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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934:

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Commission File No. 1-10686

MANPOWERGROUP INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

wisconsin

39-1672779

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

100 manpower place, milwaukee, wisconsin

53212

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (414) 961-1000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $.01 par value

MAN

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes        No    

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes        No    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes        No    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes    ☒    No    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes        No    

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant was $5,779,906,730 as of June 30, 2019. As of February 19, 2020, there were 58,778,496 of the registrant’s shares of common stock outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III is incorporated by reference from the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 8, 2020.


 

ManpowerGroup Inc.

Form 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

Number

PART I

 

 

Item 1

Business

3

Item 1A

Risk Factors

10

Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

23

Item 2

Properties

23

Item 3

Legal Proceedings

23

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

23

 

Executive Officers of ManpowerGroup

24

 

Other Information

25

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

26

Item 6

Selected Financial Data

28

Item 7

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

29

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

45

Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

47

Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

95

Item 9A

Controls and Procedures

95

Item 9B

Other Information

96

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

97

Item 11

Executive Compensation

97

Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

97

Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

97

Item 14

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

97

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

98

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

100

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

101

 

 

 

 


 

PART I

The terms “we,” “our,” “us,” "ManpowerGroup," or “the Company” refer to ManpowerGroup Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Item 1.

Business

Introduction and History

ManpowerGroup Inc. is a world leader in innovative workforce solutions and services. Through our global network of over 2,500 offices in 75 countries and territories, we put millions of people to work each year with our global, multinational and local clients across all major industry segments. Our strong and connected brands provide innovative solutions that drive organizations forward, accelerate individual success and help build more sustainable communities. We power the future of work.

By offering a comprehensive range of workforce solutions and services, we help companies at varying stages in their evolution increase productivity, improve strategy, quality and efficiency, and reduce costs across their workforce to achieve their business goals. ManpowerGroup’s suite of innovative workforce solutions and services includes:

 

Recruitment and Assessment – By leveraging our trusted brands, industry knowledge and expertise, we identify the right talent in the right place to help our clients quickly access the people they need when they need them. Through our industry-leading assessments, we help people and organizations understand their strengths and potential, resulting in better job matches, higher retention and a stronger workforce.

 

Training and Development – Our unique insights into evolving employer needs and our expertise in training and development help us prepare candidates and associates to succeed in today’s competitive marketplace. We offer an extensive portfolio of training courses and leadership development solutions that help clients maximize talent and optimize performance.

 

Career Management – We help individuals manage their career journey through outplacement services and targeted skills development. By helping individuals and organizations manage workforce transitions and career changes we unleash human potential.

 

Outsourcing – We provide clients with outsourcing services related to human resources functions primarily in the areas of large-scale recruiting and workforce-intensive initiatives that are outcome-based, thereby sharing in the risk and reward with our clients.

 

Workforce Consulting – We help clients create and align their workforce strategy to achieve their business strategy, increase business agility and flexibility, and accelerate personal and business success.

Our family of brands and offerings includes:

 

Manpower – We are a global leader in contingent staffing and permanent recruitment. We provide businesses with rapid access to a highly qualified and productive pool of candidates to give them the flexibility and agility they need to respond to changing business needs.

 

Experis – We are a global leader in professional resourcing and project-based solutions. With operations in over 50 countries and territories, we delivered 72 million hours of professional talent in 2019 specializing in Information Technology (IT), Engineering, and Finance.

 

Right Management – We are global career experts dedicated to helping organizations and individuals become more agile and market-ready.  By leveraging our expertise in assessment, development and coaching, we provide tailored solutions that deliver organizational efficiency, individual development, and career mobility, to increase productivity and optimize business performance.

 

ManpowerGroup Solutions – We are a global leader in outsourcing services for large-scale recruiting. We are the world’s largest Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO) and our TAPFIN - Managed Service Provider (MSP) business is continually ranked as a top global MSP alongside our Talent Based Outsourcing (TBO). Our Proservia brand is a recognized leader within the Digital Services market and IT Infrastructure sector throughout Europe, specializing in infrastructure management and end-user support.

3


 

 

Effective January 2020, we launched a new brand within ManpowerGroup, Talent Solutions. Talent Solutions combines three of our current global offerings to leverage our expertise in RPO, TAPFIN - MSP and Right Management. Our goal is to deliver new solutions and create added value that addresses our clients’ complex global workforce needs.

Talent Solutions will leverage our core capabilities to help organizations effectively source, manage and develop talent at scale, designed to address client demand for expert offerings, integrated and data driven workforce solutions as well as seamless delivery across multiple countries. We expect to add new global offerings as part of Talent Solutions over time together with workforce insights and data and technology platforms.

Our leadership position enables us to be a pathway to quality employment opportunities for people at all points in their career paths. Whether it is seasoned professionals, skilled laborers, temporary to permanent, parents returning to work, seniors wanting to supplement pensions, previously unemployed or underemployed youth and disabled individuals, ManpowerGroup has been connecting people to meaningful work for over 70 years. Similarly, governments in the nations in which we operate look to us to help provide employment opportunities and training to assist the unemployed in gaining the skills they need to enter the workforce. We provide a bridge to experience and employment and help to build more sustainable communities.

We, and our predecessors, have been in business since 1948 when we were incorporated as a Wisconsin corporation, and have had our shares listed on the New York Stock Exchange since 1967.

Our Internet address is www.manpowergroup.com. We make available free of charge through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. In addition, we also make available through our Internet website:

 

our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws;

 

our ManpowerGroup code of business conduct and ethics;

 

our corporate governance guidelines;

 

our anti-corruption policy;

 

the charters of the Audit, Executive Compensation and Human Resources and Nominating and Governance Committees of the Board of Directors;

 

our guidelines for selecting board candidates;

 

our categorical standards for relationships deemed not to impair independence of non-employee directors;

 

our independent auditors' services policy;

 

our executive officer stock ownership guidelines;

 

our outside director stock ownership guidelines; and

 

our regular update on corporate social responsibility.

Documents available on the website are also available in print for any shareholder who requests them. Requests may be made by writing to Richard Buchband, Secretary, ManpowerGroup, 100 Manpower Place, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212. We are not including the information contained on or available through our website as a part of, or incorporating such information by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our Operations

Client demand for workforce solutions and services is dependent on the overall strength of the labor market and secular trends toward greater workforce flexibility within each of the segments where we operate. Improving economic growth typically results in increasing demand for labor, resulting in greater demand for our staffing services while demand for our outplacement services typically declines. During periods of increasing demand, we are generally able to improve our profitability and operating leverage as our cost base can support some increase in business without a similar increase in selling and administrative expenses.


4


 

Correspondingly, during periods of weak economic growth or economic contraction, the demand for our staffing services typically declines, while demand for our outplacement services typically accelerates. When demand drops, our operating profit is typically impacted unfavorably as we experience a deleveraging of our selling and administrative expense base as expenses may not decline at the same pace as revenues. In periods of economic contraction, we may have more significant expense deleveraging, as we believe it is prudent not to reduce selling and administrative expenses to levels that could negatively impact the long-term potential of our branch network and brands.

The nature of our operations is such that our most significant current asset is accounts receivable, with an average days sales outstanding of between 55 and 60 days based on the markets where we do business. Our most significant current liabilities are payroll related costs, which are generally paid either weekly or monthly. As the demand for our services increases, we generally see an increase in our working capital needs, as we continue to pay our associates on a weekly or monthly basis while the related accounts receivable is outstanding for much longer, which may result in a decline in operating cash flows. Conversely, as the demand for our services declines, we generally see a decrease in our working capital needs, as the existing accounts receivable are collected and not replaced at the same level, resulting in a decline of our accounts receivable balance, with less of an effect on current liabilities due to the shorter cycle time of the payroll related items. This may result in an increase in our operating cash flows; however, any such increase would not be sustainable in the event that an economic downturn continued for an extended period.

Due to our industry’s sensitivity to economic factors, the inherent difficulty in forecasting the direction and strength of the economy and the short-term nature of staffing assignments, it is difficult to forecast future demand for our services with certainty. As a result, we monitor a number of economic indicators, as well as recent business trends, to predict future revenue trends for each of the countries and territories where we operate. Based upon these anticipated trends, we determine what level of personnel and office investments are necessary to take full advantage of growth opportunities.

During the last several years, secular trends toward greater workforce flexibility have helped drive demand for our innovative workforce solutions and services around the world. As companies attempt to increase the variability of their cost base, the workforce solutions we provide help them to effectively address the fluctuating demand for their products or services. As the global economy continues to grow and adapt with new technology, we are helping clients manage their workforce transformation and ensure they have the right skills now and in the future. Whether it is through workforce assessments, targeted training or by creating longer-term development paths, we help organizations and candidates adapt their skills to changing workforce needs.

Our portfolio of recruitment services includes permanent, temporary and contract recruitment of professionals, as well as administrative and industrial positions. These services are provided under our Manpower and Experis brands. We have provided services under our core Manpower brand for over 70 years with a primary focus on the areas of office and industrial services and solutions. We provide services under our Experis brand, particularly in the areas of IT, Engineering, and Finance, that include high-impact solutions, and help accelerate organizations’ growth by attracting, assessing and placing specialized expertise to deliver in-demand talent for important positions. Our experience and expertise allow us to accurately assess candidates’ workplace potential and technical skills to match them to the needs of our clients. We plan to continue to build our brand and attract the talent our clients need as skills shortages arise or continue.

ManpowerGroup Solutions specializes in the delivery of customized workforce strategies and outcome-based solutions. Through our RPO offering, we manage customized, large-scale recruiting and workforce productivity initiatives for clients through exclusive outsourcing contracts. We can manage a single element or all of a client's permanent recruiting and hiring processes, from job profiling to on-boarding, globally or in a single location. MSP services include overall program management, reporting and tracking, supplier selection and management and order distribution. The MSP and RPO offerings both provide specialty expertise in contingent workforce management and broader administrative functions. TBO and Proservia services also include management of financial and administrative processes, including call center and customer service activities.

Our career management services have historically been counter-cyclical to our staffing services, which helps to offset the impact of an economic downturn on our overall financial results.


5


 

Americas

We provide services as Manpower, Experis and ManpowerGroup Solutions through both branch and franchise offices. The Americas segment had 562 branch and 172 franchise offices. In the United States, where we realized 60% of the Americas’ revenue, we had 376 branch and 164 franchise offices as of December 31, 2019, as well as on-site locations at clients with significant permanent, temporary and contract recruitment requirements. In Other Americas, the largest operations of which include Mexico and Argentina, we had 186 branch offices and 8 franchise offices. We provide a number of central support services to our branches and franchises, which enable us to maintain consistent service quality throughout the region regardless of whether an office is a branch or franchise.

Our franchise agreements provide the franchisee with the right to use the Manpower® service mark in a specifically defined exclusive territory. In the United States, franchise fees generally range from 2% to 3% of franchisee sales. Our franchise agreements provide that in the event of a proposed sale of a franchise to a third party, we have the right to acquire the franchise at the same price and on the same terms as proposed by the third party. We have exercised this right in the past and may do so in the future if opportunities arise with appropriate prices and terms.

Our Manpower and Experis operations provide a variety of workforce solutions and services, including permanent, temporary and contract recruitment, assessment and selection, and training. During 2019 in this segment, approximately 37% of temporary and contract recruitment revenues were derived from placing industrial staff, 23% from placing office staff, and 40% from placing professional and technical staff. For our United States operations in 2019, approximately 47% of the temporary and contract recruitment revenues were derived from placing industrial staff, 13% from placing office staff, and 40% from placing professional and technical staff.

Our ManpowerGroup Solutions operations provide a variety of outcome-based solutions including RPO, MSP and TBO. We also conduct business in the Americas under our Right Management brand as discussed below.

Southern Europe

We are a leading provider of permanent, temporary and contract recruitment, assessment and selection, training and outsourcing services throughout Europe. The Southern Europe segment had 1,126 branch offices and 49 franchise offices as of December 31, 2019. Our largest operations in this segment are in France (60% of the segment revenue) and Italy (16% of the segment revenue).

During 2019 for our Southern Europe operations, approximately 73% of temporary and contract recruitment revenues were derived from placing industrial staff, 14% from placing office staff, and 13% from placing professional and technical staff.

We conduct our operations in France as a leading workforce solutions and service provider through 523 branch offices as Manpower, Experis, ManpowerGroup Solutions and Proservia, and 149 branch offices under the name Supplay. The employment services market in France calls for a wide range of our services including permanent, temporary and contract recruitment, assessment and selection, and training. The temporary recruitment market is predominantly focused on recruitment for industrial positions. In 2019, we derived approximately 83% of our temporary recruitment revenues in France from the supply of industrial and construction workers, 15% from the supply of office staff, and 2% from the supply of professional and technical staff.

In Italy, we are a leading workforce solutions and services provider. As of December 31, 2019, ManpowerGroup Italy conducted operations through a network of 229 branch offices. It provides a comprehensive suite of workforce solutions and services offered through Manpower, Experis or ManpowerGroup Solutions, including permanent, temporary and contract recruitment, assessment and selection, training and outsourcing. In 2019, approximately 67% of our temporary and contract recruitment revenues in Italy were derived from placing industrial staff, 5% from placing office staff, including contact center staff, and 28% from placing professional and technical staff.

We also conduct business in Southern Europe under our Right Management brand as discussed below.

Northern Europe

Our largest operations in Northern Europe are in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Nordics and the Netherlands, providing a comprehensive suite of workforce solutions and services through Manpower, Experis, and ManpowerGroup Solutions. Collectively, we operate through 399 branch offices in this region. 


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During 2019 for our Northern Europe operations, approximately 39% of temporary and contract recruitment revenues were derived from placing industrial staff, 22% from placing office staff, and 39% from placing professional and technical staff.

In the United Kingdom, where we have the largest operation in this segment, we are a leading provider of workforce solutions and services. As of December 31, 2019, we conducted operations in the United Kingdom as Manpower, Experis and ManpowerGroup Solutions through a network of 34 branch offices and also provided on-site services to clients who have significant permanent, temporary and contract recruitment requirements. During 2019, approximately 23% of our United Kingdom operation’s temporary recruitment revenues were derived from the supply of industrial staff, 18% from the supply of office staff, and 59% from the supply of professional and technical staff. In the United Kingdom, we also conduct operations as Brook Street Bureau PLC, or Brook Street, through a total of 35 branch offices. Its core business is secretarial, office and light industrial recruitment. Brook Street operates as a local network of branches and competes primarily with local or regional independents. Brook Street’s revenues are comprised of temporary and contract placements as well as permanent recruitment.

We also conduct business in Northern Europe under our Right Management brand as discussed below.

APME

We operate through 137 branch offices in the Asia Pacific Middle East (APME) region. The largest of these operations are located in Japan, Australia, India and Korea, all of which operate through branch offices. Our APME operations provide a variety of workforce solutions and services offered through Manpower, Experis and ManpowerGroup Solutions, including permanent, temporary and contract recruitment, assessment and selection, training and outsourcing. During 2019, approximately 10% of our APME temporary and contract recruitment revenues were derived from placing industrial staff, 59% from placing office staff, and 31% from placing professional and technical staff.

On July 10, 2019, our joint venture in Greater China, ManpowerGroup Greater China Limited, became listed on the Main Board of the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited through an initial public offering. As a result, we deconsolidated the joint venture as of the listing date and account for our remaining interest under the equity method of accounting. (See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements found in Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further information.)

We also conduct business in APME under our Right Management brand as discussed below.

Right Management

Right Management is a global expert in talent and career management workforce solutions. We design and deliver solutions to align talent strategy with business strategy. Our expertise spans Talent Assessment, Leader Development, Organizational Effectiveness, Employee Engagement, and Workforce Transition and Outplacement. With 57 offices in 49 countries and territories, we partner with companies of all sizes to help grow and engage their talent, increase productivity and optimize business performance.

Competition

We compete in the employment services industry by offering a broad range of services, including permanent, temporary and contract recruitment, project-based workforce solutions, assessment and selection, training, career and talent management, managed service solutions, outsourcing, consulting and professional services.

Our industry is large and fragmented, comprised of thousands of firms employing millions of people and generating billions of United States dollars in annual revenues. In most areas, no single company has a dominant share of the employment services market. In addition to us, the largest publicly owned companies specializing in recruitment services are The Adecco Group and Randstad. We also compete against a variety of regional or specialized companies such as Recruit Holdings, Kelly Services, Robert Half, Kforce, PageGroup, Korn/Ferry International and Alexander Mann. It is a highly competitive industry, reflecting several trends in the global marketplace such as the increasing demand for skilled people, employers’ desire for more flexible working models and consolidation among clients and in the employment services industry itself. We manage these trends by leveraging established strengths, including one of the employment services industry’s most recognized and respected brands; geographic


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diversification; size and service scope; an innovative product mix; recruiting and assessment expertise; and a strong client base. While staffing is an important aspect of our business, our strategy is focused on providing both the skilled employees our clients need and high-value workforce management, outsourcing and consulting solutions.

Our client mix consists of both small- and medium-size businesses, and large national and multinational client relationships, which comprised approximately 60% of our revenues in 2019. Client relationships with small- and medium-size businesses are based on a local or regional relationship, and tend to rely less on longer-term contracts, and the competitors for this business are primarily locally-owned businesses. The large national and multinational clients, on the other hand, will frequently enter into non-exclusive arrangements with several firms, with the ultimate choice among them being left to local managers. As a result, employment services firms with a large network of offices compete most effectively for this business which generally has agreed-upon pricing or mark-up on services performed.

Legal Regulations

The employment services industry is closely regulated in all of the major markets in which we operate, except the United States and Canada. Employment services firms are generally subject to one or more of the following types of government regulation:

 

regulation of the employer/employee relationship between the firm and its temporary and contract employees;

 

registration, licensing, record keeping and reporting requirements;

 

substantive limitations on the operations or the use of temporary and contract employees by clients; and

 

regulation that requires new or additional benefits and pay parity for our associates.

In many markets, the existence or absence of collective bargaining agreements with labor organizations has a significant impact on our operations and the ability of clients to use our services. In some markets, labor agreements are structured on an industry-wide, rather than company-by-company, basis. Changes in these collective bargaining agreements have occurred in the past and are expected to occur in the future and may have a material impact on the operations of employment services firms, including us.

In most countries, workforce solutions and services firms are considered the legal employers of temporary and contract workers. Therefore, laws regulating the employer/employee relationship, such as tax withholding or reporting, social security or retirement, health and other benefits, anti-discrimination and workers’ compensation, govern the firm.

In many countries, particularly in continental Europe and Asia, entry into the employment services market is restricted by the requirement to register with, or obtain licenses from, a government agency. In addition, a wide variety of ministerial requirements may be imposed, such as record keeping, written contracts and reporting. The United States and Canada do not presently have any form of national registration or licensing requirement.

In addition to licensing or registration requirements, many countries impose substantive restrictions on the use of temporary and contract workers. Such restrictions include regulations affecting the types of work permitted, the maximum length of assignment, wage levels or reasons for which temporary and contract workers may be employed. In some countries, special taxes, fees or costs are imposed in connection with the use of temporary and contract workers. For example, temporary and contract workers in France are entitled to a 10% allowance for the uncertain duration of employment, which is eliminated if a full-time position is offered to them within three days after assignment termination.

Our outplacement and consulting services generally are not subject to governmental regulation in the markets in which we operate.

In the United States, we are subject to various federal and state laws relating to franchising, principally the Federal Trade Commission’s Franchise Rules and analogous state laws which impact our agreements with our franchised operations. These laws and related rules and regulations impose specific disclosure requirements. Virtually all states also regulate the termination of franchises.


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Changes in applicable laws or regulations have occurred in the past and are expected in the future to affect the extent to which workforce solutions and services firms may operate. These changes could impose additional costs, taxes, record keeping or reporting requirements; restrict the tasks to which contingent workers may be assigned; limit the duration of or otherwise impose restrictions on the nature of the relationship (with us or the client); or otherwise adversely affect the industry.

 

In December 2018, the French government published their final budget for 2019, which replaced the CICE program with new subsidies in January 2019. This transition led to a profit-sharing cost that reduced the gross profit margin benefit of the subsidies. These subsidies are subject to income tax. In October 2019, incremental subsidies were implemented as expected. We offset the net negative impact in 2019 with ongoing initiatives.

In Germany, the Confederation of German Trade Unions (representing eight German trade unions and over six million people) and the Employer’s Association of the Temporary Staffing Industry (representing two major temporary worker employers’ associations) entered into a Collective Labor Agreement (“CLA”), which was implemented in multiple phases between 2014 and 2017. The first phases of the CLA required higher wages to temporary employees and higher cost for vacation, sick pay, and temporary staff time accounts. The following phase went into effect in June 2016 with a 2.3% to 3.6% wage increase. A new CLA in 2017 required three additional wage increases through 2019, with wage increases of 2.5% to 4.8% in 2017, 2018, 2019. Proposed wage increases for 2020 range from 1.9% to 2.3% for both the east and west, with a second increase in the east of 2.2%. In 2021, the wage increases are between 3.0% and 7.1%, when the wage differences between the east and west will be eliminated. The proposed wage increase in 2022 is 4.1%.

There is also a mandate that was effective in January 2018 of equal pay for our associates after nine months on assignment. This new regulation generally had an unfavorable impact on our gross profit margin in Germany, as we often cannot pass on the additional costs to the client or, if so, without a mark-up. In October 2018, the 18-month rule took effect, which limited the maximum period of associate assignments to 18 months, after which such associates will be classified as employees for their assignment and allowed clients to in-source our staff. There are initiatives in place to manage any potential impact.

Trademarks

We maintain a number of registered trademarks, trade names and service marks in the United States and various other countries and territories. We believe that many of these marks and trade names, including ManpowerGroup ®, ManpowerGroup ® Solutions, Manpower ®, Experis ®, Right Management ®, Brook Street ®, and Proservia ® have significant value and are materially important to our business. In addition, we maintain other intangible property rights. The trademarks have been assigned an indefinite life based on our expectation of renewing the trademarks, as required, without material modifications and at a minimal cost, and our expectation of positive cash flows beyond the foreseeable future.

Employees

We had approximately 28,000 full-time equivalent employees as of December 31, 2019. In addition, we recruit millions of permanent, temporary and contract workers on a worldwide basis each year on behalf of our clients.

As described above, in most jurisdictions, we, as the employer of our temporary and contract workers or as otherwise required by applicable law, are responsible for employment administration. This administration includes collection of withholding taxes, employer contributions for social security or its equivalent outside the United States, unemployment tax, workers’ compensation and fidelity and liability insurance, and other governmental requirements imposed on employers. In most jurisdictions where such benefits are not legally required, including the United States, we provide health and life insurance, paid holidays and paid vacations to qualifying temporary and contract employees.

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Item 1A.

Risk Factors

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Statements made in this report that are not statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. In addition, from time to time, we and our representatives may make statements that are forward-looking. All forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. This section provides you with cautionary statements identifying, for purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements made in this report or otherwise made by us or on our behalf. You can identify these forward-looking statements by forward-looking words such as “expect”, “anticipate”, “intend”, “plan”, “may”, “will”, “believe”, “seek”, “estimate”, and similar expressions. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We caution that any forward-looking statement reflects only our belief at the time the statement is made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.

The following are some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates contained in our forward-looking statements:

 

Volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions;

 

any economic recovery may be short-lived and uneven, and may not result in increased demand for our services;

 

inability to timely respond to the needs of our clients;

 

competition in the worldwide employment services industry limiting our ability to maintain or increase market share or profitability;

 

inability to effectively implement our business strategy or achieve our objectives;

 

cyberattack or improper disclosure or loss of sensitive or confidential company, employee, associate or client data, including personal data;

 

disruption, increased costs, and reputational risk from outsourcing various aspects of our business;

 

foreign currency fluctuations;

 

a loss or reduction in revenues from one or more large clients;

 

inability to meet our working capital needs;

 

challenges meeting contractual obligations if we or third parties fail to deliver on performance commitments;

 

failure to keep pace with technological change and marketplace demand in the development and implementation of our services and solutions;

 

failure to implement strategic technology investments;

 

loss of key personnel;

 

competition in labor markets limiting our ability to attract, train and retain the personnel necessary to meet our clients’ staffing needs;

 

political unrest, natural disasters, health crises, infrastructure disruptions, and other risks beyond our control;

 

failure to comply with the legal regulations in places we do business or the regulatory prohibition or restriction of employment services or the imposition of additional licensing or tax requirements;

 

failure to comply with anti-corruption and bribery laws;

 

legal claims, including employment-related claims, from clients or third parties;

 

liability resulting from competition law;

 

our ability to preserve our reputation in the marketplace;


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changes in client attitudes toward the use of our services;

 

inability to maintain effective internal controls;

 

costs or disruptions resulting from acquisitions we complete;

 

reduction in our global footprint via sales, franchising, joint ventures or other exit activities

 

limited ability to protect our thought leadership and other intellectual property;

 

material adverse effects on our operating flexibility resulting from our debt levels;

 

failure to comply with restrictive covenants under our revolving credit facilities and other debt instruments;

 

inability to obtain credit on terms acceptable to us or at all;

 

the performance of our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute cash to our parent company, ManpowerGroup, may vary;

 

inability to secure guarantees or letters of credit on acceptable terms;

 

changes in tax legislation;

 

fluctuation of our stock price;

 

provisions under Wisconsin law and our articles of incorporation and bylaws could make the takeover of our Company more difficult;

 

the risk factors disclosed below; and

 

other factors that may be disclosed from time to time in our SEC filings or otherwise.

Some or all of these factors may be beyond our control. We caution you that any forward-looking statement reflects only our belief at the time the statement is made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made.

RISK FACTORS

In addition to the other information set forth in this report, you should carefully consider the following factors which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations (including revenues and profitability) or stock price. Our business is also subject to general risks and uncertainties that may broadly affect companies. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or stock price.

Our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions.

Our business is sensitive to changes in global macroeconomic conditions, which at various times have included considerable uncertainty and volatility. Growth in the markets we serve could be at a slow rate, or could stagnate or contract, and we are at continued risk that a downturn or a decline in economic activity globally, or in key markets, could have an adverse impact on our business. In the past, we have experienced periods during which economic conditions have been unstable and difficult to predict globally, and during which many of our operating regions experienced volatile growth patterns or declines. For example, in the latter part of 2019, the economic environment was one of slowing growth globally, including in many of our European countries. Such conditions can adversely affect client demand for our services and solutions and result in declines or declining growth rates in our business. Additionally, because country and regional economies are often interdependent, there is a risk that negative economic conditions in one market could give rise to a more widespread, or global, decline. Economic uncertainty or decline often causes our clients to reduce or defer their spending on new projects that require our solutions, or to decrease their demand for our various staffing services. If any of these trends or situations arises or intensifies, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.


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Our profitability is sensitive to decreases in demand. When demand drops or remains low, our operating profit is typically impacted unfavorably as we experience a deleveraging of our selling and administrative expense base as expenses may not decline as quickly as revenues. In periods of decline, we may not be able to reduce selling and administrative expenses without negatively impacting the long-term potential of our branch network and brands. Additionally, during periods of decline or uncertainty, companies may slow the rate at which they pay their vendors, or they may become unable to pay their obligations. If our clients become unable to pay amounts owed to us, or pay us more slowly, then our cash flow and profitability may suffer.

Economic conditions in the countries and territories where we do business may be affected by recent or emerging events, such as the rise of populism, political volatility and changes in ruling parties or governmental leadership, trade disputes, protectionism or changes in global trade policies, the global refugee crisis, changes in immigration policy, changes in employment policy, rising interest rates, the impact of terrorist activity, or by other political or economic developments. We are particularly susceptible to changes in demand patterns and economic conditions in Europe, which represents two of our operating segments and 66% of our revenue. In 2019, the environment has been one of revenue declines in most of our European markets, with slowing economic growth and continued tight labor markets, and there is a risk that some or many of the European economies may be hampered by events which emerged in recent years, including labor unrest, civil protest, heightened trade tensions, and the uncertainty around the transition and terms under which United Kingdom will exit the European Union. Any of these events or trends could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

There is a risk that even when overall global economic conditions are positive, we could experience declines in all, or in portions, of our business. During past periods of recovery, we have experienced inconsistent results, with some geographical regions, or countries within a region, suffering declines or weakness in economic activity while others improve. Differing economic conditions and patterns of economic growth or contraction may affect demand for our solutions and services, and there is a risk that, even during times of strengthening global economic conditions, we may not experience uniform, or any, increases in demand for our solutions and services within the markets where our business is concentrated.

Even without uncertainty and volatility, it is difficult for us to forecast future demand for our services due to the inherent difficulty in forecasting the direction and strength of economic cycles, and the short-term nature of many of our staffing assignments. This situation can be exacerbated by uncertain and volatile economic conditions, which may cause clients to reduce or defer projects for which they utilize our services, thereby negatively affecting demand for them. When it is difficult for us to accurately forecast future demand, we may not be able to determine the optimal level of personnel and office investments necessary to profitably operate our business or take advantage of growth opportunities.

We may lack the speed and agility to respond to the needs of our clients.

There is a risk we may not be able to respond with sufficient speed and agility to the needs of our diverse clients, which span all industries and whose needs may change rapidly as their businesses and industries evolve. The size and breadth of our organization, comprising approximately 28,000 employees based out of over 2,500 offices in 75 countries and territories, may make it difficult for us to effectively manage our resources to drive service improvements and to provide coordinated solutions to our clients who require our services in multiple locations. For example, client demands for uniform service across borders may be difficult to satisfy because of variation in local laws and customs. We see a trend in more multi-country and enterprise-level relationships, and we may have difficulty in profitably managing and delivering projects involving multiple countries. Also, our size and organizational structure may make it difficult to develop and implement new processes and tools across the enterprise in a consistent manner. If we are not effective at anticipating or meeting the widely ranging needs of our current and prospective clients, or our competitors are more agile or effective at doing so, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected.


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The worldwide employment services industry is highly competitive with limited barriers to entry, which could limit our ability to maintain or increase our market share or profitability.

The worldwide employment services industry is highly competitive with limited barriers to entry, and in recent years has undergone significant consolidation. We compete in markets throughout the world with full-service and specialized employment services agencies. Several of our global competitors, including The Adecco Group and Randstad, have very substantial marketing and financial resources, and may be better positioned in certain markets. Portions of our industry may become increasingly commoditized, with the result that competition in key areas could become more focused on pricing. We expect that we will continue to experience pressure on price from competitors and clients. There is a risk that we will not compete effectively, including on price, which could limit our ability to maintain or increase our market share and could materially adversely affect our financial results. This may worsen as clients increasingly take advantage of low-cost alternatives including using their own in-house resources rather than engaging a third party.

We may be unable to effectively implement our business strategy, and there can be no assurance that we will achieve our objectives.

Our business strategy focuses on growing revenues while improving our operating profits. An important element of our strategy is our effort to diversify our revenues beyond our core staffing and employment services. This includes expanding our sales in higher margin professional resourcing, such as our Experis brand in IT recruitment. There is a risk that our growth strategy in Experis may be impeded due to the scarcity of talent in the IT field, which is particularly in demand, and which may restrict our ability to fulfill customer requirements. Similarly, another aspect of our strategy to expand beyond our core staffing and employment services is through the sale of innovative workforce solutions designed to achieve higher operating margins. Our higher-margin Right Management career management services have historically performed well in periods of downturn, and it is part of our business strategy that this counter-cyclical effect would help cushion our results in the event of a future period of decline. However, in the event of a downturn, there can be no assurances that the margin contribution from Right Management would increase, or that it would significantly offset other declines we might experience in the business. Additionally, our workforce solutions are often unique, non-repeatable and tailored to a client’s needs, and present costs, risks and complexity that may be difficult to calculate. These solutions may be unprofitable if we are not able to accurately anticipate these costs and risks in our pricing for these solutions. For example, we may fail to structure and price our solutions in a manner that properly compensates us to create an adequate delivery model, to adequately manage new solutions, or to obtain adequate insurance coverage in amount or scope to cover potential risks arising from such solutions.

Our business strategy also includes continuing efforts to transform how we use personnel and technology to enhance our delivery of services. Our goal is to become a more agile and effective competitor, to reduce the cost of operating our business and to increase our operating profit and operating profit margin. These efforts to transform how we do business may not be successful, and we may not succeed at reducing our operating costs or preventing the return of any costs that are eliminated. Additionally, reductions in personnel and other changes could materially adversely affect our ability to effectively operate our business. If, for these or other reasons, we are not successful in implementing our business strategy or achieving the anticipated results, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our results of operations and ability to grow could be materially negatively affected if we cannot successfully keep pace with technological changes in the development and implementation of our services and solutions.

Our success depends on our ability to keep pace with rapid technological changes in the development and implementation of our services and solutions. For example, rapid changes in the use of artificial intelligence and robotics are having a significant impact on some of the industries we serve and could have significant and unforeseen consequences for the workforce services industry and for our business. There is a risk that these, or other developments, could result in significant rapid disruption to our business model, and that we will be unprepared to compete effectively.


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Additionally, our business is reliant on a variety of technologies, including those which support applicant on-boarding and tracking systems, order management, billing, payroll, and client data analytics. There is a risk we will not sufficiently invest in technology or industry developments, or evolve our business with the right strategic investments, or at sufficient speed and scale, to adapt to changes in our marketplace. Similarly, from time to time we make strategic commitments to particular technologies to recruit, manage or analyze our workforce or support our business, and there is a risk they will be unsuccessful. These and similar risks could have a negative effect on our services and solutions, our results of operations, and our ability to develop and maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

We could incur liabilities, or our reputation could be damaged from a cyberattack or improper disclosure or loss of sensitive or confidential company, employee, associate, candidate or client data, including personal data.

In connection with the operation of our business, we store, process and transmit a large amount of data, including personnel and payment information, about our employees, clients, associates and candidates, a portion of which is confidential and/or personally identifiable and sensitive. We expect our use of data to increase, including through the use of analytics. In engaging in these data-related activities, we rely on our own technology and systems, and those of third-party vendors we use for a variety of processes, including cloud-based technology and systems, mobile technologies and social media. Unauthorized disclosure, modification or loss of confidential, personally identifiable, or sensitive data may occur through a variety of methods. These include, but are not limited to, systems failure, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, or unauthorized access to or through our information systems, whether by our employees, vendors or third parties, including a cyberattack by hackers, members of organized crime and/or state-sponsored organizations, who may develop and deploy social engineering attacks, viruses, ransomware, worms or other malicious software programs, or obtain credentials to our systems through other unrelated cyberattacks.

An incident involving disclosure, system failure, data modification, loss or security breach could harm our reputation and subject us to significant monetary damages or losses, litigation, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement actions, fines, criminal prosecution, as well as liability under our contracts and laws that protect personally identifiable and confidential data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenues. Cybersecurity threats continue to increase in frequency and sophistication, thereby increasing the difficulty of detecting and defending against them. In the past, we have experienced data security breaches resulting from unauthorized access to our systems and other fraudulent activities, such as social engineering, which to date have not had a material impact on our operations or financial results. We regularly engage an independent external security firm to assess our defenses to a potential cyberattack, and these assessments may uncover new or additional vulnerabilities and weaknesses that could lead to a compromise of our systems and/or a loss of personally identifiable information. In a recent evaluation, additional vulnerabilities were identified that could contribute to the loss of personally identifiable information. The assessment firm was able to penetrate defensive protections adopted by us, as well as protections that we obtain from third party providers. We are prioritizing the resolution of security gaps that could lead to a loss of personally identifiable information or to other damage. Despite our efforts to identify and address such vulnerabilities, there are no assurances that our efforts will be successful.

There is a risk that our and our third-party vendors’ preventative security controls and practices will be inadequate to prevent unauthorized access to, disclosure of, or loss of personally identifiable and confidential data, or fraudulent activity. Any such unauthorized access or fraudulent activity could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

The potential risk of security breaches, fraud and cyberattacks may increase as we continue to introduce services and offerings, whether mobile, cloud, or otherwise. Any additional services and offerings inevitably increase the opportunity for a cyberattack against us. Further, data privacy and security are subject to frequently changing laws and regulations, which include the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), as well as additional legislation in place, or expected to become effective, in various US states and other countries. These laws and regulations are increasing in number, complexity, burden and potential financial penalties, and are often inconsistent among the various jurisdictions and countries in which we provide services. For example, the GDPR and CCPA impose significant new compliance obligations that add costs and operational burdens to our business with respect to our collection, use, storage and retention of personal data. Compliance with these obligations could reduce operational efficiency, and failure to satisfy these requirements may lead to significant regulatory enforcement actions and/or large private litigation in the event of a security breach or other violation. Under the GDPR, the maximum fine can be up to 4% of a company’s global revenue, and there is no maximum penalty under the CCPA.


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Any failure or perceived failure to successfully manage the collection, use, storage, processing, disclosure, transfer, destruction or security of personally identifiable data or other privacy and security related matters, or any failure to comply with changing regulatory requirements in this area, or any failure to mitigate other cyberattacks or material vulnerabilities, could result in legal liability or impairment to our reputation in the marketplace. The increasing discovery and/or disclosure of material vulnerabilities in various systems and components, along with the uncertainty concerning patches to those material vulnerabilities and the emergence of malware and tools to exploit those material vulnerabilities, may also have a detrimental effect on our cybersecurity posture and the ability to thwart a cyberattack. In addition, our liability insurance might not be sufficient in scope or amount to cover us against claims related to security breaches, social engineering, cyberattacks and other related data disclosure, loss or breach.

We have outsourced aspects of our business, which could result in disruption, increased costs, and reputational risk.

We have increasingly outsourced important processes of our business to third party vendors, which exposes us to other risks, including increased costs, potential disruptions to our business operations, and reputational risk. For example, we rely on third parties to host, manage and secure certain aspects of our data center information and technology infrastructure, to develop and maintain new technology for attracting, onboarding, managing, and analyzing our workforce, and to provide important back office support. We have increasingly centralized our vendor profile so that we are reliant on a small number of vendors for highly critical corporate and technology functions. While we believe these third-party vendors provide greater efficiency and expertise, our dependence on a small number of vendors, increases the risk that our business will be adversely affected if our vendors are unable to provide these services consistent with our needs. Similarly, our business continuity and our margins could be adversely affected if we needed to replace one of our critical vendors for performance or economic reasons.

Our operations also depend significantly upon these vendors’ and our ability to protect our data and to ensure the availability of our servers, software applications and websites. Despite our and our third-party vendors’ implementation of security measures, our systems remain susceptible to system failures, computer viruses, natural disasters, unauthorized access, cyberattacks and other similar incidents, any of which could result in disruptions to our operations. A successful breach of the security of our technology systems could result in the theft of confidential, personally identifiable, or other sensitive data, including data about our employees and/or associates, or our human resources operations, any of which could damage our reputation in the market. If we are not able to realize the savings associated with outsourcing services or if there is a disruption or security breach of our outsourced services that results in a loss or damage to our data, or in an inappropriate disclosure of confidential, personally identifiable, or sensitive data, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected.

Foreign currency fluctuations may have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

Although we report our results of operations in United States dollars, the majority of our revenues and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the United States dollar, and unfavorable fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our reported financial results. Highly inflationary economies of certain foreign countries, such as Argentina in 2018, can result in foreign currency devaluation, which may also negatively impact our reported financial results.

During 2019, approximately 88% of our revenues were generated outside of the United States, the majority of which were generated in Europe. Furthermore, $1,073.4 million of our outstanding indebtedness as of December 31, 2019 was denominated in foreign currencies, including $1,002.9 million related to our Euro-denominated notes (€900.0 million). Increases or decreases in the value of the United States dollar against other major currencies, or the imposition of limitations on conversion of foreign currencies into United States dollars, could affect our revenues, operating profit and the value of balance sheet items denominated in foreign currencies. Our exposure to foreign currencies, in particular the Euro, could have a material adverse effect on our reported results and shareholders’ equity, however, such fluctuations generally do not affect our cash flow or result in actual economic gains or losses unless we repatriate funds. Furthermore, the volatility of currencies may make year-over-year comparability of our financial results difficult.


15


 

We seek to mitigate our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations by utilizing net investment hedges and, from time to time, foreign currency forward exchange contracts and cross-currency swaps. A portion of our Euro-denominated notes has been designated as a hedge of our net investment in subsidiaries with a Euro-functional currency as of December 31, 2019, to mitigate our Euro currency translation exposure. The effectiveness of this hedge in part depends on our ability to accurately forecast future cash flows, which is particularly difficult during periods of uncertain or uneven demand for our services and highly volatile exchange rates. Further, hedging activities may only offset a portion, or none at all, of the material adverse financial effects of unfavorable fluctuations in foreign exchange rates over the time the hedge is in place or effective.

A loss or reduction in revenues from large client accounts could have a material adverse effect on our business. 

Our client mix consists of both small- and medium-size businesses, which are based upon a local or regional relationship with our presence in each market, and large national and multinational client relationships. These large national and multinational clients, which comprised approximately 60% of our revenues in 2019, will frequently enter into non-exclusive arrangements with several firms, and the client is generally able to terminate their contract with us on short notice without penalty. The deterioration of the financial condition or business prospects of one or more large national and/or multinational clients, or a change in their strategy around the use of our services, could reduce their need for our services and result in a significant decrease in the revenues and earnings we derive from them. A loss or reduction in revenues from our large national and multinational clients could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our liquidity could be adversely impacted by economic conditions affecting our clients.

Our working capital is primarily in the form of trade receivables which generally increase as sales increase. One of the ways in which we measure our working capital is in terms of working capital as a percent of revenue with a focus on Days Sales Outstanding (“DSO”). During periods of decline or uncertainty, our clients may slow the rate at which they pay their vendors, or they may become unable to pay their obligations. In addition, some clients have begun to impose more challenging billing terms, which increases the length of time before we receive payment for services. If our clients become unable to pay amounts owed to us, or pay us more slowly, then our DSO will increase, and our cash flow, liquidity, and profitability may suffer.

Our performance on contracts may be materially adversely affected if we or third parties fail to deliver on commitments.

Our contracts are increasingly complex and, in most instances, require that we partner with other parties to provide the workforce solutions required by our clients. Our clients have become more sophisticated in their contractual negotiation process and more detailed in defining their operational requirements. Our ability to deliver these solutions and provide the services required by our clients is dependent on our and our partners’ ability to meet our clients’ delivery requirements and schedules. If we or our partners fail to deliver services on time and in accordance with contractual performance obligations, then our ability to successfully complete our contracts may be affected, which may have a material and adverse impact on our client relations, revenues and profitability. Additionally, we may incur liability for the actions or omissions of our partners or vendors and we may face challenges or be unable to enforce these obligations against those partners.

If we lose our key personnel, then our business may suffer.

Our operations are dependent on the continued efforts of our officers and executive management and the performance and productivity of headquarters management and staff, our local managers and field personnel. Our ability to attract and retain business is significantly affected by local relationships and the quality of service rendered. If we were to lose key personnel who have acquired significant experience in managing our business or managing companies on a global basis or in key markets, it could have a significant impact on our operations.


16


 

Intense competition may limit our ability to attract, train and retain the qualified personnel necessary for us to meet our clients’ staffing needs.

Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain qualified associates who possess the skills and experience necessary to meet the requirements of our clients. In many markets, we have been experiencing an unusually tight labor market, with historically low levels of unemployment, and there is a risk that we may be unable to meet our clients’ requirements in identifying an adequate number of associates. We must continually evaluate and upgrade our base of available qualified personnel through recruiting and training programs to keep pace with changing client needs and emerging technologies. This is especially acute for individuals with IT and other technology skills, as competition for such individuals with proven professional skills is intense, and we expect demand for such individuals to remain very strong for the foreseeable future. Qualified personnel may not be available to us in sufficient numbers and on terms of employment acceptable to us. Additionally, our clients may look to us for assistance in identifying and integrating into their organization’s workers from diverse backgrounds, and who may represent different generations, geographical regions, and skillsets. These needs may change due to business requirements, or in response to geopolitical and societal trends. There is a risk that we may not be able to identify workers with the required attributes, or that our training programs may not succeed in developing effective or adequate skills. If we fail to recruit, train and retain qualified associates who meet the needs of our clients, our reputation, business and financial results could be materially adversely affected.

Our global operations subject us to certain risks beyond our control.

With operations in 75 countries and territories around the world, we are subject to numerous risks outside of our control, including risks arising from political unrest and other political events, regional and international hostilities and international responses to these hostilities, strikes and other worker unrest, natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, international conflict, severe weather conditions, pandemics and other global health emergencies, disruptions of infrastructure and utilities, cyberattacks, and other events beyond our control. Although it is not possible to predict such events or their consequences, these events could materially adversely affect our reputation, business and financial results.

Government regulations may result in prohibition or restriction of certain types of employment services or the imposition of additional licensing or tax requirements that may reduce our future earnings.

In many jurisdictions in which we operate, such as France, Italy and Germany, the employment services industry is heavily regulated. For example, governmental regulations in Germany restrict the length of contracts and the industries in which our associates may be used. In some countries, special taxes, fees or costs are imposed in connection with the use of our associates. Additionally, in some countries, trade unions have used the political process to target our industry in an effort to increase the regulatory burden and expense associated with offering or utilizing contingent workforce solutions. Moreover, many countries, including the Netherlands and Japan, have established regulations that require equal-pay for equal-work for temporary workers and fixed term employees. These new regulations could have a significant impact to our revenues, costs, and operating margins as we and customers adjust to these new regulations. Furthermore, many countries are also expanding enforcement of immigration laws, and there is a risk that we will incur greater expense in connection with immigration law compliance.

The countries and territories in which we operate may, among other things:

 

create additional regulations that prohibit or restrict the types of employment services that we currently provide;

 

require new or additional benefits be paid to our associates;

 

require pay parity for our associates;

 

require us to obtain additional licensing to provide employment services; or

 

increase taxes, such as sales or value-added taxes.


17


 

Any future regulations may have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results because they may make it more difficult or expensive for us to continue to provide employment services, particularly if we cannot pass along increases in costs to our clients.

Failure to comply with antibribery and corruption laws could materially adversely affect our business.

We are additionally subject to numerous legal and regulatory requirements that prohibit bribery and corrupt acts. These include the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act 2010, as well as similar legislation in many of the countries and territories in which we operate. Our employees (but not our temporary associates) are required to participate in a global anticorruption compliance training program designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations. However, there are no assurances this program will be effective. In many countries where we operate, practices in the local business community may not conform to international business standards and could violate anticorruption law or regulations. Furthermore, we remain subject to the risk that one of our employees (or one of our associates on a temporary or contract-based assignment) could engage in business practices that are prohibited by our policies and these laws and regulations. Any such violations could materially adversely affect our business.

We may be exposed to legal claims, including employment-related claims that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to a wide variety of potential litigation and other legal claims that arise in the ordinary course of our business. The results of litigation and other legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and adverse judgments or settlements in some or all of these legal disputes may result in materially adverse monetary damages, fines, penalties or injunctive relief against us.

For example, through our direct interaction with our clients’ businesses and facilities, including functions and systems that are sensitive or critical to their core businesses, we may be exposed to operational, regulatory, reputational and other risks specific to their business, including data security risks. These risks may be reduced through contractual provisions that limit damages or mitigate our responsibility for losses caused by our assigned workers; but these types of contractual protections are not always possible because we may perceive an important economic opportunity, because of the contracting practices of our industry competitors or because our personnel did not adequately follow our contracting guidelines. In addition, as we expand our services and solutions into new areas, we may be exposed to additional and evolving risks specific to these new areas.

We are in the business of employing people and placing them in the workplaces of other businesses. Risks relating to these activities include:

 

claims by our associates of discrimination or harassment directed at them, including claims relating to actions of our clients;

 

claims by our associates of wrongful termination or retaliation;

 

claims arising out of the actions or inactions of our associates, including matters for which we may have indemnified a client;

 

claims arising from violations of employment rights related to employment screening or privacy issues;

 

claims related to classification of workers as employees or independent contractors;

 

claims related to the employment of undocumented or illegal workers;

 

payment of workers’ compensation claims and other similar claims;

 

violations of employee pay and benefits requirements such as violations of wage and hour requirements;

 

entitlement to employee benefits, including healthcare coverage;

 

errors and omissions of our associates and other individuals working on our behalf in performing their jobs, such as accountants, IT professionals, engineers and other technical workers; and

 

claims by our clients relating to our associates’ misuse of clients’ proprietary information, misappropriation of funds, other criminal activity or torts or other similar claims.

18


 

We may incur fines and other losses or negative publicity with respect to these problems. In addition, some or all of these claims may give rise to litigation, which could be time-consuming to our management team and costly and could have a negative impact on our business regardless of the merits of the claim. For example, in the past, we have devoted considerable time and expense to resolve several California-based “wage and hour” claims that asserted deficiencies in our payroll practices, and we are frequently sued by plaintiffs in various other employment-related matters, including those seeking class action status in the US. It is likely we will continue to experience similar claims in the future.

We cannot be certain our insurance will be sufficient in amount or scope to cover all claims that may be asserted against us. Should the ultimate judgments or settlements exceed our insurance coverage, they could have a material effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows. We cannot be certain we will be able to obtain appropriate types or levels of insurance in the future, that adequate replacement policies will be available on acceptable terms, if at all, or that the companies from which we have obtained insurance will be able to pay claims we make under such policies.

Our business exposes us to competition law risk.

We are subject to antitrust and competition law in the United States, the European Union, and many other regions in which we operate. Some of our business models may carry a heightened risk of regulatory inquiry under relevant competition laws. Although we have put in place safeguards designed to maintain compliance with applicable competition laws, there can be no assurance these protections will be adequate, and there is a risk that we will be subject to regulatory investigation by relevant authorities. For example, in 2009, we were fined by the French Competition Council following a 2004 investigation. As previously reported, in 2013, the French Competition Authority commenced another investigation covering ManpowerGroup and a number of our competitors in France, which was subsequently closed by the French Competition Authority in 2019.

There continues to be a risk, in France and in the other countries where we operate, of inquiries by competition law regulators into how we operate our business. There is no assurance we will successfully defend against such regulatory inquiries, and they may consume substantial amounts of our financial and managerial resources, remain outstanding for a significant duration, and result in adverse publicity, even if successfully resolved. An unfavorable outcome with respect to these matters and any future matters could, individually or in the aggregate, result in substantial liabilities that have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our ability to attract and retain business and employees may depend on our reputation in the marketplace.

We believe our reputation, along with our brand equity in the ManpowerGroup name and our various other brands, are important corporate resources that help distinguish our services from those of competitors and also contribute to our efforts to recruit and retain talented employees. However, our corporate reputation is potentially susceptible to material damage by events such as disputes with clients, information technology security breaches, internal control deficiencies, delivery failures or compliance violations. Similarly, our reputation could be damaged by actions or statements of current or former clients, employees, competitors, vendors, franchisees and other third-party brand licensees, adversaries in legal proceedings, government regulators, as well as members of the investment community or the media. There is a risk that negative information about ManpowerGroup, even if based on rumor or misunderstanding, could materially adversely affect our business. Damage to our reputation could be difficult, expensive and time-consuming to repair, could make potential or existing clients reluctant to select us for new engagements, resulting in a loss of business, and could materially adversely affect our recruitment and retention efforts. Damage to our reputation could also reduce the value and effectiveness of the ManpowerGroup name and our other brand names, and could reduce investor confidence in us, materially adversely affecting our share price.

Changes in sentiment toward the staffing industry could affect the marketplace for our services.

From time to time, the staffing industry has come under criticism from unions, works councils, regulatory agencies and other constituents that maintain that labor and employment protections, such as wage and benefits regulations, are subverted when clients use contingent staffing services. Our business is dependent on the continued acceptance of contingent staffing arrangements as a source of flexible labor for our clients. If attitudes or business practices in some locations change due to pressure from organized labor, political groups or regulatory agencies, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.


19


 

Our results of operations and share price could be materially adversely affected if we are unable to maintain effective internal controls.

The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our shareholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, and fraud. Because of these inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls that provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, we could suffer harm to our reputation, fail to meet our public reporting requirements timely, be unable to properly report on our business and our results of operations, or be required to restate our financial statements. If any of these were to occur, the market price of our securities and our ability to obtain new business could be materially adversely affected.

Our acquisition strategy may have a material adverse effect on our business due to unexpected or underestimated costs.

From time to time, we make acquisitions of other companies or operating assets or enter into operating joint ventures. These activities involve significant risks, including:

 

difficulties in the assimilation of the operations, financial reporting, services and corporate culture of acquired companies;

 

failure of any companies or assets that we acquire, or joint ventures that we form, to meet performance expectations, which could trigger payment obligations;

 

over-valuation by us of any companies or assets that we acquire, or joint ventures that we form;

 

disputes that arise with sellers;

 

failure to effectively monitor compliance with corporate policies as well as regulatory requirements;

 

insufficient indemnification from the selling parties for liabilities incurred by the acquired companies prior to the acquisitions; and

 

diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns.

 

These risks could have a material adverse effect on our business because they may result in substantial costs to us and disrupt our business. In addition, future acquisitions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Possible impairment losses on goodwill and intangible assets with an indefinite life or restructuring charges could also occur.

 

From time to time, we may reduce our global footprint via sales, franchising, joint ventures or other exit activities, and we may face risks related to such transactions.

 

From time to time we review the effectiveness of our global operations, including our global geographic footprint, and we may elect to exit certain countries or operations after analyzing their performance or their position in our overall global strategy. We have engaged in such dispositions in the past, and we expect that we will continue to dispose of portions of our business that are not meeting our performance or strategic objectives. Among other alternatives, this could take the form of a closure of a business, the contribution of the business to a joint venture, or an exit by means of a sale to, or a franchise arrangement with, a third party. There are risks and costs associated with any exit activities, which could include difficulties in the separation of operations, services or personnel, the diversion of management attention, and the disruption of our business. Any such transactions may require regulatory or governmental approvals, which could impede the transaction. Divestitures may also involve continued financial involvement in, or liability with respect to, the divested businesses. As a result of divestiture transactions, we could incur severance charges for personnel and payments for lease and other commitments, charges from the impairment or write-off of assets, and other financial loss due to the transaction. Furthermore, there is the risk that we might lose customers, in particular multinational clients with operations in the exited countries or operations. Additionally, if we choose to enter into a franchise arrangement for a third party to operate our business in the exited region using our trademarks and other licensed assets, we face potential counterparty and reputational risks arising from the franchisee’s operation of the business.

20


 

For example, in 2019, we sold a portion of our Greater China business, ManpowerGroup Greater China Limited, to public shareholders through an initial public offering (IPO) on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. We contributed this business to a joint venture entity in 2015, which we continued to control until the IPO transaction. As a result of the IPO, our ownership in the entity was reduced to a minority position, and our effective control over the governance and the operations of the business was eliminated. As a result, we deconsolidated the operations from our financial results. The listed entity continues to operate the Manpower branded business in the Greater China territory pursuant to a license to use our trademark and other intellectual property. There is a risk that any disputes, claims, controversies, regulatory investigations, litigation, or any activities of the joint venture entity could have an adverse reputational impact on us, as the marketplace, including clients, candidates and the media, may ascribe such issues to us, believing that we control the operations of the business within the Greater China region.

We have only a limited ability to protect our thought leadership and other intellectual property, which is important to our success.

Our success depends, in part, upon our ability to protect our proprietary methodologies and other intellectual property including the value of our brands. Existing laws of the various countries in which we provide services or solutions may offer only limited protection. We rely upon a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality, license and other contractual agreements, and patent, copyright, and trademark laws to protect our intellectual property rights. Our intellectual property rights may not prevent competitors from independently developing products, services and solutions similar to ours. Further, the steps we take might not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other misappropriation of our intellectual property by competitors, former employees or other third parties, which could materially adversely affect our business and financial results.

In addition, we cannot be sure that our services and solutions do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties, and these third parties could claim that we or our clients are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. These claims could harm our reputation, cause us to incur substantial costs or prevent us from offering some services or solutions in the future.

Our debt levels could materially adversely affect our operating flexibility and put us at a competitive disadvantage.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $1,073.4 million of total debt. Our level of debt and the limitations imposed on us by our credit agreements could have important consequences for investors, including the following:

 

we may not be able to obtain additional debt financing for future working capital, capital expenditures, significant acquisition opportunities, or other corporate purposes or may have to pay more for such financing;

 

borrowings under our revolving credit facilities are at a variable interest rate, making us more vulnerable to increases in interest rates; and

 

we could be less able to take advantage of significant business opportunities and to react to changes in market or industry conditions.

Our failure to comply with restrictive covenants under our revolving credit facilities and other debt instruments could trigger prepayment obligations.

Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants under our revolving credit facilities and other debt instruments could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in us being required to repay these borrowings before their due date. If we are forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected by increased costs and rates.

The lenders under our and our subsidiaries’ credit facilities may be unwilling or unable to extend credit to us on acceptable terms or at all.

If our liquidity needs increase, we would expect to use our revolving credit facility, which is provided by a syndicate of banks. Each bank in the syndicate is responsible on a several, but not joint, basis for providing a portion of the loans under the facility. If any of the participants in the syndicate fails to satisfy its obligations to extend credit under the facility, the other participants refuse or are unable to assume its obligations and we are unable to find an alternative source of funding at comparable rates, our liquidity may be materially adversely affected, or our interest expense may increase substantially.


21


 

Furthermore, a number of our subsidiaries maintain uncommitted lines of credit with various banks. Under the terms of these lines of credit, the bank is not obligated to make loans to the subsidiary or to make loans to the subsidiary at a particular interest rate. If any of these banks cancel these lines of credit or otherwise refuse to extend credit on acceptable terms, we may need to extend credit to those subsidiaries or the liquidity of our subsidiaries may be materially adversely affected.

The performance of our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute cash to our parent company may vary, negatively affecting our ability to service our debt at the parent company level or in other subsidiaries.

Since we conduct a significant portion of our operations through our subsidiaries, our cash flow and our consequent ability to service our debt depends in part upon the earnings of our subsidiaries and the distribution of those earnings to our parent company, or upon loans or other payments of funds by those subsidiaries to our parent company or to other subsidiaries. The payment of such dividends and the making of such loans and advances by our subsidiaries may be subject to legal or contractual restrictions, depend upon the earnings of those subsidiaries and working capital requirements, and be subject to various business considerations, including the ability of such subsidiaries to pay such dividends or make such loans and advances.

Our inability to secure guarantees or letters of credit on acceptable terms may substantially increase our cost of doing business in various countries.

In a number of countries and territories in which we conduct business we are obligated to provide guarantees or letters of credit to secure licenses, lease space or for insurance coverage. We typically receive these guarantees and letters of credit from a number of financial institutions around the world. In the event that we are unable to secure these arrangements from a bank, lender or other third party on acceptable terms, our liquidity may be materially adversely affected, there could be a disruption to our business or there could be a substantial increase in cost for our business.

We could be subject to changes in tax rates, adoption of new United States or international tax legislation or tax audits that could result in additional income tax liabilities.

We are subject to income and other taxes in the United States and international jurisdictions where we have operations. The tax bases and rates of these respective tax jurisdictions change from time to time due to economic and political conditions. Our effective income tax rate is affected by changes in earnings in countries with differing tax rates, changes in valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities or changes in the respective tax laws. Our other taxes are impacted by changes in local tax laws or changes in our business.

In addition, tax accounting involves complex matters and requires our judgment to determine our worldwide provision for income and other taxes and tax assets and liabilities. These complex matters include transfer pricing and reporting related to intercompany transactions. We are routinely subject to tax examinations by the United States Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. Tax authorities have disagreed, and may disagree in the future, with our judgments. Many taxing authorities are taking increasingly aggressive positions opposing the judgments we make, including with respect to our intercompany transactions. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of our audits and tax proceedings to determine the appropriateness of our tax liabilities. However, our judgments might not be sustained as a result of these audits and tax proceedings, and the amounts ultimately paid could be materially different from the amounts previously recorded.

In addition, changes in tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation or enforcement, have become more unpredictable and may become more stringent, which could materially adversely affect our tax position. A number of countries where we do business, including the United States and many countries in the European Union, have implemented, and are considering implementing, changes in relevant tax, accounting and other laws, regulations and interpretations. The overall tax environment has made it increasingly challenging for multinational corporations to operate with certainty about taxation in many jurisdictions. For example, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”), which represents a coalition of member countries, is supporting changes to numerous long-standing tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting project, which is focused on a number of issues, including the shifting of profits among affiliated entities located in different tax jurisdictions. The changes recommended by the OECD have been or are being adopted by many of the countries in which we do business. In addition, the European Commission has expanded upon the OECD guidelines with anti-tax avoidance directives to be applied by its member states. Among other things, the directives require companies to provide increased country-by-country disclosure of their financial information to tax authorities, which in turn could lead to disagreements by jurisdictions over the proper allocation of profits between them. These possible change in tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation or enforcement, could have an adverse impact on our current or future tax positions.

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The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, which may result in losses for investors.

The market price for our common stock may be subject to significant volatility. For example, during 2019, the price of our common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange ranged from a high of $97.36 to a low of $63.72. Our stock price can fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, including factors listed in these “Risk Factors” and others, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:

 

changes in general economic conditions;

 

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results;

 

announcement of new services by us or our competitors;

 

announcements relating to strategic relationships or acquisitions;

 

changes in financial estimates or other statements by securities analysts; and

 

changes in investor sentiment regarding the company arising from these or other events, or the economy in general.

Wisconsin law and our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could make the takeover of our company more difficult.

Certain provisions of Wisconsin law and our articles of incorporation and bylaws could have the effect of delaying or preventing a third party from acquiring us, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our shareholders. These provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws currently include:

 

permitting removal of directors only for cause;

 

providing that vacancies on the board of directors will be filled by the remaining directors then in office; and

 

requiring advance notice for shareholder proposals and director nominees.

In addition, the Wisconsin control share acquisition statute and Wisconsin’s “fair price” and “business combination” provisions, in addition to other provisions of Wisconsin law, limit the ability of an acquiring person to engage in certain transactions or to exercise the full voting power of acquired shares under certain circumstances. As a result, offers to acquire us, which may represent a premium over the available market price of our common stock, may be withdrawn or otherwise fail to be realized. The provisions described above could cause our stock price to decline.

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2.

Properties

We own properties at various locations worldwide, none of which are material. Most of our operations are conducted from leased premises and we do not anticipate any difficulty in renewing these leases or in finding alternative sites in the ordinary course of business.

Item 3.

We are involved in litigation of a routine nature and various legal matters, which are being defended and handled in the ordinary course of business.

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

23


 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF MANPOWERGROUP

(as of February 19, 2020)

 

Name of Officer

 

Office

 

 

 

Jonas Prising

Age 55

 

Chairman of ManpowerGroup as of December 31, 2015. Chief Executive Officer of ManpowerGroup since May 2014. ManpowerGroup President from November 2012 to May 2014. Executive Vice President, President of ManpowerGroup - the Americas from January 2009 to October 2012. Executive Vice President, President – United States and Canadian Operations from January 2006 to December 2008. A director of ManpowerGroup since May 2014. An employee of ManpowerGroup since May 1999. A director of Kohl's Corporation since August 2015.

 

 

 

John T. McGinnis

Age 53

 

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer of ManpowerGroup since February 2016. Global Controller of Morgan Stanley from January 2014 to February 2016. Chief Financial Officer, HSBC North America from July 2012 to January 2014. Chief Financial Officer, HSBC Bank USA from July 2010 to January 2014. An employee of ManpowerGroup since February 2016.

 

 

 

Mara E. Swan

Age 60

 

Executive Vice President - Global Strategy and Talent since January 2009. Senior Vice President of Global Human Resources from August 2005 to December 2008. An employee of ManpowerGroup since August 2005. A director of GOJO Industries since November 2012. A director of Brightview Inc. since April 2019.

 

 

 

Richard D. Buchband

Age 56

 

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of ManpowerGroup since January 2013. Prior to joining ManpowerGroup, a partner and Associate General Counsel for Accenture plc from 2006 to 2011. An employee of ManpowerGroup since January 2013.

 

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OTHER INFORMATION

Audit Committee Approval of Audit-Related and Non-Audit Services

The Audit Committee of our Board of Directors has approved the following audit-related and non-audit services performed or to be performed for us by our independent registered public accounting firm, Deloitte & Touche LLP and Affiliates, in 2019:

(a)

preparation and/or review of tax returns, including sales and use tax, excise tax, income tax, local tax, property tax, and value-added tax;

(b)

advice and assistance with respect to transfer pricing matters, as well as communicating with various taxing authorities regarding the requirements associated with royalties and inter-company pricing, and tax audits; and

(c)

audit services with respect to certain procedures and certifications where required.

25


 

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Common Stock Listing and Trading

The Company's common stock is listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MAN.

Shareholders of Record

As of February 19, 2020, the Company's common stock was held by approximately 2,800 record holders.

Dividend Policy

While we currently expect that future semi-annual dividends will continue to be paid, our dividend policy is subject to review and change at the discretion of our Board of Directors and may depend upon, among other factors, earnings, financial condition, and other requirements. 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

In August 2018, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of 6.0 million shares of our common stock. In August 2019, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of an additional 6.0 million shares of our common stock. We conduct share repurchases from time to time through a variety of methods, including open market purchases, block transactions, privately negotiated transactions or similar facilities. The following table shows the total amount of shares repurchased during the fourth quarter of 2019. As of December 31, 2019, there were 6.0 million and 0.8 million shares remaining authorized for repurchase under the 2019 authorization and 2018 authorization, respectively.

 

 

 

Total number of

shares purchased

 

 

Average

price paid

per share

 

 

Total number of

shares purchased

as part of publicly

announced plan or

programs

 

 

Maximum number

of shares that may

yet be purchased

under the plan or

programs

 

October 1 - 31, 2019

 

 

299,741

 

 

$

83.40

 

 

 

299,741

 

 

 

7,029,671

 

November 1 - 30, 2019

 

 

214,723

 

 

 

93.04

 

 

 

214,723

 

 

 

6,814,948

 

December 1 - 31, 2019

 

 

64,452

 

 

 

93.03

 

 

 

64,452

 

 

 

6,750,496

 

Total

 

 

578,916

 

 

$

88.05

 

 

 

578,916

 

 

 

6,750,496

 

 

26


 

Performance Graph

Set forth below is a graph for the periods ending December 31, 2014-2019 comparing the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of companies in the Standard & Poor’s 400 Midcap Stock Index and the Standard & Poor’s Supercomposite Human Resources and Employment Services Index. We are included in the Standard & Poor’s Supercomposite Human Resources and Employment Services Index and we estimate that we constituted approximately 23% of the total market capitalization of the companies included in the index. The graph assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2014 in our common stock, the Standard & Poor’s 400 Midcap Stock Index and the Standard & Poor’s Supercomposite Human Resources and Employment Services Index and assumes the reinvestment of all dividends.

 

 

December 31

 

2014

 

 

2015

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019