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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                    to                                   
Commission file number: 1-11884
ROYAL CARIBBEAN CRUISES LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Republic of Liberia
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
98-0081645
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1050 Caribbean Way, Miami, Florida 33132
(Address of principal executive offices) (zip code)
(305539-6000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareRCLNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes   No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock at June 30, 2020 (based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020) held by those persons deemed by the registrant to be non-affiliates was approximately $10.5 billion. Shares of the registrant's common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each entity or person that, to the registrant's knowledge, owned 10% or more of the registrant's outstanding common stock as of June 30, 2020 have been excluded from this number in that these persons may be deemed affiliates of the registrant. This determination of possible affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
There were 237,535,138 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 22, 2021.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III, Items 10-14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as indicated herein.

F-1

Table of Contents
ROYAL CARIBBEAN CRUISES LTD.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

F-2

Table of Contents
PART I

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “Royal Caribbean,” "Royal Caribbean Group," the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and, depending on the context, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.’s consolidated subsidiaries and/or affiliates. The terms “Royal Caribbean International,” “Celebrity Cruises,” “Azamara” and “Silversea Cruises” refer to our wholly owned global cruise brands. Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we also refer to our partner brands in which we hold an ownership interest, including “TUI Cruises,” and “Hapag-Lloyd Cruises.” However, because these partner brands are unconsolidated investments, our operating results and other disclosures herein do not include these brands unless otherwise specified. In accordance with cruise vacation industry practice, the term “berths” is determined based on double occupancy per cabin even though many cabins can accommodate three or more passengers.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K also includes trademarks, trade names and service marks of other companies. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks is not intended to and does not imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties other than as described herein.


1

Table of Contents
Item 1. Business.
General
We are a global cruise company. We control and operate four global cruise brands: Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara and Silversea Cruises (collectively, our "Global Brands"). We also own a 50% joint venture interest in TUI Cruises GmbH ("TUIC"), that operates the German brands TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises (collectively, our "Partner Brands"). Together, our Global Brands and our Partner Brands operate a combined total of 61 ships in the cruise vacation industry with an aggregate capacity of approximately 137,930 berths as of December 31, 2020.
Our ships operate on a selection of worldwide itineraries that call on approximately 1,000 destinations on all seven continents. In addition to our headquarters in Miami, Florida, we have offices and a network of international representatives around the world, which primarily focus on sales and market development.
We compete principally by operating valued brands that offer exceptional service provided by our crew and on the basis of innovation and quality of ships, variety of itineraries, choice of destinations and price. We believe that our commitment to build state-of-the-art ships and to invest in the maintenance and upgrade of our fleet to, among other things, incorporate many of our latest signature innovations, allows us to continue to attract new and loyal repeat guests.
On January 19, 2021, we announced that we entered into a definitive agreement to sell the Azamara brand, including its three-ship fleet and associated intellectual property, to Sycamore Partners for $201 million. The transaction is subject to customary conditions and is expected to close in the first quarter of 2021.
Royal Caribbean was founded in 1968 as a partnership. Its corporate structure has evolved over the years and, the current parent corporation, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., was incorporated on July 23, 1985 in the Republic of Liberia under the Business Corporation Act of Liberia.
COVID-19
The disruptions to our operations resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID-19”) have had, and continue to have, a material negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations. The global efforts to contain the spread of the disease have resulted in travel restrictions and created significant uncertainty regarding worldwide port closures and availability. As part of the global containment effort, we implemented a voluntary suspension of our Global Brands' cruise operations beginning March 13, 2020, which has been extended through at least April 30, 2021, for most of our cruise operations. As of February 23, 2021, four of our ships were operating with guests onboard.
On and effective as of October 30, 2020, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC") issued a Framework for Conditional Sailing Order (the “Conditional Order”) that will conditionally permit cruise ship passenger operations in U.S. waters under certain conditions and using a phased approach. The Conditional Order will remain in effect until the earlier of (1) the expiration of the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ declaration that COVID-19 constitutes a public health emergency, (2) the rescission or modification by the CDC Director of the Conditional Order based on specific public health or other considerations, or (3) November 1, 2021. See Business - Regulation for further details on the Conditional Order.
Our resumption of operations will include a staggered return of the fleet to service, which will include:
Bringing the fleet from layup status to fully operational;
Bringing crew back to an appropriate staffing level and expected reduced load factors for a period of time; and
Implementing health and safety protocols on ships as they resume operations and while protocols are required.

We are working with both the CDC and the Healthy Sail Panel ("HSP"), formed in June 2020 by us and Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. and composed of leading experts in relevant fields, including epidemiology, infectious diseases, public policy and regulation, engineering and general health safety, to prepare and develop our plan to meet the framework for the Conditional Order.
While the Conditional Order represents an important step in our return to service, many uncertainties remain as to the specifics, timing and costs of administering and implementing the requirements of the Conditional Order, some of which may be significant. Further, the Conditional Order contemplates that the CDC may issue additional requirements through technical instructions or orders as needed and that the phases described above will be further determined based on public health considerations, including the trajectory of the pandemic and the ability of cruise ship operators to successfully employ measures that mitigate the risk of COVID-19. Based on our assessment of these conditions or for other reasons, we may determine it necessary to further extend our voluntary suspension of our Global Brands’ cruise sailings which currently extends through at least April 30, 2021, for most of our cruise operations.

2

Table of Contents
We have undertaken several proactive measures to mitigate the financial and operational impacts of COVID-19, including significant reduction of capital expenditures and operating expenses as well as the issuance of debt and shares of our common stock. Given the current environment, we intend to continue to prioritize and bolster liquidity through cash conservation and additional financing sources, which may include the issuance of new debt (including convertible debt), refinancing of existing debt, amortization deferrals under our export-credit backed debt facilities and issuance of common stock, to ensure that we are well positioned for recovery. Additionally, we agreed with certain of our lenders that we will not pay dividends or engage in stock repurchases until the end of the third quarter of 2022. See Part II. Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis - Critical Accounting Policies and Recent Developments: COVID-19 and Note 1. General to our consolidated financial statements under Item 1. Financial Statements for further details on the impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our Global Brands
Our Global Brands include Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara, and Silversea Cruises. We believe our Global Brands possess the versatility to enter multiple cruise market segments within the cruise vacation industry. Although each of our Global Brands has its own marketing style, as well as ships and crews of various sizes, the nature of the products sold and services delivered by our Global Brands share a common base (i.e., the sale and provision of cruise vacations). Our Global Brands also offer similar itineraries as well as similar cost and revenue components. The itineraries of Global Brands are subject to resumption of our operations and local restrictions. In addition, our Global Brands have historically sourced passengers from similar markets around the world and operated in similar economic environments with a significant degree of commercial overlap. As a result, we strategically manage our Global Brands as a single business with the ultimate objective of maximizing long-term shareholder value.
Royal Caribbean International
Royal Caribbean International is positioned to compete in both the contemporary and premium segments of the cruise vacation industry. The brand appeals to families with children of all ages, as well as both older and younger couples, providing cruises that generally feature a casual ambiance, as well as a variety of activities and entertainment venues. We believe that the quality of the Royal Caribbean International brand allows it to achieve market coverage that is among the broadest of any of the major cruise brands in the cruise vacation industry. Royal Caribbean International’s strategy is to attract an array of vacationing guests by offering a wide variety of itineraries to destinations worldwide, including Alaska, Asia, Australia, Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, the Panama Canal and New Zealand, with cruise lengths ranging from two to 24 nights. Royal Caribbean International offers multiple innovative options for onboard dining, entertainment and other onboard activities. Because of the brand’s ability to deliver extensive and innovative product offerings at an excellent value to consumers, we believe Royal Caribbean International is well positioned to attract new consumers to cruising and to continue to bring loyal repeat guests back for their next vacation.
Royal Caribbean International operates 24 ships with an aggregate capacity of approximately 84,200 berths. Additionally, as of December 31, 2020, Royal Caribbean International has six ships on order with an aggregate capacity of approximately 32,400 berths. These ships consist Odyssey of the Seas, which is expected to be delivered in early 2021, Wonder of the Seas and our sixth Oasis-class ship, which are expected to be delivered in the first quarter of 2022 and the second quarter of 2024, respectively, and the first three ships of a new generation, known as our Icon-class, which are expected to be delivered in the third quarter of 2023, and the second quarters of 2025 and 2026, respectively.
The expected delivery dates for all of our ships on order are subject to change in the event of shipyard construction delays. See Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors for further discussion on the impact of COVID-19 on shipyard operations.
Celebrity Cruises
Celebrity Cruises is positioned within the luxury segment of the cruise vacation industry. Celebrity Cruises’ strategy is to target affluent consumers by delivering a destination-rich experience on upscale ships that offer, among other things, luxurious accommodations, refined design-forward spaces, world-class service and culinary excellence. Celebrity Cruises offers a range of itineraries to destinations, including Alaska, Asia, Australia, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, the Galapagos Islands, Hawaii, New Zealand, the Panama Canal and South America, with cruise lengths ranging from two to 18 nights.
Celebrity Cruises operates 14 ships with an aggregate capacity of approximately 29,220 berths, including the brand's newest ship Celebrity Apex, which was delivered in the first quarter of 2020. Additionally, as of December 31, 2020, we have two ships on order with an aggregate capacity of approximately 6,500 berths. These ships consist of two Edge-class ships, including Celebrity Beyond and a fourth ship in the class, which are expected to be delivered in the second quarter of 2022 and in the fourth quarter of 2023, respectively. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, we have an agreement in place with Chantiers de l’Atlantique to build an additional Edge-class ship with capacity of approximately 3,250 berths, estimated for delivery in 2025, which is contingent upon completion of certain conditions precedent and financing.

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Silversea Cruises
Silversea Cruise Holding Ltd. ("Silversea Cruises") is an ultra-luxury and expedition cruise line. On July 9, 2020, we acquired the remaining 33.3% interest in Silversea Cruises that we did not already own (the "noncontrolling interest") from Heritage Cruise Holding Ltd. ("Heritage"). As a result of the acquisition of the noncontrolling interest, Silversea Cruises is now a wholly owned cruise brand.
Silversea Cruises, formed in the early 1990s, is positioned as an ultra-luxury cruise line with smaller ships, high standards of accommodations, fine dining, personalized service and exotic itineraries. Silversea Cruises delivers distinctive destination experiences by visiting unique and remote destinations, including the Galapagos Islands, Antarctica and the Arctic with cruise itineraries generally ranging from six to 24 nights.
Silversea Cruises operates nine ships, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 3,350 berths, including the brand's newest ships Silver Origin and Silver Moon, which were delivered in the second and fourth quarters of 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, Silversea Cruises has three ships on order with an aggregate capacity of approximately 1,750 berths. The ships are expected to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2021, and in the first quarters of 2023 and 2024, respectively.
Azamara
On January 19, 2021, we announced that we entered into a definitive agreement to sell the Azamara brand, including its three-ship fleet with an aggregate capacity of approximately 2,100 berths and associated intellectual property, to Sycamore Partners for $201 million. The transaction is subject to customary conditions and is expected to close in the first quarter of 2021.
Our Partner Brands
Our Global Brands are complemented by our interest in TUIC, our 50%-owned joint venture that operates the German brands TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises (collectively, our "Partner Brands").
TUIC is a joint venture owned 50% by us and 50% by TUI AG, a German tourism company, which is designed to serve the contemporary and premium segments of the German cruise market by offering products tailored for German guests. All onboard activities, services, shore excursions and menu offerings are designed to suit the preferences of this target market.
TUI Cruises operates seven ships, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 17,700 berths as of December 31, 2020. Additionally, TUI Cruises has three ships on order with an aggregate capacity of approximately 11,100 berths, that are expected to be delivered in the second quarter of 2023, the third quarter of 2024 and the first quarter of 2026, respectively.
On June 30, 2020, TUIC acquired Hapag-Lloyd Cruises, a luxury and expedition brand for German-speaking guests, from TUI AG for approximately €1.2 billion, or $1.3 billion, as of the purchase date. Hapag-Lloyd Cruises operates two luxury liners and two smaller expedition ships, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 1,360 berths as of December 31, 2020. Refer to Note 1. General and Note 8. Other Assets to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further details.
Pullmantur
Pullmantur Holdings S.L ("Pullmantur Holdings") is a joint venture owned 49% by us and 51% by Cruises Investment Holdings S.A., an affiliate of Springwater Capital LLC. In 2020, Pullmantur Holdings and certain of its subsidiaries filed for reorganization under the terms of the Spanish insolvency laws due to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the companies. Refer to Note 8. Other Assets to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding Pullmantur's reorganization filing and its impact to the Company.
Industry
The cruising industry has been considered a well-established vacation sector in the North American, European and Australian markets and a developing sector in several other emerging markets. Although the industry is currently experiencing challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, we believe that cruising will continue to be a popular vacation choice in the long-term due to its inherent value, extensive itineraries and variety of shipboard and shoreside activities.

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As part of the global effort to contain the spread of COVID-19, the Company and other industry participants voluntarily suspended operations in March 2020, resulting in a limited number of cruises being taken in the past year. As a result, representative information of market penetration and other indicators are not available for 2020. For the five year period prior to 2020, industry data indicated that market penetration rates were still low and that a significant portion of cruise guests carried in those years were first-time cruisers. We believe this presents an opportunity for operational and financial recovery and long-term growth for the industry when it resumes operations.
The following table details industry market penetration rates for North America, Europe and Asia/Pacific for the five years prior to 2020 computed based on the number of annual cruise guests as a percentage of the total population:
Year (1)
North America(2)(3)
Europe(2)(4)
Asia/Pacific(2)(5)
20153.36%1.25%0.08%
20163.43%1.23%0.11%
20173.56%1.28%0.15%
20183.87%1.38%0.16%
20193.89%1.41%0.20%
___________________________________________________________________
(1)Historically, we have reported annual comparable information for relevant comparisons to other periods. The 2020 suspension of global cruise operations as a result of COVID-19 does not allow for a meaningful comparison to prior years' information and as such the 2020 data has been excluded from this table.
(2)Source: Our estimates are based on a combination of data obtained from publicly available sources including the International Monetary Fund, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Cruise Lines International Association ("CLIA") and G.P. Wild. In addition, our estimates incorporate our own analysis utilizing the same publicly available cruise industry data as a base.
(3)Our estimates include the United States and Canada.
(4)Our estimates include European countries relevant to the industry (most notably: the Nordics, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom).
(5)Our estimates include Southeast Asia (most notably: Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines), East Asia (most notably: China and Japan), South Asia (most notably: India) and Oceania (most notably: Australia and New Zealand) regions.

The global cruise fleet was served by a weighted average of approximately 579,000 berths during 2019 with approximately 354 ships at the end of 2019. As of December 31, 2019, there were approximately 67 ships with an estimated 159,000 berths that were expected to be placed in service in the global cruise market through 2024, not taking into account ships taken out of service or ordered during these periods. We believe that, starting in 2020, cruise ships in the industry were taken out of service at an accelerated rate and new ship orders were deferred due to global cruise operation restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The global cruise industry carried approximately 30.0 million cruise guests in 2019 and approximately 28.5 million in 2018.
The following table details the growth in global weighted average berths and the global, North American, European and Asia/Pacific cruise guests for the five years prior to the impact of COVID-19 in 2020 (in thousands, except berth data):
Year (1)
Weighted-Average
Supply of
Berths
Marketed
Globally(2)
Royal Caribbean Group Total Berths(3)
Global
Cruise
Guests(2)
North American Cruise Guests(2)(4)
European Cruise Guests(2)(5)
Asia/Pacific Cruise Guests(2)(6)
2015469,000112,70023,00012,0046,5873,129
2016493,000123,27024,00012,2746,5124,466
2017515,000124,07026,70012,8656,7795,415
2018546,000135,52028,50014,0627,3435,685
2019579,000141,57030,00014,2467,5547,317
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(1)Historically, we have reported annual comparable information for relevant comparisons to other periods. The 2020 suspension of global cruise operations as a result of COVID-19 does not allow for a meaningful comparison to prior years' information and as such the 2020 data has been excluded from this table.
(2)Source: Our estimates of the number of global cruise guests and the weighted-average supply of berths marketed globally are based on a combination of data that we obtain from various publicly available cruise industry trade information sources. We use data obtained from Seatrade Insider, Cruise Industry News and company press releases to estimate weighted-average supply of berths and CLIA and G.P. Wild to estimate cruise guest information. In addition, our estimates incorporate our own analysis utilizing the same publicly available cruise industry data as a base.
(3)Total berths include our berths related to our Global Brands and Partner Brands.
(4)Our estimates include the United States and Canada.
(5)Our estimates include European countries relevant to the industry (most notably: the Nordics, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom).
(6)Our estimates include Southeast Asia (most notably: Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines), East Asia (most notably: China and Japan), South Asia (most notably: India) and Oceania (most notably: Australia and New Zealand) regions.
North America
Industry cruise guests have been primarily sourced from North America, which represented approximately 47% of global cruise guests in 2019. The compound annual growth rate in cruise guests sourced from this market was approximately 4% from 2015 to 2019.
Europe
Industry cruise guests sourced from Europe represented approximately 25% of global cruise guests in 2019. The compound annual growth rate in cruise guests sourced from this market was approximately 3% from 2015 to 2019.
Asia/Pacific
Industry cruise guests sourced from the Asia/Pacific region represented approximately 24% of global cruise guests in 2019. The compound annual growth rate in cruise guests sourced from this market was approximately 24% from 2015 to 2019.
Competition
We compete with a number of cruise lines. Our principal competitors are Carnival Corporation & plc, which owns, among other brands, Aida Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Costa Cruises, Cunard Line, Holland America Line, P&O Cruises, Princess Cruises and Seabourn; Disney Cruise Line; MSC Cruises; and Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd, which owns Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises and Regent Seven Seas Cruises. Cruise lines also compete with other vacation alternatives such as land-based resort hotels, internet-based alternative lodging sites and sightseeing destinations for consumers’ leisure time. The COVID-19 pandemic, related restrictions and general economic conditions have significantly affected companies within the vacation market which may result in a changed competitive landscape by the time we return to service.
Operating Focus
Our principal operating strategies remain consistent with our historical strategies, yet have been affected by the vast impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had, and will continue to have, on our Company's operations. While our cruise operations remain suspended, we have and will continue to prioritize those operating strategies that reduce our capital and operating expenditures, enhance our liquidity and support the healthy and safe return to cruising globally for guests, crew and the communities visited, including for some time after we resume cruise operations.
Our Company's operating focus is as follows:
protect the health, safety and security of our guests and employees,
support the healthy return of cruising globally along with our industry partners, including national and local governments and regulators, the communities in which we operate, other cruise companies, shipyards, our guests and trade partners,
focus on cost control and efficiency, ensure adequate cash and liquidity, manage our capital expenditures and our balance sheet, with the overall goals of sustaining our operations and being well positioned for recovery, and, in the long-term, maximizing our return on invested capital and shareholder value,
protect the environment in which our vessels and organization operate,

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invest in our workforce in order to better serve our global guest base and grow our business, and promote gender equality, diversity and inclusion,
strengthen our consumer engagement in order to enhance our revenues,
increase the awareness and market penetration of our brands globally,
strategically invest in our fleet through the upgrade and maintenance of existing ships and the transfer of key innovations, while prudently expanding our fleet with new state-of-the-art cruise ships,
capitalize on the portability and flexibility of our ships by deploying them into those markets and itineraries that provide opportunities to optimize returns, while continuing our focus on existing key markets,
provide extraordinary destination experiences and state-of-the-art port facilities to our guests,
continue to integrate digital technological capabilities, data analytics and artificial intelligence into our operations to service customer preferences and expectations in an innovative manner, create efficiencies and enhance employee satisfaction, and
maintain strong relationships with travel agencies, which continue to be the principal industry distribution channel, while enhancing our consumer outreach programs.
Safety and health policies
We are committed to protecting the health, safety and security of our guests, employees and others working on our behalf. Our efforts in these areas are managed by our dedicated Safety, Security, Environment, Medical and Public Health Department which is responsible for all of our maritime safety, global security, environmental stewardship and medical/public health activities; overseen by the Safety, Environment and Health Committee of our board of directors and informed by a Maritime Advisory Board of experts.
Support the healthy return of cruising
We continue to work and collaborate with the Healthy Sail Panel, epidemiological and policy experts, health authorities and various governments around the globe to ensure a healthy and safe return to cruising for guests, crew and the communities visited. We work in close partnership and communication with our contracted shipyards to carefully address our newbuild delivery delays and work towards a safe and effective shipyard working environment in the midst of COVID-19. We have established flexible cruise pricing and booking programs (e.g. Cruise with Confidence, Best Price Guarantee and all-inclusive pricing) that present our guests with options and value as we anticipate our return to service. The travel agency community has been a vital partner in our success, and we are committed to assist the industry during this challenging time with essential financial relief (e.g., the RCL CARES program).
Focus on cost control and efficiency, capital expenditure reductions, adequate cash and liquidity and managing of our balance sheet
We have taken significant actions to reduce operating and capital expenses during the suspension of our global cruise operations. Given the current environment, we continue to prioritize and bolster liquidity through cash conservation and additional financing sources while managing our balance sheet to ensure that we are well positioned for recovery. We are focused on leveraging our scale and shifting our resources behind our Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea brands. Additionally, we agreed with certain of our lenders that we will not pay dividends or engage in stock repurchases until the end of the third quarter of 2022.
We are focused on maintaining a strong liquidity position, a balanced debt maturity profile, and returning to investment grade credit metrics. We believe these strategies enhance our ability to achieve our overall goal of maximizing our long-term shareholder value.
Protect the environment
We are focused on the environmental health of the marine environment and communities in which we operate. This includes reducing our carbon footprint through the energy and carbon efficiencies included in the design of our new capacity, our ongoing energy management program on our existing fleet and the development of new technologies.
Our long-term partnership with the World Wildlife Fund focuses on greenhouse gas reduction strategies, sustainable food supplies, sustainable destinations and guest education on ocean conservation issues, including climate change, which supports onboard conservation efforts such as our reduced use of plastics and increased sourcing of sustainable seafood. We are also committed to water quality and management projects onboard and in the communities in which we operate.

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We believe in transparent reporting on our environmental and sustainability stewardship, as well as our corporate governance efforts, and annually publish a Sustainability Report. This report, which is accessible on our corporate website, highlights our progress with regards to those environmental and social aspects of our business that we believe are most significant to our organization and stakeholders. In addition to providing an overview, the report complies with the guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative to ensure the report is as complete and accurate as possible. Our corporate website also provides information about our environmental performance goals and sustainability initiatives. The foregoing information contained on our website is not part of any of these reports and is not incorporated by reference herein or in any other report or document we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Investing in our workforce and promoting gender equality, diversity and inclusion
We believe that our employees, both shipboard and shoreside, are a critical success factor for our business. We strive to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain the best employees, who provide our guests with extraordinary vacations. Our ability to attract, engage, and retain key employees has been and will remain critical to our success.
We focus on providing our employees with a competitive compensation structure, development opportunities, and other personal and professional growth opportunities in order to strengthen and support our human capital. We also select, develop and have strategies to retain high performing leaders to advance the enterprise now and in the future. To that end, we pay special attention to identifying high performing potential leaders and developing bench strength so these leaders can assume leadership roles throughout the organization.
We strive to maintain a work environment that reinforces collaboration, motivation and innovation, and believe that maintaining a strong employee-focused culture is beneficial to the growth and expansion of our business. We support the equal representation of women in all levels. We foster diversity and inclusion among our broad employee base. Refer to the Human Capital section below for further information.
Consumer engagement
We place a strong focus on identifying the needs of our guests and creating product features and innovations that our customers value. We are focused on targeting high-value guests by better understanding consumer data and insights to create communication strategies that resonate with our target audiences.
We target customers across all touch points and identify underlying needs for which guests are willing to pay a premium. We rely on various programs and technologies during the cruise-planning, cruising and after-cruise periods aimed at increasing ticket prices, onboard revenues and occupancy. We have and expect to strategically invest in onboard projects on our ships that we believe drive marketability, profitability and improve the guest experience.
Global awareness and market penetration
We increase brand awareness and market penetration of our cruise brands in various ways, including the use of communication strategies and marketing campaigns designed to emphasize the qualities of each brand and to broaden the awareness of the brand, especially among target groups. Our marketing strategies include the use of travel agencies, traditional media, mobile and digital media as well as social media, influencers and brand websites. Our brands engage past and potential guests by collaborating with travel partners and through call centers, international offices and international representatives. In addition, our Global Brands target repeat guests with exclusive benefits offered through their respective loyalty programs.
We sell and market our Global Brands, Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara and Silversea Cruises, to guests outside of the United States and Canada through the combined efforts of internationally focused internal resources and a network of independent international representatives located throughout the world. Historically, our focus has been to primarily source guests for our Global Brands from North America. We will continue to expand our focus on selling and marketing our cruise brands to guests in countries outside of North America by tailoring itineraries and onboard product offerings to the cultural characteristics and preferences of our international guests. In addition, we explore opportunities that may arise to acquire or develop brands tailored to specific markets.
Passenger ticket revenues generated by sales originating in countries outside of the United States were approximately 35% of total passenger ticket revenues in 2019, and 39% in 2018. International guests have grown from approximately 2.5 million in 2015 to approximately 2.6 million in 2019. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors - “Conducting business globally may result in increased costs and other risks” for a discussion of the risks associated with our international operations.
Fleet upgrade and maintenance
We place a strong focus on innovation, which we seek to achieve by introducing new concepts on our new ships and continuously making improvements to our fleet through modernization projects and key technological improvements. Several of these innovations have become signature elements of our brands. For the Royal Caribbean International brand,

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we introduced the “Royal Promenade” (a boulevard with shopping, dining and entertainment venues) and interior balconies on the Oasis class ships and a two-level family suite on Symphony of the Seas. For the Celebrity Cruises brand, we enhanced many of the brand's design features through the introduction of the Solstice class ships. More recently, with the introduction of Celebrity Edge, we introduced the "Magic Carpet" (a cantilevered, floating platform that reaches a height of 13 stories above sea level and can serve as a dining venue, full bar and platform for live music) and newly designed staterooms with an "Infinite Veranda" where, with the touch of a button, the veranda becomes part of the entire living space.
As part of the newbuild and modernization programs, we also seek to bring innovations in the areas of safety, reliability and energy efficiency to our fleet.
We are committed to building state-of-the-art ships at a moderate growth rate and we believe our success in this area provides us with a competitive advantage. Our newer vessels traditionally generate higher revenue yield premiums and are more efficient to operate than older vessels.
As of December 31, 2020, our Global Brands and Partner Brands have 15 ships on order. Refer to the Operations section below for further information on our ships on order. In addition, we regularly evaluate opportunities to order new ships, purchase existing ships or sell ships in our current fleet while ensuring that we remain focused on the returns we generate on invested capital and maintaining a high level of discipline on capital spending and operating leverage.
We have undertaken measures to mitigate the financial and operational impacts of COVID-19, such as the reduction of our capital expenditures by delaying or deferring newbuild deliveries and the modernization of our ships. The expected capital expenditures for 2021 are $2.1 billion and are mostly related to newbuild projects which have committed financing. During 2021, the Company expects the delivery of Odyssey of the Seas and Silver Dawn during the first and fourth quarter, respectively. In 2022, the Company has two ship deliveries scheduled, both with committed financing: Wonder of the Seas and Celebrity Beyond. Excluding the newbuilds, the capital expenditures for 2022 will depend on the Company’s schedule to return to operation. Moreover, COVID-19 has impacted shipyard operations which has resulted in delivery delays for newbuilds. The exact duration of the ship delivery delays is currently under discussion with the impacted shipyards.
During 2020, we disposed of Celebrity Xperience, Majesty of the Seas and Empress of the Seas. Additionally, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell the Azamara brand which includes three vessels: Azamara Journey, Azamara Quest and Azamara Pursuit. These six ships represent approximately 5.2% of our 2019 capacity. During 2020, we also disposed of the following ships which were previously chartered to Pullmantur: Zenith, Monarch, Horizon, Sovereign.
Markets and itineraries
In an effort to penetrate untapped markets, diversify our consumer base and respond to changing economic and geopolitical market conditions, we continue to seek opportunities to deploy ships to new and stronger markets and itineraries throughout the world. The portability of our ships allows us to deploy our ships to meet demand within our existing cruise markets. We make deployment decisions generally 18 to 28 months in advance, with the goal of optimizing the overall profitability of our portfolio. Additionally, the infrastructure investments we have made to create a flexible global sourcing model have made our brands relevant in a number of markets around the world, which allows us to be opportunistic and source the highest yielding guests for our itineraries.
Our ships offer a wide selection of itineraries that call on more than 1,000 destinations in 126 countries, spanning all seven continents. We are focused on obtaining the best possible long-term shareholder returns by operating in established markets while growing our presence in developing markets. New capacity has allowed us to expand into new markets and itineraries. Our brands have expanded their mix of itineraries while strengthening our ability to further penetrate the Asian and Australian markets. The acquisition of Silversea Cruises added more than 500 new destinations allowing us to expand and enhance our selection of exotic itineraries.
As we plan for our brands' return to service, we are developing new and attractive itineraries that will allow us to resume our operations on a staggered basis. We are also responding quickly to changes in market demand, as observed in our new bookings.
Destination experiences and port facilities
Additionally, in order to provide unique destination experiences to our guests, we have invested in our private land destinations. For instance, in 2018, we announced Perfect Day Island Collection, an initiative to develop a series of private island destinations around the world. The first island in the collection, Perfect Day at CocoCay, opened in Spring 2019 and includes a wide range of attractions, such as a water park, zip line and wave and freshwater pool. As a result of the operational disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and in an effort to bolster our liquidity, we have delayed previously announced Perfect Day site openings and are reassessing their timing as well as the timing of our complementary Royal Beach Club offering portfolio. We are also reassessing our investment in other destinations.

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In an effort to secure desirable berthing facilities for our ships, and to provide new or enhanced cruise destinations for our guests, we have actively assisted or invested in the development or enhancement of certain port facilities and infrastructure, including mixed-use commercial properties, located in strategic ports of call. For instance, a new homeport cruise terminal of approximately 170,000 square feet was completed at PortMiami in Miami, Florida in 2018. We have delayed the expected completion of our new homeport cruise terminal in Galveston, Texas until 2022.
Generally, we collaborate with local, private or governmental entities by providing management and/or financial assistance and often enter into long-term port usage arrangements. Our participation in these efforts is generally accomplished via investments with the relevant government authority and/or various other strategic partnerships established to develop and/or operate the port facilities, by providing direct development and management expertise or in certain limited circumstances, by providing direct or indirect financial support. In exchange for our involvement, we generally secure preferential berthing rights for our ships.
Technological capabilities
Technology is a pervasive part of virtually every business process we use to support our strategic focus and provide a quality experience to our customers before, during and after their cruise. Technology also plays a critical role in the measures and protocols that we have developed and will continue to develop to mitigate COVID-19 on our cruise ships. For example, through the deployment of our innovative electronic safety drill ("Muster 2.0") program, we have added convenience, allowed for physical distancing, and improved our guests experience regarding the mandatory safety briefing. Additionally, through the in-app messaging technology we are enhancing guest check-in to support education, testing and screening information prior to embarkation, and to support onboard detection contingency scenarios and protocols, and most importantly promote the health and safety of guests and crew.
In past years, we have continued to integrate digital capabilities into our operations and have increased our focus in bringing in data analytics and artificial intelligence into our processes. For example, we have continued the deployment of our innovative guest journey solutions across our fleet from online check-in to port embarkation to onboard cruise experience. At the same time, we are investing in shipboard operational technology to facilitate casino play, hotel maintenance, as well as the optimization of marine maintenance. In concert with our destination focus, our island technology solutions are now enabling our guests to remain connected with WiFi access, order food and beverage as well as take advantage of all the island based activities with the same ease as onboard our ships.
Investments in our core platforms, as well as the trade and direct distribution channels, are delivering the benefit of more modernized solutions with scalability and faster self-service response times while also deploying new features such as flight packages and additional promotional offer capabilities.
Cyber security and data privacy are an ongoing focus, and we have made and will continue to make investments to protect our customer data, intellectual property and global operations.
Travel agency support and consumer outreach
Travel agencies continue to be the primary source of ticket sales for our ships. We believe in the value of this distribution channel and invest in maintaining strong relationships with our travel partners. To accomplish this goal, we seek to ensure that our commission rates and incentive structures remain competitive with the marketplace. We continuously work with travel agencies to sell upgrades and add-ons such as air and pre-cruise purchases to improve the retention and profitability of the channel. We provide brand dedicated sales representatives who serve as consultants to our travel partners. We also provide trained customer service representatives, call centers and online training tools.
At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we launched the RCL CARES program which provided dedicated financial guidance as travel advisors navigated government relief benefits, including small business loans and the Paycheck Protection Program. During December 2020, we announced the Pay it Forward program which made available $40 million in the form of interest free commercial loans for qualifying travel agencies to begin their recovery efforts. Our Pay it Forward program launched in February 2021.
In addition, we continue to operate our Consumer Outreach department, which provides consumers 24-hour access to our vacation planners and customer service agents in our call centers. In addition, we maintain and invest in our websites, including mobile applications and mobile websites. We enable our guests to communicate and book with us through various channels such as phone, web, chat, text message, and/or email.
We also have an Onboard Cruise Sales department to help guests to book their next cruise vacations while onboard our ships.
Guest Services
We offer to handle virtually all travel aspects related to guest reservations and transportation, including arranging

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guest pre- and post-hotel stay arrangements and air transportation.
Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara and Silversea Cruises offer recognition and status upgrades to their guests through their loyalty programs, Crown & Anchor Society, Captain’s Club, Le Club Voyage and Venetian Society, respectively, to encourage repeat business. Crown & Anchor Society has approximately 17.0 million members worldwide. Captain’s Club, Le Club Voyage and Venetian Society have approximately 5.2 million members combined worldwide. Members are recognized through increasing membership status by accumulating cruise points or credits, depending on the brand, which may be redeemed on future sailings. Members are awarded points or credits in proportion to the number of cruise days and stateroom category. The loyalty programs provide tiers of membership benefits which entitle guests to upgraded experiences and recognition relative to the status achieved once the guests have accumulated the number of cruise points or credits specified for each tier. In addition, upon achieving a certain level of cruise points or credits, members benefit from reciprocal membership benefits across all of our loyalty programs. Examples of the benefits available under our loyalty programs include, but are not limited to, priority ship embarkation, priority waitlist for shore excursions, complimentary laundry service, complimentary Internet, booklets with onboard discount offers, upgraded bathroom amenities, private seating on the pool deck, ship tours and, in the case of our most loyal guests who have achieved the highest levels of cruise points or credits, complimentary cruise days. We regularly work to enhance each of our loyalty programs by adding new features and amenities in order to reward our repeat guests.

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Operations
Cruise Ships and Itineraries
As of December 31, 2020, our Global Brands and Partner Brands collectively operated 61 ships with a selection of worldwide itineraries that call on more than 1,000 destinations.
The following table presents summary information concerning ships that we expect will be in our fleet in 2021 under our Global Brands and Partner Brands. The Azamara Pursuit, Azamara Quest and Azamara Journey are not listed due to the definitive agreement to sell the Azamara brand, announced on January 19, 2021 and expected to close in the first quarter of 2021.
ShipYear Ship
Built
Year Ship
In Service or Delivered, if after 2020(1)
Approximate
Berths
Royal Caribbean International
Odyssey of the Seas202120214,200
Spectrum of the Seas201920194,150
Symphony of the Seas201820185,500
Harmony of the Seas201620165,500
Ovation of the Seas201620164,150
Anthem of the Seas201520154,150
Quantum of the Seas201420144,150
Allure of the Seas201020105,500
Oasis of the Seas200920095,600
Independence of the Seas200820083,850
Liberty of the Seas200720073,800
Freedom of the Seas200620063,950
Jewel of the Seas200420042,200
Mariner of the Seas200320033,350
Serenade of the Seas200320032,150
Navigator of the Seas200220023,400
Brilliance of the Seas200220022,150
Adventure of the Seas200120013,350
Radiance of the Seas200120012,150
Explorer of the Seas200020003,300
Voyager of the Seas199919993,450
Vision of the Seas199819982,050
Enchantment of the Seas199719972,300
Rhapsody of the Seas199719972,050
Grandeur of the Seas199619962,000
Celebrity Cruises  
Celebrity Apex202020202,900
Celebrity Flora20192019100
Celebrity Edge201820182,900
Celebrity Reflection201220123,050
Celebrity Silhouette201120112,900

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ShipYear Ship
Built
Year Ship
In Service or Delivered, if after 2020(1)
Approximate
Berths
Celebrity Eclipse201020102,850
Celebrity Equinox200920092,850
Celebrity Solstice200820082,850
Celebrity Xploration2007201620
Celebrity Constellation200220022,200
Celebrity Summit200120012,200
Celebrity Infinity200120012,150
Celebrity Xpedition2001200450
Celebrity Millennium200020002,200
Silversea Cruises
Silver Dawn20212021550
Silver Origin20202020100
Silver Moon20202020600
Silver Muse20172017600
Silver Spirit20092009600
Silver Whisper20012001400
Silver Shadow20002000400
Silver Wind19951995250
Silver Cloud19941994250
Silver Explorer19892008150
TUI Cruises
Mein Schiff 2(2)
201920192,900
Mein Schiff 1201820182,900
Mein Schiff 6201720172,500
Mein Schiff 5201620162,500
Mein Schiff 4201520152,500
Mein Schiff 3201420142,500
Mein Schiff Herz199720111,900
Hapag-Lloyd
Hanseatic Spirit20212021230
Hanseatic Inspiration20192019230
Hanseatic Nature20182018230
Europa 220132013500
Europa19991999400
Total 140,810
__________________________________________________________________
(1)The year a ship entered service refers to the year in which the ship commenced cruise revenue operations for the brand. If after 2020, the date reflects the year of expected delivery into the brand.
(2)TUI Cruises' newbuild entered service as Mein Schiff 2 in February 2019 and the existing Mein Schiff 2 was renamed Mein Schiff Herz.

As of December 31, 2020, our Global Brands and our Partner Brands have 15 ships on order. Three ships on order are being built in Germany by Meyer Werft GmbH, four are being built in Finland by Meyer Turku shipyard, four are being built in France by Chantiers de l’Atlantique, three are being built in Italy by Fincantieri and one is being built in Norway by Vard Fincateieri. COVID-19 has impacted shipyard operations which have and will continue to result in delays of our

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previously contracted ship deliveries. As of December 31, 2020, the dates that the ships on order are expected to be delivered, subject to change in the event of construction delays, and their approximate berths are as follows:
ShipShipyardExpected DeliveryApproximate
Berths
Royal Caribbean International —  
Oasis-class:  
Wonder of the SeasChantiers de l’Atlantique1st Quarter 20225,700
   UnnamedChantiers de l’Atlantique2nd Quarter 20245,700
Quantum-class:  
Odyssey of the SeasMeyer Werft1st Quarter 20214,200
Icon-class:
UnnamedMeyer Turku Oy3rd Quarter 20235,600
UnnamedMeyer Turku Oy2nd Quarter 20255,600
UnnamedMeyer Turku Oy2nd Quarter 20265,600
Celebrity Cruises —
Edge-class:
Celebrity BeyondChantiers de l’Atlantique2nd Quarter 20223,250
UnnamedChantiers de l’Atlantique4th Quarter 20233,250
Silversea Cruises (1)
Muse-class:
Silver DawnFincantieri4th Quarter 2021550
Evolution-class:
UnnamedMeyer Werft1st Quarter 2022600
UnnamedMeyer Werft1st Quarter 2023600
TUI Cruises (50% joint venture) —  
Mein Schiff 7Meyer Turku Oy2nd Quarter 20232,900
UnnamedFincantieri3rd Quarter 20244,100
UnnamedFincantieri1st Quarter 20264,100
Hapag-Lloyd Cruises (50% joint venture) —
Hanseatic Spirit
Vard Fincantieri
2nd Quarter 2021230
Total Berths51,980
__________________________________________________________________
(1)The revenue impact from Silversea Cruises' new ships will be recognized on a three month reporting lag from when the ships enter service. Refer to Note 1. General to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
In addition, as of December 31, 2020, we have an agreement in place with Chantiers de l’Atlantique to build an additional Edge-class ship for delivery in 2025, which is contingent upon completion of conditions precedent and financing.
Seasonality
Our revenues have historically been seasonal based on the demand for cruises. Demand is typically strongest for cruises during the Northern Hemisphere’s summer months and holidays. In order to mitigate the impact of the winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere and to capitalize on the summer season in the Southern Hemisphere, our brands have focused on deployment in the Caribbean, Asia and Australia during that period.
Passengers and Capacity
Selected statistical information is shown in the following table (see Financial Presentation- Description of Certain Line Items and Selected Operational and Financial Metrics under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for definitions). Passengers Carried, Passenger Cruise Days, Available Passenger Cruise Days and Occupancy reflect the impact of our 2020 suspension of operations due to the COVID-19

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pandemic:
Year Ended December 31,
2020(1)2019 (1)2018 (2)20172016 (3)
Passengers Carried1,295,1446,553,8656,084,2015,768,4965,754,747
Passenger Cruise Days8,697,89344,803,95341,853,05240,033,52740,250,557
Available Passenger Cruise Days (APCD)8,539,90341,432,45138,425,30436,930,93937,844,644
Occupancy101.9%108.1%108.9%108.4%106.4%
___________________________________________________________________
(1)    As a result of the three-month reporting lag, we included Silversea Cruises' results of operations from October 1, 2019 through September 30, 2020 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, and from October 1, 2018 through September 30, 2019 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, respectively. Refer to Note 1. General and Note 11. Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on the three-month reporting lag and the Silversea Cruises acquisition.
(2)    We acquired a controlling interest in Silversea Cruises on July 31, 2018 and report their results on a three-month reporting lag. As a result, these amounts include only August and September 2018 amounts for Silversea Cruises. Refer to Note 1. General and Note 11. Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for more information on the three-month reporting lag and the Silversea Cruises acquisition.
(3)    These amounts do not include November and December 2015 amounts for Pullmantur as the net Pullmantur result for those months was included within Other expense in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2016, as a result of the elimination of the Pullmantur two-month reporting lag, and did not affect Gross Yields, Net Yields, Gross Cruise Costs, Net Cruise Costs and Net Cruise Costs Excluding Fuel. Additionally, effective August 2016, following the sale of our 51% interest in Pullmantur Holdings, we no longer include Pullmantur in these amounts.
Cruise Pricing
Our cruise ticket prices include accommodations and a wide variety of activities and amenities, including meals and entertainment. Prices vary depending on many factors including the destination, cruise length, stateroom category selected and the time of year the cruise takes place. Soon after our initial suspension of operations due to the occurrence of COVID-19, we established flexible cruise pricing programs (i.e. Cruise with Confidence, Best Price Guarantee and all-inclusive pricing) that present our guests with options and value as we anticipate our return to service.
Although we grant credit terms in select markets mainly outside of the United States, our payment terms generally require an upfront deposit to confirm a reservation, with the balance due prior to the sailing. Our cruises are generally available for sale at least one year in advance and often more than two years in advance of sailing. During the selling period of a cruise, we continually monitor and adjust our cruise ticket prices for available guest staterooms based on demand, with the objective of maximizing net yields.
As our business has grown globally, our sale arrangements with travel agents may vary. For instance, although our direct business has historically grown at a rapid pace, sale arrangements through travel agent charter and group sales are proportionately higher in the China market than in our other markets which are primarily through retail agency and direct sales.
We have developed and implemented enhancements to our reservations system that provide us and our travel partners with additional capabilities, making it easier to do business with us. For example, we offer air transportation to our guests through our air transportation program available in major cities around the world.
Passenger ticket revenues accounted for approximately 68% of total revenues in 2020, and 72% of total revenues in 2019 and 2018.
Onboard Activities and Other Revenues
Our cruise brands offer modern fleets with a wide array of onboard services, amenities and activities which vary by brand and ship. While many onboard activities are included in the base price of a cruise, we realize additional revenues from, among other things, gaming, the sale of alcoholic and other beverages, Internet and other telecommunication services, gift shop items, shore excursions, photography, spa/salon and fitness services, art auctions, retail shops and a wide variety of specialty restaurants and dining options. Many of these services are available for pre-booking prior to embarkation. These activities are offered either directly by us or by independent concessionaires from which we receive a percentage of their revenues. The all-inclusive pricing programs that we offer currently, add some of these onboard activity and other services to the base price of the cruise.

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In conjunction with our cruise vacations, we offer pre- and post-cruise hotel packages to our Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara and Silversea Cruises guests. We also offer cruise vacation protection coverage to guests in a number of markets, which provides guests with coverage for trip cancellation, medical protection and baggage protection. Onboard and other revenues accounted for approximately 32% of total revenues in 2020, and 28% of total revenues in 2019 and 2018.
Segment Reporting
We control and operate four cruise brands, Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara, and Silversea Cruises. In addition, we have a 50% joint venture interest in TUIC, our 50%-owned joint venture that operates the German brands TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises. We believe our brands possess the versatility to enter multiple cruise market segments within the cruise vacation industry. Although each of our brands has its own marketing style as well as ships and crews of various sizes, the nature of the products sold and services delivered by our brands share a common base (i.e., the sale and provision of cruise vacations). Our brands also have similar itineraries as well as similar cost and revenue components. In addition, our brands source passengers from similar markets around the world and operate in similar economic environments with a significant degree of commercial overlap. As a result, our brands have been aggregated as a single reportable segment based on the similarity of their economic characteristics, types of consumers, regulatory environment, maintenance requirements, supporting systems and processes as well as products and services provided. Our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer has been identified as the chief operating decision-maker and all significant operating decisions including the allocation of resources are based upon the analyses of the Company as one segment. (For financial information, see Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.)
Human Capital
Our human capital strategies are continually evolving to provide a rewarding and fulfilling employee experience. Some key elements of these strategies include: a diverse and inclusive workforce; opportunities for employee growth and development; support for health and well-being; and an active listening strategy to make sure voices are heard in order to facilitate continuous improvement.
As of December 31, 2020, our four global cruise brands, Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara, and Silversea Cruises, employed approximately 85,000 employees. Our shoreside workforce, including employees who work at our private destinations, consisted of approximately 6,900 full time and 100 part-time employees. Our shipboard workforce consisted of 78,000 employees, and as of December 31, 2020, approximately 89% of our shipboard employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements. Due to the pause in our cruise operations in 2020, we repatriated the majority of our shipboard employees to their home countries, and as a result, we ended the year with approximately 87% less employees onboard our ships compared with 2019.
The following table details the distribution of our workforce by employee type and region as of December 31, 2020:

Employee Type(1)
U.S. Based Employees International Employees
Shoreside Operations 4,0002,000
Shipboard Employees  78,000
Private Destinations(2)
 1,000

(1)    Includes full time and part time employees.
(2)    Private Destinations includes Coco Cay, Labadee and Galapagos based employees.

As a global operation, we take great pride in the broad diversity of our workforce and the value that it brings to our company. Our shoreside workforce is gender diverse with 53% female representation. Our shipboard workforce is comprised of employees from 120 plus countries. The majority of our shipboard workforce comes from the Philippines (29%), Indonesia (16%) and India (14%). Our shoreside workforce is primarily based out of the U.S. (69%), Philippines (10%), U.K. (5%) and China (4%).






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The following table details the gender distribution of our workforce by employee location as of December 31, 2020:


Employee Location Male Female Unidentified
Shoreside - U.S. 43%57% 
Shoreside - International 47%52%1%
Shipboard 79%21% 

Our U.S. shoreside workforce is ethnically diverse with 54% of our employees comprised of non-White ethnic groups.

U.S. Shoreside Representation by Ethnicity % of Total U.S. Shoreside Population
White 46%
Hispanic 37%
African American 11%
Asian 5%
Others(1)
1%

(1)    American Indians and Pacific Islanders make up approximately 1% of our U.S. shoreside population.
In addition, we offer a variety of learning and development programs to our workforce which includes a combination of instructor led (classroom and virtual) and web based (self-learning) courses. In 2020, our workforce spent approximately 1 million hours in training across a variety of areas ranging from Ethics, Compliance, Data Analysis, Business Software and Tools, Finance/Accounting, Professional Development, Project Management Skills, Leadership and Safety/Security. In total, our workforce completed over 560,000 courses within our learning management systems.
The Company has created a 24/7 care platform provided at no-cost that allows for employees and their families to get confidential assistance with stress management, relationships, financial concerns or legal concerns. Through this assistance program, we offer:
Short-term Professional Counseling - providing support for personal and emotional issues through telephone, video or in-person sessions.
Family Support Services - connecting our employees with advisors that can provide them resources to assist with family planning, parenting, childcare, eldercare, home care support and more.
Legal Support Services - providing general guidance and referrals to professionals to answer legal questions surrounding divorce, custody, adoption, real estate, debt, bankruptcy, landlord/tenant issues, and more.
Financial Support Services - providing general guidance and referrals to professionals to answer financial questions about budgeting, debt management, tax issues, and more.
LifeWorks Digital Wellbeing Website - granting access to an online platform containing hundreds of articles, resources, webinars and tools to help employees better manage overall well-being.
Further, our Disaster Relief program provides emergency funding to employees who have been directly impacted by natural disasters. All shipboard and shoreside employees are eligible for assistance from this fund.
Finally, COVID-19 has had and continues to have a tremendous impact on our business. During 2020, our offices closed and our crew were repatriated off our ships to their home countries. In response, we ramped up our listening strategy through frequent pulse surveys to understand our employees' needs and concerns and help them navigate the crisis. We continue to run our pulse surveys every quarter to understand and positively impact our employees’ experience. In 2020, our shoreside employee engagement scores remained high and were higher than the prior 3-year average.
Insurance
We maintain insurance on the hull and machinery of our ships, with insured values generally equal to the net book value of each ship. This coverage is maintained with reputable insurance underwriters from the British, Scandinavian, French, United States and other reputable international insurance markets.

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We are members of four Protection and Indemnity ("P&I") clubs, which are part of a worldwide group of 13 P&I clubs, known as the International Group of P&I Clubs (the “IG”). Liabilities, costs and expenses for illness and injury to crew, guest injury, pollution and other third-party claims in connection with our cruise activities are covered by our P&I clubs, subject to the clubs’ rules and the limits of coverage determined by the IG. P&I coverage provided by the clubs is on a mutual basis and we are subject to additional premium calls in the event of a catastrophic loss incurred by any member of the 13 P&I clubs, whereby the reinsurance limits purchased by the IG are exhausted. We are also subject to additional premium calls based on investment and underwriting shortfalls experienced by our own individual insurers.
We maintain war risk insurance for legal liability to crew, guests and other third parties as well as for loss or damage to our vessels arising from acts of war, including invasion, insurrection, terrorism, rebellion, piracy and hijacking. Our primary war risk coverage is provided by a Norwegian war risk insurance association and our excess war risk insurance is provided by our four P&I clubs. Consistent with most marine war risk policies, our coverage is subject to cancellation in the event of a change in risk. In the event of a war between major powers, our primary policies terminate after thirty days’ notice and our excess policies terminate immediately. Our excess policies are also subject to cancellation after a notice period of seven days in the event of other changes in risk. These notice periods allow for premiums to be renegotiated based on changes in risk.
Insurance coverage for other exposures, such as shoreside property and casualty, passenger off-vessel, directors and officers and network security and privacy, are maintained with various global insurance companies.
We do not carry business interruption insurance for our ships based on our evaluation of the risks involved and protective measures already in place, as compared to the cost of insurance.
All insurance coverage is subject to certain limitations, exclusions and deductible levels. In addition, in certain circumstances, we either self-insure or co-insure a portion of these risks. Premiums charged by insurance carriers, including carriers in the maritime insurance industry, increase or decrease from time to time and tend to be cyclical in nature. These cycles are impacted both by our own loss experience and by losses incurred in direct and reinsurance markets. We historically have been able to obtain insurance coverage in amounts and at premiums we have deemed to be commercially acceptable. No assurance can be given that affordable and secure insurance markets will be available to us in the future, particularly for war risk insurance.
Trademarks
We own a number of registered trademarks related to the Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara and Silversea Cruises cruise brands. The registered trademarks include the name “Royal Caribbean International” and its crown and anchor logo, the name “Celebrity Cruises” and its “X” logo, the name “Azamara” and its "open world" and "star logo", the name “Silversea Cruises” and its logo, and the names of various cruise ships, ship venues and other marketing programs. We believe our largest brands' trademarks are widely recognized throughout the world and have considerable value. The duration of trademark registrations varies from country to country. However, trademarks are generally valid and may be renewed indefinitely as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained.
Regulation
Our ships are regulated by various international, national, state and local laws, regulations and treaties in force in the jurisdictions in which they operate. In addition, our ships are registered in the Bahamas, Malta or in the case of our ships operating in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Each ship is subject to regulations issued by its country of registry, including regulations issued pursuant to international treaties governing the safety of our ships, guests and crew as well as environmental protection. Each country of registry conducts periodic inspections to verify compliance with these regulations as discussed more fully below. Ships operating out of ports of call around the world are also subject to inspection by the maritime authorities of that country for compliance with international treaties and local regulations. Additionally, ships operating out of the United States ports are subject to inspection by the United States Coast Guard for compliance with international treaties and by the United States Public Health Service for sanitary and health conditions. Our ships are also subject to similar inspections pursuant to the laws and regulations of various other countries our ships visit.
We believe that we are in material compliance with all the regulations applicable to our ships and that we have all licenses necessary to conduct our business. Health, safety, security, environmental and financial responsibility issues are, and we believe will continue to be, an area of focus by the relevant government authorities in the United States and internationally. From time to time, various regulatory and legislative changes may be proposed that could impact our operations and subject us to increasing compliance costs in the future.

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CDC Framework for Conditional Sailing Order
On and effective as of October 30, 2020, the CDC issued a Framework for Conditional Sailing Order (the “Conditional Order”) that will conditionally permit cruise ship passenger operations in U.S. waters under certain conditions and using a phased approach. The Conditional Order will remain in effect until the earlier of (1) the expiration of the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ declaration that COVID-19 constitutes a public health emergency, (2) the rescission or modification by the CDC Director of the Conditional Order based on specific public health or other considerations, or (3) November 1, 2021.
All phases listed below are outlined in the Conditional Order; however, only the first phase listed is detailed in the Conditional Order. The remaining phases are currently pending approval by the CDC for distribution to all cruise lines prior to being detailed in the CDC's Phase 2 Technical Instructions.
Establishment of laboratory testing of crew and guests onboard cruise ships in U.S. waters and upon embarkation and disembarkation;
Simulated voyages designed to test a cruise ship operators’ ability to mitigate COVID-19 on cruise ships;
Meeting and maintaining requirements for a Conditional Sailing Certificate, which include, among other things, implementing the required testing protocols, a prohibition on offering itineraries longer than seven days, and the demonstration at each port where a ship intends to dock of approval with U.S. port and local health authorities, which requires medical care agreements addressing evacuation to onshore hospitals, housing agreements with onshore facilities for isolation and quarantine of COVID-19 cases, and port agreements to limit the number of cruise ships at any single port; and
A return to passenger voyages in a manner that mitigates the risk of COVID-19 introduction, transmission, or spread among passengers and crew onboard ships and ashore to communities.
We are working with both the CDC and the HSP, to implement the requirements of the Conditional Order and establish a comprehensive set of health and safety measures at every step of the guest journey with rigorous protocols. We are also designing itineraries where we will be able to control the vacation experience in compliance with the health and safety protocols contained in the Conditional Order.
While the Conditional Order represents an important step in our return to service, many uncertainties remain as to the specifics, timing and costs of administering and implementing the requirements of the Conditional Order, some of which may be material to our results of operations. Further, the Conditional Order contemplates that the CDC may issue additional requirements through technical instructions or orders as needed and that the phases described above will be further determined based on public health considerations, including the trajectory of the pandemic and the ability of cruise ships operators to successfully employ measures that mitigate the risk of COVID-19.
Our resumption of operations will include a staggered return of the fleet to service which will include:
Bringing the fleet from layup status to fully operational;
Bringing crew back to an appropriate staffing level and expected reduced load factors for a period of time; and
Implementation of the health and safety protocols on ships as they resume operations.
We are also reviewing and assessing the uncertainties relating to the Conditional Order’s requirements. Based on our assessment of these conditions or for other reasons, we may determine it necessary to further extend our voluntary suspension of our Global Brands’ cruise sailings.
Safety and Security Regulations
Our ships are required to comply with international safety standards defined in the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (“SOLAS”), which, among other things, establishes requirements for ship design, structural features, materials, construction, lifesaving equipment and safe management and operation of ships to ensure guest and crew safety. The SOLAS standards are revised from time to time and incorporated in our ship design and operation, as applicable. The latest enhancements include the addition of the Polar Code which sets goal-based standards for ships operating in the polar region as well as damage stability requirements for new designs and operational measures for existing vessels. Compliance with these modified standards have not historically had a material effect on our operating costs. SOLAS incorporates the International Safety Management Code (“ISM Code”), which provides an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. The ISM Code is mandatory for all vessels, including passenger vessel operators.
All of our operations and ships are regularly audited by various national authorities, and we are required to maintain the relevant certificates of compliance with the ISM Code.

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Our ships are subject to various security requirements, including the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (“ISPS Code”), which is part of SOLAS, and the U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (“MTSA”), which applies to ships that operate in U.S. ports. In order to satisfy these security requirements, we implement security measures, conduct vessel security assessments, and develop security plans. The security plans for all of our ships have been submitted to and approved by the Recognized Security Organization on behalf of the ships' flag state and are in compliance with the ISPS Code and the MTSA.
The Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010, which applies to passenger vessels which embark or include port stops within the United States, requires the implementation of certain safety design features as well as the establishment of practices for the reporting of and dealing with allegations of crime. The cruise industry supported this legislation and we believe that our internal standards are generally as strict or stricter than the law requires. Some provisions of the act call for regulations which have not been finalized. We do not expect the pending regulations will have a material impact to our operations.
Environmental Regulations
We are subject to various international and national laws and regulations relating to environmental protection. Under such laws and regulations, we are generally prohibited from discharging materials other than food waste into the waterways. We have made, and will continue to make, capital and other expenditures to comply with environmental laws and regulations. From time to time, environmental and other regulators consider more stringent regulations, which may affect our operations and increase our compliance costs. We believe that the impact of ships on the global environment will continue to be an area of focus by the relevant authorities throughout the world and, accordingly, may subject us to increasing compliance costs in the future, including the items described below.
Our ships are subject to the International Maritime Organization’s (‘‘IMO’’) regulations under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (the ‘‘MARPOL Regulations’’) and the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments (Ballast Water Management Convention), in addition to other regional and national regulations such as EU Directives and the US Vessel General Permit, which includes requirements designed to minimize pollution by oil, sewage, garbage, air emissions and the transfer of non-native/non-indigenous species. We have obtained the relevant international compliance certificates relating to oil, sewage, air pollution prevention and ballast water for all of our ships.
The MARPOL Regulations imposed reduced global limitations on the sulfur content of emissions emitted by ships operating worldwide to 0.5% as of January 1, 2020, which was reduced from 3.5%. We do not expect that this increased limitation will have a material impact to our results of operations largely due to a number of mitigating steps we have taken over the last several years, including equipping all of our new ships delivered during or after 2014 with advanced emissions purification ("AEP") systems covering all engines and actively developing and installing AEP systems on the majority of our remaining fleet.
The MARPOL Regulations also establish special Emission Control Areas (‘‘ECAs’’) with additional stringent limitations on sulfur emissions in these areas. There are four established ECAs that restrict sulfur emissions: the Baltic Sea, the North Sea/English Channel, certain waters surrounding the North American coast, and the waters surrounding Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (the “Caribbean ECA”). Ships operating in these sulfur ECAs have been required to reduce their emissions sulfur content to 0.1%. This reduction has not had a significant impact on our results of operations to date due to the mitigating steps described above.
We continue to implement our AEP system strategy for both our ships on order and our existing fleet. As our new ships are delivered and additional existing ships are retrofitted with AEP systems, they will provide us with additional operational and deployment flexibility.
Additionally, all new ships operating within the North American and U.S. Caribbean Sea ECA that began construction on or after January 1, 2016, and North and Baltic Sea ships constructed on or after January 1, 2021 are required to meet more stringent nitrogen oxide emission limits. We comply with these rules for those relevant ships in service. As an added measure, all of our ships under construction are being built to comply with these rules. The rules have not had and are not expected to have a significant impact to our operations or costs.
Recently IMO approved draft amendments to the MARPOL convention that will require ships to combine a technical and an operational approach (Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index and Carbon Intensity Indicator) to reduce their carbon intensity in line with the ambition of the Initial IMO GHG Strategy, which aims to reduce carbon intensity of international shipping by 40% by 2030, compared to 2008. While there is still a considerable amount of work ahead before these amendments can be implemented, we believe the amendments could have a material impact depending on the technical and operational approaches used (such as speed optimization, engine power reduction, etc.).

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Effective July 1, 2015, the European Commission adopted legislation that requires cruise ship operators with ships visiting ports in the European Union to monitor and report on the ship’s annual carbon dioxide emissions starting in 2018. Additionally, in 2019, the IMO's monitoring and reporting system (IMO data and collection system), which is applicable to all ship itineraries, entered into force. While compliance with these regulations did not materially impact our costs or results of operations, the legislations contemplate further obligations and restrictions which could ultimately result in additional costs or charges associated with carbon dioxide emissions.
The IMO Ballast Water Management Convention, which came in effect in 2017, requires ships that carry and discharge ballast water to meet specific discharge standards by installing Ballast Water Treatment Systems by 2023. Compliance with this regulation has not had a material effect on our results of operations and we do not expect the continuing compliance with this regulation to have a material effect on our results of operations.
Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors - "Environmental, labor, health and safety, financial responsibility and other maritime regulations could affect operations and increase costs" for further discussion of the risks associated with the regulations discussed above.
Consumer Financial Responsibility Regulations
We are required to obtain certificates from the United States Federal Maritime Commission relating to our ability to satisfy liability in cases of non-performance of obligations to guests, as well as casualty and personal injury. As a condition to obtaining the required certificates, we generally arrange through our insurers for the provision of surety for our ship-operating companies. The required amount is currently $32.0 million per operator and is subject to additional consumer price index based adjustments.
We are also required by the United Kingdom, Norway, Finland and the Baltics to establish our financial responsibility for any liability resulting from the non-performance of our obligations to guests from these jurisdictions. In the United Kingdom we are currently required by the Association of British Travel Agents to provide performance bonds totaling approximately £110 million. Additionally, we were required by the Civil Aviation Authority to provide performance bonds totaling £16.6 million. The Norwegian Travel Guarantee Fund requires us to maintain performance bonds in varying amounts during the course of the year to cover our financial responsibility in Norway, Finland and the Baltics.
Certain other jurisdictions also require that we establish financial responsibility to our guests resulting from the non-performance of our obligations; however, the related amounts do not have a material effect on our costs.
Taxation of the Company
The following is a summary of our principal taxes, exemptions and special regimes. In addition to or instead of income taxation, virtually all jurisdictions where our ships call impose some tax or fee, or both, based on guest headcount, tonnage or some other measure. We also collect and remit value added tax (VAT) or sales tax in many jurisdictions where we operate.
Our consolidated operations are primarily foreign corporations engaged in the owning and operating of passenger cruise ships in international transportation.
U.S. Income Taxation
The following is a discussion of the application of the U.S. federal and state income tax laws to us and is based on the current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, Treasury Department regulations, administrative rulings, court decisions and the relevant state tax laws, regulations, rulings and court decisions of the states where we have business operations. All of the foregoing is subject to change, and any such change could affect the accuracy of this discussion.
Application of Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code
We, Celebrity Cruises, Inc. and Silversea Cruises Ltd. are engaged in a trade or business in the United States, and many of our ship-owning subsidiaries, depending upon the itineraries of their ships, receive income from sources within the United States. Additionally, our United Kingdom tonnage tax company is a ship-operating company classified as a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes that may earn U.S. source income. Under Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code, certain foreign corporations may exclude from gross income (and effectively from branch profits tax as such earnings do not give rise to effectively connected earnings and profits) U.S. source income derived from or incidental to the international operation of a ship or ships, including income from the leasing of such ships.
A foreign corporation will qualify for the benefits of Section 883 if, in relevant part: (1) the foreign country in which the foreign corporation is organized grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States; and (2) the stock of the corporation (or the direct or indirect corporate parent thereof) is “primarily and regularly traded on an

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established securities market” in the United States. In the opinion of our U.S. tax counsel, Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP, based on the representations and assumptions set forth in that opinion, we, Celebrity Cruises Inc., Silversea Cruises Ltd. and relevant ship-owning subsidiaries with U.S. source shipping income qualify for the benefits of Section 883 because we and each of those subsidiaries are incorporated in Liberia or Bahamas, which are qualifying countries, and our common stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States (i.e., we are a "publicly traded" corporation). If, in the future, (1) Liberia or Bahamas no longer qualify as equivalent exemption jurisdictions, and we do not reincorporate in a jurisdiction that does qualify for the exemption, or (2) we fail to qualify as a publicly traded corporation, we and all of our ship-owning or operating subsidiaries that rely on Section 883 to exclude qualifying income from gross income would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on their U.S. source shipping income and income from activities incidental thereto.
We believe that most of our income and the income of our ship-owning subsidiaries, including our U.K. tonnage tax company which is considered a division for U.S. tax purposes, is derived from or incidental to the international operation of a ship or ships and, therefore, is exempt from taxation under Section 883.
Regulations under Section 883 list activities that are not considered by the Internal Revenue Service to be incidental to the international operation of ships including the sale of air and land transportation, shore excursions and pre- and post-cruise tours. Our income from these activities that is earned from sources within the United States will be subject to U.S. taxation.
Taxation in the Absence of an Exemption Under Section 883
If we, the operator of our vessels, Celebrity Cruises Inc., Silversea Cruises Ltd., or our ship-owning subsidiaries were to fail to meet the requirements of Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code, or if the provision was repealed, then, as explained below, such companies would be subject to U.S. income taxation on a portion of their income derived from or incidental to the international operation of our ships.
Because we, Celebrity Cruises Inc. and Silversea Cruises Ltd. conduct a trade or business in the United States, we, Celebrity Cruises Inc. and Silversea Cruises Ltd. would be taxable at regular corporate rates on our separate company taxable income (i.e., without regard to the income of our ship-owning subsidiaries) on income which is effectively connected with our U.S. trade or business (generally only income from U.S. sources). In addition, if any of our earnings and profits effectively connected with our U.S. trade or business were withdrawn, or were deemed to have been withdrawn, from our U.S. trade or business, those withdrawn amounts would be subject to a “branch profits” tax at the rate of 30%. We, Celebrity Cruises Inc. and Silversea Cruises Ltd. would also be potentially subject to tax on portions of certain interest paid by us at rates of up to 30%.
If Section 883 were not available to our ship-owning subsidiaries, each such subsidiary would be subject to a special 4% tax on its U.S. source gross transportation income, if any, each year because it does not have a fixed place of business in the United States and its income is derived from the leasing of a ship.
Other United States Taxation
We, Celebrity Cruises Inc. and Silversea Cruises Ltd. earn U.S. source income from activities not considered incidental to international shipping. The tax on such income is not material to our results of operation for all years presented.
State Taxation
We, Celebrity Cruises Inc., Silversea Cruises Ltd. and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to various U.S. state income taxes which are generally imposed on each state’s portion of the U.S. source income subject to federal income taxes. Additionally, the state of Alaska subjects an allocated portion of the total income of companies doing business in Alaska and certain other affiliated companies to Alaska corporate state income taxes and also imposes a 33% tax on adjusted gross income from onboard gambling activities conducted in Alaska waters. This did not have a material impact to our results of operations for all years presented.
Maltese and Spanish Income Taxation
Effective July 31, 2016, we sold 51% of our interest in Pullmantur Holdings S.L. ("Pullmantur Holdings"), the parent company of the Pullmantur brand. We account for our retained investment under the equity method of accounting. There was no tax impact to us as a result of this sale transaction. The Pullmantur group continues to be subject to the tax laws of Spain and Malta, among others.
Under the sale agreement, we remain responsible for pre-sale tax matters with respect to years that are still open under the statute of limitations.

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United Kingdom Income Taxation
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we operated 17 ships under the United Kingdom tonnage tax regime (“U.K. tonnage tax”).
Companies subject to U.K. tonnage tax pay a corporate tax on a notional profit determined with reference to the net tonnage of qualifying vessels. The requirements for a company to qualify for the U.K. tonnage tax regime include being subject to U.K. corporate income tax, operating qualifying ships, which are strategically and commercially managed in the United Kingdom, and fulfilling a seafarer training requirement.
Relevant shipping profits include income from the operation of qualifying ships and from shipping related activities. Our U.K. income from non-shipping activities which do not qualify under the U.K. tonnage tax regime and which are not considered significant, remain subject to regular U.K. corporate income tax.
Chinese Taxation
Our U.K. tonnage tax company operates ships in international transportation in China. The income earned from this operation is exempt from taxation in China under the U.K./China double tax treaty and other circulars addressing indirect taxes. Changes to or failure to qualify for the treaty or circular could cause us to lose the benefits provided which would have a material impact on our results of operations. Our Chinese income from non-shipping activities or from shipping activities not qualifying for treaty or circular protection and which are considered insignificant, remain subject to Chinese taxation.
Other Taxation
We and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to value-added and other indirect taxes most of which are reclaimable, zero-rated or exempt.
Website Access to Reports
We make available, free of charge, access to our Annual Reports, all quarterly and current reports and all amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission through our website at www.rclcorporate.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of any of these reports and is not incorporated by reference herein.
Information About our Executive Officers
As of February 26, 2021, our executive officers are:
NameAgePosition
Richard D. Fain73Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and Director
Jason T. Liberty45Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Michael W. Bayley62President and Chief Executive Officer, Royal Caribbean International
Lisa Lutoff-Perlo63President and Chief Executive Officer, Celebrity Cruises
Roberto Martinoli68President and Chief Executive Officer, Silversea Cruises
Harri U. Kulovaara68Executive Vice President, Maritime
Bradley H. Stein65Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer
Henry L. Pujol53Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer
Naftali Holtz43Senior Vice President, Finance

Richard D. Fain has served as a director since 1981 and as our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since 1988. Mr. Fain is a recognized industry leader, having participated in shipping for over 40 years and having held a number of prominent industry positions, such as Chairman of the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA), the largest cruise industry trade association. He currently serves on the University of Miami Board of Trustees as well as the National Board of the Posse Foundation. He is former chairman of the University of Miami Board of Trustees, Miami Business Forum, the Greater Miami Convention and Visitors Bureau, and the United Way of Miami-Dade.
Jason T. Liberty has been employed by the Company since 2005 and has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since February 2017. From May 2013 to February 2017, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Since February 2017, Mr. Liberty has overseen the Company’s Treasury, Accounting, Corporate, Strategic and Revenue Planning, Corporate Development, Deployment, Internal Audit and Investor Relations

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functions. Since May 2018, in addition to the above functions, he has also overseen the Company’s Information Technology, Supply Chain, Risk Management, Legal and Port Operations functions. Mr. Liberty has overseen our Silversea Cruises investment since 2019. Prior to his role as Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Liberty served as Senior Vice President, Strategy and Finance from September 2012 through May 2013, overseeing the Company’s Corporate and Strategic Planning, Treasury, Investor Relations and Deployment functions. Prior to this, Mr. Liberty served, from 2010 through 2012, as Vice President of Corporate and Revenue Planning and, from 2008 to 2010, as Vice President of Corporate and Strategic Planning. Before joining Royal Caribbean, Mr. Liberty was a Senior Manager at the international public accounting firm of KPMG LLP. Mr. Liberty currently serves on the Board of Directors of WNS Holdings.
Michael W. Bayley has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Royal Caribbean International since December 2014. Prior to this, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Celebrity Cruises since August 2012. Mr. Bayley has been employed by Royal Caribbean for over 30 years, having started as an Assistant Purser onboard one of the Company’s ships. He has served in a number of roles including as Executive Vice President, Operations from February 2012 until August 2012. Other positions Mr. Bayley has held include Executive Vice President, International from May 2010 until February 2012; Senior Vice President, International from December 2007 to May 2010; Senior Vice President, Hotel Operations for Royal Caribbean International; and Chairman and Managing Director of Island Cruises.
Lisa Lutoff-Perlo has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Celebrity Cruises since December 2014 and has been with the company since 1985. She also leads the Company’s Global Marine Organization. Ms. Lutoff-Perlo was the Executive Vice President, Operations of Royal Caribbean International from 2012 to 2014; Senior Vice President, Hotel Operations of Celebrity Cruises from 2007 to 2012; and Vice President, Onboard Revenue of Celebrity Cruises from 2005 to 2007. Ms. Lutoff-Perlo held various senior positions in sales and marketing with Royal Caribbean International from 1985 to 2005. Ms. Lutoff-Perlo currently serves on the Board of Directors of AutoNation and is Vice Chair for United Way of Broward County.
Roberto Martinoli has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Silversea Cruises since 2016. Before joining Silversea, Mr. Martinoli was the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Grandi Navi Veloci from 2010 to 2016, President and Chief Operating Officer of Norwegian Cruise Line from 2007 to 2010, Executive Vice President of Operations at Carnival Cruise Lines from 2000 to 2007 and Senior Vice President at Costa Crociere from 1997 to 2000.
Harri U. Kulovaara has served as Executive Vice President, Maritime since January 2005. Mr. Kulovaara is responsible for fleet design and newbuild operations. Mr. Kulovaara also chairs our Maritime Safety Advisory Board. Mr. Kulovaara has been employed with Royal Caribbean since 1995 in a variety of positions, including Senior Vice President, Marine Operations, and Senior Vice President, Quality Assurance. Mr. Kulovaara is a naval architect and engineer.
Bradley H. Stein has served as General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of the Company since 2006. He has also served as Senior Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of the Company since February 2009 and February 2011, respectively. Mr. Stein has been with Royal Caribbean since 1992. Before joining Royal Caribbean, Mr. Stein worked in private practice in New York and Miami.
Henry L. Pujol has served as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer of the Company since May 2013. Mr. Pujol originally joined Royal Caribbean in 2004 as Assistant Controller and was promoted to Corporate Controller in May 2007. Before joining Royal Caribbean, Mr. Pujol was a Senior Manager at the international public accounting firm of KPMG LLP.
Naftali Holtz has served as Senior Vice President, Finance of the Royal Caribbean since 2019. Before joining Royal Caribbean, Mr. Holtz worked in investment banking at Goldman Sachs and was most recently Managing Director, Head of Lodging and Leisure Investment Banking.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors
The risk factors set forth below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are important factors that could cause actual results to differ from expected or historical results. It is not possible to predict or identify all such risks. There may be additional risks that we consider not to be material, or which are not known, and any of these risks could have the effects set forth below. The ordering of the risk factors set forth below is not intended to reflect any Company indication of priority or likelihood. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements.
COVID-19 and Financial Risks
The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and will continue to have, a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations. The global spread of COVID-19 and the unprecedented responses by governments and other authorities to control and contain the disease, has caused significant disruptions, created new risks, and exacerbated existing risks to our business.
We have been, and will continue to be, negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, including impacts that resulted from actions taken in response to the outbreak. Examples of these include, but are not limited to: travel bans and cruising advisories and the resulting temporary suspension of our Global Brands' operations, which is expected to continue through at least April 30, 2021, for most of our cruise operations; restrictions on the movement and gathering of people; social distancing measures; shelter-in-place/stay-at-home orders; and disruptions to businesses in our supply chain. In addition to the imposed restrictions affecting our business, the extent, duration, and magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on the economy and consumer demand for cruising and travel is still rapidly fluctuating and difficult to predict. As such, these impacts may persist for an extended period of time or even become more pronounced, even after we are permitted to and/or begin to resume operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic also has elevated risks affecting significant parts of our business:
Operations: Due to the global public health circumstances, we have decided to extend the suspension of sailings of our Global Brands' fleet through at least April 30, 2021, for most of our cruise operations. It is uncertain as to whether we will need to suspend additional sailings and to what extent, and upon the conclusion of such suspensions, we expect a gradual return to normal sailings. The suspension of sailings and the expected reduction in demand for future cruising once we resume sailing has led to a significant decline in our revenues and cash inflows, which has required us to take cost and capital expenditure containment actions. Consequently, we have reduced and furloughed our workforce, with approximately 23% of our U.S. shoreside employee base being impacted and, except for the minimum safe manning shipboard crew required to operate the ships during the suspension of operations, our shipboard crew were notified that their contracts would end early and they would be notified about new assignments when operations resume in the future. As a result of these actions, we may be challenged in rebuilding our workforce which could further delay our return to service. In addition, we have reduced our planned capital spending through 2021, which may negatively impact our execution of planned growth strategies, particularly as it relates to investments in our ships, technology, and our expansion of land-based developments. Furthermore, we have taken actions to monitor and mitigate changes in our supply chain, and port destination availability, which may strain relationships with our vendors and port partners. On September 21, 2020, the HSP submitted its report on recommendations to the CDC, which includes more than 70 detailed recommendations to protect the public health and safety of guests, crew and the communities where cruise ships call. On October 30, 2020, the CDC issued the Conditional Order, which replaced the “no sail” order that expired on October 31, 2020. While the Conditional Order represents an important step in our return to service, many uncertainties remain as to the specifics and timing of implementation, administration and costs of the requirements of the Conditional Order, some of which may be significant. Further, the Conditional Order contemplates that the CDC may issue additional requirements through technical instructions or orders as needed and that the phases required to resume operations will be further determined based on public health considerations, including the trajectory of the pandemic and the ability of the Company and other cruise ship operators to successfully employ measures that mitigate the risk of COVID-19. In addition, the Conditional Order contains requirements that could negatively impact our results of operations, such as: laboratory testing of crew members and guests; simulated voyages; and the certification process, including implementing the required testing protocols, the prohibition on itineraries longer than seven days, and the demonstration at each port where a ship intends to dock of approval with U.S. port and local health authorities, which requires medical care agreements addressing evacuation to onshore hospitals, housing agreements with onshore facilities for isolation and quarantine of COVID-19 cases, and port agreements to limit the number of cruise ships at any single port. Our ability to meet the requirements under the Conditional Order will determine the timing and implementation of our plans to return to service which we expect to be gradual. We are currently reviewing and assessing the uncertainties relating to the Conditional Order’s requirements and are in dialogue with the CDC. Based on our assessment of these conditions or for other reasons, we may determine

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it necessary to extend our voluntary suspension of our Global Brands’ cruise sailings which currently extends through at least April 30, 2021, for most of our cruise operations. It is difficult to predict our ability to meet the requirements of the Conditional Order and the costs associated with compliance, some of which could be significant.
If we are unable to satisfy the requirements of the Conditional Order our operations may be negatively impacted and we could be exposed to reputational and legal risks. Due to the unprecedented and uncertain nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and CDC or Department of State guidance, it is difficult to predict the impact of further disruptions and their magnitude. The impact of further disruptions may depend on how they coincide with the timing of when we seek to resume sailing. In addition, we have never previously experienced a complete cessation of our cruising operations, and as a consequence, our ability to predict the impact of such a cessation on our brands and future prospects is limited and such impact is uncertain.
Results of Operations: Our suspensions of sailings have materially impacted the results of our operations. We have incurred and will continue to incur significant costs associated with cancellations as we accommodate passengers with refunds and future cruise credits; as well as continuing to assist our crew with their return home, food, housing, and medical needs. In addition, although cruise operations are currently suspended, we have incurred and will likely continue to incur significant overhead costs associated with layup of our fleet and enhanced COVID-19 related sanitation procedures. As we cannot control adverse media coverage and we cannot predict exactly when we will resume sailing operations, we are experiencing and may continue to experience weak demand for cruising for an indeterminable length of time and we cannot predict when we will return to pre-outbreak demand or fare pricing or if we will return to such levels in the foreseeable future. In turn, these negative impacts to our financial performance have resulted and may continue to result in impairments of our long-lived and intangible assets, which has influenced our decision making relating to early disposal, sale or retirement of assets. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we incurred impairment charges and credit losses of $1.6 billion related to the impairment of goodwill and trademarks and trade names attributable to our Silversea Cruises reporting unit, and long-lived assets as well as credit losses on mostly receivables related to our sale of property and equipment. Following the resumption of operations, our Global Brands and our Partner Brands may be subject to the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our Partner Brands, TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises, resumed limited cruise operations outside of the U.S. in July 2020 with cruises of short durations, with reduced occupancies and with limited or no ports of call. Additionally, any future profitability will be impacted by increased debt service costs as a result of our liquidity actions.
Liquidity: The suspension of our sailings and the reduction in demand for future cruising has adversely impacted our liquidity as we have experienced a significant increase in refunds of customer deposits while cash inflows from new or existing bookings on future sailings has reduced sharply. As a result, we have taken actions to increase our liquidity through a combination of capital and operating expense reductions and financing activities. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we executed and amended various financing arrangements, which have resulted in $10.2 billion of incremental liquidity, including:
a $0.6 billion increase in the capacity available under our revolving credit facilities;
additional liquidity of $6.7 billion through the issuance of new debt, net of repayments, and the securing of a one-year $700 million commitment for a 364-day term loan facility;
£300.0 million, or $409.9 million, based on exchange rates as of December 31, 2020, of available and issued liquidity under an unsecured government commercial paper program with the Bank of England;
the deferral of $0.9 billion of existing debt amortization under our export-credit backed ship debt facilities through April 2021; and
the issuance of 22.6 million shares of common stock for approximately $1.6 billion
We also agreed with certain of our lenders that we will not pay dividends or engage in stock repurchases until the end of the third quarter of 2022. Thereafter, in the event we declare a dividend or engage in stock repurchases we will need to repay the amounts deferred under our export credit facilities. On August 24, 2020, Moody’s downgraded our senior unsecured rating from Ba2 to B2, and on August 31, 2020, S&P Global downgraded our senior unsecured rating from BB to B+. On August 24, 2020, Moody’s also downgraded the Silversea Notes from Baa3 to Ba2 and on August 31, 2020, S&P downgraded Silversea Cruises' Notes from BBB- to BB and, as a result, certain covenants of the indenture governing the Silversea Notes have been reinstated. These downgrades reduce our ability to incur secured indebtedness by reducing the amount of indebtedness that we are permitted to secure, and may negatively impact our access to, and cost of debt financing. On February 25, 2021, S&P Global further downgraded our senior unsecured rating from B+ to B, and downgraded our $3.32 billion Senior Secured Notes and Silversea Notes from BB to BB-. This downgrade has no further impact on the terms of the notes. As of December 31, 2020, we obtained an interim debt service deferral and financial covenant holiday under certain of our export-credit backed loan facilities to generate a cumulative $0.9 billion of incremental liquidity during the 12 month period ended April 2021 which is to be repaid

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over a period of four years after the 12-month deferral period. During the first quarter of 2021, we amended our export credit facilities to defer $0.8 billion of amortization payments due under these export facilities. The deferred amounts will be repayable semi-annually over a five-year period starting in April 2022. Our ability to raise additional financing, whether or not secured, could be limited if our credit rating is further downgraded, and/or if we fail to comply with applicable covenants governing our outstanding indebtedness, and/or if overall financial market conditions worsen. Additionally, due to the complexity of the pandemic’s impact to the economy and uncertainty of its duration, we cannot guarantee that assumptions used to project our liquidity needs will be correct, which may result in the need for additional financing and/or may result in the inability to satisfy covenants required by our current credit facilities. If we continue to raise additional funds through equity or convertible debt issuances, our shareholders could experience dilution of their ownership interest, and these securities could have rights, preferences, and privileges that are superior to that of holders of our ordinary shares. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt, we may be subject to additional limitations on our operations due to restrictive covenants, which may be more restrictive than the covenants in our existing debt agreements, and we may be required to further encumber our assets. Also, as a result of our additional debt issuances, we will require a significant amount of cash to service our debt and sustain operations. Our ability to generate cash depends on factors beyond our control and we may be unable to repay or repurchase debt at maturity. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be unable to fund our operations, or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could negatively affect our business. There is no guarantee that financing will be available in the future or that such financing will be available with similar terms or terms that are commercially acceptable to us. Further, if any government agrees to provide us with disaster relief assistance, or other assistance due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we determine it is beneficial to seek such government assistance, it may impose restrictions on executive compensation, share buybacks, dividends, prepayment of debt and other restrictions until the aid is repaid or redeemed in full, which could significantly limit our corporate activities and adversely impact our business and operations. We cannot assure you that any more such disaster relief would be available to us.
We may not be able to obtain sufficient financing or capital for our needs or may not be able to do so on terms that are acceptable or consistent with our expectations.
To fund our capital expenditures (including new ship orders), operations and scheduled debt payments, we have historically relied on a combination of cash flows provided by operations, drawdowns under available credit facilities, the incurrence of additional indebtedness and the sale of equity or debt securities in private or public securities markets. Any circumstance or event which leads to a decrease in consumer cruise spending, such as worsening global economic conditions or significant incidents impacting the cruise industry, including the COVID-19 pandemic, negatively affects our operating cash flows and currently, we have no cash flows from operations. In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting suspension of our operations, these circumstances have also resulted in credit rating downgrades. See “—Adverse worldwide economic or other conditions could result in prolonged reduction in the demand for cruises and passenger spending, adversely impacting our operating results, cash flows and financial condition including potentially impairing the value of our goodwill, ships, trademarks and other assets and potentially affecting other critical accounting estimates where the change may be material to our operating results” and “—Incidents on ships, at port facilities, land destinations and/or affecting the cruise vacation industry in general, and the associated negative media coverage and publicity, could affect our reputation and impact our sales and results of operations” for more information.
Our ability to access additional funding as and when needed, our ability to timely refinance and/or replace our outstanding debt securities and credit facilities on acceptable terms and our cost of funding will depend upon numerous factors including, but not limited to, the strength of the financial markets, our recovery and financial performance, the recovery and performance of our industry in general and the size, scope and timing of our financial needs. In addition, even where financing commitments have been secured, significant disruptions in the capital and credit markets could cause our banking and other counterparties to breach their contractual obligations to us or could cause the conditions to the availability of such funding not to be satisfied. This could include failures of banks or other financial service companies to fund required borrowings under our loan agreements or to pay us amounts that may become due or return collateral that is refundable under our derivative contracts for hedging of fuel prices, interest rates and foreign currencies or other agreements. If any of the foregoing occurs for a prolonged period of time it will have a long-term negative impact on our cash flows and our ability to meet our obligations cannot be guaranteed.
Our substantial debt could adversely affect our financial condition.
We have a substantial amount of debt and significant debt service obligations. As of December 31, 2020, we had total debt of $18.9 billion. Our substantial debt could have important negative consequences for us. For example, our substantial debt could require us to dedicate a large portion of our cash flow from operations to service debt and fund repayments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes; increase our vulnerability to adverse general economic or industry conditions; limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or the industry in which we operate; place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our

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competitors that have less debt; make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, the economy or the industry in which we operate, including the current downturn related to COVID-19; limit our ability to raise additional debt or equity capital in the future to satisfy our requirements relating to working capital, capital expenditures, development projects, strategic initiatives or other purposes; restrict us from making strategic acquisitions, introducing new technologies or exploiting business opportunities; limit or restrict our ability to obtain and maintain performance bonds to cover our financial responsibility requirements in various jurisdictions for non-performance of guest travel, casualty and personal injury; make it difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt; and increase our exposure to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings are (and may be in the future) at a variable rate of interest.
Despite our leverage, we may incur more debt, which could adversely affect our business.
We may incur substantial additional debt in the future. Except for the restrictions under the indentures governing our Secured Notes (as defined below) and our 9.125% Senior Guaranteed Notes due 2023 (the “Unsecured Notes”) and certain of our other debt instruments, including our unsecured bank and export credit facilities, we are not restricted under the terms of our debt instruments from incurring additional debt. Although the indentures governing the Secured Notes, the Unsecured Notes, and certain of our other debt instruments, including our unsecured bank and export credit facilities, contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional debt, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and under certain circumstances the amount of debt that could be incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. Our debt instruments do not and will not prevent us from incurring liabilities that do not constitute “Indebtedness” as defined therein. In the event that we execute and borrow under the $700M Liquidity Facility, the credit agreement that would govern the $700M Liquidity Facility would impose substantially similar restrictions (including the related qualifications and exceptions) as are set forth in the indenture governing the Unsecured Notes. If new debt is added to our existing debt levels, the related risks that we now face would increase. As of December 31, 2020, we have commitments for approximately $11.6 billion of debt to finance the purchase of 11 ships on order by our Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises and Silversea Cruises brands, 10 of which are guaranteed by the export credit agencies in the countries in which the ships are being built. The ultimate size of each facility will depend on the final contract price (including change orders and owner’s supply) as well as fluctuations in the EUR/USD exchange rate.
The terms of existing debt financing gives, and any future preferred equity or debt financing may give, holders of any preferred securities or debt securities rights that are senior to rights of our common shareholders or impose more stringent operating restrictions on our company.
The holders of our existing debt have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock in the event of liquidation. If we incur additional debt or raise equity through the issuance of preferred stock or convertible securities, the terms of the debt or the preferred stock issued may give the holders rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock, particularly in the event of liquidation. The terms of the debt may also impose additional and more stringent restrictions on our operations. If we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, the ownership percentage of our existing shareholders would be diluted. Debt or equity financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms.
We will require a significant amount of cash to service our debt and sustain our operations. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control, and we may not be able to generate cash required to service our debt.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt service obligations or refinance our debt depends on our future operating and financial performance and ability to generate cash. This will be affected by our ability to successfully implement our business strategy, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control, such as the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. If we cannot generate sufficient cash to meet our debt service obligations or fund our other business needs, we may, among other things, need to refinance all or a portion of our debt, obtain additional financing, delay planned capital expenditures or sell assets. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate sufficient cash through any of the foregoing. If we are not able to refinance any of our debt, obtain additional financing or sell assets on commercially reasonable terms or at all, we may not be able to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt.
We are subject to restrictive debt covenants that may limit our ability to finance future operations and capital needs and to pursue business opportunities and activities. In addition, if we fail to comply with any of these restrictions, it could have a material adverse effect on us.
Certain of our debt instruments, including our indentures and our unsecured bank and export credit facilities, limit our flexibility in operating our business. For example, certain of our loan agreements and indentures restrict or limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things: incur or guarantee additional indebtedness; pay dividends or distributions on, or redeem or repurchase capital stock and make other restricted payments; make investments; consummate certain asset sales; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; grant or assume certain liens; and consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets. Both our export credit facilities and our non-export credit facilities contain covenants that require

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us, among other things, to maintain a fixed charge coverage ratio of at least 1.25x and limit our net debt-to-capital ratio to no more than 62.5%. Refer to Note 9. Debt to our consolidated financial statements under Item 1. Financial Statements for further discussion on our covenants and existing waivers.
On August 24, 2020, Moody’s downgraded the Silversea Notes from Baa3 to Ba2 and on August 31, 2020, S&P Global downgraded Silversea Cruises' Notes from BBB- to BB and as a result, certain covenants of the indenture governing the Silversea Notes have been reinstated, the application of which had been previously suspended unless and until any such downgrade occurred. The reinstated covenants include, among other things, limitations on the ability of Silversea Cruises and its restricted subsidiaries to incur indebtedness, enter into transactions with affiliates (including Royal Caribbean and its subsidiaries that are not restricted subsidiaries of Silversea Cruises) and pay dividends and make other distributions from Silversea Cruises to Royal Caribbean, each of which may limit our ability to obtain funding and may decrease our operational and financial flexibility, including the ability to make upstream payments from Silversea Cruises and to provide funding support to Silversea Cruises. On February 25, 2021, S&P Global further downgraded the Silversea Cruises’ Notes from BB to BB-, which had no further impact with respect to the Silversea Cruises’ Notes. The Silversea Notes are guaranteed by the Company on a senior unsecured basis. Any event of default or acceleration of the indebtedness under the Silversea Notes could cause the borrowings under other of our debt instruments that contain cross-default provisions to be accelerated or become payable on demand.
All of these limitations are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications. Despite these exceptions and qualifications, we cannot assure you that the operating and financial restrictions and covenants in certain of our debt instruments will not adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs or engage in other business activities that may be in our interest. Any future indebtedness may include similar or other restrictive terms. In addition, our ability to comply with these covenants, and restrictions may be affected by events beyond our control. These include prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If we breach any of these covenants or restrictions, we could be in default under such indebtedness and certain of our other debt instruments and the relevant debt holders or lenders could elect to declare the debt, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other fees, if any, immediately due and payable and proceed against any collateral securing that debt. If the debt under certain of our debt instruments that we enter into were to be accelerated, our liquid assets may be insufficient to repay in full such indebtedness. Borrowings under other debt instruments that contain cross-default provisions also may be accelerated or become payable on demand. In these circumstances, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full that indebtedness and our other indebtedness then outstanding.
In addition, our ability to maintain our credit facilities may also be impacted by changes in our ownership base. More specifically, we may be required to prepay our bank financing facilities if any person acquires ownership of more than 50% of our common stock or, subject to certain exceptions, during any 24-month period, a majority of our board of directors is no longer comprised of individuals who were members of our board of directors on the first day of such period. Our public debt securities also contain change of control provisions that would be triggered by a third-party acquisition of greater than 50% of our common stock coupled with a ratings downgrade, which would require us to offer to repurchase our public debt securities in the event of such change of control.
If we elect to settle conversions of our convertible notes, if any, in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, conversions of our convertible notes may result in substantial dilution for our existing shareholders.
In 2020, we issued an aggregate principal amount of $1.725 billion in convertible notes. The notes are convertible into shares of our common stock, cash, or a combination of common stock and cash, at our election. The initial conversion rate per $1,000 principal amount of the convertible notes is 13.8672 and 12.1212 shares of our common stock for our June and October 2020 issuances of convertible notes, respectively, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $72.11 and $82.50 per share, respectively, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. In connection with certain corporate events or if we issue a notice of tax redemption, we will, under certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for holders of the convertible notes who convert their convertible notes in connection with such corporate event or whose convertible notes are called for tax redemption and who convert their convertible notes during the relevant redemption period. Prior to March 15 and August 15, 2023, the June and October convertible notes, respectively, will be convertible at the option of holders during certain periods only upon satisfaction of certain conditions. Beyond those dates, the convertible notes will be convertible at any time until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding their maturity date. If we elect to settle conversions of our convertible notes, if any, in shares of our common stock or a combination of common stock and cash, conversions of our convertible notes may result in significant dilution to our shareholders.
We did not declare dividends on our common stock in the quarters ended June 30, 2020, September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2020 and do not expect to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.
No cash dividends were declared on our common stock during the quarters ended June 30, 2020, September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2020. We expect that any income received from operations will be devoted to our future operations and recovery.

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We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future due to our agreement with certain of our lenders not to pay dividends until the end of the third quarter 2022. In addition, in the event we thereafter declare a dividend, we will need to repay our Debt Deferral. Payment of dividends would, in any case, depend upon our profitability at the time, cash available for those dividends, and other factors as our board of directors may consider relevant.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly
A portion of our indebtedness bears interest at variable rates that are linked to changing market interest rates. As a result, an increase in market interest rates would increase our interest expense and our debt service obligations. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $7.1 billion of indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates. This amount represented approximately 35.5% of our total indebtedness. As of December 31, 2020, a hypothetical 1% increase in prevailing interest rates would increase our forecasted 2021 interest expense by approximately $59.4 million.
In addition, on July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), announced that it will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. Also in 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of, among other entities, large U.S. financial institutions, selected the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the rate recommended to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR ("USD LIBOR"). SOFR measures the cost of borrowing cash overnight, backed by U.S. Treasury securities. SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. On December 4, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, released a consultation disclosing its intent to cease publication of one-week and two-month USD LIBOR after December 31, 2021, but continue to publish the remaining tenors of USD LIBOR for an additional 18 months, through June 30, 2023. These remaining tenors of USD LIBOR—overnight, one-month, three-month, six-month and 12-months—encompass the tenors referenced in our borrowings and interest rate swaps. U.S. regulators continue to encourage banks to cease entering into new contracts that use USD LIBOR as a reference rate by December 31, 2021. However, uncertainty remains as many market participants await the development of term SOFR products, i.e., forward-looking rates, and benchmark providers are developing indices that might co-exist with SOFR. If LIBOR ceases to exist, the level of interest payments on the portion of our indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates would be affected, which may materially impact the amount of our interest payments under such debt. Further, if we, the agent or the lenders holding a majority of the outstanding loans or commitments under such indebtedness determine that a LIBOR rate is no longer available, that a specific date has been announced after which a LIBOR rate will no longer be made available, or that syndicated loans are being executed or amended to adopt a replacement rate, then the terms of such indebtedness will allow us and the applicable agent to amend such indebtedness to implement a replacement rate, subject to the negative consent of the lenders holding a majority of the outstanding loans or commitments. Such replacement rate will give due consideration to any evolving or then-existing conventions for similar credit facilities, which may result in different than expected interest payments.
Macroeconomic, Business, Market and Operational Risks
Adverse worldwide economic or other conditions could reduce the demand for cruises and passenger spending, adversely impacting our operating results, cash flows and financial condition including impairing the value of our goodwill, ships, trademarks and other assets and potentially affecting other critical accounting estimates where the change may be material to our operating results.
In addition to health and safety concerns, demand for cruises is affected by international, national, and local economic conditions. Weak or uncertain economic conditions may impact consumer confidence and pose a risk as vacationers postpone or reduce discretionary spending. This, in turn, may result in cruise booking slowdowns, decreased cruise prices and lower onboard revenues, even after the COVID-19 pandemic has ended and/or related health and safety concerns are reduced. Given the global nature of our business, we are exposed to many different economies and our business could be hurt by challenging conditions in any of our markets. Any significant deterioration of international, national, or local economic conditions, including those resulting from geopolitical events and/or international disputes and the current economic and employment impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in countries where many of our customers reside could result in a prolonged period of booking slowdowns, depressed cruise prices and/or reduced onboard revenues, even after the COVID-19 pandemic has ended and/or related health and safety concerns are reduced. Additionally, the continued impact of COVID-19 on the financial markets is complicated and we cannot predict its effect on geopolitical events and/or international trade policies as countries attempt to mitigate the impact of the pandemic and as they re-open their economies or re-implement lockdown measures. Additionally, uncertainties resulting from the United Kingdom’s recent exit from the European Union may impact our business.
Our operating costs could increase due to market forces and economic or geopolitical factors beyond our control.
Our operating costs, including fuel, food, payroll and benefits, airfare, taxes, insurance, and security costs, are all subject to increases due to market forces and economic or geopolitical conditions or other factors beyond our control, including as a

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result of rerouting itineraries due to ports closing or not accepting passengers in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Increases in these operating costs could adversely affect our future profitability when an economic recovery begins.
Any further impairment of our goodwill, long-lived assets, equity investments and notes receivable could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently when circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a reporting unit may not be recoverable. A challenging operating environment, such as is currently being experienced under the impact of COVID-19, impacts affecting consumer demand or spending, the deterioration of general macroeconomic conditions, or other factors could result in a change to the future cash flows we expect to derive from our operations. Reductions of cash flows used in the valuation analyses may result in the recording of an impairment charge to a reporting unit’s goodwill. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a Silversea Cruises’ goodwill impairment loss of $576.2 million. See Note 5. Goodwill to our consolidated financial statements under Item 1. Financial Statements for further information.
Price increases for commercial airline service for our guests or major changes or reduction in commercial airline service and/or availability could adversely impact the demand for cruises and undermine our ability to provide reasonably priced vacation packages to our guests.
Many of our guests depend on scheduled commercial airline services to transport them to or from the ports where our cruises embark or disembark. Increases in the price of airfare would increase the overall price of the cruise vacation to our guests, which may adversely impact demand for our cruises. In addition, changes in the availability and/or regulations governing commercial airline services, including those resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, have adversely affected and could continue to adversely affect our guests’ ability to obtain air travel, as well as our ability to transfer our guests to or from our cruise ships, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Fears of terrorist attacks, war, and other hostilities could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
Events such as terrorist attacks, war (or war-like conditions), conflicts (domestic or cross-border), civil unrest and other hostilities, including an escalation in the frequency or severity of incidents, and the resulting political instability, travel restrictions and advisories, and concerns over safety and security aspects of traveling or the fear of any of the foregoing have had, and could have in the future, a significant adverse impact on demand and pricing in the travel and vacation industry. In view of our global operations, we are susceptible to a wide range of adverse events. These events could also result in additional security measures taken by local authorities which may potentially impact access to ports and/or destinations.
Disease outbreaks and an increase in concern about the risk of illness could adversely impact our business and results from operations.
Disease outbreaks and increased concern related to illness when travelling to, from, and on our ships could cause a drop in demand for cruises, guest cancellations, travel restrictions, an unavailability of ports and/or destinations, cruise cancellations, ship redeployments and an inability to source our crew, provisions or supplies from certain places. Due to the complex and evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic we cannot predict the duration of the effect of the current pandemic, and the magnitude is dependent on the development of future events and responses from governments, other authorities, and individual consumers. Our industry, including our passengers and crew, may be subject to enhanced health and safety requirements in the future which may be costly and take a significant amount of time to implement across our fleet and we may be subject to concerns that cruises are susceptible to the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. For example, local governments may establish their own set of rules for self-quarantines and/or require proof of individuals health status prior to or upon visiting. These effects may extend beyond any resolution of the current COVID-19 pandemic through the development of a vaccine or effective therapeutic treatment, and the impact of any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, the new operating protocols we are developing and any other health protocol we may develop or that may be required by law in the future in response to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases may be costly to implement and less effective than we expected in reducing the risk of infection and spread of such disease on our cruise ships, which will negatively impact our operations and expose us to reputational and legal risks.
Incidents on ships, at port facilities, land destinations and/or affecting the cruise vacation industry in general, and the associated negative media coverage and publicity, could affect our reputation and impact our sales and results of operations.
The ownership and/or operation of cruise ships, private destinations, port facilities and shore excursions involves the risk of accidents, illnesses, mechanical failures, environmental incidents and other incidents which may bring into question safety, health, security and vacation satisfaction and can negatively impact our sales, operations and reputation. Incidents involving cruise ships, and, in particular the safety, health and security of guests and crew and the media coverage thereof, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic, have impacted and could continue to impact demand for our cruises and pricing in the industry. In particular, we cannot predict the impact on our financial performance and our cash flows required for cash refunds of deposits as a result of the pause in our global fleet cruise operations, which may be prolonged, and the public’s concern

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regarding the health and safety of travel, especially by cruise ship, and related decreases in demand for travel and cruising. Moreover, our ability to attract and retain guests and crew depends, in part, upon the perception and reputation of our company and our brands and the public’s concerns regarding the health and safety of travel generally, as well as regarding the cruising industry and our ships specifically. Our reputation and our business could also be damaged by continued or additional negative publicity regarding the cruise industry in general, including publicity regarding the spread of contagious disease such as COVID-19, over-tourism in key ports and destinations and the potentially adverse environmental impacts of cruising. The considerable expansion in the use of social and digital media over recent years has compounded the potential scope and reach of any negative publicity. In addition, incidents involving cruise ships may result in additional costs to our business, increasing government or other regulatory oversight and, in certain cases, potential litigation.
Significant weather, climate events and/or natural disasters could adversely impact our business and results from operations.
Natural disasters (e.g. earthquakes, volcanos, wild fires), weather and/or climate events (including hurricanes and typhoons) could impact our source markets and operations resulting in travel restrictions, guest cancellations, an inability to source our crew or our provisions and supplies from certain places. We are often forced to alter itineraries and occasionally cancel a cruise or a series of cruises or to redeploy our ships due to these types of events, which could have an adverse effect on our sales, operating costs and profitability in the current and future periods. Increases in the frequency, severity or duration of these types of events could exacerbate their impact and cause further disruption to our operations or make certain destinations less desirable or unavailable impacting our revenues and profitability further. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and on industry performance.
Our reliance on shipyards, their subcontractors and our suppliers to implement our newbuild and ship upgrade programs and to repair and maintain our ships exposes us to risks which, if realized, could adversely impact our business.
We rely on shipyards, their subcontractors and our suppliers to effectively construct our new ships and to repair, maintain, and upgrade our existing ships on a timely basis and in a cost effective manner; and there are a limited number of shipyards with the capability and capacity to build, repair, maintain and/or upgrade our ships. As such, any disruptions effecting the newbuild or fleet modernization supply chain will adversely impact our business as there are limited substitutes.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to suspensions and/or slowdowns of work at certain shipyards, which impacts our ability to construct new ships when and as planned, our ability to timely and cost-effectively procure new capacity, and our ability to execute scheduled drydocks and/or fleet modernizations. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the shipyards, their subcontractors, and our suppliers have resulted in delays in our previously scheduled ship deliveries, which are currently under discussion with the shipyards. Variations from our plan could have a significant negative impact on our business operations and financial condition.
Building, repairing, maintaining and/or upgrading a ship is sophisticated work that involves significant risks. In addition, the prices of labor and/or various commodities that are used in the construction of ships can be subject to volatile price changes, including the impact of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Shipyards, their subcontractors, and/or our suppliers may encounter financial, technical or design problems when doing these jobs. If materialized, these problems could impact the timely delivery or costs of new ships or the ability of shipyards to repair and upgrade our fleet in accordance with our needs or expectations. In addition, delays, mechanical faults and/or unforeseen incidents may result in cancellation of cruises, or, in more severe situations, delays of new ship orders, or necessitate unscheduled drydocks. Such events could result in lost revenue, increased operating expenses, or both, and thus adversely affect our results of operations.
An increase in capacity worldwide or excess capacity in a particular market could adversely impact our cruise sales and/or pricing.
Although our ships can be redeployed, cruise sales and/or pricing may be impacted by the introduction of new ships into the marketplace, reductions in cruise capacity, overall market growth and deployment decisions of ourselves and our competitors. As of December 31, 2020, a total of 105 new ships with approximately 217,600 berths were on order for delivery through 2027 in the cruise industry, including 15 ships currently scheduled to be delivered to us. The further net growth in capacity from these new ships and future orders, without an increase in the cruise industry’s demand and/or share of the vacation market, could depress cruise prices and impede our ability to achieve yield improvement. Additionally, due to our global suspension of operations and the suspension of operations by other cruise operators, cruise prices and yield improvement are further at risk depending on how, when, and where global operations resume.
In addition, to the extent that we or our competitors deploy ships to a particular itinerary/region and the resulting capacity in that region exceeds the demand, we may lower pricing and profitability may be lower than anticipated. This risk exists in emerging cruise markets, where capacity has grown rapidly over the past few years and in mature markets where excess capacity is typically redeployed. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, including potentially impairing the value of our ships and other assets.

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Unavailability of ports of call may adversely affect our results of operations.
We believe that port destinations are a major reason why guests choose to go on a particular cruise or on a cruise vacation. The availability of ports and destinations is affected by a number of factors, including industry demand and competition for key ports and destinations, existing capacity constraints, constraints related to the size of certain ships, security, financial limitations on port development, exclusivity arrangements that ports may have with our competitors, geopolitical developments and local governmental regulations; and in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, port availability could also be subject to immediate change depending on local and/or onboard disease outbreaks or other government restrictions as well as limited availability when sailing resumes. In addition, higher fuel costs may adversely impact the destinations we choose to call upon on certain of our itineraries as they become too costly to include.
Increased demand and competition for key ports of call or destinations, limitations on the availability or feasibility of use of specific ports of call and/or constraints on the availability of shore excursions and other service providers at such ports or destinations could adversely affect our results of operations.
We may lose business to competitors throughout the vacation market.
We operate in the vacation market and cruising is one of many alternatives for people choosing a vacation. We therefore risk losing business not only to other cruise lines, but also to other vacation operators, which provide other leisure options, including hotels, resorts, internet-based alternative lodging sites and package holidays and tours.
We face significant competition from other cruise lines on the basis of cruise pricing, travel agent preference and also in terms of the nature of ships, services and destinations that we offer to guests. Our principal competitors within the cruise vacation industry include Carnival Corporation & plc, which owns, among others, Aida Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Costa Cruises, Cunard Line, Holland America Line, P&O Cruises, Princess Cruises and Seabourn; Disney Cruise Line; MSC Cruises; and Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd, which owns Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises and Regent Seven Seas Cruises. Our revenues are sensitive to the actions of other cruise lines in many areas including pricing, scheduling, capacity and promotions, which can have a substantial adverse impact not only on our revenues, but on overall industry revenues.
In the event that we do not effectively market or differentiate our cruise brands from our competitors or otherwise compete effectively with other vacation alternatives and new or existing cruise companies, our results of operations and financial position could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to appropriately balance our cost management and capital allocation strategies with our goal of satisfying guest expectations, it may adversely impact our business success.
Our goals call for us to provide high quality products and deliver high quality services. There can be no assurance that we can successfully balance these goals with our cost management and capital allocation strategies. Our business also requires us to make capital allocation decisions across a broad scope of investment options with varying return profiles and time horizons for value realization. These include significant capital investment decisions such as ordering new ships, upgrading our existing fleet, enhancing our technology and/or data capabilities, and expanding our portfolio of land-based assets, based on expected market preferences, competition and projected demand. There can be no assurance that our strategies will be successful, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, our ownership and operation of older tonnage, in particular during the business disruption caused by COVID-19, has resulted in impaired asset values due to expected returns that we will not be able to recover.
Our attempts to expand our business into new markets and new ventures may not be successful.
We opportunistically seek to grow our business through, among other things, expansion into new destinations or source markets and establishment of new ventures complementary to our current offerings. These attempts to expand our business increase the complexity of our business, require significant levels of investment and can strain our management, personnel, operations and systems. In addition, we have been unable to execute our attempts to expand our business as a result of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as described elsewhere herein. There can be no assurance that these business expansion efforts will develop as anticipated or that we will succeed, and if we do not, we may be unable to recover our investment, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks associated with our development and operation of key land-based destination projects may adversely impact our business or results of operations.
We have invested, either directly or indirectly through joint ventures and partnerships, in a growing portfolio of key land-based projects including port and terminal facilities, private destinations and multi-brand destination projects. These investments can increase our exposure to certain key risks depending on the scope, location, and the ownership and management structure of these projects. These risks include susceptibility to weather events, exposure to local political/regulatory developments and policies, logistical challenges and human resource and labor risks; in addition to location-specific

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safety, environmental, and health risks, including challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects locally where we have these projects and relationships.
Our reliance on travel agencies to sell and market our cruises exposes us to certain risks which, if realized, could adversely impact our business.
We rely on travel agencies to generate the majority of bookings for our ships. Accordingly, we must ensure that our commission rates and incentive structures remain competitive. If we fail to offer competitive compensation packages or fail to maintain our relationships, these agencies may be incentivized to sell cruises offered by our competitors to our detriment, which could adversely impact our operating results. Our reliance on third-party sellers is particularly pronounced in certain markets. In addition, the travel agent industry is sensitive to economic conditions that impact discretionary income of consumers. Significant disruptions, such as those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, or contractions in the industry could reduce the number of travel agencies available for us to market and sell our cruises, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, the strength of our recovery from suspended operations could be delayed if we are not aligned and partnered with key travel agencies.
Business activities that involve our co-investments with third parties may subject us to additional risks.
Partnerships, joint ventures and other business structures involving our co-investments with third parties generally include some form of shared control over the operations of the business and create additional risks, including the event that other investors in such ventures become bankrupt or otherwise lack the financial resources to meet their obligations, or could have or develop business interests, policies or objectives that are inconsistent with ours. In addition to financial risks, our co-investment activities have also presented managerial and operational risks and expose us to reputational or legal concerns. These or other issues related to our co-investments with third parties could adversely impact our operations or liquidity. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Pullmantur S.A. filed for reorganization under the terms of the Spanish insolvency laws. In addition, with the exception of limited sailings outside of the U.S. starting in July 2020, TUI Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Cruises have, for the most part, suspended sailings and their operations, results of operations and liquidity have been and will continue to be adversely materially impacted. The Company may be required to continue to provide funding for these affiliated entities and it is unclear when and to what extent these entities will fully resume operations and our ability to provide such funding will be limited by the level and terms of our outstanding indebtedness. Further, due to the arrangements we have in place with our partners in these ventures, we are limited in our ability to control the strategy of these ventures if and when they resume operations, or their use of capital and other key factors to their results of operation which could adversely affect our investments and impact our results of operations.
Past or pending business acquisitions or potential acquisitions that we may decide to pursue in the future carry inherent risks which could adversely impact our financial performance and condition.
The Company, from time to time, has engaged in acquisitions (e.g., our Silversea Cruises acquisition) and may pursue acquisitions in the future, which are subject to, among other factors, the Company’s ability to identify attractive business opportunities and to negotiate favorable terms for such opportunities. Accordingly, the Company cannot make any assurances that potential acquisitions will be completed timely or at all, or that if completed, we would realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisition. Acquisitions also carry inherent risks such as, among others: (1) the potential delay or failure of our efforts to successfully integrate business processes and realizing expected synergies; (2) difficulty in aligning procedures, controls and/or policies; and (3) future unknown liabilities and costs that may be associated with an acquisition. In addition, acquisitions may also adversely impact our liquidity and/or debt levels, and the recognized value of goodwill and other intangible assets can be negatively affected by unforeseen events and/or circumstances, which may result in an impairment charge. Any of the foregoing events could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on supply chain vendors and third-party service providers who are integral to the operations of our businesses. These vendors and service providers are also affected by COVID-19 and may be unable or unwilling to deliver on their commitments or may act in ways that could harm our business.
We rely on supply chain vendors to deliver key products to the operations of our businesses around the world. Any event impacting a vendor’s ability to deliver goods of the expected quality at the location and time needed could negatively impact our ability to deliver our cruise experience. Events impacting our supply chain could be caused by factors beyond the control of our suppliers or us, including inclement weather, natural disasters, increased demand, problems in production or distribution and/or disruptions in third-party logistics or transportation systems, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Any such interruptions to our supply chain could increase our costs and could limit the availability of products critical to our operations.
In order to achieve cost and operational efficiencies, we outsource to third-party vendors certain services that are integral to the operations of our global businesses, such as our onboard concessionaires, certain of our call center operations and operation of a large part of our information technology systems, which are also affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We are

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subject to the risk that certain decisions are subject to the control of our third-party service providers and that these decisions may adversely affect our activities. A failure to adequately monitor a third-party service provider’s compliance with a service level agreement or regulatory or legal requirements could result in significant economic and reputational harm to us. There is also a risk the confidentiality, privacy and/or security of data held by third parties or communicated over third-party networks or platforms could become compromised.
The potential unavailability of insurance coverage, an inability to obtain insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates or our failure to have coverage in sufficient amounts to cover our incurred losses may adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
We seek to maintain appropriate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates. We normally insure based on the cost of an asset rather than replacement value and we also elect to self-insure, co-insure, or use deductibles in certain circumstances for certain risks such as loss of use of a ship or other business interruption. The limits of insurance coverage we purchase are based on the availability of the coverage, evaluation of our risk profile and cost of coverage. We do not carry business interruption insurance and accordingly we have no insurance coverage for loss of revenues or earnings from our ships or other operations. Accordingly, we are not protected against all risks and we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred which could result in an unexpected decrease in our revenue and results of operations in the event of an incident.
We are members of four Protection and Indemnity (“P&I”) clubs, which are part of a worldwide group of 13 P&I clubs, known as the International Group of P&I Clubs (the “IG”). P&I coverage provided by the clubs is on a mutual basis and we are subject to additional premium calls in the event of a catastrophic loss incurred by any member of the 13 P&I clubs, whereby the reinsurance limits purchased by the IG are exhausted. We are also subject to additional premium calls based on investment and underwriting shortfalls experienced by our own individual insurers. Certain liabilities, costs, and expenses associated with COVID-19 cases identified on or traced to our vessels are eligible for insurance coverage under our participation in these P&I clubs.
We cannot be certain that insurance and reinsurance coverage will be available to us and at commercially reasonable rates in the future or at all or, if available, that it will be sufficient to cover potential claims. Additionally, if we or other insureds sustain significant losses, the result may be higher insurance premiums, cancellation of coverage, or the inability to obtain coverage. The COVID-19 pandemic, for example, depending on its on-going scope, and duration and the associated insurance claims volumes driven by the pandemic, may potentially impact the insurance markets we rely on for coverage and could adversely impact both the coverage options available to us in the future as well as the premium costs we are required to pay for those coverages. Such events could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
Disruptions in our shoreside or shipboard operations or our information systems may adversely affect our results of operations.
Our principal executive office and principal shoreside operations are located in Florida, and we have shoreside offices throughout the world. Actual or threatened natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes/typhoons, earthquakes, tornadoes, fires or floods), municipal lockdowns, curfews, quarantines, or similar events in these locations may have a material impact on our business continuity, reputation and results of operations. For instance, all Company shoreside operations are working remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has posed increased technological risks. In addition, substantial or repeated information system failures, computer viruses or cyber attacks impacting our shoreside or shipboard operations could adversely impact our business. We do not generally carry business interruption insurance for our shoreside or shipboard operations or our information systems. As such, any losses or damages incurred by us could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Provisions of our Articles of Incorporation, By-Laws and Liberian law could inhibit others from acquiring us, prevent a change of control, and may prevent efforts by our shareholders to change our management.
Certain provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and Liberian law may inhibit third parties from effectuating a change of control of the Company without approval from our board of directors which could result in the entrenchment of current management. These include provisions in our Articles of Incorporation that prevent third parties, other than A. Wilhelmsen AS and Cruise Associates and their permitted transferees, from acquiring beneficial ownership of more than 4.9% of our outstanding shares without the consent of our board of directors.
Compliance and Regulatory Risks
Changes in U.S. or other countries’ foreign travel policy may affect our results of operations.
Changes in U.S. foreign policy could result in the imposition of travel restrictions or travel bans on U.S. persons to certain countries or result in the imposition of U.S. travel advisories, warnings, rules, regulations or legislation that could expose us to penalties or claims of monetary damages. The timing and scope of these changes are unpredictable, and they could cause us to cancel scheduled sailings, possibly on short notice, or could result in possible litigation against us. This, in turn, could decrease

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our revenue, increase our operating costs and otherwise impair our profitability. For instance, in June 2019, the U.S. government announced that cruise ships would no longer be allowed to travel between the U.S. and Cuba. This required us to change our high yielding Cuba sailings on short notice, which impacted our earnings. Moreover, in May 2019, the U.S. government activated Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996, popularly known as the Helms-Burton Act. This allowed certain individuals whose property was confiscated by the Cuban government to sue in U.S. courts anyone who “traffics” in the property in question. The activation of Title III has resulted in litigation against us and others in the tourism industry.
Additionally, in the first quarter of 2020, the U.S. Department of State, along with other governments, including Canada, issued travel advisories warning against cruise travel as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequently imposed restrictions on those entering the U.S. and many nations imposed strict temporary restrictions on international travel. This, combined with other factors, ultimately lead to the company voluntarily suspending the sailings of our fleet globally and may limit or slow our ability to resume operations in the near term. In addition to the loss of revenues, our financial condition is affected by refund requests, future cruise credit issuances, and other costs associated with returning passengers and crew home safely. Furthermore, many countries have adopted restrictions against U.S. travelers and we currently cannot predict when those restrictions will be eased.
Growing anti-tourism sentiments and environmental concerns related to cruising could adversely impact our operations.
Certain ports and destinations are facing a surge of both cruise and non-cruise tourism which, in certain cases, has fueled anti-tourism sentiments and related countermeasures to limit the volume of tourists allowed in these destinations. In certain destinations, countermeasures to limit the volume of tourists are being contemplated and/or put into effect, including proposed limits on cruise ships and cruise passengers. Potential restrictions in ports and destinations such as Venice, Barcelona or Key West, could limit the itinerary and destination options we can offer our passengers going forward. Some environmental groups have also generated negative publicity about the environmental impact of the cruise vacation industry and are advocating for more stringent regulation of ship emissions at berth and at sea. These anti-tourism sentiments and growing environmental scrutiny of the cruise industry and any related countermeasures could adversely impact our operations and financial results and subject us to increasing compliance costs.
Environmental, labor, health and safety, financial responsibility and other maritime regulations could affect operations and increase operating costs.
The U.S. and various state and foreign government or regulatory agencies have enacted or may enact environmental regulations or policies, such as requiring the use of low sulfur fuels (e.g. IMO 2020), that could increase our direct cost to operate in certain markets, increase our cost for fuel, limit the supply of compliant fuel, cause us to incur significant expenses to purchase and/or develop new equipment and adversely impact the cruise vacation industry. While we have taken and expect to continue to take a number of actions to mitigate the potential impact of certain of these regulations, there can be no assurances that these efforts will be successful over the long term.
There is increasing global regulatory focus on climate change, greenhouse gas and other emissions. These regulatory efforts, both internationally and in the U.S. are still developing, and we cannot yet determine what the final regulatory programs or their impact will be in any jurisdiction where we do business. However, such climate change-related regulatory activity in the future may adversely affect our business and financial results by requiring us to reduce our emissions, purchase allowances or otherwise pay for our emissions. Such activity may also impact us by increasing our operating costs, including fuel costs.
In addition, we are subject to various international, national, state and local laws, regulations and treaties that govern, among other things, discharge from our ships, safety standards applicable to our ships, treatment of disabled persons, health and sanitary standards applicable to our guests, security standards on board our ships and at the ship/port interface areas, and financial responsibilities to our guests. These issues are, and we believe will continue to be, an area of focus by the relevant authorities throughout the world. This could result in the enactment of more stringent regulation of cruise ships that could subject us to increasing compliance costs in the future.
A change in our tax status under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, or other jurisdictions, may have adverse effects on our income.
We and a number of our subsidiaries are foreign corporations that derive income from a U.S. trade or business and/or from sources within the U.S. In connection with the year end audit, each year, Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP, our U.S. tax counsel, delivers to us an opinion, based on certain representations and assumptions set forth in it, to the effect that this income, to the extent derived from or incidental to the international operation of a ship or ships, is excluded from gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes pursuant to Section 883 of the Internal Revenue Code. We believe that most of our income (including that of our subsidiaries) is derived from or incidental to the international operation of ships.
Our ability to rely on Section 883 could be challenged or could change in the future. Provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, including Section 883, are subject to legislative change at any time. Moreover, changes could occur in the future with

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respect to the identity, residence or holdings of our direct or indirect shareholders, trading volume or trading frequency of our shares, or relevant foreign tax laws of Liberia or Bahamas, such that they no longer qualify as equivalent exemption jurisdictions, that could affect our eligibility for the Section 883 exemption. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will continue to be exempt from U.S. income tax on U.S. source shipping income in the future. If we were not entitled to the benefit of Section 883, we and our subsidiaries would be subject to U.S. taxation on a portion of the income derived from or incidental to the international operation of our ships, which would reduce our net income.
Additionally, portions of our business are operated by companies that are within the United Kingdom tonnage tax regime. Further, some of our operations are conducted in jurisdictions where we rely on tax treaties to provide exemption from taxation. To the extent the United Kingdom tonnage tax laws change or we do not continue to meet the applicable qualification requirements or if tax treaties are changed or revoked, we may be required to pay higher income tax in these jurisdictions, adversely impacting our results of operations.
As budgetary constraints continue to adversely impact the jurisdictions in which we operate, increases in income tax regulations, tax audits or tax reform affecting our operations may be imposed.
We are not a U.S. corporation and our shareholders may be subject to the uncertainties of a foreign legal system in protecting their interests.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and by the Business Corporation Act of Liberia. The provisions of the Business Corporation Act of Liberia resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the U.S. However, there are very few judicial cases in Liberia interpreting the Business Corporation Act of Liberia. While the Business Corporation Act of Liberia provides that it is to be applied and construed to make the laws of Liberia, with respect of the subject matter of the Business Corporation Act of Liberia, uniform with the laws of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions, there have been few Liberian court cases interpreting the Business Corporation Act of Liberia and we cannot predict whether Liberian courts would reach the same conclusions as United States courts. The right of shareholders to bring a derivative action in Liberian courts may be more limited than in U.S. jurisdictions. There may also be practical difficulties for shareholders attempting to bring suit in Liberia and Liberian courts may or may not recognize and enforce foreign judgments. Thus, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests with respect to actions by management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a U.S. jurisdiction.
General Risk Factors
Conducting business globally may result in increased costs and other risks.
We operate our business globally, which exposes us to a number of risks, including increased exposure to a wider range of regional and local economic conditions, volatile local political conditions, potential changes in duties and taxes, including changing and/or uncertain interpretations of existing tax laws and regulations, required compliance with additional laws and policies affecting cruising, vacation or maritime businesses or governing the operations of foreign-based companies, currency fluctuations, interest rate movements, difficulties in operating under local business environments, port quality and availability in certain regions, U.S. and global anti-bribery laws or regulations, imposition of trade barriers and restrictions on repatriation of earnings.
Our future growth strategies increasingly depend on the growth and sustained profitability of international markets. Factors that will be critical to our success in these markets include our ability to continue to raise awareness of our products and our ability to adapt our offerings to best suit rapidly evolving consumer demands. This risk is further heightened by the COVID-19 pandemic, as authorities in many of these markets have implemented numerous measures to contain the spread and impact of COVID-19, such as travel bans and restrictions, shelter-in-place/stay-at-home orders, and other limitations on business activity, including business closures. In addition, these measures could change unpredictably and/or could be scaled up or down in response to evolving intensity or resurgence of COVID-19 in or around these markets. The execution of our planned growth strategies is dependent on meeting the governmental and regulatory measures and policies in each of these markets. Our ability to realize our future growth strategy is highly dependent on our ability to satisfy country-specific policies and requirements in order to return to service, as well as meeting the needs of region specific consumer preferences as services come back online. These factors may cause us to reevaluate some of our international business strategies.
Operating globally also exposes us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal, regulatory and tax requirements. In many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate, practices in the local business communities might not conform to international business standards. These legal and regulatory requirements and standards may change in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and there may be greater uncertainty as to the interpretation and enforcement of applicable laws and regulations, including those introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We cannot guarantee consistent interpretation, application, and enforcement of rules and regulations put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which could place limits on our operations or increase our costs, as well as negatively impact our future growth strategies in our key growth

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markets. We must adhere to policies designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance as well as applicable laws and regulations. However, we might not be successful in ensuring that our employees, agents, representatives and other third parties with whom we associate throughout the world properly adhere to them. In addition, we may be exposed to the risk of penalties and other liabilities if we fail to comply with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may be subject to frequent and rapid change. Failure by us, our employees or any of these third parties to adhere to our policies or applicable laws or regulations could result in penalties, sanctions, damage to our reputation and related costs, which in turn could negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.
As a global operator, our business also may be impacted by changes in U.S. policy or priorities in areas such as trade, immigration (including any continuation of any of the immigration policies put in place by the U.S. government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic) and/or environmental or labor regulations, among others. Depending on the nature and scope of any such changes, they could impact our domestic and international business operations. Any such changes, and any international response to them, could potentially introduce new barriers to passenger or crew travel and/or cross border transactions, impact our guest experience and/or increase our operating costs.
If we are unable to address these risks adequately, our financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected, including impairing the value of our ships and other assets.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, fuel prices and interest rates could affect our financial results.
We are exposed to market risk attributable to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, fuel prices and interest rates. Significant changes in any of the foregoing could have a material impact on our financial results, net of the impact of our hedging activities and natural offsets. Our operating results have been and will continue to be impacted, often significantly, by changes in each of these factors. The value of our earnings in foreign currencies is adversely impacted by a strong U.S. dollar. In addition, any significant increase in fuel prices could materially and adversely affect our business as fuel prices not only impact our fuel costs, but also some of our other expenses, such as crew travel, freight, and commodity prices. Mandatory fuel restrictions, may also create uncertainty related to the price and availability of certain fuel types potentially impacting operating costs and the value of our related hedging instruments. Also, a significant increase in interest rates could materially impact the cost of our floating rate debt.
The loss of key personnel, our inability to recruit or retain qualified personnel, or disruptions among our shipboard personnel due to strained employee relations could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our success depends, in large part, on the skills and contributions of key executives and other employees, and on our ability to recruit, develop and retain high quality personnel as well as having adequate succession plans and back-up operating plans for when critical executives are unable to serve. As demand for qualified personnel in the industry grows, we must continue to effectively recruit, train, motivate and retain our employees, both shoreside and on our ships, in order to effectively compete in our industry, maintain our current business and support our projected global growth. In addition, we may experience difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified personnel if we reduce the levels of fixed or variable compensation that we offer (including equity compensation impacted by the trading price of our equity), whether in response to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise.
As of December 31, 2020, approximately 89% of our shipboard employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements. A dispute under our collective bargaining agreements could result in a work stoppage of those employees covered by the agreements. We may not be able to satisfactorily renegotiate these collective bargaining agreements when they expire. In addition, existing collective bargaining agreements may not prevent a strike or work stoppage on our ships. We may also be subject to or affected by work stoppages unrelated to our business or collective bargaining agreements. Any such work stoppages or potential work stoppages could have a material adverse effect on our financial results, as could a loss of key employees, our inability to recruit or retain qualified personnel or disruptions among our personnel.
If we are unable to keep pace with developments in technology or technological obsolescence, including technology in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations or competitive position could become impaired.
Our business continues to demand the use of sophisticated technology and systems. These technologies and systems require significant investment and must be proven, refined, updated, upgraded and/or replaced with more advanced systems in order to continue to meet our customers’ demands and expectations. If we are unable to do so in a timely manner or within reasonable cost parameters or if we are unable to appropriately and timely train our employees to operate any of these new systems, our business could suffer. We also may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new technology or system, which could result in higher than anticipated costs or impair our operating results.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a search for technology to accurately detect, either directly or indirectly, whether an individual is or has been infected with the virus or has been exposed to someone who is or might be infected. While this technology is in the early stages, as this technology continues to develop we may be faced with decisions regarding what technology to adopt for testing our passengers and employees, and what safety procedures to adopt for future

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sailings. We may be unable to obtain appropriate technology in a timely manner or at all or we may incur significant costs in doing so. A failure to adopt the appropriate technology, a failure or obsolescence in the technology that we do adopt, or a failure in our safety procedures could adversely affect our results of operations.
We are exposed to cyber security attacks and data breaches, including the risks and costs associated with protecting our systems and maintaining integrity and security of our business information, as well as personal data of our guests, employees and business partners.
We are subject to cyber security attacks. These cyber attacks can vary in scope and intent from attacks with the objective of compromising our systems, networks and communications for economic gain to attacks with the objective of disrupting, disabling or otherwise compromising our maritime and/or shoreside operations. The attacks can encompass a wide range of methods and intent, including phishing attacks, illegitimate requests for payment, theft of intellectual property, theft of confidential or non-public information, installation of malware, installation of ransomware and theft of personal or business information. The breadth and scope of these attacks, as well as the techniques and sophistication used to conduct these attacks, have grown over time.
A successful cyber security attack may target us directly, or it may be the result of a third party’s inadequate care. In either scenario, the Company may suffer damage to its systems and data that could interrupt our operations, adversely impact our reputation and brand and expose us to increased risks of governmental investigation, litigation, fines and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, responding to such an attack and mitigating the risk of future attacks could result in additional operating and capital costs in systems technology, personnel, monitoring and other investments.
In addition, we are also subject to various risks associated with the collection, handling, storage and transmission of sensitive information. In the course of doing business, we collect large volumes of employee, customer and other third-party data, including personally identifiable information and individual credit data, for various business purposes. We are subject to federal, state and international laws (including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation), as well as industry standards, relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personally identifiable information and individual credit data. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between the Company and its subsidiaries, and among the Company, its subsidiaries and other parties with which the Company has commercial relations. Several jurisdictions have passed laws in this area, and other jurisdictions are considering imposing additional restrictions. These laws continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with emerging and changing international requirements has caused, and may cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices. If we fail to comply with the various applicable data collection and privacy laws, we could be exposed to fines, penalties, restrictions, litigation or other expenses, and our business could be adversely impacted.
While we continue to evolve our cyber security practices in line with our business’ reliance on technology and the changing external threat landscape, and we invest time, effort and financial resources to secure our systems, networks and communications, our security measures cannot provide absolute assurance that we will be successful in preventing or responding to all cyber security attacks. There can be no assurance that any breach or incident will not have a material impact on our operations and financial results.
Any breach, theft, loss, or fraudulent use of guest, employee, third-party or company data, could adversely impact our reputation and brand and our ability to retain or attract new customers, and expose us to risks of data loss, business disruption, governmental investigation, litigation and other liability, any of which could adversely affect our business. Significant capital investments and other expenditures could be required to remedy the problem and prevent future breaches, including costs associated with additional security technologies, personnel, experts and credit monitoring services for those whose data has been breached. Further, if we or our vendors experience significant data security breaches or fail to detect and appropriately respond to significant data security breaches, we could be exposed to government enforcement actions and private litigation.
Litigation, enforcement actions, fines or penalties could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations and/or damage our reputation.
Our business is subject to various U.S. and international laws and regulations that could lead to enforcement actions, fines, civil or criminal penalties or the assertion of litigation claims and damages. In addition, improper conduct by our employees, agents or joint venture partners could damage our reputation and/or lead to litigation or legal proceedings that could result in civil or criminal penalties, including substantial monetary fines. In certain circumstances it may not be economical to defend against such matters and/or our legal strategy may not ultimately result in us prevailing in a matter. Such events could lead to an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, increases in litigation pertaining to the COVID-19 crisis, including potential claims for non-refundable cash deposits. We cannot predict the quantum or outcome of any such proceedings and the impact that they will have on our financial results, but any such impact may be material. While some of these claims are covered by insurance, we cannot be certain that all of them will be, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Information about our cruise ships, including their size, may be found within the Operating Strategies - Fleet upgrade and maintenance section and the Operations - Cruise Ships and Itineraries sections in Item 1. Business. Information regarding our cruise ships under construction, estimated expenditures and financing may be found within the Future Capital Commitments and Funding Needs and Sources sections of Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Our principal executive office and principal shoreside operations are located in leased office buildings at the Port of Miami, Florida. We also lease a number of other offices in the U.S. and throughout Europe, Asia, Mexico, South America and Australia to administer our brand operations globally.
We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current needs and that we are capable of obtaining additional facilities as necessary.
We also operate two private destinations which we utilize as ports-of-call on certain itineraries: (i) an island we own in the Bahamas which we call CocoCay; and (ii) Labadee, a secluded peninsula that we lease on the north coast of Haiti.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
As previously reported, two lawsuits were filed against Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. in August 2019 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida under Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, also known as the Helms-Burton Act. The complaint filed by Havana Docks Corporation ("Havana Docks Action") alleges it holds an interest in the Havana Cruise Port Terminal and the complaint filed by Javier Garcia-Bengochea (the "Port of Santiago Action") alleges that he holds an interest in the Port of Santiago, Cuba, both of which were expropriated by the Cuban Government. The complaints further allege that Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. trafficked in those properties by embarking and disembarking passengers at these facilities. The plaintiffs seek all available statutory remedies, including the value of the expropriated property, plus interest, treble damages, attorneys’ fees and costs. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. filed its answer to each complaint in October 2019 and on October 15, 2020, and the Court dismissed the Port of Santiago Action with prejudice on the basis that the plaintiffs in that action lacked standing to bring the claim. This decision has been appealed by the plaintiffs. We believe we have meritorious defenses to the claims alleged in both the Havana Docks Action and the Port of Santiago Action, and we intend to vigorously defend ourselves against them. We believe that it is unlikely that the outcome of either action will have a material adverse impact to our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. However, the outcome of litigation is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties, and there can be no assurances that the final outcome of this case will not be material.
As previously reported, on October 7, 2020, a shareholder filed a putative class action complaint against us, and three officers, Richard Fain, Jason Liberty and Michael Bayley, in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida (the "Court"), alleging misrepresentations relating to COVID-19 in violation of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5, seeking unspecified damages on behalf of a purported class consisting of all persons and entities (subject to specified exceptions) that purchased or otherwise acquired our securities from February 4, 2020 through March 17, 2020. As previously disclosed, on October 27, 2020, a second complaint was filed by another shareholder against us and these same officers in the Court alleging the same misrepresentations relating to COVID-19. As is the case with the first action, the second action seeks unspecified damages on behalf of a purported class consisting of all persons and entities (subject to specified exceptions) that purchased or otherwise acquired our securities from February 4, 2020 through March 17, 2020. On December 23, 2020, these cases were consolidated with a new lead plaintiff, Indiana Public Retirement System. We cannot predict the duration or outcome of this lawsuit at this time, although management believes the claims are without merit. Depending on how this case progresses, it could be costly to defend and could divert the attention of management and other resources from operations. Accordingly, even if ultimately resolved in our favor, this action could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. On February 25, 2021, the lead plaintiff filed with the Court a voluntary dismissal of the action without prejudice.
We are also routinely involved in other claims, regulatory investigations and inquiries, and consumer complaints, including those related to COVID-19, that are typical within the travel and tourism vacation industry. The majority of these claims are covered by insurance. We believe the outcome of such claims, net of expected insurance recoveries, will not have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations and cash flows.


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Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "RCL."
Holders
As of February 22, 2021, there were 1,296 record holders of our common stock. Since certain of our shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, the foregoing number is not representative of the number of beneficial owners.
Dividends
Holders of our common stock have an equal right, pro rata based on number of shares held, to share in our profits in the form of dividends when and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available, subject to any rights of holders of preferred stock if any. Holders of our common stock have no rights to any sinking fund.
There are no exchange control restrictions on remittances of dividends on our common stock by reason of our incorporation in Liberia because (1) we are and intend to maintain our status as a nonresident Liberian entity under the Liberia Revenue Code of 2000 as amended and the regulations thereunder, and (2) our ship-owning subsidiaries are not now engaged, and are not in the future expected to engage, in any business in Liberia, including voyages exclusively within the territorial waters of the Republic of Liberia. Under current Liberian law, no Liberian taxes or withholding will be imposed on payments to holders of our securities other than to a holder that is a resident Liberian entity or a resident individual or an individual or entity subject to taxation in Liberia as a result of having a permanent establishment within the meaning of the Liberia Revenue Code of 2000 as amended in Liberia.
The declaration of dividends shall at all times be subject to the final determination of our board of directors that a dividend is prudent at that time in consideration of the needs of the business. In connection with securing various financial covenant waivers, we agreed with certain of our lenders not to pay dividends until the end of the third quarter of 2022. In addition, in the event we thereafter declare a dividend, we will need to repay the amounts deferred under our export credit facilities as part of the principal amortization deferrals agreed with them during 2020 and 2021. Accordingly, we did not declare a dividend during the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020. Refer to Note 12. Shareholders' Equity to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplemental Data for further information on dividends declared.
Share Repurchases
There were no repurchases of common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, the 24-month common stock repurchase program authorized by our board of directors on May 9, 2018 had expired.
In connection with our debt covenant waivers, we agreed with certain of our lenders not to engage in stock repurchases until the end of the third quarter of 2022. In addition, in the event we engage in share repurchases, we will need to repay the amounts deferred under our export credit facilities as part of the principal amortization deferrals agreed with them during 2020 and 2021.

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Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total return, assuming reinvestment of dividends, on an investment in the Company, based on performance of the Company's common stock, with the total return of the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Stock Index ("S&P 500") and the Dow Jones United States Travel and Leisure Index for a five year period by measuring the changes in common stock prices from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2020.

rcl-20201231_g1.jpg
12/1512/1612/1712/1812/1912/20
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd
100.0082.91122.90103.06144.2381.65
S&P 500100.00111.96136.40130.42171.49203.04
Dow Jones U.S. Travel & Leisure100.00107.57133.19125.74155.84158.56
The stock performance graph assumes for comparison that the value of the Company's common stock and of each index was $100 on December 31, 2015 and that all dividends were reinvested. Past performance is not necessarily an indicator of future results.

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
The selected consolidated financial data presented below for the years ended December 31, 2016 through December 31, 2020 and as of the end of each such year, except for Adjusted Net (Loss) Income amounts, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and should be read in conjunction with those financial statements and the related notes as well as in conjunction with Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
2018 (1)
20172016
(in thousands, except per share data)
Operating Data: (2)
Total revenues$2,208,805 $10,950,661 $9,493,849 $8,777,845 $8,496,401 
Operating (Loss) Income$(4,601,557)$2,082,701 $1,894,801 $1,744,056 $1,477,205 
Net (Loss) Income (3)
$(5,775,130)$1,907,600 $1,815,792 $1,625,133 $1,283,388 
Net (Loss) Income attributable to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.$(5,797,462)$1,878,887 $