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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 001-18298
Kemper Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DE
95-4255452
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
200 E. Randolph Street
Suite 3300
Chicago
IL
60601
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)

(312) 661-4600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.10 par value per share
KMPR
NYSE

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes   No  

As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $5.7 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange. Solely for purposes of this calculation, all executive officers and directors of the registrant are considered affiliates.

Registrant had 66,668,172 shares of common stock outstanding as of January 31, 2020.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III.



Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 
 
 
 
Part I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Properties
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
 
Part II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
 
 
 
Part III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
 
 
Part IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
 
Exhibit Index
Power of Attorney
Signatures
Financial Statement Schedules:
 
Schedule 1 - Investments Other than Investments in Related Parties
Schedule 2 - Parent Company Financial Statements
Schedule 3 - Supplementary Insurance Information
Schedule 4 - Reinsurance Schedule



Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “2019 Annual Report”), including, but not limited to, the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Kemper Corporation (“Kemper” or the “Registrant”) and its subsidiaries (individually and collectively referred to herein as the “Company”) and the notes thereto appearing in Item 8 herein (the “Consolidated Financial Statements”), the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations appearing in Item 7 herein (the “MD&A”) and the other Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules filed as a part hereof or incorporated by reference herein, may contain or incorporate by reference information that includes or is based on forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe-harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
Forward-looking statements give expectations or forecasts of future events. The reader can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. They use words such as “believe(s),” “goal(s),” “target(s),”
“estimate(s),” “anticipate(s),” “forecast(s),” “project(s),” “plan(s),” “intend(s),” “expect(s),” “might,” “may,” “could” and other terms of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements, in particular, include statements relating to future actions, prospective services or products, future performance or results of current and anticipated services or products, sales efforts, expenses, the outcome of contingencies such as legal proceedings, trends in operations and financial results.
Any or all forward-looking statements may turn out to be wrong, and, accordingly, Kemper cautions readers not to place undue reliance on such statements. Kemper bases these statements on current expectations and the current economic environment as of the date of this 2019 Annual Report. They involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be affected by inaccurate assumptions or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties that may be important in determining the Company’s actual future results and financial condition.
In addition to the factors discussed below under Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” in this 2019 Annual Report, the reader should consider the following list of general factors that, among others, could cause the Company’s actual results and financial condition to differ materially from estimated results and financial condition.
Factors related to the legal and regulatory environment in which Kemper and its subsidiaries operate
Evolving policies, practices and interpretations by regulators and courts that increase operating costs and potential liabilities, particularly any that involve retroactive application of new requirements, including, but not limited to, state initiatives related to unclaimed property laws or claims handling practices with respect to life insurance policies and the proactive use of death verification databases;
Adverse outcomes in litigation or other legal or regulatory proceedings involving Kemper or its subsidiaries or affiliates;
Governmental actions, including, but not limited to, implementation of new laws and regulations, and court decisions interpreting existing and future laws and regulations or policy provisions;
Uncertainties related to regulatory approval of insurance rates, policy forms, insurance products, license applications, dividends from insurance subsidiaries, acquisitions of businesses and other matters within the purview of state insurance regulators;
Increased costs and initiatives required to address new legal and regulatory requirements and developments related to cybersecurity, privacy and data governance;

 
1


Factors relating to insurance claims and related reserves in the Company’s insurance businesses
The incidence, frequency and severity of catastrophes occurring in any particular reporting period or geographic area, including natural disasters, pandemics and terrorist attacks or other man-made events;
The frequency and severity of insurance claims (including those associated with catastrophe losses);
Changes in facts and circumstances affecting assumptions used in determining loss and loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”) reserves, including, but not limited to, the frequency and severity of insurance claims, changes in claims handling procedures and closure patterns and development patterns;
The impact of inflation on insurance claims, including, but not limited to, the effects on home and automobile property damage, personal injury claims of increasing medical costs and the effects on property claims attributed to scarcity of resources available to rebuild damaged structures, including labor and materials and the amount of salvage value recovered for damaged property;
Developments related to insurance policy claims and coverage issues, including, but not limited to, interpretations, pronouncements or decisions by courts or regulators that may govern or influence losses incurred in connection with hurricanes and other catastrophes;
Orders, interpretations or other actions by regulators that impact the reporting, adjustment and payment of claims;
Changes in the pricing or availability of reinsurance, or in the financial condition of reinsurers and amounts recoverable therefrom;
Factors related to the Company’s ability to compete
Changes in the ratings of Kemper and/or its insurance company subsidiaries by rating agencies with regard to credit, financial strength, claims paying ability and other areas on which the Company is rated;
The level of success and costs incurred in realizing or maintaining economies of scale, integrating acquired businesses, divesting of businesses, and implementing significant business initiatives and the timing of the occurrence or completion of such events, including, but not limited to, those related to expense and claims savings, consolidations, reorganizations and technology;
Absolute and relative performance of the Company’s products and services, including, but not limited to, the level of success achieved in designing and introducing new insurance products and services;
The ability of the Company to maintain the availability and required performance of critical systems and manage technology initiatives cost-effectively to address insurance industry developments and regulatory requirements;
Heightened competition, including, with respect to pricing, consolidations of existing competitors or entry of new competitors and alternate distribution channels, introduction of new technologies, use and enhancements of telematics, refinements of existing products and development of new products by current or future competitors;
Expected benefits and synergies from mergers, acquisitions and/or divestitures that may not be realized to the extent anticipated, within expected time frames or at all, due to a number of factors including, but not limited to, the loss of key agents/brokers, customers or employees, increased costs, fees, expenses and related charges and delays caused by unanticipated developments or factors outside of the Company’s control;
The successful formulation and execution of the Company’s plans with regard to corporate strategy and significant operational changes;

 
2


Factors relating to the business environment in which Kemper and its subsidiaries operate
Changes in general economic conditions, including those related to, without limitation, performance of financial markets, interest rates, inflation, unemployment rates, significant global events, and fluctuating values of particular investments held by the Company;
Absolute and relative performance of investments held by the Company;
Changes in insurance industry trends and significant industry developments;
Changes in consumer trends and significant consumer or product developments;
Changes in capital requirements, including the calculations thereof, used by regulators and rating agencies;
Regulatory, accounting or tax changes that may affect the cost of, or demand for, the Company’s products or services or after-tax returns from the Company’s investments;
The impact of required participation in state windpools and joint underwriting associations, residual market assessments and assessments for insurance industry insolvencies;
Changes in distribution channels, methods or costs resulting from changes in laws or regulations, legal proceedings or market forces;
Increased costs and risks related to cybersecurity that could materially affect the Company’s operations, including, but not limited to, data breaches, cyber-incidents, virus or malware attacks or other system hazards or infiltrations affecting system integrity, availability and performance, and actions taken to minimize and remediate the risks thereof; and
Other risks and uncertainties described from time to time in Kemper’s filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Kemper cannot provide any assurances that the results and outcomes contemplated in any forward-looking statements will be achieved or will be achieved in any particular timetable or that future events or developments will not cause such statements to be inaccurate. Kemper assumes no obligation to correct or update any forward-looking statements publicly for any changes in events or developments or in the Company’s expectations or results subsequent to the date of this 2019 Annual Report. Kemper advises the reader, however, to consult any further disclosures Kemper makes on related subjects in its filings with the SEC.

 
3


PART I
Item 1.    Business.
Kemper is a diversified insurance holding company, with subsidiaries that provide automobile, homeowners, life, health, and other insurance products to individuals and businesses. Kemper’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10‑Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments thereto are accessible free of charge through Kemper’s website, kemper.com, and as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC, which also maintains an Internet site at sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
(a) GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS
Registrant is a holding company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1990, with equity securities traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). On August 25, 2011, Registrant adopted its current name, Kemper Corporation, and changed its NYSE ticker symbol to KMPR. Prior to the name change, the Registrant was known as Unitrin, Inc. and traded under the NYSE ticker symbol UTR.
The Kemper family of companies is one of the nation’s leading specialized insurers. With nearly $13.0 billion in assets, Kemper is improving the world of insurance by providing affordable and easy-to-use personalized solutions to individuals, families and businesses through its Auto, Personal Insurance, Life and Health brands. Kemper serves over 6.4 million policies, is represented by more than 30,000 agents and brokers, and has approximately 8,900 associates dedicated to meeting the ever-changing needs of its customers.
(c) DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
The Company is engaged, through its subsidiaries, in the property and casualty insurance and life and health insurance businesses. The Company conducts its operations through three operating segments: Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance, Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance and Life & Health Insurance. The Company conducts its operations solely in the United States.
Kemper’s subsidiaries employ approximately 8,900 associates supporting their operations, of which approximately 3,300 are employed in the Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance Segment, approximately 1,300 are employed in the Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance segment, approximately 3,400 are employed in the Life & Health Insurance segment and the remainder are employed in various corporate and other staff and shared functions.
Property and Casualty Insurance Business
General
The Company’s property & casualty insurance business operations are conducted primarily through the Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance and Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance segments. The Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance and Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance segments distribute their products primarily through independent agents and brokers who are paid commissions for their services. In addition, the Life and Health Insurance segment’s career agents also sell contents coverage for personal property to its customers. Collectively, these segments provide preferred automobile, specialty automobile, homeowners, renters, fire, umbrella, general liability as an endorsement to commercial automobile and other types of property and casualty insurance to individuals and commercial automobile insurance to businesses.
Property insurance indemnifies an insured with an interest in physical property for loss of, or damage to, such property. Casualty insurance primarily covers liability for damage to property of, or injury to, a person or entity other than the insured. In most cases, casualty insurance also obligates the insurance company to provide a defense for the insured in litigation arising out of events covered by the policy.


 
4


Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance
The Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment, based in Chicago, Illinois, conducts business in 35 states under the Kemper Auto brand. As shown in the following table, three states provided 92% of the segment’s premium revenues in 2019.
State
 
Percentage of Total Premiums
California
 
67
%
Florida
 
14
%
Texas
 
11
%
The Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance segment provides personal and commercial automobile insurance to consumers who have had difficulty obtaining standard or preferred risk insurance, usually because of their driving records, claims experience or premium payment history. The segment also meets the insurance needs of other specialty markets such as urban and Hispanic consumers. The segment’s insurance products accounted for 69%, 60% and 43% of the Company’s consolidated insurance premiums in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The segment’s insurance products are marketed through approximately 21,000 independent agents and brokers.
Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance
The Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance segment, based in Chicago, Illinois, conducts business in 45 states and the District of Columbia. As shown in the following table, five states provided 66% of the segment’s premium revenues in 2019.
State
 
Percentage of Total Premiums
California
 
21
%
New York
 
17
%
Texas
 
15
%
North Carolina
 
9
%
Pennsylvania
 
4
%
The Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance segment primarily sells preferred automobile insurance, homeowners insurance and other personal insurance. The segment’s insurance products accounted for 17%, 22% and 31% of the Company’s consolidated insurance premiums in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The segment’s insurance products are marketed by approximately 4,800 independent insurance agents and brokers to individuals who have demonstrated favorable risk characteristics and loss history.
Property and Casualty Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Reserves
The Company’s reserves for losses and LAE for property and casualty insurance (“Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves”) are reported using the Company’s estimate of its ultimate liability for losses and LAE for claims that occurred prior to the end of any given accounting period but have not yet been paid.
Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves by business segment at December 31, 2019 and 2018 were:
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS
 
2019
 
2018
Business Segments:
 
 
 
 
Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance
 
$
1,551.0

 
$
1,387.0

Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance
 
388.5

 
452.9

Life & Health Insurance
 
3.3

 
4.4

Total Business Segments
 
1,942.8


1,844.3

Unallocated Reserves
 
27.0

 
30.6

Total Property & Casualty Insurance Reserves
 
$
1,969.8


$
1,874.9


 
5


In estimating the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves, the Company’s actuaries exercise professional judgment and must consider, and are influenced by, many variables that are difficult to quantify. Accordingly, the process of estimating and establishing the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves is inherently uncertain and the actual ultimate net cost of claims may vary materially from the estimated amounts reserved. See MD&A, “Critical Accounting Estimates,” under the caption “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses” beginning on page 62 for a discussion of the Company’s reserving process and the factors considered by the Company’s actuaries in estimating the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves.
The Company’s goal is to ensure that its total reserves for property and casualty insurance losses and LAE are adequate to cover all costs, while minimizing variation from the time reserves for losses and LAE are initially estimated until losses and LAE are fully paid. Changes in the Company’s estimates of these losses and LAE, also referred to as “development,” will occur over time and may be material. Favorable development is recognized and reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements when the Company decreases its previous estimate of ultimate losses and LAE and results in an increase in net income in the period recognized, whereas adverse development is recognized and reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements when the Company increases its previous estimate of ultimate losses and LAE and results in a decrease in net income.
See Note 6, “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information about incurred and paid claims development for the 2015-2018 accident years as of December 31, 2019, net of reinsurance and indemnification, as well as cumulative claim frequency and the total of incurred but not reported (“IBNR”) liabilities, including expected development on reported claims included within the net incurred losses and allocated LAE amounts as of December 31, 2019. See Note 6, “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a tabular reconciliation of the three most recent annual periods setting forth the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves as of the beginning of each year, incurred losses and LAE for insured events of the current year, changes in incurred losses and LAE for insured events of prior years, payments of losses and LAE for insured events of the current year, payments of losses and LAE for insured events of prior years and the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves at the end of the year and additional information regarding the nature of adjustments to incurred losses and LAE for insured events of prior years.
Catastrophe Losses
Catastrophes and natural disasters are inherent risks of the property and casualty insurance business. These catastrophic events and natural disasters include, without limitation, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, hailstorms, wildfires, high winds and winter storms. Such events result in insured losses that are, and are expected to be, a material factor in the results of operations and financial position of Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies. Further, because the level of insured losses that could occur in any one year cannot be accurately predicted, these losses contribute to material year-to-year fluctuations in the results of operations and financial position of these companies. Specific types of catastrophic events are more likely to occur at certain times within the year than others. This factor adds an element of seasonality to property and casualty insurance claims. The occurrence and severity of catastrophic events cannot be accurately predicted in any year. However, some geographic locations are more susceptible to these events than others. The Company has endeavored to manage its direct insurance exposures in certain regions that are prone to naturally occurring catastrophic events through a combination of geographic diversification, restrictions on the amount and location of new business production in such regions, modifications of, and/or limitations to coverages and deductibles for certain perils in such regions and reinsurance. The Company has adopted the industry-wide catastrophe classifications of storms and other events promulgated by Insurance Services Office, Inc. (“ISO”) to track and report losses related to catastrophes. ISO classifies a disaster as a catastrophe when the event causes $25 million or more in direct insured losses to property and affects a significant number of policyholders and insurers. ISO-classified catastrophes are assigned a unique serial number recognized throughout the insurance industry. The discussions throughout this 2019 Annual Report utilize ISO’s definition of catastrophes.
The process of estimating and establishing reserves for catastrophe losses is inherently uncertain and the actual ultimate cost of a claim, net of reinsurance recoveries, may vary materially from the estimated amount reserved. See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption “Catastrophe losses could materially and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations, liquidity and/or financial condition” for a discussion of catastrophe risk. See Note 20, “Catastrophe Reinsurance,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of the factors that influence the process of estimating and establishing reserves for catastrophes.
Reinsurance
The Company manages its exposure to catastrophes and other natural disasters through a combination of geographical diversification, restrictions on the amount and location of new business production in such regions, modifications of, and/or

 
6


limitations to coverages and deductibles for certain perils in such regions and reinsurance. To limit its exposures to catastrophic events, the Company maintains a catastrophe reinsurance program for the property and casualty insurance companies. Coverage for the catastrophe reinsurance program is provided in various layers through multiple excess of loss reinsurance contracts and an aggregate excess property catastrophe reinsurance contract. The Company’s insurance subsidiaries also purchase reinsurance from the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (the “FHCF”) for hurricane losses in Florida at retentions lower than those described below for the Company’s catastrophe reinsurance program.
The 2020 catastrophe reinsurance program covering the property and casualty insurance companies is provided by (i) three multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contracts, (ii) an annual excess of loss reinsurance contract (the “2020 Annual Excess of Loss Contract”) and (iii) an annual aggregate excess property catastrophe reinsurance contract (the “2020 Aggregate Property Catastrophe Reinsurance Contract”).
Multi-year Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contracts
The first multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contract provides coverage over the three-year period of January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2020 (the “2018 Reinsurance Contract”). The 2018 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage in two layers, which together provide coverage for losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million. Under the 2018 Reinsurance Contract, the percentage of coverage is 31.66% for each year in the three-year period, and participation of each reinsurer remains the same over the entire three-year period. Accordingly, the 2018 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage for 31.66% of losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million in 2020.
The second multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contract provides coverage over the three-year period of January 1, 2019 through December 31, 2021 (the “2019 Reinsurance Contract”). The 2019 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage in two layers, which together provide coverage for losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million, which is consistent with the coverage provided under the 2018 Reinsurance Contract. Under the 2019 Reinsurance Contract, the percentage of coverage is 31.66% for each year in the three-year period, and participation of each reinsurer remains the same over the entire three-year period. Accordingly, the 2019 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage for 31.66% of losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million in 2020.
The third multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contract provides coverage over the three-year period of January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2022 (the “2020 Reinsurance Contract”). The 2020 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage in two layers, which together provide coverage for losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million, which is consistent with the coverage provided under the 2018 Reinsurance Contract and 2019 Reinsurance Contract. Under the 2020 Reinsurance Contract, the percentage of coverage is 31.66% for each year in the three-year period, and participation of each reinsurer remains the same over the entire three-year period. Accordingly, the 2020 Reinsurance Contract provides coverage for 31.66% of losses on individual catastrophes of $200 million in excess of $50 million in 2020.
Annual Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contract
The 2020 Annual Excess of Loss Contract provides coverage for the annual period of January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020. The 2020 Annual Excess of Loss Contract provides coverage for losses on individual catastrophes of $25 million in excess of $250 million.
Summary of Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contracts
Coverage on individual catastrophes provided under the three multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contracts for 2020 (January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020) and the 2020 Annual Excess of Loss Contract is provided in various layers as summarized below.
 
 
Catastrophe Losses
and LAE
 
Combined Percentage
of Coverage
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS
 
In Excess of
 
Up to
 
Retained
 
$

 
$
50.0

 
%
1st Layer of Coverage
 
50.0

 
150.0

 
95.0

2nd Layer of Coverage
 
150.0

 
250.0

 
95.0

3rd Layer of Coverage
 
250.0

 
275.0

 
95.0

The estimated annual premium in 2020 for the three multi-year excess of loss reinsurance contracts and the 2020 Annual Excess of Loss Contract presented in the preceding table is $11.9 million. In the event that the Company’s incurred catastrophe losses

 
7


and LAE covered by its catastrophe reinsurance program exceed the retention for a particular layer, the program allows for one reinstatement of such coverage. In such an instance, the Company is required to pay a reinstatement premium to the reinsurers to reinstate the full amount of the limit available under such layer. The reinstatement premium for the first layer of coverage is a percentage of the full original premium based on the ratio of the losses in excess of the Company’s retention to the reinsurers’ coverage limit. The reinstatement premium for the second layer of coverage is a percentage of half the original premium based on the ratio of the losses in excess of the Company’s retention to the reinsurers’ coverage limit. The reinstatement premium for the third layer of coverage is a percentage of half the original premium based on the ratio of the losses in excess of the Company’s retention to the reinsurers’ coverage limit.
Aggregate Property Catastrophe Reinsurance Contract
The 2020 Aggregate Property Catastrophe Reinsurance Contract is effective for the period of January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020 and provides coverage for accumulated catastrophe losses of $50 million in excess of $60 million on property losses arising out of one or more of the following perils from storms or storm systems that are not named storms: (1) windstorm; (2) hail; (3) tornado and (4) fire; including ensuing collapse and water damage.
Coverage provided under the 2020 Aggregate Property Catastrophe Reinsurance Contract (January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020) is summarized below.
 
 
Aggregate Catastrophe
Losses and LAE
DOLLARS IN MILLIONS
 
In Excess of
 
Up to
Retained
 
$

 
$
60.0

Coverage
 
60.0

 
110.0

The estimated annual premium for the 2020 Aggregate Property Catastrophe Reinsurance Contract is $13.3 million. To maintain the same level and percentage of coverage in subsequent years as provided by the catastrophe reinsurance program in 2020, the Company’s property and casualty insurance companies will need to purchase additional reinsurance in the future for the portion of coverage expiring at the end of 2020, 2021 and 2022.
Other
In addition to the catastrophe loss exposures caused by natural events described above, Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies are exposed to losses from catastrophic events that are not the result of acts of nature, such as acts of terrorism, the nature, occurrence and severity of which in any period cannot be accurately predicted. The companies have reinsurance coverage to address certain exposures to potential future terrorist attacks. The reinsurance coverage for certified events, as designated by the federal government, is from the Terrorist Risk Insurance Act and the coverage for non-certified events is available in the catastrophe reinsurance program for the property and casualty insurance companies. However, certain perils, such as biological, chemical, nuclear pollution or contamination, are excluded from the reinsurance coverage for non-certified events.
Under the various reinsurance arrangements, Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies are indemnified by reinsurers for certain losses incurred under insurance policies issued by the reinsurers. As indemnity reinsurance does not discharge an insurer from its direct obligations to policyholders on risks insured, Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies remain directly liable. However, provided that the reinsurers meet their obligations, the net liability for Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies is limited to the amount of risk that they retain. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies purchase their reinsurance only from reinsurers rated “A-” or better by A. M. Best Co., Inc. (“A.M. Best”), at the time of purchase. A.M. Best is an organization that specializes in rating insurance and reinsurance companies.
For further discussion of the reinsurance programs, see Note 20, “Catastrophe Reinsurance,” and Note 21, “Other Reinsurance,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Pricing
Pricing levels for property and casualty insurance products are influenced by many factors, including the frequency and severity of claims, state regulation and legislation, competition, general business and economic conditions, including market rates of interest, inflation, expense levels, and judicial decisions. In addition, many state regulators require consideration of investment income when approving or setting rates, which could reduce underwriting margins. Further, some states have regulations that limit the after-tax return on underwriting profit allowed for an insurer and may impact the price charged for premiums or result in premium refunds. The Company derives a significant portion of its earned premiums in two such states, California and

 
8


Florida. See MD&A under the caption “Specialty Property & Casualty Insurance” and “Preferred Property & Casualty Insurance.”
Competition
Based on the most recent annual data published by A.M. Best, as of the end of 2018, there were 1,131 property and casualty insurance groups in the United States. Kemper’s property and casualty group, adjusted for the inclusion of Infinity Property and Casualty Corporation (“Infinity”) for the entire year was among the top 6% of property and casualty insurance groups in the United States as measured by net written premiums, policyholders’ surplus and net admitted assets in 2018. Among all personal lines automobile insurance writers, Kemper’s property and casualty group was the 13th largest writer as measured by net written premiums in 2018.
Rankings by net admitted assets, net premiums written and capital and surplus were:
 
 
Ordinal
 
Percentile
Measurement
 
Rank
 
Rank
Net Admitted Assets
 
50
 
95
%
Net Written Premiums
 
30
 
97

Capital and Surplus
 
74
 
94

In 2018, the U.S. property and casualty insurance industry’s estimated net premiums written were $622 billion, of which nearly 80% were accounted for by the top 50 groups of property and casualty insurance companies. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies, adjusted to include Infinity for the entire year, wrote less than 1% of the industry’s 2018 premium volume.
The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive, particularly with respect to personal automobile insurance. Kemper’s property and casualty insurance companies compete on the basis of, among other measures, (i) using suitable pricing segmentation, (ii) maintaining underwriting discipline, (iii) settling claims timely and efficiently, (iv) offering products in selected markets or geographies, (v) utilizing technological innovations for the marketing and sale of insurance, (vi) controlling expenses, (vii) maintaining adequate ratings from A.M. Best and other ratings agencies and (viii) providing quality services to independent agents and policyholders. See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption “The insurance industry is highly competitive, making it difficult to grow profitability and within expectations of investors.
Life and Health Insurance Business
The Company’s Life & Health Insurance segment consists of Kemper’s wholly-owned subsidiaries, United Insurance Company of America (“United Insurance”), The Reliable Life Insurance Company (“Reliable”), Union National Life Insurance Company (“Union National Life”), Mutual Savings Life Insurance Company (“Mutual Savings Life”), United Casualty Insurance Company of America (“United Casualty”), Union National Fire Insurance Company (“Union National Fire”), Mutual Savings Fire Insurance Company (“Mutual Savings Fire”) and Reserve National Insurance Company (“Reserve National”). As discussed below, United Insurance, Reliable, Union National Life, Mutual Savings Life, United Casualty, Union National Fire and Mutual Savings Fire (the “Kemper Home Service Companies”) distribute their products through a network of employee, or “career” agents. Reserve National distributes its products through a network of independent agents and brokers. These career agents, independent agents and brokers are paid commissions for their services. Earned premiums from life insurance accounted for 9%, 11% and 16% of the Company’s consolidated insurance premiums earned in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
As shown in the following table, five states provided 48% of the premium revenues in this segment in 2019.
State
 
Percentage of Total Premiums
Texas
 
19
%
Louisiana
 
11

Alabama
 
7

Mississippi
 
6

Georgia
 
5


 
9


Kemper Home Service Companies
The Kemper Home Service Companies, based in St. Louis, Missouri, focus on providing individual life and supplemental accident and health insurance products to customers of modest incomes who desire basic protection for themselves and their families. Their leading product is ordinary life insurance, including permanent and term insurance. Face amounts of these policies are lower than those of policies typically sold to higher income customers by other companies in the life insurance industry. Approximately 72% of the Life & Health Insurance segment’s premium revenues are generated by the Kemper Home Service Companies.
The Kemper Home Service Companies employ nearly 2,000 career agents to distribute insurance products in 25 states and the District of Columbia. These career agents are full-time employees who call on customers in their homes to sell insurance products, provide services related to policies in force and collect premiums, typically monthly. Premiums average approximately $24 per policy per month with an average face value of $5,600. Permanent and term policies are offered primarily on a non-participating, guaranteed-cost basis. These career agents also distribute and/or service certain property insurance products for the Kemper Home Service Companies.
Reserve National
Reserve National, based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is licensed in 49 states and the District of Columbia. The Company specializes in the sale of supplemental accident & health and life insurance products such as: Medicare Supplement, fixed hospital indemnity, home health care, specified disease, and accident-only plans.
Reserve National distributes products through two channels - Kemper Traditional and Kemper Benefits. The Traditional channel has historically served individuals in rural areas who often do not have access to a broad array of accident and health insurance products, though has more recently broadened to include surburban and urban areas. Insurance products can be tailored to meet individual and family needs and are distributed through approximately 600 independent agents. Kemper Benefits sells voluntary worksite products in the employer market place through Employee Benefit brokers and enrollers. In total, Reserve National currently has approximately 3,500 independent agents appointed.
Reinsurance
Consistent with insurance industry practice, the Company’s life and health insurance subsidiaries utilize reinsurance arrangements to limit their maximum loss, provide greater diversification of risk and minimize exposures on larger risks. As the face amounts of the Company’s issued policies are relatively small, the ceded risks and corresponding premiums are also relatively small, particularly when compared to other companies in the industry. The segment is also exposed to losses from catastrophes arising from insurance policies distributed by career agents of the Kemper Home Service Companies. Over the last several years, the Kemper Home Service Companies have been intentionally reducing their exposure to catastrophic events through the run-off of their dwelling insurance business. The Kemper Home Services Companies are parties to the FHCF, the Property & Casualty catastrophe excess of loss reinsurance contracts, and the aggregate property catastrophe reinsurance contract.
Lapse Ratio
The lapse ratio is a measure of a life insurer’s loss of in-force policies. For a given year, this ratio is commonly computed as the total face amount of individual life insurance policies lapsed, surrendered, expired and decreased during such year, less policies increased and revived during such year, divided by the total face amount of policies at the beginning of the year plus the face amount of policies issued and reinsurance assumed in the prior year. The Life & Health Insurance segment’s lapse ratio for individual life insurance was 6% in 2019, 2018 and 2017.
The customer base served by the Kemper Home Service Companies and competing life insurance companies tends to have a higher incidence of lapse than other demographic segments of the population. Thus, to maintain or increase the level of its business, the Kemper Home Service Companies must write a higher volume of new policies than competitors serving other demographic segments of the population.
Pricing
Premiums for life and health insurance products are based on assumptions with respect to mortality, morbidity, investment yields, expenses, and lapses and are also affected by state laws and regulations, as well as competition. Pricing assumptions are based on the experience of Kemper’s life and health insurance subsidiaries, as well as the industry in general, depending on the

 
10


factor being considered. The actual profit or loss produced by a product will vary from the anticipated profit if the actual experience differs from the assumptions used in pricing the product.
Premiums for policies sold by the Kemper Home Service Companies are set at levels designed to cover the relatively high cost of “in-home” servicing of such policies. As a result, Kemper Home Service Companies’ premiums have a higher expense load than the life insurance industry average.
Premiums for Medicare supplement and other accident and health policies must take into account the rising costs of medical care. The annual rate of medical cost inflation has historically been higher than the general rate of inflation, necessitating frequent rate increases, most of which are subject to approval by state regulators.
Competition
Based on the most recent data published by A.M. Best, as of the end of 2018, there were 369 life and health insurance company groups in the United States. The Company’s Life & Health Insurance segment ranked in the top 25% of life and health insurance company groups, as measured by net admitted assets, net premiums written and capital and surplus. Rankings by net admitted assets, net premiums written and capital and surplus were:
 
 
Ordinal
 
Percentile
Measurement
 
Rank
 
Rank
Net Admitted Assets
 
92
 
75
%
Net Written Premiums
 
92
 
75

Capital and Surplus
 
93
 
75

Kemper’s life and health insurance subsidiaries generally compete by using appropriate pricing, offering products to selected markets or geographies, controlling expenses, maintaining adequate ratings from A.M. Best and providing competitive services to agents and policyholders.
Investments
The quality, nature and amount of the various types of investments that can be made by insurance companies are regulated by state laws. Depending on the state, these laws permit investments in qualified assets, including, but not limited to, municipal, state and federal government obligations, corporate bonds, real estate, preferred and common stocks, investment partnerships, limited liability investment companies and limited partnerships. In addition, the quality, nature, amount and concentration of the various types of investments held by Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries affect the amount of asset risk calculated by regulators and rating agencies in determining required capital. See “Regulation” immediately following this subsection and Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption “The Company’s investment portfolio is exposed to a variety of risks that may negatively impact net investment income, the change in fair value of equity and convertible securities and cause realized and unrealized losses.
The Company employs a total return investment strategy, with an emphasis on yield, while maintaining liquidity to meet both its short- and medium-term insurance obligations. See the discussions of the Company’s investments under the headings “Investment Results,” “Investment Quality and Concentrations,” “Investments in Limited Liability Companies and Limited Partnerships,” “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Critical Accounting Estimates,” in the MD&A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk,” in Item 7A and Note 4, “Investments,” Note 14, “Income from Investments,” and Note 22, “Fair Value Measurements,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Regulation
Overview of State Regulation
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to extensive regulation, primarily, but not exclusively, at the state level. Such regulation pertains to a variety of matters, including, but not limited to, policy forms, rate setting, licensing to transact business, market conduct, trade practices, underwriting standards, claims handling practices, transactions with affiliates, payment of dividends, nature and amount of investments, solvency, reserve adequacy, statutory accounting methods, risk management and corporate governance. In addition, insurance regulatory authorities perform periodic examinations of an insurer’s financial condition, market conduct activities and other affairs. Some of these matters are discussed in more detail below.

 
11


Approval of Policy Rates and Forms
The majority of Kemper’s insurance operations are in states requiring prior approval by regulators before proposed policy or coverage forms and rates for property, casualty, or health insurance policies may be implemented and used. The Company’s ability to take actions to address market developments or increased costs can be adversely impacted by lengthy delays in the approval process or the failure to receive the required approval of state regulators.
Restrictions on Withdrawal, Cancellation and Nonrenewal
Many states have laws restricting an insurer’s ability to withdraw from particular markets. Laws that limit an insurer’s ability to cancel or non-renew a block of policies by line of business, or that subject its withdrawal to prior approval requirements, may restrict the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to exit unprofitable markets.
Financial Reports and Standards
Insurance companies are required to report their financial condition and results of operations in accordance with statutory accounting principles prescribed or permitted by state insurance regulators in conjunction with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”). State insurance regulators also prescribe the form and content of statutory financial statements, set minimum reserve and loss ratio requirements and establish standards for the types and amounts of investments. In addition, state laws and regulations require minimum capital and surplus levels and incorporate risk-based capital (“RBC”) standards developed by the NAIC. These RBC standards are intended to enable regulators to assess the level of risk inherent in an insurance company’s business based on asset risk, credit risk, underwriting risk and other business risks relevant to its operations. A company’s requirements are calculated based on an RBC formula and compared to its total adjusted capital to determine whether regulatory intervention is warranted. At December 31, 2019, the total amount of capital held by each of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries exceeded the minimum levels required under applicable RBC requirements.
Guaranty Funds and Risk Pools
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are required to pay assessments up to prescribed levels to fund policyholder losses or liabilities of insolvent insurance companies under the guaranty fund laws of most states in which they transact business. Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are also required to participate in various involuntary pools or assigned risk pools, principally involving windstorms and high risk drivers. In most states, the involuntary pool participation of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries is determined in proportion to their voluntary writings of related lines of business in such states.
Privacy and Cybersecurity Regulation
The Company is subject to numerous federal and state laws and state insurance regulations that impose significant requirements and standards for protecting personally identifiable information of insurance company policyholders and other individuals.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and HIPAA
The federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requires financial institutions, including insurers, to protect the privacy of non-public information, to restrict use of such information and disclosure to non-affiliated third parties, and to provide notices to customers regarding use of their non-public personal information and an opportunity to “opt out” of certain disclosures. State departments of insurance and certain federal agencies adopted implementing regulations as required by federal law.
The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended in 2009 by the HITECH Act, (“HIPAA”), and implementing regulations, impose extensive obligations regarding the privacy and security of protected health information. Covered entities subject to HIPAA, which include issuers of health insurance coverage and health benefit plan sponsors, must implement policies and procedures governing the use, storage and disclosure of such information and related employee training, breach notification procedures and other requirements.
State Laws and Regulations
In recent years, state insurance regulators have focused increasing attention on cybersecurity. In 2017, the New York Department of Financial Services adopted a sweeping cybersecurity regulation that requires insurance companies to maintain a cybersecurity program, incident response plan and information technology system safeguards that protect customer information and some states have subsequently enacted statutes imposing similar requirements on insurance companies based on a model data security law adopted by the NAIC. In addition, state insurance regulators focus significant attention on data security during financial exams, and the NAIC has strengthened and enhanced the cybersecurity guidance included in its handbook for state

 
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insurance examiners. Additional state laws outside of the insurance industry impose notification requirements in the event of cybersecurity breaches affecting their residents. On the privacy front, the California Consumer Privacy Act, which took effect in 2020, requires companies to provide privacy notices and respond to any request made to the company by a California resident regarding his or her personal information used or maintained by the company outside the scope of the GLBA and HIPAA privacy laws. The Company anticipates a continuing focus on new regulatory and legislative proposals at the state and federal levels that further regulate practices regarding privacy and security of personal information.

Holding Company Regulation, Including Enterprise Risk Management and Governance
The Company is regulated as an insurance holding company system and is subject to the insurance holding company acts of the states in which its insurance subsidiaries are domiciled and, in some case, additional states in which the insurance subsidiary is deemed commercially domiciled. These laws and related regulations contain certain reporting requirements as well as restrictions on transactions between an insurer and its affiliates. They also generally require insurance companies within an insurance holding company system to register with the insurance department of each state where they are domiciled and to file certain reports with those insurance departments describing capital structure, ownership, financial condition, certain intercompany transactions, an enterprise risk report and general business operations. In addition, various notice and reporting requirements generally apply to transactions between insurance companies and their affiliates within the insurance holding company system, depending on the size and nature of the transactions. Some insurance holding company laws and regulations require prior regulatory approval or, in certain circumstances, prior notice of certain material intercompany transfers of assets as well as certain transactions between insurance companies, their parent holding companies and affiliates.
Dividends
As a holding company with no significant business operations of its own, Kemper relies on dividends from its insurance subsidiaries to meet its obligations. Certain dividends and distributions by an insurance subsidiary are subject to prior approval by the insurance regulators of the state in which it is domiciled or commercially domiciled. See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” under the caption, “The ability of Kemper to service its debt, to pay dividends to its shareholders and/or make repurchases of its stock may be materially impacted by lack of timely and/or sufficient dividends received from its subsidiaries.”
Change in Control Requirements
State insurance laws also impose requirements that must be met prior to a change of control of an insurance company or insurance holding company based on the insurer’s state of domicile and, in some cases, additional states in which the insurance subsidiary is deemed commercially domiciled. These requirements may include the advance filing of specific information with the state insurance regulators, a public hearing on the matter, and the review and approval of the change of control by such regulators. The Company has insurance subsidiaries domiciled or deemed commercially domiciled in Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Texas and Wisconsin. In these states, except Alabama, “control” generally is presumed to exist through the direct or indirect ownership of 10% or more of the voting securities of an insurance company. Control is presumed to exist in Alabama with a 5% or more ownership interest in such securities. Any purchase of Kemper’s shares that would result in the purchaser owning Kemper’s voting securities in the foregoing percentages for the states indicated would be presumed to result in the acquisition of control of the Company’s insurance subsidiaries in those states. Therefore, acquisitions subject to the 10% threshold generally would require the prior approval of insurance regulators in each state in which the Company’s insurance subsidiaries are domiciled or deemed commercially domiciled, including those in Alabama, while acquisitions subject to the 5% threshold generally would require the prior approval of only Alabama regulators. Similarly, consistent with the Model Holding Company Act, several of the states in which the Company’s insurance subsidiaries are domiciled have enacted legislation that requires either the divesting and/or acquiring company to notify regulators of, and in some cases to receive regulatory approval for, a change in control.
Many state statutes also require pre-acquisition notification to state insurance regulators of a change of control of an insurance company licensed in the state if specific market concentration thresholds would be triggered by the acquisition. Such statutes authorize the issuance of a cease and desist order with respect to the insurance company if certain conditions, such as undue market concentration, would result from the acquisition. These regulatory requirements may deter, delay or prevent transactions effecting control of Kemper or its insurance subsidiaries, or the ownership of Kemper’s voting securities, including transactions that could be advantageous to Kemper’s shareholders.
Many states have made, or are in the process of making, modifications to their holding company laws. These modifications impose new reporting requirements and substantially expand the oversight and examination powers of state insurance regulators to assess enterprise risks within the entire holding company system that may arise from both insurance and non-insurance

 
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subsidiaries. They also impose new reporting requirements on affiliated transactions and divestiture of a controlling interest in an insurance subsidiary.
Other Federal Government Regulation
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Other Financial Reform Efforts
As part of an effort to strengthen the regulation of the financial services market, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) was enacted in 2010. The Dodd-Frank Act also created the Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”). The FIO monitors the insurance industry, provides advice to the Financial Stability Oversight Council (“FSOC”), represents the U.S. on international insurance matters, and studies the current regulatory system. The Dodd-Frank Act includes a number of financial reforms and regulations that may affect our business and financial reporting. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the future of the Dodd-Frank Act and how it may impact our business.
Additional regulations or new requirements may emerge from activities of various regulatory entities, including the Federal Reserve Board, FIO, FSOC, NAIC and the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (“IAIS”), that are evaluating solvency and capital standards for insurance company groups. The outcome of these actions is uncertain; however, these actions may result in an increase in the level of capital and liquidity required by insurance holding companies.
Affordable Care Act
In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ACA, as well as the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “Health Care Acts”) became law, causing significant changes to the U.S. health care system. Since then, significant regulations have been enacted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, the Department of Labor and the Department of Treasury. The legislation and regulations are far-reaching and are intended to expand access to health insurance coverage over time by mandating that most individuals obtain and certain employers offer to their employees health insurance coverage that meets prescribed minimum benefit requirements, as well as establishing minimum loss ratios, rating restrictions, mandates for coverage of defined essential health benefits, restrictions or prohibitions on pre-existing condition exclusions and annual and lifetime policy limits. As a result of the complexity of the law, its impact on health care in the United States, the continuing modification and interpretation of the Health Care Acts made by statute, rule and/or executive order, and the ongoing efforts to repeal or replace the ACA, the Company continues to analyze and refine its estimates of the ultimate impact of the Health Care Acts on its business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

 
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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
Kemper is exposed to numerous risk factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from recent results or anticipated future results. The following discussion details the significant risk factors that are specific to the Company. In addition to those described below, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially affected by other factors not presently known by, or considered material to, the Company. Readers are advised to consider all of these factors along with the other information included in this 2019 Annual Report, including the factors set forth under the caption “Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” beginning on page 1, and to consult any further disclosures Kemper makes on related subjects in its filings with the SEC.
Risks Relating to Legal and Regulatory Environment
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries are subject to significant regulation, and the evolving legal and regulatory landscape in which they operate could result in increased operating costs, reduced profitability and limited growth.
Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries operate under an extensive insurance regulatory system. Current laws and regulations affect a wide variety of matters, including policy forms, premium rates, licensing, market conduct, trade practices, claims handling practices, reserve and loss ratio requirements, investment standards, statutory capital and surplus requirements, restrictions on the payment of dividends, approvals of transactions involving a change in control of one or more insurance companies, restrictions on transactions among affiliates and consumer privacy and data security. They also require the filing of annual and quarterly financial reports and holding company reports. Pre-approval requirements often restrict or delay actions by the companies to implement premium rate changes for property, casualty and health insurance policies, or to introduce new, or make changes to existing, policy forms and many other actions. Insurance regulators conduct periodic examinations of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries and can suspend or delay their operations or licenses, require corrective actions, and impose penalties or other remedies available for compliance failures. For a more detailed discussion of the regulations applicable to Kemper’s subsidiaries and related emerging developments, see “Regulation” in Item 1, beginning on page 11.
These laws and regulations, and their interpretation by the various regulators and courts, are subject to continual revision and expansion. The legal and regulatory landscape within which Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries conduct their businesses is often unpredictable. As industry practices and regulatory, judicial, political, social and other conditions change, issues may emerge, whether intended or not. These changes and emerging issues could adversely affect Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries in a variety of ways, including, for example, by expanding coverages beyond the underwriting intent, increasing the number or size of claims, accelerating the payment of claims or otherwise adding to operational costs or adversely affecting the Company’s competitive advantages. Practices in the industry or within the Company that were once considered approved, compliant and reasonable may suddenly be deemed unacceptable by virtue of a court or regulatory ruling or changes in regulatory enforcement policies and practices. It is not possible for the Company to predict such shifts in legal or regulatory enforcement or to accurately estimate the impact they may have on the Company and its operations.
One area where the legal and regulatory landscape has experienced significant change is in connection with the mandated use of death verification databases by life insurance companies in their policy administration and claims handling practices. Over the last decade, many states have adopted new laws requiring insurers to proactively use such databases, including the Social Security Administration’s Death Master File (the “DMF”), to varying degrees in order to ascertain if an insured may be deceased. More than half of the states have adopted such laws, and Kemper cannot predict whether additional states will enact similar legislation or, if enacted, what form such legislation may take. These laws require the insurer to initiate the claims process even though the insureds’ beneficiaries have not submitted a claim, including proof of death, as required by regulator-approved policy forms and the insurer was otherwise unaware of the insured’s death. In a related development, many states have expanded the application of their unclaimed property laws, particularly as they relate to life insurance proceeds, and many states have engaged audit firms to examine the practices of life insurance companies with respect to the reporting and remittance of such proceeds under unclaimed property laws. The push to alter practices that were previously considered lawful and appropriate relative to both claims handling and remittance of life insurance policy proceeds under unclaimed property laws has led to the Company’s involvement in compliance audits, market conduct examinations and litigation. In 2016, the Company initiated a voluntary, comprehensive process to compare life insurance records against the DMF and other databases to determine if any of its insured may be deceased. See Note 2, “Summary of Accounting Policies and Accounting Changes,” and Note 23, “Contingencies,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
The financial services industry, including insurance companies and their holding company systems, remains under regulatory scrutiny. While it is not possible to predict how new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations may impact the operations of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries, several developments have the potential to significantly impact such operations. This includes increased legislative and regulatory focus on cybersecurity and adoption of extensive

 
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modifications to state holding company laws that substantially expand the oversight and examination powers of insurance regulators beyond licensed insurance companies to their non-insurance affiliates and their organizations as a whole, particularly with respect to enterprise risk. In addition, the Health Care Acts have resulted in regulations affecting health insurers such as Reserve National, and potential changes to the state insurance regulatory system may result from the Dodd-Frank Act. See the discussion of these matters under “Regulation” in Item 1, beginning on page 11.
These new developments and significant changes in, or new interpretations of, existing laws and regulations could make it more expensive for Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries to conduct and grow their businesses which could materially impact the Company’s operating results.
Kemper has a significant concentration of personal automobile insurance business in California and Florida, and negative developments in the regulatory, legal or economic conditions in these states may adversely affect our profitability.
California and Florida represented 69% of our total personal automobile insurance gross written premiums in 2019. Consequently, the dynamic nature of regulatory, legal, competitive and economic conditions in these states affects our revenues and profitability. Further, both California and Florida have regulations that limit the after-tax return on underwriting profit allowed for an insurer. Changes in any of these conditions could negatively impact the Company's results of operations.
Legal and regulatory proceedings are unpredictable and could produce one or more unexpected verdicts against the Company that could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial results for any given period.
Kemper and its subsidiaries are from time to time involved in lawsuits, regulatory inquiries and other legal proceedings arising out of the ordinary course of their businesses. Some of these proceedings may involve matters particular to Kemper or one or more of its subsidiaries, while others may pertain to business practices in the industry in which Kemper and its subsidiaries operate. Some lawsuits may seek class action status that, if granted, could expose the Company to potentially significant liability by virtue of the size of the putative classes. These matters often raise difficult factual and legal issues and are subject to uncertainties and complexities. The outcomes of these matters are difficult to predict, and the amounts or ranges of potential loss at particular stages in the proceedings are in most cases difficult or impossible to ascertain. A further complication is that even where the possibility of an adverse outcome is remote under traditional legal analysis, juries sometimes substitute their subjective views in place of facts and established legal principles. Given the unpredictability of the legal and regulatory landscape in which the Company operates, there can be no assurance that one or more of these matters will not produce a result that could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial results for any given period.
For information about the Company’s pending legal proceedings, see Note 23, “Contingencies,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Risks Relating to Catastrophes and Estimating Property and Casualty Insurance Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses
Estimating losses and LAE for determining property and casualty insurance reserves, or determining premium rates, is inherently uncertain, and the Company’s results of operations may be materially impacted if the Company’s insurance reserves or premium rates are insufficient.
The Company establishes loss and LAE reserves to cover estimated liabilities, which remain unpaid as of the end of each accounting period, and to investigate and settle all claims incurred under the property and casualty insurance policies that it has issued. Loss and LAE reserves are established for claims that have been reported to the Company as of the end of the accounting period, as well as for estimated claims that have occurred but have not yet been reported to the Company. The estimates of loss and LAE reserves are based on the Company’s assessment of the facts and circumstances known to it at the time, as well as estimates of the impact of future trends in the severity of claims, the frequency of claims and other factors. These estimates can be inaccurate or may change over time due to many variables, including changes driven by the evolving legal and regulatory landscape and economic conditions in which the Company operates and the rising costs of insurance claims from increased litigation, higher jury awards, the impact of process change and staffing levels and other effects of societal trends referred to as social inflation.
The process of estimating property and casualty insurance reserves is complex and imprecise. The reserves established by the Company are inherently uncertain estimates and could prove to be inadequate to cover its ultimate losses and expenses. The estimate of the ultimate cost of claims for insured events that have occurred must take into consideration many factors that are dependent on the outcome of future events associated with the reporting, investigation and settlement of claims. The impacts on the Company’s estimates of property and casualty insurance reserves from these factors are difficult to assess accurately. A change in any one or more of the factors is likely to result in a projected ultimate loss that is different than the previous projected ultimate loss and may have a material impact on the Company’s estimate of the projected ultimate loss. Increases in

 
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the estimates of ultimate losses and LAE will decrease earnings, while decreases in such estimates will increase earnings, as reported by the Company in the results of its operations for the periods in which the changes to the estimates are made by the Company. See MD&A, “Critical Accounting Estimates,” under the caption “Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses” beginning on page 62 for a discussion of the Company’s reserving process and the factors considered by the Company’s actuaries in estimating the Company’s Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves.
The Company’s actuaries also consider trends in the severity and frequency of claims and other factors when determining the premium rates to charge for its property and casualty insurance products. An unanticipated change in any one or more of these factors or trends, as well as a change in competitive conditions, may also result in inadequate premium rates charged for insurance policies issued by Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries in the future. Such pricing inadequacies could have a material impact on the Company’s operating results. If the Company’s pricing actuaries overestimate the severity or frequency of claims and other factors in determining the rates to charge for insurance products, the rates for the Company’s products could be uncompetitive and result in loss of revenue and market share.
Catastrophe losses could materially and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations, liquidity and/or financial condition.
Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries are subject to claims arising out of catastrophes that may have a significant effect on their results of operations, liquidity and financial condition. Catastrophes can be caused by various events, including, but not limited to, hurricanes, tornadoes, windstorms, earthquakes, hailstorms, explosions, severe winter weather and wildfires and may include man-made events, such as terrorist attacks and hazardous material spills. The incidence, frequency and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable and may be impacted by the uncertain effects of climate change. The extent of the Company’s losses from a catastrophe is a function of both the total amount of insured exposure in the geographic area affected by the event and the severity of the event. The Company could experience more than one severe catastrophic event in any given period.
Kemper’s life and health insurance subsidiaries are particularly exposed to risks of catastrophic mortality, such as pandemic or other events that result in large numbers of deaths. In addition, the occurrence of such an event in a concentrated geographic area could have a severe disruptive effect on the Company’s workforce and business operations. The likelihood and severity of such events cannot be predicted and are difficult to estimate.
The property and casualty insurance subsidiaries use catastrophe modeling tools developed by third parties to project their potential exposure to property damage resulting from catastrophic events under various scenarios. Such models are based on various assumptions and judgments which may turn out to be wrong. The actual impact of one or more catastrophic events could adversely and materially differ from these projections.
Changes in the availability and cost of catastrophe reinsurance and in the ability of reinsurers to meet their obligations could result in Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries retaining more risk and could adversely and materially affect the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and/or liquidity.
Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries seek to reduce their exposure to catastrophe losses through the purchase of catastrophe reinsurance. Catastrophe reinsurance does not relieve such subsidiaries of their direct liability to their policyholders. As long as the reinsurers meet their obligations, the net liability for such subsidiaries is limited to the amount of risk that they retain. While such subsidiaries’ principal reinsurers are each rated “A-” or better by A.M. Best at the time reinsurance is purchased, the Company cannot be certain that reinsurers will pay the amounts due from them either now, in the future, or on a timely basis. A reinsurer’s insolvency or inability to make payments under the terms of its reinsurance agreement could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations and liquidity.
In addition, market conditions beyond the Company’s control determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance protection that Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries may purchase. A decrease in the amount of reinsurance coverage that such subsidiaries purchase generally should increase their risk of a more severe loss. If the amount of available reinsurance is reduced, such subsidiaries incur additional expenses to obtain reinsurance or may be unable to obtain sufficient reinsurance on acceptable terms, which could adversely affect the ability of such subsidiaries to write future insurance policies or result in their retaining more risk with respect to such policies.

 
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The extent to which Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries can manage their catastrophe exposure through underwriting strategies may be limited by law or regulatory action and could adversely and materially affect the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and/or liquidity.
Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries also manage their exposure to catastrophe losses through underwriting strategies such as reducing exposures in, or withdrawing from, catastrophe-prone areas, establishing appropriate guidelines for insurable structures, and setting appropriate rates, deductibles, exclusions and policy limits. The extent to which such subsidiaries can manage their exposure through such strategies may be limited by law or regulatory action. For example, laws and regulations may limit the rate or timing at which insurers may non-renew insurance policies in catastrophe-prone areas or require insurers to participate in wind pools and joint underwriting associations. Generally, an insurer’s participation in such pools and associations are based on the insurer’s market share determined on a state-wide basis. Accordingly, even though Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries may not incur a direct insured loss as a result of managing direct catastrophe exposures, they may incur indirect losses from required participation in pools and associations. In addition, laws and regulations requiring prior approval of policy forms and premium rates may limit the ability of Kemper’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries to increase rates or deductibles on a timely basis, which may result in additional losses or lower returns than otherwise would have occurred in an unregulated market.
Risks Relating to Competition
A downgrade in the ratings of Kemper or its insurance subsidiaries below A- could materially and adversely affect the Company.
Third-party rating agencies assess the financial strength and rate the claims-paying ability of insurance companies based on criteria established by the rating agencies. Third-party ratings are important competitive factors in the insurance industry. Financial strength ratings are used to assess the financial strength and quality of insurers. Ratings agencies may downgrade the ratings of Kemper and/or its insurance subsidiaries or require Kemper to retain more capital in its insurance businesses to maintain existing ratings following developments that they deem negative. This can include factors directly related to the Company, such as an increase in the catastrophic risk retained by Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries, or developments in industry or general economic conditions. A downgrade by A.M. Best in the ratings of Kemper’s insurance subsidiaries below A-, particularly those operating in the preferred and standard market or offering homeowners insurance, could result in a substantial loss of business if independent agents and brokers or policyholders of such subsidiaries move to other companies with higher claims-paying and financial strength ratings. Any substantial loss of business could materially and adversely affect the financial condition and results of operations of such subsidiaries. A downgrade in Kemper’s credit rating by Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”), Moody’s Investors Services (“Moody’s”) or Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”) may reduce Kemper’s ability to cost-effectively access the capital markets or may increase the cost to refinance existing debt.
The insurance industry is highly competitive, making it difficult to grow profitability and within expectations of investors.
The Company’s insurance businesses face significant competition, and their ability to compete is affected by a variety of issues relative to others in the industry, such as management effectiveness, product pricing, service quality, ease of doing business, innovation, financial strength and name recognition. Competitive success is based on many factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
Competitiveness of prices charged for insurance policies;
Sophistication of pricing segmentation;
Design and introduction of insurance products to meet emerging consumer trends;
Selection and retention of agents and other business partners;
Compensation paid to agents;
Underwriting discipline;
Selectiveness of sales markets;
Effectiveness of marketing materials and name recognition;
Product and technological innovation;
Effectiveness of online servicing platforms
Ability to settle claims timely and efficiently;
Ability to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance claims;
Effectiveness of deployment and use of information technology across all aspects of operations;
Ability to control operating expenses;
Financial strength ratings; and
Quality of services provided to, and ease of doing business with, independent agents and brokers or policyholders.

 
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The inability to compete effectively in any of the Company’s insurance businesses could materially reduce the Company’s customer base and revenues and could materially and adversely affect the future results and financial condition of the Company.
See “Competition” in Item 1 of Par