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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                   to                                   
Commission file number: 1-11884
ROYAL CARIBBEAN CRUISES LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Republic of Liberia
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
98-0081645
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1050 Caribbean Way, Miami, Florida 33132
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
(305539-6000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareRCLNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes   No ☐

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock at June 30, 2023 (based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2023) held by those persons deemed by the registrant to be non-affiliates was approximately $24.4 billion.
There were 256,650,147 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 16, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III, Items 10-14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as indicated herein.

F-1

Table of Contents
ROYAL CARIBBEAN CRUISES LTD.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 1.
Business
Item 6.
Reserved

F-2


PART I

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “Royal Caribbean,” "Royal Caribbean Group," the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and, depending on the context, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.’s consolidated subsidiaries and/or affiliates. The terms “Royal Caribbean International,” “Celebrity Cruises,” and “Silversea Cruises” refer to our wholly owned global cruise brands. Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we also refer to our partner brands in which we hold an ownership interest, including “TUI Cruises,” and “Hapag-Lloyd Cruises.” However, because these partner brands are unconsolidated investments, our operating results and other disclosures herein do not include these brands unless otherwise specified. In accordance with cruise vacation industry practice, the term “berths” is determined based on double occupancy per cabin even though many cabins can accommodate three or more passengers.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K also includes trademarks, trade names and service marks of other companies. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks is not intended to and does not imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties other than as described herein.


1


Item 1. Business.
General
We are one of the leading cruise companies in the world. We own and operate three global cruise brands: Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea Cruises (collectively, our "Global Brands"). We also own a 50% joint venture interest in TUI Cruises GmbH ("TUIC"), which operates the German brands TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises (collectively, our "Partner Brands"). We account for our investments in our Partner Brands under the equity method of accounting. Together, our Global Brands and our Partner Brands have a combined fleet of 65 ships in the cruise vacation industry with an aggregate capacity of approximately 157,575 berths as of December 31, 2023. Our ships offer a selection of worldwide itineraries that call on more than 1,000 destinations on all seven continents.
We compete principally by operating valued brands that offer exceptional service provided by our crew and on the basis of innovation and quality of ships, variety of itineraries, choice of destinations and price. We believe that our commitment to build state-of-the-art ships and to invest in the maintenance and upgrade of our fleet to, among other things, incorporate many of our latest signature innovations, allows us to continue to attract new and loyal repeat guests.
Royal Caribbean was founded in 1968 as a partnership. Its corporate structure has evolved over the years and, the current parent corporation, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., was incorporated on July 23, 1985 in the Republic of Liberia under the Business Corporation Act of Liberia.
Our Global Brands
Our Global Brands include Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, and Silversea Cruises. We believe our Global Brands possess the versatility to enter multiple market segments within the vacation industry. Although each of our Global Brands has its own marketing style, as well as ships and crews of various sizes, the nature of the products sold and services delivered by our Global Brands share a common base (i.e., the sale and provision of cruise vacations). Our Global Brands have historically sourced passengers from similar markets around the world and operated in similar economic environments with a significant degree of commercial overlap. As a result, we strategically manage our Global Brands as a single business with the ultimate objective of maximizing long-term shareholder value.
Royal Caribbean International
Royal Caribbean International is the world's largest cruise brand. The brand competes in both the contemporary family market and premium segments of the cruise vacation industry appealing to both families with children of all ages and older and younger couples. Royal Caribbean International offers cruises and land destinations that generally feature a casual ambiance, as well as a variety of activities and entertainment venues. We believe that the quality of the Royal Caribbean International brand allows it to achieve market coverage that is among the broadest of any of the major cruise brands in the cruise vacation industry. Royal Caribbean International’s strategy is to attract an array of vacationing guests by offering a wide variety of itineraries to destinations worldwide, including Alaska, Asia, Australia, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, the Panama Canal and New Zealand, with cruise lengths generally ranging from two to 18 nights. Royal Caribbean International offers multiple innovative options for onboard dining, entertainment and other onboard activities. Because of the brand’s ability to deliver extensive and innovative product offerings at an excellent value to consumers, we believe Royal Caribbean International is well positioned to attract new consumers to cruising and to continue to bring loyal repeat guests back for their next vacation.
Royal Caribbean International operates 26 ships with an aggregate capacity of approximately 94,100 berths. Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, Royal Caribbean International had three ships on order with an aggregate capacity of approximately 16,900 berths. The ships on order include two Icon-class ships, Star of the Seas and the third Icon-class ship, which are expected to be delivered in 2025 and 2026, respectively, and our sixth Oasis-class ship, Utopia of the Seas, which is expected to be delivered in 2024.
Celebrity Cruises
Celebrity Cruises is positioned within the premium segment of the cruise vacation industry. Celebrity Cruises’ strategy is to target consumers by delivering a destination-rich experience on upscale ships that offer, among other things, excellent food and drink, elevated hospitality, world-class spaces and accommodations, and live entertainment. Celebrity Cruises offers a range of itineraries to destinations, including Alaska, Asia, Australia, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, the Galapagos Islands, Hawaii, New Zealand, the Panama Canal and South America, with cruise lengths ranging from three to 18 nights.

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Celebrity Cruises operates 16 ships with an aggregate capacity of approximately 35,715 berths. Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, Celebrity Cruises had one Edge-class ship on order, Celebrity Xcel, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 3,250 berths, which is expected to be delivered in 2025.
Silversea Cruises
Silversea Cruises is an ultra-luxury and expedition cruise line with smaller ships, high standards of accommodations, fine dining, personalized service and exotic itineraries. Silversea Cruises delivers distinctive destination experiences by visiting unique and remote destinations, including the Galapagos Islands, Antarctica and the Arctic with cruise itineraries generally ranging from five to 24 nights.
Silversea Cruises operates 11 ships, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 4,770 berths. As of December 31, 2023, Silversea Cruises had on order one Evolution-class ship, Silver Ray, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 730 berths, which is expected to be delivered in 2024.
Our Partner Brands
Our Global Brands are complemented by our interest in TUIC, our 50%-owned joint venture that operates the German brands TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises (collectively, our "Partner Brands").
TUIC is a joint venture owned 50% by us and 50% by TUI AG, a German tourism company, which is designed to serve the contemporary and premium segments of the German cruise market by offering products tailored for German guests. All onboard activities, services, shore excursions and menu offerings are designed to suit the preferences of this target market.
TUI Cruises operates six ships, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 15,800 berths. Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, TUI Cruises had three ships on order with an aggregate capacity of approximately 11,100 berths, two of these ships are expected to be delivered in 2024, the third ship is expected to be delivered in 2026.
Hapag-Lloyd Cruises operates two luxury liners and three smaller expedition ships, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 1,590 berths. Hapag-Lloyd Cruises did not have any ships on order as of December 31, 2023.
Refer to Note 7. Investments and Other Assets to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further details.
Industry
The cruising industry has been considered a well-established vacation sector in the North American, European and Australian markets and a developing sector in several other emerging markets. We believe that cruising will continue to be a popular vacation choice due to its inherent value, extensive itineraries and variety of shipboard and shoreside activities. The Company and other industry participants voluntarily suspended operations in March of 2020 and gradually resumed full operations starting in the second half of 2021 through the first half of 2022. As a result, comparative information regarding market penetration is not meaningful for 2020, 2021, and 2022. For the five year period prior to 2020, industry data indicated that market penetration rates were still low and that a significant portion of cruise guests carried in those years were first-time cruisers. We believe this presents an opportunity for long-term growth and a potential for increased profitability.
Industry market penetration rates (computed based on the number of annual cruise guests as a percentage of the total population) grew from 3.36% to 3.89% for North America, from 1.25% to 1.41% for Europe, and from 0.08% to 0.20% for Asia/Pacific during the five year period from 2015 through 2019. During 2023, industry market penetration rates were 3.55% for North America, 1.07% for Europe, and 0.04% for Asia/Pacific. The penetration rates in 2023 show the recovery and growth potential in the markets most served by the industry.
The cruise industry was served by a fleet with a weighted average of approximately 650,000 berths during 2023 with approximately 361 ships at the end of 2023. As of December 31, 2023, there were approximately 51 ships on order with an estimated 110,000 berths that are expected to be placed in service in the global cruise market through 2028, not taking into account ships taken out of service or ordered during these periods. The global cruise industry carried approximately 21 million guests in 2023, 30 million cruise guests in 2019 and approximately 28.5 million in 2018.

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The following table details the growth in global weighted average berths and the percentage of North American, European and Asia/Pacific cruise guests for 2023, 2022 and for each of the five years from 2015 through 2019 (in thousands, except berth data):
Supply of Berths
Industry Cruise Guests
Year (1)
Weighted-Average
Global Supply(2)
Royal Caribbean Group(3)
Global
(2)
North American (2)(4)
Europe(2)(5)
Asia/Pacific (2)(6)
Other (2)
2015469,000112,70023,00052%29%14%5%
2016493,000123,27024,00051%27%19%3%
2017515,000124,07026,70048%25%20%7%
2018546,000135,52028,50049%26%20%5%
2019579,000141,57030,00047%25%24%4%
2022634,000150,00513,10065%29%2%4%
2023650,000157,57521,20063%27%6%4%
___________________________________________________________________
(1)Historically, we have reported annual information for comparability across periods. The 2020 suspension of global cruise operations as a result of COVID-19 and the gradual resumption of full operations starting in the second half of 2021 through the first half of 2022 do not allow for a meaningful comparison to prior years' information and, as such, 2020 and 2021 data has been excluded from this table.
(2)The estimates of the number of global cruise guests and the weighted-average supply of berths marketed globally are based on a combination of data that we obtain from various publicly available cruise industry trade information sources. We use data obtained from Seatrade Insider, Cruise Industry News and company press releases to estimate weighted-average supply of berths and CLIA and G.P. Wild to estimate cruise guest information. For 2023, cruise guest information includes data through the third quarter of 2023. In addition, our estimates incorporate our own analysis utilizing the same publicly available cruise industry data as a base.
(3)Total berths include our berths related to our Global Brands and Partner Brands as of December 31, 2023.
(4)Our estimates include the United States and Canada.
(5)Our estimates include European countries relevant to the industry (most notably: the Nordics, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom).
(6)Our estimates include Southeast Asia (most notably: Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines), East Asia (most notably: China and Japan), South Asia (most notably: India) and Oceania (most notably: Australia and New Zealand) regions. The decrease in Asia/Pacific cruise guests from 2019 to 2023 is partly driven by China remaining closed given its COVID-19 restrictions through the first half 2023.
Competition
We compete with a number of cruise lines as well as land-based vacation alternatives for consumers’ leisure time. These include resorts (including all-inclusive resorts), hotels, internet-based alternative lodging sites, theme parks, sports, nature and sightseeing destinations. Our principal cruise competitors are Carnival Corporation & plc, which owns, among other brands, Aida Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Costa Cruises, Cunard Line, Holland America Line, P&O Cruises, Princess Cruises and Seabourn; Disney Cruise Line; MSC Cruises; Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd, which owns Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Regent Seven Seas Cruises; and Virgin Voyages.
Operating Strategies
Our mission is to deliver the best vacation experiences responsibly. We continue to prioritize operating strategies that support this mission in a socially and environmentally responsible manner, working with our various business and community partners as we build toward a more sustainable cruise industry.
Our Company's operating strategies are as follows:
deliver the best vacation experiences responsibly;
deliver a lifetime of vacations to our customers;

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protect the health, safety and security of our guests and employees;
deepen our customer relationships in order to increase frequency and repeat booking rates;
focus on cost efficiency, adequate cash and liquidity, and strong balance sheet, with the overall goals of maximizing our return on invested capital and shareholder value;
protect the environment and communities in which our vessels and organization operate, with a focus on decarbonization;
invest in our workforce in order to better serve our global guest base and grow our business, and promote gender equality, diversity and inclusion;
increase the awareness and market penetration of our brands globally;
strategically invest in our fleet through the upgrade and maintenance of existing ships and the transfer of key innovations, while prudently expanding our fleet with new state-of-the-art cruise ships;
capitalize on the portability and flexibility of our ships by deploying them into those markets and itineraries that provide opportunities to optimize returns, while continuing our focus on existing key markets;
provide extraordinary destination experiences and state-of-the-art port facilities to our guests;
continue to deploy technology capabilities and advanced uses of data and analytics to deliver innovative customer experiences as well as to create operational efficiencies; and
maintain strong relationships with travel advisors, while enhancing our consumer outreach and e-commerce programs
Safety, security and health policies
We are committed to protecting the health, safety and security of our guests, employees and others working on our behalf. Our efforts in these areas are managed by several departments within the Company that are responsible for maritime safety, global security, environmental stewardship and medical/public health activities. We also have a dedicated committee of our Board of Directors, the Safety, Environment, Sustainability and Health Committee, which is responsible for reviewing and monitoring our overall strategies, policies and programs that impact the safety and health of our guests and crew.
Consumer engagement
We place a strong focus on delivering a lifetime of vacations and priceless memories for our guests by identifying and creating product features and innovations that our customers value. We are focused on targeting and acquiring high-value guests by better understanding consumer data and insights to create communication strategies that resonate with our target audiences.
We target customers at important consumer decision points throughout their vacation journey and identify underlying needs for which guests value and are willing to pay a premium. We rely upon and continue to invest in various programs and technologies during the cruise-planning, cruising and after-cruise periods aimed at increasing revenues and occupancy. We have and expect to strategically invest in experiences on our ships that we believe drive marketability, profitability and improve the guest experience. In addition, we are focused on enhancing our vacation ecosystem by investing in a new travel platform, our loyalty programs and e-commerce capabilities.
Focus on cost efficiency, capital allocation, adequate cash and liquidity and improving our balance sheet
We are focused on maintaining a strong liquidity position and a balanced debt maturity profile, while making progress towards achieving lower leverage, lower interest expense, and an unsecured balance sheet. For example, during 2023, we amended our revolving credit facility with our key relationship banks to ensure adequate liquidity on a going-forward basis and additionally, we repaid approximately $4.0 billion of debt. We believe these strategies together with our continued focus on increasing operating income and margin, as well as disciplined capital allocation, enhance our ability to achieve our overall goal of maximizing our return on invested capital and long-term shareholder value.

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Protect the environment and communities in which we operate
We are focused on the health of the environment and communities in which we operate. SEA the Future is our commitment to sustain the planet, energize the communities we visit, and accelerate innovation to improve our planet. Key programs include our Destination Net Zero strategy and Save the Waves Program.
Destination Net Zero is our decarbonization strategy that focuses on achieving net zero emissions by 2050 and delivering a net zero capable ship by 2035. This strategy also includes reducing our carbon intensity by double digits by 2025, compared to 2019.
Destination Net Zero’s four-pronged approach includes:
Modernizing our fleet with new energy-efficient and alternatively fueled vessels;
Continued investment in energy efficiency programs;
Development of alternative fuel and alternative power solutions; and
Optimized deployment and integration of strategic shore-based supply chains.
While we continue to refine our roadmap to Destination Net Zero, we know our strategy will require new fuels and technologies that are not available today. Collaboration is imperative to reaching our decarbonization goals. as such, we are partnering with governments, fuel suppliers, shipyards, and technology stakeholders to build and test a safe and reliable supply of alternative energy sources.
Another example of our commitment to sustaining our planet with key partners is our decades-long Save the Waves program, which focuses on waste management techniques and technologies, along with reuse and recycling programs, to reduce the amount of waste produced on our ships and divert the remaining waste from landfills. We also have a long-term partnership with the World Wildlife Fund to evaluate ship operations, sustainable sourcing of food supplies, waste management, sustainable destinations and guest education on ocean conservation.
We also believe in transparent reporting on our environmental and sustainability stewardship, as well as our social and governance efforts. Our SEA the Future commitment and annual sustainability report, both of which are accessible on our corporate website, highlight our commitment and progress made with regards to those environmental, social and governance aspects of our business that we believe are most significant to our organization and stakeholders. In addition to providing an overview on our sustainability efforts, the report references the guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative and is aligned with the Sustainable Accounting Standards Boards Industry Standards for Cruise Lines. We continue to advance our reporting following the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). Our corporate website contains the current version of our reports which provide information about our environmental performance goals and sustainability initiatives. The foregoing information contained on our website is not part of any of these reports and is not incorporated by reference herein or in any other report or document we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Refer to the Regulation - Environmental Regulations section below for further information.
Investing in our workforce and promoting equality, diversity and inclusion
We believe that our employees, both shipboard and shoreside, are a critical success factor for our business. We strive to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain the best employees, who provide our guests with extraordinary vacations. Our ability to attract, engage, and retain key employees has been and will remain critical to our success. Our Talent and Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors oversees the Company's human capital management strategies, including initiatives for talent diversity, equity and inclusion, talent management, and corporate culture.
We focus on providing our employees with a competitive compensation structure, development opportunities, and other personal and professional growth opportunities in order to strengthen and support our human capital. We also select, develop and have strategies to retain high performing leaders to advance the enterprise now and in the future. To that end, we pay special attention to identifying high performing potential leaders and developing bench strength so these leaders can assume leadership roles throughout the organization.
We strive to maintain a work environment that reinforces collaboration, motivation and innovation, and believe that maintaining a strong employee-focused culture is beneficial to the growth and expansion of our business. We foster diversity and inclusion among our broad employee base. Refer to the Human Capital section below for further information.

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Global awareness and market penetration
We increase brand awareness and market penetration of our cruise brands in various ways, including the use of communication strategies and marketing campaigns designed to emphasize the qualities of each brand, especially among target groups. Our marketing strategies include the use of travel advisors, traditional media, mobile and digital media as well as social media, influencers, our websites, and sponsorships. Our brands also engage past and potential guests by collaborating with travel partners and through call centers, international offices and international representatives. In addition, our Global Brands target repeat guests with exclusive benefits offered through their respective loyalty programs.
We sell and market our Global Brands to guests outside of the United States and Canada through the combined efforts of internationally focused internal resources and a network of independent international representatives located throughout the world. While the majority of our guests for our Global Brands come from North America, we also sell and market our cruise brands to guests in countries outside of North America by tailoring itineraries and onboard product offerings to the cultural characteristics and preferences of our international guests. In addition, we explore opportunities that may arise to acquire or develop brands tailored to specific markets.
Delivery of state-of-the-art cruise ships, and fleet upgrade and maintenance
We place a strong focus on innovation, which we seek to achieve by introducing new concepts on our new ships and continuously making improvements to our existing fleet, such as large-scale atriums, double hulls for increased safety, and advanced steel structures. We are expanding our innovation efforts to cover multiple fronts, including naval and architectural design, guest facing features, energy efficiency, sustainability, and safety.
We are committed to building state-of-the-art ships at a moderate growth rate and we believe our success in this area provides us with a competitive advantage. Our newer vessels traditionally generate higher revenue yield premiums and are more efficient and environmentally friendly to operate than older vessels.
In 2023, we introduced three new vessels to our fleet, including Royal Caribbean International’s new flagship – Icon of the Seas, Celebrity Cruises – Celebrity Ascent, and Silversea Cruises – Silver Nova. Each of these vessels represent the latest hardware for their respective brands and both Icon of the Seas and Silver Nova are the first vessels of a new class. For Royal Caribbean International, new features on Icon of the Seas include a dedicated family neighborhood called “Surfside”, a pool deck featuring the largest swimming pool and waterpark at sea, and the “Aquadome” showcasing the tallest waterfall at sea in an 82-foot-tall dome. For Celebrity Cruises, Celebrity Ascent represents an evolution of Celebrity Beyond and builds on the innovation that the Edge series of ships have brought to market. For Silversea, Silver Nova is amongst our most environmentally friendly and energy efficient ships to date.
As of December 31, 2023, our Global Brands and Partner Brands have 8 ships on order. Refer to the Operations section below for further information on our ships on order. As we further develop our Newbuild program, we continue to utilize each vessel as an opportunity to pilot new technology towards Destination Net Zero.
In addition, we regularly evaluate opportunities to order new ships, purchase existing ships or sell ships in our current fleet while ensuring that we remain focused on the returns we generate on invested capital and maintaining a high level of discipline on capital spending and operating leverage.
Markets and itineraries
In an effort to penetrate untapped markets, diversify our consumer base and respond to changing economic and geopolitical market conditions, we continue to seek opportunities to deploy ships to new, and stronger markets and itineraries throughout the world. The portability of our ships allows us to deploy our ships to meet demand within our existing and new cruise markets. We make deployment decisions generally 18 to 32 months in advance, with the goal of optimizing the overall profitability of our portfolio. Additionally, the infrastructure investments we have made to create a flexible global sourcing model have made our brands relevant in a number of markets around the world, which allows us to be opportunistic and source the highest yielding guests for our itineraries.
Our ships offer a wide selection of itineraries that call on over 1,000 destinations in over 120 countries, spanning across all seven continents. We are focused on maximizing long-term shareholder returns by operating in established markets while growing our presence in developing markets. New capacity has allowed our brands to expand into new markets and itineraries in an effort to address changes in market demand.
Destination experiences and port facilities
In order to provide unique destination experiences to our guests, we have and continue to invest in our private land destinations. Our Perfect Day Island Collection represents our initiative to develop a series of private island destinations in

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key markets. The first island in the collection, Perfect Day at CocoCay, includes a wide range of attractions, such as a full water park, zip line course, freshwater pools, helium balloon ride, splash pads and a beach club. In January 2024, we completed the expansion of Perfect Day at CocoCay with the delivery of Hideaway Beach, an adults-only experience. Additionally, our Royal Beach Club will offer an exclusive and branded experience at high volume ports. The first Royal Beach Club is expected to open in 2025 in Nassau, Bahamas. We continue to evaluate opportunities to develop additional destinations across the globe.
In an effort to secure desirable berthing facilities for our ships, and to provide new or enhanced cruise destinations for our guests, we have actively assisted or invested in the development or enhancement of certain port facilities and infrastructure, including mixed-use commercial properties, located in strategic ports of call, and reduction of our environmental impacts. For instance, in March 2023 we closed a partnership agreement with iCON Infrastructure Partners VI, L.P. ("iCON"). This partnership will own, develop, and manage cruise terminal facilities and infrastructure in key ports of call, initially including several development projects in Italy and Spain.
Generally, we collaborate with local, private or governmental entities by providing management and/or financial assistance and often enter into long-term port usage arrangements. Our participation in these efforts is most often accomplished via investments with the relevant government authority and/or various other strategic partnerships established to develop and/or operate the port facilities, by providing direct development and management expertise or in certain limited circumstances, by providing direct or indirect financial support. In exchange for our involvement, we generally secure preferential berthing rights for our ships.
Technological capabilities
Technology is a pervasive part of virtually every business process we use to support our operating strategies and provide a quality experience to our customers before, during and after their vacation. We continue to develop tools that enhance our commercial capabilities and support our goal of deepening our customer relationships. We are focused on enhancing our guests' digital experience and growing onboard revenue, by making it easier for our guests to plan and maximize their next vacation through our websites and mobile applications. For example, we recently enabled booking a cruise in our mobile applications, built a loyalty hub to provide easy to view status, benefits and ways to earn rewards and a video library to showcase our family of brands.
We have continued to integrate digital capabilities into our operations and have increased our focus in bringing data analytics and artificial intelligence into our processes to provide better insights for revenue management as well as in how to model our maintenance or operational actions. We have also partnered with SpaceX to launch Starlink, the next generation in shipboard connectivity, unlocking an improved guest experience. In concert with our destination focus, our island technology solutions are now enabling our guests to remain connected with WiFi access, charge food and beverages as well as take advantage of all the island based activities with the same ease as onboard our ships.
Investments in our core platforms, as well as the trade and direct distribution channels, are delivering the benefit of more modernized solutions with scalability and faster self-service response times while also deploying new features such as flight packages and additional promotional offer capabilities. Cyber security and data privacy are an ongoing focus, and we have made and will continue to make investments to protect our customer data, intellectual property and global operations. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors - “We are exposed to cyber security attacks and data breaches and the risks and costs associated with protecting our systems and maintaining data integrity and security” for a discussion of the risks associated with cyber security.
Travel advisor support, consumer outreach, and e-commerce
Travel advisors continue to be a significant sourcing channel of revenues for our ships. We believe in the value of this distribution channel and invest in maintaining strong relationships with our travel partners. To accomplish this goal, we seek to maintain competitive commission rates and incentive structures with the marketplace. We continuously work with travel advisors to sell upgrades and add-ons such as air and pre-cruise purchases to improve the retention and profitability of the channel. We provide brand dedicated sales representatives who serve as consultants to our travel partners. We also provide trained customer service representatives, call centers and online training tools.
We continue to operate our Consumer Outreach department, which provides consumers 24-hour access to our vacation planners and customer service agents in our call centers, as well as invest in our websites, including mobile applications and mobile websites. We enable our guests to communicate and book with us through various channels such as phone, web, chat, text message, and/or email. Additionally, we continue to advance our e-commerce capabilities and the vacation shopping experience for our guests. In addition to offering a simplified booking experience, we leverage the

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mobile application for onboard experiences such as WiFi, beverages, shore excursions, and specialty dining – enabling guests to book their vacation end-to-end.
Guest Services
We handle virtually all travel aspects related to guest reservations and transportation, including facilitating guest pre- and post-hotel stay arrangements and air transportation.
Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea Cruises offer recognition and status upgrades to their guests through their loyalty programs, Crown & Anchor Society, Captain’s Club, and Venetian Society, respectively, to encourage repeat business. Crown & Anchor Society has approximately 19.2 million members worldwide. Captain’s Club and Venetian Society have approximately 6.1 million members combined worldwide. Members are awarded points or credits in proportion to the number of cruise days and stateroom category. The loyalty programs provide tiers of membership benefits which entitle guests to upgraded experiences and recognition relative to the status achieved once guests have accumulated the number of cruise points or credits specified for each tier. In addition, upon achieving a certain level of cruise points or credits, the Crown & Anchor Society and Captain’s Club members benefit from reciprocal membership benefits between the loyalty programs. Examples of the benefits available under our loyalty programs include, but are not limited to, priority waitlist for shore excursions, complimentary laundry service, complimentary internet, digital discount vouchers, upgraded bathroom amenities, reserved seating on the pool deck, ship tours and, in the case of our most loyal guests who have achieved the highest levels of cruise points or credits, complimentary cruises. We regularly work to enhance each of our loyalty programs by adding new features and amenities in order to reward our repeat guests.
Operations
Cruise Ships and Itineraries
As of December 31, 2023, our Global Brands and Partner Brands collectively operated 64 ships with a selection of worldwide itineraries that call on more than 1,000 destinations in over 120 countries.
The following table presents summary information concerning ships that we expect will be in our fleet in 2024 under our Global Brands and Partner Brands.
ShipYear Ship
Built
Year ship entered service / will enter serviceApproximate
Berths
Royal Caribbean International
Utopia of the Seas202420245,700
Icon of the Seas (1)
202320245,600
Wonder of the Seas202220225,700
Odyssey of the Seas202120214,200
Spectrum of the Seas201920194,150
Symphony of the Seas201820185,500
Harmony of the Seas201620165,500
Ovation of the Seas201620164,150
Anthem of the Seas201520154,150
Quantum of the Seas201420144,150
Allure of the Seas201020105,500
Oasis of the Seas200920095,600
Independence of the Seas200820083,850
Liberty of the Seas200720073,800
Freedom of the Seas200620063,950
Jewel of the Seas200420042,200
Mariner of the Seas200320033,350
Serenade of the Seas200320032,150
Navigator of the Seas200220023,400

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ShipYear Ship
Built
Year ship entered service / will enter serviceApproximate
Berths
Brilliance of the Seas200220022,150
Adventure of the Seas200120013,350
Radiance of the Seas200120012,150
Explorer of the Seas200020003,300
Voyager of the Seas199919993,450
Vision of the Seas199819982,050
Enchantment of the Seas199719972,300
Rhapsody of the Seas199719972,050
Grandeur of the Seas199619962,000
Celebrity Cruises  
Celebrity Ascent202320233,250
Celebrity Beyond202220223,250
Celebrity Apex202020202,900
Celebrity Flora20192019100
Celebrity Edge201820182,900
Celebrity Reflection201220123,050
Celebrity Silhouette201120112,900
Celebrity Eclipse201020102,850
Celebrity Equinox200920092,850
Celebrity Solstice200820082,850
Celebrity Xploration2007201615
Celebrity Constellation200220022,200
Celebrity Summit200120012,200
Celebrity Infinity200120012,150
Celebrity Xpedition2001200450
Celebrity Millennium200020002,200
Silversea Cruises
Silver Ray20242024730
Silver Nova20232023730
Silver Endeavour20212022220
Silver Dawn20212022600
Silver Origin20202020100
Silver Moon20202020600
Silver Muse20172017600
Silver Spirit20092009600
Silver Whisper20012001400
Silver Shadow20002000400
Silver Wind19951995270
Silver Cloud19941994250
TUI Cruises
Mein Schiff Relax202420254,100
Mein Schiff 7202420242,900
Mein Schiff 2201920192,900
Mein Schiff 1201820182,900

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ShipYear Ship
Built
Year ship entered service / will enter serviceApproximate
Berths
Mein Schiff 6201720172,500
Mein Schiff 5201620162,500
Mein Schiff 4201520152,500
Mein Schiff 3201420142,500
Hapag-Lloyd
Hanseatic Spirit20212021230
Hanseatic Inspiration20192019230
Hanseatic Nature20192019230
Europa 220132013500
Europa19991999400
Total 171,005
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(1)Icon of the Seas was delivered in 2023 and commenced cruise revenue operations in January 2024.
As of December 31, 2023, our Global Brands and our Partner Brands have eight ships on order. The table below sets forth, as of December 31, 2023, the dates that the ships on order are expected to be delivered, and their approximate berths. The expected delivery dates for all of our ships on order are subject to change due to events such as shipyard construction delays or agreed upon scope changes which impact the delivery timelines. See Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors for further discussion on shipyard operations.
ShipShipyardExpected DeliveryApproximate
Berths
Royal Caribbean International —  
Oasis-class:  
Utopia of the SeasChantiers de l’Atlantique2nd Quarter 20245,700
Icon-class:
Star of the SeasMeyer Turku Oy2nd Quarter 20255,600
UnnamedMeyer Turku Oy2nd Quarter 20265,600
Celebrity Cruises —
Edge-class:
Celebrity XcelChantiers de l’Atlantique4th Quarter 20253,250
Silversea Cruises —
Evolution-class:
Silver RayMeyer Werft2nd Quarter 2024730
TUI Cruises (50% joint venture) —  
Mein Schiff 7Meyer Turku Oy2nd Quarter 20242,900
Mein Schiff RelaxFincantieri4th Quarter 20244,100
UnnamedFincantieri2nd Quarter 20264,100
Total Berths31,980
__________________________________________________________________
In addition, in February 2024, we entered into an agreement with Chantiers de l’Atlantique to build an additional Oasis class ship for delivery in 2028, which is contingent upon completion of certain conditions precedent including financing.

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Seasonality
Our revenues have historically been seasonal based on the demand for cruises. Demand is typically strongest for cruises during the Northern Hemisphere’s summer months and holidays. In order to mitigate the impact of the winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere and to capitalize on the summer season in the Southern Hemisphere, our brands have focused on deployment in the Caribbean, Asia and Australia during that period.
Passengers and Capacity
Selected statistical information is shown in the following table (see Financial Presentation- Description of Certain Line Items and Selected Operational and Financial Metrics under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for definitions). Passengers Carried, Passenger Cruise Days, Available Passenger Cruise Days and Occupancy reflect the impact of our suspension of operations during parts of 2020 and 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the gradual resumption of full operations starting the second half of 2021 through the first half of 2022:
Year Ended December 31,

2023
2022
2021 (1)(3)
2020 (2)
2019 (2)
Passengers Carried7,646,2035,536,3351,030,4031,295,1446,553,865
Passenger Cruise Days49,549,12735,051,9355,802,5828,697,89344,803,953
Available Passenger Cruise Days (APCD)46,916,25941,197,65011,767,4418,539,90341,432,451
Occupancy105.6%85.1%49.3%101.9%108.1%
___________________________________________________________________
(1)    Due to the elimination of the Silversea Cruises three-month reporting lag in October of 2021, we include Silversea Cruises' metrics from October 1, 2020 through June 30, 2021 and October 1 through December 31, 2021 in the year ended December 31, 2021. The year ended December 31, 2021 does not include July, August, and September 2021 statistics as Silversea Cruises' results of operations for those months are included within Other (expense) income in our consolidated statements of comprehensive loss for the year ended December 31, 2021.Refer to Note 1. General to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on the three-month reporting lag.
(2) Due to the three-month reporting lag effective through September 30, 2021, we include Silversea Cruises' metrics from October 1, 2019 through September 30, 2020 in the year ended December 31, 2020, and from October 1, 2018 through September 30, 2019 in the year ended December 31, 2019.
(3)    For the year ended December, 31, 2021, we include Azamara Cruises' metrics through March 19, 2021, the effective sale date of the brand. Refer to Note 1. General to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on the sale of the Azamara Cruises brand. For the years ended December 31, 2020, and 2019, we include the full year of operations for Azamara Cruises.
Cruise Pricing
Our cruise ticket prices include accommodations and a wide variety of activities and amenities, including meals and entertainment. Prices vary depending on many factors including the destination, cruise length, stateroom category selected, the time of year the cruise takes place, and the amenities bundled into the price.
Although we grant credit terms in select markets mainly outside of the United States, our payment terms generally require an upfront deposit to confirm a reservation, with the balance due prior to sailing. Our cruises are generally available for sale at least one year in advance and often more than two years in advance of sailing. During the selling period of a cruise, we continually monitor and adjust our cruise ticket prices for available guest staterooms based on demand, with the objective of maximizing net yields.
As our business has grown globally, our sale arrangements with travel advisors may vary. For instance, although our direct business has historically grown at a rapid pace, sale arrangements through travel advisor charter and group sales are proportionately higher in the China market than in our other markets which are primarily through retail agency and direct sales. We have developed and implemented enhancements to our reservations system that provide us and our travel partners with additional capabilities, making it easier to do business with us.
Passenger ticket revenues accounted for approximately 69%, 66% and 61% of total revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

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Onboard Activities and Other Revenues
Our cruise brands offer modern fleets with a wide array of onboard services, amenities and activities which vary by brand and ship. While many onboard activities are included in the base price of a cruise, we realize additional revenues from, among other things, gaming, the sale of alcoholic and other beverages, internet and other telecommunication services, gift shop items, shore excursions, photography, spa/salon and fitness services, art auctions, retail shops and a wide variety of specialty restaurants and dining options. Many of these services are available for pre-booking prior to embarkation. These activities are offered either directly by us or by independent concessionaires from which we receive a percentage of their revenues. The all-inclusive pricing programs that we offer currently add some of these onboard activity and other services to the base price of the cruise.
In conjunction with our cruise vacations, we offer pre- and post-cruise hotel packages to our Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea Cruises guests. We also offer cruise vacation protection coverage to guests in a number of markets, which provides guests with coverage for trip cancellation, medical protection and baggage protection. Onboard and other revenues accounted for approximately 31%, 34%, and 39% of total revenues in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Segment Reporting
We believe our brands possess the versatility to enter multiple cruise market segments within the cruise vacation industry. Although each of our brands has its own marketing style as well as ships and crews of various sizes, the nature of the products sold and services delivered by our brands share a common base (i.e., the sale and provision of cruise vacations). Our brands also have similar itineraries as well as similar cost and revenue components. In addition, our Global Brands have historically sourced passengers from similar markets around the world and operated in similar economic environments with a significant degree of commercial overlap. As a result, our brands have been aggregated as a single reportable segment based on the similarity of their economic characteristics, types of consumers, regulatory environment, maintenance requirements, supporting systems and processes as well as products and services provided. Our President and Chief Executive Officer has been identified as the chief operating decision-maker and all significant operating decisions including the allocation of resources are based upon the analyses of the Company as one segment. (For financial information, see Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.)
Human Capital
Our human capital strategy focuses on attracting, developing and retaining the best talent in the industry. Some key elements of these strategies include: assessing current and future talent needs; a diverse and inclusive workforce; robust opportunities for employee growth and development; support for health and well-being; and an active listening strategy to make sure voices are heard and continuous improvement occurs. We review our human capital metrics and our diversity equity and inclusion (DEI) program with the Talent and Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors on a regular basis.
As of December 31, 2023, our three global cruise brands employed approximately 98,200 employees spanning across our shipboard fleet and shoreside locations. Our shoreside workforce, including private destinations, consisted of approximately 9,500 full time and 100 part-time employees. Our shipboard workforce consisted of approximately, 88,700 employees, and as of December 31, 2023, approximately 88% were covered by collective bargaining agreements.
The following table details the distribution of our workforce by employee type and region as of December 31, 2023:
Employee TypeU.S. Based Employees International Employees
Shoreside Operations(1)
4,0503,900
Shipboard Employees
88,700
Private Destinations (2)
1,550
(1)    Includes full time and part-time employees.
(2)    Private Destinations includes Coco Cay, Labadee and Galapagos based employees.
As a global operation, we take great pride in the broad diversity of our workforce and the value it brings to our company. Our shoreside workforce is gender diverse with 54% female representation. Our shipboard workforce is comprised of employees from approximately 135 countries. The majority of our shipboard workforce comes from the Philippines (31%), Indonesia (18%) and India (14%). Our shoreside workforce is primarily based out of the U.S. (51%), Philippines (26%), Mexico (8%), and U.K. (5%).

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The following table details the gender distribution of our workforce by employee location as of December 31, 2023:
Employee Location Male Female
Shoreside - U.S. 46%54%
Shoreside - International 43%57%
Shipboard 78%22%

Our U.S. shoreside workforce is ethnically diverse with approximately 57% comprised of non-White ethnic groups.
U.S. Shoreside Representation by Ethnicity
% of Total U.S. Shoreside Population
White 39%
Hispanic 43%
African American 8%
Asian 6%
Others(1)
4%
(1)    No other individual category is greater than 1%.
We offer a variety of learning and development programs to our workforce, which includes a combination of instructor led (classroom and virtual) and web based (self-learning) courses. This includes additional tools to assist our employees with managing their career development within Royal Caribbean Group. In 2023, our workforce invested approximately 2.5 million hours in learning programs across a variety of areas ranging from Ethics, Compliance, Business Software and Tools, Finance/Accounting, Professional development, Project Management, Cyber Security, Leadership and Safety/Security among others. In total, our workforce completed approximately 2.9 million courses within our learning management systems.
We run our employee pulse surveys periodically to understand and positively impact our employees’ experience. In 2023, our shoreside employee engagement scores remained high and above most global industry benchmarks.
Trademarks
We own a number of registered trademarks related to the Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea Cruises cruise brands. The registered trademarks include the name “Royal Caribbean International” and its crown and anchor logo, the name “Celebrity Cruises” and its “X” logo, the name “Silversea Cruises” and its logo, and the names of various cruise ships, ship venues and other marketing programs. We believe our largest brands' trademarks are widely recognized throughout the world and have considerable value. The duration of trademark registrations varies from country to country. However, trademarks are generally valid and may be renewed indefinitely as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained.
Insurance
We maintain insurance on the hull and machinery of our ships, with insured values generally equal to the net book value of each ship. This coverage is maintained with reputable insurance underwriters from the British, Scandinavian, French, United States and other reputable international insurance markets.
We are members of four Protection and Indemnity ("P&I") clubs, which are part of a worldwide group of 12 P&I clubs, known as the International Group of P&I Clubs (the “IG”). Liabilities, costs and expenses for illness and injury to crew and guest, pollution and other third-party claims in connection with our cruise activities are covered by our P&I clubs, subject to the clubs’ rules and the limits of coverage determined by the IG. P&I coverage provided by the clubs is on a mutual basis and we are subject to additional premium calls in the event of a catastrophic loss incurred by any member of the 12 P&I clubs, whereby the reinsurance limits purchased by the IG are exhausted. We are also subject to additional premium calls based on investment and underwriting shortfalls experienced by our own individual insurers.
We maintain war risk insurance for legal liability to crew, guests and other third parties as well as for loss or damage to our vessels arising from acts of war, including invasion, insurrection, terrorism, rebellion, piracy and hijacking. Our primary war risk coverage is provided by a Norwegian war risk insurance association and our excess war risk insurance is provided by our four P&I clubs. Consistent with most marine war risk policies, our coverage is subject to cancellation in

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the event of a change in risk. In the event of a war between major powers, our primary policies terminate after thirty days’ notice and our excess policies terminate immediately. Our excess policies are also subject to cancellation after a notice period of seven days in the event of other changes in risk. These notice periods allow for premiums to be renegotiated based on changes in risk.
Insurance coverage for other exposures, such as shoreside property and casualty, passenger off-vessel, directors and officers and network security and privacy, are maintained with various global insurance companies.
We do not carry business interruption insurance for our ships based on our evaluation of the risks involved and protective measures already in place, as compared to the cost of insurance.
All insurance coverage is subject to certain limitations, exclusions and deductible levels. In addition, in certain circumstances, we either self-insure or co-insure a portion of these risks. Premiums charged by insurance carriers, including carriers in the maritime insurance industry, increase or decrease from time to time and tend to be cyclical in nature. These cycles are impacted both by our own loss experience and by losses incurred in direct and reinsurance markets. We historically have been able to obtain insurance coverage in amounts and at premiums we have deemed to be commercially acceptable. No assurance can be given that affordable and secure insurance markets will be available to us in the future, particularly for war risk insurance.
Regulation
Our ships are regulated by various international, national, state and local laws, regulations and treaties in force in the jurisdictions in which they operate. In addition, our ships are registered in the Bahamas, Cyprus, Malta or in the case of our ships operating in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Each ship is subject to regulations issued by its country of registry, including regulations issued pursuant to international treaties governing the safety of our ships, guests and crew as well as environmental protection. Each country of registry conducts periodic inspections to verify compliance with these regulations as discussed more fully below. Ships operating out of ports of call around the world are also subject to inspection by the maritime authorities of that country for compliance with international treaties and local regulations. Additionally, ships operating out of the United States ports are subject to inspection by the United States Coast Guard for compliance with international treaties and by the United States Public Health Service for sanitary and health conditions. Our ships are also subject to similar inspections pursuant to the laws and regulations of various other countries our ships visit.
We believe that we are in material compliance with all the regulations applicable to our ships and that we have all licenses necessary to conduct our business. Health, safety, security, environmental and financial responsibility issues are, and we believe will continue to be, an area of focus by the relevant government authorities in the United States and internationally. From time to time, various regulatory and legislative changes may be implemented that could impact our operations and subject us to increasing compliance costs in the future.
Safety and Security Regulations
Our ships are required to comply with international safety standards defined in the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (“SOLAS”), which, among other things, establish requirements for ship design, structural features, materials, construction, lifesaving equipment and safe management and operation of ships for guest and crew safety. The SOLAS standards are revised from time to time and incorporated in our ship design and operation, as applicable. The latest enhancements include the addition of the Polar Code which sets goal-based standards for ships operating in the polar region as well as damage stability requirements for new designs and operational measures for existing vessels. Compliance with these modified standards have not historically had a material effect on our operating costs. SOLAS incorporates the International Safety Management Code (“ISM Code”), which provides an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. The ISM Code is mandatory for all vessels, including passenger vessel operators.
All of our operations and ships are regularly audited by various national authorities, and we are required to maintain the relevant certificates of compliance with the ISM Code.
Additionally, we are required to meet, and we fully comply with, the provisions outlined in the Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW). This convention sets the training and competency standards for all our crew who are responsible for operating the vessels or who have designated roles in ensuring the safety of our guests and crew during an emergency. Regulatory bodies routinely check that our crews’ training credentials are up-to-date and assess competency by observing safety and emergency drills. As amendments are made to STCW, we ensure that our crew training is updated accordingly.

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Our ships are subject to various security requirements, including the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (“ISPS Code”), which is part of SOLAS, and the U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (“MTSA”), which applies to ships that operate in U.S. ports. In order to satisfy these security requirements, we implement security measures, conduct vessel security assessments, and develop security plans. The security plans for all of our ships have been submitted to and approved by the Recognized Security Organization on behalf of the ships' flag state and are in compliance with the ISPS Code and the MTSA.
The Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010, which applies to passenger vessels which embark or include port stops within the United States, requires the implementation of certain safety design features as well as the establishment of practices for the reporting of and dealing with allegations of crime. The cruise industry supported this legislation and we believe that our internal standards are generally as strict or stricter than the law requires. Some provisions of the act call for regulations which have not been finalized. We do not expect the pending regulations to have a material impact to our operations.
Environmental Regulations
We are subject to various international and national laws and regulations relating to environmental protection. Under such laws and regulations, we are generally prohibited from discharging materials other than food waste and treated effluents into the waterways. We have made, and will continue to make, capital and other expenditures to comply with environmental laws and regulations. From time to time, environmental and other regulators consider more stringent regulations, which may affect our operations and increase our compliance costs. We believe that the impact of ships on the global environment will continue to be an area of focus by the relevant authorities throughout the world and, accordingly, may subject us to increasing compliance costs in the future, including the items described below.
Our ships are subject to the International Maritime Organization’s (‘‘IMO’’) regulations under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (the ‘‘MARPOL Regulations’’) and the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments (Ballast Water Management Convention), in addition to other regional and national regulations such as EU Directives and the US Vessel General Permit, which includes requirements designed to minimize pollution by oil, sewage, garbage, air emissions and the transfer of non-native/non-indigenous species. We have obtained the relevant international compliance certificates relating to oil, sewage, air pollution prevention and ballast water for all of our ships.
Emissions
The MARPOL Regulations imposed reduced global limitations on the sulfur content of emissions emitted by ships operating worldwide to 0.5% as of January 1, 2020. Compliance with this limitation has not and is not expected to have a material impact to our results of operations, largely due to a number of mitigating steps we have taken over the last several years. This includes equipping all of our new ships delivered since 2014 with Advanced Emissions Purification ("AEP") systems covering all engines and actively developing and installing AEP systems on the majority of our remaining fleet; resulting in 70% of our fleet being equipped with AEP systems. In addition, the majority of our ships on order are being delivered with Liquified Natural Gas ("LNG") technology that meet all sulfur requirements without the need for an AEP system. These efforts will provide us with additional operational and deployment flexibility.
The MARPOL Regulations also establish special Emission Control Areas ("ECAs") with additional stringent limitations on sulfur emissions in certain geographical areas. There are four established ECAs and one additional ECA being established beginning in May of 2025 that restrict sulfur emissions: the Baltic Sea, the North Sea/English Channel, certain waters surrounding the North American coast, and the waters surrounding Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (the "US Caribbean ECA") and the Mediterranean Sea ECA coming into force in May 2025. Ships operating in these sulfur ECAs are required to reduce their emissions sulfur content to 0.1%. Additionally, all new ships operating within the North American and U.S. Caribbean Sea ECA that began construction on or after January 1, 2016 and ships operating in the North and Baltic Sea ECA constructed on or after January 1, 2021 are required to meet more stringent nitrogen oxide emission limits. In order to ensure deployment flexibility, all of our ships under construction are being built to comply with these nitrogen oxide emission rules. Compliance with these MARPOL requirements has not had and is not expected to have, a material impact on our results of operations due to the mitigating steps described above.
The European Union (EU) and IMO implemented legislations that require ships to monitor and report their carbon emissions. These legislations contemplated the enactment of further obligations and restrictions focused on reducing carbon emissions from ships. In 2022, the EU proposed a series of carbon reforms under its Fit for 55 package designed to meet its 2030 emission goals of reducing its GHG emissions by 55% from 1990 levels. As part of this package, during 2023, the EU adopted and published the Emission Trading System (ETS) and the FuelEU Maritime regulation. The ETS program will impose requirements to purchase carbon emission allowances beginning in 2024 for 40% of our emissions

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within Europe, growing to 70% in 2025, and to 100% in 2026. The impact of the EU ETS regulation is not expected to have a material impact on our 2024 results of operations. The impact of the regulation on future periods is uncertain as the costs of ETS allowances will depend on future markets as well as future deployments. Based on current deployment plans and current prices of ETS allowances, we do not expect the regulation to have a material impact on our 2025 and 2026 results of operations.
The FuelEU Maritime regulation will require ships to reduce GHG intensity in the fuels they consume by 2% as of 2025, and periodically reducing the intensity to 80% by 2050, compared to the 2020 average. All passenger ships will additionally be obligated to connect to shore power when at berth in a Trans-European Transport Network ("TEN-T") port by 2030 and all EU ports by 2035. When fully implemented, the FuelEU Maritime and the remaining Fit for 55 proposals could individually and collectively have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations due to increased costs associated with compliance and modified itineraries in the affected regions.
In January 2023, the IMO amendments to the MARPOL convention went into effect combining a technical and an operational measure (Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index ("EEXI") and Carbon Intensity Indicator ("CII")). These regulations aim to reduce international shipping carbon intensity in line with the ambition of the initial IMO GHG Strategy of 40% by 2030, as compared to 2008. Compliance with the EEXI has not had a material impact on our operations. The impact of CII is still uncertain as the IMO is expected to review the CII framework in 2026, which could result in requirements that could lead to changes to our itinerary flexibility for some of our ships depending on the final operational measures needed to comply. Furthermore, the IMO in 2023 revised its initial GHG Strategy to include check points in 2030 and 2040 to seek reductions in absolute GHG emissions from international shipping by at least 20% and 70%, respectively, compared to 2008. The revised IMO strategy also considers various other measures, including a possible fuel standard and a global market-based measure, such as a fuel levy or carbon taxes, with the intent to reduce greenhouse gas emissions even further. While the exact impact is uncertain at this time as the proposals have yet to be finalized, the global nature of the CII regulation and various other potential measures within the IMO's revised strategy could have a material impact on our results of operations due to increased compliance costs.
Ballast Water
The IMO Ballast Water Management Convention, which came into effect in 2017, requires ships that carry and discharge ballast water to meet specific discharge standards by installing Ballast Water Treatment Systems. Compliance with this regulation has not had a material effect on our results of operations and we do not expect the continuing compliance with this regulation to have a material effect on our results of operations.
Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors - "Factors associated with climate change, including an increasing global regulatory focus, could adversely affect our business", and "Labor, health and safety, financial responsibility and other maritime regulations and measures could affect operations and increase operating costs" for further discussion of the risks associated with the regulations discussed above.
Consumer Financial Responsibility Regulations
We are required to obtain certificates from the United States Federal Maritime Commission relating to our ability to satisfy liability in cases of non-performance of obligations to guests, as well as casualty and personal injury. As a condition to obtaining the required certificates, we generally arrange through our insurers for the provision of surety for our ship-operating companies. The required amount of the surety bonds for non-performance of obligations to guests is currently $32 million per operator and is subject to additional consumer price index based adjustments.
We are also required by the United Kingdom, Norway, Finland, Iceland and the Baltics to establish our financial responsibility for any liability resulting from the non-performance of our obligations to guests from these jurisdictions. In the United Kingdom we are currently required by the Association of British Travel Agents to provide performance bonds in varying amounts during the course of the year, up to £183 million during the peak season. Additionally, we are required by the Civil Aviation Authority to provide performance bonds totaling £25 million. We maintain with the Norwegian Travel Guarantee Fund performance bonds in varying amounts during the course of the year to cover our financial responsibility in Norway, Finland, Iceland and the Baltics.
Certain other jurisdictions also require that we establish financial responsibility to our guests resulting from the non-performance of our obligations; however, the related amounts do not have a material effect on our costs.
Taxation of the Company
The following is a summary of our principal taxes, exemptions and special regimes. In addition to or instead of income taxation, virtually all jurisdictions where our ships call impose some tax or fee, or both, based on guest headcount,

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tonnage or some other measure. We also collect and remit value added tax (VAT) or sales tax in many jurisdictions where we operate.
Our consolidated operations are primarily foreign corporations engaged in the owning and operating of passenger cruise ships in international transportation.
U.S. Income Taxation
The following is a discussion of the application of the U.S. federal and state income tax laws to us and is based on the current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, Treasury Department regulations, administrative rulings, court decisions and the relevant state tax laws, regulations, rulings and court decisions of the states where we have business operations. All of the foregoing is subject to change, and any such change could affect the accuracy of this discussion.
Application of Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Celebrity Cruises, Inc. and Silversea Cruises Ltd. are engaged in a trade or business in the United States, and many of our ship-owning subsidiaries, depending upon the itineraries of their ships, receive income from sources within the United States. Silversea Cruises Ltd. and our United Kingdom tonnage tax companies are classified as disregarded entities, or divisions for U.S. federal income tax purposes that may earn U.S. source income. Under Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code, certain foreign corporations may exclude from gross income (and effectively from branch profits tax as such earnings do not give rise to effectively connected earnings and profits) U.S. source income derived from or incidental to the international operation of a ship or ships, including income from the leasing of such ships.
A foreign corporation will qualify for the benefits of Section 883 if, in relevant part: (1) the foreign country in which the foreign corporation is organized grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States; and (2) the stock of the corporation (or the direct or indirect corporate parent thereof) is “primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market” in the United States. In the opinion of our U.S. tax counsel, Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP, based on the representations and assumptions set forth in that opinion, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., including Silversea Cruises Ltd., Celebrity Cruises Inc., and relevant ship-owning subsidiaries with U.S. source shipping income qualify for the benefits of Section 883 because Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and each of those subsidiaries are incorporated in Liberia, which is a qualifying country, and our common stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States (i.e., we are a “publicly traded” corporation). If, in the future, (1) Liberia no longer qualifies as an equivalent exemption jurisdiction, and we do not reincorporate in a jurisdiction that does qualify for the exemption, or (2) we fail to qualify as a publicly traded corporation, we and all of our ship-owning or operating subsidiaries that rely on Section 883 to exclude qualifying income from gross income would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on their U.S. source shipping income and income from activities incidental thereto.
We believe that most of our income and the income of our ship-owning subsidiaries, is derived from or incidental to the international operation of a ship or ships and, therefore, is exempt from taxation under Section 883.
Regulations under Section 883 list activities that are not considered by the Internal Revenue Service to be incidental to the international operation of ships including the sale of air and land transportation, shore excursions and pre- and post-cruise tours. Our income from these activities that is earned from sources within the United States will be subject to U.S. taxation.
Taxation in the Absence of an Exemption Under Section 883
If Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., the operator of our vessels, Celebrity Cruises Inc., or our ship-owning subsidiaries were to fail to meet the requirements of Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code, or if the provision was repealed, then, as explained below, such companies would be subject to U.S. income taxation on a portion of their income derived from or incidental to the international operation of our ships.
Because Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and Celebrity Cruises Inc. conduct a trade or business in the United States, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., including Silversea Cruises Ltd., and Celebrity Cruises Inc. would be taxable at regular corporate rates on our separate company taxable income (i.e., without regard to the income of our ship-owning subsidiaries) on income which is effectively connected with our U.S. trade or business (generally only income from U.S. sources). In addition, if any of our earnings and profits effectively connected with our U.S. trade or business were withdrawn, or were deemed to have been withdrawn, from our U.S. trade or business, those withdrawn amounts would be subject to a “branch profits” tax at the rate of 30%. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., which includes Silversea Cruises Ltd. for tax purposes, and Celebrity Cruises Inc. would also be potentially subject to tax on portions of certain interest paid by us at rates of up to 30%.

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If Section 883 were not available to our ship-owning subsidiaries, each such subsidiary would be subject to a special 4% tax on its U.S. source gross transportation income, if any, each year because it does not have a fixed place of business in the United States and its income is derived from the leasing of a ship.
Other United States Taxation
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., which includes Silversea Cruises Ltd., and Celebrity Cruises Inc. earn U.S. source income from activities not considered incidental to international shipping. The tax on such income is not material to our results of operation for all years presented.
State Taxation
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Celebrity Cruises Inc., and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to various U.S. state income taxes which are generally imposed on each state’s portion of the U.S. source income subject to federal income taxes. Additionally, the state of Alaska subjects an allocated portion of the total income of companies doing business in Alaska and certain other affiliated companies to Alaska corporate state income taxes and also imposes a 33% tax on adjusted gross income from onboard gambling activities conducted in Alaska waters. This did not have a material impact to our results of operations for all years presented.
United Kingdom Income Taxation
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we operated 14 ships under the United Kingdom tonnage tax regime (“U.K. tonnage tax”).
Companies subject to U.K. tonnage tax pay a corporate tax on a notional profit determined with reference to the net tonnage of qualifying vessels. The requirements for a company to qualify for the U.K. tonnage tax regime include being subject to U.K. corporate income tax, operating qualifying ships, which are strategically and commercially managed in the United Kingdom, and fulfilling a seafarer training requirement.
Relevant shipping profits include income from the operation of qualifying ships and from shipping related activities. Our U.K. income from non-shipping activities which do not qualify under the U.K. tonnage tax regime and which are not considered significant, remain subject to regular U.K. corporate income tax.
Other
We and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to value-added and other indirect taxes most of which are reclaimable, zero-rated or exempt.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has issued Pillar Two model rules introducing a new global minimum tax of 15% with certain aspects of Pillar 2 effective January 1, 2024 and other aspects effective January 1, 2025. The UK and EU member countries have agreed to adopt these provisions and many countries have implemented these rules for 2024. Our parent company is incorporated in Liberia. Liberia has not announced plans to revise its local corporate income tax laws as part of the Pillar 2 proposal. The OECD model rules provide an exclusion for “International Shipping Income,” and certain ancillary income, for which certain of our earnings may be eligible.
The Pillar Two rules will become effective for a portion of our earnings in 2024 and 2025, but we believe the impact will be immaterial. These rules will apply to a majority of our earnings starting in 2026. We are continuing to evaluate the impact of these proposed and enacted legislative changes, which continue to evolve. We are evaluating mitigation strategies that we believe we can execute to minimize the impact of these provisions to an immaterial amount. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors - "A change in our tax status under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, or other jurisdictions, may have adverse effects on our results of operations."
Website Access to Reports
We make available, free of charge, access to our Annual Reports, all quarterly and current reports and all amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission and through our website at www.rclinvestor.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of any of these reports and is not incorporated by reference herein.


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Information About our Executive Officers
As of February 21, 2024, our executive officers are:
NameAgePosition
Jason T. Liberty48President and Chief Executive Officer
Naftali Holtz46Chief Financial Officer
Michael W. Bayley65President and Chief Executive Officer, Royal Caribbean International
Laura Hodges Bethge
48
President, Celebrity Cruises
Harri U. Kulovaara71Executive Vice President, Maritime
R. Alexander Lake52
Chief Legal Officer and Secretary
Jason T. Liberty has served as President and Chief Executive Officer since January 2022. Mr. Liberty has held several roles since joining the Company in 2005. Most recently, Mr. Liberty served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since 2017 and, prior to that, as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since 2013. Before his role as Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Liberty served as Senior Vice President, Strategy and Finance from 2012 through 2013; as Vice President of Corporate and Revenue Planning from 2010 through 2012; and as Vice President of Corporate and Strategic Planning from 2008 to 2010. Before joining Royal Caribbean, Mr. Liberty was a Senior Manager at the international public accounting firm of KPMG LLP. Mr. Liberty currently serves on the Board of Directors of WNS Holdings.
Naftali Holtz has served as Chief Financial Officer since January 2022. In his role as Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Holtz is responsible for overseeing the Company’s financial planning and analysis, supply chain, risk management, corporate strategy, treasury, corporate tax matters, investor relations, investments, internal audit, accounting and financial reporting. Prior to his role as Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Holtz served as Senior Vice President of Finance, responsible for financial planning and analysis, risk management and treasury. Mr. Holtz worked for Goldman Sachs as a Managing Director and Head of Lodging and Leisure Investment Banking before joining the Company in 2019. Mr. Holtz is also a veteran of the Israeli Air Force.
Michael W. Bayley has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Royal Caribbean International since December 2014. Prior to this, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Celebrity Cruises since August 2012. Mr. Bayley has been employed by Royal Caribbean for over 40 years, having started as an Assistant Purser onboard one of the Company’s ships. He has served in a number of roles including as Executive Vice President, Operations from February 2012 until August 2012. Other positions Mr. Bayley has held include Executive Vice President, International from May 2010 until February 2012; Senior Vice President, International from December 2007 to May 2010; Senior Vice President, Hotel Operations for Royal Caribbean International; and Chairman and Managing Director of Island Cruises.
Laura Hodges Bethge has served as President of Celebrity Cruises since May 2023. Ms. Hodges Bethge’s joined the Company in 2000 and she has since held several leadership roles within various areas of the business, including hotel and marine operations, sales, marketing, product innovation and investor relations. Most recently, she served as Executive Vice President of Shared Services Operations since February 2022, responsible for Royal Caribbean Group’s safety, security and environment, risk management and crew movement teams. Prior to that role, she served as Senior Vice President of Shared Services Operations from December 2020 to February 2022; Senior Vice President of Product Development for Royal Caribbean International from February 2020 to December 2020; and Vice President of Customer Experience from April 2017 to February 2020.
Harri U. Kulovaara has served as Executive Vice President, Maritime since January 2005. Mr. Kulovaara is responsible for fleet design and newbuild operations. Mr. Kulovaara also chairs our Maritime Safety Advisory Board. Mr. Kulovaara has been employed with Royal Caribbean since 1995 in a variety of positions, including Senior Vice President, Marine Operations, and Senior Vice President, Quality Assurance. Mr. Kulovaara is a naval architect and engineer.
R. Alexander Lake has served as Chief Legal Officer and Secretary of the Company since June 2021, in which role he has global responsibility for the Company's legal and compliance functions. Mr. Lake joined the Company from World Fuel Services Corporation, a global energy services company, where he spent over 17 years leading the legal, regulatory and compliance areas, serving most recently as Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary from 2017 to 2021. Prior to World Fuel Services, Mr. Lake served as Assistant General Counsel at America Online Latin America, Inc. and practiced as a corporate lawyer in leading law firms in New York and Miami.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors
The risk factors set forth below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are important factors that could cause actual results to differ from expected or historical results. It is not possible to predict or identify all such risks. There may be additional risks that we consider not to be material, or which are not known, and any of these risks could affect our operations. The ordering of the risk factors set forth below is not intended to reflect a risk's potential likelihood or magnitude. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements.
Macroeconomic, Business, Market and Operational Risks
Adverse economic or other conditions could reduce the demand for cruises and passenger spending, adversely impacting our operating results, cash flows and financial condition including impairing the value of our goodwill, ships, trademarks and other assets and potentially affecting other critical accounting estimates where the impact may be material to our operating results.
Demand for cruises is affected by international, national, and local economic conditions. Weak or uncertain economic conditions may impact consumer confidence and pose a risk as vacationers postpone or reduce discretionary spending. This, in turn, may result in cruise booking slowdowns, decreased cruise prices and lower onboard revenues. Given the global nature of our business, we are exposed to many different economies, and our business could be negatively impacted by challenging conditions in any of the markets in which we operate, and/or related reactions by our competitors in such markets.
Our operating costs could increase due to market forces and economic or geopolitical factors beyond our control.
Our operating costs, including fuel, food, payroll and benefits, airfare, taxes, insurance, and security costs, can be and have been subject to increases due to market forces and economic or geopolitical conditions or other factors beyond our control, including global inflationary pressures, which have increased our operating costs. Increases in these operating costs have affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our future profitability.
Price increases for commercial airline services for our guests or major changes or reduction in commercial airline services and/or availability could adversely impact the demand for cruises and undermine our ability to provide reasonably priced vacation packages to our guests.
Many of our guests depend on scheduled commercial airline services to transport them to or from the ports where our cruises embark or disembark. Increases in the price of airfare would increase the overall price of the cruise vacation to our guests, which may adversely impact demand for our cruises. In addition, changes in the availability and/or regulations governing commercial airline services could adversely affect our guests’ ability to obtain air travel, as well as our ability to transfer our guests to or from our cruise ships, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Terrorist attacks, war, and other similar events could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
We are susceptible to a wide range of adverse events, including terrorist attacks, war, conflicts, civil unrest and other hostilities. The occurrence of these events or an escalation in the frequency or severity of them, and the resulting political instability, travel restrictions and advisories and concerns over safety and security aspects of traveling or the fear of any of the foregoing, have had, and could have in the future, a significant adverse impact on demand and pricing in the travel and vacation industry. These events could also result in additional security measures taken by local authorities which have, and may in the future, impact access to ports and/or destinations. In addition, such events have led, and could lead, to disruptions, instability and volatility in global markets, supply chains and industries, increased operating costs, such as fuel and food, and disruptions affecting our newbuild construction and fleet modernization efforts, any of which could materially and adversely impact our business and results of operations. Further, such events could have the effect of heightening the other risks we have described in this report, any of which also could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Disease outbreaks and an increase in concern about the risk of illness could adversely impact our business and results of operations, and may cause significant disruptions, create new risks, and exacerbate existing risks.
Disease outbreaks and increased concern related to illness when traveling to, from, and on our ships, could cause a decrease in demand for cruises, guest cancellations, travel restrictions, an unavailability of ports and/or destinations, cruise cancellations, ship redeployments and an inability to source our crew, provisions or supplies from certain places. In addition, we may be subject to consumer perception that cruises are more susceptible than other vacation alternatives to the spread of infectious diseases. For example, the unprecedented responses by governments and other authorities to control and contain the COVID-19 outbreak, including related variants, led to our voluntary suspension of our global cruise operations starting in March 2020. While we have resumed our global cruise operations, there is no assurance that our cruise operations will not be
interrupted. In response to disease outbreaks, our industry, including our passengers and crew, may be subject to enhanced health and safety requirements in the future which may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement across our fleet. For example, local governments may establish their own set of rules for self-quarantines and/or require proof of individuals' health status or vaccination prior to or upon visiting. Based on our assessment of these requirements and recommendations, or for other reasons, we may determine it necessary to cancel or modify certain of our Global Brands’ cruise sailings. The impact of any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, any operating or health protocols that we may develop or that may be required by law in the future in response to infectious diseases may be costly to develop and difficult to implement and may be less effective than we expected in reducing the risk of infection and spread of such disease on our cruise ships, all of which will negatively impact our operations and expose us to reputational and legal risks.
Incidents on ships, at port facilities, land destinations and/or affecting the cruise vacation industry in general, and the associated negative media coverage and publicity, have affected and could continue to affect our reputation and impact our sales and results of operations.
Cruise ships, private destinations, port facilities and shore excursions operated and/or offered by us and third parties may be susceptible to the risk of accidents, illnesses, mechanical failures, environmental incidents, inappropriate crew or passenger behavior, and other incidents which could bring into question safety, health, security and vacation satisfaction of our guests and negatively impact our sales, operations and reputation. Incidents involving cruise ships, and, in particular the safety, health and security of guests and crew and the media coverage thereof, have impacted and could impact demand for our cruises and pricing in the industry. In particular, we cannot predict the impact on our financial performance and the public’s concern regarding the health and safety of travel, especially by cruise ship, and related decreases in demand for travel and cruising. Moreover, our ability to attract and retain guests and crew depends, in part, upon the perception and reputation of our company and our brands and the public’s concerns regarding the health and safety of travel generally, as well as regarding the cruising industry and our ships specifically. Our reputation and our business could also be damaged by continued or additional negative publicity regarding the cruise industry in general, including publicity regarding the spread of contagious disease, over-tourism in key ports and destinations and the potentially adverse environmental impacts of cruising. The considerable expansion in the use of social and digital media has compounded the potential scope and reach of any negative publicity. In addition, incidents involving cruise ships may result in additional costs to our business, increasing government or other regulatory oversight and, in certain cases, potential litigation.
Significant weather, climate events and/or natural disasters could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, volcanos, wildfires), weather and/or climate events (including hurricanes and typhoons) could impact our source markets and operations resulting in travel restrictions, guest cancellations, an inability to source our crew or our provisions and supplies from certain places. We may be required to alter itineraries and cancel a cruise or a series of cruises or to redeploy our ships due to these types of events, which could have an adverse effect on our sales, operating costs and profitability in the current and future periods. Increases in the frequency, severity or duration of these types of events could exacerbate their impact and disrupt our operations or make certain destinations less desirable or unavailable impacting our revenues and profitability further. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and on industry performance.
Our sustainability activities, including environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters, could result in reputational risks, increased costs and other risks.
Customers, investors, lenders, regulators and other industry stakeholders have placed increasing importance on corporate ESG practices and on the implications and social cost of their investments, which could cause us to incur additional costs and changes to our operations. If our ESG practices or disclosures do not meet stakeholders' evolving expectations and standards, our customer and employee retention, our access to certain types of capital, including export credit financing, and our brands and reputation may be negatively impacted, which could affect our business operations and financial condition. We could also incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with various ESG practices, which could increase our operating costs and affect our results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, from time to time, we communicate certain initiatives regarding climate change and other ESG matters. We could fail or be perceived to fail to achieve such initiatives, which may negatively affect our reputation. The future adoption of new technology or processes to achieve the initiatives could also result in the impairment of existing assets.
Our reliance on shipyards, their subcontractors and our suppliers to implement our newbuild and ship upgrade programs and to repair and maintain our ships exposes us to risks which could adversely impact our business.
We rely on shipyards, their subcontractors and our suppliers to effectively construct our new ships and to repair, maintain, and upgrade our existing ships on a timely basis and in a cost effective manner. There are a limited number of shipyards with
the capability and capacity to build, repair, maintain and/or upgrade our ships. As such, any disruptions affecting the shipyard supply chain will adversely impact our business as there are limited substitutes.
In addition, suspensions and/or slowdowns of work at shipyards, have impacted and could continue to impact our ability to construct new ships as planned, our ability to timely and cost-effectively procure new capacity, and our ability to execute scheduled drydocks and/or fleet modernizations.
Building, repairing, maintaining and/or upgrading a ship is sophisticated work that involves significant risks. Material increases in commodity and raw material prices, and other cost pressures impacting the construction of a new ship, such as the cost or availability of labor and financing, could adversely impact the shipyard’s ability to build the ship on a cost-effective basis. We may be impacted if shipyards, their subcontractors, and/or our suppliers encounter "force majeure events", insolvencies or other financial difficulties, supply chain, technical or design problems when building or repairing a ship. These problems have impacted and may in the future impact the timely delivery or cost of new ships or the ability of shipyards to repair and upgrade our fleet in accordance with our needs or expectations. In addition, mechanical faults and/or unforeseen incidents may result in cancellation of cruises or delays of new ship orders or necessitate unscheduled drydocks. Such events could result in lost revenue, increased operating expenses, or both, and thus adversely affect our results of operations.
An increase in capacity worldwide or excess capacity in a particular market could adversely impact our cruise sales and/or pricing.
Although our ships can be redeployed, cruise sales and/or pricing may be impacted by the introduction of new ships into the marketplace, reductions in cruise capacity, overall market growth and deployment decisions of ourselves and our competitors. As of December 31, 2023, a total of 51 new ships with approximately 110,000 berths were on order for delivery through 2028 in the cruise industry, including eight ships currently scheduled to be delivered to our Global and Partner Brands. The further net growth in capacity from these new ships and future orders, without an increase in the cruise industry’s demand and/or share of the vacation market, could depress cruise prices and impede our ability to achieve yield improvement.
In addition, to the extent that we or our competitors deploy ships to a particular itinerary/region and the resulting capacity in that region exceeds the demand, it may negatively affect our pricing and profitability. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, including potentially impairing the value of our ships and other assets.
Unavailability of ports of call may adversely affect our results of operations.
We believe that port destinations are a major reason why guests choose to go on a particular cruise or on a cruise vacation. The availability of ports and destinations is affected by a number of factors, including industry demand and competition for key ports and destinations, existing capacity constraints, constraints related to the size of certain ships, security, financial limitations on port development, exclusivity arrangements that ports may have with our competitors, geopolitical developments, local governmental regulations, environmental regulations, and governmental response to disease outbreaks. Higher fuel costs also may adversely impact the destinations on certain of our itineraries as they become too costly to include.
In addition, certain ports and destinations have faced a surge of both cruise and non-cruise tourism which, in certain cases, has fueled anti-tourism sentiments and related countermeasures to limit the volume of tourists allowed in these destinations. In certain destinations, countermeasures to limit the volume of tourists have been contemplated and/or put into effect, including proposed limits on cruise ships and cruise passengers, which could limit the itinerary and destination options we can offer our passengers going forward.
Increased demand and competition for key ports of call or destinations, limitations on the availability or feasibility of use of specific ports of call and/or constraints on the availability of shore excursions and other service providers at such ports or destinations could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
We may lose business to competitors throughout the vacation market.
We operate in the vacation market and cruising is one of many alternatives for people choosing a vacation. We, therefore, risk losing business not only to other cruise lines, but also to other vacation operators, which provide other leisure options, including hotels, resorts (including all-inclusive resorts), internet-based alternative lodging sites, theme parks, sightseeing destinations, package holidays and tours.
We face significant competition from other cruise lines on the basis of cruise pricing, travel advisor preference and also in terms of the nature of ships, services and destinations that we offer to guests. Our revenues are sensitive to the actions of other cruise lines in many areas including pricing, scheduling, capacity and promotions, which can have a substantial adverse impact not only on our revenues, but also on overall industry revenues.
In the event that we do not effectively market or differentiate our cruise brands from our competitors or otherwise compete effectively with other vacation alternatives and new or existing cruise companies, our results of operations and financial position could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to appropriately manage our cost and capital allocation strategies with our goal of satisfying guest expectations, it may adversely impact our business success.
We strive to provide high quality products and deliver high quality services. There can be no assurance that we can successfully balance these goals with our cost management and capital allocation strategies. Our business also requires us to make capital allocation decisions across a broad scope of investment options with varying return profiles and time horizons for value realization. These include significant capital investment decisions such as ordering new ships, upgrading our existing fleet, enhancing our technology and/or data capabilities and expanding our portfolio of land-based assets, based on expected market preferences, competition and projected demand. There can be no assurance that our strategies will be successful, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Investments in older tonnage, in particular, run the risk of not meeting expected returns and diluting related asset values.
Our expansion into new markets and investments in new ventures and land-based destination projects may not be successful.
We opportunistically seek to grow our business through, among other things, expansion into new destinations or source markets and establishment of new ventures complementary to our current offerings. These attempts to expand our business increase the complexity of our business, require significant levels of investment and can strain our management, personnel, operations and systems. In addition, we may be unable to execute our attempts to expand our business. There can be no assurance that these business expansion efforts will develop as anticipated or that we will succeed, and if we do not, we may be unable to recover our investment, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have also invested, either directly or indirectly through joint ventures and partnerships, in a growing portfolio of key land-based projects including port and terminal facilities, private destinations and multi-brand destination projects. These investments can increase our exposure to certain key risks depending on the scope, location, and the ownership and management structure of these projects. These risks include susceptibility to weather events, exposure to local political/regulatory developments and policies, logistical challenges and human resource and labor risks and safety, environmental, and health risks.
Our reliance on travel advisors to sell and market our cruises exposes us to certain risks which could adversely impact our business.
We rely on travel advisors to generate bookings for our global brands. Accordingly, we must maintain competitive commission rates and incentive structures. If we fail to offer competitive compensation packages or fail to maintain our relationships, these agencies may be incentivized to sell cruises offered by our competitors, which could adversely impact our operating results. Our reliance on third-party sellers is particularly pronounced in certain markets. In addition, the travel advisor community is sensitive to economic conditions that impact discretionary income of consumers. Significant disruptions or contractions in the industry could reduce the number of travel advisors available for us to market and sell our cruises, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Business activities that involve our co-investments with third parties may subject us to additional risks.
Partnerships, joint ventures and other business structures involving our co-investments with third parties generally include some form of shared control over the operations of the business and create additional risks, including the possibility that other investors in such ventures become bankrupt or otherwise lack the financial resources to meet their obligations or could have or develop business interests, policies or objectives that are inconsistent with ours. In addition to financial risks, our co-investment activities have also presented managerial and operational risks and expose us to reputational or legal concerns. These or other issues related to our co-investments with third parties could adversely impact our operations or liquidity. Further, due to the arrangements we have in place with our partners in these ventures, we are limited in our ability to control the strategy of these ventures, or their use of capital and other key factors to their results of operation, which could adversely affect our investments and impact our results of operations.
Past or pending business acquisitions or potential acquisitions that we may decide to pursue in the future carry inherent risks which could adversely impact our financial performance and condition.
The Company, from time to time, has engaged in acquisitions and may pursue acquisitions in the future, which are subject to, among other factors, the Company’s ability to identify attractive business opportunities and to negotiate favorable terms for such opportunities. Accordingly, the Company cannot make any assurances that potential acquisitions will be completed timely
or at all, or that if completed, we would realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions. Acquisitions also carry inherent risks such as, among others: (i) the potential delay or failure of our efforts to successfully integrate business processes and realizing expected synergies; (ii) difficulty in aligning procedures, controls and/or policies; and (iii) future unknown liabilities and costs that may be associated with an acquisition. In addition, acquisitions may adversely impact our liquidity and/or debt levels, and the recognized value of goodwill and other intangible assets can be negatively affected by unforeseen events and/or circumstances, which may result in an impairment charge. Any of the foregoing events could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on supply chain vendors and third-party service providers who are integral to the operations of our businesses. These vendors and service providers may be unable or unwilling to deliver on their commitments or may act in ways that could harm our business.
We rely on supply chain vendors to deliver key products to the operations of our businesses around the world. Any event impacting a vendor’s ability to deliver goods of the expected quality at the location and time needed could negatively impact our ability to deliver our cruise experience. Events impacting our supply chain could be caused by factors beyond the control of our suppliers or us, including inclement weather, natural disasters, new laws and regulations, labor actions, increased demand, problems in production or distribution, cybersecurity events, and/or disruptions in third-party logistics or transportation systems. Any such interruptions to our supply chain could increase our costs and could limit the availability of products critical to our operations. In addition, increased regulation or stakeholder expectations regarding sourcing practices, or supplier conduct that does not meet such standards, could cause our operating costs to increase or result in publicity that negatively affects our reputation.
In order to achieve cost and operational efficiencies, we outsource to third-party vendors certain services that are integral to the operations of our global businesses, such as our onboard concessionaires, certain of our call center operations, guest port services, logistics distribution and operation of a large part of our information technology systems. We are subject to the risk that certain decisions are subject to the control of our third-party service providers and that these decisions may adversely affect our activities. A failure to adequately monitor a third-party service provider’s compliance with a service level agreement or regulatory or legal requirements could result in significant economic and reputational harm to us. There is also a risk the confidentiality, privacy and/or security of data held by third parties or communicated over third-party networks or platforms could become compromised.
The potential unavailability of insurance coverage, an inability to obtain insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates or our failure to have coverage in sufficient amounts to cover our incurred losses may adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
We seek to maintain appropriate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates. We normally obtain insurance based on the cost of an asset rather than replacement value, and we also elect to self-insure, co-insure, or use deductibles in certain circumstances for certain risks such as loss of use of a ship or other business interruption. The limits of insurance coverage we purchase are based on the availability of the coverage, evaluation of our risk profile and cost of coverage. We do not carry business interruption insurance and accordingly we have no insurance coverage for loss of revenues or earnings from our ships or other operations. Accordingly, we are not protected against all risks and cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred which could result in an unexpected decrease in our revenue and results of operations in the event of an incident.
We are members of four Protection and Indemnity (“P&I”) clubs, which are part of a worldwide group of 12 P&I clubs, known as the International Group of P&I Clubs (the “IG”). P&I coverage provided by the clubs is on a mutual basis, and we are subject to additional premium calls in the event of a catastrophic loss incurred by any member of the 12 P&I clubs, whereby the reinsurance limits purchased by the IG are exhausted. We are also subject to additional premium calls based on investment and underwriting shortfalls experienced by our own individual insurers.
We cannot be certain that insurance and reinsurance coverage will be available to us and at commercially reasonable rates in the future or at all or, if available, that it will be sufficient to cover potential claims. Additionally, if we or other insureds sustain significant losses, the result may be higher insurance premiums, cancellation of coverage, or the inability to obtain coverage. Such events could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
Disruptions in our shoreside or shipboard operations or our information systems may adversely affect our results of operations.
Our principal executive office and principal shoreside operations are located in Florida, and we have shoreside offices throughout the world. Actual or threatened natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes/typhoons, earthquakes, tornadoes, fires or floods), municipal lockdowns, curfews, quarantines, or similar events in these locations may have a material impact on our business continuity, reputation and results of operations. In addition, substantial or repeated information system failures, computer
viruses or cyber attacks impacting our shoreside or shipboard operations could adversely impact our business. We do not generally carry business interruption insurance for our shoreside or shipboard operations or our information systems. As such, any losses or damages incurred by us could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Provisions of our Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws and Liberian law could inhibit a change of control and may prevent efforts by our shareholders to change our management.
Certain provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and Liberian law may inhibit third parties from effectuating a change of control of the Company without approval from our board of directors which could result in the entrenchment of current management. These include provisions in our Articles of Incorporation that prevent third parties, other than A. Wilhelmsen AS and Cruise Associates and their permitted transferees, from acquiring beneficial ownership of more than 4.9% of our outstanding shares without the consent of our board of directors.
We may not be able to achieve our fiscal 2025 financial and climate-related performance goals.
In November 2022, we announced that we are targeting certain financial and climate-related performance goals for fiscal 2025. Our ability to achieve these goals is dependent on a number of factors, including the other risk factors described in this section. If we are not able to achieve these goals, the price of our common stock and reputation may be negatively affected.
Financial Risks
We may not be able to obtain sufficient financing or capital for our needs or may not be able to do so on terms that are acceptable or consistent with our expectations.
To fund our capital expenditures (including new ship orders), operations and scheduled debt payments, we have historically relied on a combination of cash flows provided by operations, drawdowns under available credit facilities, the incurrence of additional indebtedness and the sale of equity or debt securities in private or public securities markets.
Although we believe we can access sufficient liquidity to fund our operations, investments and obligations as expected, there can be no assurances to that effect. Our ability to access additional funding as and when needed, our ability to timely refinance and/or replace our outstanding debt securities and credit facilities on acceptable terms and our cost of funding will depend upon numerous factors including, but not limited to, the strength of the financial markets, global market conditions, including inflationary pressures, interest rate fluctuations, credit rating downgrades, our financial performance, the recovery and performance of our industry in general and the size, scope and timing of our financial needs. In addition, even where financing commitments have been secured, significant disruptions in the capital and credit markets could cause our banking and other counterparties to breach their contractual obligations to us or could cause the conditions to the availability of such funding not to be satisfied. This could include failures of banks or other financial service companies to fund required borrowings under our loan agreements or to pay us amounts that may become due or return collateral that is refundable under our interest rate derivative instruments or other agreements. If any of the foregoing occurs for a prolonged period of time it will have a long-term negative impact on our cash flows and our ability to meet our financial obligations.
Our substantial debt requires a significant amount of cash to service and could adversely affect our financial condition.
We have a substantial amount of debt and significant debt service obligations. As of December 31, 2023, we had total debt of $21.5 billion. Our substantial debt has required us to dedicate a large portion of our cash flow from operations to service debt and fund repayments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate expenses.
Our ability to make future scheduled payments on our debt service obligations or refinance our debt depends on our future operating and financial performance and ability to generate cash. This will be affected by our ability to successfully implement our business strategy, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. If we cannot generate sufficient cash to meet our debt service obligations or fund our other business needs, we may, among other things, need to refinance all or a portion of our debt, obtain additional financing, delay planned capital expenditures or sell assets. We cannot assure that we will be able to generate sufficient cash through any of the foregoing. If we are not able to refinance any of our debt, obtain additional financing or sell assets on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we may not be able to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt.
Our substantial debt could also result in other negative consequences for us. For example, it could increase our vulnerability to adverse general economic or industry conditions; limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or the industry in which we operate; place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, the economy or the industry in which we operate; limit our ability to raise additional debt or equity capital in the future to satisfy our requirements relating to working capital, capital expenditures, development projects, strategic initiatives or other purposes; restrict us from making strategic acquisitions,
introducing new technologies or exploiting business opportunities; limit or restrict our ability to obtain and maintain performance bonds to cover our financial responsibility requirements in various jurisdictions for non-performance of guest travel, casualty and personal injury; make it difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt; and increase our exposure to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings are (and may in the future be) at a variable rate of interest.
Despite our leverage, we may incur more debt. Although certain of our debt instruments, including our export credit facilities, contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional debt, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and under certain circumstances the amount of debt that could be incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. If new debt is added to our existing debt levels, the related risks that we now face would increase. Additionally, there is no guarantee that financing will be available in the future or that such financing will be available with similar terms or terms that are commercially acceptable to us. As of December 31, 2023, we have commitments for approximately $5.5 billion of debt to finance the purchase of five ships on order by our Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea Cruises brands, all of which are guaranteed by the export credit agencies in the countries in which the ships are being built. The ultimate size of each facility will depend on the final contract price (including change orders and owner’s supply) as well as fluctuations in the EUR/USD exchange rate. Refer to Note 8. Debt to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding our "Secured Notes" and "Priority Guaranteed Notes".
We are subject to restrictive debt covenants that may limit our ability to finance our future operations and capital needs and to pursue business opportunities and activities. In addition, if we fail to comply with any of these restrictions, it could have a material adverse effect on us.
Certain of our debt instruments, including our indentures and our unsecured bank and export credit facilities, limit our flexibility in operating our business. For example, certain of our loan agreements and indentures restrict or limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things, incur or guarantee additional indebtedness; pay dividends or distributions on, or redeem or repurchase capital stock and make other restricted payments; make investments; consummate certain asset sales; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; grant or assume certain liens; and consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, both our export credit facilities and our non-export credit facilities contain covenants that require us, among other things, to maintain a minimum liquidity, a specified minimum fixed charge coverage ratio, and limit our net debt-to-capital ratio. In addition, our ECA facilities also require us to maintain a minimum stockholders' equity. Refer to Note 8. Debt to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further discussion on our covenants and existing waivers.
All of these limitations are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications. Despite these exceptions and qualifications, we cannot assure you that the operating and financial restrictions and covenants in certain of our debt instruments will not adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs or engage in other business activities that may be in our interest. Any future indebtedness may include similar or other restrictive terms and we may be required to further encumber our assets. In addition, our ability to comply with these covenants and restrictions may be affected by events beyond our control. These include prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If we breach any of these covenants or restrictions, we could be in default under such indebtedness and certain of our other debt instruments, and the relevant debt holders or lenders could elect to declare the debt, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other fees, if any, immediately due and payable and proceed against any collateral securing that debt. If the debt under certain of our debt instruments that we enter into were to be accelerated, our liquid assets may be insufficient to repay in full such indebtedness. Borrowings under other debt instruments that contain cross-default provisions also may be accelerated or become payable on demand. In these circumstances, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full that indebtedness and our other indebtedness then outstanding.
In addition, our ability to maintain our credit facilities may also be impacted by changes in our ownership base. More specifically, we may be required to prepay our non-ECA and ECA facilities if any person acquires ownership of more than 50% of our common stock or, subject to certain exceptions, during any 24-month period, a majority of our board of directors is no longer comprised of individuals who were members of our board of directors on the first day of such period. Our debt securities also contain change of control provisions that would be triggered by a third-party acquisition of greater than 50% of our common stock coupled with a ratings downgrade, which would require us to offer to repurchase our debt securities in the event of such change of control.
If we elect to settle conversions of our convertible notes in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, conversions of our convertible notes will result in dilution for our existing shareholders.
We have an aggregate principal amount of $1.2 billion in convertible notes outstanding. If note holders elect to convert, the notes will be converted into our shares of common stock, cash, or a combination of common stock and cash, at our
discretion. After May 15, 2025, our convertible notes issued in August 2022, will be convertible at the option of holders until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding their maturity date. Conversions of our convertible notes into shares of our common stock or a combination of common stock and cash, will result in dilution to our shareholders.
Our dividend policy may change without notice and any payment of dividends in the future is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors.
We have not declared a dividend since the first quarter of 2020. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our profitability at the time, cash available for those dividends, and other factors as our board of directors may consider relevant. In the event we declare a dividend, we will need to repay amounts deferred under the export credit facilities.
Compliance and Regulatory Risks
Changes in U.S. or other countries’ foreign travel policy have affected, and may continue to affect our results of operations.
Changes in U.S. and other countries' foreign policy have in the past and could in the future result in the imposition of travel restrictions or travel bans on persons to certain countries or result in the imposition of travel advisories, warnings, rules, regulations or legislation exposing us to penalties or claims of monetary damages. In addition, some countries have previously adopted restrictions against U.S. travelers. The timing and scope of these changes and regulations can be unpredictable, and they could cause us to cancel scheduled sailings, possibly on short notice, or could result in litigation against us. This, in turn, could decrease our revenue, increase our operating costs and otherwise impair our profitability.
Factors associated with climate change, including an increasing global regulatory focus, could adversely affect our business.
There is increasing global regulatory focus on climate change, greenhouse gas and other emissions. These regulatory efforts, both internationally and in the U.S., are still developing, including the international alignment of such efforts, and we cannot yet determine what the final regulatory programs or their impact will be on our business. However, such climate change-related regulatory activity in the future may adversely affect our business and financial results by requiring us to reduce our emissions, pay for our emissions, modify our itineraries and may increase our exposure, if any, to climate change-related litigation. Such activity may also impact us by increasing our operating costs, including fuel costs. For example, the European Union has proposed and enacted parts of a series of significant carbon reforms under its Fit for 55 package designed to meet its 2030 emission goals, which would require us, among other things, to increase the use of low carbon fuel onboard our vessels as well as connectivity to shore power. Part of the reforms that were enacted includes updates to the European Union Emission Trading System that imposes requirements on us to purchase carbon emission allowances for our qualified emissions beginning in 2024.
In addition, the U.S. and various state and foreign government or regulatory agencies have enacted, or may enact, environmental regulations or policies, such as requiring the use of low sulfur fuels (e.g., IMO Sulfur Limit) or the incoming carbon intensity indicator regulation ("CII"), that have or could increase our direct cost to operate in certain markets, increase our cost of fuel, limit the supply of compliant fuel, cause us to incur significant expenses to purchase and/or develop new equipment and adversely impact the cruise vacation industry. If enacted, these regulations may individually or collectively have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations due to increased costs associated with compliance and modified itineraries in the affected regions.
There has also been growing environmental scrutiny of the environmental impact of the cruise vacation industry, and some environmental groups are advocating for more stringent regulation of ship emissions at berth and at sea. This negative publicity of the cruise industry and any related measures may lead to changes in consumer preferences, such as methods or frequency of travel, which could adversely impact our operations and financial results and subject us to reputational impacts and costs.
Labor, health and safety, financial responsibility, maritime and other regulations and measures could affect operations and increase operating costs.
We are subject to various international, national, state and local laws, regulations and treaties that govern, among other things, discharge from our ships, safety standards applicable to our ships, treatment of disabled persons, health and sanitary standards applicable to our guests, security standards on board our ships and at the ship/port interface areas, financial responsibilities to our guests, and our advertising and pricing practices. These issues are, and we believe will continue to be, an area of focus by the relevant authorities throughout the world, which may result in the enactment of more stringent regulations. In addition to potential damage to our reputation and brand, failure by us to comply with these various applicable laws and
regulations, as well as changes in laws and regulations or the manner in which they are interpreted or applied, may result in litigation, civil and criminal liability, damages, fines and penalties, increased cost of regulatory compliance and may have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.
A change in our tax status under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, or other jurisdictions, may have adverse effects on our results of operations.
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and a number of our subsidiaries are foreign corporations that derive income from a U.S. trade or business and/or from sources within the U.S. In connection with the year end audit, each year, Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP, our U.S. tax counsel, delivers to us an opinion, based on certain representations and assumptions set forth in it, to the effect that this income, to the extent derived from or incidental to the international operation of a ship or ships, is excluded from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes pursuant to Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code. We believe that most of our income (including that of our subsidiaries) is derived from or incidental to the international operation of ships.
Our ability to rely on Section 883 could be challenged or could change in the future. Provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, including Section 883, are subject to legislative change at any time. Moreover, changes could occur in the future with respect to the identity, residence or holdings of our direct or indirect shareholders, trading volume or trading frequency of our shares, or relevant foreign tax laws of Liberia or the Bahamas, such that they no longer qualify as equivalent exemption jurisdictions, that could affect our eligibility for the Section 883 exemption. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will continue to be exempt from U.S. income tax on U.S. source shipping income in the future. If we were not entitled to the benefit of Section 883, we and our subsidiaries would be subject to U.S. taxation on a portion of the income derived from or incidental to the international operation of our ships, which would reduce our net income.
Additionally, portions of our business are operated by companies that are within the United Kingdom tonnage tax regime. Further, some of our operations are conducted in jurisdictions where we rely on tax treaties to provide exemption from taxation. To the extent the United Kingdom tonnage tax laws change or we do not continue to meet the applicable qualification requirements or if tax treaties are changed or revoked, we may be required to pay higher income tax in these jurisdictions, adversely impacting our results of operations.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has issued Pillar Two model rules introducing a new global minimum tax of 15%, which may materially impact us starting in 2026. While we are currently pursuing mitigation strategies, there can be no guarantee they will be successful and the impact to our to our financial statements could be material. In addition, as budgetary constraints may adversely impact fiscal policy in the jurisdictions in which we operate, we may be subject to changes in our existing tax treatment or other tax reform, as well as increased tax audits.
We are not a U.S. corporation and, as a result, our shareholders may be subject to the uncertainties of a foreign legal system in protecting their interests.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and by the Business Corporation Act of Liberia. The provisions of the Business Corporation Act of Liberia resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the U.S. However, there are very few judicial cases in Liberia interpreting the Business Corporation Act. While the Business Corporation Act provides that it is to be applied and construed to make the laws of Liberia, with respect of the subject matter of the Business Corporation Act, harmonious with the laws of the State of Delaware, we cannot predict whether Liberian courts would reach the same conclusions as Delaware courts. In cases when the laws of Liberia are silent, the Business Corporation Act adopts, when applicable, the non-statutory corporation law of Delaware with substantially similar legislative provisions insofar as it does not conflict with any other provisions of the Business Corporation Act or decisions of the courts of Liberia, and provides that the courts of Liberia may apply such non-statutory corporation law in resolving any issues before such courts. We cannot predict to what extent or in what manner the courts of Liberia will apply the non-statutory corporation law of Delaware. The right of shareholders to bring a derivative action in Liberian courts may be more limited than in U.S. jurisdictions. There may also be practical difficulties for shareholders attempting to bring suit in Liberia, and Liberian courts may or may not recognize and enforce foreign judgments. Thus, our shareholders may have more difficulty challenging actions taken by management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a U.S. jurisdiction.
General Risk Factors
Conducting business globally results in increased regulatory, financial, and other risks.
We operate our business globally, which exposes us to a number of risks, including increased exposure to a wider range of regional and local economic conditions, volatile local political conditions, potential changes in duties and taxes, including changing and/or uncertain interpretations of existing tax laws and regulations, required compliance with additional laws and policies affecting cruising, vacation or maritime businesses or governing the operations of foreign-based companies, currency
fluctuations, interest rate movements, difficulties in operating under local business environments, port quality and availability in certain regions, U.S. and global anti-bribery laws and regulations, imposition of trade barriers and restrictions on repatriation of earnings.
Our future growth strategies depend on the sustained profitability of international markets. Factors that will be critical to our success in these markets include our ability to continue to raise awareness of our products and our ability to adapt our offerings to best suit rapidly evolving consumer demands. The execution of our planned growth strategies is dependent on meeting the governmental and regulatory measures and policies in each of these markets. Our ability to realize our future growth strategy is highly dependent on our ability to satisfy country-specific policies and requirements, as well as meet the needs of region-specific consumer preferences. These factors may cause us to reevaluate some of our international business strategies.
Operating globally also exposes us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal, regulatory and tax requirements. In many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate, practices in the local business communities might not conform to international business standards. We cannot guarantee consistent interpretation, application, and enforcement of newly issued rules and regulations, which could place limits on our operations or increase our costs, as well as negatively impact our future growth strategies in our key growth markets. We must adhere to policies designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance as well as applicable laws and regulations. However, we might not be successful in ensuring that our employees, agents, representatives and other third parties with whom we associate properly adhere to applicable laws and regulations. In addition, we may be exposed to the risk of penalties and other liabilities if we fail to comply with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements. Failure by us, our employees or any of these third parties to adhere to our policies or applicable laws or regulations could result in penalties, sanctions, damage to our reputation and related costs, which in turn could negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.
As a global operator, our business also may be impacted by changes in U.S. policy or priorities in areas such as trade, immigration and/or environmental or labor regulations, among others. Depending on the nature and scope of any such changes, they could impact our domestic and international business operations. Any such changes, and any international response to them, could potentially introduce new barriers to passenger or crew travel and/or cross border transactions, impact our guest experience and/or increase our operating costs.
If we are unable to address these risks adequately, our financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected, including impairing the value of our ships and other assets.
The terms of our existing debt financing gives, and any future preferred equity or debt financing may give, holders of any preferred securities or debt securities rights that are senior to rights of our common shareholders.
The holders of our existing debt have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock in the event of liquidation. If we incur additional debt or raise equity through the issuance of preferred stock or convertible securities, the terms of the debt or the preferred stock issued may give the holders rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock, particularly in the event of liquidation. If we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, the ownership percentage of our existing shareholders would be diluted.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, fuel prices and interest rates could affect our financial results.
We are exposed to market risk attributable to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, fuel prices and interest rates. Significant changes in any of the foregoing could have a material impact on our financial results, net of the impact of our hedging activities and natural offsets. Our operating results have been and will continue to be impacted, often significantly, by changes in each of these factors.
A portion of our indebtedness bears interest at variable rates that are linked to changing market interest rates. As a result, an increase in market interest rates would increase our interest expense and our debt service obligations. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $3.7 billion of indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates, which is net of our interest rate swap agreements. This amount represented approximately 16.8% of our total indebtedness. As of December 31, 2023, a hypothetical 1% increase in prevailing interest rates would increase our forecasted 2023 interest expense by approximately $25.5 million. Additionally, the value of our earnings in foreign currencies is adversely impacted by a strong U.S. dollar.
In particular, increases in fuel prices have and could continue to materially and adversely affect our business as fuel prices impact not only our fuel costs, but also some of our other expenses, such as crew travel, freight, and commodity prices. Mandatory fuel restrictions may also create uncertainty related to the price and availability of certain fuel types potentially impacting operating costs and the value of our related hedging instruments.
Any further impairment of our goodwill, intangible assets, long-lived assets, equity investments and notes receivable could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently when circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a reporting unit may not be recoverable. We also evaluate other assets, including but not limited to intangible assets and long-lived assets on an annual basis, or more frequently when circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. A challenging operating environment, conditions affecting consumer demand or spending, the deterioration of general macroeconomic conditions, expected ship deliveries, or other factors could result in a change to the future cash flows we expect to derive from our operations. Reductions of cash flows used in the valuation analyses may result in the recording of impairments, which could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
The loss of key personnel, our inability to recruit or retain qualified personnel, or disruptions among our shipboard personnel could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our success depends, in large part, on the skills and contributions of key executives and other employees and on our ability to recruit, develop and retain high quality personnel as well as having adequate succession plans and back-up operating plans for when critical executives are unable to serve. As demand for qualified personnel in the industry grows, we must continue to effectively recruit, train, motivate and retain our employees, both shoreside and on our ships, in order to effectively compete in our industry, maintain our current business and support our projected global growth.
We have in the past and may in the future experience difficulty recruiting and retaining qualified personnel primarily due to competitive labor markets. A prolonged shortage of qualified personnel and/or increased turnover may inhibit our ability to operate our business in an optimal manner, and may result in increased costs if we need to hire temporary personnel, and/or increased wages and/or benefits in order to attract and retain employees, all of which may negatively impact our results of operations.
As of December 31, 2023, approximately 88% of our shipboard employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements. A dispute under our collective bargaining agreements could result in a work stoppage of those employees covered by the agreements. We may not be able to satisfactorily renegotiate these collective bargaining agreements when they expire. In addition, existing collective bargaining agreements may not prevent a strike or work stoppage on our ships. We may also be subject to or affected by work stoppages unrelated to our business or collective bargaining agreements. Any such work stoppages or potential work stoppages could have a material adverse effect on our financial results, as could a loss of key employees, our inability to recruit or retain qualified personnel or disruptions among our personnel.
If we are unable to keep pace with developments, design, and implementation in technology, our operations or competitive position could become impaired.
Our business continues to demand the use of sophisticated technology and systems. These technologies and systems require significant investment and must be proven, refined, updated, upgraded and/or replaced with more advanced systems in order to continue to meet our customers’ demands and expectations as well as to process our information effectively. If we are unable to do so in a timely manner or within reasonable cost parameters, if there are any disruptions, delays or deficiencies in design or if we are unable to appropriately and timely train our employees to operate any of these new systems, our business could suffer. We also may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new technology or system, which could impair our operating results.
We may be unable to procure appropriate technology in a timely manner or at all or we may incur significant costs in doing so. A failure to adopt the appropriate technology, or a failure or obsolescence in the technology that we have adopted, could adversely affect our results of operations.
We are exposed to cyber security attacks and data breaches and the risks and costs associated with protecting our systems and maintaining data integrity and security.
We are subject to cyber security attacks. These cyber attacks can vary in scope and intent from attacks with the objective of compromising our systems, networks, and communications for economic gain or with the objective of disrupting, disabling or otherwise compromising our maritime and/or shoreside operations. The attacks can encompass a wide range of methods and intent, including phishing attacks, generative artificial intelligence impersonation, illegitimate requests for payment, theft of intellectual property, theft of confidential or non-public information, installation of malware, installation of ransomware and theft of personal or business information. The frequency and sophistication of, and methods used to conduct, these attacks, have increased over time.
A successful cyber security attack may target us directly, or it may be the result of a third party’s inadequate care, or resulting from vulnerabilities in licensed software. In either scenario, the Company may suffer damage to its systems and data
that could interrupt our operations, adversely impact our brand reputation, and expose us to increased risks of governmental investigation, litigation, fines, and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, responding to such an attack and mitigating the risk of future attacks could result in additional operating and capital costs in technology, personnel, monitoring and other investments.
We are also subject to various risks associated with the collection, handling, storage, and transmission of sensitive information. In the regular course of business, we collect employee, customer, and other third-party data, including personally identifiable information and individual payment data, for various business purposes. Although we have policies and procedures in place to safeguard such sensitive information, this information has been and could be subject to cyber security attacks and the aforementioned risks. In addition, we are subject to federal, state, and international laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personally identifiable information and individual payment data. Those laws include, among others, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and similar state agencies that impose additional cyber security requirements. Complying with these and other applicable laws has caused, and may cause, us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices, and our failure to do so may expose us to substantial fines, penalties, restrictions, litigation, or other expenses and adversely affect our business. Further, any changes to laws or regulations, including new restrictions or requirements applicable to our business, or an increase in enforcement of existing laws and regulations, could expose us to additional costs and liability and could limit our use and disclosure of such information.
While we continue to evolve our cyber security practices in line with our business’ reliance on technology and the changing external threat landscape, and we invest time, effort and financial resources to secure our systems, networks and communications, our security measures cannot provide absolute assurance that we will be successful in preventing or defending from all cyber security attacks or incidents impacting our operation. There can be no assurance that any breach or incident will not have a material impact on our operations and financial results.
Any breach, theft, loss, or fraudulent use of guest, employee, third-party or company data, could adversely impact our reputation and brand and our ability to retain or attract new customers, and expose us to risks of data loss, business disruption, governmental investigation, litigation and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Significant capital investments and other expenditures could be required to remedy the problem and prevent future breaches, including costs associated with additional security technologies, personnel, experts and credit monitoring services for those whose data has been breached. Further, if we or our vendors experience significant data security breaches or fail to detect and appropriately respond to significant data security breaches, we could be exposed to government enforcement actions and private litigation.
Litigation, enforcement actions, fines or penalties could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations and/or damage our reputation.
Our business is subject to various U.S. and international laws and regulations that could lead to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. In addition, improper conduct by our employees, agents or joint venture partners could damage our reputation and/or lead to litigation or legal proceedings that could result in civil or criminal penalties, including substantial monetary fines. In certain circumstances it may not be economical to defend against such matters and/or our legal strategy may not ultimately result in us prevailing in a matter. Such events could lead to an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations. We cannot predict the quantum or outcome of any such proceedings and the impact that they will have on our financial results, but any such impact may be material. While some of these claims are covered by insurance, we cannot be certain that all of them will be, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.



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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Securing the Company’s business information, intellectual property, customer and employee data and technology systems is essential for the continuity of our businesses, meeting applicable regulatory requirements and maintaining the trust of our various stakeholders. Cybersecurity is an important and integrated part of the Company’s enterprise risk management function that identifies, monitors and mitigates business, operational, financial and legal risks.
We have developed a cybersecurity program designed to protect and preserve the confidentiality, integrity and continued availability of all information we own or process against risks from cybersecurity threats. Using a risk-based prioritization approach, the cybersecurity team focuses on securing our high value assets, updating our cybersecurity detection and prevention capabilities to identify new threats, and maturing the compliance processes to protect the Company’s operations and data.
Risk Management and Strategy
We have implemented policies, programs and controls and invested in cybersecurity technologies that focus on assessing, monitoring, and managing our cybersecurity risks. These include, but are not limited to: maintaining comprehensive cybersecurity policies and practices; augmenting our organization with a global cybersecurity operation center that monitors cyber threats 24-hours a day on a year-round basis; new surveillance technologies to proactively identify threats and improve the Company’s cyber defense capabilities; implementing enterprise-wide cybersecurity training, anti-phishing and awareness programs for our employees and crew members; and conducting cyber simulations with various teams across the Company as well as with management to evaluate our response approach. We have also implemented comprehensive processes designed to identify and oversee risks from cybersecurity threats associated with our third-party service providers, which include security assessments on our suppliers and vendors and continuous monitoring of cyber threats. Our cybersecurity program is based on recognized best practices and standards for cybersecurity, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) Cybersecurity Framework. We conduct regular third-party assessments of our cyber risk management program.
We also conduct a periodic assessment of cybersecurity risk as part of broader enterprise risk management (ERM). This assessment includes an evaluation of the Company’s processes to identify and respond to cyber risks and the effectiveness of the Company’s lines of defense. Given the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, we leverage both internal cyber analytics and external sources of threat intelligence (including assessors, consultants, and other third parties) to evaluate our cyber risks and to properly adjust our risk mitigation approach. We also maintain controls and procedures that are designed to evaluate cyber risks on an ongoing basis. These processes include prompt communication of certain cybersecurity incidents to the Company’s executives, internal committees and the Board as needed, so that any needed external reporting can be made by management and the Board in a timely manner.
Our policies require each of our employees to contribute to our data security efforts. We regularly educate our employees about the importance of handling and protecting customer and employee data, including through annual privacy and security training to enhance employee awareness of how to detect and respond to cybersecurity threats.
As of the date of this report, we are not aware of any risks from cybersecurity threats or incidents that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. For additional description of cybersecurity risks and potential related impacts on the Company, refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors - "We are exposed to cyber security attacks and data breaches and the risks and costs associated with protecting our systems and maintaining data integrity and security."
Governance
Our cybersecurity program is led by our Chief Information Officer (CIO) and the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO). They are supported by Information Security Officers who work closely with our operational teams. Our CIO and CISO have more than 35 years of collective experience in the cybersecurity field. The CISO reports to the CIO and is generally responsible for management of cybersecurity risk and the protection and defense of our networks and systems. The CISO has served in similar roles at three major public companies and is a recognized cybersecurity leader. He regularly engages with peer CISOs, cybersecurity experts and organizations, including the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) and the NIST, to stay informed on the latest industry developments. The CISO regularly informs our internal Disclosure Committee, Chief Financial Officer, and our President and Chief Executive Officer of cybersecurity risks and incidents as per our internal cyber risk framework. This also helps ensure that the highest levels of management are kept abreast of our cybersecurity posture and potential risks.

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Our Board, in coordination with the Audit Committee, is actively engaged in reviewing management's processes for assessing and managing cybersecurity risks. The Board reviews cybersecurity at least annually. The Audit Committee directly oversees the Company’s management of cybersecurity risks. On a quarterly basis or as needed, the Audit Committee receives updates from management (including the CIO and CISO) on cybersecurity risks resulting from risk assessments, progress of risk reduction initiatives, external auditor feedback, control maturity assessments, and relevant internal and industry cybersecurity incidents. In addition, the Chair of the Audit Committee regularly informs the Board of the outcome of the Audit Committee's reviews at scheduled Board meetings.
Item 2. Properties
Information about our cruise ships, including their size, may be found within the Operating Strategies - Delivery of state-of-the-art cruise ships, and fleet upgrade and maintenance section and the Operations - Ships and Itineraries section in Item 1. Business. Information regarding our cruise ships under construction, estimated expenditures and financing may be found within the Future Capital Commitments and Funding Needs and Sources sections of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Our principal executive office and principal shoreside operations are located in leased office buildings at the Port of Miami, Florida. We also lease a number of other offices in the U.S. and throughout Europe, Asia, Mexico, South America and Australia to administer our brand operations globally.
We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current needs and that we are capable of obtaining additional facilities as necessary.
We also operate two private destinations which we utilize as ports-of-call on certain itineraries: (i) an island we own in the Bahamas that we call CocoCay; and (ii) Labadee, a secluded peninsula that we lease on the north coast of Haiti.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
As previously reported, a lawsuit was filed against us in August 2019 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida (the "Court") under Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, also known as the Helms-Burton Act. The complaint filed by Havana Docks Corporation ("Havana Docks Action") alleges it holds an interest in the Havana Cruise Port Terminal, which was expropriated by the Cuban government. The complaint further alleges that we trafficked in the terminal by embarking and disembarking passengers at these facilities. The plaintiffs seek all available statutory remedies, including the value of the expropriated property, plus interest, treble damages, attorneys’ fees and costs.
The Court entered final judgment in December 2022 in favor of the plaintiff and awarded damages and attorneys' fees to the plaintiff in the aggregate amount of approximately $112 million. We have appealed the judgment to the United States Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit. We believe we have meritorious grounds for and intend to vigorously pursue our appeal. During the fourth quarter of 2022, we recorded a charge of approximately $130.0 million to Other (expense) income within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) related to the Havana Docks Action, including post-judgment interest and related legal defense costs and bonding fees.
In addition, we are routinely involved in claims typical within the cruise vacation industry. The majority of these claims are covered by insurance. We believe the outcome of such claims, net of expected insurance recoveries, will not have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations and cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "RCL."
Holders
As of February 16, 2024, there were approximately 1,186 record holders of our common stock. Since certain of our shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, the foregoing number is not representative of the number of beneficial owners.
Dividends
Holders of our common stock have an equal right, pro rata based on number of shares held, to share in our profits in the form of dividends when and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available, subject to any rights of holders of preferred stock if any. Holders of our common stock have no rights to any sinking fund.
There are no exchange control restrictions on remittances of dividends on our common stock by reason of our incorporation in Liberia because (1) we are and intend to maintain our status as a nonresident Liberian entity under the Liberia Revenue Code of 2000 as amended and the regulations thereunder, and (2) our ship-owning subsidiaries are not now engaged, and are not in the future expected to engage, in any business in Liberia, including voyages exclusively within the territorial waters of the Republic of Liberia. Under current Liberian law, no Liberian taxes or withholding will be imposed on payments to holders of our securities other than to a holder that is a resident Liberian entity or a resident individual or an individual or entity subject to taxation in Liberia as a result of having a permanent establishment within the meaning of the Liberia Revenue Code of 2000 as amended in Liberia.
The declaration of dividends shall at all times be subject to the final determination of our board of directors that a dividend is prudent at that time in consideration of the needs of the business. In the event we declare a dividend, we will need to repay the amounts deferred under our export credit facilities as part of the principal amortization deferrals agreed with them during 2020 and 2021. Accordingly, we have not declared a dividend since the first quarter of 2020. Refer to Note 10. Shareholders' Equity to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on dividends declared.
Share Repurchases
There were no repurchases of common stock during the year ended December 31, 2023.
In the event we repurchase shares of our common stock, we will need to repay the amounts deferred under our export credit facilities as part of the principal amortization deferrals agreed with our lenders during 2020 and 2021.


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Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total return, assuming reinvestment of dividends, on an investment in the Company, based on performance of the Company's common stock, with the total return of the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Stock Index ("S&P 500") and the Dow Jones United States Travel and Leisure Index for a five year period by measuring the changes in common stock prices from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023.

3143
12/1812/1912/2012/2112/2212/23
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd
100.00139.9579.2281.5752.43137.35
S&P 500100.00131.49155.68200.37164.08207.21
Dow Jones U.S. Travel & Leisure100.00123.94126.10140.59112.10152.56
The stock performance graph assumes for comparison that the value of the Company's common stock and of each index was $100 on December 31, 2018 and that all dividends were reinvested. Past performance is not necessarily an indicator of future results.






25


Item 6. Reserved
Not applicable.

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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Cautionary Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
The discussion under this caption “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our expectations for future periods, business and industry prospects or future results of operations or financial position, made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking. Words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “considering,” “could,” “driving,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “will”, "would", and similar expressions are intended to further identify any of these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect management's current expectations, but they are based on judgments and are inherently uncertain. Furthermore, they are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from the future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied in those forward-looking statements. Examples of these risks, uncertainties and other factors include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and, in particular, the risks discussed under the caption "Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A herein.
All forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date of this filing. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Overview
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is organized to present the following:
a review of our critical accounting policies and estimates and of our financial presentation, including discussion of certain operational and financial metrics we utilize to assist us in managing our business;
a discussion of our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022; and
a discussion of our liquidity and capital resources, including our future capital and material cash requirements and potential funding sources.
A discussion of our results of operations, and sources and uses of cash for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 is included in Part II. Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 23, 2023 and is incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). (Refer to Note 1. General and Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data). Certain of our accounting policies are deemed "critical," as they require management's highest degree of judgment, estimates and assumptions. We have discussed these accounting policies and estimates with the audit committee of our board of directors. We believe our critical accounting policies and estimates are as follows:
Ship Accounting
Ships represent our most significant assets and are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of ships is generally computed net of a 10%-15% projected residual value, using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset, which is generally 30-35 years. The 30-35 year useful life and 10%-15% residual value is the weighted-average of all major components of a ship. Our useful life and residual value estimates take into consideration the impact of anticipated technological changes, environmental regulations, long-term cruise and vacation market conditions and historical useful lives of similarly-built ships. In addition, we take into consideration our estimates of the weighted-average useful lives of the ships' major component systems, such as hull, superstructure, main electric, engines and cabins. We employ a cost allocation methodology at the component level, in order to support the estimated weighted-average useful lives and residual values, as well as to determine the net cost basis of assets being replaced. Given the very large and complex nature of our ships, our accounting estimates related to ships and determinations of ship improvement costs to be capitalized require considerable judgment and are inherently uncertain. We do not have cost segregation studies performed to specifically componentize our ship systems. However, we estimate the costs, useful lives and residual values of component systems based principally on general and technical information known about major ship component systems and their lives, as well as our knowledge of the cruise vacation industry. We do not identify and track depreciation by ship component systems, but instead utilize these estimates to determine the net cost basis of assets replaced or refurbished. Improvement costs that we believe add value to our ships are capitalized as additions to the ship and depreciated over the shorter of the improvements' estimated useful lives or that of the associated ship. The estimated cost and accumulated depreciation of replaced or refurbished ship components are written off and any resulting losses are recognized within Cruise operating expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.
We periodically review estimated useful lives and residual values for ongoing reasonableness, considering long term views on our intended use of each class of ships the planned level of improvements to maintain, enhance, and to comply with environmental regulations for vessels within those classes. In the event a factor is identified that may trigger a change in the estimated useful lives and residual values of our ships, a review of the estimate is completed.
We use the deferral method to account for drydocking costs. Under the deferral method, drydocking costs incurred are deferred and charged to expense on a straight-line basis over the period to the next scheduled drydock, which we estimate to be a period of thirty to sixty months based on the vessel's age as required by Class. Deferred drydock costs consist of the costs to drydock the vessel and other costs incurred in connection with the drydock which are necessary to maintain the vessel's Class certification. Class certification is necessary in order for our cruise ships to be flagged in a specific country, obtain liability insurance and legally operate as passenger cruise ships. The activities associated with those drydocking costs cannot be performed while the vessel is in service and, as such, are done during a drydock as a planned major maintenance activity. The significant deferred drydock costs consist of hauling and wharfage services provided by the drydock facility, hull inspection and related activities (e.g., scraping, pressure cleaning, bottom painting), maintenance to steering propulsion, thruster equipment and ballast tanks, port services such as tugs, pilotage and line handling, and freight associated with these items. We perform a detailed analysis of the various activities performed for each drydock and only defer those costs that are directly related to planned major maintenance activities necessary to maintain Class. The costs deferred are related to activities not otherwise routinely periodically performed to maintain a vessel's designed and intended operating capability. Repairs and maintenance activities are charged to expense as incurred.
We use judgment when estimating the period between drydocks, which can result in adjustments to the estimated amortization of drydock costs. If the vessel is disposed of before the next drydock, the remaining balance in deferred drydock is written-off to the gain or loss on disposal of vessel in the period in which the sale takes place. We also use judgment when identifying costs incurred during a drydock which are necessary to maintain the vessel's Class certification as compared to those costs attributable to repairs and maintenance which are expensed as incurred.
We believe we have made reasonable estimates for ship accounting purposes. However, should certain factors or circumstances cause us to revise our estimates of ship useful lives or projected residual values, depreciation expense could be materially higher or lower. If circumstances cause us to change our assumptions in making determinations as to whether ship

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improvements should be capitalized, the amounts we expense each year as repairs and maintenance costs could increase, partially offset by a decrease in depreciation expense. If we had reduced our estimated average ship useful life by one year, depreciation expense for 2023 would have increased by approximately $100 million. If our ships were estimated to have no residual value, depreciation expense for 2023 would have increased by approximately $345 million. We have evaluated our estimated ship useful lives and projected residual values in light of our current environment and determined that there are no changes to these estimates. Refer to Note 6. Property and Equipment to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on our ships.
Valuation of Goodwill, Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets and Long-Lived Assets
We review goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at the reporting unit level annually or, when events or circumstances dictate, more frequently. The impairment review for goodwill consists of a qualitative assessment of whether it is more-likely than-not that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying value, and if necessary, a goodwill impairment test. Factors to consider when performing the qualitative assessment include general economic conditions, limitations on accessing capital, changes in forecasted operating results, changes in fuel prices, and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.
The goodwill impairment analysis consists of a comparison of the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying value. We typically estimate the fair value of our reporting units using a discounted cash flow model, which may also include a combination of a market-based valuation approach. The estimation of fair value utilizing discounted expected future cash flows includes numerous uncertainties which require our significant judgment when making assumptions of expected revenues, operating costs, marketing, selling and administrative expenses, interest rates, and assumptions regarding the cruise vacation industry's competitive environment and general economic and business conditions, among other factors. The principal assumptions used in the discounted cash flow model for our 2023 impairment assessment consisted of:
Forecasted revenues per available passenger cruise day;
Occupancy rates from existing vessels;
Vessel operating expenses;
Terminal growth rate; and
Weighted average cost of capital (i.e., discount rate).
The discounted cash flow model uses the most current projected operating results for the upcoming fiscal year as a base. We discount the projected cash flows using rates specific to the reporting unit based on its weighted-average cost of capital.
If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, no write-down of goodwill is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of its net assets, an impairment is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to such reporting unit. Refer to Note 4. Goodwill to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on goodwill.
The impairment review for indefinite-life intangible assets can be performed using a qualitative or quantitative impairment assessment. The quantitative assessment consists of a comparison of the fair value of the asset with its carrying value. We estimate the fair value of these assets using a discounted cash flow model and various valuation methods depending on the nature of the intangible asset, such as the relief-from-royalty method, for trademarks and trade names. The principal assumptions used in the discounted cash flow model for our 2023 impairment assessment consisted of:
Forecasted revenues per available passenger cruise day;
Occupancy rates from existing vessels ;
Terminal growth rate;
Royalty rate; and
Weighted average cost of capital (i.e., discount rate).
If the carrying value exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. If the fair value exceeds its carrying value, the indefinite-life intangible asset is not considered impaired. Other intangible assets assigned finite useful lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Refer to Note 5. Intangible Assets to

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our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on indefinite-life and finite-life intangible assets.
We review our ships and other long-lived assets, including right-of-use assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate, based on recent and projected cash flow performance and remaining useful lives, that the carrying value of these assets may not be fully recoverable. We evaluate asset impairment at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. The lowest level for which we maintain identifiable cash flows that are independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities is at the ship level for our ships. If estimated undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying value of an asset, an impairment charge is recognized to the extent its carrying value exceeds fair value. Refer to Note 6. Property and Equipment to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on determination of fair value for long-lived assets.
We estimate fair value based on quoted market prices in active markets, if available. If active markets are not available, we base fair value on independent appraisals, sales price negotiations and projected future cash flows discounted at a rate estimated by management to be commensurate with the business risk. Quoted market prices are often not available for individual reporting units and for indefinite-life intangible assets. Accordingly, we estimate the fair value of a reporting unit and an indefinite-life intangible asset using an expected present value technique.
Royal Caribbean International Reporting Unit
During the fourth quarter of 2023, we performed a quantitative analysis as part of our annual impairment review of the Royal Caribbean International reporting unit. As of November 30, 2023, the fair value of the Royal Caribbean International reporting unit was determined using a discounted cash flow model in combination with a market-based valuation approach. As a result of the test, we determined the fair value of the Royal Caribbean International reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by more than 100% as of November 30, 2023, resulting in no impairment to Royal Caribbean International's goodwill.
During the fourth quarter of 2022, we performed a qualitative assessment of the Royal Caribbean International reporting unit. Based on our qualitative assessment, we concluded that it was more-likely-than-not that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying value and thus, we did not proceed to the goodwill impairment test.
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the carrying amount of goodwill attributable to our Royal Caribbean reporting unit was $296.4 million.
We did not perform interim impairment evaluations of Royal Caribbean International's goodwill during 2023 and 2022, as no triggering events were identified.
Silversea Cruises Reporting Unit
During the fourth quarters of 2023 and 2022, we performed a quantitative analysis as part of our annual impairment review of the Silversea Cruises reporting unit. As of November 30, 2023, and November 30, 2022, the fair value of the Silversea Cruises reporting unit was determined using a probability weighted discounted cash flow model in combination with a market-based valuation approach. As a result of the tests, we determined the fair value of the Silversea Cruises reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by approximately 63% and 26% as of November 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, resulting in no impairment to Silversea Cruises' goodwill. The carrying value of goodwill attributable to our Silversea Cruises reporting unit was $509 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.
During the fourth quarters of 2023 and 2022, we performed our annual impairment reviews of the Silversea Cruises trade name. As a result of the quantitative tests, we determined that the fair value of the Silversea Cruises' trade name exceeded its carrying value by approximately 62% and 25%, as of November 30, 2023 and November 30, 2022, respectively, resulting in no impairment to Silversea Cruises' trade name.
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the carrying value of indefinite-life intangible assets was $321 million, which primarily relates to the Silversea Cruises trade name.
We did not perform interim impairment evaluations of Silversea Cruises' goodwill or trade names during 2023 and 2022, as no triggering events were identified.
Derivative Instruments
We enter into various forward, swap and option contracts to manage our interest rate exposure and to limit our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and fuel prices. These instruments are recorded on the balance sheet at their fair

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value and the vast majority are designated as hedges. We also use non-derivative financial instruments designated as hedges of our net investment in our foreign operations and investments. Although some of our derivative financial instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting or are not accounted for under hedge accounting, we do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading or other speculative purposes. We account for derivative financial instruments in accordance with authoritative guidance. Refer to Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 16. Fair Value Measurements and Derivative Instruments to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on related authoritative guidance, the Company's hedging programs and derivative financial instruments.
On a regular basis, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts, interest rate swaps, fuel swaps and options with third-party institutions in over-the-counter markets. We estimate the fair value of our foreign currency forward contracts and interest rate swaps using expected future cash flows based on the instruments' contract terms and published forward prices for foreign currency exchange and interest rates. We value floors which are embedded within our interest rate swaps using standard option pricing models with inputs based on the options’ contract terms, such as exercise price and maturity, and readily available market data, such as forward interest rates and interest rate volatility. We apply present value techniques to convert the expected future cash flows to the current fair value of the instruments.
We estimate the fair value of our fuel swaps using expected future cash flows based on the swaps' contract terms and forward prices. We derive forward prices from published forward fuel curves which in turn are based on actual market transactions and published price quotes for similar assets. We apply present value techniques to convert the expected future cash flows to the current fair value of the instruments. We also corroborate our fair value estimates using valuations provided by our counterparties.
We adjust the valuation of our derivative financial instruments to incorporate credit risk.
We believe it is unlikely that materially different estimates for the fair value of our foreign currency forward contracts, interest rate swaps, fuel swaps and options would be derived from other appropriate valuation models using similar assumptions, inputs or conditions suggested by actual historical experience.
Contingencies—Litigation
On an ongoing basis, we assess the potential liabilities related to any lawsuits or claims brought against us. While it is typically difficult to determine the timing and ultimate outcome of such actions, we use our best judgment to determine if it is probable that we will incur an expense related to the settlement or final adjudication of such matters and whether a reasonable estimation of such probable loss, if any, can be made. In assessing probable losses, we take into consideration estimates of the amount of insurance recoveries, if any, which are recorded as assets when recoverability is probable. We accrue a liability when we believe a loss is probable and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Due to the inherent uncertainties related to the eventual outcome of litigation and potential insurance recoveries, it is possible that certain matters may be resolved for amounts materially different from any provisions or disclosures that we have previously made.
Seasonality
Our revenues are seasonal based on demand for cruises. Demand has historically been strongest for cruises during the Northern Hemisphere's summer months and holidays. In order to mitigate the impact of the winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere and to capitalize on the summer season in the Southern Hemisphere, our brands have historically focused on deployment to the Caribbean, Asia and Australia during that period.
Financial Presentation
Description of Certain Line Items
Revenues
Our revenues are comprised of the following:
Passenger ticket revenues, which consist of revenue recognized from the sale of passenger tickets and the sale of air transportation to and from our ships; and
Onboard and other revenues, which consist primarily of revenues from the sale of goods and/or services onboard our ships not included in passenger ticket prices, casino operations, cancellation fees, sales of vacation protection insurance, pre- and post-cruise tours and fees for operating certain port facilities. Onboard and other revenues also include revenues we receive from independent third party concessionaires that pay us a percentage of their

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revenues in exchange for the right to provide selected goods and/or services onboard our ships, as well as revenues received for procurement and management related services we perform on behalf of our unconsolidated affiliates.
Cruise Operating Expenses
Our cruise operating expenses are comprised of the following:
Commissions, transportation and other expenses, which consist of those costs directly associated with passenger ticket revenues, including travel advisor commissions, air and other transportation expenses, port costs that vary with passenger head counts and related credit card fees;
Onboard and other expenses, which consist of the direct costs associated with onboard and other revenues, including the costs of products sold onboard our ships, vacation protection insurance premiums, costs associated with pre- and post-cruise tours and related credit card fees, as well as the minimal costs associated with concession revenues, as the costs are mostly incurred by third-party concessionaires and costs incurred for the procurement and management related services we perform on behalf of our unconsolidated affiliates;
Payroll and related expenses, which consist of costs for shipboard personnel (costs associated with our shoreside personnel are included in Marketing, selling and administrative expenses);
Food expenses, which include food costs for both guests and crew;
Fuel expenses, which include fuel and related delivery, storage and emission consumable costs and the financial impact of fuel swap agreements; and
Other operating expenses, which consist primarily of operating costs such as repairs and maintenance, port costs that do not vary with passenger head counts, vessel related insurance, entertainment and gains and/or losses related to the sale of our ships, if any.
We do not allocate payroll and related expenses, food expenses, fuel expenses or other operating expenses to the expense categories attributable to passenger ticket revenues or onboard and other revenues since they are incurred to provide the total cruise vacation experience.
Selected Operational and Financial Metrics
We utilize a variety of operational and financial metrics which are defined below to evaluate our performance and financial condition. As discussed in more detail herein, certain of these metrics are non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures are provided along with the related GAAP financial measures as we believe they provide useful information to investors as a supplement to our consolidated financial statements, which are prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP. The presentation of non-GAAP financial information is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for, or superior to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP.
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure that represents EBITDA (as defined below) excluding certain items that we believe adjusting for is meaningful when assessing our profitability on a comparative basis. For the periods presented, these items included (i) Other expense, which includes the loss contingency in connection with the ongoing Havana Docks litigation recorded in other expenses in 2022; (ii) gain on sale of controlling interest; (iii) impairment and credit losses; (iv) restructuring charges and other initiative expense; (v) equity investment impairment and recovery of losses; (vi) Pullmantur reorganization settlement; (vii) net insurance recoveries or costs related to the collapse of the drydock structure at the Grand Bahama Shipyard involving Oasis of the Seas; and (viii) the net gain recognized in 2021 in relation to the sale of the Azamara brand; A reconciliation of Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. to Adjusted EBITDA is provided below under Results of Operations.
Adjusted Earnings (Loss) per Share ("Adjusted EPS") is a non-GAAP measure that represents Adjusted Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. (as defined below) divided by weighted average shares outstanding or by diluted weighted average shares outstanding, as applicable. We believe that this non-GAAP measure is meaningful when assessing our performance on a comparative basis.
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. is a non-GAAP measure that represents net income (loss) less net income attributable to noncontrolling interest, excluding certain items that we believe adjusting for is meaningful when assessing our performance on a comparative basis. For the periods presented, these items included (i) loss on extinguishment of debt; (ii) gain on sale of controlling interest; (iii) tax on the sale of PortMiami noncontrolling interest; (iv)

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Silver Whisper deferred tax liability release; (v) impairment and credit losses; (vi) the amortization of the Silversea Cruises intangible assets resulting from the Silversea Cruises acquisition in 2018; (vii) restructuring charges and other initiative expenses; (viii) equity investments impairment and recovery of losses; (ix) loss contingency recorded in 2022 in connection with the ongoing Havana Docks litigation inclusive of related legal fees and costs; (x) convertible debt amortization of debt discount; (xi) the 2021 Pullmantur reorganization settlement; (xii) net insurance recoveries related to the collapse of the drydock structure at the Grand Bahama Shipyard involving Oasis of the Seas incident; (xiii) the net gain recognized in 2021 in relation to the sale of the Azamara brand; and (xiv) the net loss recognized in 2021 related to the elimination of the three-month reporting lag for Silversea Cruises. A reconciliation of Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. to Adjusted Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. is provided below under Results of Operations.
Available Passenger Cruise Days ("APCD") is our measurement of capacity and represents double occupancy per cabin multiplied by the number of cruise days for the period, which excludes canceled cruise days and cabins not available for sale. We use this measure to perform capacity and rate analysis to identify our main non-capacity drivers that cause our cruise revenue and expenses to vary.
EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure that represents of Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. excluding (i) interest income; (ii) interest expense, net of interest capitalized; (iii) depreciation and amortization expenses; and (iv) income tax benefit or expense. We believe that this non-GAAP measure is meaningful when assessing our operating performance on a comparative basis. A reconciliation of Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. to EBITDA is provided below under Results of Operations.
Gross Cruise Costs represent the sum of total cruise operating expenses plus marketing, selling and administrative expenses.
Carbon Intensity is our measurement of carbon dioxide emissions per gross tonne nautical mile (well-to-wake).
Net Cruise Costs and Net Cruise Costs excluding Fuel are non-GAAP measures that represent Gross Cruise Costs excluding commissions, transportation and other expenses, onboard and other expenses and, in the case of Net Cruise Costs excluding Fuel, fuel expenses (each of which is described above under the Description of Certain Line Items heading). In measuring our ability to control costs in a manner that positively impacts net income, we believe changes in Net Cruise Costs and Net Cruise Costs Excluding Fuel to be the most relevant indicators of our cost performance. For the 2023 period presented, Net Cruise Costs and Net Cruise Costs Excluding Fuel excludes (i) gain on sale of controlling interest; (ii) impairment and credit losses; and (iii) restructuring and other initiative expenses. A reconciliation of Gross Cruise Costs to Net Cruise Costs and Net Cruise Costs Excluding Fuel is provided below under Results of Operations.
Gross Margin Yield represent Gross Margin per APCD.
Adjusted Gross Margin represent Gross Margin, adjusted for payroll and related, food, fuel, other operating, and depreciation and amortization expenses. Gross Margin is calculated pursuant to GAAP as total revenues less total cruise operating expenses, and depreciation and amortization.
Net Yields represent Adjusted Gross Margin per APCD. We utilize Adjusted Gross Margin and Net Yields to manage our business on a day-to-day basis as we believe that they are the most relevant measures of our pricing performance because they reflect the cruise revenues earned by us net of our most significant variable costs, which are commissions, transportation and other expenses, and onboard and other expenses.
Invested Capital represents the most recent five-quarter average of total debt (i.e., Current portion of long-term debt plus Long-term debt) plus the most recent five-quarter average of Total shareholders' equity. We use this measure to calculate ROIC (as defined below).
Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) is a non-GAAP measure that represents operating income (loss) including income (loss) from equity investments and income taxes but excluding certain items that we believe adjusting for is meaningful when assessing our operating performance on a comparative basis. We use this non-GAAP measure to calculate ROIC (as defined below).
Return on Invested Capital ("ROIC") represents Adjusted Operating Income (Loss) divided by Invested Capital. We believe ROIC is a meaningful measure because it quantifies how efficiently we generated operating income relative to the capital we have invested in the business. ROIC is also used as a key metric in our long-term incentive compensation program for our executive officers.

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Occupancy ("Load factor"), in accordance with cruise vacation industry practice, is calculated by dividing Passenger Cruise Days (as defined below) by APCD. A percentage in excess of 100% indicates that three or more passengers occupied some cabins.
Passenger Cruise Days represent the number of passengers carried for the period multiplied by the number of days of their respective cruises.
The use of certain non-GAAP measures, such as Net Yields, Net Cruise Costs and Net Cruise Costs Excluding Fuel, allows us to perform capacity and rate analysis to separate the impact of known capacity changes from other less predictable changes which affect our business. We believe these non-GAAP measures provide expanded insight to measure revenue and cost performance in addition to the standard GAAP based financial measures. There are no specific rules or regulations for determining non-GAAP measures, and as such, they may not be comparable to other companies within the industry.
We have not provided a quantitative reconciliation of projected non-GAAP financial measures to the most comparable GAAP financial measures because preparation of meaningful U.S. GAAP projections would require unreasonable effort. Due to significant uncertainty, we are unable to predict, without unreasonable effort, the future movement of foreign exchange rates, fuel prices and interest rates inclusive of our related hedging programs. In addition, we are unable to determine the future impact of non-core business related gains and losses which may result from strategic initiatives. These items are uncertain and could be material to our results of operations in accordance with U.S GAAP. Due to this uncertainty, we do not believe that reconciling information for such projected figures would be meaningful.

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Executive Overview
2023 performance was exceptionally strong and significantly exceeded our expectations.
We took delivery of three new ships (Silver Nova, Celebrity Ascent and Icon of the Seas), expanded Perfect Day at CocoCay’s capacity with the launch of Hideaway Beach, and successfully returned to normalized load factors of 105.6%, with peak summer sailings reaching load factors of 110%. We achieved strong financial performance, including EBITDA of $4.5 billion in 2023, record Adjusted EBITDA per APCD and record ROIC. In addition, 2023 delivered record Net Yields and Adjusted EBITDA, and we made significant progress in repairing our balance sheet, repaying approximately $4.0 billion of debt.
Our 2023 Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. was $1.7 billion, or $6.31 per diluted share, compared to Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. of $1.9 billion, or $8.95 per diluted share in 2019, the most recent year of normalized operations. Adjusted Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. for 2023 was $1.8 billion, or $6.77 per diluted share, compared to Adjusted Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. of $2.0 billion, or $9.54 per diluted share in 2019. 2023 Adjusted EBITDA was $4.5 billion, compared to Adjusted EBITDA of $3.6 billion in 2019.
Total revenues in 2023 were $13.9 billion, exceeding the previous record of $11.0 billion in 2019 driven by strong ticket revenue and onboard revenue performance, inclusive of capacity growth. As a result of this, Gross Margin Yields increased 13.2% as-reported, and Net Yields increased 13.5% in Constant-Currency, both compared to 2019. The strength in revenue and improved cash flow, combined with our margin expansion efforts allowed us to accelerate debt repayment, improving our debt maturity profile.
Cruise operating expenses increased from $6.1 billion in 2019 to $7.8 billion in 2023. Gross Cruise Costs per APCD increased 10.9% as-reported and 11.3% in Constant Currency, compared to 2019. Net Cruise Costs, excluding Fuel, per APCD increased 7.5% as-reported and 7.9% in Constant Currency, compared to 2019. Our disciplined cost control helped mitigate the effects of inflation. For 2023, Net Cruise Costs included $2.31 per APCD of structural costs which were not present in 2019, including increased costs associated with Perfect Day at CocoCay, our Galveston terminal, and roll-out of Starlink internet onboard our fleet.
In 2024, we expect our capacity to increase by 8.5% compared to 2023, with the addition of Silver Ray and Utopia of the Seas and a full year of operations for Silver Nova, Celebrity Ascent, and Icon of the Seas (which began revenue sailings in January 2024). Utopia of the Seas will be the first Oasis class ship focused on short Caribbean itineraries, and we also return to China for the first time since 2019 with Spectrum of the Seas. In addition, we will continue the construction of the first Royal Beach Club at Paradise Island, Bahamas, set to open in 2025. Our new ships, optimized deployment, continued load factor growth and enhanced onboard offerings are expected to drive growth in Net Yields and Total Revenues. During 2024, we are expected to have 20 ships in drydock, due to our growing fleet combined with the timing of restarting our entire fleet, and we plan to continue investing in newbuilds and retrofitting our existing fleet with technology to help reach our long-term goals to reduce carbon intensity.

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Results of Operations
In addition to the items discussed above under "Executive Overview," significant items for 2023 include:
Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and Adjusted Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $1.7 billion and $1.8 billion, or $6.31 and $6.77 per share on a diluted basis, respectively, compared to Net Loss attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and Adjusted Net Loss attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. of $(2.2) billion and $(1.9) billion, or $(8.45) and $(7.50) per share on a diluted basis, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Total revenues increased by $5.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily driven by our full operations at higher occupancy, capacity, and ticket prices in 2023, compared to partial to full operations during the first half and second half of 2022, respectively, at lower occupancy and capacity rates.
Total cruise operating expenses increased by $1.2 billion for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022. The increase reflects our operations in 2023 at higher capacity and occupancy, compared to the same period in 2022.
In February 2023, we issued $700 million aggregate principal amount of 7.25% senior guaranteed notes due January 2030 ("7.25% Priority Guaranteed Notes"). Upon closing, we terminated our commitment for the $700 million 364-day term loan facility. In addition, the remaining $350 million backstop committed financing was also terminated upon closing,
Effective March 31, 2023, we closed on the previously announced partnership with iCON. As part of the transaction, we sold 80% of PortMiami for $209 million and retained a 20% minority interest. The partnership will own, develop, and manage cruise terminal facilities and infrastructure in key ports of call, initially including several development projects in Italy, Spain, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Refer to Note 7. Investments and Other Assets in our consolidated financial statements for further information on the transaction.
In June 2023, our 4.25% Convertible Senior Notes with an outstanding balance of $350 million were settled using a combination of $338 million in cash, and the issuance of approximately 374,000 shares of common stock. The issuance of equity increased additional paid in capital by an immaterial amount.
In June 2023, we took delivery of Silver Nova, and in November 2023, we took delivery of Celebrity Ascent, and Icon of the Seas. Refer to Note 8. Debt to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on the financing of the ships. Silver Nova, Celebrity Ascent, and Icon of the Seas entered service in the third and fourth quarters of 2023, and the first quarter of 2024, respectively.
In November 2023, we settled $225 million of our 2.875% Convertible Senior Notes. The notes were settled using a combination of $225 million in cash and the issuance of approximately 147,000 shares of common stock. The issuance of equity increased additional paid in capital by an immaterial amount.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we executed and amended various financing arrangements on our two unsecured revolving credit facilities. Following these refinancings, our aggregate revolving credit commitments are $3.5 billion, with $1.7 billion scheduled to mature in October 2026, and $1.7 billion scheduled to mature in October 2028, and $97 million scheduled to mature in April 2025.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we fully repaid the $1.4 billion outstanding balance on our 11.50% secured senior notes due in June 2025.
For further information regarding the debt transactions discussed above, refer to Note 8. Debt to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information on our 2023 financing activity.


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We reported Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Adjusted Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Earnings (Loss) per Share and Adjusted Earnings (Loss) per Share as shown in the following table (in millions, except per share data):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.$1,697 $(2,156)$(5,260)
Loss on extinguishment of debt121 94 139 
Gain on sale of controlling interest (1)(3)— — 
PortMiami tax on sale of noncontrolling interest (2)— — 
Silver Whisper deferred tax liability release (3)(26)— — 
Impairment and credit losses (4)82 
Amortization of Silversea Cruises intangible assets resulting from the Silversea Cruises acquisition (5)
Restructuring charges and other initiatives expense12 
Equity investment impairment and recovery of losses (6)12 — 31 
Litigation loss contingency (7)— 130 — 
Convertible debt amortization of debt discount (8)— — 104 
Pullmantur reorganization settlement (9)— — 10 
Oasis of the Seas incident (10)— — (7)
Net gain related to the sale of Azamara brand (11)— — (3)
Net loss related to the elimination of the Silversea Cruises reporting lag (12)— — 63 
Adjusted Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.$1,827 $(1,913)$(4,833)
Basic:
Earnings (Loss) per Share$6.63 $(8.45)$(20.89)
Adjusted Earnings (Loss) per Share$7.14 $(7.50)$(19.19)
Diluted:
Earnings (Loss) per Share (13)$6.31 $(8.45)$(20.89)
Adjusted Earnings (Loss) per Share (13)$6.77 $(7.50)$(19.19)
Weighted-Average Shares Outstanding:
Basic256 255 252 
Diluted283 255 252 
(1)    Represents gain on sale of controlling interest in cruise terminal facilities in Italy. These amounts are included in Other operating within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
(2)    Represents tax on the PortMiami sale of noncontrolling interest. These amounts are included in Other (expense) income in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
(3)    Represents the release of the deferred tax liability subsequent to the execution of the bargain purchase option for the Silver Whisper. These amounts are included in Other (expense) income within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
(4)    Represents asset impairments and credit loss recoveries for notes receivables for which credit losses were previously recorded. These amounts are included in Other operating within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). Additionally, for 2023 includes an $11 million impairment related to ceasing the use of certain real estate assets in our shoreside operations. This amount is included in Marketing, selling and administrative expenses within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). For 2022 and 2021, amounts represents asset impairment and credit losses as a result of the impact of COVID-19, net of the recovery of credit losses previously recognized
(5)    Represents the amortization of the Silversea Cruises intangible assets resulting from the 2018 Silversea Cruises acquisition.

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(6)    For 2023, represents equity method impairments of $13 million and recognition of deferred currency translation adjustment losses of $4 million. These amounts are included in Equity investment income (loss) and Other (expense) income within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), respectively. Additionally, 2023, includes a $4 million recovery of losses from one of our equity method investees recognized during the second quarter of 2023. For 2021, amount represents equity investment asset impairment, primarily for our investments in TUI Cruises GmbH as a result of the impact of COVID-19. These amount is included in Equity investment income (loss) within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
(7)    Represents the 2022 loss contingency recorded in connection with the ongoing Havana Docks litigation inclusive of post-judgment interest and related legal fees and costs. This amount is included in Other (expense) income within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
(8)    Represents the amortization of non-cash debt discount on our convertible notes. For further information regarding the adoption of ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2022, which impacts the accounting of the non-cash debt discount on convertible notes, refer to Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
(9)    Represents estimated cash refunds expected to be paid to Pullmantur guests and other expenses incurred as part of the Pullmantur S.A. reorganization.
(10)    Amounts include net insurance recoveries related to the collapse of the drydock structure at the Grand Bahama Shipyard involving Oasis of the Seas.
(11)    Represents the net gain recognized in 2021 in relation to the sale of the Azamara brand.
(12)    Represents the net loss related to the elimination of the Silversea Cruises reporting lag.
(13)    For 2023, diluted EPS and adjusted EPS includes the add-back of dilutive interest expense related to our convertible notes of $88 million.


Year Ended December 31,
2019
Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.$1,879 
Oasis of the Seas incident, Grand Bahama's drydock write-off and other incidental expenses (1)35 
Loss on extinguishment of debt
Change in the fair value of contingent consideration and amortization of Silversea Cruises intangible assets related to Silversea Cruises acquisition (2)31 
Restructuring charges and other initiatives expense (3)14 
Transaction and integration costs related to the Silversea Cruises acquisition (2)
Noncontrolling interest adjustment (4)36 
Adjusted Net Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.$2,003 
Basic:
Earnings per Share$8.97 
Adjusted Earnings per Share$9.56 
Diluted:
Earnings per Share$8.95 
Adjusted Earnings per Share$9.54 
Weighted-Average Shares Outstanding:
Basic209 
Diluted210 

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(1)Amount includes incidental costs, net of insurance recoveries of $14 million related to the collapse of the drydock structure at the Grand Bahama Shipyard involving Oasis of the Seas, which were reported primarily within Other operating expenses in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2019; and $21 million regarding the Grand Bahama incident involving one of its drydocks, included in our equity investment income within our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2019. 
(2)Represents the change in the fair value of the contingent consideration and the amortization of the Silversea Cruises intangible assets resulting from the 2018 Silversea Cruises acquisition.
(3)Represents restructuring charges incurred in relation to the reorganization of our international sales and marketing structure and other initiatives expenses.
(4)Adjustment made to exclude the impact of the contractual accretion requirements associated with the put option held by Silversea Cruises Group Ltd.'s noncontrolling interest.

The following table presents operating results as a percentage of total revenues for the last three years:
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Passenger ticket revenues68.8 %65.5 %61.4 %
Onboard and other revenues31.2 %34.5 %38.6 %
Total revenues100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Cruise operating expenses:
Commissions, transportation and other14.4 %15.4 %13.6 %
Onboard and other5.8 %6.8 %7.6 %
Payroll and related8.6 %14.6 %54.7 %
Food5.9 %7.4 %10.7 %
Fuel8.3 %12.1 %25.1 %
Other operating12.9 %18.6 %67.0 %
Total cruise operating expenses55.9 %74.8 %178.8 %
Marketing, selling and administrative expenses12.9 %17.9 %89.4 %
Depreciation and amortization expenses10.5 %15.9 %84.4 %
Operating Income (Loss)20.7 %(8.7)%(252.6)%
Other income (expense):
Interest income0.3 %0.4 %1.1 %
Interest expense, net of interest capitalized(10.1)%(15.4)%(84.3)%
Equity investment income (loss) 1.4 %0.6 %(8.8)%
Other (expense) income(0.1)%(1.3)%1.3 %
(8.4)%(15.7)%(90.7)%
Net Income (Loss)12.3 %(24.4)%(343.3)%
Less: Net Income attributable to noncontrolling interest0.1 %— %— %
Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.12.2 %(24.4)%(343.3)%

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Selected statistical information is shown in the following table:
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021(1)(2)
Passengers Carried7,646,203 5,536,335 1,030,403 
Passenger Cruise Days49,549,127 35,051,935 5,802,582 
APCD46,916,259 41,197,650 11,767,441 
Occupancy105.6 %85.1 %49.3 %
___________________________________________________________________
(1)    Due to the elimination of the Silversea Cruises three-month reporting lag in October of 2021, we include Silversea Cruises' metrics from October 1, 2020 through June 30, 2021 and October 1 through December 31, 2021 in the year ended December 31, 2021. The year ended December 31, 2021 does not include July, August, and September 2021 statistics as Silversea Cruises' results of operations for those months are included within Other (expense) income in our consolidated statements of comprehensive loss for the year ended December 31, 2021. Refer to Note 1. General to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on the three-month reporting lag.
(2) For the year ended December, 31, 2021, we include Azamara Cruises' metrics through March 19, 2021, the effective sale date of the brand. Refer to Note 1. General to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on the sale of the Azamara Cruises brand.

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EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA were calculated as follows (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net Income (Loss) attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.$1,697 $(2,156)$(5,260)
Interest income(36)(36)(17)
Interest expense, net of interest capitalized1,402 1,364 1,292 
Depreciation and amortization expenses1,455 1,407 1,293 
Income tax expense (benefit) (1)(47)
EBITDA4,524 583