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant.
Our share price fluctuates and experiences price and volume volatility.
Stock markets in general and our common stock in particular experience significant price and volume volatility from time to time. The market price and trading volume of our common stock may continue to be subject to significant fluctuations due not only to general stock market conditions but also to a change in sentiment in the market regarding our operations, business prospects, or future funding. Given the nature of the markets in which we participate and the volatility of orders, we may not be able to reliably predict future revenues and profitability, and unexpected changes may cause us to adjust our operations. A large proportion of our costs are fixed, due in part to our significant selling, research and development, and manufacturing costs. Thus, small declines in revenues could disproportionately affect our operating results. Other factors that could affect our share price and quarterly operating results include:
 
failure of our products to pass contractually agreed upon acceptance tests, which would delay or prohibit recognition of revenues under applicable accounting guidelines;
 
changes in the assumptions used for revenue recognized under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting;
 
fluctuations in revenues due to customer-initiated delays in product shipments;
 
failure of a customer to comply with an order's contractual obligations or inability of a customer to provide financial assurances of performance;
 
adverse changes in demand for and market acceptance of our products;
 
competitive pressures resulting in lower sales prices for our products;
 
adverse changes in the process industries we serve;
 
delays or problems in our introduction of new products;
 
delays or problems in the manufacture of our products;
 
our competitors' announcements of new products, services, or technological innovations;
 
contractual liabilities incurred by us related to guarantees of our product performance;
 
increased costs of raw materials or supplies, including the cost of energy;
 
changes in the timing of product orders;
 
changes in the estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, or expenses;
 
the impact of acquisition accounting, including the treatment of acquisition and restructuring costs as period costs;
 
fluctuations in our effective tax rate;
 
the operating and share price performance of companies that investors consider to be comparable to us; and
 
changes in global financial markets and global economies and general market conditions.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could prevent or delay transactions that our shareholders may favor.
Provisions of our charter and bylaws may discourage, delay, or prevent a merger or acquisition that our shareholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. For example, these provisions:

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authorize the issuance of "blank check" preferred stock without any need for action by shareholders;
 
provide for a classified board of directors with staggered three-year terms;
 
require supermajority shareholder voting to effect various amendments to our charter and bylaws;
 
eliminate the ability of our shareholders to call special meetings of shareholders;
 
prohibit shareholder action by written consent; and
 
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by shareholders at shareholder meetings.
Prior to July 2011, we had a shareholder rights plan, which may have had anti-takeover effects under certain circumstances. This shareholder rights plan expired by its terms in July 2011 and was not renewed by our board of directors. However, our board of directors could adopt a new shareholder rights plan in the future that could have anti-takeover effects and might discourage, delay, or prevent a merger or acquisition that our board of directors does not believe is in our best interests and those of our shareholders, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.

Item 2.    Properties
We believe that our facilities are in good condition and are suitable and adequate for our present operations. We do not anticipate significant difficulty in obtaining lease renewals or alternative space as needed. The location and general character of our principal properties as of year-end 2015 are as follows:
Papermaking Systems Segment
We own approximately 1,835,000 square feet and lease approximately 158,000 square feet, under leases expiring on various dates ranging from 2016 to 2021, of manufacturing, engineering, and office space. In addition, in China, we lease the land associated with our buildings under long-term leases, which expire on dates ranging from 2049 to 2061. Our principal engineering and manufacturing facilities are located in Vitry-le-Francois, France; Jining, China; Valinhos, Brazil; Three Rivers, Michigan, U.S.A; Auburn, Massachusetts, U.S.A; Theodore, Alabama, U.S.A; Weesp, The Netherlands; Wuxi, China; Guadalajara, Mexico; Bury, England; Norrkoping, Sweden; Mason, Ohio, U.S.A; and Huskvarna, Sweden.
Wood Processing Systems Segment
We lease approximately 56,000 square feet of manufacturing and office space located in Surrey, British Columbia, Canada, under a lease expiring in 2023.
Fiber-based Products
We own approximately 31,000 square feet of manufacturing and office space located in Green Bay, Wisconsin. We also lease approximately 58,000 square feet of manufacturing space located in Green Bay, Wisconsin, on a tenant-at-will basis.
Corporate
We lease approximately 12,000 square feet in Westford, Massachusetts, for our corporate headquarters under a lease expiring in 2017.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
Not applicable.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Price of Common Stock
Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "KAI". The closing market price on the New York Stock Exchange for our common stock on March 4, 2016 was $40.65 per share.

The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices of our common stock for 2015 and 2014, as reported in the consolidated transaction reporting system.
 
 
2015
 
2014
Quarter
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
First
 
$
55.20

 
$
39.53

 
$
41.46

 
$
33.37

Second
 
56.29

 
44.67

 
39.45

 
33.30

Third
 
47.95

 
37.72

 
40.99

 
36.97

Fourth
 
44.37

 
38.99

 
44.39

 
36.15


The following table sets forth the per share dividends declared on our common stock for 2015 and 2014.
Quarter
2015
2014
First
$
0.17

$
0.15

Second
$
0.17

$
0.15

Third
$
0.17

$
0.15

Fourth
$
0.17

$
0.15


On March 8, 2016, our board of directors raised our quarterly cash dividend to $0.19 per share and we expect to pay comparable cash dividends in the future. Nonetheless, the payment of dividends in the future will be at the discretion of the board of directors and will depend upon our earnings, capital requirements, and financial condition, among other factors. The payment of cash dividends is subject to our compliance with the consolidated leverage ratio contained in our 2012 Credit Agreement.

Holders of Common Stock
As of February 19, 2016, we had approximately 3,255 holders of record of our common stock. This does not include holdings in street or nominee name.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about purchases by us of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2015:

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
 
Average Price
Paid per
Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced
Plans (1)
 
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans
10/4/15 – 10/31/15
 

 

 

 
$
15,120,043

11/1/15 – 11/30/15
 
25,000

 
$
39.45

 
25,000

 
$
14,133,790

12/1/15 – 1/2/16
 

 

 

 
$
14,133,790

Total
 
25,000

 
$
39.45

 
25,000

 
 

___________________________________
(1)
On May 20, 2015, we announced that our board of directors approved the repurchase by us of up to $20 million of our equity securities during the period from May 20, 2015 to May 20, 2016. In the fourth quarter of 2015, we repurchased 25,000 shares of our common stock for $1.0 million under this authorization.

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Performance Graph
This performance graph compares the cumulative, five-year total shareholder return assuming an investment of $100 (and the reinvestment of dividends) in our common stock, the Russell 3000 Stock Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Paper Total Stock Market (TSM) Index. Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "KAI." Because our fiscal year ends on a Saturday, the graph values are calculated using the last trading day prior to the end of our fiscal year.


 
 
1/1/2011
 
12/31/2011
 
12/29/2012
 
12/28/2013
 
1/3/2015
 
1/2/2016
Kadant Inc.
 
100.00
 
95.93
 
111.41
 
175.26
 
184.91
 
179.80
Russell 3000
 
100.00
 
101.03
 
115.63
 
156.43
 
176.70
 
177.64
Dow Jones U.S. Paper Total Stock Market
 
100.00
 
105.97
 
131.56
 
179.66
 
197.62
 
147.65
 

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
 
2015 (b)
 
2014 (b)
 
2013 (c)
 
2012 (d)
 
2011 (e)
Statement of Income Data (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
390,107

 
$
402,127

 
$
344,499

 
$
331,751

 
$
335,460

Operating Income
 
50,119

 
42,086

 
33,303

 
36,444

 
38,710

Amounts Attributable to Kadant:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Income from Continuing Operations
 
34,315

 
28,682

 
23,481

 
30,880

 
33,584

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operation
 
74

 
(23
)
 
(62
)
 
743

 
(9
)
Net Income
 
$
34,389

 
$
28,659

 
$
23,419

 
$
31,623

 
$
33,575

Earnings per Share for Continuing Operations:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
$
3.16

 
$
2.61

 
$
2.11

 
$
2.70

 
$
2.77

Diluted
 
$
3.09

 
$
2.56

 
$
2.07

 
$
2.66

 
$
2.74

Earnings per Share:
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
$
3.16

 
$
2.61

 
$
2.10

 
$
2.76

 
$
2.77

Diluted
 
$
3.10

 
$
2.56

 
$
2.07

 
$
2.73

 
$
2.74

Cash Dividends Declared per Common Share
 
$
0.68

 
$
0.60

 
$
0.50

 
$

 
$

Balance Sheet Data
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Working Capital (f)
 
$
108,492

 
$
96,504

 
$
106,486

 
$
100,301

 
$
78,499

Total Assets
 
415,498

 
413,747

 
442,168

 
358,948

 
358,398

Long-Term Obligations
 
26,000

 
25,250

 
38,010

 
6,250

 
11,750

Stockholders' Equity
 
267,945

 
265,459

 
270,421

 
249,967

 
223,630

______________________
(a)
Fiscal year 2015 contained 52 weeks, fiscal year 2014 contained 53 weeks, and fiscal years 2013, 2012, and 2011 each contained 52 weeks.
(b)
Includes $0.5 million and $0.8 million of pre-tax restructuring costs in 2015 and 2014, respectively.
(c)
Includes a $1.7 million pre-tax gain on the sale of real estate and $1.8 million of pre-tax restructuring costs.
(d)
Includes a $4.6 million discrete tax benefit primarily due to the reversal of valuation allowances on certain deferred tax assets.
(e)
Includes a $6.2 million discrete tax benefit primarily due to the reversal of valuation allowances on certain deferred tax assets, a $2.3 million pre-tax gain on the sale of real estate, and $0.4 million of pre-tax restructuring costs.
(f)
Includes net deferred tax assets of $9.5 million, $10.1 million, $8.4 million, and $4.7 million in 2014, 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively. We adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2015-07 for year-end 2015, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent. Prior period amounts have not been restated.

Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Reference is made throughout this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations to Notes included in our consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this Report.

Overview
Company Overview
We are a leading global supplier of equipment used in process industries, including papermaking, paper recycling, and oriented strand board (OSB), an engineered wood panel product used primarily in home construction. In addition, we manufacture granules made from papermaking byproducts. We have a large customer base that includes most of the world's major paper and OSB manufacturers. We believe our large installed base provides us with a spare parts and consumables business that yields higher margins than our capital equipment business.
Our continuing operations are comprised of two reportable operating segments: Papermaking Systems and Wood Processing Systems, and a separate product line, Fiber-based Products. Through our Papermaking Systems segment, we develop, manufacture, and market a range of equipment and products for the global papermaking, paper recycling, and other process industries. Through our Wood Processing Systems segment, we design, manufacture, and market stranders and related equipment used in the production of OSB and sell debarking and wood chipping equipment used in the forest products and the pulp and paper industries. Through our Fiber-based Products business, we manufacture and sell granules derived from pulp fiber for use as carriers

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for agricultural, home lawn and garden, and professional lawn, turf and ornamental applications, as well as for oil and grease absorption.

2014 Acquisitions
In October 2014, our Papermaking Systems segment acquired certain assets of the screen cylinder business of a U.S.-based company for approximately $9.2 million in cash. This technology-based acquisition enhances our stock-preparation equipment product offerings to pulp and paper mills worldwide. At the beginning of 2014, our Papermaking Systems segment acquired all the outstanding shares of a European producer of creping and coating blades for approximately $2.7 million in cash. An additional 1 million euros, or approximately $1.1 million, of contingent consideration was paid to the sellers on January 4, 2016.

International Sales
During 2015 and 2014, approximately 50% and 57%, respectively, of our sales were to customers outside the United States, principally in Europe and Asia. We generally seek to charge our customers in the same currency in which our operating costs are incurred. However, our financial performance and competitive position can be affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations affecting the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies. We seek to reduce our exposure to currency fluctuations through the use of forward currency exchange contracts. We may enter into forward contracts to hedge certain firm purchase and sale commitments denominated in currencies other than our subsidiaries' functional currencies. These contracts hedge transactions principally denominated in U.S. dollars.

Application of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of our consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Critical accounting policies are defined as those that entail significant judgments and uncertainties, and could potentially result in materially different results under different assumptions and conditions. We believe that our most critical accounting policies upon which our financial position depends, and which involve the most complex or subjective decisions or assessments, are those described below. For a discussion on the application of these and other accounting policies, see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition and Accounts Receivable. We enter into arrangements with customers that have multiple deliverables, such as equipment and installation, and we recognize revenues and profits on certain long-term contracts using the percentage-of-completion and completed contract methods of accounting.
Revenue Recognition Methods. We recognize revenue under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605, "Revenue Recognition" (ASC 605), when the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or service has been rendered, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Under ASC 605, when the terms of sale include customer acceptance provisions, and compliance with those provisions cannot be demonstrated until customer acceptance, we recognize revenues upon such acceptance. The Company includes in revenues amounts invoiced for shipping and handling with the corresponding costs reflected in cost of revenues. Provisions for discounts, warranties, returns, and other adjustments are provided for in the period in which the related sales are recorded. We include in revenue amounts invoiced for shipping and handling with the corresponding costs reflected in cost of revenues. Sales taxes, value-added taxes and certain excise taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are accounted for on a net basis and are therefore excluded from revenue.
Most of our revenue is recognized in accordance with the accounting policies in the preceding paragraph. However, when a sale arrangement involves multiple elements, such as equipment and installation, we consider the guidance in ASC 605. Such transactions are evaluated to determine whether the deliverables in the arrangement represent separate units of accounting based on the following criteria: the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis, and if the contract includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered item is considered probable and substantially under our control. Revenue is allocated to each unit of accounting or element based on relative selling prices and is recognized as each element is delivered or completed. We determine relative selling prices by using either vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) if that exists, or third-party evidence of selling price. When neither VSOE or third-party evidence of selling price exists for a deliverable, we

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use our best estimate of the selling price for that deliverable. In cases in which elements cannot be treated as separate units of accounting, the elements are combined into a single unit of accounting for revenue recognition purposes.
The complexity of all issues related to the assumptions, risks, and uncertainties inherent in the application of ASC 605 affects the amounts reported as revenues in our consolidated financial statements. Under ASC 605, we may not be able to reliably predict future revenues and profitability due to the difficulty of estimating when installation will be performed or when we will meet the contractually agreed upon performance tests, which can delay or prohibit recognition of revenues. The determination of when we install the equipment or fulfill the performance guarantees is largely dependent on our customers, their willingness to allow installation of the equipment or performance of the appropriate tests in a timely manner, and their cooperation in addressing possible problems that would impede achievement of the performance guarantee criteria. Unexpected changes in the timing related to the completion of installation or performance guarantees could cause our revenues and earnings to be significantly affected.
Percentage-of-Completion. Revenues recorded under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting pursuant to ASC 605 were $32.1 million in 2015, $19.1 million in 2014, and $19.8 million in 2013. We determine the percentage of completion by comparing the actual costs incurred to date to an estimate of total costs to be incurred on each contract. If a loss is indicated on any contract in process, a provision is made currently for the entire loss. Our contracts generally provide for billing of customers upon the attainment of certain milestones specified in the contract. Revenues earned on contracts in process in excess of billings are classified as unbilled contract costs and fees, and amounts billed in excess of revenues are classified as billings in excess of contract costs and fees. The estimation process under the percentage-of-completion method affects the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements. A number of internal and external factors affect our percentage-of-completion and cost of sales estimates, including labor rate and efficiency variances, estimates of warranty costs, estimated future material prices from vendors, and customer specification and testing requirements. Although we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of our estimates in the application of this accounting policy, if our actual results were to differ from our estimates, or if we were to use different assumptions, it is possible that materially different amounts could be reported as revenues in our consolidated financial statements.
Completed Contract Method. For long-term contracts that do not meet the criteria under ASC 605-35 to be accounted for under the percentage-of-completion method, we recognize revenue using the completed contract method. When using the completed contract method, we recognize revenue when the contract has been substantially completed, the product has been delivered, and, if applicable, the customer acceptance criteria have been met.
We exercise judgment in determining our allowance for bad debts, which is based on our historical collection experience, current trends, credit policies, specific customer collection issues, and accounts receivable aging categories. In determining this allowance, we look at historical writeoffs of our receivables. We also look at current trends in the credit quality of our customer base as well as changes in our credit policies. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and adjust credit limits based upon payment history and each customer's current creditworthiness. We continuously monitor collections and payments from our customers. In addition, in some instances we utilize letters of credit as a way to mitigate credit exposure. While actual bad debts have historically been within our expectations and the provisions established, we cannot guarantee that we will continue to experience the same rate of bad debts that we have had in the past. A significant change in the liquidity or financial position of any of our customers could result in the uncollectibility of the related accounts receivable and could adversely affect our operating results and cash flows in that period.
Warranty Obligations. We offer warranties of various durations to our customers depending upon the specific product and terms of the customer purchase agreement. We typically negotiate terms regarding warranty coverage and length of warranty depending on the products and their applications. Our standard mechanical warranties require us to repair or replace a defective product during the warranty period at no cost to the customer. We record an estimate for warranty-related costs at the time of sale based on our actual historical occurrence rates and repair costs, as well as knowledge of any specific warranty problems that indicate that projected warranty costs may vary from historical patterns. These estimates are revised for variances between actual and expected claims rates. While our warranty costs have historically been within our expectations and the provisions established, we may not continue to experience the same warranty return rates or repair costs that we have in the past.
A significant increase in warranty occurrence rates or costs to repair our products would lead to an increase in the warranty provision and could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated results for the period or periods in which such returns or additional costs occur.
Income Taxes. We operate in numerous countries under many legal forms and, as a result, are subject to the jurisdiction of numerous domestic and non-U.S. tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events, such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and available tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and treaties, currency-exchange restrictions or our level of operations or profitability in each taxing jurisdiction could have an impact upon the amount of current and deferred tax balances and our results of operations.

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We estimate the degree to which our deferred tax assets on deductible temporary differences and tax loss or credit carryforwards will result in an income tax benefit based on the expected profitability by tax jurisdiction, and provide a valuation allowance for these deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that they will not be realized in the future. If it were to become more likely than not that these deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the related valuation allowance. Our tax valuation allowance was $11.5 million at year-end 2015. Should our actual future taxable income by tax jurisdiction vary from our estimates, additional allowances or reversals thereof may be necessary. When assessing the need for a valuation allowance in a tax jurisdiction, we evaluate the weight of all available evidence to determine whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. As part of this evaluation, we consider our cumulative three-year history of earnings before income taxes, taxable income in prior carryback years, future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, prudent and feasible tax planning strategies, and expected future results of operations. As of year-end 2015, we continued to maintain a valuation allowance in the U.S. against certain of our state operating loss carryforwards due to the uncertainty of future profitability in state jurisdictions in the U.S. As of year-end 2015, we maintained valuation allowances in certain foreign jurisdictions because of the uncertainty of future profitability. In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying our income tax positions. It is our policy to provide for uncertain tax positions and the related interest and penalties based upon our assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. At year-end 2015, we believe that we have appropriately accounted for any liability for unrecognized tax benefits. To the extent we prevail in matters for which a liability for an unrecognized tax benefit is established or are required to pay amounts in excess of the liability, our effective tax rate in a given financial statement period may be affected.
We reinvest certain earnings of our international subsidiaries indefinitely, and accordingly, we do not provide for U.S. income taxes that could result from the remittance of such foreign earnings. Through year-end 2015, we have not provided for U.S. income taxes on approximately $168.2 million of unremitted foreign earnings. The U.S. tax cost has not been determined due to the fact that it is not practicable to estimate at this time. The related foreign tax withholding, which would be required if we were to remit these foreign earnings to the U.S., would be approximately $3.6 million.
Valuation of Goodwill and Intangible Assets. We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets as of the end of each fiscal year, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances, such as a significant decline in sales, earnings, or cash flows, or material adverse changes in the business climate, indicate that the carrying value of an asset might be impaired. Testing goodwill for impairment involves a two-step quantitative process. However, prior to performing the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test, we have the option to first perform an assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount.
At January 2, 2016, we performed a qualitative goodwill impairment analysis. This impairment analysis included an assessment of certain qualitative factors including the results of prior fair value calculations, the movement of our share price and market capitalization, the reporting unit and overall financial performance, and macroeconomic and industry conditions. We considered the qualitative factors and weighed the evidence obtained, and determined that it was not more likely than not that the fair value of any of the reporting units was less than its carrying amount. Although we believe the factors considered in the impairment analysis are reasonable, significant changes in any one of the assumptions used could have produced a different result.
At January 2, 2016, we performed a quantitative impairment analysis on our indefinite-lived intangible asset and determined that the asset was not impaired.
Intangible assets subject to amortization are evaluated for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset might be impaired. No indicators of impairment were identified in 2015.
Our judgments and assumptions regarding the determination of the fair value of an intangible asset or goodwill associated with an acquired business could change as future events impact such fair values. A prolonged economic downturn, weakness in demand for our products, especially capital equipment products, or contraction in capital spending by paper companies or OSB manufacturers in our key markets could negatively affect the revenue and profitability assumptions used in our assessment of goodwill and intangible assets, which could result in additional impairment charges. Any future impairment loss could have a material adverse effect on our long-term assets and operating expenses in the period in which an impairment is determined to exist.
Inventories. We value our inventory at the lower of the actual cost (on a first-in, first-out; or weighted average basis) or market value and include materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand and compare these amounts to historical and forecasted usage of and demand for each particular product or product line. We record a charge to cost of revenues for excess and obsolete inventory to reduce the carrying value of the inventories to net realizable value. Inventory writedowns have historically been within our expectations and the provisions established. A significant decrease in demand for our products could result in an increase in the amount of excess inventory quantities on hand, resulting in a charge for the writedown of that inventory in that period. In addition, our estimates of future product usage or demand may prove to be inaccurate, resulting in an understated or overstated provision for excess and obsolete inventory. Therefore, although we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of our forecasts of future product usage and demand, any significant unanticipated changes in demand or technological developments could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and our reported operating results.
Pension and Other Retiree Benefits. We sponsor a noncontributory defined benefit retirement plan for the benefit of eligible employees at our Kadant Solutions division and the corporate office. Our unfunded benefit obligation related to this plan

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totaled $3.5 million at year-end 2015 and the fair value of plan assets totaled $27.8 million. In addition, several of our U.S. and non-U.S. subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension and other retiree benefit plans with an aggregate unfunded benefit obligation of $5.5 million at year-end 2015.
The cost and obligations of these arrangements are calculated using many assumptions to estimate the benefits that the employee earns while working, the amount of which cannot be completely determined until the benefit payments cease. Major assumptions used in accounting for these employee benefit plans include the discount rate, expected return on plan assets and rate of increase in employee compensation levels. Assumptions are determined based on Company data and appropriate market indicators in consultation with third-party actuaries, and are evaluated each year as of the plans' measurement dates. The fair value of plan assets is determined based on quoted market prices and observable market inputs. The unrecognized actuarial loss before tax associated with these plans totaled $8.9 million at year-end 2015, $0.6 million of which we expect to recognize in 2016. Should any of these assumptions change, they would have an effect on net periodic pension costs and the unfunded benefit obligation. The projected benefit obligation and expense associated with these plans are sensitive to changes in the discount rate. For the noncontributory benefit retirement plan at our Kadant Solutions division, a 50 basis point decrease in the 2015 discount rate would have resulted in an increase in pension expense of $0.3 million and an increase in the projected benefit obligation of $2.4 million.
Industry and Business Outlook
Our products are primarily sold in global process industries and used to produce packaging, tissue, and OSB. In 2015, approximately 64% of our revenue was from the sale of products that support packaging, tissue, and OSB production. Consumption of packaging, which is primarily comprised of containerboard and boxboard, is driven by many factors, including regional economic conditions, consumer spending on non-durable goods, demand for food and beverage packaging, and existing manufacturing capacity. Consumption of tissue is fairly stable and in the developed world tends to grow with the population. For both tissue and containerboard, growth rates in the developing world are expected to increase as per capita consumption of paper increases with rising standards of living. In 2015, 12% of our revenue was related to products that support printing and writing paper grades as well as newsprint, which have been negatively affected by the development and increased use of digital media. While we expect the decline in the use of newsprint and writing paper grades to continue due to the use of digital media, we expect global containerboard and tissue production to be stable or to increase. However, we also expect that declines in printing and writing grades will have a negative impact on the construction of, or conversion to, new recycled tissue mills, as printing and writing wastepaper is the fiber source for those mills. In 2015, 9% of our revenue was from sales to OSB producers who manufacture engineered wood panels for the housing industry. The majority of OSB demand is in North America, as North American houses are more often constructed of wood compared to other parts of the world. Demand for OSB is tied to new home construction and remodeling. The remainder of our revenue was from sales to other process industries, which in general grow with the overall economy.
Our results of operations were negatively affected by foreign currency translation in 2015 compared to 2014, and we expect our results of operations to continue to be negatively affected in 2016. Recently, China's central bank has devalued the renminbi to boost the Chinese economy, which will have a negative translation impact on our future consolidated revenues and operating results if this trend continues. When we translate the local currency results of our foreign subsidiaries into U.S. dollars during a period in which the U.S. dollar is strengthening, our financial results will reflect decreases due to foreign currency translation. The negative effect on our financial results will continue if the U.S. dollar continues to strengthen relative to the functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries. Similarly, if the U.S. dollar weakens compared to the functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries, our financial results will reflect increases due to foreign currency translation. Some of this foreign currency translation risk is mitigated when foreign subsidiaries have revenue and expenses in the same foreign currency. Further, certain foreign subsidiaries may hold U.S. dollar assets or liabilities which, as the U.S. dollar strengthens versus the applicable functional currencies, will result in currency transaction gains on assets and losses on liabilities. We have presented the material effects of foreign currency translation on our financial results under Results of Operations below.
Our bookings decreased 13% to $376 million in 2015 compared to $433 million in 2014. This decrease included a $34 million, or 8%, decrease from the unfavorable effects of foreign currency translation and a $16 million, or 4%, decrease from the reversal of a booking, originally recorded in 2014, due to uncertainty regarding financing for a project in China. These decreases were offset in part by a $7 million, or 2%, increase from an acquisition. Our revenue and income tends to be variable as demand for our capital equipment is dependent on regional economic conditions and the level of capital spending by our customers, among other factors. Demand for our parts and consumables products tends to be more predictable. Bookings for our parts and consumables products were $252 million, or 67% of total bookings, in 2015, compared to $258 million, or 60% of total bookings, in 2014.
The largest and most important regional market for our products in 2015 was North America, a trend we expect to continue into 2016, although at lower revenue levels. Our bookings in North America were $213 million in 2015, down 8% compared to 2014. During 2015, demand for printing, writing, and newsprint grades all declined compared to 2014, while containerboard shipments saw a modest increase according to Resource Information Systems Inc. (RISI) reports. RISI also reported that North American capacity expansion in the containerboard segment is expected to slow from the 2.2% rate recorded in 2015 to 1.2% in 2016, which would be closely in line with demand growth. U.S. housing starts in December 2015 were at a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 1.149 million, up 6.4% compared to December 2014, according to the U.S. Census Bureau and the Department of

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Housing and Urban Development as reported by RISI. This growth is expected to have a positive impact on demand for U.S. lumber and structural wood panels, which includes OSB. Our Stock-Preparation product line benefited in 2015 from virgin pulp mill upgrades for containerboard, as well as the conversion of machines that produce printing and writing grades to the production of containerboard used for packaging.
We saw steady business activity in Europe in 2015 compared to 2014. We expect the overall economy to remain stable in Europe in 2016. Our bookings in Europe were $82 million in 2015, down 2% compared to $84 million in 2014. Excluding a negative foreign currency translation effect of $16 million, our bookings in Europe were up 17%. Our bookings in Asia were $47 million in 2015, down 46% compared to 2014. This decrease includes a $16 million, or 19%, decrease from the reversal of a booking, originally recorded in 2014, for a project in China and a $2 million decrease from the negative effects of foreign currency translation. Weak demand and a relatively soft domestic economy affected most paper grades in China in 2015, a trend we expect to continue in 2016. The most recent RISI forecasts of containerboard demand growth of approximately 3% per year for the next few years suggest new capital project activity may remain at reduced levels in China in 2016. Our bookings in the rest of the world increased 9% to $34 million in 2015 compared to 2014 but were, and continue to be, negatively affected by the recession in Brazil.
We expect to achieve diluted earnings per share (EPS) from continuing operations of $2.80 to $2.90 in 2016 on revenue of $370 to $380 million. The 2016 guidance includes an unfavorable foreign currency translation effect of $10 million on revenue and $0.11 on diluted EPS compared to 2015. Similar to 2015, we expect the first quarter of 2016 to be weaker with stronger successive quarterly operating results for the remainder of the year. For the first quarter of 2016, we expect to achieve diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.55 to $0.58 on revenue of $89 to $91 million.

Results of Operations
2015 Compared to 2014
The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of income expressed as a percentage of total revenue:

 
 
2015
 
2014
Revenues
 
100
%
 
100
%
Costs and Operating Expenses:
 
 

 
 

Cost of revenues
 
54

 
56

Selling, general, and administrative expenses
 
31

 
32

Research and development expenses
 
2

 
2

Restructuring costs
 

 

 
 
87

 
90

Operating Income
 
13

 
10

Interest Income (Expense), Net
 

 

Income from Continuing Operations Before Provision for Income Taxes
 
13

 
10

Provision for Income Taxes
 
4

 
3

Income from Continuing Operations
 
9
%
 
7
%

Revenues
Revenues for 2015 and 2014 are as follows:
(In thousands)
 
2015
 
2014
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
Papermaking Systems
 
$
342,661

 
$
348,199

Wood Processing Systems
 
36,387

 
41,647

Fiber-based Products
 
11,059

 
12,281

 
 
$
390,107

 
$
402,127


Papermaking Systems Segment. Revenues at our Papermaking Systems segment decreased $5.5 million, or 2%, to $342.7 million in 2015 from $348.2 million in 2014, including a $26.4 million decrease from the unfavorable effects of foreign currency exchange. Excluding the effects of foreign currency exchange, revenues in our Papermaking Systems segment increased $20.9 million primarily due to increased demand for our parts and consumables products, especially in our Stock-Preparation product line, and the inclusion of $6.7 million in revenue from an acquisition made in 2014.


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Wood Processing Systems Segment. Revenues at our Wood Processing Systems segment decreased $5.2 million, or 13%, to $36.4 million in 2015 from $41.6 million in 2014, including a $5.8 million decrease from the unfavorable effects of foreign currency exchange. Excluding the effects of foreign currency translation, revenues in our Wood Processing Systems segment increased $0.6 million, or 1%, primarily due to increased demand for our parts and consumables products.

Fiber-based Products. Revenues decreased $1.2 million, or 10%, to $11.1 million in 2015 from $12.3 million in 2014 due to decreased demand for our biodegradable granular products.

Papermaking Systems Segment by Product Line. The following table presents revenues for our Papermaking Systems segment by product line, the changes in revenues by product line between 2015 and 2014, and the changes in revenues by product line between 2015 and 2014 excluding the effect of currency translation. The increase in revenues excluding the effect of currency translation represents the increase resulting from converting 2015 revenues in local currency into U.S. dollars at 2014 exchange rates, and then comparing this result to the actual revenues in 2014. The presentation of the changes in revenues by product line excluding the effect of currency translation is a non-GAAP measure. We believe this non-GAAP measure helps investors gain an understanding of our underlying operations, consistent with how management measures and forecasts our performance, especially when comparing such results to prior periods or forecasts. This non-GAAP measure should not be considered superior to or a substitute for the corresponding GAAP measure.
(In thousands)
 
2015
 
2014
 
Increase (Decrease)
 
Increase (Decrease)
Excluding
Effect of
Currency
Translation
Papermaking Systems Product Lines:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stock-Preparation
 
$
148,341

 
$
127,496

 
$
20,845

 
$
28,883

Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration
 
101,523

 
117,389

 
(15,866
)
 
(7,409
)
Fluid-Handling
 
92,797

 
103,314

 
(10,517
)
 
(603
)
 
 
$
342,661

 
$
348,199

 
$
(5,538
)
 
$
20,871


Revenues in our Stock-Preparation product line increased $20.8 million, or 16%, in 2015 compared to 2014, including an $8.1 million decrease due to the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation. Excluding the effect of foreign currency translation, revenues from our Stock-Preparation product line increased $28.9 million, or 23%, in 2015 compared to 2014, due to increased demand for our parts and consumables products at our North American and European operations, increased demand for our capital products at our North American and Chinese operations, and the inclusion of $6.7 million in revenue from an acquisition made in 2014. Revenues in our Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration product line in 2015 included a decrease of $8.5 million from the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation compared to 2014. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation, revenues from our Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration product line in 2015 decreased $7.4 million, or 6%, compared to 2014, primarily due to decreased demand for our capital products at our European and North American operations. This decrease was offset in part by increased demand for our parts and consumables products at our Chinese operations. Revenues in our Fluid-Handling product line in 2015 included a decrease of $9.9 million from the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation compared to 2014. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation, revenues in our Fluid-Handling product line decreased $0.6 million, or 1%, in 2015 compared to 2014, primarily due to decreased demand for our parts and consumables products.

Gross Profit Margin
Gross profit margins for 2015 and 2014 are as follows:
Gross Profit Margin:
 
2015
 
2014
Papermaking Systems
 
45.9
%
 
45.4
%
Wood Processing Systems
 
47.9
%
 
35.4
%
Fiber-based Products
 
49.5
%
 
45.7
%
 
 
46.2
%
 
44.4
%

Papermaking Systems Segment. The gross profit margin at the Papermaking Systems segment increased to 45.9% in 2015 from 45.4% in 2014 primarily due to a higher proportion of parts and consumables products sold in 2015, which tend to have higher gross margins.

24

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Wood Processing Systems Segment. The gross profit margin at the Wood Processing Systems segment increased to 47.9% in 2015 from 35.4% in 2014 primarily due to higher margins from our parts and consumables products. In addition, the gross profit margin in 2014 was reduced by amortization expense associated with acquired profit in inventory totaling $2.1 million, which had the effect of lowering the gross profit margin by 5.1 percentage points in 2014.

Fiber-based Products. The gross profit margin increased to 49.5% in 2015 from 45.7% in 2014 primarily due to the lower cost of natural gas used in the production process.

Operating Expenses
Selling, general, and administrative expenses decreased $6.5 million, or 5%, to $122.8 million in 2015 from $129.3 million in 2014, due to a decrease of $9.4 million, or 7%, from the favorable effect of foreign currency translation, offset in part by an increase of $1.6 million from selling, general, and administrative expenses from an acquisition made in 2014.
Total stock-based compensation expense was $5.7 million and $5.8 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively, and is included in selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Research and development expenses increased $0.5 million, or 8%, to $6.7 million in 2015 from $6.2 million in 2014 and represented 2% of revenues in both periods. The increase in research and development expenses in 2015 primarily related to product development costs at our Stock-Preparation product line.

Restructuring Costs
Restructuring costs were $0.5 million and $0.8 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Restructuring costs in 2015 included severance costs of $0.3 million associated with the reduction of 25 employees in Canada, and Brazil related to our 2015 restructuring plans. We estimate annualized savings of $0.5 million in cost of revenues and $0.6 million in selling, general, and administrative expenses from this reduction. In addition, restructuring costs in 2015 also included severance costs of $0.2 million associated with the reduction of four employees in Sweden related to our 2014 restructuring plans.
The 2014 restructuring charges included severance costs of $0.3 million associated with the reduction of eight employees in Brazil and $0.1 million associated with the reduction of three employees in Sweden. In addition, we recorded facility-related costs of $0.4 million related to restructuring plans prior to 2014.
These actions were taken to streamline our operations. All of these actions occurred in the Papermaking Systems segment.

Interest Income
Interest income decreased $0.2 million, or 50%, to $0.2 million in 2015 from $0.4 million in 2014 primarily due to lower average interest rates in 2015.

Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased to $0.9 million in 2015 from $1.0 million in 2014 primarily due to lower average outstanding borrowings, offset in part by higher average interest rates in 2015.

Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes was $14.8 million and $12.4 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively, and represented 30% of pre-tax income in both periods. The effective tax rate of 30% in 2015 was lower than our statutory tax rate primarily due to the distribution of our worldwide earnings, offset in part by tax expense associated with an increase in nondeductible expenses and state income taxes. The effective tax rate of 30% in 2014 was lower than our statutory tax rate primarily due to the distribution of our worldwide earnings, the release of tax reserves that resulted from the expiration of tax statutes of limitations, and the release of state tax reserves in the U.S. These tax benefits in 2014 were offset in part by tax expense associated with an increase in nondeductible expenses and a reduction in deferred tax assets. We expect our effective tax rate in 2016 to be approximately 31% to 32% compared to 30% in 2015, primarily due to a shift in the geographic distribution of earnings.

Income from Continuing Operations
Income from continuing operations increased $5.5 million, or 19%, to $34.6 million in 2015 from $29.1 million in 2014, including an increase in operating income of $8.0 million, offset in part by an increase in provision for income taxes of $2.3 million (see Revenues, Gross Profit Margin, Operating Expenses, and Provision for Income Taxes discussed above).


25

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205) and Property, Plant, and Equipment (Topic 360) Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity. In April 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU No. 2014-08, which provides new guidance on reporting discontinued operations and disclosures of disposals. Under the new guidance, only disposals representing a strategic shift in operations will be presented as discontinued operations. The new guidance also requires disclosure of the pre-tax income attributable to a disposal of a significant part of the company that does not qualify for discontinued operations reporting. We adopted this ASU in the first quarter of 2015, and the adoption did not have an impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) Section A-Summary and Amendments That Create Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and Other Assets and Deferred Costs-Contracts with Customers (Subtopic 340-40). In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The new guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The ASU will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in GAAP when it becomes effective. The new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2018. Early adoption is not permitted. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. We are currently evaluating the effect that ASU No. 2014-09 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. We have not yet selected a transition method nor have we determined the effect of the standard on our ongoing financial reporting.
Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Accounting for Share-Based Payments When the Terms of an Award Provide That a Performance Target Could Be Achieved after the Requisite Service Period. In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-12, which clarifies the proper method of accounting for share-based payments when the terms of an award provide that a performance target could be achieved after the requisite service period. Under the new guidance, a performance target that affects vesting and could be achieved after completion of the service period should be treated as a performance condition under FASB ASC 718 and, as a result, should not be included in the estimation of the grant-date fair value of the award. An entity should recognize compensation cost for the award when it becomes probable that the performance target will be achieved. In the event that an entity determines that it is probable that a performance target will be achieved before the end of the service period, the compensation cost of the award should be recognized prospectively over the remaining service period. The new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Income Statement-Extraordinary and Unusual Items (Subtopic 225-20), Simplifying Income Statement Presentation by Eliminating the Concept of Extraordinary Items. In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-01, which eliminates the concept of extraordinary items in an entity’s income statement. Extraordinary classification of an item outside of income from continuing operations was previously considered only when evidence clearly supported its classification as an extraordinary item. Extraordinary items were events and transactions that were distinguished by their unusual nature and by the infrequency of their occurrence. The ASU eliminates the need to separately classify, present, and disclose extraordinary events. The disclosure of events or transactions that are unusual or infrequent in nature will be included in other guidance. This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Interest-Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, which requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. In addition, in June 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-15, which allows an entity to defer the requirements of ASU No. 2015-03 on deferred issuance costs related to line-of-credit arrangements. The recognition and measurement guidance for debt issuance costs are not affected by the amendments in these ASUs. These new disclosure items are effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. Adoption of these ASUs are not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Compensation-Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Practical Expedient for the Measurement Date of an Employer’s Defined Benefit Obligation and Plan Assets. In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-04, which provides a practical expedient that permits the entity to measure defined benefit plan assets and obligations using the month-end that is closest to the entity’s fiscal year-end and apply that practical expedient consistently from year to year. The practical expedient should be applied consistently to all plans if an entity has more than one plan. If a contribution or significant event (such as a plan amendment, settlement, or curtailment that calls for a remeasurement in accordance with existing requirements) occurs between the month-end date used to measure defined benefit plan assets and obligations and an entity’s fiscal year-end, the entity should adjust the measurement of defined benefit plan assets and obligations to reflect the effects of those contributions or significant events. However, an entity should not adjust the measurement of defined benefit plan assets and obligations for other events that occur between the month-end measurement and the entity’s fiscal year-end that are not caused by the entity (for example, changes in market prices or interest rates). This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. Early adoption is permitted. We adopted this ASU for the year ended January 2, 2016, and the adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

26

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40), Customer’s Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement. In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-05, which provides guidance to customers about whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. If a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license, then the customer should account for the software license element of the arrangement consistent with the acquisition of other software licenses. If a cloud computing arrangement does not include a software license, the customer should account for the arrangement as a service contract. This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Disclosures for Investments in Certain Entities That Calculate Net Asset Value per Share (or Its Equivalent). In May 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-07, which removes the requirement to categorize within the fair value hierarchy all investments for which fair value is measured using the net asset value per share practical expedient. This ASU also removes the requirement to make certain disclosures for all investments that are eligible to be measured at fair value using the net asset value per share practical expedient. Rather, those disclosures are limited to investments for which the entity has elected to measure the fair value using that practical expedient. This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. As this ASU is disclosure-related only, its adoption will not have an effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Inventory (Topic 330), Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, which requires that an entity measure inventory within the scope of this ASU at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Substantial and unusual losses that result from subsequent measurement of inventory should be disclosed in the financial statements. This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2017. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect that adoption of ASU No. 2015-11 will have on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Business Combinations (Topic 805), Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments. In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-16, which requires that an acquirer recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. The acquirer is required to record, in the same period’s financial statements, the effect on earnings of changes in depreciation, amortization, or other income effects, if any, as a result of the change to the provisional amounts, calculated as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. In addition, an entity is required to present, separately on the face of the income statement or through disclosure in the notes, the portion of the amount recorded in current-period earnings by line item that would have been recorded in previous reporting periods if the adjustment to the provisional amounts had been recognized as of the acquisition date. This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2016. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Income Taxes (Topic 740), Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, which simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes as it requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. This ASU applies to all entities that present a classified statement of financial position and may be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax liabilities and assets or retrospectively to all periods presented. This new guidance is effective for us beginning in fiscal 2017. Early adoption is permitted. We adopted this ASU prospectively for the year ended January 2, 2016, and the adoption resulted in all deferred taxes being reported as non-current on our consolidated balance sheet.
Leases (Topic 842). In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, which requires a lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for operating leases, initially measured at the present value of the future lease payments, in its balance sheet. This ASU also requires a lessee to recognize a single lease cost, calculated so that the cost of the lease is allocated over the lease term, generally on a straight-line basis. This new guidance is effective for us in fiscal 2019. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the effects that the adoption of this ASU will have on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.


27

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

2014 Compared to 2013
The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of income expressed as a percentage of total revenue:

 
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues
 
100
%
 
100
%
Costs and Operating Expenses:
 
 

 
 

Cost of revenues
 
56

 
54

Selling, general, and administrative expenses
 
32

 
34

Research and development expenses
 
2

 
2

Restructuring costs and other income, net
 

 

 
 
90

 
90

Operating Income
 
10

 
10

Interest Income (Expense), Net
 

 

Income from Continuing Operations Before Provision for Income Taxes
 
10

 
10

Provision for Income Taxes
 
3

 
3

Income from Continuing Operations
 
7
%
 
7
%

Revenues
Revenues for 2014 and 2013 are as follows:

(In thousands)
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
Papermaking Systems
 
$
348,199

 
$
328,708

Wood Processing Systems
 
41,647

 
4,573

Fiber-based Products
 
12,281

 
11,218

 
 
$
402,127

 
$
344,499


Papermaking Systems Segment. Revenues at the Papermaking Systems segment increased $19.5 million, or 6%, to $348.2 million in 2014 from $328.7 million in 2013 primarily due to increased demand for our parts and consumables products in our Fluid-Handling product line and the inclusion of $8.5 million in revenues from acquisitions. These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $1.8 million from the unfavorable effects of currency translation.

Wood Processing Systems Segment. Revenues of $41.6 million in 2014 represent a full year of revenues compared to approximately two months of post-acquisition revenues totaling $4.6 million in 2013.

Fiber-based Products. Revenues increased $1.1 million, or 9%, to $12.3 million in 2014 from $11.2 million in 2013 primarily due to increased demand for our biodegradable granular products.

Papermaking Systems Segment by Product Line. The following table presents revenues for our Papermaking Systems segment by product line, the changes in revenues by product line between 2014 and 2013, and the changes in revenues by product line between 2014 and 2013 excluding the effect of currency translation. The increase in revenues excluding the effect of currency translation represents the increase resulting from converting 2014 revenues in local currency into U.S. dollars at 2013 exchange rates, and then comparing this result to the actual revenues in 2013. The presentation of the changes in revenues by product line excluding the effect of currency translation and acquisitions is a non-GAAP measure. We believe this non-GAAP measure helps investors gain an understanding of our underlying operations, consistent with how management measures and forecasts our performance, especially when comparing such results to prior periods or forecasts. This non-GAAP measure should not be considered superior to or a substitute for the corresponding GAAP measure.


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Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

(In thousands)
 
2014
 
2013
 
Increase
 
Increase
Excluding
Effect of
Currency
Translation
Papermaking Systems Product Lines:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stock-Preparation
 
$
127,496

 
$
122,704

 
$
4,792

 
$
4,787

Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration
 
117,389

 
112,600

 
4,789

 
5,725

Fluid-Handling
 
103,314

 
93,404

 
9,910

 
10,799

 
 
$
348,199

 
$
328,708

 
$
19,491

 
$
21,311


Revenues in our Stock-Preparation product line in 2014 increased $4.8 million, or 4%, due to the inclusion of $6.0 million in revenues from acquisitions and increased demand for our products at our North American operations, offset in part by decreased demand for our products at our South American and Chinese operations. Revenues in our Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration product line in 2014 included $2.5 million in revenues from acquisitions and a decrease of $0.9 million from the unfavorable effect of currency translation compared to 2013. Excluding revenues from acquisitions and the unfavorable effect of currency translation, revenues from our Doctoring, Cleaning, & Filtration product line in 2014 increased $3.3 million compared to 2013, primarily due to increased demand for our products at our North American operations. Excluding the unfavorable effect of currency translation, revenues in our Fluid-Handling product line increased $10.8 million, or 12%, in 2014 compared to 2013, primarily due to increased demand for our parts and consumables products at our European and North American operations.

Gross Profit Margin
Gross profit margins for 2014 and 2013 are as follows:

Gross Profit Margin:
 
2014
 
2013
Papermaking Systems
 
45.4
%
 
46.1
%
Wood Processing Systems
 
35.4
%
 
20.0
%
 Fiber-based Products
 
45.7
%
 
46.6
%
 
 
44.4
%
 
45.8
%

Papermaking Systems Segment. The gross profit margin at the Papermaking Systems segment decreased to 45.4% in 2014 from 46.1% in 2013 primarily due to lower margins achieved on our capital products.

Wood Processing Systems Segment. The gross profit margin at the Wood Processing Systems segment increased to 35.4% in 2014, which included a full year of activity, compared to 20.0% in 2013, which included approximately two months of activity, following the acquisition of this business in 2013. The gross profit margin in both periods was reduced by amortization expense associated with acquired profit in inventory totaling $2.1 million and $1.1 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively. This expense had the effect of lowering the gross profit margin by 5.1 percentage points and 24.5 percentage points in 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Fiber-based Products. The gross profit margin decreased to 45.7% in 2014 from 46.6% in 2013 primarily due to the higher cost of natural gas used in the production process.

 Operating Expenses
Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $11.7 million, or 10%, to $129.3 million in 2014 from $117.6 million in 2013, including increases of $8.0 million from selling, general, and administrative expenses from our acquisitions as well as transaction-related expenses, offset in part by $0.7 million from the favorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Total stock-based compensation expense was $5.8 million and $5.2 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively, and is included in selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Research and development expenses decreased $0.5 million, or 8%, to $6.2 million in 2014 from $6.7 million in 2013 and represented 2% of revenues in both periods. The decrease in research and development expenses in 2014 primarily related to a reduction in product development costs at our Stock-Preparation product line. This decrease was offset in part by an increase at our Wood Processing Systems segment due to a full year of costs in 2014 compared to approximately two months in 2013.


29

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Restructuring Costs and Other Income, Net
Restructuring costs and other income, net were costs of $0.8 million and $0.1 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively.
The 2014 restructuring charges included severance costs of $0.3 million associated with the reduction of eight employees in Brazil and $0.1 million associated with the reduction of three employees in Sweden. In addition, we recorded facility-related costs of $0.4 million related to restructuring plans prior to 2014.
We recorded net costs of $0.1 million in 2013, including restructuring charges of $1.8 million, net of a pre-tax gain of $1.7 million on the sale of assets in China. The restructuring costs included severance costs of $1.1 million associated with the reduction of 22 employees in Brazil and severance costs of $0.5 million associated with the reduction of 25 employees in Sweden. Also included in restructuring costs were facility-related costs of $0.2 million. 
These actions were taken to streamline our operations as a result of our acquisitions in 2013 and 2014. All of these actions occurred in the Papermaking Systems segment.

Interest Income
Interest income decreased $0.2 million, or 36%, to $0.4 million in 2014 from $0.6 million in 2013 primarily due to lower average interest rates in 2014.

Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $0.1 million, or 7%, to $1.0 million in 2014 from $0.9 million in 2013 primarily due to higher average outstanding borrowings offset in part by lower average interest rates in 2014.

Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes was $12.4 million and $9.3 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively, and represented 30% and 28% of pre-tax income. The effective tax rate of 30% in 2014 was lower than our statutory tax rate primarily due to the distribution of our worldwide earnings, the release of tax reserves that resulted from the expiration of tax statutes of limitations, and the release of state tax reserves in the U.S. These tax benefits in 2014 were offset in part by tax expense associated with an increase in nondeductible expenses and a reduction in deferred tax assets. The effective tax rate of 28% in 2013 was lower than our statutory tax rate primarily due to the reduction of the 2012 U.S. tax cost of foreign earnings and a benefit from the 2012 U.S. research and development tax credit, both of which resulted from U.S. tax legislation enacted in January 2013. In addition, our effective tax rate in 2013 benefited from the release of valuation allowances in the U.S. and several foreign jurisdictions due to an increase in current year and projected future income.

Income from Continuing Operations
Income from continuing operations increased $5.4 million, or 23%, to $29.1 million in 2014 from $23.7 million in 2013, including an increase in operating income of $8.8 million offset in part by an increase in provision for income taxes of $3.1 million (see Revenues, Gross Profit Margin, Operating Expenses, and Provision for Income Taxes discussed above).

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Consolidated working capital was $108.5 million and $96.5 million at year-end 2015 and year-end 2014, respectively. Included in working capital are cash and cash equivalents of $65.5 million and $45.4 million at year-end 2015 and year-end 2014, respectively. At year-end 2015, $64.5 million of cash and cash equivalents was held by our foreign subsidiaries.

2015
Our operating activities provided cash of $37.9 million in 2015. We used cash of $12.2 million for accounts receivable and unbilled contract costs and fees and $6.5 million for inventory. The cash used for accounts receivable and unbilled contract costs and fees relates to increased project activity, especially in our Stock-Preparation product line. The cash used for inventory was primarily due to an increase in inventory at our Wood Processing Systems segment and work in process at our Stock-Preparation product line in China related to projects that are scheduled to ship in 2016. These uses of cash were offset in part by $9.2 million of cash provided by other current liabilities primarily due to an increase in accrued income taxes due to the timing of payments and an increase in customer deposits related to capital equipment projects.
Our investing activities used cash of $5.4 million in 2015 primarily for purchases of property, plant, and equipment.
Our financing activities used cash of $11.1 million in 2015. We used cash of $9.9 million for the repurchase of our common stock on the open market and $7.2 million for cash dividends paid to stockholders. We received $24.0 million in proceeds from borrowings under our 2012 Credit Agreement and used cash of $18.6 million for principal payments on our outstanding debt obligations.


30

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

2014
Our operating activities provided cash of $48.9 million in 2014. Changes in working capital provided cash of $0.2 million in 2014, including $8.4 million from accounts receivable and $5.1 million from inventory, primarily due to the timing of payments and the shipment of several large stock-preparation equipment contracts. These sources of cash were offset in large part by uses of cash of $11.1 million from other current liabilities due to a decrease in customer deposits and, to a lesser extent, $2.3 million from unbilled contract costs and fees due to the timing of billings.
Our investing activities used cash of $18.5 million in 2014, including $12.0 million for acquisitions and $6.8 million for purchases of property, plant, and equipment.
Our financing activities used cash of $32.3 million in 2014, including cash used for principal payments on our outstanding debt obligations of $37.0 million, repurchases of our common stock on the open market of $15.1 million, and the payment of $6.3 million in cash dividends to stockholders. These uses of cash were offset in part by $24.5 million of proceeds from borrowings under our 2012 Credit Agreement.

2013
Our operating activities provided cash of $40.1 million in 2013, including $39.9 million provided by our continuing operations and $0.2 million provided by our discontinued operation. Changes in working capital provided cash of $3.5 million in 2013, including $5.9 million from other current liabilities and $2.6 million from accounts payable. Cash provided by an increase in other current liabilities primarily related to customer deposits on stock-preparation contracts. Cash provided by an increase in accounts payable was primarily due to the timing of payments. These sources of cash were offset in part by increases in accounts receivable and inventory, which used cash of $2.2 million and $2.0 million, respectively, primarily due to the timing of payments and production in 2013.
Our investing activities used cash of $68.2 million in 2013, including $65.6 million for acquisitions and $6.3 million for purchases of property, plant, and equipment. These uses of cash were offset in part by proceeds of $3.5 million from the sale of property, plant, and equipment, primarily from the sale of real estate in China.
Our financing activities provided cash of $22.6 million in 2013 including $53.6 million of proceeds from borrowings under our 2012 Credit Agreement. This source of cash was offset in part by cash used for principal payments on our outstanding debt obligations of $21.8 million, repurchases of our common stock on the open market of $5.4 million, and the payment of $4.2 million in cash dividends to stockholders.

Additional Liquidity and Capital Resources
On July 28, 2014, our board of directors approved the repurchase by us of up to $20 million of our equity securities during the period from July 28, 2014 to July 28, 2015. We repurchased 136,518 shares of our common stock for $6.0 million under this authorization. On May 20, 2015, our board of directors approved the repurchase by us of up to an additional $20 million of our equity securities during the period from May 20, 2015 to May 20, 2016. Through year-end 2015, we had repurchased 143,242 shares of our common stock for $5.9 million under this authorization.
We paid cash dividends of $7.2 million and $6.3 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. On November 18, 2015, we declared a quarterly cash dividend totaling $0.17 per outstanding share of our common stock, or approximately $1.8 million, which was paid on February 11, 2016. In addition, on March 8, 2016, we declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.19 per outstanding share of our common stock, which will be paid on May 12, 2016. Future declarations of dividends are subject to our board of directors' approval and may be adjusted as business needs or market conditions change. The payment of cash dividends is subject to our compliance with the consolidated leverage ratio contained in our 2012 Credit Agreement.
As of year-end 2015, we had cash and cash equivalents of $65.5 million, of which $64.5 million was held by our foreign subsidiaries. It is our intention to reinvest indefinitely the earnings of our international subsidiaries in order to support the current and future capital needs of their operations. Through year-end 2015, we have not provided for U.S. income taxes on approximately $168.2 million of unremitted foreign earnings. The U.S. tax cost has not been determined due to the fact that it is not practicable to estimate at this time. The related foreign tax withholding, which would be required if we were to remit the foreign earnings to the U.S., would be approximately $3.6 million.
Although we currently have no material commitments for capital expenditures, we plan to make expenditures of approximately $7 to $8 million during 2016 for property, plant, and equipment.
In the future, our liquidity position will be primarily affected by the level of cash flows from operations, cash paid to satisfy debt repayments, capital projects, dividends, stock repurchases, or acquisitions. We believe that our existing resources, together with the cash available from our credit facilities and the cash we expect to generate from continuing operations, will be sufficient to meet the capital requirements of our current operations for the foreseeable future.


31

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Revolving Credit Facility
We entered into a five-year unsecured revolving credit facility (2012 Credit Agreement) in the aggregate principal amount of up to $100 million on August 3, 2012 and amended it on November 1, 2013. The 2012 Credit Agreement includes an uncommitted unsecured incremental borrowing facility of up to an additional $50 million. The principal on any borrowings made under the 2012 Credit Agreement is due on November 1, 2018. Interest on any loans outstanding under the 2012 Credit Agreement accrues and is payable quarterly in arrears at one of the following rates selected by us: (i) the highest of (a) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% plus an applicable margin of 0% to 1%, (b) the prime rate, as defined, plus an applicable margin of 0% to 1%, and (c) the Eurocurrency rate, as defined, plus 0.50% plus an applicable margin of 0% to 1% or (ii) the Eurocurrency rate, as defined, plus an applicable margin of 1% to 2%. The applicable margin is determined based upon the ratio of our total debt to EBITDA, as defined in the 2012 Credit Agreement. For this purpose, total debt is defined as total debt less up to $25 million of unrestricted U.S. cash.
As of year-end 2015, the outstanding balance under the 2012 Credit Agreement was $26 million and we had $72.1 million of borrowing capacity available under the committed portion of our 2012 Credit Agreement. The amount we are able to borrow under the 2012 Credit Agreement is the total borrowing capacity of $100 million less any outstanding borrowings, letters of credit and multi-currency borrowings issued under the 2012 Credit Agreement.
Our obligations under the 2012 Credit Agreement may be accelerated upon the occurrence of an event of default under the 2012 Credit Agreement, which includes customary events of default including without limitation payment defaults, defaults in the performance of affirmative and negative covenants, the inaccuracy of representations or warranties, bankruptcy- and insolvency-related defaults, defaults relating to such matters as the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), unsatisfied judgments, the failure to pay certain indebtedness, and a change of control default. In addition, the 2012 Credit Agreement contains negative covenants applicable to us and our subsidiaries, including financial covenants requiring us to comply with a maximum consolidated leverage ratio of 3.5 to 1 and a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio of 3 to 1, and restrictions on liens, indebtedness, fundamental changes, dispositions of property, making certain restricted payments (including dividends and stock repurchases), investments, transactions with affiliates, sale and leaseback transactions, swap agreements, changing our fiscal year, arrangements affecting subsidiary distributions, entering into new lines of business, and certain actions related to the discontinued operation. As of January 2, 2016, we were in compliance with these covenants.
Loans under the 2012 Credit Agreement are guaranteed by certain of our domestic subsidiaries pursuant to a Guarantee Agreement, effective August 3, 2012.

Commercial Real Estate Loan
On May 4, 2006, we borrowed $10 million under a promissory note (Commercial Real Estate Loan). The Commercial Real Estate Loan is repayable in quarterly installments of $125 thousand over a ten-year period with the remaining principal balance of $5 million due upon maturity in May 2016. As of January 2, 2016, the remaining balance on the Commercial Real Estate Loan was $5.3 million. Interest on the Commercial Real Estate Loan accrues and is payable quarterly in arrears at one of the following rates selected by us: (a) the prime rate or (b) the three-month London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) plus a .75% margin.
Our obligations under the Commercial Real Estate Loan may be accelerated upon the occurrence of an event of default under the Commercial Real Estate Loan and the mortgage and security agreements, which includes customary events of default including without limitation payment defaults, defaults in the performance of covenants and obligations, the inaccuracy of representations or warranties, bankruptcy- and insolvency-related defaults, liens on the properties or collateral and uninsured judgments. In addition, the occurrence of an event of default under the 2012 Credit Agreement or any successor credit facility would be an event of default under the Commercial Real Estate Loan.

Interest Rate Swap Agreements
On January 16, 2015, we entered into a swap agreement (2015 Swap Agreement) to hedge our exposure to movements in the three-month LIBOR rate on future outstanding debt. The 2015 Swap Agreement expires on March 27, 2020 and has a $10 million notional value. Under the 2015 Swap Agreement, on a quarterly basis we receive a three-month LIBOR rate and pay a fixed rate of interest of 1.50% plus an applicable margin.
We entered into a swap agreement in 2006 (2006 Swap Agreement) to convert the Commercial Real Estate Loan from a floating to a fixed rate of interest. The 2006 Swap Agreement matures in 2016, has the same terms and quarterly payment dates as the corresponding debt, and reduces proportionately in line with the amortization of the Commercial Real Estate Loan. Under the 2006 Swap Agreement, we receive a three-month LIBOR rate and pay a fixed rate of interest of 5.63% plus an applicable margin.
As of January 2, 2016, the interest rate swap agreements had a net unrealized loss of $0.1 million. We believe that any credit risk associated with the swap agreements is remote based on our financial position and the creditworthiness of the financial institution issuing the swap agreements.

32

 
 
 
 
 
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2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

The counterparty to the swap agreements could demand an early termination of the swap agreements if we are in default under the 2012 Credit Agreement, or any agreement that amends or replaces the 2012 Credit Agreement in which the counterparty is a member, and we are unable to cure the default. An event of default under the 2012 Credit Agreement includes customary events of default and failure to comply with financial covenants, including a maximum consolidated leverage ratio of 3.5 to 1 and a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio of 3 to 1. The net unrealized loss of $0.1 million associated with the swap agreements as of January 2, 2016 represents the estimated amount that we would pay to the counterparty in the event of an early termination.

Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments
The following table summarizes our known contractual obligations and commercial commitments to make future payments or other consideration pursuant to certain contracts as of year-end 2015, as well as an estimate of the timing in which these obligations are expected to be satisfied. Detailed information concerning these obligations and commitments can be found in Notes 2, 3, 6 and 7 to our consolidated financial statements.

 
 
Payments Due by Period or Expiration of Commitment
(In millions)
 
Less than
1 Year
 
2-3
Years
 
4-5
Years
 
After
5 Years
 
Total
Contractual Obligations and Other Commitments: (a)(b)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Letters of credit and bank guarantees
 
$
12.1

 
$
3.0

 
$

 
$

 
$
15.1

Retirement obligations on balance sheet
 
1.4

 
2.6

 
0.6

 
4.4

 
9.0

Debt obligations
 
5.3

 
26.0

 

 

 
31.3

Operating lease obligations
 
2.2

 
2.2

 
0.7

 
0.8

 
5.9

Interest (c)
 
0.6

 
0.9

 

 

 
1.5

Acquisition consideration
 
1.1

 

 

 

 
1.1

Total (d)(e)
 
$
22.7

 
$
34.7

 
$
1.3

 
$
5.2

 
$
63.9

_________________________________
(a)
We have purchase obligations related to the acquisition of raw material made in the ordinary course of business that may be terminated with minimal notice and are excluded from this table.
(b)
In the ordinary course of business, certain contracts contain limited performance guarantees, which do not require letters of credit, relating to our equipment and systems. We typically limit our liability under these guarantees to amounts that would not exceed the value of the contract. We believe that we have adequate reserves for any potential liability in connection with such guarantees. These guarantees are not included in this table.
(c)
Amounts assume interest rates on variable rate debt remain unchanged from rates as of year-end 2015.
(d)
This table excludes an unrealized loss of $0.1 million associated with our interest rate swap agreements as this amount would only be owed if the counterparty were to demand an early termination of the agreements in the event of a default under our 2012 Credit Agreement.
(e)
This table excludes a liability for unrecognized tax benefits and an accrual for the related interest and penalties totaling $6.3 million. Due to the uncertain nature of these income tax matters, we are unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate as to if and when cash settlements with the appropriate taxing authorities will occur.

Provisions in financial guarantees or commitments, debt or lease agreements, or other arrangements could trigger a requirement for an early payment, additional collateral support, amended terms, or acceleration of maturity.
We do not have special-purpose entities nor do we use off-balance-sheet financing arrangements.
 
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, which could affect our future results of operations and financial condition. We manage our exposure to these risks through our regular operating and financing activities. We entered into "receive-variable pay-fixed" swap agreements in 2006 and 2015 to hedge our exposure to variable rate long-term debt. Additionally, we use short-term forward contracts to manage certain exposures to foreign currencies. We enter into forward currency-exchange contracts to hedge firm purchase and sale commitments denominated in currencies other than our subsidiaries' local currencies. We do not engage in extensive foreign currency hedging activities; however, the purpose of our foreign currency hedging activities is to protect our local currency cash flows related to these commitments from fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Our forward currency-exchange contracts hedge transactions primarily denominated in U.S. dollars, euros, and Chinese renminbi. Gains and losses arising from forward contracts are recognized as offsets to gains and losses resulting

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Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

from the transactions being hedged. We do not hold or engage in transactions involving derivative instruments for purposes other than risk management.

Interest Rates
Our cash and cash equivalents are sensitive to changes in interest rates. Interest rate changes would result in a change in interest income due to the difference between the current interest rates on cash and cash equivalents and the variable rates to which these financial instruments may adjust in the future. A 10% decrease in year-end interest rates would have resulted in an immaterial impact on net income in both 2015 and 2014.
Our outstanding debt and interest rate swap agreements are sensitive to changes in interest rates. A portion of our outstanding debt at year-end 2015 and 2014 was hedged with "receive-variable pay-fixed" swap agreements. The fair values of the swap agreements are sensitive to changes in the 3-month LIBOR forward curve. A 10% decrease in the 3-month LIBOR forward curve would not have had a material impact on unrealized losses at year-end 2015 and 2014.

Currency Exchange Rates
We generally view our investment in foreign subsidiaries in a functional currency other than our reporting currency as long-term. Our investment in foreign subsidiaries is sensitive to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries are principally denominated in euros, British pounds sterling, Mexican pesos, Canadian dollars, Chinese renminbi, Brazilian reals, and Swedish krona. The effect of changes in foreign exchange rates on our net investment in foreign subsidiaries is reflected in the "accumulated other comprehensive items" component of stockholders' equity. A 10% decrease in functional currencies at year-end 2015 and 2014, relative to the U.S. dollar, would have resulted in a reduction in stockholders' equity of $21.6 million and $21.1 million, respectively.
The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is sensitive to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is the estimated amount that we would pay or receive upon termination of the contracts, taking into account the change in foreign currency exchange rates. A 10% adverse change in year-end 2015 and 2014 foreign currency exchange rates related to our contracts would have resulted in a decrease in unrealized gains on forward currency-exchange contracts of $0.9 million and $1.7 million in 2015 and 2014, respectively. Since we use forward currency-exchange contracts as hedges of firm purchase and sale commitments, the unrealized gain or loss on forward currency-exchange contracts resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates would be offset primarily by corresponding changes in the fair value of the hedged items.

Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
This data is submitted as a separate section to this Report and incorporated herein by reference. See Item 15, "Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules."

Item 9.    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Not applicable.

Item 9A.    Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of January 2, 2016. The term "disclosure controls and procedures," as defined in Securities Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e), means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC's rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company's management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives, and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based upon the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of January 2, 2016, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that as of January 2, 2016, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.

34

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Management's Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Securities Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 2, 2016. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria set forth in "Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013)" issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on our assessment, management believes that as of January 2, 2016 our internal control over financial reporting was effective based on the criteria issued by COSO.
Because of inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Our independent registered public accountants, KPMG LLP, have issued an audit report on our internal control over financial reporting, which is included herein on page F-3 and incorporated into this Item 9A by reference.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There have not been any changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) during the fiscal quarter ended January 2, 2016 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Item 9B.    Other Information
Not applicable.

PART III

Item 10.    Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
This information will be included under the heading "Election of Directors" in our 2016 proxy statement for our 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and is incorporated in this Report by reference, except for the information concerning executive officers, which is included under the heading "Executive Officers of the Registrant" in Item 1 of Part I of this Report.

Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance
The information required under Item 405 of Regulation S-K will be included under the heading "Stock Ownership–Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance" in our 2016 proxy statement and is incorporated in this Report by reference.

Corporate Governance
The information required under Items 406 and 407 of Regulation S-K will be included under the heading "Corporate Governance" in our 2016 proxy statement and is incorporated in this Report by reference.

Item 11.    Executive Compensation
This information will be included under the headings "Executive Compensation", "Corporate Governance - Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation", and "Compensation Discussion and Analysis" in our 2016 proxy statement and is incorporated in this Report by reference.


35

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 


Item 12.    Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Except for the information concerning equity compensation plans, this information will be included under the heading "Stock Ownership" in our 2016 proxy statement and is incorporated in this Report by reference.

The following table provides information about the securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans as of January 2, 2016:

Equity Compensation Plan Information
 
Plan Category
 
Number of Securities
to be Issued upon
Exercise of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants, and
Rights
 
 
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants, and Rights
 
 
 
Number of Securities
Remaining Available for
Future Issuance Under
Equity Compensation
Plans (Excluding
Securities Reflected in
the First Column)
 
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
574,205

 
(1)
 
$
27.69

 
(1)
 
724,767

 
(2)
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 
 
 
$

 
 
 

 
 
Total
 
574,205

 
(1)
 
$
27.69

 
(1)
 
724,767

 
(2)
__________________________________
(1)
Excludes an aggregate of 69,599 shares of common stock issuable under our employees' stock purchase plan in connection with current and future offering periods under the plan.
(2)
Includes an aggregate of 69,599 shares of common stock issuable under our employees' stock purchase plan in connection with current and future offering periods under the plan.

Item 13.    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
This information will be included under the heading "Corporate Governance" in our 2016 proxy statement and is incorporated in this Report by reference.

Item 14.    Principal Accountant Fees and Services
This information will be included under the heading "Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm" in our 2016 proxy statement and is incorporated in this Report by reference.
 

36

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

PART IV

Item 15.    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
               
(a)
The following documents are filed as part of this Report:

(1)
Consolidated Financial Statements (see Index on Page F-1 of this Report):
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Balance Sheet
Consolidated Statement of Income
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statement of Stockholders' Equity
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(2)
Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule (see Index on Page F-1 of this Report):
Schedule II: Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or not required, or because the required information is shown either in the consolidated financial statements or in the notes thereto.
(3)
Exhibits filed herewith or incorporated in this Report by reference are set forth in the Exhibit Index beginning on page 39. This list of exhibits identifies each management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement required to be filed as an exhibit to this Report.
(b)
Exhibits
See the Exhibit Index beginning on page 39.

37

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Annual Report
 
 
 

Signatures

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 
KADANT INC.
 
 
 
Date: March 16, 2016
By:
/s/ Jonathan W. Painter
 
 
Jonathan W. Painter
 
 
Chief Executive Officer and President

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this Report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities indicated, on March 16, 2016.

 
Signature
 
Title
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Jonathan W. Painter
 
Chief Executive Officer, President and Director
 
Jonathan W. Painter
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Michael J. McKenney
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
Michael J. McKenney
 
(Principal Financial Officer)
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Deborah S. Selwood
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
 
Deborah S. Selwood
 
(Principal Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ William A. Rainville
 
Director and Chairman of the Board
 
William A. Rainville
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ John M. Albertine
 
Director
 
John M. Albertine
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Thomas C. Leonard
 
Director
 
Thomas C. Leonard
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ William P. Tully
 
Director
 
William P. Tully
 
 


38

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Exhibit Index
Exhibit
Number
Description of Exhibit
 
 
3.1
Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2001 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
3.2
Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant effective November 20, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant's Form 8-K [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on November 25, 2014 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.1*
Form of Indemnification Agreement between the Registrant and its directors and officers (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2001 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.2*
Form of Amended and Restated Executive Retention Agreement (change in control agreement) between the Company and its named executive officers, as amended and restated on December 9, 2008 (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 3, 2009 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.3*
Amended and Restated Equity Incentive Plan of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 10.5 to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 3, 2009 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.4*
Amended and Restated 2006 Equity Incentive Plan of the Registrant effective as of May 20, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 28, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.5*
Cash Incentive Plan of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 10.10 to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 3, 2009 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.6*
Restoration Plan of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 2, 2011 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.7*
Amendments to the Restoration Plan of the Registrant effective as of May 20, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 28, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.8*
Summary of non-employee director compensation of the Registrant.
 
 
10.9*
Form of Cash-Settled Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement between the Company and its non-employee directors used for change-in-control (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 4, 2015 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.10*
Form of Performance-Based Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement between the Company and its executive officers used for restricted stock unit awards granted in 2010 through 2013 (filed as Exhibit 10.20 to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 2, 2010 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).


39

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Exhibit Index
Exhibit
Number
Description of Exhibit
 
 
10.11*
Notice of Amendment to Performance-Based Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement between the Company and its executive officers (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 28, 2013 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.12*
Form of Performance-Based Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement between the Company and its executive officers used for restricted stock unit awards on or after March 5, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 29, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.13*
Form of Time-Based Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement between the Company and its executive officers used for restricted stock unit awards on or after March 5, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 29, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.14*
Form of Stock Option Agreement between the Company and its executive officers used for stock option awards (filed as Exhibit 10.21 to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 2, 2010 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.15*
Notice of Amendment to Stock Option Agreements between the Company and its executive officers used for stock option awards (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 28, 2013 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.16*
Executive Transition Agreement between the Registrant and Thomas M. O'Brien as of September 15, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 27, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.17*
Notice dated September 15, 2014 of the termination of the Amended and Restated Executive Retention Agreement dated December 8, 2008 between the Registrant and Thomas M. O'Brien (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 27, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.18*
Notice dated September 15, 2014 of the amendment to the restricted stock unit award agreements granted by the Registrant to Thomas M. O'Brien (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 27, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.19*
Notice dated September 15, 2014 of the amendment to the stock option agreements granted by the Registrant to Thomas M. O'Brien (filed as Exhibit 10.4 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 27, 2014 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.20
Credit Agreement dated August 3, 2012, among Kadant Inc., the Foreign Subsidiary Borrowers from time to time parties thereto, the several banks and other financial institutions or entities from time to time parties thereto, RBS Citizens, N.A., as Administrative Agent and Multi-currency Administrative Agent (filed as Exhibit 99.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on August 8, 2012 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.21
First Amendment to Credit Agreement dated November 1, 2013, among Kadant Inc., the Foreign Subsidiary Borrowers from time to time parties thereto, the several banks and other financial institutions or entities from time to time parties thereto, RBS Citizens, N.A., as Administrative Agent and Multi-currency Administrative Agent (filed as Exhibit 10.14 to the Registrant's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 28, 2013 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).


40

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Exhibit Index
 
Exhibit
Number
 
Description of Exhibit
 
 
10.22
Guarantee Agreement dated August 3, 2012, among Kadant Inc. and the Subsidiary Guarantors, in favor of RBS Citizens, N.A., as Administrative Agent for the several banks and other financial institutions or entities from time to time parties to the Credit Agreement dated as of August 3, 2012 (filed as Exhibit 99.2 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on August 8, 2012 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.23
Swap Confirmation dated January 16, 2015 between the Registrant and Citizens Bank, National Association (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended April 4, 2015 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.24
International Swap Dealers Association, Inc. Master Agreement dated May 13, 2005 between the Registrant and Citizens Bank of Massachusetts and Swap Confirmation dated May 18, 2005 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 2, 2005 [File No. 1-11406] and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.25
Promissory Note in the principal amount of $10,000,000 dated May 4, 2006, between the Registrant and Citizens Bank of Massachusetts (filed as Exhibit 99.1 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on May 9, 2006 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.26
Limited Guaranty Agreement dated May 4, 2006 between Kadant Black Clawson Inc., a Delaware corporation, and Citizens Bank of Massachusetts (filed as Exhibit 99.3 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on May 9, 2006 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.27
Limited Guaranty Agreement dated May 4, 2006 between Kadant Johnson Inc., a Michigan corporation, and Citizens Bank of Massachusetts (filed as Exhibit 99.4 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on May 9, 2006 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.28
Mortgage and Security Agreement dated May 4, 2006 between Kadant Black Clawson Inc., a Delaware corporation, and Citizens Bank of Massachusetts relating to the real property and related personal property located in Theodore, Alabama (filed as Exhibit 99.7 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on May 9, 2006 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
10.29
Mortgage and Security Agreement dated May 4, 2006 between Kadant Johnson Inc., a Michigan corporation, and Citizens Bank of Massachusetts relating to the real property and related personal property located in Three Rivers, Michigan (filed as Exhibit 99.8 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K [File No. 1-11406] filed with the Commission on May 9, 2006 and incorporated in this document by reference).
 
 
21
Subsidiaries of the Registrant.
 
 
23
Consent of KPMG LLP.
 
 
31.1
Certification of the Principal Executive Officer of the Registrant Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) and Rule 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
 
31.2
Certification of the Principal Financial Officer of the Registrant Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) and Rule 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
 
32
Certification of the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of the Registrant pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
 
101.INS
XBRL Instance Document.**



41

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Exhibit Index
Exhibit
Number
 
Description of Exhibit
 
 
101.SCH
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.**
 
 
101.CAL
XBRL Taxonomy Calculation Linkbase Document.**
 
 
101.LAB
XBRL Taxonomy Label Linkbase Document.**
 
 
101.PRE
XBRL Taxonomy Presentation Linkbase Document.**
 
 
101.DEF
XBRL Taxonomy Definition Linkbase Document.**
 
 
 
 
*
Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
** 
Submitted electronically herewith.
 
Attached as Exhibit 101 to this report are the following formatted in XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language): (i) Consolidated Balance Sheet as of January 2, 2016 and January 3, 2015, (ii) Consolidated Statement of Income for the years ended January 2, 2016, January 3, 2015 and December 28, 2013, (iii) Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income for the years ended January 2, 2016, January 3, 2015 and December 28, 2013, (iv) Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the years ended January 2, 2016, January 3, 2015 and December 28, 2013, (v) Consolidated Statement of Stockholders' Equity for the years ended January 2, 2016, January 3, 2015 and December 28, 2013, and (vi) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.


42

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Kadant Inc.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Schedule

The following Consolidated Financial Statements of the Registrant and its subsidiaries are required to be included in Item 8:

 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The following Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule of the Registrant and its subsidiaries is filed as part of this Report as required to be included in Item 15(a)(2):
 
 
 
 
Page


F-1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders
Kadant Inc.:
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Kadant Inc. and subsidiaries as of January 2, 2016 and January 3, 2015, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, cash flows, and stockholders' equity for each of the years in the three-year period ended January 2, 2016. In connection with our audits of the consolidated financial statements, we have also audited the financial statement schedule listed in the index at Item 15(a)(2). These consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Kadant Inc. and subsidiaries as of January 2, 2016 and January 3, 2015, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended January 2, 2016, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Kadant Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of January 2, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 16, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

/s/ KPMG LLP
Boston, Massachusetts
March 16, 2016

F-2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders
Kadant Inc.:
We have audited Kadant Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of January 2, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Kadant Inc.'s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management's Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In our opinion, Kadant Inc. maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 2, 2016, based on the criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Kadant Inc. and subsidiaries as of January 2, 2016 and January 3, 2015, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, cash flows and stockholders' equity for each of the years in the three-year period ended January 2, 2016, and our report dated March 16, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

/s/ KPMG LLP
Boston, Massachusetts
March 16, 2016


F-3

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Financial Statements

Consolidated Balance Sheet
(In thousands, except share amounts)
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
Current Assets:
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
65,530

 
$
45,378

Restricted cash
 
1,406

 
415

Accounts receivable, less allowances of $2,163 and $2,198
 
64,321

 
58,508

Inventories
 
56,758

 
55,223

Current deferred tax asset (Note 5)
 

 
9,536

Unbilled contract costs and fees
 
6,580

 
5,436

Other current assets
 
10,525

 
9,178

Total Current Assets
 
205,120

 
183,674

Property, Plant, and Equipment, at Cost, Net
 
42,293

 
44,965

Other Assets
 
11,002

 
10,272

Intangible Assets
 
38,032

 
46,954

Goodwill
 
119,051

 
127,882

Total Assets
 
$
415,498

 
$
413,747

 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 

 
 

Current Liabilities:
 
 

 
 

Short-term obligations (Note 6)
 
$
5,250

 
$
611

Accounts payable
 
24,418

 
27,233

Accrued payroll and employee benefits
 
19,583

 
19,943

Customer deposits
 
20,123

 
18,452

Accrued income taxes
 
5,333

 
2,240

Other current liabilities
 
21,921

 
18,691

Total Current Liabilities
 
96,628

 
87,170

Long-Term Deferred Income Taxes (Note 5)
 
8,992

 
18,960

Other Long-Term Liabilities (Note 3)
 
15,933

 
16,908

Long-Term Obligations (Note 6)
 
26,000

 
25,250

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 7)
 


 


Stockholders' Equity (Notes 3 and 4):
 
 

 
 

Preferred stock, $.01 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized; none issued
 

 

Common stock, $.01 par value, 150,000,000 shares authorized; 14,624,159 shares issued
 
146

 
146

Capital in excess of par value
 
100,536

 
98,769

Retained earnings
 
297,258

 
270,249

Treasury stock at cost, 3,850,779 and 3,760,019 shares
 
(94,359
)
 
(87,727
)
Accumulated other comprehensive items (Note 13)
 
(36,972
)
 
(17,146
)
Total Kadant Stockholders' Equity
 
266,609

 
264,291

Noncontrolling interest
 
1,336

 
1,168

Total Stockholders' Equity
 
267,945

 
265,459

Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
$
415,498

 
$
413,747














The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

F-4

 
 
 
 
 
Kadant Inc.
 
2015 Financial Statements

Consolidated Statement of Income
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues (Note 11)
 
$
390,107

 
$
402,127

 
$
344,499

Costs and Operating Expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

Cost of revenues
 
209,982

 
223,754

 
186,795

Selling, general, and administrative expenses
 
122,814

 
129,319

 
117,581

Research and development expenses
 
6,677