EX-3.2 3 d646523dex32.htm EX-3.2 EX-3.2

Exhibit 3.2

BYLAWS

OF

PRAXAIR, INC.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

 

ARTICLE I. OFFICES

     1  

Section 1.

  REGISTERED OFFICES      1  

Section 2.

  OTHER OFFICES      1  

ARTICLE II. MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

     1  

Section 1.

  PLACE OF MEETINGS      1  

Section 2.

  ANNUAL MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS      1  

Section 3.

  QUORUM; ADJOURNED MEETINGS AND NOTICE THEREOF      1  

Section 4.

  VOTING      2  

Section 5.

  PROXIES      2  

Section 6.

  SPECIAL MEETINGS      2  

Section 7.

  NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS      3  

Section 8.

  MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF STOCKHOLDER LIST      3  

Section 9.

  STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING      3  

ARTICLE III. DIRECTORS

     4  

Section 1.

  THE NUMBER OF DIRECTORS      4  

Section 2.

  VACANCIES      5  

Section 3.

  POWERS      5  

Section 4.

  PLACE OF DIRECTORS’ MEETINGS      5  

Section 5.

  REGULAR MEETINGS      5  

Section 6.

  SPECIAL MEETINGS      5  

Section 7.

  QUORUM      5  

Section 8.

  ACTION WITHOUT MEETING      6  

Section 9.

  TELEPHONIC MEETINGS      6  

Section 10.

  COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS      6  

Section 11.

  MINUTES OF COMMITTEE MEETINGS      6  

Section 12.

  COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS      6  

ARTICLE IV. OFFICERS

     7  

Section 1.

  OFFICERS      7  

Section 2.

  ELECTION OF OFFICERS      7  

Section 3.

  SUBORDINATE OFFICERS      7  

Section 4.

  COMPENSATION OF OFFICERS      7  

Section 5.

  TERM OF OFFICE; REMOVAL AND VACANCIES      7  

Section 6.

  CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD      7  

Section 7.

  PRESIDENT      8  

Section 8.

  VICE PRESIDENTS      8  

Section 9.

  SECRETARY      8  

 

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Section 10.

  ASSISTANT SECRETARY      8  

Section 11.

  TREASURER      8  

Section 12.

  ASSISTANT TREASURER      9  

Section 13.

  DUTIES OF OTHER OFFICERS      9  

ARTICLE V. INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND OTHER AGENTS

     9  

Section 1.

  DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS      9  

Section 2.

  EXPENSES      9  

Section 3.

  ENFORCEMENT      10  

Section 4.

  NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS      10  

Section 5.

  REDUCTION OF INDEMNIFICATION      10  

Section 6.

  AMENDMENTS      10  

Section 7.

  PERSONS OTHER THAN INDEMNITEES      10  

Section 8.

  CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION      10  

ARTICLE VI. CERTIFICATES OF STOCK

     10  

Section 1.

  CERTIFICATES      10  

Section 2.

  SIGNATURES ON CERTIFICATES      10  

Section 3.

  STATEMENT OF STOCK RIGHTS, PREFERENCES, PRIVILEGES      11  

Section 4.

  LOST CERTIFICATES      11  

Section 5.

  TRANSFERS OF STOCK      11  

Section 6.

  FIXED RECORD DATE      11  

Section 7.

  REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS      12  

ARTICLE VII. GENERAL PROVISIONS

     12  

Section 1.

  DIVIDENDS      12  

Section 2.

  PAYMENT OF DIVIDENDS; DIRECTORS’ DUTIES      13  

Section 3.

  CHECKS      13  

Section 4.

  FISCAL YEAR      13  

Section 5.

  CORPORATE SEAL      13  

Section 6.

  MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE      13  

Section 7.

  WAIVER OF NOTICE      13  

Section 8.

  ANNUAL STATEMENT      14  

ARTICLE VIII. AMENDMENTS

     14  

Section 1.

  AMENDMENT BY DIRECTORS OR STOCKHOLDERS      14  

 

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BYLAWS

OF

PRAXAIR, INC.

ARTICLE I.

OFFICES

Section 1.    REGISTERED OFFICES. The registered office shall be 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, 19808.

Section 2.    OTHER OFFICES. The corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.

ARTICLE II.

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1.    PLACE OF MEETINGS. Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware designated by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may also determine that a meeting may be held by means of remote communication whereby stockholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of stockholders and may be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication. In determining that a meeting may be held by means of remote communication, the Board of Directors shall also (i) implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder, (ii) implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings, and (iii) create a record of any vote or action taken by any stockholder or at the meeting by means of remote communication. In the absence of any designation, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation.

Section 2.    ANNUAL MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS. The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year on a date and a time designated by the Board of Directors. At each annual meeting directors shall be elected and any other proper business may be transacted.

Section 3.    QUORUM; ADJOURNED MEETINGS AND NOTICE THEREOF. A majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders, the holders of which are present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute

 

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a quorum for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “Delaware Law”), by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws. A quorum, once established, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum and the votes present may continue to transact business until adjournment. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, a majority of the voting stock represented in person or by proxy may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented. Such announcement must set forth the time, the place, if any, of the adjourned meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. If the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote thereat.

Section 4.    VOTING. When a quorum is present at any meeting, in all matters other than the election of directors, the vote of the holders of a majority of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express provision of the Delaware Law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws, a different vote is required in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question. Directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder shall have one vote for each share of stock having voting power, registered in his name on the books of the corporation on the record date set by the Board of Directors as provided in Article VII, Section 6 hereof.

Section 5.    PROXIES. At each meeting of the stockholders, each stockholder having the right to vote may vote in person or may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act as such stockholder’s proxy by (i) executing an instrument in writing subscribed by such stockholder, or (ii) by transmitting or authorizing the transmission of a telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission to the person who will be the holder of the proxy, provided that any such telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder. All proxies must be filed with the Secretary of the corporation at the beginning of each meeting in order to be counted in any vote at the meeting.

Section 6.    SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the stockholders, for any purpose, or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, may be called by the President and shall be called by the President or the Secretary at the request in writing of a majority of the Board of Directors, or at the request in writing of stockholders owning a majority in amount of the entire capital stock of the corporation

 

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issued and outstanding, and entitled to vote. Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice.

Section 7.    NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS MEETINGS. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which notice shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise provided in the Delaware Law, the written notice of any meeting shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting. If mailed, notice is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation. Written notice may be given in any manner permitted by Article VII, Section 6 of these Bylaws.

Section 8.    MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF STOCKHOLDER LIST. The corporation shall prepare, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination by any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting, (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

Section 9.    STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or by law, any action required by law to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the corporation, or any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted and shall be delivered to the corporation by delivery to (i) its registered office in the State of Delaware by hand or by certified mail or registered mail, return receipt requested, (ii) its principal place of business, or (iii) an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Every written consent shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder who signs the consent and no written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within sixty (60) days of the earliest dated consent delivered in the manner required by this Section 9 to the corporation,

 

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written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take action are delivered to the corporation by delivery to (i) its registered office in the State of Delaware by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, (ii) its principal place of business, or (iii) an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded.

A telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder, member or proxyholder, or by a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder, member or proxyholder, shall be deemed to be written, signed and dated for the purposes of this Section 9, provided that any such telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the corporation can determine (i) that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder, member or proxyholder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder, member or proxyholder and (ii) the date on which such stockholder, member or proxyholder or authorized person or persons transmitted such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission. The date on which such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed. No consent given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission shall be deemed to have been delivered until such consent is reproduced in paper form and until such paper form shall be delivered to the corporation by delivery to (i) its registered office in the State of Delaware by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, (ii) its principal place of business, or (iii) an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders or members are recorded. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitations on delivery, consents given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission, may be otherwise delivered to the principal place of business of the corporation or to an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders or members are recorded if, to the extent and in the manner provided by resolution of the Board of Directors, these by-laws or Certificate of Incorporation. Any copy, facsimile or other reliable reproduction of a consent in writing may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing for any and all purposes for which the original writing could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing.

ARTICLE III.

DIRECTORS

Section 1.    THE NUMBER OF DIRECTORS. The number of directors which shall constitute the whole Board shall be not less than one (1) nor more than five (5). The exact number of directors shall initially be the number of directors elected by the incorporator and thereafter shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. Until otherwise determined by such resolution the Board shall consist of two (2) directors. The directors need not be stockholders. After the election of the initial directors by the incorporator, the directors shall be elected at the annual meeting of the stockholders, except as provided in Section 2 of this Article and except for the initial directors, who have been elected by the sole incorporator of the corporation, and each director elected shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier resignation or removal. Any director may

 

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resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the corporation. Unless otherwise restricted by the Delaware Law or the Certificate of Incorporation, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed, either with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors.

Section 2.    VACANCIES. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, vacancies on the Board of Directors by reason of death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal from office, or otherwise, and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. Each director so chosen shall hold office until the next annual election of directors and until his successor is duly elected and qualified, or until such director’s earlier resignation or removal. If there are no directors in office, then an election of directors may be held in the manner provided by the Delaware Law. If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created directorship, the directors then in office shall constitute less than a majority of the whole Board (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders holding at least ten percent (10%) of the voting stock at the time outstanding having the right to vote for such directors, summarily order an election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships, or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office.

Section 3.    POWERS. The property and business of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its Board of Directors. In addition to the powers and authorities by these Bylaws expressly conferred upon them, the Board of Directors may exercise all such powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by the Delaware Law or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

Section 4.    PLACE OF DIRECTORS MEETINGS. The directors may hold their meetings and have one or more offices, and keep the books of the corporation outside of the State of Delaware.

Section 5.    REGULAR MEETINGS. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board.

Section 6.    SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the President on forty-eight (48) hours’ notice to each director, either personally or by mail, by facsimile, by electronic transmission or by telegram; special meetings shall be called by the President or the Secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of two directors unless the Board consists of only one director; in which case special meetings shall be called by the President or Secretary in like manner or on like notice on the written request of the sole director.

Section 7.    QUORUM. At all meetings of the Board of Directors a majority of the total number of directors shall be necessary and sufficient to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business unless the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws require a greater

 

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number. The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by the Delaware Law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present. If only one director is authorized, such sole director shall constitute a quorum.

Section 8.    ACTION WITHOUT MEETING. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.

Section 9.    TELEPHONIC MEETINGS. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, members of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 10.    COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each such committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors or in these Bylaws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by law to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any Bylaw of the corporation.

Section 11.    MINUTES OF COMMITTEE MEETINGS. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required.

Section 12.    COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for

 

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attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as director. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

ARTICLE IV.

OFFICERS

Section 1.    OFFICERS. The officers of this corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall include a Chairman of the Board of Directors or a President, or both, and a Secretary. The corporation may also have at the discretion of the Board of Directors such other officers as are desired, including a Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, a Chief Executive Officer, a Treasurer, one or more Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers, and such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 3 hereof. In the event there are two or more Vice Presidents, then one or more may be designated as Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President, or other similar or dissimilar title. At the time of the election of officers, the directors may by resolution determine the order of their rank. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws otherwise provide.

Section 2.    ELECTION OF OFFICERS. The Board of Directors, at its first meeting after each annual meeting of stockholders, shall choose the officers of the corporation.

Section 3.    SUBORDINATE OFFICERS. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers and agents as it shall deem necessary who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board.

Section 4.    COMPENSATION OF OFFICERS. The salaries of all officers and agents of the corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 5.    TERM OF OFFICE; REMOVAL AND VACANCIES. Each officer of the corporation shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified or until such officer’s earlier resignation or removal. Any officer may resign at any time upon written notice to the corporation. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors. If the office of any officer or officers becomes vacant for any reason, the vacancy shall be filled by the Board of Directors.

Section 6.    CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD. The Chairman of the Board, if such an officer be elected, shall, if present, preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and exercise and perform such other powers and duties as may be from time to time assigned to him by the Board of Directors or prescribed by these Bylaws. If there is no President, the Chairman of the Board shall in addition be the Chief Executive Officer of the corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in Section 7 of this Article IV.

 

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Section 7.    PRESIDENT. Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board of Directors to the Chairman of the Board, if there be such an officer, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the corporation, unless such an officer is elected separately by the Board of Directors, and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the corporation. He shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence of the Chairman of the Board, or if there be none, at all meetings of the Board of Directors. He shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of President of corporations, and shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws. If a Chief Executive Officer is elected separately by the Board of Directors, such Chief Executive Officer shall have such powers and perform such duties as from time to time may be prescribed for him by the Board of Directors of these Bylaws.

Section 8.    VICE PRESIDENTS. In the absence or disability of the President, the Vice Presidents in order of their rank as fixed by the Board of Directors, or if not ranked, the Vice President designated by the Board of Directors, shall perform all the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President. The Vice Presidents shall have such other duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them, respectively, by the Board of Directors.

Section 9.    SECRETARY. The Secretary shall attend all sessions of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all votes and the minutes of all proceedings in a book to be kept for that purpose; and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required by the Board of Directors. He shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws. He shall keep in safe custody the seal of the corporation, and when authorized by the Board, affix the same to any instrument requiring it, and when so affixed it shall be attested by his signature or by the signature of an Assistant Secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature.

Section 10.    ASSISTANT SECRETARY. The Assistant Secretary, if there be such an officer, or if there be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors, or if there be no such determination, the Assistant Secretary designated by the Board of Directors, shall, in the absence or disability of the Secretary, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

Section 11.    TREASURER. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the corporation and shall deposit all moneys, and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the corporation, in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. He shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation. If required by the Board of Directors, he shall give the corporation a bond, in such

 

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sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors, for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the corporation.

Section 12.    ASSISTANT TREASURER. The Assistant Treasurer, if there be such an officer, or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors, or if there be no such determination, the Assistant Treasurer designated by the Board of Directors, shall, in the absence or disability of the Treasurer, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

Section 13.    DUTIES OF OTHER OFFICERS. In addition to any other powers set forth in these Bylaws, officers elected or appointed by the Board of Directors or the President, respectively, shall perform the duties customarily incident to such officer’s position and such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to such officer by the Board of Directors or the President, as applicable.

ARTICLE V.

INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS,

EMPLOYEES AND OTHER AGENTS

Section 1.    DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS. The corporation shall indemnify and hold harmless, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law as it presently exists or may hereafter be amended, any person (an “Indemnitee”) who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that such person, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the corporation or, while a director or officer of the corporation, is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, against all liability and loss suffered and expenses (including attorneys’ fees) reasonably incurred by such Indemnitee. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, except as otherwise provided in Section 3 of this Article V, the corporation shall be required to indemnify and advance expenses pursuant to Section 2 to an Indemnitee in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) commenced by such Indemnitee only if the commencement of such proceeding (or part thereof) by the Indemnitee was authorized by the Board of Directors.

Section 2.    EXPENSES. The corporation shall pay the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an Indemnitee in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that, to the extent required by law, such payment of expenses in advance of the final disposition of the proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the Indemnitee to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that the Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article V or otherwise.

 

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Section 3.    ENFORCEMENT.    If a claim for indemnification or advancement of expenses under this Article V is denied or is otherwise not paid in full within sixty days after a written claim therefor by the Indemnitee has been received by the corporation, the Indemnitee may file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim.

Section 4.    NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS. The rights conferred on any Indemnitee by this Article V shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such Indemnitee may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

Section 5.    REDUCTION OF INDEMNIFICATION. The corporation’s obligation, if any, to indemnify or to advance expenses to any Indemnitee who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity shall be reduced by any amount such Indemnitee may collect as indemnification or advancement of expenses from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity.

Section 6.    AMENDMENTS. Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article V shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any Indemnitee in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.

Section 7.    PERSONS OTHER THAN INDEMNITEES. This Article V shall not limit the right of the corporation, to the extent and in the manner permitted by law, to indemnify and to advance expenses to persons other than Indemnitees when and as authorized by appropriate corporate action.

Section 8.    CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. Any provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation that provide more favorable indemnification rights than those set forth in this Article V to the Indemnitees shall take precedence over the provisions of this Article V.

ARTICLE VI.

CERTIFICATES OF STOCK

Section 1.    CERTIFICATES. Every holder of stock of the corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, any authorized officers of the corporation, certifying the number of shares represented by the certificate owned by such stockholder in the corporation.

Section 2.    SIGNATURES ON CERTIFICATES. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue.

 

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Section 3.    STATEMENT OF STOCK RIGHTS, PREFERENCES, PRIVILEGES. If the corporation shall be authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate which the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the Delaware Law, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate which the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

Section 4.    LOST CERTIFICATES. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate or certificates, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his legal representative, to give the corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

Section 5.    TRANSFERS OF STOCK. Upon surrender to the corporation, or the transfer agent of the corporation, of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books, unless otherwise restricted by the Delaware Law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.

Section 6.    FIXED RECORD DATE. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of the stockholders, or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date which shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, (i) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held, and (ii) the record date for stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of

 

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stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date which shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. If no such record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by the Delaware Law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and prior action by the Board of Directors is required by the Delaware Law, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

Section 7.    REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS. The corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share or shares of stock as the holder in fact thereof and accordingly shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim or interest in such share on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, save as expressly provided by the Delaware Law.

ARTICLE VII.

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 1.    DIVIDENDS. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, the Board of Directors may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of its capital stock either (i) out of its surplus, as defined in and computed in accordance with Sections 154 and 244 of the Delaware Law, or (ii) in case there shall be no such surplus, out of its net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. If the capital of the corporation, computed in accordance with Sections 154 and 244 of the Delaware Law, shall have been diminished by depreciation in the value of its property, or by losses, or otherwise, to an amount less than the aggregate amount of the capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets, the directors shall not declare and pay out of such net profits any dividends upon any shares of any classes of its capital stock until the deficiency in the amount of capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets shall have been repaired. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation.

 

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Section 2.    PAYMENT OF DIVIDENDS; DIRECTORS’ DUTIES. Before payment of any dividend there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve fund to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purpose as the directors shall think conducive to the interests of the corporation, and the directors may abolish any such reserve.

Section 3.    CHECKS. All checks or demands for money and notes of the corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

Section 4.    FISCAL YEAR. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

Section 5.    CORPORATE SEAL. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the corporation, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware.” Said seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

Section 6.    MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE. Whenever, under the provisions of the Delaware Law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws, notice is required to be given to any director or stockholder, it shall not be construed to mean personal notice, but such notice may be given in writing, by mail, addressed to such director or stockholder, at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Notice to directors may also be given by facsimile, by electronic transmission, or by telegram. Except as otherwise provided by the Delaware Law, notice to stockholders may also be given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation. Notice given by a form of electronic transmission shall be deemed given (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice, (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice, (iii) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice, and (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder. “Electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

Section 7.    WAIVER OF NOTICE. Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of the Delaware Law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to said notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for

 

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the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors, or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.

Section 8.    ANNUAL STATEMENT. The Board of Directors shall present at each annual meeting, and at any special meeting of the stockholders when called for by vote of the stockholders, a full and clear statement of the business and condition of the corporation.

ARTICLE VIII.

AMENDMENTS

Section 1.    AMENDMENT BY DIRECTORS OR STOCKHOLDERS. These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed or new Bylaws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors, when such power is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the Certificate of Incorporation, at any regular meeting of the stockholders or of the Board of Directors or at any special meeting of the stockholders or of the Board of Directors if notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new Bylaws be contained in the notice of such special meeting. If the power to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the Certificate of Incorporation it shall not divest or limit the power of the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws.

 

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