10-K 1 a2190712z10-k.htm 10-K

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM 10-K




ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2008

-OR-

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT FILED PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 1-12291



The AES Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  54 1163725
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

4300 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia
(Address of principal executive offices)

 

22203
(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (703) 522-1315

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share   New York Stock Exchange
AES Trust III, $3.375 Trust Convertible Preferred Securities   New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None

         Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o

         Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

         The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2008, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter (based on the closing sale price of $19.21 of the Registrant's Common Stock, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on such date) was approximately $12.920 billion.

         The number of shares outstanding of the Registrant's Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, on February 24, 2009, was 666,216,009.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

         (a)    Portions of the 2009 Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference in Part III


Table of Contents


THE AES CORPORATION

FISCAL YEAR 2008 FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

  1
 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

  3
     

Overview

  3
     

Our Organization and Segments

  7
     

Customers

  19
     

Employees

  19
     

Executive Officers

  20
     

How to Contact AES and Sources of Other Information

  21
     

Regulatory Matters

  22
     

Subsequent Events

  53
 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

  54
 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

  76
 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

  76
 

ITEM 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS

  85

PART II

 
86
 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

  86
     

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

  86
     

Market Information

  86
     

Holders

  87
     

Dividends

  87
 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

  88
 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

  90
     

Overview of Our Business

  90
     

2008 Performance Highlights

  97
     

Consolidated Results of Operations

  99
     

Critical Accounting Estimates

  112
     

New Accounting Pronouncements

  116
     

Capital Resources and Liquidity

  120
     

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

  130
 

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

  132
     

Value at Risk

  132
 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

  135
 

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

  232
 

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

  232
 

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

  237

PART III

 
237
 

ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

  237
 

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

  237
 

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

  237
 

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

  239
 

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

  239

PART IV

 
240
 

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

  240

SIGNATURES

 
245

i


Table of Contents


PART I

        In this Annual Report the terms "AES", "the Company", "us", or "we" refer to The AES Corporation and all of its subsidiaries and affiliates, collectively. The term "The AES Corporation" refers only to the parent, publicly-held holding company, The AES Corporation, excluding its subsidiaries and affiliates.

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

        In this filing we make statements concerning our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, strategies, and future events or performance. Such statements are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Although we believe that these forward-looking statements and the underlying assumptions are reasonable, we cannot assure you that they will prove to be correct.

        Forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties, and there are factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. Some of those factors (in addition to others described elsewhere in this report and in subsequent securities filings) include:

    the economic climate, particularly the state of the economy in the areas in which we operate, including the fact that the global economy has recently been in decline and faces considerable uncertainty for the foreseeable future which further increases many of the risks discussed in this Form 10-K;

    our ability to achieve expected rate increases in our Utility businesses;

    our ability to manage our operation and maintenance costs;

    the performance and reliability of our generating plants, including our ability to reduce unscheduled down-times;

    changes in the price of electricity at which our Generation businesses sell into the wholesale market and our Utility businesses purchase to distribute to their customers, and our ability to hedge our exposure to such market price risk;

    changes in the prices and availability of coal, gas and other fuels and our ability to hedge our exposure to such market price risk, and our ability to meet credit support requirements for fuel and power supply contracts;

    changes in and access to the financial markets, particularly those affecting the availability and cost of capital in order to refinance existing debt and finance capital expenditures, acquisitions, investments and other corporate purposes;

    changes in our or any of our subsidiaries' corporate credit ratings or the ratings of our or any of our subsidiaries' debt securities or preferred stock, and changes in the rating agencies' ratings criteria;

    changes in inflation, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates;

    our ability to purchase and sell assets at attractive prices and on other attractive terms;

    our ability to locate and acquire attractive "greenfield" projects and our ability to finance, construct and begin operating our "greenfield" projects on schedule and within budget;

    the expropriation or nationalization of our businesses or assets by foreign governments, whether with or without adequate compensation;

1


Table of Contents

    changes in laws, rules and regulations affecting our business, including, but not limited to, deregulation of wholesale power markets and its effects on competition, the ability to recover net utility assets and other potential stranded costs by our utilities, the establishment of a regional transmission organization ("RTO") that includes our utility service territory, the application of market power criteria by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC"), changes in law resulting from new federal energy legislation, including the effects of the repeal of Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 ("PUHCA 1935"), and changes in political or regulatory oversight or incentives affecting our wind business, our solar joint venture, our other renewables projects and our initiatives in greenhouse gas ("GHG") reductions and energy storage including tax incentives;

    changes in environmental, tax and other laws, including requirements for reduced emissions of sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, mercury, and other substances;

    the economic climate, particularly the state of the economy in the areas in which we operate, including the fact that the global economy has recently been in decline and faces considerable uncertainty for the foreseeable future;

    variations in weather, especially mild winters and cooler summers in the areas in which we operate, and the occurrence of difficult hydrological conditions, hurricanes and other storms and disasters;

    our ability to meet our expectations in the development, construction, operation and performance of our wind businesses, which rely, in part, on actual wind volumes in areas affecting our existing and planned wind farms performing consistently with our expectations, and actual wind turbine performance operating consistently with our expectations;

    the success of our initiatives in other renewable energy projects, as well as climate solutions and energy storage projects, and the attractiveness of market prices for carbon offsets under markets governed by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ("the Kyoto Protocol"), and consistent and orderly regulatory procedures governing the application, regulation, issuance of Certified Emission Reduction ("CER") credits and the extension of such regulations beyond 2012;

    our ability to keep up with advances in technology;

    the potential effects of threatened or actual acts of terrorism and war;

    changes in tax laws and the effects of our strategies to reduce tax payments;

    the effects of litigation and government investigations;

    decreases in the value of pension plan assets, increases in pension plan expenses and our ability to fund defined benefit pension and other post-retirement plans at our subsidiaries;

    changes in accounting standards, corporate governance and securities law requirements;

    our ability to remediate and compensate for the material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting; and

    our ability to attract and retain talented directors, management and other personnel, including, but not limited to, financial personnel in our foreign businesses that have extensive knowledge of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP").

        These factors in addition to others described elsewhere in this Form 10-K and in subsequent securities filings, should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of factors that could cause results to vary from our forward looking information.

2


Table of Contents

        Except to the extent required by the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

Overview

        We are a global power company. We own a portfolio of electricity generation and distribution businesses on five continents in 29 countries, with generation capacity totaling approximately 43,000 Megawatts ("MW") and distribution networks serving over 11 million people as of December 31, 2008. In addition, we have more than 3,000 MW under construction in ten countries. Our global workforce of 25,000 people provides electricity to people in diverse markets ranging from urban centers in the United States to remote villages in India. We were incorporated in Delaware in 1981 and for almost three decades we have been committed to providing safe and reliable energy.

        We own and operate two primary types of businesses. The first is our Generation business, where we own and/or operate power plants to generate and sell power to wholesale customers such as utilities and other intermediaries. The second is our Utilities business, where we own and/or operate utilities to distribute, transmit and sell electricity to end-user customers in the residential, commercial, industrial and governmental sectors in a defined service area.

        Our assets are diverse with respect to fuel source and type of market, which helps reduce certain types of operating risk. Our portfolio employs a broad range of fuels, including coal, gas, fuel oil, biomass and renewable sources such as hydroelectric power, wind and solar, which reduces the risks associated with dependence on any one fuel source. Our presence in mature markets helps reduce the volatility associated with our businesses in faster-growing emerging markets. In addition, our Generation portfolio is largely contracted, which reduces the risk related to the market prices of electricity and fuel. We also attempt to limit risk by hedging much of our currency and commodity risk, and by matching the currency of most of our subsidiary debt to the revenue of the business that issued that debt. However, our business is still subject to these and other risks, which are further disclosed in Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Form 10-K.

        Our goal is to maximize value for our shareholders through continued focus on increasing the profitability of our existing portfolio and increasing free cash flow while managing our risk and employing rigorous capital allocation. We will continue to seek prudent expansion of our traditional Generation and Utilities lines of business, along with new investments in wind, solar, climate solutions and energy storage. Portfolio management has become an increased area of focus through which we have sold and will continue to sell or monetize a portion of certain businesses or assets when market values appear attractive. Furthermore, we will continue to focus on improving our business operations and management processes, including our internal controls over financial reporting.

Key Lines of Business

        AES's primary sources of revenue and gross margin today are from Generation and Utilities. These businesses are distinguished by the nature of the customers, operational differences, cost structure, regulatory environment and risk exposure. The breakout of revenue and gross margin

3


Table of Contents


between Generation and Utilities for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively is shown below.

Revenue
($ in billions)

GRAPHIC

Gross Margin
($ in billions)

GRAPHIC


(1)
Utilities gross margin includes the margin from generation businesses owned by the Company and from whom the utility purchases energy.

Generation

        We currently own or operate a portfolio of approximately 38,000 MW, consisting of 93 Generation facilities in 26 countries on five continents at our generation businesses. We also have approximately 2,900 MW of capacity currently under construction in six countries. We are a major power source in

4


Table of Contents


many countries, such as Panama where we are the largest generator of electricity, and Chile, where AES Gener ("Gener") is the second largest electricity generation company in terms of capacity. Our Generation business uses a wide range of technologies and fuel types including coal, combined-cycle gas turbines, hydroelectric power and biomass. Generation revenues were $8.3 billion, $6.6 billion and $5.4 billion for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively.

        Performance drivers for our Generation businesses include, among other factors, plant reliability, fuel costs and fixed-cost management. Growth in the Generation business is largely tied to securing new power purchase agreements ("PPAs"), expanding capacity in our existing facilities and building new power plants.

        The majority of the electricity produced by our Generation businesses is sold under long-term contracts, or PPAs, to wholesale customers. In 2008, approximately 61% of the revenues from our Generation business was from plants that operate under PPAs of five years or longer for 75% or more of their output capacity. These businesses often reduce their exposure to fuel supply risks by entering into long-term fuel supply contracts or fuel tolling contracts where the customer assumes full responsibility for purchasing and supplying the fuel to the power plant. These long-term contractual agreements result in relatively predictable cash flow and earnings and reduce exposure to volatility in the market price for electricity and fuel; however, the amount of earnings and cash flow predictability varies from business to business based on the degree to which its exposure is limited by the contracts it has negotiated.

        Our Generation businesses with long-term contracts face most of their competition from other utilities and independent power producers ("IPPs") prior to the execution of a power sales agreement during the development phase of a project or upon expiration of an existing agreement. Once a project is operational, we traditionally have faced limited competition due to the long-term nature of the generation contracts. However, as our existing contracts expire, the introduction of new competitive power markets has increased competition to attract new customers and maintain our current customer base.

        The balance of our Generation business sells power through competitive markets under short-term contracts or directly in the spot market. As a result, the cash flows and earnings associated with these businesses are more sensitive to fluctuations in the market price for electricity, natural gas, coal and other fuels. However, for a number of these facilities, including our plants in New York, which include a fleet of coal fired plants, we have hedged the majority of our exposure to fuel, energy and emissions pricing for 2009. Competitive factors for these facilities include price, reliability, operational cost and third party credit requirements.

Utilities

        AES utility businesses distribute power to over 11 million people in seven countries on five continents and consists primarily of 14 companies owned or operated under management agreements, each of which operate in defined service areas. These businesses also include 15 generation plants in two countries totaling approximately 4,400 MW. In addition, we have one generation plant under construction totaling 86 MW. These businesses have a variety of structures ranging from pure distribution businesses to fully integrated utilities, which generate, transmit and distribute power. Indianapolis Power & Light ("IPL"), has the exclusive right to provide retail services to approximately 470,000 customers in Indianapolis, Indiana. Eletropaulo Metropolitana Electricidad de São Paulo S.A ("AES Eletropaulo" or "Eletropaulo"), serving the São Paulo metropolitan region for over 100 years, has approximately six million customers and is the largest electricity distribution company in Brazil in terms of revenues and electricity distributed. In Cameroon, we are the primary generator and distributor of electricity and in El Salvador we provide distribution services to serve more than 80% of the country's electricity customers. Utilities revenues were $7.8 billion, $6.9 billion and $6.2 billion for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively.

5


Table of Contents

        Performance drivers for Utilities include, but are not limited to, reliability of service; management of working capital; negotiation of tariff adjustments; compliance with extensive regulatory requirements; and in developing countries, reduction of commercial and technical losses. The results of operations of our Utilities businesses are sensitive to changes in economic growth and regulation and abnormal weather conditions in the area in which they operate.

        Utilities face relatively little direct competition due to significant barriers to entry which are present in these markets. Where we do face competition is in our efforts to acquire existing businesses and develop new ones. In this arena, we compete against a number of other market participants, some of which have greater financial resources, have been engaged in distribution related businesses for longer periods of time and/or have accumulated more significant portfolios. Relevant competitive factors for our power distribution businesses include financial resources, governmental assistance, regulatory restrictions and access to non-recourse financing. In certain locations, our distribution businesses face increased competition as a result of changes in laws and regulations which allow wholesale and retail services to be provided on a competitive basis.

Wind, Solar and Other Initiatives

        In recent years, as demand for renewable sources of energy has grown, we have placed increasing emphasis on developing projects in wind, solar and the creation of greenhouse gas emission offset credits ("GHG credits"). We have also developed projects and/or made investments in climate solutions and energy storage. In 2005, we started a wind generation business ("AES Wind Generation"), which currently has 16 plants in operation in three countries totaling over 1,200 MW and is one of the largest producers of wind power in the U.S. In addition, over 400 MW are under construction in four countries outside the U.S. In March 2008, we formed AES Solar Energy LLC ("AES Solar"), a joint venture with Riverstone Holdings, LLC ("Riverstone"), a private equity firm, which has since commenced commercial operations of 8 plants totaling 24 MW of solar projects in Spain and has development potential in three other countries. In the area of climate solutions, we are developing and implementing projects to produce GHG credits and are currently developing projects in Asia, Europe and Latin America. In the U.S., we formed Greenhouse Gas Services, LLC as a joint venture with GE Energy Financial Services to create high quality verifiable emissions offsets for the voluntary U.S. market. We also formed a line of business to develop and implement utility scale energy storage systems (such as batteries), which store and release power when needed. While none of these initiatives are currently material to our operations, we believe that in the future, they may become a material contributor to our revenue and gross margin. However, there are risks associated with these initiatives, which are further disclosed in Item 1A—Risk Factors of this Form 10-K. As further described in "Our Organization and Segments" below, some of these projects will be managed within the region where they are located, while others are managed as business units.

Risks

        We routinely encounter and address risks, some of which may cause our future results to be different, sometimes materially different, than we presently anticipate. The categories of risk we have identified in Item 1A—Risk Factors of this Form 10-K include the following:

    Risks associated with our operations in areas with extensive current and future governmental and environmental regulation;

    Risks associated with our exposure to material litigation and regulatory proceedings;

    Risks associated with our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting;

    Risks associated with our high levels of debt;

    Risks associated with the operation of power plants;

6


Table of Contents

    Risks associated with revenue and earnings volatility; and

    Risks associated with our ability to raise needed capital.

        The categories of risk identified above are discussed and explained in greater detail in Item 1A—Risk Factors of this Form 10-K. These risk factors should be read in conjunction with Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A"), and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included elsewhere in this report.


Our Organization and Segments

        We believe our broad geographic footprint allows us to focus development in targeted markets with opportunities for new investment, and provides stability through our presence in more developed regions. In addition, our presence in each region affords us important relationships and helps us identify local markets with attractive opportunities for new investment. As a result, we have structured our organization into geographic regions, and each region is led by a regional president responsible for managing existing businesses. The regional presidents report to our Chief Operating Officer ("COO"), who in turn reports to our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"). Both our CEO and COO are based in Arlington, Virginia.

        Through the end of 2008, we organized our operations along our two primary lines of business (Generation and Utilities) within four geographic regions: Latin America; North America; Europe & Africa; and Asia & the Middle East ("Asia"). Three regions, North America, Latin America and Europe & Africa, engaged in both Generation and Utility businesses. Our Asia region only had Generation. Accordingly, these businesses and regions accounted for seven segments:

    Latin America Generation;

    Latin America Utilities;

    North America Generation;

    North America Utilities;

    Europe & Africa Generation;

    Europe & Africa Utilities; and

    Asia Generation.

        In 2008, AES Wind Generation, climate solutions, and certain other initiatives were managed by our alternative energy group. The associated revenue, development costs and operational costs were reported under "Corporate and Other" since the results were not material to the presentation of our operating segments. "Corporate and Other" also included corporate overhead costs which are not directly associated with the operations of our seven primary operating segments; interest income and expense; other intercompany charges such as management fees and self-insurance premiums which are fully eliminated in consolidation.

        In early 2009, the Company began to implement certain organizational changes in an effort to streamline the organization. The new structure will continue to be organized along our two lines of business, but within three regions instead of four: (1) North America, (2) Latin America & Africa and (3) Europe, Middle East & Asia ("EMEA"). In addition, we will no longer have a separate alternative energy group. Instead, AES Wind Generation will be managed as part of our North America region while climate solutions projects will be managed in the region in which they are located. Management is currently evaluating the impact of the reorganization on the Company's externally reported segments in accordance with SFAS No. 131, Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information ("SFAS No. 131"). AES Solar is accounted for using the equity method and will continue to be reflected in Corporate and Other in 2009.

7


Table of Contents

Latin America

        Our Latin America operations accounted for 65%, 64% and 62% of consolidated AES revenues in 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively. The following table provides highlights of our Latin America operations:

 

Countries

 

Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Dominican Republic, El Salvador and Panama

Generation Capacity

  11,054 Gross MW

Utilities Penetration

  8.5 million customers (47,782 Gigawatt Hours ("GWh"))

Generation Facilities

  53 (including 7 under construction)

Utilities Businesses

  8

Key Generation Businesses

  Gener, Tietê and Alicura

Key Utilities Businesses

  Eletropaulo and Sul
 

 

 

 

        The graph below shows the breakdown between our Latin America Generation and Utilities segments as a percentage of total Latin America revenue and gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006. See Note 15—Segment and Geographic Information in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for information on revenue from external customers, gross margin and total assets by segment.

Revenue
($ in billions)
  Gross Margin
($ in billions)

 

 

 
GRAPHIC   GRAPHIC

        Latin America Generation.    Our largest generation business in Latin America, AES Tietê ("Tietê"), located in Brazil, represents approximately 15% of the total generation capacity in the state of São Paulo and is the ninth largest generator in Brazil. AES holds a 24% economic interest in Tietê. In Argentina, we are one of the largest private power generators contributing 12% of the country's total power generation capacity. In Chile, we are the second largest generator of power. We currently have seven new generation plants under construction—five coal plants and one diesel plant in Chile and one hydro plant in Panama with a combined generation capacity of 1,715 MW.

8


Table of Contents

        Set forth below is a list of our Latin America Generation facilities:

    Generation

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

Alicura

  Argentina   Hydro     1,050     99 %   2000  

Central Dique

  Argentina   Gas / Diesel     68     51 %   1998  

Gener—TermoAndes

  Argentina   Gas/Diesel     643     71 %   2000  

Paraná-GT

  Argentina   Gas     845     99 %   2001  

Quebrada de Ullum(1)

  Argentina   Hydro     45     0 %   2004  

Rio Juramento—Cabra Corral

  Argentina   Hydro     102     99 %   1995  

Rio Juramento—El Tunal

  Argentina   Hydro     10     99 %   1995  

San Juan—Sarmiento

  Argentina   Gas     33     99 %   1996  

San Juan—Ullum

  Argentina   Hydro     45     99 %   1996  

San Nicolás

  Argentina   Coal / Gas / Oil     675     99 %   1993  

Tietê(2)

  Brazil   Hydro     2,651     24 %   1999  

Uruguaiana

  Brazil   Gas     639     46 %   2000  

Gener—Electrica Santiago(3)

  Chile   Gas / Diesel     479     64 %   2000  

Gener—Energía Verde(4)

  Chile   Biomass / Diesel     49     71 %   2000  

Gener—Gener(5)

  Chile   Hydro / Coal / Diesel     807     71 %   2000  

Gener—Guacolda

  Chile   Coal / Pet Coke     304     35 %   2000  

Gener—Norgener

  Chile   Coal / Pet Coke     277     71 %   2000  

Chivor

  Colombia   Hydro     1,000     71 %   2000  

Andres

  Dominican Republic   Gas     319     100 %   2003  

Itabo(6)

  Dominican Republic   Coal     295     50 %   2000  

Los Mina

  Dominican Republic   Gas     236     100 %   1996  

Bayano

  Panama   Hydro     260     49 %   1999  

Chiriqui—Esti

  Panama   Hydro     120     49 %   2003  

Chiriqui—La Estrella

  Panama   Hydro     48     49 %   1999  

Chiriqui—Los Valles

  Panama   Hydro     54     49 %   1999  
                           

            11,054              
                           

(1)
AES operates this facility through management or operations and maintenance agreements and owns no equity interest in this facility

(2)
Tietê plants: Água Vermelha, Bariri, Barra Bonita, Caconde, Euclides da Cunha, Ibitinga, Limoeiro, Mog-Guaçu, Nova Avanhandava and Promissão

(3)
Gener—Electrica Santiago plants: Renca and Nueva Renca

(4)
Gener—Energia Verde Plants: Constitución, Laja and San Francisco de Mostazal

(5)
Gener—Gener plants: Ventanas, Laguna Verde, Laguna Verde Turbogas, Alfalfal, Maitenas, Queltehues, Volcán and Los Vientos

(6)
Itabo plants: Itabo complex (two coal-fired steam turbines and one gas-fired steam turbine)

9


Table of Contents

    Generation under construction

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Expected Year
of Commercial
Operation
 

Angamos

  Chile   Coal     518     71 %   2011  

Campiche

  Chile   Coal     270     71 %   2011  

Guacolda 3

  Chile   Coal     152     35 %   2009  

Guacolda 4

  Chile   Coal     152     35 %   2010  

Santa Lidia

  Chile   Diesel     130     71 %   2009  

Nueva Ventanas

  Chile   Coal     270     71 %   2010  

Changuinola I

  Panama   Hydro     223     83 %   2011  
                           

            1,715              
                           

        Latin America Utilities.    Each of our Utilities businesses in Latin America sells electricity under regulated tariff agreements and has transmission and distribution capabilities but none of them has generation capability. AES Eletropaulo, a consolidated subsidiary of which AES owns a 16% economic interest and which has served the São Paulo, Brazil area for over 100 years, has approximately six million customers and is the largest electricity distribution company in Brazil in terms of revenues and electricity distributed. Pursuant to its concession contract, AES Eletropaulo is entitled to distribute electricity in its service area until 2028. AES Eletropaulo's service territory consists of 24 municipalities in the greater São Paulo metropolitan area and adjacent regions that account for approximately 15% of Brazil's GDP and 44% of the population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. AES Sul ("Sul"), a wholly owned subsidiary, serves over one million customers. In El Salvador, our Utilities businesses provide electricity to over 80% of the country, serving approximately one million customers.

        Set forth below is a list of our Latin America Utilities facilities:

    Distribution

Business
  Location   Approximate Number
of Customers Served
as of 12/31/2008
  GWh Sold
in 2008
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year
Acquired
 

Edelap

  Argentina     311,000     2,363     90 %   1998  

Edes

  Argentina     163,000     721     90 %   1997  

Eletropaulo

  Brazil     5,832,000     33,860     16 %   1998  

Sul

  Brazil     1,128,000     7,574     100 %   1997  

CAESS

  El Salvador     507,000     1,942     75 %   2000  

CLESA

  El Salvador     292,000     793     64 %   1998  

DEUSEM

  El Salvador     59,000     105     74 %   2000  

EEO

  El Salvador     217,000     424     89 %   2000  
                           

        8,509,000     47,782              
                           

10


Table of Contents

North America

        Our North America operations accounted for 21%, 24% and 26% of consolidated revenues in 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. The following table provides highlights of our North America operations:

 

Countries

 

U.S., Puerto Rico and Mexico

Generation Capacity

  13,368 Gross MW

Utilities Penetration

  470,000 customers (16,192 GWh)

Generation Facilities

  20

Utilities Businesses

  1 Integrated Utility (includes 4 generation plants)

Key Generation Businesses

  Eastern Energy (NY), Southland and TEG/TEP

Key Utilities Businesses

  IPL
 

 

 

 

        The graph below shows the breakdown between our North America Generation and Utilities segments as a percentage of total North America revenue and gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006. See Note 15—Segment and Geographic Information in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for information on revenue from external customers, gross margin and total assets by segment.

Revenue
($ in billions)
  Gross Margin
($ in billions)

 

 

 
GRAPHIC   GRAPHIC

        North America Generation.    Approximately 60% of the generation capacity sold to third parties is supported by long-term power purchase or tolling agreements. Our North America Generation businesses consist of seven gas-fired, ten coal-fired and three petroleum coke-fired plants in the United States, Puerto Rico and Mexico.

        Four of our coal-fired plants, Cayuga, Greenridge, Somerset and Westover, representing capacity of 1,268 MW, operate together as one business, AES Eastern Energy. This business provides power to the Western New York power market under short-term contracts, as well as in the spot electricity market. We also operate three gas-fired plants, representing capacity of 4,327 MW, in the Los Angeles basin under a long-term tolling agreement. These plants are also operated as one business, AES Southland.

11


Table of Contents

        Set forth below is a list of our North America Generation facilities:

    Generation

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

Mérida III

  Mexico   Gas     484     55 %   2000  

Termoelectrica del Golfo (TEG)

  Mexico   Pet Coke     230     99 %   2007  

Termoelectrica del Peñoles (TEP)

  Mexico   Pet Coke     230     99 %   2007  

Placerita

  USA—CA   Gas     120     100 %   1989  

Southland—Alamitos

  USA—CA   Gas     2,047     100 %   1998  

Southland—Huntington Beach

  USA—CA   Gas     904     100 %   1998  

Southland—Redondo Beach

  USA—CA   Gas     1,376     100 %   1998  

Thames

  USA—CT   Coal     208     100 %   1990  

Hawaii

  USA—HI   Coal     203     100 %   1992  

Warrior Run

  USA—MD   Coal     205     100 %   2000  

Red Oak

  USA—NJ   Gas     832     100 %   2002  

Cayuga

  USA—NY   Coal     306     100 %   1999  

Greenidge

  USA—NY   Coal     161     100 %   1999  

Somerset

  USA—NY   Coal     675     100 %   1999  

Westover

  USA—NY   Coal     126     100 %   1999  

Shady Point

  USA—OK   Coal     320     100 %   1991  

Beaver Valley

  USA—PA   Coal     125     100 %   1985  

Ironwood

  USA—PA   Gas     710     100 %   2001  

Puerto Rico

  USA—PR   Coal     454     100 %   2002  

Deepwater

  USA—TX   Pet Coke     160     100 %   1986  
                           

            9,876              
                           

        North America Utilities.    AES has one integrated utility in North America, IPL, which it owns through IPALCO Enterprises Inc. ("IPALCO"), the parent holding company of IPL. IPL generates, transmits, distributes and sells electricity to approximately 470,000 customers in the city of Indianapolis and neighboring areas within the state of Indiana. IPL owns and operates four generation facilities that provide essentially all of the electricity it distributes. The two largest generation facilities are primarily coal-fired plants. The third facility has a combination of units that use coal (base load capacity) and natural gas and/or oil (peaking capacity). The fourth facility is a small peaking station that uses gas-fired combustion turbine technology. IPL's gross generation capability is 3,492 MW. More than half of IPL's coal is provided by one supplier with which IPL has long-term contracts. A key driver for the business is tariff recovery for environmental projects through the rate adjustment process. IPL's customers include residential, industrial, commercial and all other which made up 36%, 40%, 16% and 8%, respectively, of North America Utilities revenue for 2008.

    IPL's generation facilities

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

IPL(1)

  USA—IN   Coal/Gas/Oil     3,492     100 %   2001  

(1)
IPL plants: Eagle Valley, Georgetown, Harding Street and Petersburg

12


Table of Contents

    Distribution

Business
  Location   Approximate Number
of Customers Served
as of 12/31/2008
  GWh Sold
in 2008
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year
Acquired
 

IPL

  USA—IN     470,000     16,192     100 %   2001  

Europe & Africa

        Our operations in Europe & Africa accounted for 12%, 12% and 12% of our consolidated revenues in 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. The following table provides highlights of our Europe & Africa operations:

 

Countries

 

Cameroon, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Netherlands, Spain, U.K., Turkey, Ukraine and Nigeria

Generation Capacity

  11,416 Gross MW

Utilities Penetration

  2.4 million customers (12,756 GWh)

Generation Facilities

  21 (including 6 under construction)

Utilities Businesses

  5 Utilities including one Integrated Utility (includes 11 generation plants)

Key Generation Businesses

  Kilroot, Tisza II

Key Utilities Businesses

  Sonel, Kyivoblenergo and Rivneenergo
 

 

 

 

        The graph below shows the breakdown between our Europe & Africa Generation and Utilities segments as a percentage of total Europe & Africa revenue and gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006. See Note 15—Segment and Geographic Information in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for information on revenue from external customers, gross margin and total assets by segment.

Revenue
($ in billions)
  Gross Margin
($ in millions)

 

 

 
GRAPHIC   GRAPHIC

        Europe & Africa Generation.    In 2006, we began commercial operation of AES Cartagena ("Cartagena"), our first power plant in Spain, with 1,199 MW capacity. The results of operations for Cartagena, an unconsolidated entity, are included in the Equity in Earnings of Affiliates line item on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and therefore not reflected in these segment operating results. Today, AES operates five power plants in Kazakhstan which account for almost 30% of the country's total installed generation capacity. In 2008, we completed the sale of a generation plant and a coal mine in Kazakhstan, which we continue to operate under a management agreement through 2010. Key business drivers of this segment are: foreign currency exchange rates, new legislation and regulations including those related to the environment.

13


Table of Contents

        Set forth below is a list of our generation facilities in the Europe & Africa Generation segment:

    Generation

Business(1)(3)
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

Bohemia

  Czech Republic   Coal/Biomass     50     100 %   2001  

Borsod

  Hungary   Biomass/Coal     56     100 %   1996  

Tisza II

  Hungary   Gas/Oil     900     100 %   1996  

Tiszapalkonya

  Hungary   Coal/Biomass     116     100 %   1996  

Ekibastuz(2)(3)

  Kazakhstan   Coal     4,000     0 %   1996  

Shulbinsk HPP(2)(4)

  Kazakhstan   Hydro     702     0 %   1997  

Sogrinsk CHP

  Kazakhstan   Coal     301     100 %   1997  

Ust—Kamenogorsk HPP(2)(4)

  Kazakhstan   Hydro     331     0 %   1997  

Ust—Kamenogorsk CHP

  Kazakhstan   Coal     1,354     100 %   1997  

Elsta

  Netherlands   Gas     630     50 %   1998  

Ebute

  Nigeria   Gas     304     95 %   2001  

Cartagena

  Spain   Gas     1,199     71 %   2006  

Girlevik II-Mercan

  Turkey   Hydro     12     51 %   2007  

Yukari-Mercan

  Turkey   Hydro     14     51 %   2007  

Kilroot

  United Kingdom   Coal / Oil     520     99 %   1992  
                           

            10,489              
                           

(1)
AES additionally manages the Maikuben West coal mine in Kazakhstan, supplying coal to AES businesses and third parties.

(2)
AES manages these facilities through management or O&M agreements and owns no equity interest in these businesses.

(3)
AES completed the sale of its indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries, the Ekibastuz generation plant and the Maikuben West coal mine in May 2008. AES now operates the facilities under a management agreement through 2010.

(4)
AES operates these facilities under concession agreements until 2017.

    Generation under construction

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Expected Year
of Commercial
Operation
 

I.C. Energy(1)

  Turkey   Hydro     62     51 %   2010  

Maritza East I

  Bulgaria   Coal     670     100 %   2010  

Kilroot OCGT

  United Kingdom   Diesel     80     99 %   2009  

Dibamba

  Cameroon   Heavy Fuel Oil     86     56 %   2009  
                           

            898              
                           

(1)
Joint Venture with I.C. Energy. I.C. Energy Plants: Damlapinar Konya, Kepezkaya Konya, and Kumkoy Samsun. The joint venture is an unconsolidated entity and accounted for under the equity method of accounting.

14


Table of Contents

        Europe & Africa Utilities.    AES acquired a 56% interest in an integrated utility Société Nationale d'Electricité ("Sonel") in 2001. Sonel generates, transmits and distributes electricity to over half a million people and is the sole source of electricity in Cameroon. Our distribution businesses in Cameroon, the Ukraine and Kazakhstan together serve approximately 2.4 million customers.

        Set forth below is a list of the generation facilities and distribution businesses in our Europe & Africa Utilities segment:

    Sonel's generation facilities

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

Sonel(1)

  Cameroon   Hydro/Diesel/Heavy Fuel Oil     927     56 %   2001  

(1)
Sonel plants: Bafoussam, Bassa, Djamboutou, Edéa, Lagdo, Logbaba I, Limbé, Mefou, Oyomabang I, Oyomabang II and Song Loulou, and other small remote network units

    Distribution

Business
  Location   Approximate Number
of Customers Served
as of 12/31/2008
  GWh Sold
in 2008
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year
Acquired
 

Sonel

  Cameroon     571,000     3,360     56 %   2001  

Kievoblenergo

  Ukraine     835,000     4,161     89 %   2001  

Rivneenergo

  Ukraine     405,000     1,791     81 %   2001  

Eastern Kazakhstan REC(1)(2)

  Kazakhstan     459,000     3,444     0 %      

Ust-Kamenogorsk Heat Nets(1)(3)

  Kazakhstan     96,000         0 %      
                           

        2,366,000     12,756              
                           

(1)
AES operates these facilities through management agreements and owns no equity interest in these businesses.

(2)
Shygys Energo Trade, a retail electricity company, is 100% owned by Eastern Kazakhstan REC ("EK REC") and purchases distribution service from EK REC and electricity in the wholesale electricity market and resells to the distributions customers of EK REC.

(3)
Ust-Kamenogorsk Heat Nets provide transmission and distribution of heat with a total heat generating capacity of 224 Gcal.

15


Table of Contents

Asia

        Our Asia operations accounted for 8%, 6% and 6% of consolidated revenues in 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. Asia's Generation business operates 13 power plants with a total capacity of 5,664 MW in eight countries and has one power plant under construction. In Asia, AES operates generation facilities only. See Note 15—Segment and Geographic Information in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for revenue, gross margin and total assets by segment. The following table provides highlights of our Asia operations:

 

Countries

 

China, Qatar, Pakistan, Oman, India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Jordan

Generation Capacity

  5,664 Gross MW

Utilities Penetration

  N/A

Generation Facilities

  13 (including 1 under construction)

Utilities Businesses

  None

Key Businesses

  Yangcheng, Masinloc, Pak Gen and Lal Pir
 

        Asia Generation.    Almost half of our generation capacity in Asia is located in China. In 1996, AES joined with Chinese partners to build Yangcheng, the first "coal-by-wire" power plant with the capacity of 2,100 MW. In 2003, AES started commercial operations of its combined power and desalination water facility in Oman, the first of its kind. We also have a combined power and desalination water facility, the first such facility to be awarded to the private sector, in Qatar. This facility generates over 18% of the country's peak system capacity and 23% of the country's water supply. In April 2008, the Company completed the purchase of a 92% interest in a 660 MW coal-fired thermal power generation facility in Masinloc, Philippines ("Masinloc"). AES Amman East ("Amman East") is a 380 MW combined-cycle gas power plant under construction in Jordan. Amman East achieved simple cycle commercial operation in 2008 and is expected to achieve combined cycle operation in 2009.

        Set forth below is a list of our generation facilities in Asia:

    Generation

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

Aixi

  China   Coal     51     71 %   1998  

Chengdu

  China   Gas     50     35 %   1997  

Cili

  China   Hydro     26     51 %   1994  

Wuhu

  China   Coal     250     25 %   1996  

Yangcheng

  China   Coal     2,100     25 %   2001  

OPGC

  India   Coal     420     49 %   1998  

Barka

  Oman   Gas     456     35 %   2003  

Lal Pir

  Pakistan   Oil     362     55 %   1997  

Pak Gen

  Pakistan   Oil     365     55 %   1998  

Masinloc

  Philippines   Coal     660     92 %   2008  

Ras Laffan

  Qatar   Gas     756     55 %   2003  

Kelanitissa

  Sri Lanka   Diesel     168     90 %   2003  
                           

            5,664              
                           

16


Table of Contents

    Generation under construction

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Rounded)
  Expected Year
of Commercial
Operation
 

Amman East(1)

  Jordan   Gas     380     37 %   2009  

(1)
Construction of the Amman East power plant commenced in May 2007.

Corporate and Other

        Corporate and Other includes general and administrative expenses related to corporate staff functions and initiatives—primarily executive management, finance, legal, human resources, information systems and certain development costs which are not allocable to our business segments; interest income and interest expense; and intercompany charges such as management fees and self insurance premiums which are fully eliminated in consolidation.

        In addition, Corporate and Other also includes the net operating results of AES Wind Generation, AES Solar, climate solutions, and certain other initiatives, which are not material to our presentation of reporting segments. See Note 15—Segment and Geographic Information in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for information on revenue from external customers, gross margin and total assets by segment.

        In March 2008, we formed a joint venture called AES Solar LLC with Riverstone, a private equity firm to develop, own and operate solar installations. The joint venture is an unconsolidated entity and accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Since its launch, AES Solar has commenced commercial operations of 24 MW of solar projects in Spain and has development potential in three other countries.

        We own and operate 1,060 MW of wind generation capacity and operate an additional 215 MW capacity through operating and management agreements. Our wind business is located primarily in North America where we operate wind generation facilities that have generation capacity of 1,174 MW. Buffalo Gap III, a 170 MW capacity wind farm commenced commercial operations in August 2008.

17


Table of Contents

        Set forth below is a list of AES Wind Generation facilities:

    Generation

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Year Acquired
or Began
Operation
 

Hulunbeier(1)

  China   Wind     50     49 %   2008  

InnoVent

  France   Wind     30     40 %   2007  

Hargicourt

  France   Wind     12     40 %   2008  

Hescamps

  France   Wind     5     40 %   2008  

Plechatel

  France   Wind     4     40 %   2008  

Altamont

  USA—CA   Wind     43     100 %   2005  

Mountain View I & II(2)

  USA—CA   Wind     67     100 %   2008  

Palm Springs

  USA—CA   Wind     30     100 %   2006  

Tehachapi

  USA—CA   Wind     58     100 %   2006  

Storm Lake II(2)

  USA—IA   Wind     80     100 %   2007  

Lake Benton I(2)

  USA—MN   Wind     107     100 %   2007  

Condon(2)

  USA—OR   Wind     50     100 %   2005  

Buffalo Gap I(2)

  USA—TX   Wind     121     100 %   2006  

Buffalo Gap II(2)

  USA—TX   Wind     233     100 %   2007  

Buffalo Gap III(2)

  USA—TX   Wind     170     100 %   2008  

Wind generation facilities(3)

  USA   Wind     215     0 %   2005  
                           

            1,275              
                           

(1)
Joint Venture with Guohua Energy Investment Co. Ltd.

(2)
AES owns these assets together with third party tax equity investors with variable ownership interests. The tax equity investors receive a portion of the economic attributes of the facilities, including tax attributes, that vary over the life of the projects. The proceeds from the issuance of tax equity are recorded as Minority Interest in the Company's consolidated balance sheet.

(3)
AES operates these facilities through management or O&M agreements and owns no equity interest in these businesses.

    AES Wind Generation projects under construction

Business
  Location   Fuel   Gross
MW
  AES
Equity Interest
(Percent, Rounded)
  Expected Year
of Commercial
Operation
 

St. Nikolas

  Bulgaria   Wind     156     89 %   2009  

Guohua Energ Investment Co. Ltd.(1)

  China   Wind     198     49 %   2009-2010  

InnoVent(2)

  France   Wind     34     40 %   2009  

North Rhins

  Scotland   Wind     22     51 %   2009  
                           

            410              
                           

(1)
Joint Ventures with Guohua Energy Investment Co. Ltd. Huanghua I & II, Chenbáerhe and Xinaèrhue.

(2)
InnoVent plants: Frenouville, Audrieu, Boisbergues, Gapree and Croixrault-Moyencourt.

18


Table of Contents

Financial Data by Country

        The table below presents information about our consolidated operations and long-lived assets, by country, for each of the three years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. Revenues are recognized in the country in which they are earned and assets are reflected in the country in which they are located.

 
  Revenues   Property, Plant & Equipment, net  
 
  2008   2007   2006   2008   2007  
 
  (in millions)
  (in millions)
 

United States

  $ 2,745   $ 2,641   $ 2,573   $ 6,926   $ 6,448  
                       

Non-U.S.

                               

Brazil

    5,501     4,748     4,119     4,206     5,369  

Chile

    1,349     1,011     594     1,540     968  

Argentina

    949     678     542     446     450  

Pakistan

    607     396     318     204     265  

Dominican Republic

    601     476     357     634     651  

El Salvador

    484     479     437     255     249  

Hungary

    466     344     304     211     241  

Mexico

    463     399     185     819     838  

Ukraine

    403     330     269     78     104  

Cameroon

    379     330     300     579     504  

United Kingdom

    342     235     222     308     383  

Colombia

    291     213     184     395     393  

Puerto Rico

    251     245     234     622     620  

Kazakhstan

    234     284     215     56     52  

Panama

    210     175     144     715     582  

Sri Lanka

    184     123     92     79     83  

Qatar

    161     178     169     526     552  

Philippines(1)

    148             731      

Oman

    105     105     114     321     331  

Bulgaria(2)

            1     1,329     542  

Other Non-U.S. 

    197     126     136     413     349  
                       

Total Non-U.S. 

    13,325     10,875     8,936     14,467     13,526  
                       

Total

  $ 16,070   $ 13,516   $ 11,509   $ 21,393   $ 19,974  
                       

(1)
Acquired in May 2008, revenues represent results for a partial year.

(2)
Currently under development, facility is not operational at this time.


Customers

        We sell to a wide variety of customers. No individual customer accounted for 10% or more of our 2008 total revenues. In our generation business, we own and/or operate power plants to generate and sell power to wholesale customers such as utilities and other intermediaries. Our utilities sell to end-user customers in the residential, commercial, industrial and governmental sectors in a defined service area.


Employees

        As of December 31, 2008 we employed approximately 25,000 people.

19


Table of Contents


Executive Officers

        The following individuals are our executive officers:

        Paul Hanrahan, 51 years old, has been the President, CEO and a member of our Board of Directors since 2002. Prior to assuming his current position, Mr. Hanrahan was the Executive Vice President and COO. In this role, he was responsible for managing all aspects of business development activities and the operation of multiple electric utilities and generation facilities in Europe, Asia and Latin America. Mr. Hanrahan was previously the President and CEO of the AES China Generating Company, Ltd., a public company formerly listed on NASDAQ. Mr. Hanrahan also has managed other AES businesses in the United States, Europe and Asia. In March 2006, he was elected to the board of directors of Corn Products International, Inc. Prior to joining AES, Mr. Hanrahan served as a line officer on the U.S. fast attack nuclear submarine, USS Parche (SSN-683). Mr. Hanrahan is a graduate of Harvard Business School and the U.S. Naval Academy.

        Andres R. Gluski, 51 years old, has been an Executive Vice President and COO of the Company since March 2007. Prior to becoming the COO, Mr. Gluski was Executive Vice President and the Regional President of Latin America from 2006 to 2007. Mr. Gluski was Senior Vice President for the Caribbean and Central America (Venezuela, El Salvador, Panama and the Dominican Republic) from 2003 to 2006, Group Manager and CEO of La Electricidad de Caracas ("EDC") from 2002 to 2003, CEO of AES Gener (Chile) in 2001 and Executive Vice President of Finance and Shared Services of EDC and Corporacion EDC. Prior to joining AES in 2000, Mr. Gluski was Executive Vice President of Corporate Banking for Banco de Venezuela (Grupo Santander), Vice President for Santander Investment Banking, and Executive Vice President and CFO of CANTV (subsidiary of GTE) in Venezuela. Mr. Gluski has also worked with the International Monetary Fund in the Treasury and Latin American Departments, served as Director General of Public Finance and Senior Macro Economic Policy Advisor to the Minister of Planning of Venezuela, and was also a Member of the Board for the Venezuelan Investment Fund. Mr. Gluski is a graduate of Wake Forest University and holds a Master of Arts and a Doctorate in Economics from the University of Virginia.

        Ned Hall, 49 years old, has been an Executive Vice President, Regional President for North America and Chairman, Global Wind Generation and Energy Storage since June 2008. In December of 2008, Mr. Hall became Chairman, Greenhouse Gas Services, LLC, a joint venture between AES, GE and Mission Point. Prior to his current position, Mr. Hall was Vice President of the Company and President, Global Wind Generation from April 2005 to June 2008, Managing Director of AES Global Development from September 2003 to April 2005, and was an AES Group Manager from April 2001 to September 2003. Mr. Hall joined AES in 1988 as a Project Manager working in the Development Group and has held a variety of development and operating roles for AES, including assignments in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Latin America. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Massachusetts. Mr. Hall holds a BSME degree from Tufts University and an SM degree in finance/operations management from the MIT Sloan School of Management.

        Victoria D. Harker, 44 years old, has been an Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") since January 2006. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Harker held the positions of Acting CFO, Senior Vice President and Treasurer of MCI from November 2002 to January 2006. Prior to that, Ms. Harker served as CFO of MCI Group, a unit of WorldCom Inc., from 1998 to 2002. Prior to 1998, Ms. Harker held several positions at MCI in the areas of finance, information technology and operations. Ms. Harker received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and Economics from the University of Virginia and a Masters in Business Administration, Finance from American University.

        John McLaren, 46 years old, has been an Executive Vice President of the Company since 2006 and is the Regional President of Europe, Asia, Middle East & Africa. Mr. McLaren served as Vice President of Operations for AES Europe & Africa from 2003 to 2006 (and AES Europe, Middle East and Africa from May 2005 to January 2006), Group Manager for Operations in Europe & Africa from

20


Table of Contents


2002 to 2003, Project Director from 2000 to 2002, and Business Manager for AES Medway Operations Ltd. from 1997 to 2000. Mr. McLaren is a Chartered Director, a professional qualification for business leaders conferred by the Institute of Directors in London. Mr. McLaren joined the Company in 1993. He holds a Masters in Business Administration from the University of Greenwich Business School in London.

        Brian A. Miller, 43 years old, is an Executive Vice President of the Company, General Counsel, Corporate Secretary and Acting Chief Compliance Officer. Mr. Miller joined the Company in 2001 and has served in various positions including Vice President, Deputy General Counsel, Corporate Secretary, General Counsel for North America and Assistant General Counsel. Prior to joining AES, he was an attorney with the law firm Chadbourne & Parke, LLP. Mr. Miller received a bachelor's degree in History and Economics from Boston College and holds a Juris Doctorate from the University of Connecticut School of Law.

        Rich Santoroski, 44 years old, has been the Vice President, Global Risk & Commodity Organization since February 2008. Prior to his current position, Mr. Santoroski was Vice President, Energy & Natural Resources, a business development group, and Vice President, Risk Management. Mr. Santoroski joined AES in January 1999 to lead AES Eastern Energy's commodity management. Prior to AES, Mr. Santoroski held various engineering, trading and risk management positions at New York State Electric & Gas, including leading the energy trading group. He graduated from Pennsylvania State University with a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, and earned an MBA and a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering from Syracuse University. Mr. Santoroski is a Licensed Professional Engineer in the State of New York.

        Andrew Vesey, 53 years old, has been an Executive Vice-President and Regional President of Latin America since March 2008. Prior to his current position, Mr. Vesey was President and Chief Operating Officer for Latin America since July 2007 and Chief Operating Officer for Latin America since 2004. Mr. Vesey also served as Vice President and Group Manager for AES Latin America, DR-CAFTA Region from 2006 to 2007, Vice President of the Global Business Transformation Group from 2005 to 2006, and Vice President of the Integrated Utilities Development Group from 2004 to 2005. Prior to joining the Company in 2004, Mr. Vesey was a Managing Director of the Utility Finance and Regulatory Advisory Practice at FTI Consulting Inc, a partner in the Energy, Chemicals and Utilities Practice of Ernst & Young LLP, and CEO and Managing Director of Citipower Pty of Melbourne, Australia. He received his BA in Economics and BS in Mechanical Engineering from Union College in Schenectady, New York and his MS from New York University.

        Mark E. Woodruff, 51 years old, is an Executive Vice President of the Company who focuses on development. Prior to his current position, Mr. Woodruff was Regional President of Asia & Middle East from March 2007 through January 2008, Vice President of North America Business Development from September 2006 to March 2007 and was Vice President of AES for the North America West region from 2002 to 2006. Mr. Woodruff has held various leadership positions since joining the Company in 1992. Prior to joining the Company in 1991, Mr. Woodruff was a Project Manager for Delmarva Capital Investments, a subsidiary of Delmarva Power & Light Company. Mr. Woodruff holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from the University of Delaware.


How to Contact AES and Sources of Other Information

        Our principal offices are located at 4300 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22203. Our telephone number is (703) 522-1315. Our website address is http://www.aes.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to such reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are posted on our website. After the reports are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), they are available from us free of charge. Material contained on our website is not part of and is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K.

21


Table of Contents

        Our CEO and our CFO have provided certifications to the SEC as required by Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. These certifications are included as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

        Our CEO provided a certification pursuant to Section 303A of the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual on May 22, 2008.

        Our Code of Business Conduct ("Code of Conduct") and Corporate Governance Guidelines have been adopted by our Board of Directors. The Code of Conduct is intended to govern, as a requirement of employment, the actions of everyone who works at AES, including employees of our subsidiaries and affiliates. Our Ethics and Compliance Department provides training, information, and certification programs for AES employees related to the Code of Conduct. The Ethics and Compliance Department also has programs in place to prevent and detect criminal conduct, promote an organizational culture that encourages ethical behavior and a commitment to compliance with the law, and to monitor and enforce AES policies on corruption, bribery, money laundering and associations with terrorists groups. The Code of Conduct and the Corporate Governance Guidelines are located in their entirety on our website at www.aes.com. Any person may obtain a copy of the Code of Conduct or the Corporate Governance Guidelines without charge by making a written request to: Corporate Secretary, The AES Corporation, 4300 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22203. If any amendments to, or waivers from, the Code of Conduct or the Corporate Governance Guidelines are made, we will disclose such amendments or waivers on our website.


Regulatory Matters

Overview

        In each country where we conduct business, we are subject to extensive and complex governmental regulations which affect most aspects of our business, such as regulations governing the generation and distribution of electricity and environmental regulations. These regulations affect the operation, development, growth and ownership of our businesses. Regulations differ on a country by country basis and are based upon the type of business we operate in a particular country.

Regulation of our Generation Businesses

        Our Generation businesses operate in two different types of regulatory environments:

        Market Environments.    In market environments, sales of electricity may be made directly on the spot market, under negotiated bilateral contracts, or pursuant to PPAs. The spot markets are typically administered by a central dispatch or system operator who seeks to optimize the use of the generation resources throughout an interconnected system (cost of the least expensive next generation plant required to meet system demand). The spot price is usually set at the marginal cost of energy or based on bid prices. In addition, many of these wholesale markets include markets for ancillary services to support the reliable operation of the transmission system, such as regulation (a service that corrects for short-term changes in electricity use that could impact the stability of the power system). Most of our businesses in Europe, Latin America and the U.S. operate in these types of liberalized markets.

        Other Environments.    We operate Generation assets in certain countries that do not have a spot market. In these environments, electricity is sold only through PPAs with state-owned entities and/or industrial clients as the offtaker. Examples of countries where we operate in this type of environment include Jordan, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Qatar and Sri Lanka.

Regulation of our Distribution Businesses

        In general, our distribution companies sell electricity directly to end users, such as homes and businesses and bill customers directly. The amount our distribution companies can charge customers for electricity is governed by a regulated tariff. The tariff, in turn, is generally based upon a certain usage

22


Table of Contents


level that includes a pass through of costs to the customer that are not controlled by the distribution company, including the costs of fuel (in the case of integrated utilities) and/or the costs of purchased energy, plus a margin for the value added by the distributor, usually calculated as a fair return on the fair value of the company's assets. This regulated tariff is periodically reviewed and reset by the regulatory agency of the government. Components of the tariff that are directly passed through to the customer are usually adjusted through an automated process. In many instances, the tariffs can be adjusted between scheduled regulatory resets pursuant to an inflation adjustment or another index. Customers with demand above a certain level are often unregulated and can choose to contract with generation companies directly and pay a wheeling fee, which is a fee to the distribution company for use of the distribution system. Most of our utilities operate as monopolies within exclusive geographic areas set by the regulatory agency and face very limited competition from other distributors.

        Set forth below is a discussion of certain regulations we face in each country where we do business. In each country, the regulatory environment can pose material risks to our business, its operations and/or its financial condition. For further discussion of those risks, see the Risk Factors in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Latin America

        Brazil.    Brazil has one main interconnected electricity system, the National Interconnected System. The power industry in Brazil is regulated by the Brazilian government, acting through the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the National Electric Energy Agency, ("ANEEL"), an independent federal regulatory agency that has authority over the Brazilian power industry. ANEEL supervises concessions for electricity generation, transmission, trading and distribution, including the setting of tariff rates, and supervising and auditing of concessionaires.

        On March 15, 2004, the Brazilian government launched a proposed new model for the Brazilian power sector. The New Power Sector Model created two energy markets: (1) the regulated contractual market for the distribution companies, and (2) the free contract environment market, designed for traders and other large volume users.

        AES has two distribution businesses in Brazil—Eletropaulo, serving approximately six million customers in the São Paulo area, and Sul, serving over one million customers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Under the New Power Sector Model, every distribution utility is obligated to contract to meet 100% of its energy requirements in the regulated contractual market, through energy auctions from new proposed generation projects or existing generation facilities. Bilateral contracts are being honored, but cannot be renewed.

        The tariff charged by distribution companies to regulated customers is composed of a non-manageable cost component (Part A), which includes energy purchase costs and charges related to the use of transmission and distribution systems and is directly passed through to customers, and a manageable cost component (Part B), which includes operation and maintenance costs based on a reference company (a model distribution company defined by ANEEL), recovery of depreciated assets and a component for the value added by the distributor (calculated as net asset base multiplied by pre-tax weighted average cost of capital). Part B is reset every three to five years depending on the specific concession. There is an annual tariff adjustment to pass through Part A costs to customers and to adjust the Part B costs by inflation less an efficiency factor (X-Factor). Distribution companies are also entitled to extraordinary tariff revisions, in the event of significant changes to their cost structure.

        At ANEEL's Public Meeting on July 1, 2008, Eletropaulo was granted an 8.01% average tariff increase effective July 4, 2008. In the 2007 tariff reset process, certain items were determined to be provisional and this process is expected to be defined in the next tariff adjustment process (July, 2009).

        On May 16, 2002, ANEEL issued Order 288, a regulation that stipulated the retroactive denial to the choice of not participating in the "exposition relief mechanism", a tool that allowed the selling of

23


Table of Contents


energy from Itaipu Generating Co. in the spot market. Due to its negative impact, Sul filed a lawsuit seeking to annul Order 288, and as soon as the case went to court, Sul was granted a preliminary injunction that ordered ANEEL to review the Brazilian Electric Energy Commercialization Chamber ("CEEE") calculations and liquidation, an injunction that was later suspended. If Sul obtains a favorable final verdict, it will have a positive impact of about R$437.8 million (historic values referring to 2001 and 2002) or approximately $187.0 million, but if Sul's requests are not granted, under Order 288 Sul will owe a net amount of approximately R$146.7 million or approximately $62.6 million at December 31, 2008. All amounts are reserved in Sul's books, including the amount owed to CCEE in the event Sul loses the case.

        AES has two generation businesses in Brazil—Tietê, a 2,651 MW hydro-generation facility and AES "Uruguaiana", a 639 MW generation facility. Under the New Power Sector Model and in order to optimize the generation of electricity through Brazil's nationwide system, generation plants are allocated a generating capacity referred to as "assured energy" or the amount of energy representing the long-term average energy production of the plant defined by ANEEL. Together with the system operator, ANEEL establishes the amount of assured energy to be sold by each plant. The system operator determines generation dispatch which takes into account nationwide electricity demand, hydrological conditions and system constraints. In order to mitigate risks involved in hydroelectric generation, a mechanism is in place to transfer surplus energy from those who generated in excess of their assured energy to those who generated less than their assured energy. The energy that is reallocated through this mechanism is priced pursuant to an energy optimization tariff, designed to optimize the use of generation available in the system.

        Tietê is allowed to sell electric power within the two environments, maintaining the competitive nature of the generation. All the agreements, whether entered in the ACR (Regulated Contracting Environment) or in the ACL (Free Contracting Environment), are registered in the CCEE and they serve as basis for the accounting posting and the settlement of the differences in the short-term market. Generation companies must provide physical coverage from their own power generation for 100% of their sale contracts. The verification of physical coverage is accomplished on a monthly basis, based on generation data and on sale company contracts of the last 12 months. The failure to provide physical coverage exposes the generating company to the payment of penalties.

        Beginning in 2006, all Tietê's assured energy has been sold to Eletropaulo. The PPA entered into with Eletropaulo expires on December 31, 2015, and requires that the price of energy sold be adjusted annually based on the Brazilian inflation ("IGPM") variation. In October 2003, Tietê and Eletropaulo executed an amendment to extend the PPA through June 2028. However, this amendment was not approved by ANEEL. In response, Eletropaulo filed a suit against ANEEL and is currently awaiting the first-instance judgment. Based on the current rules concerning the purchase and sale of energy through the auction process, and because such rules remain in effect until 2015, the selling price may significantly differ from the current price adjusted under the terms of the existing PPA. If the PPA were terminated, Tietê would only be allowed to sell in the ACR or ACL.

        Tietê's concession agreement with the State of São Paulo for its generation plant includes an obligation to increase generation capacity by 15% originally to be accomplished by the end of 2007. Tietê, as well as other concessionaire generators, were not able to meet this requirement due to regulatory, environmental and hydrological constraints, and requested an extension of the term. Currently, the matter is under consideration by the Government of the State of São Paulo, after a decision by the Board of Officers of ANEEL, that ANEEL is not the appropriate authority to consider the extension, since the expansion obligation derives from the purchase and sale agreement between Tietê and the Government of São Paulo, and not from the concession agreement. Tietê is negotiating new conditions and a new deadline to fulfill the expansion requirement. There is a dispute alleging that Tietê failed to increase its generation capacity as established in the concession agreement. The dispute seeks to determine the application of penalties related to the concession agreement, and also to

24


Table of Contents


determine its termination. Judicial summons have been received and, in October 2008, Tietê presented its defense. On October 31, 2008, a decision was rendered ordering the Plaintiff to respond to Tietê's defense. Such a response has not been filed yet.

        Uruguaiana has been impacted by the energy crisis in Argentina, primarily through natural gas supply restrictions. During this period, Uruguaiana has been forced to purchase energy from the spot market and through bilateral contracts in order to satisfy its alleged obligations under the PPAs with the distribution companies. In August 2008, the Argentinean gas supplier sent a notification to Uruguaiana declaring force majeure under the gas supply agreement. Uruguaiana extended the effects of such force majeure to the PPAs with the distribution companies. After such declaration by the Argentinean gas supplier, Uruguaiana started negotiations with the four distribution companies to reduce the amount of energy contracted under the PPAs and resolve these matters. From August 2008 to December 2008, Uruguaiana and the distribution companies entered into amendments to reduce the energy amounts under the PPAs to the level of the bilateral agreements executed by Uruguaiana, suspend such agreements by December 2009 and settle all pending matters. Three of these distribution companies sought and received a decision by ANEEL declaring that they were entitled to involuntary exposures, which allows these distribution companies to purchase replacement energy in the market and recover the related additional costs, if any, through their tariffs. The fourth involuntary exposure request from a distribution company is under analysis by ANEEL.

        Chile.    In Chile, except for the small isolated systems of Aysén and Punta Arenas, generation activities are principally in two electric systems: the Central Interconnected Grid (known as the SIC), which supplies approximately 92% of the country's population; and the Northern Interconnected Grid (known as the SING), where the principal users are mining and industrial companies.

        In each of these grids, electricity generation is coordinated by the respective independent Economic Load Dispatch Center, or CDEC, in order to minimize operational costs and ensure the highest economic efficiency of the system, while fulfilling all quality of service and reliability requirements established by current regulations. In order to satisfy demand at the lowest possible cost at all times, each CDEC orders the dispatch of generation plants based strictly on variable generation costs, starting with the lowest variable cost, and does so independent of the contracts held by each generation company. Thus, while the generation companies are free to enter into supply contracts with their customers and are obligated to comply with such contracts, the energy needed to satisfy demand is always produced by the CDEC members whose variable production costs are lower than the system's marginal cost at the time of dispatch. In addition, the Chilean market is designed to include payments for capacity (or firm capacity), which are explicitly paid to generation companies for contributing to the system's sufficiency. The cost of investment and operation of transmission systems are borne by generation companies and consumers (regulated tolls) in proportion to their use.

        The Chilean Ministry of Economy, Development and Reconstruction grants concessions for the provision of the public service of electric distribution; and the National Commission for the Environment administers the system for evaluating the environmental impact of projects. Concessions are not required from government agencies to build and operate thermoelectric plants. The National Energy Commission establishes, regulates and coordinates energy policy. The Superintendency of Electricity and Fuels oversees compliance with service quality and safety regulations. The General Water Authority issues the rights to use water for hydroelectric generation plants. The Chilean electric system includes a Panel of Experts, an independent technical agency whose purpose is to analyze and resolve in a timely fashion conflicts arising between companies within the electric sector and among one or more of these companies and the energy authorities.

        Power generation is based primarily on long-term contracts between generation companies and customers specifying the volume, price and conditions for the sale of energy and capacity. The law recognizes two types of customers for generation companies: unregulated customers and regulated customers. Unregulated customers are principally consumers whose connected capacity is higher than

25


Table of Contents


2 MW, and consumers whose connected capacity is between 500 kW and 2 MW who have selected the unregulated pricing mechanism for a period of four years. These customers are not subject to price regulation; therefore, generation and distribution companies are able to freely negotiate prices and conditions for electricity supply with them. Regulated customers are those whose connected capacity is less than or equal to 500 KW, and those with connected capacity between 500 kW and 2 MW who have selected—also for four years—the regulated pricing system.

        The distinct electricity sector activities are regulated by the General Electricity Services Law, DFL No. 1/1982 enacted by the Mining Ministry, with its subsequent amendments: Law No. 19,490 (2004, known as the "Short Law I") and Law No. 20,01/005, or the "Short Law II", which did not modify the foundation of Chile's stable electricity sector model. These laws were rewritten and systematized under DFL No. 4/2007. Sector activities are also governed by the corresponding technical regulations and standards.

        In accordance with the amendment to the electricity law enacted in May 2005, new contracts assigned by distribution companies for consumption from 2010 onward must be awarded to generation companies based on the lowest supply price offered in public bid processes. These prices called "long-term node prices", include indexation formulas and are valid for the entire term of the contract, up to a maximum of 15 years. More precisely, the long-term energy node price for a particular contract is the lowest energy price offered by the generation companies participating in each respective bid process, while the long-term capacity node price is that set in the node price decree in effect at the time of the bid.

        The "Tokman Law", which was enacted in September 2007, requires that generation companies must continue to supply electricity to distribution companies whose supply contract may be terminated as a result of bankruptcy of the distribution company, its generation supplier, or the anticipated termination of the power purchase contract due to an arbitration award or court decision. The law states that in these situations, if the distribution company is not able to procure a new contract, all generation companies in the system must then supply the distribution company at node prices based on the generator's respective participation in the grid.

        Another statute, Law 20,257, was enacted in April 2008. Law 20, 257 promotes non-conventional renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, small hydroelectric and biomass energy. The law requires that a percentage of the new power purchase contracts held by generation companies after August 31, 2007, be supplied from renewable sources. The required energy percentage begins at 5% for the period 2010-2015, and gradually increases to a maximum of 10% in 2024. A penalty is applied for each kWh not supplied in accordance with the law. Our businesses in Chile have developed a plan for complying with this law, which includes the sale of certain water rights, the purchasers of which have agreed to build a small hydroelectric plant and sell the energy to Gener at a fixed price.

        Colombia.    Colombia has one main national interconnected system (the "SIN"). In 1994 the Colombian Congress issued the laws of Domiciliary Public Services and the Electricity Law, which set the institutional arrangement and the general regulatory framework for the electricity sector. The Regulatory Commission of Electricity and Gas ("CREG") was created to foster the efficient supply of energy through regulation of the wholesale market, the natural monopolies of transmission and distribution, and by setting limits for horizontal and vertical economic integration. The control function was assigned to the Superintendency of Public Services.

        The wholesale market is organized around both bilateral contracts and a mandatory pool and spot market for all generation units larger than 20 MW. Each unit bids its availability quantities for a 24 hour period with one bid price set for those 24 hours. The dispatch is arranged by lowest to highest bid price and the spot price is set by the marginal price.

        The spot market started in July 1995, and in 1996 a capacity payment was introduced for a term of 10 years. In December 2006, a regulation was enacted that replaced the capacity charge with the

26


Table of Contents


reliability charge and established two implementation periods. The first period consists of a transition period from December 2006 to November 2012, during which, the price is equal to $13.045 per MWh ("megawatt hour") and volume is determined based on firm energy offers which are pro-rated so that the total firm energy level does not exceed system demand. The second period, in which the reliability charge will be determined, based on the energy price and volume offers submitted by new market participants bidding for new capacity for the system, begins in December 2012. The first reliability charge auction was held in May 2008 with the following results: (i) The reliability charge for existing plants for the period between December 2012 and November 2013 will be $13.998 per MWh; (ii) For new plants that successfully participated in the auction, the charge will be paid for 20 years starting December 2012; (iii) Three new projects won the auction for a total capacity of 429.6 MW starting in 2012.

        Furthermore, the CREG issued a proposal to create the "MOR" or Organized Regulated Market. The MOR will replace current bilateral contracts (assigned between traders and generators) for a centralized auction in which the System Operator buys energy for all regulated customers attended by the traders. The main provisions contained in the proposal include: i) it is mandatory for all traders to buy energy at the auction price and it is voluntary for sellers (generators and traders companies) to offer energy in each auction; ii) one price for the energy sales in the year; iii) the auctions are held one year before the actual dispatch moment and the commitment period of the auction is one year, iv) the proposal is to establish four auctions in each year, in order to cover the annual demand. We expect that a definitive resolution on this matter will be issued in the second quarter of 2009.

        Finally, ANDI—the Colombian Industry Guild, and the Energy Minister, among others, have raised objections to the increase in energy prices in the spot and bilateral contracts market for 2009 and 2010. In response, the regulator (CREG) issued new rules that allow traders to slowly adjust the tariffs to consumers and to promote competition. In general, these rules are not expected to create significant changes in the current regulation.

        Argentina.    Argentina has one main national interconnected system. The National Electrical Regulating Agency is responsible for ensuring the compliance of transmission and distribution companies to concessions granted by the Argentine government, and approves distribution tariffs. The regulatory entity authorized to manage and operate the wholesale electricity market in Argentina is Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico, Sociedad Anómima, ("CAMMESA"), in coordination with the policies established by the National Secretariat of Energy.

        CAMMESA performs load dispatching and clears commercial transactions for energy and power. Sales of electricity may be made on the spot market at the marginal cost of energy to satisfy the system's hourly demand, or in the wholesale energy market under negotiated term contracts. As a result of the gas crisis earlier this decade, this mechanism was modified in 2003 by Resolution 240/03. At present, the price is determined as if all generating units in Argentina were operating with natural gas, even though they may be using other, more expensive, alternative fuels. In the case of generators using alternative fuels, CAMMESA pays the total variable cost of production, which may exceed the established spot price. Additionally, in the spot market, generators are also remunerated for their capacity to generate electricity in excess of supply agreements or private contracts executed by them.

        As the result of a political, social and economic crisis, the Argentine government has adopted many new economic measures since 2002, by means of the "Emergency Law" 25561 issued on January 6, 2002, extended by Law N? 26.456 issued on December 16, 2008 until December 31, 2009. The regulations adopted in the energy sector effectively terminated the use of the U.S. Dollar as the functional currency of the Argentine electricity sector. During 2004, the Energy Secretariat reached agreements with natural gas and electricity producers to reform the energy markets. In the electricity sector, the Energy Secretariat passed Resolution 826/2004, inviting generators to contribute a percentage of their sales margins to fund the development and construction of two new combined cycle power plants to be installed by 2008/2009. The time period for the funding was set from January 2004

27


Table of Contents


through December 2006 and was subsequently extended through December 2007. During 2008 both power plants have started the operation of the gas turbines, and during the second half of 2009 it is expected that the steam turbines will be installed and the plants will start to operate in combined cycle mode. In exchange, the Government committed to reform the market regulation to match the pre-crisis rules prevailing before December 2001. Additionally, participating generators will receive a pro-rata ownership share in the new generation plants after ten years.

        Under the previous regulations, distribution companies were granted long-term concessions (up to 99 years) which provided, directly or indirectly, tariffs based upon U.S. Dollars and adjusted by the U.S. consumer price index and producer price index. Under the new regulations, tariffs are no longer linked to the U.S. Dollar and U.S. inflation indices. As a consequence of the emergency declared by the above-mentioned laws and its resulting regulatory framework, the tariffs of all distribution companies were converted to pesos and were frozen at the peso national rate as of December 31, 2001. In October 2003, the Argentine Congress established a procedure for renegotiation of the public utilities concessions.

        On November 12, 2004, EDELAP, an AES distribution business, signed a Letter of Understanding with the Argentine government in order to renegotiate its concession contract and to start a tariff reform process, which was ratified by the National Congress on May 11, 2005. Final government approval was obtained on July 14, 2005. As a first step during this process, a Distribution Value Added ("DVA") increase of 28%, effective February 1, 2005, was granted. On October 24, 2005, EDEN and EDES, two AES distribution businesses, signed a Letter of Understanding with the Ministry of Infrastructure and Public Services of the Province of Buenos Aires to renegotiate their concession contracts and to start a tariff reform process, which was formally approved on November 30, 2005. An initial 19% DVA increase became effective in August 2005 and an additional 8% DVA increase became effective in January 2007. On July 31, 2008, ENRE (the national electricity regulatory agency) issued Resolution 324 that granted EDELAP a tariff increase DVA of approximately 18%. In addition, the Government established that a process to establish the RTI (integral tariff reset) will take place during February 2009. Upon execution of these Letters of Understanding, AES agreed to postpone or suspend certain international claims. However, these Letters of Understanding provide that if the government does not fulfill its commitments, AES may restart the international claim process. AES has postponed any action until the tariff reset is finalized.

        On August 25, 2008 the Province of Buenos Aires issued the Decree 1578, that granted EDES a tariff increase DVA of approximately 49%. This decree granted a rise in the tariff at all levels of consumption. The Government also established that the tariff review process will take place during 2009.

        El Salvador.    Electricity generators and distribution companies in El Salvador are linked through a single, main interconnected system managed by the Transactions Unit ("UT"). The transmission system is operated by ETESAL, a state-owned company. The El Salvador wholesale electricity market is comprised of: (1) a contract market based on contracts between electricity generators, distributors and trading companies and (2) a spot market for uncontracted electricity based upon bids from spot market participants specifying prices at which they are willing to buy or sell electricity.

        El Salvador has five electricity distribution companies, which came under private ownership as part of the privatization process that took place in 1998. AES controls four of these five distribution companies, encompassing about 80% of the national territory, serving about 1,100,000 customers. El Salvador's electricity industry is regulated under the General Electricity Law enacted in October 1996 and subsequently amended twice in June 2003, and in October 2007. The Superintendencia General de Electricidad y Telecomunicaciones ("SIGET") is an independent regulatory authority that regulates the electricity and telecommunications sectors in El Salvador.

28


Table of Contents

        The maximum tariff to be charged by distribution companies to regulated customers is subject to the approval of SIGET. The components of the electricity tariff are (a) the average energy price ("energy charge"), (b) the charges for the use of the distribution network ("distribution charge"), and (c) customer service costs ("service charge"). Both the distribution charge and service charge are based on average capital costs as well as operation and maintenance costs of an efficient distribution company. The energy charge is adjusted every six months to reflect the changes in the spot market price for electricity. The distribution charge and service charge are approved by SIGET every five years and have two adjustments: (1) an annual adjustment considering the inflation variation and (2) an automatic adjustment in April, July and October, provided that change in the adjusted value exceeds the value in effect by at least 10%.

        The distribution tariff for all five distribution companies in El Salvador was reset on December 4, 2007. The approved tariff schedule is valid for the next five years (2008-2012). One outcome of the tariff reset was a significant reduction in the distribution value added component of the tariff for each of AES's distribution businesses. On March 28, 2008, after negotiations with SIGET and the El Salvador Presidential House, a revised tariff schedule was enacted. It came into force on April 1, 2008. The negotiated tariff schedule included a higher technical losses index than originally recognized by SIGET. This permits the companies to recover an adequate portion of their technical losses through billing. The new tariffs improved distribution revenues by around 9% compared to the rates set on December 4, 2007. This schedule is valid for the period 2008-2012. As a result of this negotiation and the enactment of the new rate schedule, AES agreed to withdraw its appeal recourse before the El Salvador Supreme Court, which was introduced on December 11, 2007.

        As expected, SIGET approved new regulations for Service Connection and Reconnection charges, which came into force on November 3, 2008. The charges underwent a reduction of about 20% on average for these activities. In addition, there are also Quality of Service Regulations contained in SIGET resolution 192-E-2004, which require that distribution companies comply with certain Technical Product Standards, Technical Service Standards and Commercial Service Standards. The Quality of Service Standards became permanent in 2008, which means that they are now enforced to their full extent.

        On November 28, 2008 SIGET enacted the bylaw for the Operation of the Transmission System and the Wholesale Market based on Generation Costs, which provides rules for the Independent System Operator, who is responsible for administering and operating the wholesale market for electricity. From 1996 until the passing of the bylaw, the wholesale market was governed by a price-offer system, whereby each generator submitted a daily price offer for its available generation (limited by a price cap) and the offer price determined dispatch. Under the new bylaw, each generating unit will have audited variable costs (generating costs), which will determine the economic dispatch merit order. The bylaw also provides for additional capacity payments to providers as determined by the regulator. The variable costs mechanism enabling legislation has been enacted, and it provides for a preparation and transition period before the regulations are in full force and effect which is scheduled to occur in 2010.

        Currently, the Company does not face any regulatory action in El Salvador.

        Dominican Republic.    The Dominican Republic has one main interconnected system with 3,000 MW of installed capacity and four isolated systems. Under current regulations, the Dominican government retains ultimate oversight and regulatory authority as well as control and ownership of the transmission grid and the hydroelectric facilities in the country. In addition, the government shares ownership in certain generation and distribution assets. The Dominican government's oversight responsibilities for the electricity sector are carried out by the National Energy Commission ("CNE") and the Superintendency of Electricity.

29


Table of Contents

        The wholesale market in the Dominican Republic commenced operations in June 2000. This market includes a spot market and contract market. All participants in the Dominican electric system with available units are put in the spot market in order of merit for dispatch based on lowest marginal cost. The order of merit determines the order in which each participant is dispatched. The order of merit is effective for one week. The price to be paid for the electricity corresponds to the marginal cost of the last dispatched unit using natural gas. Sector participants may execute private contracts in which they agree to specific price, energy, and capacity transactions.

        The regulatory framework in the Dominican electricity market establishes a methodology for calculating the firm capacity, which is the supply that can be economically dispatched by a generating unit during peak demand, provided that the unit has a certain unavailability (mechanical in the case of thermal power plants, and primarily hydrological in the case of hydroelectric power plants). The total firm capacity of the electric system in a year is equal to the peak demand of that year. The capacity payment is regulated as the average fixed cost (monthly capital cost of the investment cost plus fixed operational and maintenance cost) of an oil-fired open cycle gas turbine, multiplied by a factor to take into account a reserve margin.

        The financial crisis in the Dominican Republic during 2004 caused a financial crisis in the electricity sector. The inability to pass through higher fuel prices and the costs of devaluation led to a gap between collections at the distribution companies and the amounts required to pay the generators. In 2005 the government committed itself to stay current with its energy bills and also to cover the potential deficit of distribution companies. During 2005, 2006, and 2007 the government was paying both the subsidies and its own energy bills on time. In December 2006, a bill with the primary goal of supporting fraud prosecution was sent to Congress by the Executive Branch. This bill was approved in July 2007 and is expected to help the sector reach financial sustainability by: criminalizing electrical fraud; setting new limits to non-regulated users in order to protect the distribution companies' market; allowing for service cutoff after only one bill due; and classifying as a national security breach the intentional damage or interruption of the national electricity grid.

        Despite these improvements, the electricity sector has not completely recovered from the financial crisis of 2004. In 2006 the electricity sector needed $530 million in subsidies from the government to cover current operations. In 2007, the sector needed more than $630 million and, at projected fuel prices, (petroleum at $75 per barrel) the government budgeted subsidies of $800 million for 2008. In 2008, because petroleum and all other fuels doubled in price, the subsidy of $800 million was not enough to cover additional costs, which reached $1,200 million. The Government has been trying to raise more funds, by allocating funds from the national budget, such as a recent approval of an additional $300 million in electricity subsidies supplementing 2008. In addition the Government has been trying to obtain credit from local banks and multilateral institutions.

        In October of 2006, CDEEE (Corporación Dominicana de Empresas Electricas Estatales), the state owned transmission and hydro company, began making public statements that it intends to seek to compel the renegotiation and/or rescission of long-term PPAs with certain power generating companies in the Dominican Republic. Although the details concerning CDEEE's statements are unclear and no formal government action has been taken, AES holds ownership interests in three power generation facilities in the country (AES Andres, Itabo and Dominican Power Partners) that could be adversely affected by the actions taken by the CDEEE, if any.

        Panama.    In 1998, as part of the privatization process, the Panamanian Government divided the Instituto de Recursos Hidráulicos y de Electrificación (IRHE's) assets and operations into four generation companies, three distribution companies and one transmission company. Following a public auction, 51% of shares in each distribution company were sold by the Panamanian Government in September 1998. This was followed in November 1998 by the sale of 49% of shares in each of the three state-owned hydroelectric generation companies and 51% of shares in the main thermoelectric generation

30


Table of Contents


company. These sales were completed in 1999. As a result of the sales, AES acquired control and operation of two of the hydroelectric companies.

        The Panamanian Government retained control of Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica, S.A. (ETESA), the state-owned transmission company, which operates and controls the National Interconnected System (NIS) of 230Kv and certain 115Kv lines. Panama has one main interconnected system (the NIS) operated by ETESA. The transmission charges are reviewed and approved every four years by The National Authority of Public Services (ASEP); the current transmission tariffs are in effect until June 2009. The ASEP sets the framework for the tariff regime, determining transmission zones and rates applicable in the relevant zones and regulates power generation, transmission, interconnection and distribution activities in the electric power sector.

        The National Dispatch Center ("CND") is responsible for planning, supervising and controlling the integrated operation of the NIS and for ensuring its safe and reliable operation. The dispatch order is determined and planned by the CND, which dispatches electricity from generation plants based on lowest marginal cost. According to the Electricity Law, the order in which generators are dispatched must be based on maximizing efficient consumption of energy by minimizing the total cost of energy in the Panamanian power system.

        Distribution companies are required to contract 100% of their annual power requirements (although they can self-generate up to 15% of their demand). Generators can enter into long-term PPAs with distributors or unregulated consumers. In addition, generators can enter into alternative supply contracts with each other. The terms and contents of PPAs are determined through a competitive bidding process and are governed by the Commercial Rules. AES Panama participated in the last Public Bid of Long Term called EDEMET 01-08 for the supply of power and energy until the year 2022. The public bid was held on September 9, 2008 and part of the Public Bid for the sale of 100MW at $92.95/MWh from the year 2012 until the year 2021 and 41 MW at $99.87/MWh from the year 2013 until the year 2022 was awarded to AES Panama. AES Panama already contracted to sell an average of 86% of firm capacity through 2018.

        Under the Electricity Law, generation companies will not be granted new concessions if they would thereby account, directly or indirectly, for more than 25% of national electricity consumption. The percentage may be increased by the Panamanian Government where justified by competitive conditions subject to the approval of the ASEP. The percentage was increased to 40% by Executive Resolution No. 76 of October 19, 2005. This provision does not apply to licenses for thermal generation.

        Besides the PPA market, generators may buy and sell energy in the spot market. Energy sold in the spot market corresponds to the hourly differences between the actual dispatch of energy by each generator and its contractual commitments to supply energy. The energy spot price is set by the order in which generators are dispatched. The CND ranks generators according to their variable cost (thermal) and the value of water (hydroelectric), starting with the lowest value, thereby establishing on an hourly basis the merit order in which generators will be dispatched the following day in order to meet expected demand. This price ranking system is intended to ensure that national demand will be satisfied by the lowest cost combination of available generating units in the country. A generator whose dispatched energy is greater than its contractual commitments to supply energy at any given time is a seller in the energy spot market; the reverse is true for a generator whose dispatched energy is less than its contractual commitments to supply energy. Generators and unregulated consumers can purchase energy in the energy spot market, while only generators can sell energy in the energy spot market.

31


Table of Contents

North America

        United States.    The U.S. wholesale electricity market consists of multiple distinct regional markets that are subject to both federal regulation, as implemented by the FERC, and regional regulation as defined by rules designed and implemented by the Independent System Operator ("ISO"). These rules for the most part govern such items as the determination of the market mechanism for setting the system marginal price for energy and the establishment of guidelines and incentives for the addition of new capacity. The current regulatory framework in the U.S. is the result of a series of regulatory actions that have taken place over the past two decades, as well as numerous policies adopted by both the federal government and the individual states that encourage competition in wholesale and retail electricity markets.

        The federal government, through regulations promulgated by FERC, has primary jurisdiction over wholesale electricity markets and transmission services. While there have been numerous federal statutes enacted during the past 30 years, including the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 ("PURPA"), the Energy Policy Act of 1992 ("EPAct 1992") and the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ("EPAct 2005"), there are two fundamental regulatory initiatives implemented by FERC during that time frame that directly impact our U.S. businesses:

    (a)
    FERC approval of market based rate authority beginning in 1986 for many providers of wholesale generation; and

    (b)
    FERC issuance of Order #888 in 1996 mandating the functional separation of generation and transmission operations and requiring utilities to provide open access to their transmission systems.

        Several of our generation businesses in the U.S. currently operate as Qualifying Facilities ("QF's") as defined under PURPA. These businesses entered into long-term contracts with electric utilities that had a mandatory obligation at that time, as specified under PURPA, to purchase power from QF's at the utility's avoided cost (i.e. the likely costs for both energy and facilities that would have been incurred by the purchasing utility if that utility had to provide its own generating capacity). EPAct 2005 later amended PURPA to eliminate the mandatory purchase obligation in certain markets, but did so only on a prospective basis. Cogeneration facilities and small power production facilities that meet certain criteria can be QFs. To be a QF, a cogeneration facility must produce electricity and useful thermal energy for an industrial or commercial process or heating or cooling applications in certain proportions to the facility's total energy output, and must meet certain efficiency standards. To be a QF, a small power production facility must generally use a renewable resource as its energy input and meet certain size criteria.

        Our non-QF generation businesses in the U.S. currently operate as Exempt Wholesale Generators ("EWG's") as defined under EPAct 1992. These businesses were historically exempt from PUHCA 1935 and are also exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 ("PUHCA 2005"), and subject to FERC approval, have the right to sell power at market-based rates, either directly to the wholesale market or to a third party offtaker such as a power marketer or utility/industrial customer. As an example, one of our larger generation businesses in the U.S. is Eastern Energy. A brief description of the regulatory environment under which Eastern Energy operates is provided below:

        Eastern Energy.    AES, through its Eastern Energy subsidiary, currently operates four coal-fired generation plants with a combined total capacity of 1,268 MW located in the state of New York. The plants sell power directly to the New York Independent System Operator ("NYISO"), a FERC approved regional operator which manages the transmission system in New York and operates the state's wholesale electricity markets. NYISO is regulated as an electric utility by the FERC and has an Open Access Transmission Tariff on file that incorporates rates and conditions for use of the

32


Table of Contents


transmission system and a Market Services Tariff that describes the rules and conditions of use for the various markets.

        The NYISO wholesale power markets are based on a combination of bilateral contracts, contracts for differences ("CFDs") which financially settle relative to an agreed upon index or floating price, and NYISO-administered day-ahead and real-time energy markets. The day-ahead market includes energy, regulation and operating reserves and is a financially binding commitment to produce or replace the products sold. The real time market, which also offers energy, regulation and operating reserves, is a balancing market and is not a financially binding commitment but rather a best effort standard. NYISO uses location based marginal pricing (i.e., pricing for energy at a given location based on a market clearing price that takes into account physical limitations, generation and demand throughout the region) calculated at each node to account for congestion on the grid. Generators are paid the location marginal price at their node, while the end customer pays a zonal price that is the average of nodes within a zone. The market has a $1,000 per MWh cap on bids for energy. However, market rules also incorporate scarcity pricing mechanisms when the market is short of required operating reserves that can result in energy prices above $1,000 per MWh.

        In addition to our generation businesses, we also own IPL, a vertically integrated utility located in Indiana. A brief description of the regulatory environment under which IPL operates is provided below:

        IPL.    As a regulated electric utility, IPL is subject to regulation by the FERC and the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission ("IURC"). As indicated below, the financial performance of IPL is directly impacted by the outcome of various regulatory proceedings before the IURC and FERC.

        IPL is subject to regulation by the IURC with respect to the following: its services and facilities; the valuation of property; the construction; purchase or lease of electric generating facilities; the classification of accounts; rates of depreciation; retail rates and charges; the issuance of securities (other than evidences of indebtedness payable less than twelve months after the date of issue); the acquisition and sale of some public utility properties or securities; and certain other matters.

        IPL's tariff rates for electric service to retail customers (basic rates and charges) are set and approved by the IURC after public hearings ("general rate case"). General rate cases, which have occurred at irregular intervals, include the participation of consumer advocacy groups and certain customers. The last general rate case for IPL was completed in 1995. In addition, pursuant to statute, the IURC is to conduct a periodic review of the basic rates and charges of all utilities at least once every four years, but the IURC has the authority to review the rates of any utility in its jurisdiction at any time it chooses. Such reviews have not been subject to public hearings.

        The majority of IPL customers are served pursuant to retail tariffs that provide for the monthly billing or crediting to customers of increases or decreases, respectively, in the actual costs of fuel (including purchased power costs) consumed from estimated fuel costs embedded in basic rates, subject to certain restrictions on the level of operating income. These billing or crediting mechanisms are referred to as "trackers". This is significant because fuel and purchased power costs represent a large and volatile portion of IPL's total costs. In addition, IPL's rate authority provides for a return on IPL's investment and recovery of the depreciation and operation and maintenance expenses associated with certain IURC-approved environmental investments. The trackers allow IPL to recover the cost of qualifying investments, including a return on investment, without the need for a general rate case.

        IPL may apply to the IURC for a change in its fuel charge every three months to recover its estimated fuel costs, including the energy portion of purchased power costs, which may be above or below the levels included in its basic rates and charges. IPL must present evidence in each fuel adjustment charge ("FAC") proceeding that it has made every reasonable effort to acquire fuel and generate or purchase power, or both, so as to provide electricity to its retail customers at the lowest cost reasonably possible.

33


Table of Contents

        Independent of the IURC's ability to review basic rates and charges, Indiana law requires electric utilities under the jurisdiction of the IURC to meet operating expense and income test requirements as a condition for approval of requested changes in the FAC. Additionally, customer refunds may result if IPL's rolling 12-month operating income, determined at quarterly measurement dates, exceeds IPL's authorized annual net operating income and there are not sufficient applicable cumulative net operating income deficiencies against which the excess rolling twelve month net operating income can be offset.

        In IPL's two most recently approved FAC filings (FAC 81 and 82), the IURC found that IPL's rolling annual jurisdictional retail electric net operating income was lower than the authorized annual jurisdictional net operating income. However, in IPL's FAC 76 through 80 filings, the IURC found that IPL's rolling annual jurisdictional retail electric net operating income was greater than the authorized annual jurisdictional net operating income. Because IPL has a cumulative net operating income deficiency, IPL has not been required to make customer refunds in their FAC proceedings. However, in an effort to allay concerns raised by the IURC regarding IPL's level of earnings, in IPL's IURC approved FAC 79 and 80 IPL provided voluntary credits to its retail customers totaling $30 million and $2 million, respectively. IPL recorded a $30 million deferred fuel regulatory liability in March 2008 and a $2 million deferred fuel regulatory liability in June 2008, with corresponding and respective reductions against revenues for these voluntary credits. Approximately $30.3 million has been applied in the form of offsets against fuel charges that customers would have otherwise been billed during June 1, 2008 through December 31, 2008 and approximately $1.7 million remains to be applied as of December 31, 2008.

        IPL has participated in the restructured wholesale energy market since its implementation April 1, 2004. The restructured wholesale energy market is operated by Midwest Independent System Operator, Inc. ("MISO") and under the jurisdiction of the FERC. Prior to the implementation of these markets, IPL dispatched its generation and purchased power resources directly to meet its demands. In the MISO markets, IPL is obligated to offer its generation and to bid its demand into the market on an hourly basis. The MISO settles these hourly offers and bids based on location based marginal prices (i.e., pricing for energy at a given location based on a market clearing price that takes into account physical limitations, generation and demand throughout the MISO region). The MISO evaluates the market participants' energy injections into, and withdrawals from, the system to economically dispatch the entire MISO system on a five-minute basis. Market participants are able to hedge their exposure to congestion charges, which result from constraints on the transmission system, with certain Financial Transmission Rights ("FTRs"). Participants are allocated FTRs each year and are permitted to purchase additional FTRs. As anticipated, and in keeping with similar market start-ups around the world, location marginal prices are volatile, and there are process, data and model issues requiring editing and enhancement. IPL and other market participants have raised concerns with certain MISO transactions and the resolution of those items could impact our results of operations.

        In IPL's March 2006 proceeding (FAC 71) before the IURC, a consumer advocacy group representing some of IPL's industrial customers requested that a sub-docket be established. Through the sub-docket, the industrial group was seeking a review of various FAC components including a review of IPL's treatment of transmission losses through ISO and an IURC order requiring IPL to provide customer refunds for past charges and changes to future ratemaking. Because of the uncertain outcome of the FAC 71 sub-docket, the IURC orders in IPL's FAC 71 through 81 proceedings had approved IPL's FAC factors on an interim basis, subject to refund. In December 2008, the IURC issued an order in which it determined that IPL should continue its current treatment of transmission losses and therefore removed the "subject to refund" provisions in its FAC 71 through 81 orders, as it pertains to the FAC 71 sub-docket.

        Mexico.    Mexico has a single national electricity grid (referred to as the "National Interconnected System"), covering nearly all of Mexico's territory. The only exception is the Baja California peninsula

34


Table of Contents


which has its own separate electricity system. Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution reserves the generation, transmission, transformation, distribution, and supply of electric power exclusively to the Mexican State for the purpose of providing a "public service". The Federal Electricity Commission ("CFE"), by virtue of Article 1 of the Energy Law, is granted sole and exclusive responsibility for providing this public service as it relates to the supply, transmission and distribution of electric power.

        In 1992, the Energy Law was amended to allow private parties to invest in certain activities in the Mexico electrical power market, under the assumption that "self-supply" generation of electric power is not considered a public service. These reforms allowed private parties to obtain permits from the Ministry of Energy for (i) generating power for self-supply; (ii) generating power through co-generation processes; (iii) generating power through independent production; (iv) small-scale production and (v) importing and exporting electrical power. Beneficiaries holding any of the permits contemplated under the Energy Law are required to enter into PPAs with the CFE with regard to all surplus power produced. It is under this basis that AES's Mérida ("Mérida") and TEG/TEP facilities operate. Mérida, a majority owned 484 MW generation business, provides power exclusively to CFE under a long-term contract. TEG/TEP provides the majority of its output to two offtakers under long-term contracts, and can sell any excess or surplus energy produced to CFE at a predetermined day-ahead price.

Europe & Africa

        European Union.    European Union ("EU") member states are required to implement EU legislation, although there is a degree of disparity as to how such legislation is implemented and the pace of implementation in the respective member states. EU legislation covers a range of topics which impact the energy sector, including market liberalization and environmental legislation. The Company has subsidiaries which operate existing generation businesses in a number of countries which are member states of the EU, including the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The Company also has subsidiaries which are in the process of constructing a generation plant in Bulgaria. Bulgaria became a member state of the EU as of January 1, 2007.

        The principles of market liberalization in the EU electricity and gas markets were introduced under the Electricity and Gas Directives. In 2005, the European Commission ("the Commission"), the legislative and administrative body of the EU, launched a sector-wide inquiry into the European gas and electricity markets. In the context of the electricity market, the inquiry has to date focused on identifying issues related to price formation in the electricity wholesale markets and the role of long-term agreements as a possible barrier to entry with a view to improving the competitive situation. In January 2007, the Commission published a proposal for a new common energy policy for Europe. In November 2008, the Commission published a second Strategic Energy Review aimed at developing the concept of a common European Energy Policy. It focused mainly on security of supply and infrastructure development. The Strategic Energy Review proposed reviews of the Gas Storage Directive in 2010 and an update of the Oil Stocks Directives.

        In October 2008, Energy Ministers reached political agreement on the "Third Liberalism Package," which includes five pieces of legislation, Electricity and Gas Directives, Electricity and Gas Regulations and Agency Regulation, which are expected to be passed by Parliament in early 2009 and come into force at the national level in 2009/2010. Little progress was made on this legislation during the fourth quarter of 2008, as legislative efforts focused instead on the "Green Package." The Green Package consists of 3 directives (Carbon Capture & Storage, EU Emissions Trading Scheme ("ETS"), and the Renewables Directive) which were agreed by the European Parliament in December 2008, along with a decision on Green House Gas burden sharing. The key elements of the Green Package include:

    A 20% reduction in EU GHG emissions by 2020, as compared with 1990 levels, or 30% if other developed nations agree to take similar action by 2020;

35


Table of Contents

    The ETS caps will deliver 21% GHG reduction by 2020 compared to 2005, distribution will be skewed to favor lower GDP member states, and auctioning will be phased in for some member states power sectors;

    20% increase in energy efficiency; and

    Minimum 10% target for renewable energy by 2020.

        Progress in the implementation of the directives referred to above varies from member state to member state. AES generation businesses in each member state will be required to comply with the relevant measures taken to implement the directives. See "Air Emissions" below, for a description of these Directives.

        Kazakhstan.    Under the present regulatory structure, the electricity generation and supply sector in Kazakhstan is mainly regulated by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (the "Ministry"), the Agency for protection of competition (the "AZK") and the Agency for Regulation of Natural Monopolies (the "Agency"). Each has the necessary authority for the supervision of the Kazakhstan power industry. However, the continuous changes in the law result in certain contradictions between different laws and regulations. This in turn results in uncertainty in the regulatory environment of the power sector.

        Kazakhstan has a wholesale power market, where generators and customers are free to sign contracts at negotiated prices. The power market infrastructure is evolving into a functioning centralized trading system. Since 2004, power producers, guaranteed suppliers and wholesale traders have been required to purchase and sell part of their electricity volumes on the electronic centralized power trading market. State-owned entities and natural monopolies are obligated to buy power through tenders and centralized trading. The wholesale transmission grid is owned by state-owned company KEGOC, which also acts as the system operator. The government is planning to introduce a real-time balancing market in 2009.

        To date, the Agency approves and regulates all tariffs for power transmission and distribution. Under the law, power companies which the AZK considers dominant entities must notify the Agency of the proposed increase of their prices and the Agency has the right to veto such proposed tariff increases. Further, the Agency has the right to request a decrease in the applicable tariffs and/or request introduction of the fixed prices for those power companies with prior record of anti-monopoly violations. In addition, the government introduced price regulation of the power sales from the Northern zone of the wholesale market to the southern region of Kazakhstan, and power companies involved in such transactions require approval for any tariff increase from the AZK.

        Two hydro plants which are under AES concession, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Shulbinsk, together with Ust-Kamenogorsk TET, all located in the Eastern Kazakhstan region, are recognized by the AZK as dominant entities in the Eastern Kazakhstan regional market because their aggregated share in the electricity supply commodity market in the region is 70%. These businesses are required to notify the AZK about any power price increases for regional customers. Additionally, in December 2008, Shulbinsk was included in the dominant companies list for the Taldykorgan region and Irtysh Power and Light together with Sogrinsk CHP were included in the dominant list of the East Kazakhstan region. Ekibastuz GRES, which is under AES management, must obtain approval from the AZK for power price increases for its customers in the southern region of Kazakhstan.

        Effective January 1, 2008, the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan ordered all generating plants in Kazakhstan to maintain fourth quarter 2007 price levels through the first quarter of 2008 in order to help moderate high inflation rates in Kazakhstan. Beginning in April 2008, the government permitted power plants to increase the electricity tariffs charged to their electricity retail companies by 13.6% for the remainder of 2008 and eliminated the electricity price restrictions for other customers.

36


Table of Contents

        In 2008, the parliament adopted a new competition law and amendments to the Electricity Law and Natural Monopoly legislation, which became effective as of January 2009. According to the new amendments to the Electricity Law, the Ministry should determine the groups of technologically identical power generation companies and set upper price ceilings for each group of power companies for seven years. In cases where such price ceiling is too low to support new investments, a power generation company will be able to apply for investment tariffs. The Ministry and the AZK have rights jointly to approve the investment programs, approve the investment tariffs and sign an investment contract with a power company. The legislation envisages large fines in the case of failures to implement investment programs. Trading companies will be prohibited and power plants will be able to conduct trading activities only in order to provide electricity supply to its customers during emergency shutdowns.

        The new competition law excludes from the list of antimonopoly violations agreed actions between affiliated companies. Amendments to the Natural Monopoly law give additional authority to the Agency to control allowed costs of natural monopoly companies and impose responsibility on these companies to eliminate non-technical losses within the timeframes set by the Agency. The law eliminates the price regulation of power companies recognized as dominant entities and the price regulation of power sales from the Northern to the southern region of Kazakhstan.

        In 2008, the Company, through an indirect wholly owned subsidiary, sold its assets in Northern Kazakhstan, including AES Ekibastuz LLP, the operator of the AES Ekibastuz power plant, and Maikuben West LLP, the owner of the AES Maikuben coal mine. In 2008, the Company continued to manage these businesses pursuant to a management agreement. The Company is retaining its facilities in Eastern Kazakhstan, including Sogrinsk CHP and Ust-Kamenogorsk CHP; its facilities under concession agreements, Shulbinsk HPP and Ust-Kamenogorsk HPP; and its trading business, Nurenergoservice L.L.P.

        Cameroon.    The law governing the Cameroonian electricity sector was passed in December 1998. The regulator is the Electricity Sector Regulatory Agency ("ARSEL") and its role is regulating and ensuring the proper functioning of the electricity sector, supervising the process of granting concessions, licenses and authorizations to operators, monitoring the application of the electricity regulation by the operators of the sector, approving and/or publicizing the regulated tariffs in the sector and safeguarding the interests of electricity operators and consumers. ARSEL has the legal status of a Public Administrative Establishment and is placed under the dual technical supervisory authority of the Ministries charged with electricity and finance.

        The concession agreement of July 2001 between the Republic of Cameroon and Sonel covers a twenty-year period. The first three years constituted a grace period to permit resolution of issues existing at the time of the privatization. In 2006, Sonel and the Cameroonian government signed an amended concession agreement. The amendment updates the schedule for investments to more than double the number of people Sonel serves over the next 15 years and provides for upgrading the generation, transmission and distribution system. Additionally, the concession agreement amended the tariff structure that results in an electricity price based on a reasonable return on the generation, transmission and distribution asset base and a pass through of a portion of fuel costs associated with increased thermal generation in years when hydrology is poor. The amended concession agreement has also reduced the cost of connection to facilitate access to electricity in Cameroon.

        Nigeria.    Nigeria's electricity sector consists of a generation market comprised of approximately 6 GW of installed capacity, with the state-owned entity, Power Holding Company of Nigeria ("PHCN") holding approximately 88% of the market share and two IPPs holding the remaining 12%. The IPPs, of which AES Nigeria Barges Ltd. ("AESNB") is one, maintain long term contracts with PHCN as the sole offtaker.

        All of Nigeria's distribution and transmission networks and companies are owned by state entities.

37


Table of Contents

        In March 2005, President Obasanjo signed the Power Sector Reform Bill into law, enabling private companies to participate in transmission and distribution in addition to electricity generation that had previously been legalized. The government has separated PHCN into eleven distribution firms, six generating companies, and a transmission company, all of which plan to be privatized. Several problems, including union opposition, have delayed the privatization indefinitely. However, it is envisaged that after the privatization process, the power sector will transform into a fully liberalized market.

        The Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission ("NERC") has also been established to regulate the electricity sector including the setting of tariffs and industry standards for future electricity sector development. NERC has asked the Company to revalidate our generation license. As part of the revalidation exercise, NERC is imposing certain conditions on the Company which are in conflict with its PPA and which may result in additional costs. The Company is reviewing the terms of the new license and plans to negotiate its terms and conditions to make them more consistent with our existing PPA. At this time, it is not clear what might be the final outcome of these negotiations. Under the terms of the PPA, the Company has a right to pass through any such additional cost and there is no cap. At present we estimate that the additional cost, if any, due to the license will be about $1 million.

        Hungary.    The Hungarian market has one main interconnected system. The state-owned electricity wholesaler, MVM, is the dominant exporter, importer and wholesaler of electricity. MVM's affiliated company, MAVIR is the Hungarian transmission system operator. Currently, Hungary is dependent on energy imports (mainly from Russia) since domestic production only partially covers consumption. Magyar Energia Hivatal (MEH), is the government entity responsible for regulation of the electricity industry in Hungary.

        With the adoption of a new Electricity Act by Hungary in 2007, which became effective January 1, 2008, Hungary is taking the final legislative step to implement a fully liberalized electricity market. By virtue of the Electricity Act, all customers become eligible to choose their electricity supplier. In the competitive market, generators sell capacity to wholesale traders, distribution companies, other generators, electricity traders and eligible customers at an unregulated price.

        Shortly before its accession to the European Union, the Hungarian government notified the European Commission of arrangements concerning compensation to the state owned electricity wholesaler, MVM. The Commission decided to open a formal investigation in 2005 to determine whether or not any government subsidies were provided by MVM to its suppliers which were incompatible with the common market. In June 2008, the Commission reached its decision that the PPAs, including AES Tisza's PPA, contain elements of illegal state aid. The decision requires Hungary to terminate the PPAs within six months of the June 2008 publication of the decision, and to recover the alleged illegal state aid from the generators within ten months of publication. Hungary and the Commission are in the process of resolving confidentiality matters relating to the wording of the decision, which has not yet been notified by the Commission to the generators. AES Tisza is challenging the Commission's decision in the Court of First Instance of the European Communities. Referring to the Commission's decision, Hungary adopted act number LXX of 2008 which terminates all long-term PPAs in Hungary, including AES Tisza's PPA, as of December 31, 2008, and requires generators to repay the alleged illegal state aid that was allegedly received by the generators through the PPAs, and provides for the possibility to offset stranded costs of the generators from the repayable state aid. Depending on the outcome of these events, there could be a material impact on the Company.

        At the end of 2006 and for all of 2007, the Hungarian government reintroduced administrative pricing for all electricity generators, overriding PPA pricing, including the pricing in AES Tisza's PPA. In January 2007, AES Summit Generation Limited, a holding company associated with AES Tisza's operations in Hungary, and AES Tisza notified the Hungarian government of a dispute concerning its

38


Table of Contents


acts and omissions related to AES's substantial investments in Hungary in connection with the reintroduction of the administrative pricing for Hungarian electricity generators. In conjunction with this, AES Summit and AES Tisza have commenced International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes ("ICSID") arbitration proceedings against Hungary under the Energy Charter Treaty in connection with Hungary's reintroduction of the administrative pricing for Hungarian electricity generators. In the meantime, pursuant to the new Electricity Act in force from January 1, 2008, administrative pricing for electricity generators was subsequently abolished.

        Hungary, pursuant to act number LXVII of 2008 introduced a special tax to be levied on energy companies including companies such as AES Tisza. The rate of the special tax is 8% and it is valid for two years, i.e., 2009 and 2010.

        Ukraine.    The electricity sector in Ukraine is regulated by the National Energy Regulatory Commission ("NERC"). Electricity costs to end users in Ukraine consist of three main components: 1) the wholesale market tariff is the price at which the distributor purchases energy on the wholesale market, 2) the distribution tariff covers the cost of transporting electricity over the distribution network, 3) the supply tariff covers the cost of supplying electricity to an end user. The total cost permitted by the regulator under the distribution and supply tariff each year is referred to as DVA. The distribution and supply tariffs for the five privatized distribution companies in Ukraine are established by the NERC on an annual basis, at which time an operational expense allowance is adjusted for inflation and the tariff is adjusted for the amount of capital that was invested for the year and the amount of energy that was distributed. A change in the methodology was effected at the end of 2007 with respect to the treatment of wages and salaries such that the adjustment for inflation replaced by an allowance based on the average industrial wage in the country.

        Due to Parliamentary elections in 2006, there were significant staff changes in the key regulatory agencies. In particular, a new Minister of Energy and a new NERC Chairman were appointed. NERC twice authorized 25% increases in end user tariffs for residential customers in 2006. During 2006, the wholesale electricity market price increased approximately 18% due to increases in fuel prices and changes in the pricing arrangements for thermal generating companies. During 2007, the wholesale electricity market price increased by 21% and during 2008, it increased by 49%.

        At the end of 2008, the tariff methodology for the calculation of the DVA in AES Ukraine's tariffs was to be comprehensively reviewed, including the rate of return on initial investment, operational expenses treatment, and definition and valuation of the rate base. However, in late 2008, NERC introduced minimal and short term changes into the tariff methodology with a view to delaying a comprehensive review until 2010. The delay is due to NERC's intention to develop a new methodology applicable to all distribution and supply companies. Short term changes implemented in 2009 include (a) setting rates of return on initial investment at the level of 15% after tax for 2009, (b) wages and salaries treatment remaining as per the mechanism introduced in 2007, (c) operational expenses subject to indexation by inflation and (d) other operational expenses subject to adjustment based on actual expenses given reasonable substantiation. In 2010, a comprehensive tariff methodology review will take place addressing the issues of (1) rate of return on investment, (2) rate base revaluation, and (3) operational expense allowance treatment.

        During the tariff review for 2009, NERC policies were directed by the provisions of the Presidential decree "On Additional Measures for Overcoming the Financial Crisis". This decree introduced a moratorium on natural monopolists' price increases until the financial situation in the Ukraine stabilizes. The DVA (total cost permitted in tariffs) approved for 2009, however, increased 3.8% for AES Kievoblenergo and 5.4% for AES Rivneenergo.

        United Kingdom.    AES Kilroot ("Kilroot") is subject to regulation by the Northern Ireland Authority for Utility Regulation ("NIAUR"). Under the terms of the generating license granted to Kilroot, the NIAUR has the right to review and, subject to compliance with certain procedural steps

39


Table of Contents


and conditions, require the early termination in 2010 of the long-term PPAs under which Kilroot currently supplies electricity to Northern Ireland Electricity ("NIE") until 2024.

        On March 21, 2007, Order 2007 (Single Wholesale Market—Northern Ireland) was enacted, which provided for the introduction and regulation of a single wholesale electricity market for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland that began operation in November of 2007. The legislation grants powers to the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, or NIAER, for a period of two years to modify existing arrangements within the electricity market in Northern Ireland, including the power to modify existing licenses and/or require the amendment or termination of existing agreements or arrangements, to allow for the creation of a single wholesale electricity market. Modifications have been made to Kilroot's license and agreements to accomplish the objectives of the single market and to allow for the separation of NIE into constituent bodies and the extraction of the management of the transmission system ("SONI") from NIE. These activities have been completed with reasonably minimal impact and with the maintenance of existing underlying guarantees for Kilroot.

        Revenues from the new market include a regulated capacity and an energy payment based on the system marginal price ("SMP"). Bidding principles restrict bids to short run marginal cost ("SRMC"). Total annual capacity payments are calculated as the product of the annualized fixed cost of a best new entrant ("BNE") peaking plant multiplied by the capacity required to meet the security standard. This capacity pot is then distributed on the basis of plant availability.

        Despite the new market mechanisms, Kilroot has continued to operate under its existing PPA which is able to subsist within the single wholesale market, although operating dispatch instructions are now a function of the new market inputs and system constraints and no longer the exclusive decision of NIE. The impact on the business has been minimal as the relatively higher price of gas has led Kilroot (a coal-fired plant) to be dispatched consistently during peak winter demand. However, NIAUR sought to invoke the introduction of the single electricity market ("SEM") as a rationale for the early termination in 2010 of the long-term PPAs between Kilroot and NIE. Kilroot challenged by way of judicial review proceedings the determination of NIAUR that the introduction of the SEM constituted requisite arrangements to allow such early termination. The hearing duly took place in May 2008 and found in favor of the Regulator. Although this grants the ability to the Regulator to terminate the contracts from 2010, the current expectation is that due to the value of the CO2 allowances (that passes through to the consumer while Kilroot is under contract), the likely earliest date that cancellation would be invoked is after 2012 (when free allowances are due to cease).

        Following receipt of a complaint from Friends of the Earth claiming that the existing long-term PPAs with NIE in Northern Ireland are incompatible with EU law, the EC has requested certain information from the UK authorities related to these agreements, including information pertaining to the Kilroot power plant and PPA in order to enable the EC to assess the complaint. The Department of Enterprise Trade and Investment ("DETI") submitted a response to the EC on January 12, 2007 and there have been no further developments.

        Czech Republic.    The electricity industry in the Czech Republic is dominated by three vertically integrated companies ("CEZ", "E.ON" and "PRE") that both supply and distribute power. CEZ, which owns approximately 70% of the installed capacity, produced approximately 73% of the Czech Republic's energy in 2007. Electricity distribution is also dominated by these three entities: CEZ (62%); E.ON (25%); and PRE (13%). There are 22 generators with installed capacity of over 50 MW and 25 generators with installed capacities between 5-50 MW, none of which have a market share greater than 3%. In accordance with EU directives regarding market liberalization, all customers are able to select their energy supplier.

        Since August 2007, the Prague Energy Exchange has been trading energy in the form of base load and peak load on a monthly, quarterly and annual basis. The majority of electricity is, however, still traded on a bilateral basis between generators and distributors, independent traders (there are six

40


Table of Contents


major active traders plus more than 20 smaller traders in the market) and also between generators and final customers. In February 2008, a day ahead spot market was incorporated into the Energy Exchange as existed in Slovakia. As of March 2009, the Prague Energy Exchange will also include Hungary trades. AES Bohemia's electricity, steam, water and compressed air output is governed under bilateral contracts with industrial and municipal customers in the surrounding area.

        Spain.    Spain is a member of the EU and as such the Spanish Government has been taking steps to liberalize the country's electricity sector in accordance with EU directives. Since January 1, 2003, all customers have been eligible to choose their electricity supplier.

        AES currently operates and holds a 71% ownership interest in a 1,199 MW natural gas-fired plant located in Cartagena on the southeast coast of Spain. The plant sells energy into the Pan-Iberian electricity market ("MIBEL"). The MIBEL market was created in January 2004 when Spain and Portugal signed a formal agreement. This new market allows generators in the two countries to sell their electricity on both sides of Spanish-Portuguese border as one single market. OMEL, Spain's energy market regulator and Portugal's equivalent, OMIP, merged in April 2006, creating OMI, a single operator for the MIBEL electricity market, which began in the summer of 2006 with the objective of setting up a mechanism for harmonizing tariffs and of integrating the current management functions of the spot and forward markets.

        The state-owned transmission company, Red Eléctrica de España ("REE") owns 99% of the 400 kilovolt ("kV") grid and 98% of the 220 kV network. REE also operates as system operator and is responsible for technical management of the system and for monitoring transmission. Under the country's energy plan, REE plans to invest in strengthening the mainland grid, connecting new plants and improving interconnection throughout the country. Cartagena has two agreements in place with the REE: one governing the construction of the interconnection and the other specifying the specific terms and conditions of access.

        In September 2002, the Spanish Cabinet approved a 10-year energy plan which focuses on meeting the country's future energy requirements. The plan also reflects reliance on Special Systems which represents energy output from the facilities supplied by renewable energy sources, waste and cogeneration plants, and provides for new renewable tariffs (Royal Decree 661/207) and favorable regulation.

        Turkey.    The wholesale generation and distribution market in Turkey is primarily a bilateral market dominated by state-owned entities. The state-owned Electricity Generation Company ("EUAS") and its subsidiaries comprise approximately 24 GW of generation capacity and represent approximately 48% of the market. Private producers (with public off take) account for another 35%, and auto-producers and other industrial parties, the remaining 17%. The transmission network is owned and controlled by TEIAS, the State Transmission Company. TETAS, the Wholesale Market Pool, sets wholesale price based on average procurement costs from EUAS, auto-producers and Build Own Operate/Build Own Transfer/Transfer of Operating Rights producers. This wholesale price represents the buying price for TEDAS, the State Distribution Company, which controls distribution in 20 out of 21 regions. There is also a balancing spot market, with prices typically 20% higher than TETAS, which is growing and has a capacity of 70 Gigawatt hours ("GWh") of daily trade. The automatic price mechanism which is meant to halt the government subsidization has been approved, and implementation commenced in July 2008. With this mechanism, all major cost items (foreign exchange, gas price increases, inflation, among others) are expected to be reflected in the tariff. As a result, mid term market wholesale prices are expected to converge to the current spot market prices.

        Distribution companies can procure 100% of their needs from TETAS, but can also source up to 15% from other sources. Additionally, eligible customers, using greater than 1.2 GWh annually, can contract through channels other than TEDAS.

41


Table of Contents

        Retail electricity prices are determined by the distribution company or companies and approved by the electricity regulator, EMRA.

        Turkey has introduced a "renewable" feed-in tariff that sets a floor for renewable generation (wind and run of river hydro) for the first 10 years of operation. The floor is between 5.0 - 5.5 € cents per kWh and decreed by EMRA each year. AES's Turkey hydro assets fall under the renewable feed-in tariffs.

        In efforts to move to a fully liberalized market, Turkey began a formal tender process to privatize three of its distribution companies owned by the State Distribution Company in 2006. As of the end of 2008, the distribution companies in four regions (Baskent, Sakarya, Konya and Aras) have been put out to tender and the remaining distribution companies are expected to be privatized in 2009. The Turkish government has also announced plans to privatize all the state-owned generation assets by the 2009-2010 period, except for large hydro plants.

Asia & Middle East

        China:    In 2005, the National Development and Reform Commission ("NDRC") released interim regulations governing on-grid tariffs, along with two other regulations governing transmission and retail tariffs. Pursuant to the interim regulations, the on-grid tariffs shall be appraised and ratified by the pricing authorities by reference to the economic life of power generation projects and determined in accordance with the principle of allowing IPPs to cover reasonable costs and to obtain reasonable returns. Such costs were defined to be the average costs in the industry and reasonable returns will be calculated on the basis of the interest rate of China's long-term Treasury bond plus certain percentage points. In addition to the foregoing tariff setting mechanism, China's central government also issued a tariff adjustment policy allowing the on-grid tariffs to be pegged to the fuel price in the case of significant fluctuations in fuel price. Seventy percent of the increase in fuel costs may be passed through in the tariff. Pursuant to this policy, the tariffs of coal-fired facilities in China were increased in 2005 and 2006, and there were two rounds of tariff increments in 2008 to alleviate the escalation of fuel price; however, such adjustments fell short of compensating all businesses for coal price increases in 2008 in accordance with the above mentioned policy.

        Pursuant to the Renewable Energy Law of China, which came into effective on January 1, 2006, renewable resources such as wind, solar, biomass, geo-thermal, and hydro enjoy unrestricted generation and dispatch, and local grid interconnection is mandated to such plants. With a view to implementing the Renewable Energy Law, on August 2, 2007, various central government agencies jointly issued the Temporary Measures for Dispatching Electricity Generated by Energy Conservation Projects. Under this regulation, power plants are categorized into various groups and each group will, under certain circumstances, enjoy priority dispatch over the subsequent groups. The first group are renewable energy power plants, namely wind, hydro, solar, biomass, tidal-wave, geo-thermal and landfill gas power plants that satisfy certain environmental standards. The second group is nuclear power plants. The third group is power plants using 'modern coal' which includes co-generation power plants, and power plants utilizing residual heat, residual gas, coal-gangue (or waste coal) and coal mine methane. The last three groups are natural gas, conventional coal and oil-fired power plants. In other words, power plants using renewable resources will enjoy priority dispatch over power plants using fossil fuels. This is in line with the requirement that renewable energy power plants will enjoy unrestricted generation and dispatch under the Renewable Energy Law, as well as the Chinese government's policy objective to encourage comprehensive utilization of resources in an energy-efficient and environmental-friendly manner.

        In 2007, the Chinese government also issued a number of rules and procedures that govern the shutdown of small coal or oil-fired power plants. The types of plants to be shutdown include: (i) power plants with a capacity under 50 MW; (ii) power plants with a capacity of up to 100 MW which are over 20 years old; (iii) power plants with a capacity of up to 200 MW whose equipment has reached an end

42


Table of Contents


of its useful life; and (iv) power plants that have coal consumption rates that are higher than either 10% above the applicable provincial average or 15% above the national average. The shutdown procedures have been set in place to ensure that certain smaller power plants are appropriately shutdown and replaced by larger and more efficient power plants. The purpose of such rules and regulations is again in accord with China's policy to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. The Hefei business, in which AES held a 70% interest, was shut down pursuant to this policy. A termination agreement with the offtaker was reached and executed on March 30, 2008 and the Hefei business received a termination payment in the amount of $39 million on March 31, 2008.

        India.    India's power sector is regulated by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission ("CERC") at the national level and respective State Electricity Regulatory Commissions ("SERCs") at the state level. CERC is responsible for regulating interstate generation and central transmission, while intra-state generation, distribution and transmission are regulated by SERCs.

        In 2003, the Government of India enacted the Electricity Act 2003 to establish a framework for a multi-seller-multi-buyer model for the electricity industry and introduced significant changes in India's electricity sector. In accordance with the Electricity Act the Government of India came out with the National Electricity Policy in February 2005 and in January 2006 published the National Tariff Policy. The policies established deadlines to implement different provisions of the Electricity Act. However, the pace of actual implementation of the reform process is contingent on the respective state governments and SERCs, as electricity is a "concurrent" subject in India's constitution.

        Under the Electricity Act, there is no license required to set up generation plants and generators are allowed to sell to state utilities, traders, and open access consumers. The access to consumers is subject to regulatory provisions on transmission corridor availability and payment of cross subsidy surcharge. Under the National Tariff Policy, sales since the end of 2006 from new IPP's to distribution utilities are required to be on a competitive bidding basis. Two power exchanges have received licenses from CERC and have started operations in the past year. However, the volume of power trading on the power exchanges is short term and small, as the bulk of power is still traded through long term bilateral contracts.

        Philippines.    The Philippines have three major island grids—Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Luzon is the largest grid, accounting for 79% and 71% respectively of installed capacity and gross generation. The Luzon and Visayas grids are interconnected through undersea cables. In June 2001, the Philippines Congress issued the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 ("EPIRA"), aiming at liberalizing the electricity sector, and transforming it from a single-buyer model in which National Power Company ("NPC") plays a dominant role in generation, transmission, and distribution, to a competitive market model, in which NPC is privatized and competition is introduced in generation and distribution.

        The Energy Regulatory Commission ("ERC") was created to be the governing body for the restructured power industry and to promote competition, encourage market development, ensure customer choice and penalize abuse of market power. As part of its role, the ERC regulates the rates charged by transmission and distribution companies and as such approves cost recovery of contracts between generators and distribution companies.

        The Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation ("PSALM") was created in July 2001 to manage the sale, disposition and privatization of the NPC generation assets. As of 2008, PSALM has sold 2,771 MW of NPC owned generation assets (including the sale of the 660 MW Masinloc plant to AES), and is in the process of selling an additional 1,213 MW of capacity.

        EPIRA mandates PSALM to select and appoint qualified entities called Independent Power Producer Administrators ("IPPA") to administer and manage the energy output that has been contracted by NPC with IPPs. PSALM has initially appointed three independent trading teams to act as IPPA for these contracts, but it has now initiated the process for the sale of 1,700 MW of contracted capacity.

43


Table of Contents

        The Wholesale Electricity Spot Market ("WESM") started commercial operation in the Luzon grid in June 2006 with the primary objective of establishing a competitive, efficient, transparent, and reliable spot market for electricity. The market is organized around both bilateral contracts and a mandatory pool and spot market with the spot market consisting of an hour ahead market (ex-ante) and a real-time (ex-post) market. Each generating unit submits hourly bids. The dispatch is arranged by the lowest to highest bid price and the spot price is set by the marginal price of the last dispatched unit following the merit order.

Environmental and Land Use Regulations

        Overview.    The Company is subject to various international, national, state and local environmental and land use laws and regulations. These laws and regulations primarily relate to discharges into the air and air quality, discharge of effluents into water and the use of water, waste disposal, remediation, noise pollution, contamination at current or former facilities or waste disposal sites, wetlands preservation and endangered species. Many of the countries in which the Company does business also have laws and regulations relating to the siting, construction, permitting, ownership, operation, modification, repair and decommissioning of, and power sales from, such assets. In addition, international projects funded by the International Finance Corporation, the private sector lending arm of the World Bank are subject to World Bank environmental standards, which tend to be more stringent than local country standards. The Company often has used advanced environmental technologies (such as circulating fluidized bed ("CFB") coal technologies or advanced gas turbines) in order to minimize environmental impacts.

        Environmental laws and regulations affecting electric power generation facilities are complex, change frequently and have become more stringent over time. The Company has incurred and will continue to incur capital costs and other expenditures to comply with environmental laws and regulations. See Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Capital Expenditures in this Form 10-K for more detail. If these regulations change or the enforcement of these regulations becomes more rigorous, the Company and its subsidiaries may be required to make significant capital or other expenditures to comply. There can be no assurance that the businesses operated by the subsidiaries of the Company would be able to recover any of these compliance costs from their counterparties or customers such that the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows would not be materially adversely affected.

        Various licenses, permits and approvals are required for our operations. Failure to comply with permits or approvals, or with environmental laws, can result in fines, penalties, capital expenditures, interruptions or changes to our operations. While the Company has at times been out of compliance with environmental laws and regulations, past non-compliance has not resulted in the revocation of material permits or licenses and has not had a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations and we have expeditiously corrected the non-compliance as required. See Item 3—Legal Proceedings in this Form 10-K for more detail with respect to environmental disclosure.

        Greenhouse Gas Laws, Protocols and Regulations.    In 2008, the Company's subsidiaries operated electric power generation businesses which had total approximate direct CO2 emissions of 83.8 million metric tonnes (ownership adjusted). Approximately 41.5 million metric tonnes of the 83.8 million metric tonnes were emitted in the United States (both figures ownership adjusted). The following is an overview of both the regulations that currently apply to our businesses and those that may be imposed over the next few years. Such regulations could have a material adverse effect on the electric power generation businesses of the Company's subsidiaries and on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, while the Company through its climate solutions initiatives is developing and implementing projects to produce GHG offsets for use by the Company and/or for sale, as set forth in the Risk Factor entitled " Our renewable energy projects and

44


Table of Contents


other initiatives face considerable uncertainties including development, operational and regulatory challenges", there is no guarantee that these projects will be successful, especially in light of the global financial crisis and the Company's increased focus on preserving liquidity, which will likely result in slower growth for these activities. Further, even if our GHG offsets projects are successful, the level of potential benefit is unclear given current uncertainties regarding legislation and/or litigation concerning GHG emissions.

International

        In July 2003, the European Community "Directive 2003/87/EC on Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading" was created, which requires member states to limit emissions of CO2 from large industrial sources within their countries. To do so, member states are required to implement EC-approved national allocation plans ("NAPs"). Under the NAPs, member states are responsible for allocating limited CO2 allowances within their borders. Directive 2003/87/EC does not dictate how these allocations are to be made, and NAPs that have been submitted thus far have varied their allocation methodologies. For these and other reasons, uncertainty remains with respect to the implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading System ("EU ETS") that commenced in January 2005. The European Union has announced that it intends to keep the EU ETS in place after 2012, even if the Kyoto Protocol is not extended. The Company's subsidiaries operate seven electric power generation facilities, and another subsidiary has one under construction, within six member states which have adopted NAPs to implement Directive 2003/87/EC. Based on its current analyses, the Company does not expect that achieving and maintaining compliance with the NAPs to which its subsidiaries are subject will have a material impact on its consolidated operations or results. In particular, the risk and benefit associated with achieving compliance with applicable NAPs at several facilities of the Company's subsidiaries are not the responsibility of the Company's subsidiaries as they are subject to contractual provisions that transfer the costs associated with compliance to contract counterparties. However, in the event that such counterparties challenge or dispute these provisions, there can be no assurance that the Company and/or the relevant subsidiary would prevail in any such dispute. Furthermore, even if the Company and/or the relevant subsidiary does prevail, it would be subject to the cash and administrative burden associated with such dispute. Certain Company subsidiaries will, however, bear some or all of the risk and benefit associated with compliance with applicable NAPs at certain facilities. Based upon anticipated operations, CO2 emission allowance allocations, and the costs to acquire offsets and emission allowances for compliance purposes, the Company's subsidiaries have not to date incurred material costs to comply with Directive 2003/87/EC and applicable NAPs, however, there can be no guarantees that compliance will not have a material adverse effect on our business in future periods.

        On February 16, 2005, the Kyoto Protocol became effective. The Kyoto Protocol requires the industrialized countries that have ratified it to significantly reduce their GHG emissions, including CO2. The vast majority of developing countries which have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have no GHG reduction requirements. Many of the countries in which the Company's subsidiaries operate have no reduction obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, of the 29 countries that the Company's subsidiaries currently operate in, all but two—the United States (including Puerto Rico) and Kazakhstan—have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. While we have developed and are implementing certain climate solutions projects under the Clean Development and Joint Implementation Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, there is no guarantee that we will be successful in developing these. To date, compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and EU ETS has not had a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In December 2008, a United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Poznan, Poland. Over 180 countries sent representatives and a majority agreed to continue to negotiate further reductions in GHG emissions for the period beginning after 2012 when Kyoto Protocol expires. At present, the Company cannot predict

45


Table of Contents


whether compliance with the Kyoto Protocol or any agreements reached at the Climate Change Conference will have a material impact on the Company in future periods.

        Even though it has been announced that the EU ETS will remain in place even if the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012, there remains significant uncertainty with respect to the implementation of NAPs post-2012. The EU has indicated that a portion of the emission allowances given to member states will need to be auctioned under the NAPs and the Company cannot predict with any certainty if compliance with such programs will have a material adverse effect on its consolidated operations or results.

        Countries in Latin America and Asia in which subsidiaries of the Company operate may also choose to adopt regulations that directly or indirectly regulate GHG emissions from coal plants. For example, in April 2008 a Chilean law, was enacted that requires a percentage of all new power purchase contracts held after August 31, 2007 be supplied by renewable sources. The Company's subsidiary has developed a plan for complying with the law. See Regulatory Matters—Latin America—Chile. Another example is in China. One of the ways that China has chosen to address its stated goals of energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction is by putting regulations and procedures in place that govern the shut down of certain small coal and oil-fired power plants and encourage replacement with larger more efficient power plants. The Hefei project, formerly operated by subsidiaries of the Company in China, was shut down pursuant to these regulations. A termination agreement with the Hefei offtaker was executed on March 30, 2008 and a subsidiary of the Company received a termination payment in the amount of $39 million on March 31, 2008. The Company does not currently anticipate that implementation of such regulations would have a material adverse affect on the Company's consolidated financial condition or results of operations. See Regulatory Matters—Asia & Middle East—China. Although the Company does not currently believe that CO2 laws and regulations that have been adopted to date in countries in Latin America and Asia in which subsidiaries of the Company operate will have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial condition or results of operations, the Company cannot predict with any certainty if future laws and regulations in these countries regarding CO2 emissions will have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial condition or results of operations.

United States

        Currently in the United States there are no Federal mandatory GHG emissions reduction programs (including CO2) affecting the electric power generation facilities of the Company's subsidiaries. The U.S. Congress is debating a number of proposed GHG legislative initiatives, but to date there have been no new federal laws regulating GHG emissions. Although several bills have been introduced in the U.S. Congress that would require reductions in CO2 emissions, the Company is not able to predict whether any federal mandatory CO2 emissions reduction program will be adopted and implemented in the immediate future. The new administration has, however, requested the development of new federal proposals by Congress and the U.S. EPA that could lead to the adoption of a mandatory program to reduce GHG emissions through, for example, an economy-wide cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax or a combination of both. The Company will continue to monitor new developments with respect to the possible federal regulation of CO2 emissions from electricity power generation facilities.

        On April 2, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in a case involving the regulation of CO2 emissions from motor vehicles under the U.S. Clean Air Act ("CAA"). The Court ruled that CO2 is a pollutant which potentially could be subject to regulation under the CAA and that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the "U.S. EPA") has a duty to determine whether CO2 emissions contribute to climate change or to provide some reasonable explanation why it will not exercise its authority. In response to the Court's decision, on July 11, 2008, the U.S. EPA issued an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking ("ANPR") to solicit public input on whether CO2 emissions should be

46


Table of Contents


regulated from both mobile and stationary sources under the CAA. The U.S. EPA has not yet made any such determination. However, the Court's decision and stimulus from the new administration, regulators, members of Congress, states, non-governmental organizations, private parties and the courts and other factors could lead to a determination by the U.S. EPA to regulate CO2 emissions from mobile and stationary sources, including electric power generation facilities. The Company will continue to monitor developments with respect to the regulation of CO2 emissions under the CAA.

        Ten northeastern states have entered into a memorandum of understanding under which the states coordinate to establish rules that require reductions in CO2 emissions from power plant operations within those states. This initiative is called the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative ("RGGI"). A number of these states in which our subsidiaries have generating facilities, including Connecticut, Maryland, New York and New Jersey, have implemented rules to effectuate RGGI. RGGI, which became effective January 1, 2009, imposes a cap on baseline CO2 emissions during the 2009 through 2014 period, and mandates a ten percent reduction in CO2 emissions during the 2015 to 2019 period. RGGI establishes a cap-and-trade program whereby power plants will require a carbon allowance for each ton of CO2. Unlike the previously implemented federal sulfur dioxide ("SO2") and NOX cap-and-trade emissions programs, RGGI requires that CO2 emitters acquire CO2 allowances either from a RGGI auction or in the secondary emissions trading market, except for several small set-aside accounts for long term contracted plants and voluntary renewable energy. The auction rules include a minimum reserve price of $1.86 per allowance. This reserve price is subject to change. In addition, the auction platform and auction results are subject to review by an independent market monitoring firm. The first such auction occurred on September 25, 2008 and the clearing price per allowance was $3.07. The second such auction occurred on December 17, 2008 and the clearing price per allowance was $3.38. The third such auction is scheduled for March 18, 2009.

        The Company's Eastern Energy business is located in New York. Under the New York RGGI rule, each budgeted source of CO2 emissions is required to surrender one CO2 allowance for each CO2 metric tonne emitted during a three-year compliance period. All fossil fuel powered generating facilities in New York that have a generating capacity of 25 or more MW are subject to the rule. In January 2009, Indeck Energy brought a legal challenge to the regulations adopted by three New York State agencies to implement RGGI. The Company will closely monitor developments with respect to this litigation.

        The Company's Thames business is located in Connecticut. The State of Connecticut passed legislation, effective July 1, 2007, which requires that the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection develop necessary regulations to implement RGGI. The regulations adopted to implement RGGI include an auction of CO2 emission allowances except for several set-aside accounts. AES Thames is eligible for a set-aside for the first compliance period, 2009-2011, which allows CO2 allowances to be purchased at $2 per allowance in 2009, and $2 per allowance plus a consumer price indexing in years 2010 and 2011. Eligibility for the second compliance period, 2012-2014, is still to be determined.

        The Company's Warrior Run business is located in Maryland. In April 2006, the Maryland General Assembly passed the Maryland Healthy Air Act which, among other thing things, required the State of Maryland to join RGGI. The Maryland Department of Environment ("MDE") adopted regulations that require 100% of the allowances the State receives to be auctioned except for several small allowance set-aside accounts. The Maryland MDE regulations include a safety valve to control the economic impact of the CO2 cap-and-trade program. If the auction closing price reaches $7, up to 50% of a year's allowances will be reserved for purchase by electric power generation facilities located within Maryland at $7 per allowance, regardless of auction prices.

        The Company's Red Oak business is located in New Jersey. The State of New Jersey adopted the Global Warming Response Act in July 2007 which established goals for the reduction of GHG emissions in the State. In furtherance of these goals, in January 2008, additional state legislation

47


Table of Contents


authorized the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection ("NJDEP") to develop and adopt RGGI regulations and the NJDEP RGGI regulations became effective in 2008. The regulations adopted to implement RGGI include an auction of CO2 emission allowances with procedures for the fixed-price sale of allowances to facilities with long-term power purchase contracts, directs allocation of allowances to cogeneration facilities meeting specified thermal efficiency criteria, and includes a CO2 allowance set-aside designed to support the voluntary renewable energy market.

        In 2008, of the approximately 41.5 million metric tons of CO2 emitted in the United States by the businesses operated by our subsidiaries (ownership adjusted), approximately 11.8 million metric tonnes were emitted in U.S. states participating in RGGI. We believe that due to the absence of allowance allocations, RGGI could have a material adverse impact on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. While CO2 emissions from businesses operated by subsidiaries of the Company are calculated globally in metric tonnes, RGGI allowances are denominated in short tons. (1 metric tonne equals 2,200 pounds and 1 short ton equals 2,000 pounds.) For forecasting purposes, the Company has modeled the impact of CO2 compliance for 2009-2011 for its businesses that are subject to RGGI and that may not be able to pass through compliance costs. The model includes a conversion from metric tonnes to short tons as well as the impact of some market recovery by merchant plants and contractual and regulatory provisions. The model also utilizes an allowance price of $3.38 per allowance under RGGI. The source of this per tonne allowance estimate was the clearing price in the second RGGI allowance auction held in December 2008. Based on these assumptions, the Company estimates that the RGGI compliance costs could be approximately $29.1 million per year from 2009 through 2011, which is the last year of the first RGGI compliance period. Given all of the uncertainties surrounding RGGI, including the challenge to New York State's RGGI program and those discussed in the "Business—Regulatory Matters—Environmental and Land Use Regulations" section of this Form 10-K, and the fact that the assumptions utilized in the model may prove to be incorrect, there is a significant risk that our actual compliance costs under RGGI will differ from our estimates by a material amount and that our model could underestimate our costs of compliance.

        The Company's Southland and Placerita businesses are located in California. On September 27, 2006, the Governor of California signed the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, also called Assembly Bill 32 ("A.B. 32"). A.B. 32 directs the California Air Resources Board to promulgate regulations that will require the reduction of CO2 and other GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. On December 11, 2008, the California Air Resources Board unanimously adopted the Scoping Plan that outlines how the reductions in AB 32 will be met. The Scoping Plan follows closely the recommendations put forth by the California Public Utilities Commission and the California Energy Commission on February 8, 2008, including the first jurisdictional deliverer being the point of regulation for AB 32. A key component of the Scoping Plan is a cap-and-trade market that will be developed in coordination with the Western Climate Initiative as detailed below. In addition, other key recommendations include increasing energy efficiency and increasing the renewable portfolio goals to 33%. This program is expected to become effective in 2012.

        In February 2007, the governors of the Western U.S. states (Arizona, New Mexico, California, Washington and Oregon) established the Western Climate Initiative ("WCI"). The WCI has since been joined by two other states (Montana and Utah) and four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec). Participating states and provinces have agreed to cut GHG emissions to 15% below 2005 levels by 2020 and they are considering the implementation of a cap-and-trade program for the electricity industry to achieve this reduction. On September 23, 2008, the WCI issued its design recommendations for a cap-and-trade program which would apply to in-state electricity generators and the first jurisdictional deliverer of electricity into a WCI partner state. The final regulatory design of this program is not yet known.

48


Table of Contents

        The Company owns IPL which is located in Indiana. On November 15, 2007, six Midwestern state governors (including the governor of Indiana) and the premier of Manitoba signed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord ("MGGRA") committing the participating states and province to reduce GHG emissions through the implementation of a cap-and-trade program. Three states (including Indiana) and the province of Ontario have signed as observers.

        The Company owns a power generation facility in Hawaii. On June 30, 2007, the governor of Hawaii signed GHG legislation. By December 1, 2009, Hawaii's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Task Force will deliver to the legislature a work plan and regulatory scheme designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by 2020.

        At this time, other then the estimated impact of CO2 compliance noted above for certain of its businesses that are subject to RGGI, the Company has not estimated the costs of compliance with other potential U.S. federal, state or regional CO2 emissions reductions legislation or initiatives, such as A.B. 32, WCI, MGGRA and potential Hawaii regulations, due to the fact that these proposals are in earlier stages of development and any final regulations, if adopted, could vary drastically from current proposals. Although complete specific implementation measures for any federal regulations, A.B. 32, WCI, MGGRA and the Hawaiian regulations have yet to be finalized, these GHG-related initiatives will likely affect a number of the Company's U.S. subsidiaries. Any federal, state or regional legislation or regulations adopted in the U.S. that would require the reduction of GHG emissions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

        The possible impact of any future federal legislation or regulations or any regional or state proposal will depend on various factors, including but not limited to:

    the geographic scope of legislation and/or regulation (e.g., federal, regional, state), which entities are subject to the legislation and/or regulation (e.g., electricity generators, load serving entities, electricity deliverers, etc.), the enactment date of the legislation and/or regulation and the compliance deadlines set forth therein;

    the level of reductions of CO2 being sought by the regulation and/or legislation (e.g., 10%, 20%, 50%, etc.) and the year selected as a baseline for determining the amount or percentage of mandated CO2 reduction (e.g., 10% reduction from 1990 CO2 emission levels, 20% reduction from 2000 CO2 emission levels, etc.);

    the legislative structure (e.g., a CO2 cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, CO2 emission limits, etc.);

    in any cap-and-trade program, the mechanism used to determine the price of emission allowances or offsets to be auctioned by designated governmental authorities or representatives;

    the price of offsets and emission allowances in the secondary market, including any price floors on the costs of offsets and emission allowances and price caps on the cost of offsets and emission allowances;

    the operation of and emissions from regulated units;

    the permissibility of using offsets to meet reduction requirements (e.g., type of offset projects allowed, the amount of offsets that can be used for compliance purposes, any geographic limitations regarding the origin or location of creditable offset projects) and the methods required to determine whether the offsets have resulted in reductions in GHG emissions and that those reductions are permanent (i.e., the verification method);

49


Table of Contents

    whether the use of proceeds of any auction conducted by responsible governmental authorities is reinvested in developing new energy technologies, is used to offset any cost impact on certain energy consumers or is used to address issues unrelated to power;

    how the price of electricity is determined at the affected businesses, including whether the price includes any costs resulting from any new CO2 legislation and the potential to transfer compliance costs pursuant to legislation, market or contract, to other parties;

    any impact on fuel demand and volatility that may affect the market clearing price for power;

    the effects of any legislation or regulation on the operation of power generation facilities that may in turn affect reliability;

    the availability and cost of carbon control technology; and

    any opportunities to change the use of fuel at the generation facilities of our subsidiaries or opportunities to increase efficiency.

NY Consent Decree

        In 2005, the Company entered into a Consent Decree (the "2005 Consent Decree") with the State of New York, and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation ("NYSEG") which resolves violations of CAA requirements alleged to have occurred at the Greenridge, Westover, Jennison and Hickling plants prior to the Company's acquisition of such plants. Under the terms of the 2005 Consent Decree, the Company is required to undertake projects to reduce emissions of air pollutants ("Upgrade Projects") or to cease operations of electric generating units at the plants. The Company completed an Upgrade Project at Greenridge in 2006 and a similar project at Westover in 2008 and has ceased operations of the electric generating units at Hickling and Jennison. In accordance with the 2005 Consent Decree, the Company is required to provide notifications to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation ("NYSDEC") regarding the status of the Upgrade Projects and upon completion to propose new final emissions limits for NYSDEC's approval. The Company has received NYSDEC approval for proposed final emissions limits applicable to AES Greenridge and will submit proposals for new final emission limits to NYSDEC for approval after the Upgrade Project at Westover completes commercialization testing and final ratification in 2009.

        Other Air Emission Regulations.    The CAA and various state laws and regulations regulate emissions of air pollutants, including SO2, NOx and particulate matter ("PM"). The applicable rules and the steps taken by the Company to comply are discussed in further detail below.

        Regarding NOx emissions, the U.S. EPA has required adjustments to state implementation plans (the "NOx SIP Call") so that coal-fired electric generating facilities in 21 U.S. states and the District of Columbia had to either (i) reduce their NOx emissions to levels equal to allowances under the plan or (ii) purchase NOx emissions allowances from other operators to meet actual emissions levels by May 31, 2004.

        Subsequently, the U.S. EPA finalized two rules that are relevant to our U.S. coal-fired power plants. The first rule, the "Clean Air Interstate Rule" ("CAIR"), was promulgated by the EPA on March 10, 2005, and required allowance surrender for SO2 and NOx emissions from existing power plants located in 28 eastern states and the District of Columbia. CAIR contemplated two implementation phases. The first phase was to begin in 2009 and 2010 for NOx and SO2, respectively. A second phase with additional allowance surrender obligations for both air emissions was to begin in 2015. To implement the required emission reductions for this rule, the states were to establish emission allowance-based "cap-and-trade" programs. CAIR was subsequently challenged in federal court and on July 11, 2008, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit issued an opinion striking down CAIR. On September 19, 2008, EPA filed a petition for rehearing and rehearing en banc. On October 21,

50


Table of Contents


2008, the Court issued an order requesting that certain petitioners, including AES Beaver Valley and AES Warrior Run, file a response to EPA's petition by November 5, 2008, indicating whether any such petitioners were seeking a vacatur of CAIR and whether the Court should stay its mandate until EPA promulgates a revised rule. As of December 31, 2008, the Company had assets of approximately $11.6 million related to these SO2 and NOx emission allowance programs. On December 23, 2008, the Court issued an opinion and order denying petitions for rehearing and, rather than vacating CAIR as originally ordered, remanding the ease to EPA without vacatur to enable EPA to remedy CAIR's flaws in accordance with the Court's July opinion. While the Court did not impose a timeline on EPA, the Court did indicate that the stay was not intended to be indefinite.

        The second rule, the Clean Air Mercury Rule ("CAMR"), was promulgated on March 15, 2006 and as proposed required reductions of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in two phases. The first phase was to begin in 2010 and require nationwide reduction of coal-fired power plant mercury emissions from 48 to 38 tons per year. The second phase was to begin in 2018 and require nationwide reduction of mercury emissions from these sources from 38 tons per year to 15 tons per year. CAMR also established stringent mercury emission performance standards for new coal-fired power plants. However, on February 8, 2008, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that CAMR as promulgated violated the CAA and vacated the rule. U.S. EPA and an industry trade association subsequently appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court. On February 3, 2009, an amendment to the CAA was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives that would require the EPA to promulgate mercury emission standards for electric generating units. The EPA would have one year from the date the amendment is enacted to set maximum achievable control technology standards for electric generating units pursuant to Section 112 of the CAA. The amendment is designed to prevent EPA from regulating mercury emissions through a cap-and-trade program. When the D.C. Circuit vacated CAMR in February 2008, the court did not rule on whether such programs violate the CAA. On February 6, 2009, the Acting Solicitor General of the United States filed a motion in the U.S. Supreme Court to dismiss the EPA's request for review of the D.C. Circuit's February 2008 decision which vacated CAMR. According to the motion to dismiss, EPA intends to develop maximum achievable control technology standards for electric generating units pursuant to Section 112 of the CAA. The industry trade association's appeal is still pending and the U.S. Supreme Court has not yet decided whether to hear the appeal.

        Also, a number of states have indicated that they intend to impose more stringent emission limitations on power plants within their states rather than promulgate rules consistent with the originally contemplated CAIR and CAMR cap-and-trade programs. In response to CAIR, CAMR and potentially more stringent U.S. state initiatives on SO2 and NOx emissions, subsidiaries of the Company completed installing selective catalytic reduction ("SCR") and other NOx control technologies at three coal-fired units of our subsidiary, IPL. Subsidiaries of the Company also completed a multi-pollutant control project at its Greenridge power plant in the state of New York. In addition, Westover construction of a similar project at its power plant in New York in 2008. The Westover project is expected to complete commercialization testing and final notification in 2009. In addition, a flue gas desulphurization scrubber upgrade project was completed at the IPL Petersburg power plant, and construction of an SCR system at our Deepwater petroleum coke-fired power plant near Houston, Texas was completed in March 2007.

        While the exact impact and cost of CAIR, any new federal mercury rules and any related state proposals cannot be established until, in the case of CAIR, the states complete the process of assigning emission allowances to our affected facilities, and in the case of the other rules, until they are promulgated, there can be no assurance that the Company's business, financial conditions or results of operations would not be materially and adversely affected by such rules.

51


Table of Contents

        NYSDEC previously promulgated regulations requiring electric generators to reduce SO2 emissions by 50% below current CAA standards. The SO2 regulations began to be phased in beginning on January 1, 2006 with implementation to have been completed by January 1, 2008. These regulations also establish stringent NOx reduction requirements year-round, rather than just during the summertime ozone season.

        In July 1999, the U.S. EPA published the "Regional Haze Rule" to reduce haze and protect visibility in designated federal areas. On June 15, 2005, U.S. EPA proposed amendments to the Regional Haze Rule that, among other things, set guidelines for determining when to require the installation of "best available retrofit technology" ("BART") at older plants. The amendment to the Regional Haze Rule required states to consider the visibility impacts of the haze produced by an individual facility, in addition to other factors, when determining whether that facility must install potentially costly emissions controls. The Regional Haze Rule was further amended on October 6, 2006 when U.S. EPA promulgated a rule allowing states to impose alternatives to BART, including emissions trading, if such alternatives were demonstrated to be more effective than BART. States were required to submit their regional haze state implementation plans to the U.S. EPA by December 2007.

        In Europe the Company is, and will continue to be, required to reduce air emissions from our facilities to comply with applicable EC Directives, including Directive 2001/80/EC on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants (the "LCPD"), which sets emission limit values for NOx, SO2, and particulate matter for large-scale industrial combustion plants for all member states. Until June 2004, existing coal plants could "opt-in" or "opt-out" of the LCPD emissions standards. Those plants that opted out will be required to cease all operations by 2015 and may not operate for more than 20,000 hours after 2008. Those that opted-in, like the Company's AES Kilroot facility in the United Kingdom, must invest in abatement technology to achieve specific SO2 reductions. Kilroot is installing a new flue gas desulphurization system that is scheduled for commission in the first quarter of 2009. The Company's other coal plants in Europe are either exempt from the Directive due to their size or have opted-in but will not require any additional abatement technology to comply with the LCPD.

        Water Discharges.    The Company's facilities are subject to a variety of rules governing water discharges. In particular the Company is evaluating the impact of the U.S. Clean Water Act Section 316(b) rule regarding existing power plant cooling water intake structures issued by the U.S. EPA in 2005 (69 Fed. Reg. 41579, July 9, 2004) and the subsequent Circuit Court of Appeals decision which vacated significant portions of the rule (Docket Nos. 04-6692 to 04-6699). The rule as originally issued would affect 12 of the Company's U.S. power plants and the rule's requirements would be implemented via each plant's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") water quality permit renewal process. These permits are usually processed by state water quality agencies. To protect fish and other aquatic organisms, the 2004 rule requires existing steam electric generating facilities to utilize the best technology available for cooling water intake structures. To comply, a steam electric generating facility must first prepare a Comprehensive Demonstration Study to assess the facility's effect on the local aquatic environment. Since each facility's design, location, existing control equipment and results of impact assessments must be taken into consideration, costs will likely vary. The timing of capital expenditures to achieve compliance with this rule will vary from site to site. On January 25, 2007 the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit decision (Docket Nos. 04-6692 to 04-6699) vacated and remanded major parts of the 2005 rule back to U.S. EPA. In November 2007, three industry petitioners sought review of the Second Circuit's decision by the U.S. Supreme Court and this review was granted by the U.S. Supreme Court in April 2008. Oral arguments were held in December 2008 and a decision by the U.S. Supreme Court is expected in 2009. The Second Circuit's decision, coupled with the appeal pending before the Supreme Court may result in further delays in implementing the rule at those affected facilities located in states which have either not been delegated authority to implement Section 316(b) of the U.S. Clean Water Act or are awaiting more specific direction from the U.S. EPA before proceeding. The U.S. EPA is currently drafting a new

52


Table of Contents


rule to address the Second Circuit's decision and while a draft of the new rule is expected to be issued later this year, it is possible that the U.S. EPA could delay the issuance of the draft rule pending a decision by the U.S. Supreme Court. Certain states in which the Company operates power generation facilities, such as New York, have been delegated authority and are moving forward with best technology available determinations in the absence of any final rule from U.S. EPA. At present, the Company cannot predict whether compliance with the anticipated new 316(b) rule will have a material impact on our operations or results.

        Waste Management.    In the course of operations, the Company's facilities generate solid and liquid waste materials requiring eventual disposal. With the exception of coal combustion products ("CCP"), its wastes are not usually physically disposed of on our property, but are shipped off site for final disposal, treatment or recycling. CCP, which consists of bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control wastes, is disposed of at some of our coal-fired power generation plant sites using engineered, permitted landfills. Waste materials generated at our electric power and distribution facilities include CCP, oil, scrap metal, rubbish, small quantities of industrial hazardous wastes such as spent solvents, tree and land clearing wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl ("PCB") contaminated liquids and solids. The Company endeavors to ensure that all its solid and liquid wastes are disposed of in accordance with applicable national, regional, state and local regulations.


Subsequent Events

        On December 23, 2008, in a transaction associated with the sale in November 2008 of 9.55% of the Company's shares in AES Gener, as further discussed in Item 8—Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 17—Subsidiary Stock, the local Chilean SEC approved Gener's share issuance of approximately 945 million shares at a price of $162.50 Chilean Pesos. The proceeds of the share issuance were $246 million and Gener anticipates using these proceeds for future expansion plans, working capital and other operating needs. The preemptive rights period began on January 7, 2009 remained open for 30 days and closed on February 5, 2009. During the preemptive rights period AES, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Cachagua, paid $175 million from the proceeds of the November 2008 share sale to maintain its current ownership percentage of approximately 70%.

        On February 9, 2009, the government of the Dominican Republic, the government-owned power companies and the power companies sector ("generation companies"), signed two Memorandums of Understanding (each an "MOU"). The first MOU provides for the settlement of outstanding 2008 accounts receivables ("2008 A/R") held by the generation companies from distribution companies through the payment of government-issued bonds of which the Company's three generation businesses have been allocated $110 million. This MOU also states that the bonds can be used to offset fiscal taxes, but that element will need to be approved by the National Congress of the Dominican Republic during their first legislative session of 2009. The second MOU acknowledges that the bond payment does not fully satisfy the outstanding 2008 A/R balance. The residual amount outstanding after the bond payment will be fully settled by the distribution companies, within a timeframe to be negotiated in the near future.

        It is AES' intention to accept these bonds as settlement for approximately $110 million of outstanding 2008 A/R, under the assumption that the bonds will have the ability to offset fiscal taxes. The Company's businesses will have approximately $58 million of 2008 A/R outstanding after the bond payment that will be subject to the terms of the second MOU. The intention of the distribution companies is to pay approximately $35 million of these receivables in 2009. Therefore, AES has appropriately reclassified $23 million to long-term receivables on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K as of December 31, 2008.

53


Table of Contents


ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

        You should consider carefully the following risks, along with the other information contained in or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. Additional risks and uncertainties also may adversely affect our business and operations including those discussed in Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of the following events actually occur, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Associated with our Disclosure Controls and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We recently completed the remediation of our material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting. However, our disclosure controls and procedures may not be effective in future periods if our judgments prove incorrect or new material weaknesses are identified.

        For each of the fiscal quarters since December 31, 2004 through September 30, 2008, our management reported material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency (within the meaning of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board ("PCAOB") Auditing Standard No. 5), or a combination of deficiencies, that adversely affects a company's ability to initiate, authorize, record, process, or report external financial data reliably in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected. As a result of these material weaknesses, our management concluded that for each of the fiscal quarters since December 31, 2004 through September 30, 2008, we did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective to provide reasonable assurance that financial information that we are required to disclose in our reports under the Exchange Act was recorded, processed, summarized and reported accurately.

        To address these material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, each time we prepared our annual and quarterly reports we performed additional analyses and other post-closing procedures. These additional procedures were costly, time consuming and required us to dedicate a significant amount of our resources, including the time and attention of our senior management, toward the correction of these problems. Nevertheless, even with these additional procedures, the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting caused us to have errors in our financial statements and since 2003 we had to restate our annual financial statements six times to correct these errors.

        The material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting also caused us to delay the filing of certain quarterly and annual reports with the SEC to dates that went beyond the deadline prescribed by the SEC's rules to file such reports. Under SEC rules, failure to timely file these reports prohibited us for a period of twelve months from offering and selling our securities pursuant to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3, which impaired our ability to access the capital markets through the public sale of registered securities in a timely manner. The failure to file our annual and quarterly reports with the SEC in a timely fashion also resulted in covenant defaults under our senior secured credit facility and the indenture governing certain of our outstanding debt securities. Such defaults required us to obtain a waiver from the lenders under the senior secured credit facility; however the default under the indentures was cured upon the filing of the reports within the permitted grace period. In addition to these problems, the material weaknesses in internal controls, the restatements of our financial statements and the delay in the filing of our annual and quarterly reports exposed us to other risks including, but not limited to:

    litigation or an expansion of the SEC's informal inquiry into our restatements or the commencement of formal proceedings by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require us to incur significant legal expenses and other costs or to pay damages, fines or other penalties;

54


Table of Contents

    negative publicity;

    ratings downgrades; or

    the loss or impairment of investor confidence in the Company.

        As of December 31, 2008, our management has reported in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that for the first time in four years all of our previously identified material weaknesses had been remediated and that our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls were effective. For a discussion of our completed remediation efforts and management assessment of our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls, see Item 9A–Controls and Procedures in this Form 10-K. In making their assessment about the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures, management had to make certain judgments and it is possible that any number of their judgments were wrong and that our remediation efforts did not fully and completely cure the previously identified material weaknesses. There is also the possibility that there are other material weaknesses in our internal control that are unknown to us or that new material weaknesses may develop in the future. The existence of any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting would subject us to all of the risks described above.

        Furthermore, any evaluation of the effectiveness of controls is subject to risks that those internal controls may become inadequate in future periods because of changes in business conditions, changes in accounting practice or policy, or that the degree of compliance with the revised policies or procedures deteriorates over time. Management, including our CEO and CFO, does not expect that our internal controls will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs.

Our identification of material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting caused us to miss deadlines for certain SEC filings and if further filing delays occur, they could result in negative attention and/or legal consequences for the Company.

        Our identification of the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting caused us to delay the filing of certain quarterly and annual reports with the SEC to dates that went beyond the deadline prescribed by the SEC's rules to file such reports.

        We did not timely file with the SEC our quarterly and annual reports for the year ended December 31, 2005, our quarterly reports for the second and third quarters of 2006, our annual report for the year ended December 31, 2006, and our quarterly report for the quarter ended March 31, 2007. Under SEC rules, failure to timely file these reports prohibited us for a twelve month period from offering and selling our securities pursuant to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3, which impaired our ability to access the capital markets through the public sale of registered securities in a timely manner.

        The failure to file our annual and quarterly reports with the SEC in a timely fashion also resulted in covenant defaults under our senior secured credit facility and the indenture governing certain of our outstanding debt securities. Such defaults required us to obtain a waiver from the lenders under the senior secured credit facility; however the default under the indentures was cured upon the filing of the reports within the permitted grace period.

        If we identify new material weaknesses, there will continue to be an increased risk that we will be unable to timely file future periodic reports with the SEC and that a related default under our senior secured credit facility and indentures could occur. In addition, the material weaknesses in internal controls, the restatements of our financial statements, and the delay in the filing of our annual and

55


Table of Contents


quarterly reports and any similar problems in the future could have other adverse effects on our business, including, but not limited to:

    impairing our ability to access the capital markets, including, but not limited to the inability to offer and sell securities pursuant to a shelf registration statement on Form S-3;

    litigation or an expansion of the SEC's informal inquiry into our restatements or the commencement of formal proceedings by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require us to incur significant legal expenses and other costs or to pay damages, fines or other penalties;

    additional covenant defaults, and potential events of default, under our senior secured credit facility and the indentures governing our outstanding debt securities, resulting from our failure to timely file our financial statements;

    negative publicity;

    ratings downgrades; or

    the loss or impairment of investor confidence in the Company.

Risks Related to our High Level of Indebtedness

We have a significant amount of debt, a large percentage of which is secured, which could adversely affect our business and the ability to fulfill our obligations.

        As of December 31, 2008, we had approximately $18.1 billion of outstanding indebtedness on a consolidated basis. All outstanding borrowings under The AES Corporation's senior secured credit facility, our Second Priority Senior Secured Notes and certain other indebtedness are secured by certain of our assets, including the pledge of capital stock of many of The AES Corporation's directly-held subsidiaries. Most of the debt of The AES Corporation's subsidiaries is secured by substantially all of the assets of those subsidiaries. Since we have such a high level of debt, a substantial portion of cash flow from operations must be used to make payments on this debt. Furthermore, since a significant percentage of our assets are used to secure this debt, this reduces the amount of collateral that is available for future secured debt or credit support and reduces our flexibility in dealing with these secured assets. This high level of indebtedness and related security could have other important consequences to us and our investors, including:

    making it more difficult to satisfy debt service and other obligations;

    increasing the likelihood of a downgrade of our debt, which can cause future debt payments to increase and consume an even greater portion of cash flow;

    increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

    reducing the availability of cash flow to fund other corporate purposes and grow our business;

    limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry;

    placing us at a competitive disadvantage to our competitors that are not as highly leveraged; and

    limiting, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants relating to such indebtedness, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds as needed or take advantage of business opportunities as they arise, pay cash dividends or repurchase common stock.

        The agreements governing our indebtedness, including the indebtedness of our subsidiaries, limit, but do not prohibit, the incurrence of additional indebtedness. To the extent we become more leveraged, the risks described above would increase. Further, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected. Accordingly, our cash flows may not be sufficient to repay at maturity all

56


Table of Contents

of the outstanding debt as it becomes due and, in that event, we may not be able to borrow money, sell assets or otherwise raise funds on acceptable terms or at all to refinance our debt as it becomes due. In recent months, these risks have increased as conditions in the global economy, including credit markets worldwide, have deteriorated dramatically. For further discussion of these global economic conditions and their potential impact on the Company, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment.

The AES Corporation is a holding company and its ability to make payments on its outstanding indebtedness, including its public debt securities, is dependent upon the receipt of funds from its subsidiaries by way of dividends, fees, interest, loans or otherwise.

        The AES Corporation is a holding company with no material assets, other than the stock of its subsidiaries. All of The AES Corporation's revenue is generated through its subsidiaries. Accordingly, almost all of The AES Corporation's cash flow is generated by the operating activities of its subsidiaries. Therefore, The AES Corporation's ability to make payments on its indebtedness and to fund its other obligations is dependent not only on the ability of its subsidiaries to generate cash, but also on the ability of the subsidiaries to distribute cash to it in the form of dividends, fees, interest, loans or otherwise.

        However, our subsidiaries face various restrictions in their ability to distribute cash to The AES Corporation. Most of the subsidiaries are obligated, pursuant to loan agreements, indentures or project financing arrangements, to satisfy certain restricted payment covenants or other conditions before they may make distributions to The AES Corporation. In addition, the payment of dividends or the making of loans, advances or other payments to The AES Corporation may be subject to legal or regulatory restrictions. Business performance and local accounting and tax rules may limit the amount of retained earnings that may be distributed to us as a dividend. Subsidiaries in foreign countries may also be prevented from distributing funds to The AES Corporation as a result of foreign governments restricting the repatriation of funds or the conversion of currencies. Any right that The AES Corporation has to receive any assets of any of its subsidiaries upon any liquidation, dissolution, winding up, receivership, reorganization, bankruptcy, insolvency or similar proceedings (and the consequent right of the holders of The AES Corporation's indebtedness to participate in the distribution of, or to realize proceeds from, those assets) will be effectively subordinated to the claims of any such subsidiary's creditors (including trade creditors and holders of debt issued by such subsidiary).

        The AES Corporation could receive less funds than it expects as a result of the current challenges facing the global economy, which could impact the performance of our businesses and their ability to distribute cash to The AES Corporation. For further discussion of the macroeconomic environment and its impact on our business, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment.

        The AES Corporation's subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and, unless they have expressly guaranteed any of The AES Corporation's indebtedness, have no obligation, contingent or otherwise, to pay any amounts due pursuant to such debt or to make any funds available whether by dividends, fees, loans or other payments. While some of The AES Corporation's subsidiaries guarantee its indebtedness under its Senior Secured Credit Facility and certain other indebtedness, none of its subsidiaries guarantee, or are otherwise obligated with respect to, its outstanding public debt securities.

Even though The AES Corporation is a holding company, existing and potential future defaults by subsidiaries or affiliates could adversely affect The AES Corporation.

        We attempt to finance our domestic and foreign projects primarily under loan agreements and related documents which, except as noted below, require the loans to be repaid solely from the project's revenues and provide that the repayment of the loans (and interest thereon) is secured solely

57


Table of Contents


by the capital stock, physical assets, contracts and cash flow of that project subsidiary or affiliate. This type of financing is usually referred to as non-recourse debt or "project financing." In some project financings, The AES Corporation has explicitly agreed to undertake certain limited obligations and contingent liabilities, most of which by their terms will only be effective or will be terminated upon the occurrence of future events. These obligations and liabilities take the form of guarantees, indemnities, letter of credit reimbursement agreements and agreements to pay, in certain circumstances, the project lenders or other parties.

        As of December 31, 2008, we had approximately $18.1 billion of outstanding indebtedness on a consolidated basis, of which approximately $5.2 billion was recourse debt of The AES Corporation and approximately $12.9 billion was non-recourse debt. In addition, we have outstanding guarantees, letters of credit, and other credit support commitments which are further described in this Form 10-K in Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Capital Resources and Liquidity—Parent Company Liquidity.

        Some of our subsidiaries are currently in default with respect to all or a portion of their outstanding indebtedness. The total debt classified as current in our consolidated balance sheets related to such defaults was $129 million at December 31, 2008. While the lenders under our non-recourse project financings generally do not have direct recourse to The AES Corporation (other than to the extent of any credit support given by The AES Corporation), defaults there under can still have important consequences for The AES Corporation, including, without limitation:

    reducing The AES Corporation's receipt of subsidiary dividends, fees, interest payments, loans and other sources of cash since the project subsidiary will typically be prohibited from distributing cash to The AES Corporation during the pendency of any default;

    triggering The AES Corporation's obligation to make payments under any financial guarantee, letter of credit or other credit support which The AES Corporation has provided to or on behalf of such subsidiary;

    causing The AES Corporation to record a loss in the event the lender forecloses on the assets;

    triggering defaults in The AES Corporation's outstanding debt and trust preferred securities. For example, The AES Corporation's senior secured credit facility and outstanding senior notes include events of default for certain bankruptcy related events involving material subsidiaries. In addition, The AES Corporation's senior secured credit facility includes certain events of default relating to accelerations of outstanding debt of material subsidiaries; or

    the loss or impairment of investor confidence in the Company.

        None of the projects that are currently in default are owned by subsidiaries that meet the applicable definition of materiality in The AES Corporation's senior secured credit facility in order for such defaults to trigger an event of default or permit acceleration under such indebtedness. However, as a result of future write-down of assets, dispositions and other matters that affect our financial position and results of operations, it is possible that one or more of these subsidiaries could fall within the definition of a "material subsidiary" and thereby upon an acceleration of such subsidiary's debt, trigger an event of default and possible acceleration of the indebtedness under The AES Corporation's senior secured credit facility. The risk of such defaults may have increased as a result of the deteriorating global economy. For further discussion of these conditions, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment.

58


Table of Contents

Risks Associated with our Ability to Raise Needed Capital

The AES Corporation has significant cash requirements and limited sources of liquidity.

        The AES Corporation requires cash primarily to fund:

    principal repayments of debt;

    interest and preferred dividends;

    acquisitions;

    construction and other project commitments;

    other equity commitments, including business development investments;

    taxes; and

    Parent Company overhead costs.

        The AES Corporation's principal sources of liquidity are:

    dividends and other distributions from its subsidiaries;

    proceeds from debt and equity financings at the Parent Company level; and

    proceeds from asset sales.

        For a more detailed discussion of The AES Corporation's cash requirements and sources of liquidity, please see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Capital Resources and Liquidity in this 2008 Form 10-K.

        While we believe that these sources will be adequate to meet our obligations at the Parent Company level for the foreseeable future, this belief is based on a number of material assumptions, including, without limitation, assumptions about our ability to access the capital or commercial lending markets, the operating and financial performance of our subsidiaries, exchange rates, our ability to sell assets, and the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends. Any number of assumptions could prove to be incorrect and therefore there can be no assurance that these sources will be available when needed or that our actual cash requirements will not be greater than expected. For example, in the current credit crisis, certain financial institutions have gone bankrupt. In the event that a bank who is party to our credit agreement or other facilities goes bankrupt or is otherwise unable to fund its commitments, we would need to replace that bank in our syndicate or risk a reduction in the size of the facility, which would reduce our liquidity. In addition, our cash flow may not be sufficient to repay at maturity the entire principal outstanding under our credit facilities and our debt securities and we may have to refinance such obligations. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining such refinancing and any of these events could have a material effect on us. For further discussion of these global economic conditions and their potential impact on the Company, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment.

Our ability to grow our business could be materially adversely affected if we were unable to raise capital on favorable terms.

        From time to time, we rely on access to capital markets as a source of liquidity for capital requirements not satisfied by operating cash flows. Our ability to arrange for financing on either a recourse or non-recourse basis and the costs of such capital are dependent on numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

    general economic and capital market conditions;

59


Table of Contents

    the availability of bank credit;

    investor confidence;

    the financial condition, performance and prospects of The AES Corporation in general and/or that of any subsidiary requiring the financing; and

    changes in tax and securities laws which are conducive to raising capital.

        Since 2007, credit conditions and credit markets have weakened considerably and deteriorated dramatically in 2008, which has made it difficult for many companies to arrange for financing on a recourse or non-recourse basis. For further discussion of these global economic conditions and their potential impact on the Company, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment. Should future access to capital not be available to us, we may have to sell assets or decide not to build new plants or expand or improve existing facilities, either of which would affect our future growth.

A downgrade in the credit ratings of The AES Corporation or its subsidiaries could adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets which could increase our interest costs or adversely affect our liquidity and cash flow.

        If any of the credit ratings of The AES Corporation or its subsidiaries were to be downgraded, our ability to raise capital on favorable terms could be impaired and our borrowing costs would increase. Furthermore, depending on The AES Corporation's credit ratings and the trading prices of its equity and debt securities, counterparties may no longer be as willing to accept general unsecured commitments by The AES Corporation to provide credit support. Accordingly, with respect to both new and existing commitments, The AES Corporation may be required to provide some other form of assurance, such as a letter of credit, to backstop or replace any credit support by The AES Corporation. There can be no assurance that such counterparties will accept such guarantees in the future. In addition, to the extent The AES Corporation is required and able to provide letters of credit or other collateral to such counterparties, it will limit the amount of credit available to The AES Corporation to meet its other liquidity needs.

We may not be able to raise sufficient capital to fund "greenfield" projects in certain less developed economies which could change or in some cases adversely affect our growth strategy.

        Part of our strategy is to grow our business by developing Generation and Utility businesses in less developed economies where the return on our investment may be greater than projects in more developed economies. Commercial lending institutions sometimes refuse to provide non-recourse project financing in certain less developed economies, and in these situations we have sought and will continue to seek direct or indirect (through credit support or guarantees) project financing from a limited number of multilateral or bilateral international financial institutions or agencies. As a precondition to making such project financing available, the lending institutions may also require governmental guarantees of certain project and sovereign related risks. There can be no assurance, however, that project financing from the international financial agencies or that governmental guarantees will be available when needed, and if they are not, we may have to abandon the project or invest more of our own funds which may not be in line with our investment objectives and would leave less funds for other projects. These risks have increased as a result of the recent credit crisis and the deteriorating global economy. For further discussion of these global economic conditions and their potential impact on the Company, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment.

60


Table of Contents

External Risks Associated with Revenue and Earnings Volatility

Our financial position and results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to fluctuations in currency exchange rates experienced at our foreign operations.

        Our exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations results primarily from the translation exposure associated with the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements, as well as from transaction exposure associated with transactions in currencies other than an entity's functional currency. While the Consolidated Financial Statements are reported in U.S. Dollars, the financial statements of many of our subsidiaries outside the United States are prepared using the local currency as the functional currency and translated into U.S. Dollars by applying appropriate exchange rates. As a result, fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. Dollar relative to the local currencies where our subsidiaries outside the United States report could cause significant fluctuations in our results. In addition, while our expenses with respect to foreign operations are generally denominated in the same currency as corresponding sales, we have transaction exposure to the extent receipts and expenditures are not denominated in the subsidiary's functional currency.

        We also experience foreign transaction exposure to the extent monetary assets and liabilities, including debt, are in a different currency than the subsidiary's functional currency. Moreover, the costs of doing business abroad may increase as a result of adverse exchange rate fluctuations. Our financial position and results of operations have been significantly affected by fluctuations in the value of a number of currencies, primarily the Brazilian real, Argentine peso, Chilean peso, Colombian peso and Philippine peso. As our Brazilian and Argentine businesses primarily identify their local currency as their functional currency, recent depreciation of these currencies has resulted in the increase of deferred translation losses (foreign currency translation adjustments recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss) based on positive net asset positions. Devaluation has also resulted in foreign currency transaction losses primarily associated with U.S. Dollar debt at these businesses.

Our businesses may incur substantial costs and liabilities and be exposed to price volatility as a result of risks associated with the wholesale electricity markets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

        Some of our Generation businesses sell electricity in the wholesale spot markets in cases where they operate wholly or partially without long-term power sales agreements. Our Utility businesses and, to the extent they require additional capacity, our Generation businesses, also buy electricity in the wholesale spot markets. As a result, we are exposed to the risks of rising and falling prices in those markets. The open market wholesale prices for electricity are very volatile and often reflect the fluctuating cost of coal, natural gas, or oil. Consequently, any changes in the supply and cost of coal, natural gas, and oil may impact the open market wholesale price of electricity.

        Volatility in market prices for fuel and electricity may result from among other things:

    plant availability;

    competition;

    demand for energy commodities;

    electricity usage;

    seasonality;

    interest rate and foreign exchange rate fluctuation;

    availability and price of emission credits;

    input prices;

61


Table of Contents

    hydrology and other weather conditions;

    illiquid markets;

    transmission or transportation constraints or inefficiencies;

    availability of competitively priced renewables sources;

    available supplies of natural gas, crude oil and refined products, and coal;

    generating unit performance;

    natural disasters, terrorism, wars, embargoes and other catastrophic events;

    energy, market and environmental regulation, legislation and policies;

    geopolitical concerns affecting global supply of oil and natural gas; and

    general economic conditions in areas where we operate which impact energy consumption.

        The Company has faced gas curtailments in the past. For example, gas supply in the Argentine market is increasingly scarce and exports have been both taxed and curtailed. Gas supply curtailments can be exacerbated during the Argentine winter (May through September) when domestic demand for electricity experiences a seasonal increase. Since substantially all of the gas used in the Chilean power sector is currently imported from Argentina, gas curtailments can impact our Chilean operations through higher fuel costs and higher costs of purchased energy from the spot market. Our natural gas-fired plant in Southern Brazil, Uruguaiana, has also been impacted by limited fuel supply. Since 2004, Uruguaiana has had its gas supply interrupted from May to September. During this period, Uruguaiana purchases energy from the spot market and through bilateral contracts to fulfill its sales contracts and has paid higher fuel prices as a result. During the fourth quarter of 2007, the combination of gas curtailments and increases in the spot market price of energy triggered an impairment analysis of Uruguaiana's long-lived assets for recoverability. As a result of this impairment analysis, aggregate pre-tax impairment charges of $388 million were recognized in 2008 and 2007 which represents a full impairment of the fixed assets.

        In addition, our business depends upon transmission facilities owned and operated by others. If transmission is disrupted or capacity is inadequate or unavailable, our ability to sell and deliver power may be limited, which may have a material adverse impact on our business.

We may not be adequately hedged against our exposure to changes in commodity prices or interest rates.

        We routinely enter into contracts to hedge a portion of our purchase and sale commitments for electricity, fuel requirements and other commodities to lower our financial exposure related to commodity price fluctuations. As part of this strategy, we routinely utilize fixed-price forward physical purchase and sales contracts, futures, financial swaps, and option contracts traded in the over-the-counter markets or on exchanges. We also enter into contracts which help us to hedge our interest rate exposure on variable debt. However, we may not cover the entire exposure of our assets or positions to market price (or interest rate) volatility, and the coverage will vary over time. Furthermore, the risk management procedures we have in place may not always be followed or may not work as planned. In particular, if prices of commodities (or interest rates) significantly deviate from historical prices or if the price volatility (or interest rates) or distribution of these changes deviates from historical norms, our risk management system may not protect us from significant losses. As a result, fluctuating commodity prices may negatively impact our financial results to the extent we have unhedged or inadequately hedged positions. In addition, certain types of economic hedging activities may not qualify for hedge accounting under GAAP, resulting in increased volatility in our net income. In addition, there is a risk that the current parties to these arrangements may fail or are unable to perform their obligations under these arrangements.

62


Table of Contents


Supplier and/or customer concentration may expose the Company to significant financial credit or performance risks.

        We often rely on a single contracted supplier or a small number of suppliers for the provision of fuel, transportation of fuel and other services required for the operation of certain of our facilities. If these suppliers cannot perform, we would seek to meet our fuel requirements by purchasing fuel at market prices, exposing us to market price volatility and the risk that fuel and transportation may not be available during certain periods at any price.

        At times, we rely on a single customer or a few customers to purchase all or a significant portion of a facility's output, in some cases under long-term agreements that account for a substantial percentage of the anticipated revenue from a given facility. We have also hedged a portion of our exposure to power price fluctuations through forward fixed price power sales. Counterparties to these agreements may breach or may be unable to perform their obligations. We may not be able to enter into replacement agreements on terms as favorable as our existing agreements, or at all. If we were unable to enter into replacement PPAs, we would sell our plants' power at market prices.

        The failure of any supplier or customer to fulfill its contractual obligations to The AES Corporation or our subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. Consequently, the financial performance of our facilities is dependent on the credit quality of, and continued performance by, suppliers and customers.

Certain of our businesses are sensitive to variations in weather.

        Our businesses are affected by variations in general weather conditions and unusually severe weather. Our businesses forecast electric sales on the basis of normal weather, which represents a long-term historical average. While we also consider possible variations in normal weather patterns and potential impacts on our facilities and our businesses, there can be no assurance that such planning can prevent these impacts, which can adversely affect our business. Generally, demand for electricity peaks in winter and summer. Typically, when winters are warmer than expected and summers are cooler than expected, demand for energy is lower, resulting in less demand for electricity than forecasted. Significant variations from normal weather where our businesses are located could have a material impact on our results of operations.

        In addition, we are dependent upon hydrological conditions prevailing from time to time in the broad geographic regions in which our hydroelectric generation facilities are located. If hydrological conditions result in droughts or other conditions that negatively affect our hydroelectric generation business, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In the past, our businesses in Latin America have been negatively impacted by lower than normal rainfall.

Risks Associated with our Operations

We do a significant amount of business outside the United States, including in developing countries, which presents significant risks.

        A significant amount of our revenue is generated outside the United States and a significant portion of our international operations is conducted in developing countries. Part of our growth strategy is to expand our business in developing countries because the growth rates and the opportunity to implement operating improvements and achieve higher operating margins may be greater than those typically achievable in more developed countries. International operations, particularly the operation, financing and development of projects in developing countries, entail significant risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation:

    economic, social and political instability in any particular country or region;

    adverse changes in currency exchange rates;

63


Table of Contents

    government restrictions on converting currencies or repatriating funds;

    unexpected changes in foreign laws and regulations or in trade, monetary or fiscal policies;

    high inflation and monetary fluctuations;

    restrictions on imports of coal, oil, gas or other raw materials required by our generation businesses to operate;

    threatened or consummated expropriation or nationalization of our assets by foreign governments;

    difficulties in hiring, training and retaining qualified personnel, particularly finance and accounting personnel with U.S. GAAP expertise;

    unwillingness of governments, government agencies, similar organizations or other counterparties to honor their contracts;

    unwillingness of governments, government agencies, courts or similar bodies to enforce contracts that are economically advantageous to subsidiaries of the Company and economically unfavorable to counterparties, against such counterparties, whether such counterparties are governments or private parties;

    inability to obtain access to fair and equitable political, regulatory, administrative and legal systems;

    adverse changes in government tax policy;

    difficulties in enforcing our contractual rights or enforcing judgments or obtaining a just result in local jurisdictions; and

    potentially adverse tax consequences of operating in multiple jurisdictions.

        Any of these factors, by itself or in combination with others, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, in the second quarter of 2007, we sold our stake in EDC to Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. ("PDVSA"), the state owned energy company in Venezuela after Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez threatened to expropriate the electricity business in Venezuela. In connection with the sale, we recognized an impairment charge of approximately $680 million. In addition, our Latin American operations experience volatility in revenues and gross margin which have caused and are expected to cause significant volatility in our results of operations and cash flows. The volatility is caused by regulatory and economic difficulties, political instability and currency devaluations being experienced in many of these countries. This volatility reduces the predictability and enhances the uncertainty associated with cash flows from these businesses.

The operation of power generation and distribution facilities involves significant risks that could adversely affect our financial results.

        The operation of power generation and distribution facilities involves many risks, including:

    equipment failure causing unplanned outages;

    failure of transmission systems;

    the dependence on a specified fuel source, including the transportation of fuel;

    catastrophic events such as fires, explosions, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes and similar occurrences; and

    environmental compliance.

64


Table of Contents

        Any of these risks could have an adverse effect on our generation and distribution facilities. In addition, a portion of our generation facilities were constructed many years ago. Older generating equipment may require significant capital expenditures for maintenance. This equipment is also likely to require periodic upgrading and improvement. Breakdown or failure of one of our operating facilities may prevent the facility from performing under applicable power sales agreements which, in certain situations, could result in termination of a power purchase or other agreement or incurring a liability for liquidated damages.

        As a result of the above risks and other potential hazards associated with the power generation and distribution industries, we may from time to time become exposed to significant liabilities for which we may not have adequate insurance coverage. Power generation involves hazardous activities, including acquiring, transporting and unloading fuel, operating large pieces of rotating equipment and delivering electricity to transmission and distribution systems. In addition to natural risks, such as earthquakes, floods, lightning, hurricanes and wind, hazards, such as fire, explosion, collapse and machinery failure, are inherent risks in our operations which may occur as a result of inadequate internal processes, technological flaws, human error or certain external events. The control and management of these risks depend upon adequate development and training of personnel and on the existence of operational procedures, preventative maintenance plans and specific programs supported by quality control systems which reduce, but do not eliminate the possibility of the occurrence and impact of these risks.

        The hazards described above can cause significant personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property, plant and equipment, contamination of, or damage to, the environment and suspension of operations. The occurrence of any one of these events may result in us being named as a defendant in lawsuits asserting claims for substantial damages, environmental cleanup costs, personal injury and fines and/or penalties. We maintain an amount of insurance protection that we believe is adequate, but there can be no assurance that our insurance will be sufficient or effective under all circumstances and against all hazards or liabilities to which we may be subject. A successful claim for which we are not fully insured could hurt our financial results and materially harm our financial condition. Further, due to rising insurance costs and changes in the insurance markets, we cannot provide assurance that insurance coverage will continue to be available on terms similar to those presently available to us or at all. Any losses not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Our ability to attract and retain skilled people could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

        Our operating success and ability to carry out growth initiatives depends in part on our ability to retain executives and to attract and retain additional qualified personnel who have experience in our industry and in operating a company of our size and complexity, including people in our foreign businesses. The inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, because of the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacements. In particular, we routinely are required to assess the financial and tax impacts of complicated business transactions which occur on a worldwide basis. These assessments are dependent on hiring personnel on a worldwide basis with sufficient expertise in U.S. GAAP to timely and accurately comply with U.S. reporting obligations. An inability to maintain adequate internal accounting and managerial controls and hire and retain qualified personnel could have an adverse affect on our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations.

65


Table of Contents

We have contractual obligations to certain customers to provide full requirements service, which makes it difficult to predict and plan for load requirements and may result in increased operating costs to certain of our businesses.

        We have contractual obligations to certain customers to supply power to satisfy all or a portion of their energy requirements. The uncertainty regarding the amount of power that our power generation and distribution facilities must be prepared to supply to customers may increase our operating costs. A significant under or over-estimation of load requirements could result in our facilities not having enough or having too much power to cover their obligations, in which case we would be required to buy or sell power from or to third parties at prevailing market prices. Those prices may not be favorable and thus could increase our operating costs.

We may not be able to enter into long-term contracts, which reduce volatility in our results of operations. Even when we successfully enter into long-term contracts, our generation businesses are dependent on one or a limited number of customers and a limited number of fuel suppliers.

        Many of our generation plants conduct business under long-term contracts. In these instances, we rely on power sales contracts with one or a limited number of customers for the majority of, and in some case all of, the relevant plant's output and revenues over the term of the power sales contract. The remaining terms of the power sales contracts range from 1 to 25 years. In many cases, we also limit our exposure to fluctuations in fuel prices by entering into long-term contracts for fuel with a limited number of suppliers. In these instances, the cash flows and results of operations are dependent on the continued ability of customers and suppliers to meet their obligations under the relevant power sales contract or fuel supply contract, respectively. Some of our long-term power sales agreements are at prices above current spot market prices and some of our long-term fuel supply contracts are at prices below current market prices. The loss of significant power sales contracts or fuel supply contracts, or the failure by any of the parties to such contracts that prevents us from fulfilling our obligations thereunder, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, depending on market conditions and regulatory regimes, it may be difficult for us to secure long-term contracts, either where our current contracts are expiring or for new development projects. The inability to enter into long-term contracts could require many of our businesses to purchase inputs at market prices and sell electricity into spot markets. Because of the volatile nature of inputs and power prices, the inability to secure long-term contracts could generate increased volatility in our earnings and cash flows and could generate substantial losses during certain periods which could have a material impact on our business and results of operations.

        We have sought to reduce counter party credit risk under our long-term contracts in part by entering into power sales contracts with utilities or other customers of strong credit quality and by obtaining guarantees from the sovereign government of the customer's obligations. However, many of our customers do not have, or have failed to maintain, an investment grade credit rating, and our Generation business can not always obtain government guarantees and if they do, the government does not always have an investment grade credit rating. We have also sought to reduce our credit risk by locating our plants in different geographic areas in order to mitigate the effects of regional economic downturns. However, there can be no assurance that our efforts to mitigate this risk will be successful. These risks have increased as a result of the deteriorating global economy. For further discussion of these global economic conditions and their potential impact on the Company, see Item 7—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment.

Competition is increasing and could adversely affect us.

        The power production markets in which we operate are characterized by numerous strong and capable competitors, many of whom may have extensive and diversified developmental or operating

66


Table of Contents


experience (including both domestic and international) and financial resources similar to or greater than ours. Further, in recent years, the power production industry has been characterized by strong and increasing competition with respect to both obtaining power sales agreements and acquiring existing power generation assets. In certain markets, these factors have caused reductions in prices contained in new power sales agreements and, in many cases, have caused higher acquisition prices for existing assets through competitive bidding practices. The evolution of competitive electricity markets and the development of highly efficient gas-fired power plants have also caused, or are anticipated to cause, price pressure in certain power markets where we sell or intend to sell power. These competitive factors could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in our operating performance or cost structure.

        We are in the business of generating and distributing electricity, which involves certain risks that can adversely affect financial and operating performance, including:

    changes in the availability of our generation facilities or distribution systems due to increases in scheduled and unscheduled plant outages, equipment failure, labor disputes, disruptions in fuel supply, inability to comply with regulatory or permit requirements or catastrophic events such as fires, floods, storms, hurricanes, earthquakes, explosions, terrorist acts or other similar occurrences; and

    changes in our operating cost structure including, but not limited to, increases in costs relating to: gas, coal, oil and other fuel; fuel transportation; purchased electricity; operations, maintenance and repair; environmental compliance, including the cost of purchasing emissions offsets and capital expenditures to install environmental emission equipment; transmission access; and insurance.

        Any of the above risks could adversely affect our business and results of operations, and our ability to meet publicly announced projections or analysts' expectations.

Some of our subsidiaries participate in defined benefit pension plans and their net pension plan obligations may require additional significant contributions.

        Certain of our subsidiaries have defined benefit pension plans covering substantially all of their respective employees. Of the twenty four defined benefit plans, three are at U.S. subsidiaries and the remaining plans are at foreign subsidiaries. Pension costs are based upon a number of actuarial assumptions, including an expected long-term rate of return on pension plan assets, the expected life span of pension plan beneficiaries and the discount rate used to determine the present value of future pension obligations. Any of these assumptions could prove to be wrong, resulting in a shortfall of pension plan assets compared to pension obligations under the pension plan. The Company periodically evaluates the value of the pension plan assets to ensure that they will be sufficient to fund the respective pension obligations. The Company's exposure is mitigated due to the fact that the asset allocations in our largest plans are more heavily weighted to investments in fixed income securities that have not been as severely impacted by the recent equity market declines. Nevertheless, given the recent significant declines in financial markets, the value of these pension plan assets has declined and our future pension expense and funding obligations have increased. In addition, future downturns in the equity markets, or the failure of any of our assumptions underlying the estimates of our subsidiaries' pension plan obligations, could result in an increase in pension expense and funding requirements in future periods, which may be material. Our subsidiaries who participate in these plans are responsible for funding any shortfall of pension plan assets compared to pension obligations under the pension plan. This may necessitate additional cash contributions to the pension plans that could adversely affect our and our subsidiaries' liquidity.

67


Table of Contents

        For additional information regarding the funding position of the Company's pension plans, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates—Pension and Postretirement Obligations" and Note 13 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report on Form 10-K.

Our business is subject to substantial development uncertainties.

        Certain of our subsidiaries and affiliates are in various stages of developing and constructing "greenfield" power plants, some but not all of which have signed long-term contracts or made similar arrangements for the sale of electricity. Successful completion depends upon overcoming substantial risks, including, but not limited to, risks relating to failures of siting, financing, construction, permitting, governmental approvals or the potential for termination of the power sales contract as a result of a failure to meet certain milestones. Financing risk has also increased as a result of the deterioration of the global economy and the crisis in the financial markets, and as a result, we may forgo certain development opportunities. We believe that capitalized costs for projects under development are recoverable; however, there can be no assurance that any individual project will be completed and reach commercial operation. If these development efforts are not successful, we may abandon a project under development and write off the costs incurred in connection with such project. At the time of abandonment, we would expense all capitalized development costs incurred in connection therewith and could incur additional losses associated with any related contingent liabilities.

Our acquisitions may not perform as expected.

        Historically, acquisitions have been a significant part of our growth strategy. We may continue to grow our business through acquisitions. Although acquired businesses may have significant operating histories, we will have a limited or no history of owning and operating many of these businesses and possibly limited or no experience operating in the country or region where these businesses are located. Some of these businesses may be government owned and some may be operated as part of a larger integrated utility prior to their acquisition. If we were to acquire any of these types of businesses, there can be no assurance that:

    we will be successful in transitioning them to private ownership;

    such businesses will perform as expected;

    we will not incur unforeseen obligations or liabilities;

    such business will generate sufficient cash flow to support the indebtedness incurred to acquire them or the capital expenditures needed to develop them; or

    the rate of return from such businesses will justify our decision to invest our capital to acquire them.

        In April 2008, the Company completed the purchase of a 92% interest in a 660 gross MW coal-fired thermal power generation facility in Masinloc, Philippines ("Masinloc") from the Power Sector Assets & Liabilities Management Corporation, a state enterprise, for $930 million in cash. Immediately after the acquisition, the Company embarked upon a comprehensive rehabilitation program to improve the output, reliability and general condition of the plant. As a result, operating losses have been reduced and the business is expected to generate a profit in 2009. However, in the event that the progress made does not continue, or Masinloc performs worse than expected, the Company could incur further operating losses which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Further losses could also trigger an impairment of the assets held by Masinloc.

68


Table of Contents


In some of our joint venture projects, we have granted protective rights to minority holders or we own less than a majority of the equity in the project and do not manage or otherwise control the project, which entails certain risks.

        We have invested in some joint ventures where we own less than a majority of the voting equity in the venture. Very often, we seek to exert a degree of influence with respect to the management and operation of projects in which we have less than a majority of the ownership interests by operating the project pursuant to a management contract, negotiating to obtain positions on management committees or to receive certain limited governance rights, such as rights to veto significant actions. However, we do not always have this type of control over the project in every instance; and we may be dependent on our co-venturers to operate such projects. Our co-venturers may not have the level of experience, technical expertise, human resources, management and other attributes necessary to operate these projects optimally. The approval of co-venturers also may be required for us to receive distributions of funds from projects or to transfer our interest in projects.

        In some joint venture agreements where we do have majority control of the voting securities, we have entered into shareholder agreements granting protective minority rights to the other shareholders. For example, Brasiliana Energia ("Brasiliana") is a holding company in which we have a controlling equity interest and through which we own three of our four Brazilian businesses: Eletropaulo, Tietê and Uruguaiana. We entered into a shareholders' agreement with an affiliate of the Brazilian National Development Bank ("BNDES") which owns more than 49 percent of the voting equity of Brasiliana. Among other things, the shareholders' agreement requires the consent of both parties before taking certain corporate actions, grants both parties rights of first refusal in connection with the sale of interests in Brasiliana and grants drag-along rights to BNDES. In May, 2007, BNDES notified us that it intends to sell all of its interest in Brasiliana pursuant to public auction (the "Brasiliana Sale"). BNDES also informed us that if we fail to exercise our right of first refusal to purchase all of its interest in Brasiliana, then BNDES intends to exercise its drag-along rights under the shareholders' agreement and cause us to sell all of our interests in Brasiliana in the Brasiliana Sale as well. After the auction, if a third party offer has been received in the Brasiliana Sale, we will have 30 days to exercise our right of first refusal to purchase all of BNDES's interest in Brasiliana on the same terms as the third- party offer. If we do not exercise this right and BNDES proceeds to exercise its drag-along rights, then we may be forced to sell all of our interest in Brasiliana. Due to the uncertainty in the sale price at this point in time, we are uncertain whether we will exercise our right of first refusal should BNDES receive a valid third-party offer in the Brasiliana Sale and, if we do, whether we would do it alone or with joint venture partners. Even if we desire to exercise our right of first refusal, we cannot assure that we will have the cash on hand or that debt or equity financing will be available at acceptable terms in order to purchase BNDES's interest in Brasiliana. If we do not exercise our right of first refusal, we cannot be assured that we will not have to record a loss if the sale price is below the book value of our investment in Brasiliana.

Our renewable energy projects and other initiatives face considerable uncertainties including, development, operational and regulatory challenges.

        AES Wind Generation, AES Solar, our projects in climate solutions and our investments in projects such as energy storage are subject to substantial risks. Projects of this nature are relatively new, are supported financially by favorable regulatory incentives and have been developed through advancement in technologies which may not be proven, or which are unrelated to our core business.

        As a result, these projects face considerable risk, including the risk that favorable regulatory regimes expire or are adversely modified. In addition, because these projects depend on technology outside of our expertise in Generation and Utilities, there are risks associated with our ability to develop and manage such projects profitably. Furthermore, at the development or acquisition stage, because of the nascent nature of these industries, our ability to predict actual performance results may be hindered and the projects may not perform as predicted. There are also risks associated with the

69


Table of Contents


fact that many of these projects exist in new or emerging markets, where long-term fixed price contracts for the major cost and revenue components may be unavailable, which in turn may result in these projects having relatively high levels of volatility.

        These projects can be capital-intensive and generally require that we obtain third party financing, which may be difficult to obtain. As a result, these capital constraints may reduce our ability to develop these projects. These risks may be exacerbated by the current global economic crisis, including our management's increased focus on liquidity, which may also result in slower growth in the number of projects we can pursue. The economic downturn could also impact the value of our assets in these countries and our ability to develop these projects. If the value of these assets decline, this could result in a material impairment or a series of impairments which are material in the aggregate, which would adversely affect our financial statements.

The global credit crisis could impact our growth plans and the values of our assets.

        In the second half of 2007, conditions in the credit markets began to deteriorate in the United States and abroad. In the third and fourth quarter of 2008, this crisis and associated market conditions worsened dramatically, with unprecedented market volatility, widening credit spreads, volatile currencies, illiquidity, and increased counterparty credit risk. As a result of the deterioration in the global economy, the Company has placed a greater emphasis on preservation of liquidity. The Company currently intends to complete the projects it has under construction, those that have obtained financing and a select group of projects which may be able to obtain financing in these challenging financial markets. In the event that management determines that, because of macroeconomic challenges or other factors, certain of these or other projects in the pipeline cannot be financed, will not provide the returns originally anticipated, or are otherwise unfeasible, or that other uses of capital such as debt repayment or stock repurchases offer a better return on the Company's capital, or that the funds should be used for working capital, the Company may determine that it will not pursue certain projects in its pipeline, which will affect our growth.

        In addition, the global recession could impact the value of our assets around the world. For example, in 2008, we impaired certain projects in our pipeline, resulting in a charge to 2008 earnings. Further declines in asset values could result in additional write-downs, which could be material to our financial statements.

An impairment in the carrying value of goodwill would negatively impact our consolidated results of operations and net worth.

        Goodwill is initially recorded at fair value and is not amortized, but is evaluated for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if impairment indicators are present. In assessing the recoverability of goodwill, we make estimates and assumptions about sales, operating margin growth rates and discount rates based on our budgets, business plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows and marketplace data. There are inherent uncertainties related to these factors and management's judgment in applying these factors. The fair value of a reporting unit has been determined using an income approach based on the present value of future cash flows of each reporting unit. We could be required to evaluate the recoverability of goodwill prior to the annual assessment if we experience situations, including but not limited to, disruptions to the business, unexpected significant declines in operating results, divestiture of a significant component of our business or sustained market capitalization declines. There could also be impairments if our acquisitions do not perform as expected. See further discussion in Risk Factor, "Our Acquisitions May Not Perform as Expected." These types of events and the resulting analyses could result in goodwill impairment charges in the future. Impairment charges could substantially affect our financial results in the periods of such charges. As of December 31, 2008, we had $1.4 billion of goodwill, which represented approximately 4.1% of total assets. If current conditions in the global economy continue or worsen, this could increase the risk that we will have to impair goodwill.

70


Table of Contents

Risks associated with Governmental Regulation and Laws

Our operations are subject to significant government regulation and our business and results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the law or regulatory schemes.

        Our inability to predict, influence or respond appropriately to changes in law or regulatory schemes, including any inability to obtain expected or contracted increases in electricity tariff rates or tariff adjustments for increased expenses, could adversely impact our results of operations or our ability to meet publicly announced projections or analyst's expectations. Furthermore, changes in laws or regulations or changes in the application or interpretation of regulatory provisions in jurisdictions where we operate, particularly our Utilities where electricity tariffs are subject to regulatory review or approval, could adversely affect our business, including, but not limited to:

    changes in the determination, definition or classification of costs to be included as reimbursable or pass-through costs, including but not limited to costs incurred to upgrade our power plants to comply with more stringent environmental regulations;

    changes in the determination of what is an appropriate rate of return on invested capital or a determination that a utility's operating income or the rates it charges customers is too high, resulting in a reduction of rates or consumer rebates;

    changes in the definition or determination of controllable or non-controllable costs;

    changes in the definition of events which may or may not qualify as changes in economic equilibrium;

    changes in the timing of tariff increases; or

    other changes in the regulatory determinations under the relevant concessions.

        Any of the above events may result in lower margins for the affected businesses, which can adversely affect our business.

        For example, as noted in Item 1—Business—Regulatory Matters—Hungary of this Form 10-K, in June 2008 the European Commission ("the Commission") reached its decision that the PPAs, including AES Tisza's PPA, contain elements of illegal state aid. The decision requires Hungary to terminate the PPAs within six months of the June 2008 publication of the decision, and to recover the alleged illegal state aid from the generators within ten months of publication. Hungary and the Commission are in the process of resolving confidentiality matters relating to the wording of the decision, which has not yet been notified by the Commission to the generators. AES Tisza is challenging the Commission's decision in the Court of First Instance of the European Communities. Referring to the Commission's decision, Hungary adopted act number LXX of 2008 which terminates all long-term PPAs in Hungary, including AES Tisza's PPA, as of December 31, 2008, and requires generators to repay the alleged illegal state aid that was allegedly received by the generators through the PPAs, and provides for the possibility to offset stranded costs of the generators from the repayable state aid. It is possible that the Company may face additional regulatory actions of this type and, depending on the outcome, such actions could have a material adverse impact on the Company.

        In addition, in many countries where we conduct business, the regulatory environment is constantly changing or the regulations can be difficult to interpret. As a result, there is risk that we may not properly interpret certain regulations and may not understand the impact of certain regulations on our business. For example, in October 2006, ANEEL, which regulates our utility operations at Sul and Eletropaulo in Brazil, issued Normative Resolution 234 requiring that utilities begin amortizing a liability called "Special Obligations" beginning with their second tariff reset cycle in 2007 or a later year as an offset to depreciation expense. As of May 23, 2007, the date of the filing of our 2006 Form 10-K, no industry positions or any other consensus had been reached regarding how ANEEL guidance should be applied at that date and accordingly, no adjustments to the financial statements were made relating to Special Obligations in Brazil. Subsequent to May 23, 2007, industry discussions

71


Table of Contents


occurred and other Brazilian companies filed Forms 20-F with the SEC reflecting the impact of Resolution 234 in their December 31, 2006 financial statements differently from how the Company accounted for Resolution 234. In the absence of any significant regulatory developments between May 23, 2007 and the date of these other filings, the Company determined that Resolution 234 required us to record an adjustment to our Special Obligations liability as of December 31, 2006. In part, the decision to record the adjustment led to the restatement of our financial statements in the third quarter of 2007. If we face additional challenges interpreting regulations or changes in regulations, it could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Our Generation business in the United States is subject to the provisions of various laws and regulations administered in whole or in part by the FERC, including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 ("PURPA") and the Federal Power Act. The recently enacted EPAct 2005 made a number of changes to these and other laws that may affect our business. Actions by the FERC and by state utility commissions can have a material effect on our operations.

        EPAct 2005 authorizes the FERC to remove the obligation of electric utilities under Section 210 of PURPA to enter into new contracts for the purchase or sale of electricity from or to QF's if certain market conditions are met. Pursuant to this authority, the FERC has instituted a rebuttable presumption that utilities located within the control areas of the Midwest Transmission System Operator, Inc., PJM ("Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland") Interconnection, L.L.C., ISO New England, Inc., the New York Independent System Operator and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Inc. are not required to purchase or sell power from or to QFs above a certain size. In addition, the FERC is authorized under the new law to remove the purchase/sale obligations of individual utilities on a case-by-case basis. While the new law does not affect existing contracts, as a result of the changes to PURPA, our QF's may face a more difficult market environment when their current long-term contracts expire.

        EPAct 2005 repealed PUHCA 1935 and enacted PUHCA 2005 in its place. PUHCA 1935 had the effect of requiring utility holding companies to operate in geographically proximate regions and therefore limited the range of potential combinations and mergers among utilities. By comparison, PUHCA 2005 has no such restrictions and simply provides the FERC and state utility commissions with enhanced access to the books and records of certain utility holding companies. The repeal of PUHCA 1935 removed barriers to mergers and other potential combinations which could result in the creation of large, geographically dispersed utility holding companies. These entities may have enhanced financial strength and therefore an increased ability to compete with us in the U.S. generation market.

        In accordance with Congressional mandates in the EPAct 1992 and now in EPAct 2005, the FERC has strongly encouraged competition in wholesale electric markets. Increased competition may have the effect of lowering our operating margins. Among other steps, the FERC has encouraged RTOs and ISOs to develop demand response bidding programs as a mechanism for responding to peak electric demand. These programs may reduce the value of our peaking assets which rely on very high prices during a relatively small number of hours to recover their costs. Similarly, the FERC is encouraging the construction of new transmission infrastructure in accordance with provisions of EPAct 2005. Although new transmission lines may increase market opportunities, they may also increase the competition in our existing markets.

        While the FERC continues to promote competition, some state utility commissions have reversed course and begun to encourage the construction of generation facilities by traditional utilities to be paid for on a cost-of-service basis by retail ratepayers. Such actions have the effect of reducing sale opportunities in the competitive wholesale generating markets in which we operate.

Our businesses are subject to stringent environmental laws and regulations.

        Our activities are subject to stringent environmental laws and regulations by many federal, state and local authorities, international treaties and foreign governmental authorities. These laws and

72


Table of Contents


regulations generally concern emissions into the air, effluents into the water, use of water, wetlands preservation, remediation of contamination, waste disposal, endangered species and noise regulation, among others. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations or to obtain any necessary environmental permits pursuant to such laws and regulations could result in fines or other sanctions. Environmental laws and regulations affecting power generation and distribution are complex and have tended to become more stringent over time. Congress and other domestic and foreign governmental authorities have either considered or implemented various laws and regulations to restrict or tax certain emissions, particularly those involving air and water emissions. See the various descriptions of these laws and regulations contained in Item 1 Business—Regulatory Matters—Environmental and Land Use Regulations of this Form 10-K. These laws and regulations have imposed, and proposed laws and regulations could impose in the future, additional costs on the operation of our power plants. We have incurred and will continue to incur significant capital and other expenditures to comply with these and other environmental laws and regulations. Changes in, or new, environmental restrictions may force us to incur significant expenses or expenses that may exceed our estimates. There can be no assurance that we would be able to recover all or any increased environmental costs from our customers or that our business, financial condition or results of operations would not be materially and adversely affected by such expenditures or any changes in domestic or foreign environmental laws and regulations.

Regulators, politicians, non-governmental organizations and other private parties have expressed concern about greenhouse gas, or GHG, emissions and are taking actions which, in addition to the potential physical risks associated with climate change, could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

        As discussed in Item 1—Business—Regulatory Matters—Environmental and Land Use Regulations, at the international, federal and various regional and state levels, policies are under development to regulate GHG emissions, thereby effectively putting a cost on such emissions in order to create financial incentives to reduce them. In 2008, the Company's subsidiaries operated businesses which had total approximate CO2 emissions of 83.8 million metric tonnes (ownership adjusted). Approximately 41.5 million metric tonnes of the 83.8 million metric tonnes were emitted by businesses located in the United States (both figures ownership adjusted). Federal, state or regional regulation of GHG emissions could have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial performance. The actual impact on the Company's financial performance and the financial performance of the Company's subsidiaries will depend on a number of factors, including among others, the GHG reductions required under any such legislation or regulations, the price and availability of offsets, the extent to which market based compliance options are available, the extent to which our subsidiaries would be entitled to receive GHG emissions allowances without having to purchase them in an auction or on the open market and the impact of such legislation or regulation on the ability of our subsidiaries to recover costs incurred. As a result of these factors, our cost of compliance could be substantial and could have a material impact on our results of operations. Another factor is the success of our climate solutions projects, which may generate credits that will help offset our GHG emissions. However, as set forth in the Risk Factor titled "Our renewable energy projects and other initiatives face considerable uncertainties including development, operational and regulatory challenges," there is no guarantee that the climate solutions projects will be successful. Also, the level of potential benefit is unclear given current uncertainties regarding legislation and/or litigation concerning GHG emissions.

73


Table of Contents

        In January 2005, based on European Community "Directive 2003/87/EC on Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading," the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme ("EU ETS") commenced operation as the largest multi-country GHG emission trading scheme in the world. On February 16, 2005, the Kyoto Protocol became effective. The Kyoto Protocol requires the 40 developed countries that have ratified it to substantially reduce their GHG emissions, including CO2. To date, compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and the EU ETS has not had a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

        The United States has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. In the United States, there currently are no federal mandatory GHG emission reduction programs (including CO2) affecting the electric power generation facilities of the Company's subsidiaries. However, there are several proposed GHG legislative initiatives in the United States Congress that would, if enacted, constrain GHG emissions, including CO2, and/or impose costs on us that could be material to our business or results of operations.

        On April 2, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in a case involving the regulation under the CAA of CO2 emissions from motor vehicles. The Court ruled that CO2 is a pollutant which potentially could be subject to regulation under the CAA and that the U.S. EPA has a duty to determine whether CO2 emissions contribute to climate change or to provide some reasonable explanation why it will not exercise its authority. In response to the Court's decision, on July 11, 2008, the U.S. EPA issued an ANPR to solicit public input on whether CO2 emissions should be regulated from both mobile and stationary sources under the CAA. The U.S. EPA has not yet made any such determination. Since electric power generation facilities, particularly coal-fired facilities, are a significant source of CO2 emissions both in the United States and globally, the Court's decision, coupled with stimulus from the new administration, regulators, members of Congress, states, non-governmental organizations, private parties, the courts and other factors could result in a determination by the U.S. EPA to regulate CO2 emissions from electric power generation facilities. While the majority of current state, regional and federal initiatives regarding CO2 emissions contemplate market-based compliance mechanisms (e.g., cap-and-trade), such a determination by the U.S. EPA could result in CO2 emission limits on stationary sources that do not include market-based compliance mechanisms (e.g., carbon tax, CO2 emission limits, etc.). Any such regulations could increase our costs directly and indirectly and have a material adverse affect on our business and/or results of operations.

        At the state level, RGGI, a cap-and-trade program covering CO2 emissions from electric power generation facilities in the Northeast, became effective in January 2009, and the WCI, is also developing market-based programs to address GHG emissions in seven western states. In addition, several states, including California, have adopted comprehensive legislation that, when implemented, will require mandatory GHG reductions from several industrial sectors, including the electric power generation industry. See "Business—Regulatory Matters—Environmental and Land Use Regulations" of this Form 10-K for further discussion about the environmental regulations we face. At this time, other than with regard to RGGI (further described below), the Company cannot estimate the costs of compliance with U.S. federal, regional or state CO2 emissions reductions legislation or initiatives, due to the fact that these proposals are in earlier stages of development and any final regulations, if adopted, could vary drastically from current proposals.

        The RGGI program became effective in January 2009. The first regional auction of RGGI allowances needed to be acquired by power generators to comply with state programs implementing RGGI was held in September 2008 and the second was held in December 2008. The third auction is scheduled for March 2009. Our subsidiaries in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Maryland are subject to RGGI. Of the approximately 41.5 million metric tonnes of CO2 emitted in the United States by our subsidiaries in 2008 (ownership adjusted), approximately 11.8 million metric tonnes were emitted in U.S. states participating in RGGI. We believe that due to the absence of allowance allocations,

74


Table of Contents


RGGI as currently contemplated could have an adverse impact on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. While Co2 emissions from businesses operated by subsidiaries of the Company are calculated globally in metric tonnes, RGGI allowances are denominated in short tons. (1 metric tonne equals 2,200 pounds and 1 short ton equals 2,000 pounds.) For forecasting purposes, the Company has modeled the impact of CO2 compliance for 2009-2011 for its businesses that are subject to RGGI and that may not be able to pass through compliance costs. The model includes a conversion from metric tonnes to short tons as well as the impact of some market recovery by merchant plants and contractual and regulatory provisions. The model also utilizes an allowance price of $3.38 per metric tonne under RGGI. The source of this per allowance price estimate was the clearing price at the December 2008 RGGI allowance auction. The model also assumes, among other things, that RGGI will be structured solely on the public auction of allowances and that certain costs will be recovered by our subsidiaries. Based on these assumptions, the Company estimates that the RGGI compliance costs could be approximately $29.1 million per year from 2009 through 2011, which is the last year of the first RGGI compliance period. Given all of the uncertainties surrounding RGGI, including those discussed in Item 1—Business—Regulatory Matters—Environmental and Land Use Regulations of this Form 10-K and the fact that the assumptions utilized in the model may prove to be incorrect, there is a significant risk that our actual compliance costs under RGGI will differ from estimates by a material amount. If the actual costs are higher, this could have a material impact on our business and financial results.

        In addition to government regulators, other groups such as politicians, environmentalists and other private parties have expressed increasing concern about GHG emissions. For example, certain financial institutions have expressed concern about providing financing for facilities which would emit GHGs, which can affect our ability to obtain capital, or if we can obtain capital, to receive it on commercially viable terms. In addition, rating agencies may decide to downgrade our credit ratings based on the emissions of the businesses operated by our subsidiaries or increased compliance costs which could make financing unattractive. In addition, as disclosed in Item 3—Legal Proceedings of this Form 10-K, the New York Attorney General has issued a subpoena to the Company seeking documents and information concerning the Company's analysis and public disclosure of the potential impacts that GHG legislation and climate change from GHG emissions might have on the Company's operations and financial results. Environmental groups and other private plaintiffs have brought and may decide to bring additional private lawsuits against the Company because of its subsidiaries' GHG emissions.

        Furthermore, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, physical risks from climate change could include, but are not limited to, increased runoff and earlier spring peak discharge in many glacier and snow fed rivers, warming of lakes and rivers, an increase in sea level, changes and variability in precipitation and in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events. Physical impacts may have the potential to significantly affect the Company's business and operations. For example, extreme weather events could result in increased downtime and operation and maintenance costs at the electric power generation facilities and support facilities of the Company's subsidiaries. Variations in weather conditions, primarily temperature and humidity, attributable to climate change, also would be expected to affect the energy needs of customers. A decrease in energy consumption could decrease the revenues of the Company's subsidiaries. In addition, while revenues would be expected to increase if the energy consumption of customers increased, such increase could prompt the need for additional investment in generation capacity. Changes in the temperature of lakes and rivers and changes in precipitation that result in drought could adversely affect the operations of the fossil-fuel fired electric power generation facilities of the Company's subsidiaries. Changes in temperature, precipitation and snow pack conditions also could affect the amount and timing of hydroelectric generation.

        If any of the foregoing risks materialize, costs may increase or revenues may decrease and there could be a material adverse effect on the electric power generation businesses of the Company's

75


Table of Contents


subsidiaries and on the Company's consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We and our affiliates are subject to material litigation and regulatory proceedings.

        We and our affiliates are parties to material litigation and regulatory proceedings. See Business—Legal Proceedings below. There can be no assurances that the outcome of such matters will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position.

The SEC is conducting an informal inquiry relating to our restatements.

        We have been cooperating with an informal inquiry by the SEC Staff concerning our past restatements and related matters, and have been providing information and documents to the SEC Staff on a voluntary basis. Because we are unable to predict the outcome of this inquiry, the SEC Staff may disagree with the manner in which we have accounted for and reported the financial impact of the adjustments to previously filed financial statements and there may be a risk that the inquiry by the SEC could lead to circumstances in which we may have to further restate previously filed financial statements, amend prior filings or take other actions not currently contemplated.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        None.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

        We maintain offices in many places around the world, generally pursuant to the provisions of long- and short-term leases, none of which are material. With a few exceptions, our facilities, which are described in Item 1 of this Form 10-K, are subject to mortgages or other liens or encumbrances as part of the project's related finance facility. In addition, the majority of our facilities are located on land that is leased. However, in a few instances, no accompanying project financing exists for the facility, and in a few of these cases, the land interest may not be subject to any encumbrance and is owned outright by the subsidiary or affiliate.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

        The Company is involved in certain claims, suits and legal proceedings in the normal course of business, some of which are described below. The Company has accrued for litigation and claims where it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company believes, based upon information it currently possesses and taking into account established reserves for estimated liabilities and its insurance coverage, that the ultimate outcome of these proceedings and actions is unlikely to have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial statements. However, it is reasonably possible that some matters could be decided unfavorably to the Company, and could require the Company to pay damages or make expenditures in amounts that could be material but cannot be estimated as of December 31, 2008. The Company has evaluated claims, in accordance with SFAS No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies, ("SFAS No. 5") that it deems both probable and reasonably estimable and accordingly, has recorded aggregate reserves for all claims for approximately $389 million and $486 million as of December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

        In 1989, Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras S.A. ("Eletrobrás") filed suit in the Fifth District Court in the State of Rio de Janeiro against Eletropaulo Eletricidade de São Paulo S.A. ("EEDSP") relating to the methodology for calculating monetary adjustments under the parties' financing agreement. In April 1999, the Fifth District Court found for Eletrobrás and in September 2001, Eletrobrás initiated an execution suit in the Fifth District Court to collect approximately R$937 million ($400 million) from Eletropaulo (as estimated by Eletropaulo) and a lesser amount from an unrelated company,

76


Table of Contents


Companhia de Transmissão de Energia Elétrica Paulista ("CTEEP") (Eletropaulo and CTEEP were spun off from EEDSP pursuant to its privatization in 1998). In November 2002, the Fifth District Court rejected Eletropaulo's defenses in the execution suit. Eletropaulo appealed and in September 2003, the Appellate Court of the State of Rio de Janeiro ruled that Eletropaulo was not a proper party to the litigation because any alleged liability had been transferred to CTEEP pursuant to the privatization. In June 2006, the Superior Court of Justice ("SCJ") reversed the Appellate Court's decision and remanded the case to the Fifth District Court for further proceedings, holding that Eletropaulo's liability, if any, should be determined by the Fifth District Court. Eletropaulo's subsequent appeals to the Special Court (the highest court within the SCJ) and the Supreme Court of Brazil have been dismissed. Eletrobrás may resume the execution suit in the Fifth District Court at any time. If Eletrobrás does so, Eletropaulo will be required to provide security in the amount of its alleged liability. In that case, if Eletrobrás requests the seizure of such security and the Fifth District Court grants such request, Eletropaulo's results of operation may be materially adversely affected. In addition, in February 2008, CTEEP filed a lawsuit in the Fifth District Court against Eletrobrás and Eletropaulo seeking a declaration that CTEEP is not liable for any debt under the financing agreement. Eletropaulo believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In September 1999, a state appellate court in Minas Gerais, Brazil, granted a temporary injunction suspending the effectiveness of a shareholders' agreement between Southern Electric Brasil Participacoes, Ltda. ("SEB") and the state of Minas Gerais concerning Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais ("CEMIG"), an integrated utility in Minas Gerais. The Company's investment in CEMIG is through SEB. This shareholders' agreement granted SEB certain rights and powers in respect of CEMIG ("Special Rights"). In March 2000, a lower state court in Minas Gerais held the shareholders' agreement invalid where it purported to grant SEB the Special Rights and enjoined the exercise of the Special Rights. In August 2001, the state appellate court denied an appeal of the decision and extended the injunction. In October 2001, SEB filed appeals against the state appellate court's decision with the Federal Superior Court and the Supreme Court of Justice. The state appellate court denied access of these appeals to the higher courts, and in August 2002 SEB filed interlocutory appeals against such denial with the Federal Superior Court and the Supreme Court of Justice. In December 2004, the Federal Superior Court declined to hear SEB's appeal. However, the Supreme Court of Justice is considering whether to hear SEB's appeal. SEB intends to vigorously pursue a restoration of the value of its investment in CEMIG by all legal means; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts. Failure to prevail in this matter may limit SEB's influence on the daily operation of CEMIG.

        In August 2000, the FERC announced an investigation into the organized California wholesale power markets in order to determine whether rates were just and reasonable. Further investigations involved alleged market manipulation. FERC requested documents from each of the AES Southland, LLC plants and AES Placerita, Inc. AES Southland and AES Placerita have cooperated fully with the FERC investigations. AES Southland was not subject to refund liability because it did not sell into the organized spot markets due to the nature of its tolling agreement. AES Placerita is currently subject to refund liability of $588,000 plus interest for spot sales to the California Power Exchange from October 2, 2000 to June 20, 2001 ("Refund Period"). In September 2004, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit issued an order addressing FERC's decision not to impose refunds for the alleged failure to file rates, including transaction specific data, for sales during 2000 and 2001 ("September 2004 Decision"). Although it did not order refunds, the Ninth Circuit remanded the case to FERC for a refund proceeding to consider remedial options. In March 2008, FERC issued its order on remand, requiring the parties to engage in settlement discussions before a settlement judge and establishing procedures for an evidentiary hearing if the settlement process failed. In addition, in August 2006 in a separate case, the Ninth Circuit confirmed the Refund Period, expanded the

77


Table of Contents


transactions subject to refunds to include multi-day transactions, expanded the potential liability of sellers to include any pre-Refund Period tariff violations, and remanded the matter to FERC ("August 2006 Decision"). Various parties filed petitions for rehearing in November 2007. The August 2006 Decision may allow FERC to reopen closed investigations and order relief. AES Placerita made sales during the periods at issue in the September 2004 and August 2006 Decisions. Both appeals may be subject to further court review, and further FERC proceedings on remand would be required to determine potential liability, if any. Prior to the August 2006 Decision, AES Placerita's potential liability for the Refund and pre-Refund Periods could have approximated $23 million plus interest. However, given the September 2004 and August 2006 Decisions, it is unclear whether AES Placerita's potential liability is less than or exceeds that amount. AES Placerita believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In August 2001, the Grid Corporation of Orissa, India ("Gridco"), filed a petition against the Central Electricity Supply Company of Orissa Ltd. ("CESCO"), an affiliate of the Company, with the Orissa Electricity Regulatory Commission ("OERC"), alleging that CESCO had defaulted on its obligations as an OERC-licensed distribution company, that CESCO management abandoned the management of CESCO, and asking for interim measures of protection, including the appointment of an administrator to manage CESCO. Gridco, a state-owned entity, is the sole wholesale energy provider to CESCO. Pursuant to the OERC's August 2001 order, the management of CESCO was replaced with a government administrator who was appointed by the OERC. The OERC later held that the Company and other CESCO shareholders were not necessary or proper parties to the OERC proceeding. In August 2004, the OERC issued a notice to CESCO, the Company and others giving the recipients of the notice until November 2004 to show cause why CESCO's distribution license should not be revoked. In response, CESCO submitted a business plan to the OERC. In February 2005, the OERC issued an order rejecting the proposed business plan. The order also stated that the CESCO distribution license would be revoked if an acceptable business plan for CESCO was not submitted to and approved by the OERC prior to March 31, 2005. In its April 2, 2005 order, the OERC revoked the CESCO distribution license. CESCO has filed an appeal against the April 2, 2005 OERC order and that appeal remains pending in the Indian courts. In addition, Gridco asserted that a comfort letter issued by the Company in connection with the Company's indirect investment in CESCO obligates the Company to provide additional financial support to cover all of CESCO's financial obligations to Gridco. In December 2001, Gridco served a notice to arbitrate, pursuant to the Indian Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996, on the Company, AES Orissa Distribution Private Limited ("AES ODPL"), and Jyoti Structures ("Jyoti") pursuant to the terms of the CESCO Shareholders Agreement between Gridco, the Company, AES ODPL, Jyoti and CESCO (the "CESCO arbitration"). In the arbitration, Gridco appeared to be seeking approximately $189 million in damages, plus undisclosed penalties and interest, but a detailed alleged damage analysis was not filed by Gridco. The Company counterclaimed against Gridco for damages. In June 2007, a 2-to-1 majority of the arbitral tribunal rendered its award rejecting Gridco's claims and holding that none of the respondents, the Company, AES ODPL, or Jyoti, had any liability to Gridco. The respondents' counterclaims were also rejected. The Company subsequently filed an application to recover its costs of the arbitration, which is under consideration by the tribunal. In addition, in September 2007, Gridco filed a challenge of the arbitration award with the local Indian court. In June 2008, Gridco filed a separate application with the local Indian court for an order enjoining the Company from selling or otherwise transferring its shares in Orissa Power Generation Corporation Ltd ("OPGC"), and requiring the Company to provide security in the amount of the contested damages in the CESCO arbitration until Gridco's challenge to the arbitration award is resolved. The Company believes that it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

78


Table of Contents

        In early 2002, Gridco made an application to the OERC requesting that the OERC initiate proceedings regarding the terms of OPGC's existing PPA with Gridco. In response, OPGC filed a petition in the Indian courts to block any such OERC proceedings. In early 2005, the Orissa High Court upheld the OERC's jurisdiction to initiate such proceedings as requested by Gridco. OPGC appealed that High Court's decision to the Supreme Court and sought stays of both the High Court's decision and the underlying OERC proceedings regarding the PPA's terms. In April 2005, the Supreme Court granted OPGC's requests and ordered stays of the High Court's decision and the OERC proceedings with respect to the PPA's terms. The matter is awaiting further hearing. Unless the Supreme Court finds in favor of OPGC's appeal or otherwise prevents the OERC's proceedings regarding the PPA's terms, the OERC will likely lower the tariff payable to OPGC under the PPA, which would have an adverse impact on OPGC's financials. OPGC believes that it has meritorious claims and defenses and will assert them vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In March 2003, the office of the Federal Public Prosecutor for the State of São Paulo, Brazil ("MPF") notified AES Eletropaulo that it had commenced an inquiry related to the Brazilian National Development Bank ("BNDES") financings provided to AES Elpa and AES Transgás and the rationing loan provided to Eletropaulo, changes in the control of Eletropaulo, sales of assets by Eletropaulo and the quality of service provided by Eletropaulo to its customers, and requested various documents from Eletropaulo relating to these matters. In July 2004, the MPF filed a public civil lawsuit in federal court alleging that BNDES violated Law 8429/92 (the Administrative Misconduct Act) and BNDES's internal rules by: (1) approving the AES Elpa and AES Transgás loans; (2) extending the payment terms on the AES Elpa and AES Transgás loans; (3) authorizing the sale of Eletropaulo's preferred shares at a stock-market auction; (4) accepting Eletropaulo's preferred shares to secure the loan provided to Eletropaulo; and (5) allowing the restructurings of Light Serviços de Eletricidade S.A. ("Light") and Eletropaulo. The MPF also named AES Elpa and AES Transgás as defendants in the lawsuit because they allegedly benefited from BNDES's alleged violations. In June 2005, AES Elpa and AES Transgás presented their preliminary answers to the charges. In May 2006, the federal court ruled that the MPF could pursue its claims based on the first, second, and fourth alleged violations noted above. The MPF subsequently filed an interlocutory appeal seeking to require the federal court to consider all five alleged violations. Also, in July 2006, AES Elpa and AES Transgás filed an interlocutory appeal seeking to enjoin the federal court from considering any of the alleged violations. The MPF's lawsuit before the federal court has been stayed pending those interlocutory appeals. AES Elpa and AES Transgás believe they have meritorious defenses to the allegations asserted against them and will defend themselves vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that they will be successful in their efforts.

        AES Florestal, Ltd. ("Florestal"), had been operating a pole factory and had other assets, including a wooded area known as "Horto Renner," in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (collectively, "Property"). Florestal had been under the control of AES Sul ("Sul") since October 1997, when Sul was created pursuant to a privatization by the Government of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. After it came under the control of Sul, Florestal performed an environmental audit of the entire operational cycle at the pole factory. The audit discovered 200 barrels of solid creosote waste and other contaminants at the pole factory. The audit concluded that the prior operator of the pole factory, Companhia Estadual de Energia Elétrica ("CEEE"), had been using those contaminants to treat the poles that were manufactured at the factory. Sul and Florestal subsequently took the initiative of communicating with Brazilian authorities, as well as CEEE, about the adoption of containment and remediation measures. The Public Attorney's Office has initiated a civil inquiry (Civil Inquiry n. 24/05) to investigate potential civil liability and has requested that the police station of Triunfo institute a police investigation (IP number 1041/05) to investigate potential criminal liability regarding the contamination at the pole factory. The parties filed defenses in response to the civil inquiry. The Public Attorney's Office then requested an injunction which the judge rejected on September 26, 2008. The

79


Table of Contents


Public Attorney's office has a right to appeal the decision. The environmental agency ("FEPAM") has also started a procedure (Procedure n. 088200567/059) to analyze the measures that shall be taken to contain and remediate the contamination. Also, in March 2000, Sul filed suit against CEEE in the 2nd Court of Public Treasure of Porto Alegre seeking to register in Sul's name the Property that it acquired through the privatization but that remained registered in CEEE's name. During those proceedings, AES subsequently waived its claim to re-register the Property and asserted a claim to recover the amounts paid for the Property. That claim is pending. In November 2005, the 7th Court of Public Treasure of Porto Alegre ruled that the Property must be returned to CEEE. CEEE has had sole possession of Horto Renner since September 2006 and of the rest of the Property since April 2006. In February 2008, Sul and CEEE signed a "Technical Cooperation Protocol" pursuant to which they requested a new deadline from FEPAM in order to present a proposal. The proposal was delivered on April 8, 2008. FEPAM responded by indicating that the parties should undertake the first step of the proposal which would be to retain a contractor. In its response Sul indicated that such step should be undertaken by CEEE as the relevant environmental events resulted from CEEE's operations. It is estimated that remediation could cost approximately R$14.7 million ($6.3 million). Discussions between Sul and CEEE are ongoing.

        In January 2004, the Company received notice of a "Formulation of Charges" filed against the Company by the Superintendence of Electricity of the Dominican Republic. In the "Formulation of Charges," the Superintendence asserts that the existence of three generation companies (Empresa Generadora de Electricidad Itabo, S.A., ("Itabo") Dominican Power Partners, and AES Andres BV) and one distribution company (Empresa Distribuidora de Electricidad del Este, S.A.) in the Dominican Republic, violates certain cross-ownership restrictions contained in the General Electricity Law of the Dominican Republic. In February 2004, the Company filed in the First Instance Court of the National District of the Dominican Republic an action seeking injunctive relief based on several constitutional due process violations contained in the "Formulation of Charges" ("Constitutional Injunction"). In February 2004, the Court granted the Constitutional Injunction and ordered the immediate cessation of any effects of the "Formulation of Charges," and the enactment by the Superintendence of Electricity of a special procedure to prosecute alleged antitrust complaints under the General Electricity Law. In March 2004, the Superintendence of Electricity appealed the Court's decision. In July 2004, the Company divested any interest in Empresa Distribuidora de Electricidad del Este, S.A. The Superintendence of Electricity's appeal is pending. The Company believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In April 2004, BNDES filed a collection suit against SEB, a subsidiary of the Company, to obtain the payment of R$3.5 billion ($1.5 billion), which includes principal, interest and penalties under the loan agreement between BNDES and SEB, the proceeds of which were used by SEB to acquire shares of CEMIG. In May 2004, the 15th Federal Circuit Court ("Circuit Court") ordered the attachment of SEB's CEMIG shares, which were given as collateral for the loan, as well as dividends paid by CEMIG to SEB. At the time of the attachment, the shares were worth approximately R$762 million ($325 million). In December 2006, SEB's defense was ruled groundless by the Circuit Court, and in January 2007, SEB filed an appeal to the relevant Federal Court of Appeals. Subsequently, BNDES has seized a total of approximately R$630 million ($269 million) in attached dividends, with the approval of the Circuit Court. Also, in April 2008, BNDES filed a plea to seize the attached CEMIG shares. The Circuit Court will consider BNDES's request to seize the attached CEMIG shares after the net value of the alleged debt is recalculated in light of BNDES's seizure of dividends. SEB believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In July 2004, the Corporación Dominicana de Empresas Eléctricas Estatales ("CDEEE") filed lawsuits against Itabo, an affiliate of the Company, located in the Dominican Republic, in the First and

80


Table of Contents


Fifth Chambers of the Civil and Commercial Court of First Instance for the National District. CDEEE alleges in both lawsuits that Itabo spent more than was necessary to rehabilitate two generation units of an Itabo power plant and, in the Fifth Chamber lawsuit, that those funds were paid to affiliates and subsidiaries of AES Gener and Coastal Itabo, Ltd. ("Coastal"), a former shareholder of Itabo, without the required approval of Itabo's board of administration. In the First Chamber lawsuit, CDEEE seeks an accounting of Itabo's transactions relating to the rehabilitation. In November 2004, the First Chamber dismissed the case for lack of legal basis. On appeal, in October 2005 the Court of Appeals of Santo Domingo ruled in Itabo's favor, reasoning that it lacked jurisdiction over the dispute because the parties' contracts mandated arbitration. The Supreme Court of Justice is considering CDEEE's appeal of the Court of Appeals' decision. In the Fifth Chamber lawsuit, which also names Itabo's former president as a defendant, CDEEE seeks $15 million in damages and the seizure of Itabo's assets. In October 2005, the Fifth Chamber held that it lacked jurisdiction to adjudicate the dispute given the arbitration provisions in the parties' contracts. The First Chamber of the Court of Appeal ratified that decision in September 2006. In a related proceeding, in May 2005, Itabo filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York seeking to compel CDEEE to arbitrate its claims. The petition was denied in July 2005. Itabo's appeal of that decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has been stayed since September 2006. Further, in September 2006, in an International Chamber of Commerce arbitration, an arbitral tribunal determined that they lacked jurisdiction to decide arbitration claims concerning these disputes. Itabo believes it has meritorious claims and defenses and will assert them vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In April 2006, a putative class action complaint was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi ("District Court") on behalf of certain individual plaintiffs and all residents and/or property owners in the State of Mississippi who allegedly suffered harm as a result of Hurricane Katrina, and against the Company and numerous unrelated companies, whose alleged greenhouse gas emissions allegedly increased the destructive capacity of Hurricane Katrina. The plaintiffs assert unjust enrichment, civil conspiracy/aiding and abetting, public and private nuisance, trespass, negligence, and fraudulent misrepresentation and concealment claims against the defendants. The plaintiffs seek damages relating to loss of property, loss of business, clean-up costs, personal injuries and death, but do not quantify their alleged damages. In August 2007, the District Court dismissed the case. The plaintiffs have appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, which heard oral arguments in November 2008 and is considering the appeal. The Company believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In June 2006, AES Ekibastuz was found to have breached a local tax law by failing to obtain a license for use of local water for the period of January 1, 2005 through October 3, 2005, in a timely manner. As a result, an additional permit fee was imposed, bringing the total permit fee to approximately $135,000. The Company has appealed this decision to the Supreme Court.

        In June 2007, the Competition Committee of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan ordered AES Ust-Kamenogorsk TETS LLP ("UKT") to pay approximately 835 million KZT ($7 million) to the state for alleged antimonopoly violations in 2005 through January 2007. The Competition Committee also ordered UKT to pay approximately 235 million KZT ($2 million), as estimated by the Company, to certain customers that allegedly have paid unreasonably high power prices since January 2007. In November 2007, the economic court of first instance upheld the Competition Committee's order in part, finding that UKT had violated Kazakhstan's antimonopoly laws, but reduced the damages to be paid to the state to 833 million KZT ($7 million) and rejected the damages to be paid to customers. The court of appeals (first panel) later affirmed the economic court's decision and, therefore, in June 2008, UKT paid the damages. The court of appeals (second panel) rejected UKT's appeal in June 2008. UKT has appealed to the Supreme Court of Kazakhstan. The

81


Table of Contents


Competition Committee's successor (the Antimonopoly Agency) has not indicated whether it intends to assert claims against UKT for alleged antimonopoly violations post January 2007. UKT believes it has meritorious claims and defenses; however, there can be no assurances that it will prevail in these proceedings.

        In July 2007, the Competition Committee ordered Nurenergoservice, an AES subsidiary, to pay approximately 18 billion KZT ($150 million) for alleged antimonopoly violations in 2005 through the first quarter of 2007. The Competition Committee's order was affirmed by the economic court in April 2008. Nurenergoservice's subsequent appeals have been unsuccessful to date, including at the court of appeals (first panel), which rejected Nurenergoservice's appeal in July 2008. Also, the economic court has issued an injunction to secure Nurenergoservice's alleged liability, freezing Nurenergoservice's bank accounts and prohibiting Nurenergoservice from transferring or disposing of its property. In separate but related proceedings, in August 2007, the Competition Committee ordered Nurenergoservice to pay approximately 2 billion KZT (approximately $17 million) in administrative fines for its alleged antimonopoly violations. Nurenergoservice subsequently appealed to the administrative court of first instance. That appeal has been stayed since October 2007 but could resume at any time. The Antimonopoly Agency has not indicated whether it intends to assert claims against Nurenergoservice for alleged antimonopoly violations post first quarter 2007. Nurenergoservice believes it has meritorious claims and defenses; however, there can be no assurances that it will prevail in these proceedings. As Nurenergoservice did not prevail in the economic court or the court of appeals (first panel) with respect to the alleged damages, it will have to pay the alleged damages or risk seizure of its assets. In February 2009, the Antimonopoly Agency seized approximately 783 million KZT ($5 million) from a frozen Nurenergoservice bank account in partial satisfaction of Nurenergoservice's alleged damages liability. Furthermore, if Nurenergoservice does not prevail in the administrative court with respect to the fines, it will have to pay the fines or risk seizure of its assets.

        In August 2007, the Competition Committee ordered Sogrinsk TETS, a thermal cogeneration plant under AES concession, to terminate its contracts with Nurenergoservice and Ust-Kamenogorsk HPP because of Sogrinsk's alleged antimonopoly violations in 2005 through January 2007. The Competition Committee did not order Sogrinsk to pay any damages or fines. The Kazakhstan courts have affirmed the order, including the Supreme Court of Kazakhstan in October 2008. The Antimonopoly Agency has not indicated whether it intends to assert claims against Sogrinsk for alleged antimonopoly violations post January 2007.

        In November 2007, the Competition Committee initiated an investigation of allegations that Irtysh Power and Light, LLP ("Irtysh"), an AES company which manages the state-owned Ust-Kamenogorsk Heat Nets system, had violated Kazakhstan's antimonopoly laws in January through November 2007 by selling power at below-market prices. In February 2008, the Competition Committee determined that the allegations were baseless. The Competition Committee subsequently appeared to initiate an investigation to determine whether Irtysh had illegally coordinated with other AES companies concerning the sale of power, but its successor (the Antimonopoly Agency) has not issued an order or otherwise taken any action on any such investigation to date. Irtysh believes it has meritorious claims and defenses and will assert them vigorously in any formal proceeding; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In December 2008, the Antimonopoly Agency ordered Ust-Kamenogorsk HPP ("UK HPP"), a hydroelectric plant under AES concession, to pay approximately 1.1 billion KZT ($9 million) for alleged antimonopoly violations in February through November 2007. The economic court has issued an injunction to secure UK HPP's alleged liability, among other things freezing UK HPP's bank accounts. Furthermore, the Antimonopoly Agency has initiated administrative proceedings against UK HPP seeking an unspecified amount of administrative fines for the alleged antimonopoly violations. UK HPP believes it has meritorious defenses and will assert them vigorously; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

82


Table of Contents

        In June 2007, the Company received a letter from an outside law firm purportedly representing a shareholder demanding that the Company's Board conduct a review of certain stock option plans, procedures and historical granting and exercise practices, and other matters, and that the Company commence legal proceedings against any officer and/or director who may be liable for damages to the Company. The Board has established a Special Committee, which has retained independent counsel, to consider the demands presented in the letter in light of the work undertaken by the Company in its review of share-based compensation. The Company has not received any communication from the purported shareholder who made the demand since the second half of 2007.

        In July 2007, AES Energia Cartagena SRL, ("AESEC") initiated arbitration against Initec Energia SA, Mitsubishi Corporation, and MC Power Project Management, SL ("Contractor") to recover damages from the Contractor for its delay in completing the construction of AESEC's majority-owned power facility in Murcia, Spain. In October 2007, the Contractor denied AESEC's claims and asserted counterclaims to recover approximately €12 million ($17 million) for alleged unpaid milestone and scope change order payments, among other things, and an unspecified amount for an alleged early completion bonus. The final hearing is scheduled to begin in June 2009. AESEC believes that it has meritorious claims and defenses and will assert them vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In November 2007, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Local Union No. 1395, and sixteen individual retirees, (the "Complainants"), filed a complaint at the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission ("IURC") seeking enforcement of their interpretation of the 1995 final order and associated settlement agreement resolving IPL's basic rate case. The Complainants are requesting that the IURC conduct an investigation of IPL's failure to fund the Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association Trust ("VEBA Trust"), at a level of approximately $19 million per year. The VEBA Trust was spun off to an independent trustee in 2001. The complaint seeks an IURC order requiring IPL to make contributions to place the VEBA Trust in the financial position in which it allegedly would have been had IPL not ceased making annual contributions to the VEBA Trust after its spin off. The complaint also seeks an IURC order requiring IPL to resume making annual contributions to the VEBA Trust. IPL filed a motion to dismiss and both parties are seeking summary judgment in the IURC proceeding. To date, no procedural schedule for this proceeding has been established. IPL believes it has meritorious defenses to the Complainants' claims and it will assert them vigorously in response to the complaint; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In September 2007, the New York Attorney General issued a subpoena to the Company seeking documents and information concerning the Company's analysis and public disclosure of the potential impacts that greenhouse gas ("GHG") legislation and climate change from GHG emissions might have on the Company's operations and results. The Company has produced documents and information in response to the subpoena.

        In October 2007, the Ekibastuz Tax Committee issued a notice for the assessment of certain taxes against AES Ekibastuz LLP. A portion of the assessment, approximately $1.7 million, relates to alleged environmental pollution. The review by the Ekibastuz Tax Committee is ongoing and their decision on any assessment, including the portion related to alleged environmental pollution, is not yet final. In addition, as the result of a subsequent tax audit which was completed on January 24, 2008, an additional amount of approximately 36 million KZT in principal, 20 million KZT in interest and 13 million KZT in penalty (collectively, approximately $600,000), was assessed as underpayment of taxes for the 2004 calendar year and VAT for January 2004. AES Ekibastuz appealed these assessments. However, this position was rejected by the Regional Tax Committee in a decision dated January 30, 2008. On February 29, 2008, AES Ekibastuz appealed to the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan and is currently awaiting a decision.

83


Table of Contents

        In February 2008, the Native Village of Kivalina, Alaska, and the City of Kivalina filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against the Company and numerous unrelated companies, claiming that the defendants' alleged greenhouse gas emissions are destroying the plaintiffs' alleged land. The plaintiffs assert nuisance and concert of action claims against the Company and the other defendants, and a conspiracy claim against a subset of the other defendants. The plaintiffs seek to recover relocation costs, indicated in the complaint to be from $95 million to $400 million, and other alleged damages from the defendants, which are not quantified. The Company has filed a motion to dismiss the case, which the plaintiffs have opposed. The Company believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        A public civil action has been asserted against Eletropaulo and Associação Desportiva Cultural Eletropaulo (the "Associação") relating to alleged environmental damage caused by construction of the Associação near Guarapiranga Reservoir. The initial decision that was upheld on the first appeal found that Eletropaulo should either repair the alleged environmental damage by demolishing certain construction and reforesting the area, pursuant to a project which would cost approximately $628,000, or pay an indemnification amount of approximately $5 million. Eletropaulo has appealed this decision to the Supreme Court and is awaiting a decision.

        In 2007, a lower court issued a decision related to a 1993 claim that was filed by the Public Attorney's office against Eletropaulo, the São Paulo State Government, SABESP (a state owned company), CETESB (a state owned company) and DAEE (the municipal Water and Electric Energy Department), alleging that they were liable for pollution of the Billings Reservoir as a result of pumping water from Pinheiros River into Billings Reservoir. The events in question occurred while Eletropaulo was a state owned company. The initial lower court decision in 2007 found the parties liable for the payment of R$517.46 million ($221 million) for remediation. Eletropaulo subsequently appealed the decision and Eletropaulo is still awaiting a decision on the appeal. The filing of the appeal suspended the lower court's decision. Eletropaulo believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and will defend itself vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that it will be successful in its efforts.

        In September 2008, IPL received a CAA Section 114 information request. The request seeks various information regarding production levels and projects implemented at IPL's generating stations, generally for the time period from January 1, 2001 to the date of the information request. This type of information request has been used in the past to assist the EPA in determining whether a plant is in compliance with applicable standards under the CAA. At this time it is not possible to predict what impact, if any, this request may have on IPL, its results of operation or its financial position.

        In November 2007, the U.S. Department of Justice ("DOJ") indicated to AES Thames, LLC ("AES Thames") that the U.S. EPA had requested that the DOJ file a federal court action against AES Thames for alleged violations of the CAA, the Clean Water Act ("CWA"), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ("CERCLA") and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act ("EPCRA"), in particular alleging that AES Thames had violated (i) the terms of its Prevention of Significant Deterioration ("PSD") air permits in the calculation of its steam load permit limit; and (ii) the CWA, CERCLA and EPCRA in connection with two spills of chlorinating agents. The DOJ subsequently indicated that it would like to settle this matter prior to filing a suit and negotiations are ongoing. During such discussions, the DOJ and EPA have accepted AES Thames method of operation and have asked AES Thames to seek a minor permit modification to clarify the air permit condition. On October 21, 2008, the DOJ proposed a civil penalty of $245,000 for the alleged violations. The Company believes that it has meritorious defenses to the claims asserted against it and if a settlement cannot be achieved, the Company will defend itself vigorously in any lawsuit.

84


Table of Contents

        In December 2008 there were press reports that the National Electricity Regulatory Entity of Argentina ("ENRE") had filed a criminal action in the National Criminal and Correctional Court of Argentina against the board of directors and administrators of EDELAP, an AES subsidiary. Although EDELAP has not been officially served with notice of the action, press reports have stated that ENRE's action concerns certain bank cancellations of EDELAP debt in 2006 and 2007, which were accomplished through transactions between the banks and related AES companies. According to press reports, ENRE claims that EDELAP should have reflected in its accounts the alleged benefits of the transactions that were allegedly obtained by the related companies. EDELAP believes that the allegations lack merit; however, there can be no assurances that its board and administrators will be successful in any formal proceedings concerning the allegations.

        In January 2009 an alleged shareholder of the Company filed a shareholder derivative and putative class action in Delaware state court against the Company and certain members of its board of directors. The plaintiff claims that Section 2.17(B) of the Company's bylaws, concerning shareholder action by written consent, is illegal under Delaware law. The plaintiff does not seek damages but declarations that Section 2.17(B) is unlawful and void and that the board member defendants breached their respective fiduciary duties of loyalty by adopting that bylaw in October 2008. The plaintiff further seeks to recover his litigation costs. The Company defendants believe they have meritorious defenses and will assert them vigorously in these proceedings; however, there can be no assurances that they will be successful in their efforts.

        A CAA Section 114 information request regarding Cayuga and Somerset was received in February 2009. The request seeks various operating and testing data and other information regarding certain types of projects at the Cayuga and Somerset facilities, generally for the time period from January 1, 2000 through the date of the information request. This type of information request has been used in the past to assist the EPA in determining whether a plant is in compliance with applicable standards under the CAA. At this time it is not possible to predict what impact, if any, this request may have on Cayuga and/or Somerset, their results of operation or their financial position.

ITEM 4.    SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS

        No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of 2008.

85


Table of Contents


PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

        On August 7, 2008, the Company's Board of Directors approved a share repurchase plan for up to $400 million of its outstanding common stock. The Board authorization permits the Company to effect the repurchase of shares for a six month period. The stock repurchase program may be modified, extended or terminated by the Board of Directors at any time. The Company repurchased 10,691,267 shares of its common stock during the third quarter of 2008 and did not repurchase any shares of its common stock during the fourth quarter of 2008. The remaining amount authorized to be purchased under the share repurchase plan as of December 31, 2008 was $257 million. No shares were repurchased subsequent to December 31, 2008 and the board authorization of the plan expired on February 7, 2009.


Market Information

        Our common stock is currently traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "AES." The closing price of our common stock as reported by the NYSE on February 24, 2009, was $6.82, per share. The Company repurchased 10,691,267 shares of its common stock in 2008 and did not repurchase any of its common stock in 2007 or 2006. The following tables set forth the high and low sale prices, and performance trends for our common stock as reported by the NYSE for the periods indicated:

 
  2008   2007  
Price Range of Common Stock
  High   Low   High   Low  

First Quarter

  $ 21.99   $ 15.98   $ 22.61   $ 19.78  

Second Quarter

    20.34     16.85     23.90     20.87  

Third Quarter

    19.27     11.23     23.25     17.76  

Fourth Quarter

    11.28     6.40     22.53     20.21  

86


Table of Contents


Performance Graph

THE AES CORPORATION
PEER GROUP INDEX/STOCK PRICE PERFORMANCE

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURNS
ASSUMES INITIAL INVESTMENT OF $100

GRAPHIC

Source: Bloomberg

        We have selected the Standard and Poor's ("S&P") 500 Utilities Index as our peer group index. The S&P 500 Utilities Index is a published sector index comprising the 32 electric and gas utilities included in the S&P 500.

        The five year total return chart assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2003 in AES Common Stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Utilities Index. The information included under the heading "Performance Graph" shall not be considered "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.


Holders

        As of February 24, 2009, there were approximately 7,722 record holders of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share.


Dividends

        We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock. We intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the future development and operation of our business. Accordingly, we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

        Under the terms of our Senior Secured Credit Facilities, which we entered into with a commercial bank syndicate, we have limitations on our ability to pay cash dividends and/or repurchase stock. In addition, under the terms of a guaranty we provided to the utility customer in connection with the AES Thames project, we are precluded from paying cash dividends on our common stock if we do not meet certain net worth and liquidity tests.

87


Table of Contents

        Our project subsidiaries' ability to declare and pay cash dividends to us is subject to certain limitations contained in the project loans, governmental provisions and other agreements to which our project subsidiaries are subject.

        See Item 12 (d) of this Form 10-K for information regarding Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans.

ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        The following table sets forth our selected financial data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. You should read this data together with Item 7 Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto included in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected financial data for each of the years in the five year period ended December 31, 2008 have been derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our future results.

        Acquisitions, disposals, reclassifications and changes in accounting principles affect the comparability of information included in the tables below. Please refer to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K for further explanation of the effect of such activities. Please also refer to Item 1A Risk Factors and Note 24—Risks and Uncertainties to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for certain risks and uncertainties that may cause the data reflected herein not to be indicative of our future financial condition or results of operations.

88


Table of Contents

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
Statement of Operations Data
  2008   2007   2006   2005   2004  
 
  (in millions, except per share amounts)
 
 

Revenues

  $ 16,070   $ 13,516   $ 11,509   $ 10,183   $ 8,667  
 

Income from continuing operations

   
1,216
   
487
   
168
   
355
   
172
 
 

Discontinued operations, net of tax

    18     (582 )   58     198     143  
 

Extraordinary items, net of tax

            21          
 

Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle, net of tax

                (4 )    
                       
 

Net income (loss) available to common stockholders

  $ 1,234   $ (95 ) $ 247   $ 549   $ 315  
                       

Basic (loss) earnings per share:

                               
 

Income from continuing operations, net of tax

  $ 1.82   $ 0.73   $ 0.25   $ 0.54   $ 0.27  
 

Discontinued operations, net of tax

    0.02     (0.87 )   0.09     0.31     0.22  
 

Extraordinary items, net of tax

            0.03          
 

Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle, net of tax

                (0.01 )    
                       
 

Basic earnings (loss) per share

  $ 1.84   $ (0.14 ) $ 0.37   $ 0.84   $ 0.49  
                       

Diluted (loss) earnings per share:

                               
 

Income from continuing operations, net of tax

  $ 1.80   $ 0.72   $ 0.25   $ 0.53   $ 0.27  
 

Discontinued operations, net of tax

    0.02     (0.86 )   0.09     0.31     0.22  
 

Extraordinary items, net of tax

            0.03          
 

Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle, net of tax

                (0.01 )    
                       
 

Diluted earnings (loss) per share

  $ 1.82   $ (0.14 ) $ 0.37   $ 0.83   $ 0.49  
                       

 

 
  December 31,  
Balance Sheet Data:
  2008   2007   2006   2005   2004  
 
  (in millions)
 
 

Total assets

  $ 34,806   $ 34,453   $ 31,274   $ 29,025   $ 28,449  
 

Non-recourse debt (long-term)

  $ 11,869   $ 11,293   $ 9,840   $ 10,308   $ 10,563  
 

Non-recourse debt (long-term)-Discontinued operations

  $   $ 37   $ 342   $ 467   $ 750  
 

Recourse debt (long-term)

  $ 4,994   $ 5,332   $ 4,790   $ 4,682   $ 5,010  
 

Accumulated deficit

  $ (8 ) $ (1,241 ) $ (1,093 ) $ (1,340 ) $ (1,889 )
 

Stockholders' equity

  $ 3,669   $ 3,164   $ 2,979   $ 1,583   $ 997  

89


Table of Contents

ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Overview of Our Business

        AES is a global power company. We own or operate a portfolio of electricity generation and distribution businesses with generation capacity totaling approximately 43,000 MW and distribution networks serving over 11 million people. In addition, we have more than 3,000 MW under construction in ten countries. Our global footprint includes operations in 29 countries on five continents with 83% of our revenue in 2008 generated outside the United States.

        We operate two primary lines of business. The first is our Generation business, where we own and/or operate power plants to generate and sell power to wholesale customers such as utilities and other intermediaries. The second is our Utilities business, where we own and/or operate utilities to distribute, transmit and sell electricity to end-user customers in the residential, commercial, industrial and governmental sectors within a defined service area. Each of our primary lines of business generates approximately half of our revenues.

        We are also continuing to expand our wind generation business and are pursuing additional renewables projects in solar, climate solutions, biomass and energy storage. These initiatives are not material contributors to our revenue, gross margin or income, but we believe that they may become material in the future.

        Generation.    We currently own or operate a portfolio of approximately 38,000 MW, consisting of 93 facilities in 26 countries on five continents at our generation businesses. We also have approximately 2,900 MW of capacity currently under construction in six countries. Our core Generation businesses use a wide range of technologies and fuel types including coal, combined-cycle gas turbines, hydroelectric power and biomass.

        The majority of the electricity produced by our Generation businesses is sold under long-term contracts, or PPAs, to wholesale customers. Approximately 61% of the revenues from our Generation businesses during 2008 was derived from plants that operate under PPAs of five years or longer for 75% or more of their output capacity. These businesses often reduce their exposure to fuel supply risks by entering into long-term fuel supply contracts or fuel tolling contracts where the customer assumes full responsibility for purchasing and supplying the fuel to the power plant. These long-term contractual agreements result in relatively predictable cash flow and earnings and reduce exposure to volatility in the market price for electricity and fuel; however, the amount of earnings and cash flow predictability varies from business to business based on the degree to which its exposure is limited by the contracts that it has negotiated.

        The balance of our Generation businesses sell power through competitive markets under short-term contracts or directly in the spot market. As a result, the cash flows and earnings associated with these businesses are more sensitive to fluctuations in the market price for electricity, natural gas, coal and other fuels. However, for a number of these facilities, including our plants in New York, which include a fleet of coal fired plants, we have hedged the majority of our exposure to fuel, energy and emissions pricing for 2009.

        Utilities.    Our Utilities businesses distribute power to more than 11 million people in seven countries on five continents. Our Utilities business consists primarily of 14 companies owned and/or operated under management agreements, all of which operate in a defined service area. These businesses also include 15 generation plants in two countries totaling approximately 4,400 MW. In addition, we have one generation plant under construction totaling 86 MW. These businesses have a variety of structures ranging from pure distribution businesses to fully integrated utilities, which generate, transmit and distribute power.

90


Table of Contents

        Renewables and Other Initiatives.    In recent years, as demand for renewable sources of energy has grown, we have placed increasing emphasis on developing projects in wind, solar, energy storage and the creation of carbon offsets. We have also developed projects and investments in climate solutions and energy storage. AES Wind Generation, which is one of the largest producers of wind power in the U.S., has 16 wind generation facilities in three countries with over 1,200 MW in operation and 11 wind generation facilities under construction in four countries. AES Solar, our joint venture with Riverstone Holdings, was formed to develop, own and operate utility-scale photo voltaic (PV) solar installations. Since its launch, AES Solar has developed eight plants totaling 24 MW of solar projects in Spain. In climate solutions, we have developed and are implementing projects to produce GHG Credits. In the U.S., we formed Greenhouse Gas Services, LLC as a joint venture with GE Energy Financial Services to create high quality verifiable offsets for the voluntary U.S. market. We also have formed an initiative to develop and implement utility scale energy systems (such as batteries), which store and release power when needed. While these renewables and other initiatives are not currently material to our operations, we believe that in the future, they may become a material contributor to our revenue and gross margin. However, there are risks associated with these initiatives, which are further disclosed in Item 1A—Risk Factors of this Form 10-K.

        Our Organization and Segments.    As of the end of 2008, our Generation and Utilities businesses were organized within four defined geographic regions: (1) Latin America, (2) North America, (3) Europe & Africa, and (4) Asia and the Middle East, ("Asia"). Three regions, North America, Latin America and Europe & Africa, are engaged in both Generation and Utility businesses while the Asia region operates only Generation businesses. Accordingly, these businesses and regions account for seven reportable segments. "Corporate and Other" includes corporate overhead costs which are not directly associated with the operations of our seven primary reportable segments; interest income and expense; other inter-company charges such as management fees and self-insurance premiums which are fully eliminated in consolidation; and revenue, development costs and the operational results related to AES Wind Generation and our other renewables projects, which are currently not material to our operations.

        Beginning in 2009, the Company began to implement certain organizational changes in an effort to streamline the organization. The new structure will continue to be organized along our two lines of business, but within three regions instead of four: (1) North America, (2) Latin America & Africa and (3) Europe, Middle East & Asia ("EMEA"). In addition, we will no longer have an alternative energy group, the operation of which was previously reported under "Corporate and other." Instead, AES Wind Generation, will be managed as part of our North America region (even though some projects are not in North America) while climate solutions projects will be managed in the region in which they are located. Management is currently evaluating the impact of the reorganization on the Company's externally reported segments in accordance with SFAS No. 131. AES Solar is accounted for using the equity method and will continue to be reflected in Corporate and Other in 2009.

        Key Drivers of Our Results of Operations.    Our Utilities and Generation businesses are distinguished by the nature of their customers, operational differences, cost structure, regulatory environment and risk exposure. As a result, each line of business has slightly different drivers which affect operating results. Performance drivers for our Generation businesses include, among other things, plant availability and reliability, management of fixed and operational costs and the extent to which our plants have hedged their exposure to fuel cost volatility. For our Generation businesses which sell power under short-term contract or in the spot market one of the most crucial factors is the market price of electricity and the plant's ability to generate electricity at a cost below that price. Growth in our Generation business is largely tied to securing new PPAs, expanding capacity in our existing facilities and building new power plants. Performance drivers for our Utilities businesses include, but are not limited to, reliability of service; negotiation of tariff adjustments; compliance with extensive regulatory requirements; management of working capital; and in developing countries, reduction of

91


Table of Contents


commercial and technical losses. The results of operations of our Utilities businesses are sensitive to changes in economic growth and weather conditions in the area in which they operate.

        One of the key factors which affect both our revenue and costs of sales is changes in the cost of fuel. When fuel costs increase, many of our Generation businesses with long-term contracts and our Utilities are able to pass these costs on to the customer through fuel pass-through or fuel indexing arrangements in their contracts or through increases in tariff rates. Therefore, in a rising fuel cost environment as was the case in 2007 and much of 2008, increases in fuel costs for these businesses often resulted in increases in revenue (though not necessarily on a one-for-one basis). While these circumstances may not have a large impact on gross margin, they can significantly affect gross margin as a percentage of revenue. Other factors that can affect gross margin include our ability to expand the number of facilities we own; and in our existing plants, to sign up new customers and/or purchasing parties, collect receivables from existing customers and operate our plants more efficiently.

        Another key driver of our results is the management of risk. Our assets are diverse with respect to fuel source and type of market, which helps reduce certain types of operating risk. Our portfolio employs a broad range of fuels, including coal, gas, fuel oil and renewable sources such as hydroelectric power, wind and solar, which reduces the risks associated with dependence on any one fuel source. For additional information regarding our facilities see Item 1—Our Organization and Segments. Our presence in mature markets helps reduce the volatility associated with our businesses in faster-growing emerging markets. In addition, as noted above, our Generation portfolio is largely contracted, which reduces the risk related to the market prices of electricity and fuel. We also attempt to limit risk by hedging much of our currency and commodity risk, and by matching the currency of most of our subsidiary debt to the revenue of the business that issued that debt. However, our businesses are still subject to these risks, as further described in Item 1A—Risk Factors, "We may not be adequately hedged against our exposure to changes in commodity prices or interest rates."

Highlights of 2008

        Results of Operations.    In 2008, management continued to focus its efforts on increasing shareholder value by improving operations, executing our growth strategy and strategically managing our portfolio of businesses. Our 2008 results of operations were positively impacted by a number of factors including the gain on the sale of Ekibastuz and Maikuben in Kazakhstan, higher generation rates, utilities tariffs and favorable foreign currency translation.

    revenues of $16.1 billion and gross margin of $3.7 billion, or 23% of revenue;

    income from continuing operations of $1.2 billion, or $1.80 per diluted share; and

    cash flow from operating activities of $2.2 billion.

        Our results were negatively impacted by higher fuel costs in Asia and the unfavorable impact of mark-to-market adjustments on derivative instruments. We also saw an increase in fixed costs, primarily in Brazil and Cameroon, related to maintenance, higher provisions for bad debt, contractor services and higher purchased energy costs.

        In the fourth quarter of 2008, and in response to the financial market crisis, we reviewed and prioritized projects in our development pipeline. As a result, we recognized an impairment charge of approximately $75 million ($34 million, net of minority interest and income taxes). The projects determined to be impaired primarily included two liquefied natural gas projects in North America and a non-power development project at one of our facilities in North America. As the Company continues to review and streamline its project pipeline, it is possible that further impairments could be identified in the future, some of which could be material. During 2008, we also recognized additional impairment charges of $36 million related to long-lived assets at Uruguaiana, our gas-powered generation plant in Brazil. The impairment was triggered by the combination of gas curtailments and increases in the spot

92


Table of Contents

market price of energy in 2007 that continued in 2008. Following an initial impairment charge in the fourth quarter of 2007, further charges were incurred in 2008 due to fixed asset purchase agreements in place. During the first half of 2008, we withdrew from projects in South Africa and Israel which resulted in impairment charges of $36 million. We also recognized an impairment of $18 million related to the shutdown of the Hefei plant in China.

        Investment and Financing Activities.    In addition to the financial results presented above, the additional highlights for the year ended December 31, 2008 include the following:

    Financing activities

    We were able to refinance recourse debt at lower interest rates and with extended maturities, reducing our 2009 recourse debt maturities from $467 million at December 31, 2007 to $154 million at December 31, 2008.

    Our consolidated subsidiaries raised approximately $2.7 billion in 2008 for the purposes of refinancing existing debt and to fund acquisitions and construction. For example, in October, the Company obtained approximately $1 billion in non-recourse financing to support the development of Angamos, a 518 MW coal-fired generation facility in Chile. Angamos is expected to begin commercial operations in 2011.

    We reduced outstanding recourse debt by $360 million and repurchased 10.7 million shares of our common stock at a total cost of $143 million.

    Acquisitions

    In April, the Company completed the purchase of a 92% interest in Masinloc, a 660 gross MW coal-fired thermal power generation facility in Masinloc, Philippines. The purchase price was $930 million in cash (excluding anticipated improvements). Non-recourse financing of $665 million was obtained to fund the acquisition and improve the facilities.

    Investments in Renewable Energy and Related Projects

    Wind Generation—Highlights from AES Wind Generation include the following:

    The Company expanded its portfolio of wind generation businesses with the acquisition of Mountain View Power Partners ("Mountain View"), which consists of 111 wind turbines with a capacity of 67 MW in Palm Springs, California.

    In July, we acquired a 49% interest in Guohua Hulunbeier Wind Farm, a 49.5 MW wind farm development in China. The Company also reached a separate agreement with Guohua to move to phase II of our jointly-owned Huanghua wind project to expand the facility, doubling the capacity to 99 MW. AES has a 49% interest in the Huanghua Project.

    In December, the Company obtained financing to build a 156 MW wind farm in Kavarna, the largest in Bulgaria, and a 22 MW wind farm in Scotland. Additionally we acquired a 34 MW wind farm from our affiliate, InnoVent. All three are expected to commence commercial operations in 2009.

    Solar Energy—In March, the Company formed AES Solar, a joint venture with Riverstone. AES Solar will develop land-based solar photovoltaic panels that capture sunlight to convert into electricity that feed directly into power grids. AES Solar has commenced commercial operations of 24 MW solar projects in Spain. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company and Riverstone will each provide up to $500 million of capital over the next five years. Through December 31, 2008, the Company has contributed total capital of $135 million.

93


Table of Contents

    Climate Solutions—Highlights from our climate solutions activities include:

    In April, the Company acquired the rights to the gas from a landfill project in El Salvador ("Nejapa"). Nejapa produces emission reduction credits and plans to build a 6 MW generation facility that could potentially increase to 25 MW in the future.

    In June, as a result of a financial restructuring, the Company assumed 100% ownership of AgCert International Plc, an Irish company investing in GHG projects primarily in Brazil and Mexico. AgCert currently produces approximately 1.4 million tonnes per year of CERs.

    In September, Greenhouse Gas Services LLC, the Company's joint venture with General Electric, announced an agreement with Google to co-develop projects to reduce GHG emissions and produce GHG credits. The first project will capture methane gas in North Carolina.

    Construction

        As of December 31, 2008, the Company has more than 3,000 Gross MW of new generation capacity. The projects under construction include 14 core power projects totaling 2,993 MW and 11 wind power projects totaling 410 MW.

    We began construction of Angamos, a 518 MW coal-fired generation facility in Chile expected to begin commercial operations in 2011.

    We also further advanced our recent projects with the start of construction of three hydro projects in Turkey that are being developed through our investment made in May 2007 in the IC Ictas Energy Group.

    In July, the Company achieved early successful testing of simple cycle operation for the Amman East facility in Jordan, a 380 MW natural gas-fired project expected to achieve full combined-cycle operation in the first half of 2009.

    In August, the Company started commercial operations of the 170 MW Buffalo Gap III wind farm in Abilene, Texas, bringing the total wind generation capacity of the Buffalo Gap wind farm to 524 MW.

        For a complete listing of the Company's projects under construction or in development please see Item 1—Our Organizations and Segments.

    Portfolio Management

    In the first quarter of 2008, the Company finalized our termination agreement with the Chinese government and shut down Hefei, a 115 MW oil-fueled generation facility. The plant became the property of the Anhui Province and we received termination compensation of approximately $39 million in March 2008.

    In May 2008, the Company completed the sale of Ekibastuz and Maikuben West, a coal-fired power plant and a coal mine with operations in Kazakhstan. Proceeds from the sale of these businesses totaled approximately $1.1 billion, a portion of which was used to pay down debt in June 2008. We have the opportunity to receive additional consideration of up to approximately $380 million under performance incentives and a management agreement to continue operation and management of the plants for the next three years.

    In November 2008, the Company sold a 9.6% ownership in AES Gener for $175 million which reduced the Company's ownership percentage from 80.2% to 70.6%. As a result, the Company recognized a pre-tax loss of $31 million in the fourth quarter of 2008. The net proceeds from

94


Table of Contents

      this transaction were used to participate in Gener's capital increase in February 2009 as discussed under Outlook for the Future.

    In December 2008, the Company sold its 70% interest in Jiaozuo, a 250 MW coal-fired generation plant in China for net proceeds of $73 million. Prior periods have been restated to reflect this business within Discontinued Operations for all periods presented.

Credit Crisis and the Macroeconomic Environment

        In the second half of 2007, conditions in the credit markets began to deteriorate in the United States and abroad. In the third and fourth quarter of 2008, this crisis and associated market conditions worsened dramatically, with unprecedented market volatility, widening credit spreads, volatile currencies, illiquidity, and increased counterparty credit risk.

        Beginning in the second half of 2007, the Company began a series of debt-related initiatives, including the refinancing of approximately $2.0 billion of recourse debt in transactions executed in the fourth quarter of 2007 and the second quarter of 2008. As a result of these transactions, The AES Corporation reduced the 2009 maturities on its recourse debt from $467 million as of June 30, 2007 to $154 million as of December 31, 2008. The AES Corporation also eliminated many of the restrictive covenants in its 8.75% Second Priority Senior Secured Notes due 2013 and modified certain covenants contained in its senior secured credit facility. The amendments made the financial covenants less restrictive and made certain other changes, such as expanding the Company's ability to repurchase its own common stock. For further information regarding these covenant changes, see the Capital Resources and Liquidity—Parent Company Liquidity section of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. In addition, The AES Corporation successfully replaced Lehman Commercial Paper with another bank as a lender under its senior secured credit facility.

        Because of the factors described above, management currently believes that it can meet its near-term liquidity requirements through a combination of existing cash and cash equivalent balances, cash provided by operating activities, financings, and, if needed, borrowings under its secured and unsecured credit facilities. Although there can be no assurance due to the challenging times currently faced by financial institutions, management believes that the participating banks under its facilities will be able to meet their funding commitments.

        The Company is also subject to credit risk, which includes risk related to the ability of counterparties (such as parties to our PPAs, fuel supply agreements, hedging agreements, and other contractual arrangements) to meet their contractual payment obligations or the potential nonperformance of counterparties to deliver contracted commodities or services at the contracted price. While counterparty credit risk has increased in the current crisis and there can be no assurances regarding the future, to date the Company has not suffered any material effects related to its counterparties.

        The global economic slowdown could also result in a decline in the value of our assets, which could result in material impairments of certain assets or result in an increase in our obligations which could be material to our operations. For example, as discussed above, during the fourth quarter of 2008, and in response to the financial market crisis, the Company reviewed and prioritized the projects in our development pipeline. As a result we recognized an impairment charge of approximately $75 million ($34 million, net of minority interest and income taxes). The projects that were impaired included two liquefied natural gas projects in North America and a non-power development project at one of our facilities in North America.

        In addition to the decline in development assets noted above, there is a risk that the fair value of other assets could also decline, resulting in additional impairment charges and/or a material increase in

95


Table of Contents


our obligations. Certain subsidiaries of the Company have defined benefit pension plans. The Company periodically evaluates the value of the pension plan assets to ensure that they will be sufficient to fund their respective pension obligations. Given the declines in worldwide asset values, we are expecting an increase in pension expense and funding requirements in future periods, which may be material. As of December 31, 2008 we expect the Company to make future employer contributions to its defined benefit pension plans in 2009 of approximately $154 million, of which $21 million will be made to its U.S. plans and $133 million to foreign plans primarily in Brazil (subject to changes in foreign currency exchange rates), compared to employer contributions made in 2008 of $197 million, of which $59 million was made to U.S. plans and $138 million to foreign plans. In Brazilian real ("R$") contributions for our subsidiaries in Brazil are expected to increase from R$236 million in 2008 to R$294 million in 2009. The decline in the fair value of pension plan assets will also result in increased pension expense in 2009, currently estimated at $124 million in 2009 (subject to changes in foreign currency exchange rates) compared to $60 million in 2008. Expense at our subsidiaries in Brazil, in local currency, is expected to be R$176 million in 2009 compared to R$77 million in 2008. See Item 1A—Risk Factors, "Some of our subsidiaries participate in defined benefit pension plans and their net pension plan obligations may require additional significant contributions."

        To date, other than the impacts described above, the global economic slowdown has not significantly impacted the Company. However, in the event that the credit crisis and global recession deteriorate further, or are protracted, there could be a material adverse impact on the Company. The Company could be materially impacted if such events or other events occur such that participating lenders under its secured and unsecured facilities fail to meet their commitments, or the Company is unable to access the capital markets on favorable terms or at all, is unable to raise funds through the sale of assets, or is otherwise unable to finance its activities or refinance its debt, or if capital market disruptions result in increased borrowing costs (including with respect to interest payments on the Company's variable rate debt). The Company could also be adversely affected if general economic or political conditions in the markets where the Company operates deteriorate, resulting in a reduction in cash flow from operations, a reduction in the value of currencies in these markets relative to the dollar (which could cause currency losses), an increase in the price of commodities used in our operations and construction, or if the value of its assets remain depressed or decline further. If any of the foregoing events occur, such events (or a combination thereof) could have a material impact on the Company, its results of operations, liquidity, financial covenants, and/or its credit rating.

        The Company could also be adversely affected if the foregoing effects are exacerbated or general economic or political conditions in the markets where the Company operates deteriorate, resulting in a reduction in cash flow from operations, a reduction in the value of currencies in these markets relative to the dollar (which could cause currency losses), an increase in the price of commodities used in our operations and construction or a decline in asset values.

Outlook for the Future

        In 2008, management continued to focus its efforts on improving operations, executing our growth strategy, managing our risk and strategically managing our portfolio of businesses. As market conditions deteriorated in the second half of 2008, our strategy evolved, with an increased emphasis on preserving liquidity. We also recognized that uncertain economic conditions could potentially slow global demand for power for some period of time. Accordingly, we scaled back our development plans mid-year to focus on projects that we believe will still have attractive returns and can still attract capital in difficult financial markets and on completing our projects that are currently under construction. If the Company has capital available for investment beyond these priorities (whether for further development, reductions in debt, or repurchases of stock), it will be allocated based on management's assessment of its most effective use.

96


Table of Contents

        Consistent with this strategy, in the fourth quarter of 2008, management conducted a review of its development pipeline, and determined that certain projects in the pipeline may not achieve financial close, will not provide the returns originally anticipated, or are otherwise unfeasible, or that other uses of capital such as debt repayment or stock repurchases offer a better return on the Company's capital. Accordingly, management has determined it will not pursue certain projects and will delay others until the credit markets recover. Furthermore, management will continue to review its pipeline and may further reduce the number of projects it pursues. The Company is also evaluating other options with respect to its pipeline, such as the addition of partners who can contribute capital, share project risk and/or provide strategic expertise. There can be no assurance regarding the outcome of any such decisions on the Company, its results of operations or its financial condition.

        The AES Corporation has $154 million in recourse debt maturing in 2009 compared with Parent Company liquidity of approximately $1.4 billion.

        With regard to its projects currently under construction, the Company believes that it can complete these projects through a combination of existing cash and cash equivalent balances, cash provided by operating activities, financings, and, if needed, borrowings under its secured and unsecured credit facilities. The Company has secured the financing for the vast majority of projects under construction.

        The Company is also focused on operational improvements and cost reductions to help further improve its cash flow from operations and enhance its financial flexibility. The Company has already commenced efforts to reduce costs and streamline our organization. These efforts include the reorganization of the Company from four regions to three regions, which is expected to eliminate redundancies and improve our cost structure.

Recent Events

        On December 23, 2008, the local Chilean SEC approved Gener's issuance of approximately 945 million new shares at a price of $162.50 Chilean Pesos. The proceeds of the share issuance were $246 million and Gener anticipates using these proceeds for future expansion plans, working capital and other operating needs. The preemptive rights period began on January 7, 2009 remained open for 30 days and closed on February 5, 2009. During the preemptive rights period AES, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Cachagua, paid $175 million from the proceeds of the November 2008 share sale to maintain its current ownership percentage of approximately 70.6%.


2008 Performance Highlights

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006  
 
  ($'s in millions, except per share amounts)
 

Revenue

  $ 16,070   $ 13,516   $ 11,509  

Gross Margin

  $ 3,707   $ 3,392   $ 3,419  

Gross Margin as a % of Revenue

    23.1 %   25.1 %   29.7 %

Diluted Earnings Per Share from Continuing Operations

  $ 1.80   $ 0.72   $ 0.25  

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities

  $ 2,165   $ 2,353   $ 2,348  

    Revenue

        Revenue increased 19% to $16.1 billion in 2008 compared with $13.5 billion in 2007 primarily due to higher generation rates in Latin America, the impact of favorable foreign currency translation of approximately $350 million and utility tariffs and volume.

97


Table of Contents

    Gross margin

        Gross margin increased 9% to $3.7 billion in 2008 compared with $3.4 billion in 2007 primarily due to higher generation rates in Latin America, favorable foreign currency impact, utility volume and tariff, partially offset by an increase in fixed costs associated with allowances for bad debts and higher purchased energy costs, primarily in Brazil and Cameroon. Gross margin as a percentage of revenue decreased to 23.1% in 2008 compared with 25.1% in 2007 driven by the increase in fixed costs.

        Our gross margin remained at approximately $3.4 billion in 2006 and 2007 and increased to $3.7 billion in 2008. Gross margin however declined in the fourth quarter of 2008 due to several factors including the mix of earnings within our portfolio, foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and recent acquisitions, such as Masinloc in the Philippines. We believe that it is reasonably possible that the recent trend in gross margin reported in the fourth quarter will continue. The Company's future gross margin trends may be significantly impacted by currency exchange rates, commodity prices and the impact of any significant regulatory developments in each country where the Company conducts its business. The Company is subject to extensive and complex governmental regulations which affect most aspects of our business, such as regulations governing the generation and distribution of electricity and environmental regulations, as described more fully in the Business section of the Form 10-K.

    Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations

        Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations increased $1.08 per share to $1.80 per share in 2008 compared to $0.72 per share in 2007. The 2008 results included a net positive impact of $0.74 per share relating to : (i) a gain from the sale of the Company's northern Kazakhstan businesses in the second quarter of 2008 of $905 million (pre-tax) or $1.31; (ii) additional tax expense of $144 million or $0.21 related to the repatriation of a portion of the Kazakhstan sale proceeds (iii) loss related to corporate debt restructuring charges of $55 million (pre-tax) or $0.05 (iv) impairment charges taken in the fourth quarter on certain LNG and other development efforts of $34 million (net of tax and minority interest) or $0.05, (v) other impairment charges in Brazil and South Africa of $45 million (net of tax and minority interest) or $0.06 and (vi) net currency translation and transaction losses of $0.20 per share. These were compared to 2007 results which included (i) a gain of approximately $0.15 per diluted share related to the acquisition of a leasehold interest at Eastern Energy in New York and the recovery of certain tax assets in Latin America; (ii) impairment charges related to Uruguaiana and AgCert of $0.33 per share and (iii) corporate debt retirement costs in 2007 of $0.08 per share. The remaining increase in diluted earnings per share from continuing operations from 2007 to 2008 of $0.08 per share is mainly the result of improved performance in 2008.

    Net cash from operating activities

        Net cash from operating activities decreased 8% to $2.2 billion in 2008 compared with $2.4 billion in 2007. Excluding the decrease in net cash provided by operating activities from EDC in Venezuela, which was sold in May 2007, net cash provided by operating activities would have decreased $37 million. This decrease was primarily due to increased employer pension contributions at our U.S. and foreign subsidiaries and an increase in regulatory assets related to future recoverable purchased energy costs in Brazil. These decreases were partially offset by a decrease in cash used by a Brazilian subsidiary to pay income taxes in 2008 as a result of tax credits used as the primary payment method in 2008 and improved operations in Latin America and Europe & Africa. Please refer to Consolidated Cash Flows—Operating Activities for further discussion.

98


Table of Contents


Consolidated Results of Operations

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
Results of operations
  2008   2007   2006   $ change
2008 vs. 2007
  $ change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (in millions, except per share amounts)
 

Revenue:

                               
 

Latin America Generation

  $ 4,465   $ 3,510   $ 2,615   $ 955   $ 895  
 

Latin America Utilities

    5,911     5,172     4,552     739     620  
 

North America Generation

    2,234     2,168     1,928     66     240  
 

North America Utilities

    1,079     1,052     1,032     27     20  
 

Europe & Africa Generation

    1,160     975     852     185     123  
 

Europe & Africa Utilities

    782     660     570     122     90  
 

Asia Generation

    1,264     817     718     447     99  
 

Corporate and Other(1)

    (825 )   (838 )   (758 )   13     (80 )
                       

Total Revenue

  $ 16,070   $ 13,516   $ 11,509   $ 2,554   $ 2,007  
                       

Gross Margin:

                               
 

Latin America Generation

  $ 1,394   $ 955   $ 1,052   $ 439   $ (97 )
 

Latin America Utilities

    885     865     888     20     (23 )
 

North America Generation

    657     702     610     (45 )   92  
 

North America Utilities

    261     313     277     (52 )   36  
 

Europe & Africa Generation

    294     275     247     19     28  
 

Europe & Africa Utilities

    57     63     103     (6 )   (40 )
 

Asia Generation

    143     176     186     (33 )   (10 )

Total Corporate and Other Expense(2)

    (355 )   (336 )   (245 )   (19 )   (91 )

Interest expense

    (1,844 )   (1,788 )   (1,769 )   (56 )   (19 )

Interest income

    540     500     434     40     66  

Other expense

    (163 )   (255 )   (451 )   92     196  

Other income

    379     358     116     21     242  

Gain on sale of investments

    909         98     909     (98 )

(Loss) gain on sale of subsidiary stock

    (31 )   134     (535 )   (165 )   669  

Impairment expense

    (175 )   (408 )   (17 )   233     (391 )

Foreign currency transaction (losses) gains on net monetary position

    (185 )   24     (80 )   (209 )   104  

Other non-operating expense

    (15 )   (57 )       42     (57 )

Income tax expense

    (774 )   (679 )   (359 )   (95 )   (320 )

Net equity in earnings of affiliates

    33     76     73     (43 )   3  

Minority interest expense

    (794 )   (431 )   (460 )   (363 )   29  
                       

Income from continuing operations

    1,216     487     168     729     319  

Income from operations of discontinued businesses

    12     79     115     (67 )   (36 )

Gain (loss) from disposal of discontinued businesses

    6     (661 )   (57 )   667     (604 )

Extraordinary items

            21         (21 )
                       

Net income (loss)

  $ 1,234   $ (95 ) $ 247   $ 1,329   $ (342 )
                       

Per share data:

                               

Basic income per share from continuing operations

  $ 1.82   $ 0.73   $ 0.25   $ 1.09   $ 0.48  

Diluted income per share from continuing operations

  $ 1.80   $ 0.72   $ 0.25   $ 1.08   $ 0.47  

(1)
Corporate and Other includes revenues from renewables and inter-segment eliminations of revenues related to transfers of electricity from Tietê (generation) to Eletropaulo (utility) in Latin America.

(2)
Total Corporate and Other expenses include corporate general and administrative expenses, expenses related to our renewables initiatives as well as certain inter-segment eliminations, primarily corporate charges for management fees and self insurance premiums.

99


Table of Contents

Segment Analysis

Latin America

        The following table summarizes revenue and gross margin for our Generation segment in Latin America for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change
2008 vs. 2007
  % Change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

Latin America Generation

                               

Revenue

  $ 4,465   $ 3,510   $ 2,615     27 %   34 %

Gross Margin

  $ 1,394   $ 955   $ 1,052     46 %   (9 )%

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    31 %   27 %   40 %            

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Generation revenue increased $955 million, or 27%, from the previous year primarily due to higher contract and spot prices and higher volume at Gener in Chile and our businesses in Argentina of approximately $508 million and $188 million, respectively, higher contract and spot prices at our businesses in the Dominican Republic of approximately $132 million, favorable foreign currency translation of approximately $77 million and higher spot prices at our businesses in Panama of approximately $45 million.

        Generation gross margin increased $439 million, or 46%, from the previous year primarily due to higher contract and spot prices and higher volume at Gener and our businesses in Argentina of approximately $318 million, higher contract and spot prices at our businesses in the Dominican Republic of approximately $86 million, favorable foreign currency translation of approximately $44 million, and higher spot prices at our businesses in Panama of approximately $30 million. These increases were partially offset by higher purchased energy prices of approximately $57 million at Uruguaiana in Brazil.

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Generation revenue increased $895 million, or 34%, from the previous year primarily due to higher rates and volume at Gener and our businesses in Argentina of approximately $443 million and $95 million, respectively; and increased volume and intercompany sales from Tietê, in Brazil, to Eletropaulo, our Brazilian utility, of approximately $130 million. Our increase in ownership of the controlling shares of Itabo, in the Dominican Republic, which resulted in a change from the equity method of accounting consolidation, contributed approximately $87 million in revenue. The increase from foreign currency translation was approximately $38 million.

        Generation gross margin decreased $97 million, or 9%, from the previous year primarily due to increased cost from gas supply curtailments, drier than normal hydrology and higher spot prices for electricity in the Company's businesses in Argentina, Chile and Southern Brazil of approximately $173 million and one time transmission charges at Tietê of $39 million, offset in part, by higher sales at Itabo of $23 million and intercompany sales in Tietê of $103 million.

100


Table of Contents

        The following table summarizes revenue and gross margin for our Utilities segment in Latin America for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change
2008 vs. 2007
  % Change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

Latin America Utilities

                               

Revenue

  $ 5,911   $ 5,172   $ 4,552     14 %   14 %

Gross Margin

  $ 885   $ 865   $ 888     2 %   (3 )%

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    15 %   17 %   20 %            

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Utilities revenue increased $739 million, or 14%, from the previous year primarily due to favorable foreign currency translation of approximately $357 million at our businesses in Brazil, increased rates primarily associated with higher pass-through purchased energy and transmission costs at Eletropaulo of approximately $148 million, and higher volume at Eletropaulo and Sul in Brazil of approximately $162 million and $30 million, respectively.

        Utilities gross margin increased $20 million, or 2%, from the previous year primarily due to higher volume at Eletropaulo of approximately $162 million and favorable foreign currency translation of approximately $67 million at our businesses in Brazil. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in the non-pass through rates at Eletropaulo as a result of the July 2007 tariff reset of approximately $74 million, increased fixed costs of approximately $71 million at Eletropaulo primarily due to higher provisions for bad debts and higher purchased energy costs at Eletropaulo of approximately $68 million.

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Utilities revenue increased $620 million, or 14%, from the previous year primarily due to favorable foreign currency translation of $493 million, and increased rates and volume at Sul and at our plants in El Salvador of $58 million and $41 million, respectively, offset by a net decrease in tariffs of $24 million at Eletropaulo.

        Utilities gross margin decreased $23 million, or 3%, from the previous year primarily due to reduced tariff rates at Eletropaulo of $355 million offset by lower costs, favorable foreign currency translation of $148 million and higher volume of $74 million. Additionally, Sul had increased rates and volume of $27 million and favorable foreign currency translation of $19 million.

North America

        The following table summarizes revenue and gross margin for our Generation segment in North America for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change
2008 vs. 2007
  % Change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

North America Generation

                               

Revenue

  $ 2,234   $ 2,168   $ 1,928     3 %   12 %

Gross Margin

  $ 657   $ 702   $ 610     (6 )%   15 %

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    29 %   32 %   32 %            

101


Table of Contents

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Generation revenue increased $66 million, or 3%, from the previous year primarily due to higher volume of $38 million at TEG/TEP in Mexico, and net higher revenue at Merida in Mexico of $29 million primarily due to the pass-through of higher fuel costs offset by a revenue adjustment. In addition, revenue increased $8 million at Red Oak in New Jersey, due to higher pricing and availability bonuses. At Warrior Run in Maryland, revenue increased $12 million due to the pass-through of higher fuel costs and higher volume due to no significant outages in 2008. These effects were partially offset by lower volume in New York of $23 million primarily due to planned outages and lower capacity factors.

        Generation gross margin decreased $45 million, or 6%, and decreased as a percentage of revenue from the previous year due to lower gross margin in New York of $46 million mainly due to a planned outage and lower volume, and higher fuel prices and outages of $16 million at Deepwater in Texas. Gross margin decreased $13 million at TEG/TEP due primarily to outages and lower rates due to changes in the sales contract rates associated with the refinancing in 2007. These decreases were partially offset by a net increase in gross margin in Hawaii of $29 million primarily due to a $22 million net mark-to-market derivative gain on a coal supply contract and a one time use tax refund of $6 million.

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Generation revenue increased $240 million, or 12%, from the previous year primarily due to approximately $200 million in new business as a result of our acquisition of TEG/TEP and approximately $96 million in higher rate and volume sales at the Company's New York facilities; offset by mark-to-market adjustments for embedded derivatives of $51 million at Deepwater and lower emission sales of $39 million.

        Generation gross margin increased $92 million, or 15%, from the previous year primarily due to approximately $62 million related to our acquisition of TEG/TEP and $90 million related to higher rates and volumes and lower cost at the Company's New York facilities offset by lower sales of excess emissions allowances of approximately $39 million.

        The following table summarizes revenue and gross margin for our Utilities segment in North America for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change 2008 vs. 2007   % Change 2007 vs. 2006  
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

North America Utilities

                               

Revenue

  $ 1,079   $ 1,052   $ 1,032     3 %   2 %

Gross Margin

  $ 261   $ 313   $ 277     (17 )%   13 %

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    24 %   30 %   27 %            

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Utilities revenue increased $27 million, or 3%, from the previous year primarily due to a $42 million increase in rate adjustments at IPL in Indiana, related to environmental investments, $42 million of higher fuel and purchased power costs and an $8 million increase in wholesale prices. These increases were offset by $32 million of credits to customers established during the first six months of 2008, $16 million of lower retail volume primarily due to unfavorable weather compared to 2007 and an $18 million decrease in wholesale volume.

102


Table of Contents

        Utilities gross margin decreased $52 million, or 17%, from the previous year primarily due to lower variable retail margin of $42 million driven by the credits to customers established during the first six months of 2008 and lower retail volume. In addition, IPL had higher maintenance expenses of $9 million primarily due to storm restoration costs and the timing and duration of major generating unit overhauls, an increase of $6 million in labor and benefits costs and an increase of $3 million in contractor and consulting costs. These decreases to gross margin were offset by a return recovered through rates on approved environmental investments of $14 million.

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Utilities revenue increased $20 million, or 2%, from the previous year primarily due to increased volume due to weather, offset by a decrease in fuel charges passed through to customer at IPL.

        Utilities gross margin increased $36 million, or 13%, from the previous year primarily due to increased volume sales and a return recovered through rates on approved environmental investments at IPL.

    Europe & Africa

        The following table summarizes revenue for our Generation segment in Europe & Africa for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change
2008 vs. 2007
  % Change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

Europe & Africa Generation

                               

Revenue

  $ 1,160   $ 975   $ 852     19 %   14 %

Gross Margin

  $ 294   $ 275   $ 247     7 %   11 %

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    25 %   28 %   29 %            

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Generation revenue increased $185 million, or 19%, from the previous year primarily due to an increase in capacity income and energy payments at Kilroot in Northern Ireland of approximately $105 million, rate recovery and higher volume of approximately $93 million at our businesses in Hungary and favorable foreign currency translation in Hungary of $32 million. In addition, revenue at Kilroot increased approximately $21 million compared to the previous year primarily due to the unfavorable impact of two major overhauls in 2007. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in revenue of approximately $49 million in Kazakhstan following the sale of Ekibastuz and Maikuben in the second quarter of 2008 that was partially offset by approximately $12 million in management fees earned from continuing management agreements for those businesses. In addition, revenue at Kilroot was approximately $37 million lower due to the unfavorable impact of foreign currency translation.

        Generation gross margin increased $19 million, or 7%, from the previous year primarily due to higher rates and volume of $43 million at Tisza II in Hungary, and an increase in capacity income and fewer forced outages at Kilroot of approximately $32 million. These were offset by an increase in fixed costs of $24 million at Kilroot and Tisza II, unfavorable foreign currency translation of $12 million at Kilroot and a reduction in gross margin of $29 million in Kazakhstan following the sale of Ekibastuz and Maikuben in the second quarter of 2008 that was partially offset by $9 million in net gross margin from continuing management agreements for those businesses.

103


Table of Contents

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Generation revenue increased $123 million, or 14%, from the previous year primarily due to favorable foreign currency translation of $77 million and increased rate and volume sales of approximately $60 million at our businesses in Kazakhstan.

        Generation gross margin increased $28 million, or 11%, from the previous year primarily due to rate and volume increases at our businesses in Kazakhstan and Kilroot of $44 million and $13 million, respectively. These increases were offset by lower emission sales in Hungary and Bohemia in the Czech Republic of approximately $28 million.

        The following table summarizes gross margin for our Utilities segments in Europe & Africa for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change
2008 vs. 2007
  % Change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

Europe & Africa Utilities

                               

Revenue

  $ 782   $ 660   $ 570     18 %   16 %

Gross Margin

  $ 57   $ 63   $ 103     (10 )%   (39 )%

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    7 %   10 %   18 %            

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Utilities revenue increased $122 million, or 18%, from the previous year primarily due to increased tariff rates of approximately $86 million at our businesses in Ukraine, approximately $30 million due to increased rates and volume and $26 million due to favorable foreign currency translation at Sonel in Cameroon. These increases were partially offset by an unfavorable foreign currency translation impact at our businesses in Ukraine of approximately $17 million.

        Utilities gross margin decreased $6 million, or 10%, from the previous year primarily due to higher fixed costs of approximately $55 million across the region, a mark-to-market derivative adjustment at Sonel of $9 million and the favorable impact in 2007 of fuel pass-through costs under a concession agreement of $6 million, partially offset by increased rates and volume at Sonel of approximately $36 million and increased tariff rates of approximately $23 million at our businesses in Ukraine.

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Utilities revenue increased $90 million, or 16%, from the previous year primarily due to increased tariff rates and volume of approximately $57 million in the Ukraine and approximately $28 million in favorable foreign currency translation.

        Utilities gross margin decreased $40 million, or 39%, from the previous year primarily due to higher non-fuel operating and maintenance costs as well as higher fuel usage at Sonel.

104


Table of Contents

Asia

        The following table summarizes revenue and gross margin for our Generation segment in Asia for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006   % Change
2008 vs. 2007
  % Change
2007 vs. 2006
 
 
  (Dollars in millions)
 

Asia Generation

                               

Revenue

  $ 1,264   $ 817   $ 718     55 %   14 %

Gross Margin

  $ 143   $ 176   $ 186     (19 )%   (5 )%

Gross Margin as a % of Segment Revenue

    11 %   22 %   26 %            

Fiscal Year 2008 versus 2007

        Generation revenue increased $447 million, or 55%, from the previous year primarily due to higher rates driven by increased pass-through fuel prices of $259 million and volume of $41 million at our Lal Pir and Pak Gen businesses in Pakistan, an increase in rates due to pass-through fuel prices at Kelanitissa in Sri Lanka, of approximately $55 million, and revenue generated from our new businesses, Masinloc in the Philippines, and Amman East in Jordan, of $148 million and $46 million, respectively. These increases were partially offset by unfavorable impact of foreign currency translation of $95 million in Pakistan.

        Generation gross margin decreased $33 million, or 19%, from the previous year primarily due to the impact of increased fuel prices on heat rate losses of approximately $14 million at Lal Pir and Pak Gen and a $15 million unfavorable impact on revenue from an amended PPA accounted for as a lease, and therefore revenue was recognized on a straight-line basis in accordance with EITF No. 01-8, Determining Whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease at Ras Laffan in Qatar. In addition, Masinloc generated a net gross margin loss of $18 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. These unfavorable effects were partially offset by the favorable impact of $14 million from the start of commercial operations in July 2008 at Amman East.

Fiscal Year 2007 versus 2006

        Generation revenue increased $99 million, or 14%, from the previous year primarily due to higher dispatch in Pakistan of $83 million and higher volume and rates at Kelanitissa of approximately $30 million offset by volume decreases of approximately $8 million at Chigen in China.

        Generation gross margin decreased $10 million, or 5%, from the previous year primarily due to decreased volume at Chigen.

Corporate and Other Expense

        Corporate and other expenses include general and administrative expenses, executive management, finance, legal, human resources, information systems and certain development costs which are not allocable to our business segments. In addition, this includes net operating results from AES Wind Generation and other renewables initiatives which are immaterial for the purposes of separate segment disclosure and, the effects of eliminating transactions, such as management fee arrangements and self-insurance charges, between the operating segments and corporate. For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, Corporate and other expense was approximately 2 - 3% of total revenues.

        Corporate and other expense increased $19 million, or 6%, to $355 million in 2008 from $336 million in 2007. The increase was primarily due to higher spending of $16 million on

105


Table of Contents


SAP implementation projects and $27 million on the expansion of AES Wind Generation, climate solutions projects and our renewables initiatives, offset partially by a reduction in professional fees related to material weakness remediation efforts.

        Corporate and other expense increased $91 million, or 37%, to $336 million in 2007 from $245 million in 2006. The increase was primarily due to higher spending in professional fees of approximately $24 million primarily to complete the restatement of our financial statements and for continued material weakness remediation efforts, higher spending due to headcount increases primarily related to the strengthening of our finance organization of approximately $15 million and increased spending of $18 million for our SAP implementation projects.

Interest expense

        Interest expense increased $56 million, or 3%, to $1,844 million in 2008 primarily due to additional interest expense at our recently acquired subsidiary, Masinloc, interest expense associated with derivatives at Eletropaulo, Panama and Puerto Rico, as well as unfavorable foreign currency translation in Brazil. These increases were offset by decreases from the elimination of a financial transaction tax in Brazil, a decrease in regulatory liabilities at Eletropaulo, and a decrease in capitalized interest on development projects at Kilroot.

        Interest expense increased $19 million, or 1%, to $1,788 million in 2007 primarily due to unfavorable impacts from foreign currency translation in Brazil and interest expense associated with derivatives. These increases were offset by the benefits of debt retirement activity at several of our subsidiaries in Latin America and lower interest rates at one of our subsidiaries in Brazil.

Interest income

        Interest income increased $40 million, or 8%, to $540 million in 2008 primarily due to interest income on short-term investments and cash equivalents at two of our subsidiaries in Brazil, inflationary adjustments on accounts receivable at Gener, and interest earned on a convertible loan acquired in March 2008. These increases were offset by decreases due to lower interest income related to a gross receipts tax recovery at Tietê recorded during the second quarter of 2007 and decreased interest income related to derivatives at TEG/TEP.

        Interest income increased $66 million, or 15%, to $500 million in 2007 primarily due to favorable foreign currency translation on the Brazilian Real and higher cash and short-term investment balances at certain of our subsidiaries, offset by decreases at two of our Brazilian subsidiaries due to lower interest rates.

Other income

 
  Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006  
 
  (in millions)
 

Gain on extinguishment of liabilities

  $ 199   $ 22   $ 45  

Insurance proceeds

    40     18     30  

Legal/dispute settlement

    39     26     1  

Gain on sale of assets

    34     24     18  

Contract settlement gain

        135      

Gross receipts tax recovery

        93      

Other

    67     40     22  
               

Total other income

  $ 379   $ 358   $ 116  
               

106


Table of Contents

        Other income increased $21 million to $379 million in 2008 primarily due to gains on the extinguishment of a gross receipts tax liability and legal contingency of $117 million and $75 million, respectively, at Eletropaulo, $29 million of insurance recoveries for damaged turbines at Uruguaiana, $32 million of cash proceeds related to a favorable legal settlement at Southland in California, and compensation of $18 million for the impairment associated with the settlement agreement to shut down Hefei. These increases were offset by a $135 million contract settlement gain in 2007 at Eastern Energy and a $93 million gross receipts tax recovery in 2007 at Eletropaulo and Tietê in 2007.

        Other income increased $242 million to $358 million in 2007 primarily due to the Eastern Energy contract settlement gain and tax recoveries in Brazil noted above in addition to favorable legal settlements at Eletropaulo and Red Oak. These increases were offset by a decrease in gains on the extinguishment of debt, which were driven by debt retirement activities at several of our businesses in Latin America in 2006.

Other expense

 
  Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006  
 
  (in millions)
 

Loss on extinguishment of liabilities

  $ 70   $ 106   $ 181  

Loss on sale and disposal of assets

    34     79     23  

Legal/dispute settlement

    19     36     31  

Regulatory special obligations

            139  

Write-down of disallowed regulatory assets

        16     36  

Other

    40     18     41  
               

Total other expense

  $ 163   $ 255   $ 451  
               

        Other expense decreased $92 million to $163 million in 2008, from $255 million in 2007, primarily due to a decrease in losses on sales and disposals of assets at Sul as well as an extinguishment of debt at the Parent Company. In 2008, there was a loss of $55 million on the retirement of Senior Notes at the Parent Company, compared to a loss of $90 million on a smaller debt retirement in 2007.

        Other expense decreased $196 million to $255 million in 2007 primarily due to higher losses in 2006 associated with debt retirement activities at several of our Latin American businesses, special obligation charges and the write-down of disallowed regulatory assets at Eletropaulo in 2006. In 2007, there was a loss of $90 million on the retirement of Senior Notes at the Parent Company, as well as higher losses on sales and disposals of assets at Eletropaulo and Sul.

Impairment Expense

        As discussed in Note 19—Impairment Expense to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K, impairment expense for the year 2008 was $175 million and consisted primarily of the following:

        In the fourth quarter of 2008, and in response to the financial market crisis, the Company reviewed and prioritized projects in the development pipeline. From this review, the Company determined that the carrying value exceeded the future discounted cash flows for certain projects. As a result, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $75 million ($34 million, net of minority interest and income taxes) related to two liquefied natural gas projects in North America and a non-power development project at one of our facilities in North America. During 2008, the Company recognized additional impairment charges of $36 million related to long-lived assets at Uruguaiana. The impairment was triggered by a combination of gas curtailments and increases in the spot market price of energy in 2007 that continued in 2008. Following an initial impairment charge in the fourth quarter

107


Table of Contents


of 2007, further charges were incurred in 2008 due to fixed asset purchase agreements in place. During the first half of 2008, the Company withdrew from projects in South Africa and Israel which resulted in impairment charges of $36 million. The Company also recognized an impairment of $18 million related to the shut down of the Hefei plant in China.

        Impairment expense for the year 2007 was $408 million and consisted primarily of the following: In the fourth quarter of 2007, the Company recognized a pre-tax impairment charge of approximately $14 million related to a $52 million prepayment advanced to AgCert for a specified amount of future CER credits. AgCert, a United Kingdom based corporation that produces emission reduction credits, notified AES that it was not able to meet its contractual obligations to deliver CERs, which triggered an analysis of the asset's recoverability and resulted in the asset impairment charge. Also during the fourth quarter of 2007, there was a pre-tax impairment charge of approximately $352 million at Uruguaiana, a gas-fired thermoelectric plant located in Brazil. The impairment was the result of an analysis of Uruguaiana's long-lived assets, which was triggered by the combination of gas curtailments and increases in the spot market price of energy. In August 2007, there was a pre-tax impairment charge of $25 million triggered by the failure of a compressor at our Placerita subsidiary in California. The fixed asset impairment was caused by damage sustained to one of the plant's gas turbines. Also during the third quarter of 2007, a pre-tax fixed asset impairment charge of approximately $10 million was recognized related to the curtailment of operations at Coal Creek Minerals, LLC, a coal mining company owned by our subsidiary Cavanal Minerals located in the United States.

        Impairment expense for the year 2006 was $17 million and consisted primarily of the following: During the fourth quarter of 2006, there was a pre-tax impairment charge of $6 million related to AES China Generating Co. Ltd. ("Chigen") equity investment in Wuhu, a coal-fired plant located in China. The equity impairment in Wuhu was required as a result of a goodwill impairment analysis at Chigen. During the third quarter of 2006, there was an impairment charge of $5 million related to a decrease in the market value of five held for sale gas turbines at our subsidiary Itabo located in the Dominican Republic.

Gain on sale of investments

        Gain on sale of investments of $909 million in 2008 consisted primarily of the sale in May 2008 of our two wholly-owned subsidiaries in Kazakhstan, AES Ekibastuz LLP and Maikuben West LLP for a net gain of $905 million.

        There was no gain on sale of investments for the year ended December 31, 2007.

        Gain on sale of investments in 2006 of $98 million was the result of a net gain of $87 million from our sale of an equity investment in a power project in Canada (Kingston) in March 2006 and a net gain of $10 million related to our transfer of Infoenergy, a wholly owned AES subsidiary, to Brasiliana in September 2006. Brasiliana is 53.85% owned by BNDES, but controlled by AES. This transaction was part of the Company's agreement with BNDES to terminate the Sul Option.

(Loss) gain on sale of subsidiary stock

        In November 2008, Cachagua, our wholly owned subsidiary, which owned 80.2% of AES Gener S.A. ("Gener") shares prior to the transaction, sold 9.6% of its ownership in Gener to a third party. After this transaction, Cachagua's new ownership in Gener was 70.6%. As a result of this transaction, the Company recorded a net loss on the sale of shares of $31 million.

        Gain on sale of subsidiary stock in 2007 of $134 million was a result of net gains recognized on the sale of a 0.91% and 10.18% ownership interest in Gener in May and October of 2007, respectively.

108


Table of Contents

        As discussed in Note 17—Subsidiary Stock to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K, in September 2006, Brasiliana's wholly owned subsidiary, Transgás sold a 33% economic ownership in Eletropaulo, a regulated electric utility in Brazil. Despite the reduction in economic ownership, there was no change in Brasiliana's voting interest in Eletropaulo, and Brasiliana continues to control Eletropaulo. Brasiliana received $522 million in net proceeds on the sale. On October 5, 2006 Transgás, sold an additional 5% economic ownership in Eletropaulo for net proceeds of $78 million. In 2006, AES recognized a pre-tax loss of $535 million primarily as a result of the recognition of previously deferred currency translation losses.

Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) on net monetary position

        The following table summarizes the gains (losses) on the Company's net monetary position from foreign currency transaction activities:

 
  Years Ended December 31,  
 
  2008   2007   2006  
 
  (in millions)
 

AES Corporation

  $ 38   $ 31   $ (17 )

Chile

    (102 )   (4 )    

Philippines

    (57 )        

Brazil

    (44 )   5     (49 )

Argentina

    (22 )   (8 )   (3 )

Kazakhstan

    11     10     1  

Mexico

    (9 )   (2 )    

Colombia

    5     (7 )   (1 )

Pakistan

    (1 )   (4 )   (18 )

Other

    (4 )   3     7