10-K 1 csco-2016730x10k.htm 10-K Document

 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
_____________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended July 30, 2016
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
          
Commission file number 0-18225 
_____________________________________
image0a02a01a05.jpg
CISCO SYSTEMS, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
California
 
77-0059951
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, California
 
95134-1706
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (408) 526-4000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class:
 
Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    x  Yes    o  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    o  Yes    x  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    x  Yes   o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    x  Yes    o No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
x
 
  
Accelerated filer
 
o
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
 
o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    o  Yes    x  No
Aggregate market value of registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing price of a share of the registrant’s common stock on January 22, 2016 as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date: $117,979,166,007
Number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of September 2, 2016: 5,014,353,833
____________________________________ 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement relating to the registrant’s 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, to be held on December 12, 2016, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated.



 
 
PART I
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 
 
 




This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbors created under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about the industries in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “targets,” “goals,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” "momentum," “seeks,” “estimates,” “continues,” “endeavors,” “strives,” “may,” variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth and trends in our businesses, and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those identified below, under “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and elsewhere herein. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason.

PART I
 
Item 1.
Business
General

Cisco designs and sells broad lines of products, provides services and delivers integrated solutions to develop and connect networks around the world. For over 30 years, we have helped our customers build networks and automate, orchestrate, integrate, and digitize information technology (IT)–based products and services. In an increasingly connected world, Cisco is helping to transform businesses, governments and cities worldwide. Over time, we have expanded to new markets that are a natural extension of our core networking business, as the network has become the platform for delivering an ever-increasing portfolio of IT–based products and services.
We conduct our business globally, and manage our business by geography. Our business is organized into the following three geographic segments: Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA); and Asia Pacific, Japan, and China (APJC). For revenue and other information regarding these segments, see Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Our products and technologies are grouped into the following categories: Switching; Next-Generation Network (NGN) Routing; Collaboration; Data Center; Wireless; Service Provider Video; Security; and Other Products. In addition to our product offerings, we provide a broad range of service offerings, including technical support services and advanced services. Increasingly, we are delivering our technology, and services to our customers as solutions for their priorities including cloud, video, mobility, security, collaboration, and analytics. The network is at the center of these markets and technologies, and we are focused on delivering integrated solutions to help our customers achieve their desired business outcomes. Our customers include businesses of all sizes, public institutions, governments and service providers. These customers look to us as a strategic partner to help them use IT to enable, differentiate or fundamentally define their business strategy and drive growth, improve productivity, reduce costs, mitigate risk, and gain a competitive advantage in an increasingly digital world.
We were incorporated in California in December 1984, and our headquarters are in San Jose, California. The mailing address of our headquarters is 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, California 95134-1706, and our telephone number at that location is (408) 526-4000. Our website is www.cisco.com. Through a link on the Investor Relations section of our website, we make available the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. All such filings are available free of charge. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this report.


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Strategy and Focus Areas
We see our customers increasingly using technology and, specifically, networks to grow their businesses, drive efficiencies, and try to gain a competitive advantage. In this increasingly digital world, we believe data is the most strategic asset and is increasingly distributed across every organization and ecosystem, on customer premises, at the edge of the network, and in the cloud. The network also plays an increasingly important role enabling our customers to aggregate, automate, and draw insights from this highly distributed data, where there is a premium on security and speed. We believe this is driving them to adopt entirely new IT architectures and organizational structures. We understand how technology can deliver the outcomes our customers want to achieve, and our strategy is to lead our customers in their digital transition with solutions including pervasive, industry-leading security that intelligently connects nearly everything that can be digitally connected.
To deliver on our strategy, we are focused on providing highly secure, automated and intelligent solutions built on infrastructure that connects highly distributed data that is globally dispersed across organizations. Together with our ecosystem of partners and developers, we will provide technology, services, and solutions we believe will enable our customers to gain insight and advantage from this distributed data with scale, security and agility.
Over the last several years, we have been transforming our business to move from selling individual products and services to selling products and services integrated into architectures and solutions. As a part of this transformation, we continue to make changes to how we are organized, how we sell our products, and how we build and deliver our technology.
We have begun aggressively transitioning our portfolio to enable delivery both on premise and through the cloud in alignment with our strategy to shift to a business model based on more recurring revenue. We plan to expand the approach we have taken with our cloud-networking platforms to an increasing portion of our product and service portfolio to accelerate our shift to a more subscription and software-based model.
Our approach is to continue to lead the market transitions in our core markets, and enter new markets where the network is foundational. We continue to drive product transitions, including the introduction of next-generation products that offer, in our view, better price-performance and architectural advantages compared with both our prior generation of products and the product offerings of our competitors.
We also plan to continue to deliver innovation across our portfolio in order to sustain our leadership, and strategic position with customers. We intend to execute on this strategy through portfolio transformation, internal innovation, acquisition of strategic assets, investments in start-up companies, and co-development of products with our customers and the building of strategic partnerships.
Market Transitions
We seek to capitalize on market transitions as sources of future opportunities as part of the continued transformation of our business, and we believe market transitions in the IT industry are occurring with greater frequency. Market transitions relating to the network are becoming, in our view, more significant as intelligent networks have moved from being a cost center issue—where the focus is on reducing network operating costs and increasing network-related productivity—to becoming a platform for revenue generation, business agility, and competitive advantage. Some examples of significant market transitions are as follows:
Security We believe that security is the top IT priority for many of our customers. In an evolving dynamic threat landscape, the most effective way to address security challenges is with continuous threat protection that is pervasive and integrated. We further believe that security solutions will help to protect the digital economy and will be an enabler that safeguards business interests, protects customers, and creates competitive advantage. Our security strategy is focused on delivering a unified threat-centric security architecture combining network-based, cloud-based and endpoint-based solutions, providing our customers both more effective security outcomes and a secure foundation to digitize their assets. We have invested in security through a build, buy, and partner strategy to provide security across the entire attack continuum before, during, and after a cyber attack.
Digital Transformation Countries, cities, industries and businesses are pursuing "digital transformation", which we define as the application of technology to build new business models, processes, software and systems, to capitalize on new digital ways of doing business. Digital transformation is made possible by the convergence of people, businesses and things. We believe these types of transformations create opportunities to deliver better customer experiences, create new revenue streams through business model transformation, and optimize efficiency through workforce innovation.
As our customers move from traditional to digital businesses, our goal is to be a strategic partner by providing a technology foundation for digital transformation. Our offerings for this opportunity incorporate a portfolio of products and services, outcome-oriented digital solutions, a developer-rich environment and a partner ecosystem that integrate connectivity, security, automation, collaboration and analytics across customers' business value-chains.

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In our view, we are delivering the architectural approach and solution-based results to help customers reduce complexity, accelerate and grow, and manage risk in a world that is increasingly virtualized, application-centric, cloud-based, analytics-driven, and mobile. An example of this is our fiscal 2016 acquisition of Jasper Technologies, Inc. ("Jasper"), the developer of a cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) services platform designed to help enterprises and service providers to launch, manage and monetize IoT services on a global scale.
Software-Defined Networking We are focusing on a market transition involving the move toward more programmable, flexible, and virtual networks, sometimes called software-defined networking (SDN).  This transition is focused on providing a virtualized network environment that is designed to enable flexible, application-driven customization of network infrastructures. We believe the successful products and solutions in this market will combine application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with hardware, and software elements together to meet customers’ total cost of ownership, quality, security, scalability, and experience requirements. In our view, there is no single architecture that supports all customer requirements in this area.
We believe the opportunity of SDN is to enable more open, and programmable network infrastructure. We are addressing this opportunity with a unique strategy, and set of solutions designed to respond automatically to the needs of our customers' mission critical applications. We introduced and began shipping our Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI), which delivers centralized application-driven policy automation, management, and visibility of both physical and virtual environments as a single system.  ACI is comprised of our Nexus 9000 portfolio of switches, enhanced versions of our NX-OS operating system, and the Application Policy Infrastructure Controller (APIC), which provides a central place to configure, automate, and manage an entire network, based on the needs of applications.
Cloud Our cloud strategy is to connect private and public clouds working across hypervisors, which are software programs used to create and manage virtual environments. We utilize OpenStack, which is an open source computing platform, to deliver integrated hybrid-cloud solutions. We believe cloud infrastructures need to be secure, and support a rich ecosystem of network-enabled applications to deliver the data and analytics that support the digitization of our customers' environments. As part of our cloud strategy, we are delivering infrastructure and our cloud-based software-as-a-service (SaaS) offerings including WebEx, Meraki cloud networking, and certain other of our Security and Collaboration offerings.
We believe that customers and partners view our approach to the cloud as differentiated and unique, recognizing that we offer a solution to different cloud environments including private, hybrid, and public clouds that enables them to move their workloads across heterogeneous private and public clouds with the necessary policy, security and management features.
For a discussion of the risks associated with our strategy, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factor entitled “We depend upon the development of new products and enhancements to existing products, and if we fail to predict and respond to emerging technological trends and customers’ changing needs, our operating results and market share may suffer.” For information regarding sales of our major products and services, see Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

3


Products and Services
Our current offerings fall into several categories:
Switching
Switching is an integral networking technology used in campuses, branch offices, and data centers. Switches are used within buildings in local-area networks (LANs), and across great distances in wide-area networks (WANs). Our switching products offer many forms of connectivity to end users, workstations, IP phones, wireless access points, and servers and also function as aggregators on LANs and WANs. Our switching systems employ several widely used technologies, including Ethernet, Power over Ethernet (PoE), Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE), Packet over Synchronous Optical Network, and Multiprotocol Label Switching. Many of our switches are designed to support an integrated set of advanced services, allowing organizations to be more efficient by using one switch for multiple networking functions rather than multiple switches to accomplish the same functions.
Key product platforms within our Switching product category, in which we also include storage products, are as follows:
Fixed-Configuration Switches
 
Modular Switches
 
Storage
Cisco Catalyst Series:
 
Cisco Catalyst Series:
 
Cisco MDS Series:
• Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series
 
• Cisco Catalyst 4500-E Series
 
• Cisco MDS 9000
• Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series
 
• Cisco Catalyst 6500-E Series
 
 
• Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series
 
• Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series
 
 
• Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series
 
 
 
 
Cisco Nexus Series:
 
Cisco Nexus Series:
 
 
• Cisco Nexus 2000 Series
 
• Cisco Nexus 7000 Series
 
 
• Cisco Nexus 3000 Series
 
• Cisco Nexus 9000 Series
 
 
• Cisco Nexus 5000 Series
 
 
 
 
• Cisco Nexus 6000 Series
 
 
 
 
• Cisco Nexus 9000 Series
 
 
 
 
Fixed-configuration switches are designed to cover a range of deployments in both large enterprises as well as in small and medium-sized businesses, providing a foundation for converged data, voice, and video services. Our fixed-configuration switches range from small, standalone switches to stackable models that function as a single, scalable switching unit.
Modular switches are typically used by enterprise and service provider customers with large-scale network needs. These products are designed to offer customers the flexibility and scalability to deploy numerous, as well as advanced, networking services without degrading overall network performance.
Fixed-configuration and modular switches also include products such as optics modules, which are shared across multiple product platforms. Our switching portfolio also includes virtual switches and related offerings. These products provide switching functionality for virtual machines, and are designed to operate in a complementary fashion with virtual services to optimize security and application behavior.
In fiscal 2014, we introduced what we call our application centric infrastructure (ACI) solution, which is part of our Data Center Switching portfolio. Cisco ACI consists of the Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches, a Cisco APIC and accompanying centralized policy management capability, integrated physical and virtual infrastructure, and an open ecosystem of network, storage, management, and orchestration vendors.  During fiscal 2016, we have seen strong adoption of Cisco ACI across geographies and customer segments. 
We plan to integrate new technologies with the Cisco ACI solution. As an example, our CloudCenter platform, a technology obtained through our acquisition of CliQr Technologies, Inc. in fiscal 2016, is an application-defined platform that, together with the Cisco ACI networking solution, provides an infrastructure-agnostic way to streamline the modeling, migration, and management of applications across IT resources. Also, in fiscal 2016 we introduced our Tetration Analytics platform which supplements Cisco ACI offering by delivering real-time visibility across the data center using hardware, and software sensors to provide behavior-based application insight with deep forensic-based analysis.

4


During fiscal 2016, we began shipping multi-gigabit-capable technology on Cisco Catalyst 4500-E, 3850 and 3560-CX switches. Cisco Catalyst multigigabit technology can deliver speeds beyond one Gigabit on the customers’existing Category 5e cable delivery standard, thereby utilizing capabilities in customers’existing cabling infrastructure to meet their bandwidth requirements. Multi-gigabit technology also enables intermediate data rates of 2.5 and 5 gigabits-per-second (Gbps) to ease the jump between traditional rates of one Gbps and ten Gbps. The technology also supports Cisco’s power-over-ethernet capabilities known as PoE+, and Cisco Universal PoE (UPOE). PoE is a technology for wired ethernet local area networks (LANs) that allows the electrical current necessary for the operation of each device to be carried by the data cables rather than by power cords, thus minimizing the number of wires that must be installed with the network and thereby lowering cost and downtime and enabling easier maintenance and installation flexibility.
During fiscal 2016, we saw continued adoption of Cisco’s Unified Access architecture based on the Unified Access Data Plane ASIC, which was first made available on the Cisco Catalyst 3850 and then added to the Cisco Catalyst 4500-E and the Cisco Catalyst 3650. The Unified Access platform has been adopted across all geographies and customer segments. During fiscal 2016, we continued to see adoption of our previously announced infrastructure initiatives focused on bringing “network as a sensor” and “network as an enforcer” capabilities across the portfolio. With security as top of mind for many customers, these capabilities provide analytics and control through the network for threat mitigation before, during, and after an attack.
Our switching products are used by customers in both data center and campus environments. Individually, our switching suite of products is designed to offer the performance and features required for nearly any deployment, from traditional small workgroups, wiring closets, and network cores to highly virtualized and converged corporate data centers. Working together with our wireless access solutions, these switches are, in our view, the building blocks of an integrated network that delivers scalable and advanced functionality solutions protecting, optimizing, and growing as a customer’s business needs evolve.
NGN Routing
Next-Generation Networking (NGN) Routing technology is fundamental to the foundation of the Internet. This category of technologies interconnects public and private wireline and mobile networks for mobile, data, voice, and video applications. Our NGN Routing portfolio of hardware and software solutions consists primarily of physical and virtual routers, and routing and optical systems. Our solutions are designed to meet the scale, reliability, and security needs of our customers. In our view, our portfolio is differentiated from those of our competitors through the advanced capabilities, which we sometimes refer to as “intelligence,” that our products provide at each layer of the network infrastructure to deliver performance in the transmission of information and media-rich applications.

We offer a broad range of hardware and software solutions, from core network infrastructure and mobile network routing solutions for service providers, and enterprises to access routers for branch offices and for telecommuters and consumers at home. Key product areas within our NGN Routing category are as follows:
High-End Routers
 
Midrange and Low-End Routers
 
Other NGN Routing
Cisco Aggregation Services Routers (ASRs):
 
Cisco Integrated Services Routers (ISRs):
 
Optical networking products:
• Cisco ASR 900 and 920 Series
 
• Cisco 800 Series ISR
 
• Cisco NCS 1000 Series
• Cisco ASR 1000 Series
 
• Cisco 1900 Series ISR
 
• Cisco NCS 2000 Series
• Cisco ASR 5000 and 5500 Series
 
• Cisco 2900 Series ISR
 
• Cisco NCS 4000 Series
• Cisco ASR 9000 Series
 
• Cisco 3900 Series ISR
 
• Cisco Cloud Services Router 1000V
 
 
• Cisco 4300 Series ISR
 
• Other routing products
Cisco Carrier Routing Systems (CRS):
 
• Cisco 4400 Series ISR
 
 
• Cisco CRS-1
 
 
 
 
• Cisco CRS-3
 
 
 
 
• Cisco CRS-X
 
 
 
 
Cisco Network Convergence System (NCS):
 
 
 
 
• Cisco NCS 6000 Series
 
 
 
 
• Cisco NCS 5000 Series
 
 
 
 
• Cisco NCS 5500 Series
 
 
 
 
Cisco 7600 Series
 
 
 
 
Cisco 12000 Series
 
 
 
 

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During fiscal 2016, we saw continued growth in the bandwidth and capacity needs of our customers as they continued their large deployments and upgrade cycles of our high-end routing portfolio, mainly consisting of the ASR 9000, CRS and NCS 6000. The continued growth of video, the move to more data center interconnect and cloud technologies, as well as a migration to 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GE) technologies were key factors driving this demand. We also launched and saw initial traction in a newer part of the Network Convergence System (NCS) portfolio, including two new categories of Ethernet optimized devices, consisting of the NCS 5500 and NCS 5000 product families in the high-end routing area and the NCS 1000 in the optical networking space. The portfolio also addresses growing segments of the market focused on web-scale customers, which are large cloud companies that deliver user services on a massive scale as well as service providers that seek more advanced features. In addition to hardware and systems, we also increased focus on modernization of the network infrastructure and new software technologies within our IOS XR operating system designed to simplify how customers manage, operate and automate their network infrastructures and thereby reduce costs as their networks grow. These solutions are examples of our intent to continue to combine ASICs, information systems, and software to develop NGN Routing products and services aligned with the needs of our customers.
Collaboration
Our Collaboration portfolio integrates voice, video, data, and mobile applications on fixed and mobile networks across a wide range of devices/endpoints and related IT equipment such as mobile phones, tablets, desktop and laptop computers, and desktop virtualization clients. Our strategy is to create compelling, innovative collaboration technology through the combined power of software, hardware, and the network with delivery in the cloud, on premises, or in a hybrid solution. Key product areas within our Collaboration category are as follows:
Unified Communications
 
Conferencing
 
Collaboration Endpoints
 
Business Messaging
• Internet Protocol (IP) phones
 
• Cisco WebEx
 
• Collaboration desk endpoints
 
• Cisco Spark
• Call control
 
• Cisco TelePresence Server
 
• Collaboration room endpoints
 
 
• Call center and messaging
 
 Cisco TelePresence Conductor
 
• Immersive systems
 
 
• Software-based instant-messaging (IM) clients
 
 
 
 
 
 
• Communication gateways and unified communication
 
 
 
 
 
 
We include all of our revenue from WebEx within the Collaboration product category. We made additional investments during fiscal 2016 in our Collaboration portfolio. As an example, we expanded Cisco Spark to become a platform for messaging, meeting and calling from the cloud. Additionally, we acquired Acano bringing increased scalability and enhanced interoperability to on-premises video conferencing. We also announced partnering arrangements with both Apple and IBM.
Data Center
The Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) combines computing, networking and storage infrastructure with management and virtualization to offer speed, simplicity and scale. Our architecture provides pools of policy-driven infrastructure, that customers can optimize for traditional workloads, data analytics and cloud-native applications, all within a common operating environment with an open application program interface (API) for broad interoperability and automation. Key product areas within our Data Center product category are as follows:
Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS):
• Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers
• Cisco UCS C-Series Rack Servers
• Cisco UCS C3260 Storage Optimized Rack Server
• Cisco UCS Mini branch/remote site computing solution
• Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnects
• Cisco UCS Manager and UCS Director Management Software
Cisco HyperFlex Systems
Private and Hybrid Cloud:
• Cisco ONE Enterprise Cloud Suite

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Our Data Center product innovations are designed to accelerate execution on our strategy, which is to enable customers to consolidate both physical and virtualized workloads, taking into account the customers’ unique application requirements, onto a single scalable, centrally managed, and automated system. We offer a portfolio of solutions designed to preserve customer choice, accelerate business initiatives, reduce risk, lower the cost of IT, and represent a comprehensive solution when deployed.
Cisco UCS C3260, our storage optimized server, brings the UCS products' architectural advantages to parallel workloads, including cloud and web-scale applications. At the edge of the network, Cisco UCS Mini is an all-in-one solution optimized for branch and remote office, point-of-scale endpoint locations, and smaller IT environments. Additionally, we continued to invest in data center infrastructure management, and automation software within our Cisco UCS Manager and UCS Director product offerings.
During fiscal 2016, we expanded the Cisco UCS portfolio with the introduction of the next generation hyperconverged infrastructure, the Cisco HyperFlex Systems solution. Cisco HyperFlex represents hyperconvergence combining innovative software defined storage, and data services software with Cisco UCS. In addition, we continue to further enhance our Cisco ONE Enterprise Cloud Suite solution enabling private and hybrid clouds for enterprise customers.
Wireless
Our wireless products provide indoor and outdoor wireless coverage with seamless roaming for voice, video, and data applications. They include wireless access points; standalone, controller-based, switch-converged, and cloud-managed technologies; and network managed services. These products deliver an optimized user experience over Wi-Fi and leverage the intelligence of the network. Our wireless solutions portfolio is enhanced with security and location-based services via our Connected Mobile Experiences (CMX) and Cisco Enterprise Mobility Services platforms. Our offerings are designed to provide users with simplified management, and mobile device troubleshooting features designed to reduce operational cost, and maximize flexibility and reliability. We are also investing in development with merchant or "off the shelf" silicon, and customized chipsets to deliver innovative product functionality to the Wi-Fi market. Our High Density Experience (HDX) suite of solutions (including Cisco CleanAir proactive spectrum intelligence, ClientLink to improve battery life on mobile devices, VideoStream for video optimization, and Flexible Radio Architecture software-defined radio technology) are examples of ongoing investment activity in this area. Key product areas within our Wireless category are as follows:
Cisco Aironet Series 802.11ac Wave 2 Access Points, Aironet 2800 Series, Aironet 1800 Series, Modules for Aironet 3000 AP Series (Hyperlocation, 3G Small Cell, Wireless Security, 802.11ac), Aironet 3800 Series
Cisco WLAN Controllers (standalone, virtual and integrated)
Cisco CMX (Connected Mobile Experiences) cloud and appliance-based platforms
Cisco Meraki MR Series Cloud Managed Access Points and integrated software services
In fiscal 2016, we introduced a comprehensive suite of 802.11ac Wave 2 access points across the Aironet and Meraki portfolios. We launched the first access points with an NBASE-T interface, allowing multi-gigabit speeds over a single Cat 5e/6 Ethernet cable to the access switch. Additionally, the CMX mobile engagement platform delivers location-based services, consumer analytics, and proximity messaging via a cloud-based offering.
Service Provider Video
Our Service Provider Video products include end-to-end, digital video systems, Data Over Cable System Interface Specification (DOCSIS) headends, and access equipment. These products enable service providers and content originators to deliver entertainment, information, and communication services to consumers and businesses. Key product areas within our Service Provider Video category are as follows:
Cable Access/Infrastructure
 
Service Provider Video Software and Solutions
Cable/Telecommunications Access Infrastructure:
 
• End-to-end video security solutions
• Cable modem termination systems (CMTSs)
 
• Digital headend portfolio for content acquisition and distribution
• Hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) access network products
 
• Virtualized video processing (V2P)
• Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) products
 
• Cloud-based, SaaS-delivered end-to-end video entertainment solutions
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) products
 
 
Our DOCSIS cable access platform, the CBR-8, has the capability to scale to multi-gigabit broadband access speeds. During fiscal 2016, we continued the transformation of our video software portfolio toward a cloud and SaaS-focused strategy in response to market demand, including customer demand for faster speeds and video- over IP solutions. We also completed the acquisition of

7


1Mainstream, a provider of a cloud video platform solution designed to quickly launch live and on-demand over-the-top (OTT) video services to a wide range of connected devices.
On November 20, 2015, we completed the sale of the Customer Premises Equipment portion of our Service Provider Video Connected Devices business (“SP Video CPE Business”).
Security
We believe that security is the top IT priority for many of our customers. We further believe that security solutions will help to protect the digital economy and will be an enabler that safeguards business interests and protect customers and thereby creates competitive advantage. We have invested in security through a build, buy, and partner strategy to provide security across the entire attack continuum before, during, and after a cyber attack.
We are delivering our security portfolio by taking an architectural approach designed to increase capability while reducing complexity through focusing on delivering simple, open, and automated solutions resulting in more effective security. Our security portfolio spans endpoints, the network, and the cloud. Our offerings cover the following network-related areas: network and data center security, advanced threat protection, web and email security, access and policy, unified threat management, and advisory, integration, and managed services.
In fiscal 2016, we completed the acquisition of OpenDNS, a cloud security platform designed to provide effective security. This platform is simple to deploy and operate. We have integrated OpenDNS with ThreatGRID (Cisco’s cloud and on premise sandboxing capability), AnyConnect (Cisco’s industry leading VPN client), and Cisco’s Integrated Services Routers (ISRs). In early fiscal 2017, we expanded our cloud security business by acquiring Cloudlock, Inc., a cloud access security broker (CASB). Cloudlock provides additional visibility and control directly in SaaS, platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) environments through application program interfaces (APIs) that enable a rapid deployment, and quick time to value for customers.
During fiscal 2016, we further built upon the offerings from the Sourcefire acquisition by releasing our unified threat-focused next-generation firewall (NGFW) solution. We integrated our FirePOWER Services solution (Sourcefire’s NGIPS), and our Advanced Security Appliances (ASA) software capabilities to create the Firepower NGFW software and management platform. Additionally, we introduced a new NGFW hardware series that can be enabled with our Firepower NGFW software and management solution, the high performance Firepower 4100 Series.
In fiscal 2016, we also continued to expand our advanced threat protection portfolio. We acquired Lancope, Inc., a context-aware security analytics company. We continued to expand our Advanced Malware Protection (AMP) everywhere strategy by integrating AMP with our Unified Threat Management (Meraki MX) platforms, and by integrating our ThreatGRID appliances into our AMP enabled security solution.
Other Products
Our Other Products category primarily consists of certain emerging technologies, and other networking products. This includes our continued investment in IoT with our acquisition of Jasper. Through this acquisition we intend to leverage new platforms to help our customers increase their volume of business, or otherwise address their most pressing challenges, in the IoT area.
Service
In addition to our product offerings, we provide a broad range of service offerings, including technical support services and advanced services.
Technical support services help our customers ensure their products operate efficiently, remain available, and benefit from the most up-to-date system, and application software that we have developed. These services help customers protect their network investments, manage risk, and minimize downtime for systems running mission-critical applications. A key example of this is our Cisco Smart Services offering, which leverages the intelligence from the installed base of our products and customer connections to protect and optimize network investment for our customers and partners.
Advanced services are part of a comprehensive program that is focused on providing responsive, preventive, and consultative support of our technologies for specific networking needs. We are investing in and expanding our advanced services in the areas of cloud, security, and analytics, which reflects our strategy of selling customer outcomes.  
The advanced services program supports networking devices, applications, solutions, and complete infrastructures. Our service and support strategy is focused on capitalizing on increased globalization. We believe this strategy, along with our architectural approach and networking expertise, has the potential to further differentiate us from competitors.

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Customers and Markets
Many factors influence the IT, collaboration, and networking requirements of our customers. These include the size of the organization, number and types of technology systems, geographic location, and business applications deployed throughout the customer’s network. Our customer base is not limited to any specific industry, geography, or market segment. In each of the past three fiscal years, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of revenue. Our customers primarily operate in the following markets: enterprise, commercial, service provider, and public sector.
Enterprise
Enterprise businesses are large regional, national, or global organizations with multiple locations or branch offices and typically employ 1,000 or more employees. Many enterprise businesses have unique IT, collaboration, and networking needs within a multivendor environment. We plan to take advantage of the network-as-a-platform strategy to integrate business processes with technology architectures to assist customer growth. We offer service and support packages, financing, and managed network services, primarily through our service provider partners. We sell these products through a network of third-party application and technology vendors and channel partners, as well as selling directly to these customers. 
Commercial
We define commercial businesses as organizations which typically have fewer than 1,000 employees. We sell to the larger, or midmarket, customers within the commercial market through a combination of our direct sales force and channel partners. These customers typically require the latest advanced technologies that our enterprise customers demand, but with less complexity. Small businesses, or organizations with fewer than 100 employees, require information technologies and communication products that are easy to configure, install, and maintain. We sell to these smaller organizations within the commercial market primarily through channel partners.
Service Providers
Service providers offer data, voice, video, and mobile/wireless services to businesses, governments, utilities, and consumers worldwide. This customer market category includes regional, national, and international wireline carriers, as well as Internet, cable, and wireless providers. We also include media, broadcast, and content providers within our service provider market, as the lines in the telecommunications industry continue to blur between traditional network-based services, content-based and application-based services. Service providers use a variety of our routing and switching, optical, security, video, mobility, and network management products, systems, and services for their own networks. In addition, many service providers use Cisco data center, virtualization, and collaboration technologies to offer managed or Internet-based services to their business customers. Compared with other customers, service providers are more likely to require network design, deployment, and support services because of the greater scale and higher complexity of their networks, whose requirements are addressed, we believe, by our architectural approach.
Public Sector
Public sector entities include federal governments, state and local governments, as well as educational institution customers. Many public sector entities have unique IT, collaboration, and networking needs within a multivendor environment. We sell to public sector entities through a network of third-party application and technology vendors and channel partners, as well as through direct sales.
Sales Overview
As of the end of fiscal 2016, our worldwide sales and marketing departments consisted of approximately 25,500 employees, including managers, sales representatives, and technical support personnel. We have field sales offices in 95 countries, and we sell our products and services both directly and through a variety of channels with support from our salesforce. A substantial portion of our products and services is sold through channel partners, and the remainder is sold through direct sales. Channel partners include systems integrators, service providers, other resellers, and distributors.
Systems integrators and service providers typically sell directly to end users and often provide system installation, technical support, professional services, and other support services in addition to network equipment sales. Systems integrators also typically integrate our products into an overall solution. Some service providers are also systems integrators.
Distributors hold inventory and typically sell to systems integrators, service providers, and other resellers. We refer to sales through distributors as our two-tier system of sales to the end customer. Revenue from two-tier distributors is recognized based on a sell-through method using point of sales information provided by these distributors. These distributors are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling prices, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs.

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For information regarding risks related to our channels, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factors entitled “Disruption of, or changes in, our distribution model could harm our sales and margins” and “Our inventory management relating to our sales to our two-tier distribution channel is complex, and excess inventory may harm our gross margins.”
For information regarding risks relating to our international operations, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factors entitled “Our operating results may be adversely affected by unfavorable economic and market conditions and the uncertain geopolitical environment;” “Entrance into new or developing markets exposes us to additional competition and will likely increase demands on our service and support operations;” “Due to the global nature of our operations, political or economic changes or other factors in a specific country or region could harm our operating results and financial condition;” “We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could negatively impact our financial results and cash flows;” and “Man-made problems such as computer viruses or terrorism may disrupt our operations and harm our operating results,” among others.
Our service offerings complement our products through a range of consulting, technical, project, quality, and software maintenance services, including 24-hour online and telephone support through technical assistance centers.
Financing Arrangements
We provide financing arrangements for certain qualified customers to build, maintain, and upgrade their networks. We believe customer financing is a competitive advantage in obtaining business, particularly for those customers involved in significant infrastructure projects. Our financing arrangements include the following:
Leases:
• Sales-type
• Direct financing
• Operating
Loans
Financed service contracts
Channels financing arrangements
End-user financing arrangements
Product Backlog
Our product backlog at July 30, 2016 was approximately $4.6 billion, an increase of 1% year over year, after excluding the fiscal 2015 year-end balance of SP Video CPE Business backlog. Our product backlog at July 25, 2015 was approximately $5.1 billion, including SP Video CPE Business backlog. The product backlog includes orders confirmed for products planned to be shipped within 90 days to customers with approved credit status. Subscription-based sales arrangements are not included in product backlog. Our cycle time between order and shipment is generally short and customers occasionally change delivery schedules. Additionally, orders can be canceled without significant penalties. As a result of these factors, we do not believe that our product backlog, as of any particular date, is necessarily indicative of actual product revenue for any future period. 
Acquisitions, Investments, and Alliances
The markets in which we compete require a wide variety of technologies, products, and capabilities. Our growth strategy is based on the components of innovation, which we sometimes refer to as our “build, buy, and partner” approach. The foregoing is a way of describing how we innovate: we can internally develop, or build, our own innovative solutions; we can acquire, or buy, companies with innovative technologies; and we can partner with companies to jointly develop and/or resell product technologies and innovations. The combination of technological complexity, and rapid change within our markets makes it difficult for a single company to develop all of the technological solutions that it desires to offer within its family of products and services. We work to broaden the range of products and services we deliver to customers in target markets through acquisitions, investments, and alliances. To summarize, we employ the following strategies to address the need for new or enhanced networking, and communications products and services:
Developing new technologies and products internally
Acquiring all or parts of other companies
Entering into joint development efforts with other companies
Reselling other companies’ products

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Acquisitions
We have acquired many companies, and we expect to make future acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions of high-technology companies are inherently risky, especially if the acquired company has yet to ship a product. No assurance can be given that our previous or future acquisitions will be successful or will not materially adversely affect our financial condition or operating results. Prior acquisitions have resulted in a wide range of outcomes, from successful introduction of new products and technologies to an inability to do so. The risks associated with acquisitions are more fully discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factor entitled “We have made and expect to continue to make acquisitions that could disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.”
Investments in Privately Held Companies
We make investments in privately held companies that develop technology or provide services that are complementary to our products or that provide strategic value. The risks associated with these investments are more fully discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factor entitled “We are exposed to fluctuations in the market values of our portfolio investments and in interest rates; impairment of our investments could harm our earnings.”
Strategic Alliances
We pursue strategic alliances with other companies in areas where collaboration can produce industry advancement and acceleration of new markets. The objectives and goals of a strategic alliance can include one or more of the following: technology exchange, product development, joint sales and marketing, or new market creation. Companies with which we have, or recently had, strategic alliances include the following:
Accenture Ltd; Apple Inc.; AT&T Inc.; Cap Gemini S.A.; Citrix Systems, Inc.; EMC Corporation; LM Ericsson Telephone Company; Fujitsu Limited; Inspur Group Ltd.; Intel Corporation; International Business Machines Corporation; Italtel SpA; Johnson Controls Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; NetApp, Inc.; Oracle Corporation; Red Hat, Inc.; SAP AG; Sprint Nextel Corporation; Tata Consultancy Services Ltd.; VCE Company, LLC (“VCE”); VMware, Inc.; Wipro Limited; and others.
Companies with which we have strategic alliances in some areas may be competitors in other areas, and in our view this trend may increase. The risks associated with our strategic alliances are more fully discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factor entitled “If we do not successfully manage our strategic alliances, we may not realize the expected benefits from such alliances, and we may experience increased competition or delays in product development.”
Competition
We compete in the networking and communications equipment markets, providing products and services for transporting data, voice, and video traffic across intranets, extranets, and the Internet. These markets are characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and a migration to networking and communications solutions that offer relative advantages. These market factors represent both an opportunity, and a competitive threat to us. We compete with numerous vendors in each product category. The overall number of our competitors providing niche product solutions may increase. Also, the identity and composition of competitors may change as we increase our activity in our new product markets. As we continue to expand globally, we may see new competition in different geographic regions. In particular, we have experienced price-focused competition from competitors in Asia, especially from China, and we anticipate this will continue.
Our competitors include Amazon Web Services LLC; Arista Networks, Inc.; ARRIS Group, Inc.; Avaya Inc.; Blue Jeans Networks, Brocade Communications Systems, Inc.; Check Point Software Technologies Ltd.; Citrix Systems, Inc.; Dell Inc.; Extreme Networks, Inc.; F5 Networks, Inc.; FireEye, Inc.; Fortinet, Inc.; Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Company; Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.; International Business Machines Corporation; Juniper Networks, Inc.; Lenovo Group Limited; Microsoft Corporation; Nokia Corporation; Palo Alto Networks, Inc.; Polycom, Inc.; Riverbed Technology, Inc.; Symantec Corporation; Ubiquiti Networks and VMware, Inc.; among others.
Some of these companies compete across many of our product lines, while others are primarily focused in a specific product area. Barriers to entry are relatively low, and new ventures to create products that do or could compete with our products are regularly formed. In addition, some of our competitors may have greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. As we expand into new markets, we will face competition not only from our existing competitors but also from other competitors, including existing companies with strong technological, marketing, and sales positions in those markets. We also sometimes face competition from resellers and distributors of our products. Companies with which we have strategic alliances in some areas may be competitors in other areas, and in our view this trend may increase. For example, the enterprise data center is undergoing a fundamental transformation arising from the convergence of technologies, including computing, networking, storage, and software, that previously were segregated within the data center. Due to several factors, including the availability of highly scalable and general purpose microprocessors, application-specific integrated circuits offering advanced services, standards-based protocols, cloud computing, and virtualization, the convergence of technologies within the enterprise data center is spanning multiple,

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previously independent, technology segments. Also, some of our current and potential competitors for enterprise data center business have made acquisitions, or announced new strategic alliances, designed to position them to provide end-to-end technology solutions for the enterprise data center. As a result of all of these developments, we face greater competition in the development and sale of enterprise data center technologies, including competition from entities that are among our long-term strategic alliance partners. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us.
The principal competitive factors in the markets in which we presently compete and may compete in the future include:
The ability to sell successful business outcomes
The ability to provide a broad range of networking and communications products and services
Product performance
Price
The ability to introduce new products, including products with price-performance advantages
The ability to reduce production costs
The ability to provide value-added features such as security, reliability, and investment protection
Conformance to standards
Market presence
The ability to provide financing
Disruptive technology shifts and new business models
We also face competition from customers to which we license or supply technology, and suppliers from which we transfer technology. The inherent nature of networking requires interoperability. Therefore, we must cooperate and at the same time compete with many companies. Any inability to effectively manage these complicated relationships with customers, suppliers, and strategic alliance partners could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition and accordingly affect our chances of success.
Research and Development
We regularly seek to introduce new products and features to address the requirements of our markets. We allocate our research and development budget among our product categories, which consist of Switching, NGN Routing, Collaboration, Service Provider Video, Data Center, Wireless, Security, and Other Product technologies. Our research and development expenditures were $6.3 billion, $6.2 billion, and $6.3 billion in fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. These expenditures are applied generally to all product areas, with specific areas of focus being identified from time to time. Recent areas of increased focus include, but are not limited to, our core routing and switching products, collaboration, security and products related to the data center. Our expenditures for research and development costs were expensed as incurred.
The industry in which we compete is subject to rapid technological developments, evolving standards, changes in customer requirements, and new product introductions and enhancements. As a result, our success depends in part upon our ability, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to continue to enhance our existing products and to develop and introduce new products that improve performance, and reduce total cost of ownership. To achieve these objectives, our management and engineering personnel work with customers to identify and respond to customer needs, as well as with other innovators of internetworking products, including universities, laboratories, and corporations. We also expect to continue to make acquisitions and investments, where appropriate, to provide us with access to new technologies. Nonetheless, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop products to address new customer requirements and technological changes or that those products will achieve market acceptance.
Manufacturing
We rely on contract manufacturers for all of our manufacturing needs. We presently use a variety of independent third-party companies to provide services related to printed-circuit board assembly, in-circuit test, product repair, and product assembly. Proprietary software on electronically programmable memory chips is used to configure products that meet customer requirements and to maintain quality control and security. The manufacturing process enables us to configure the hardware and software in unique combinations to meet a wide variety of individual customer requirements. The manufacturing process uses automated testing equipment and burn-in procedures, as well as comprehensive inspection, testing, and statistical process controls, which are designed to help ensure the quality and reliability of our products. The manufacturing processes and procedures are generally certified to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001 or ISO 9003 standards.

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Our arrangements with contract manufacturers generally provide for quality, cost, and delivery requirements, as well as manufacturing process terms, such as continuity of supply; inventory management; flexibility regarding capacity, quality, and cost management; oversight of manufacturing; and conditions for use of our intellectual property. We have not entered into any significant long-term contracts with any manufacturing service provider. We generally have the option to renew arrangements on an as-needed basis. These arrangements generally do not commit us to purchase any particular amount or any quantities beyond certain amounts covered by orders or forecasts that we submit covering discrete periods of time, defined as less than one year.
Patents, Intellectual Property, and Licensing
We seek to establish and maintain our proprietary rights in our technology and products through the use of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secret laws. We have a program to file applications for and obtain patents, copyrights, and trademarks in the United States and in selected foreign countries where we believe filing for such protection is appropriate. We also seek to maintain our trade secrets and confidential information by nondisclosure policies and through the use of appropriate confidentiality agreements. We have obtained a substantial number of patents and trademarks in the United States and in other countries. There can be no assurance, however, that the rights obtained can be successfully enforced against infringing products in every jurisdiction. Although we believe the protection afforded by our patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets has value, the rapidly changing technology in the networking industry and uncertainties in the legal process make our future success dependent primarily on the innovative skills, technological expertise, and management abilities of our employees rather than on the protection afforded by patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws.
Many of our products are designed to include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties. While it may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products, we believe, based upon past experience and standard industry practice that such licenses generally could be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. Nonetheless, there can be no assurance that the necessary licenses would be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Our inability to obtain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Moreover, inclusion in our products of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis can limit our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our products.
The industry in which we compete is characterized by rapidly changing technology, a large number of patents, and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. There can be no assurance that our patents and other proprietary rights will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented; that others will not assert intellectual property rights to technologies that are relevant to us; or that our rights will give us a competitive advantage. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. The risks associated with patents and intellectual property are more fully discussed in “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” including the risk factors entitled “Our proprietary rights may prove difficult to enforce,” “We may be found to infringe on intellectual property rights of others,” and “We rely on the availability of third-party licenses.”
Employees
Employees are summarized as follows (approximate numbers):
   
July 30, 2016
Employees by geography:
 
United States
37,550
Rest of world
36,150
Total
73,700
Employees by line item on the Consolidated Statements of Operations:
 
Cost of sales (1)
19,500
Research and development
21,250
Sales and marketing
25,500
General and administrative
7,450
Total
73,700
(1) Cost of sales includes manufacturing support, services, and training.


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Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following table shows the name, age, and position as of August 31, 2016 of each of our executive officers:
Name
 
Age
 
 Position with the Company
Charles H. Robbins
 
50
 
Chief Executive Officer and Director
John T. Chambers
 
67
 
Executive Chairman
Mark Chandler
 
60
 
Senior Vice President, Legal Services, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer
Chris Dedicoat
 
59
 
Executive Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Field Operations
Rebecca Jacoby
 
54
 
Senior Vice President and Chief of Operations
Kelly A. Kramer
 
49
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Karen Walker
 
54
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer
Mr. Robbins has served as Chief Executive Officer since July 2015 and as a member of the Board of Directors since May 2015. He joined Cisco in December 1997, from which time until March 2002 he held a number of managerial positions within Cisco’s sales organization. Mr. Robbins was promoted to Vice President in March 2002, assuming leadership of Cisco’s U.S. channel sales organization. Additionally, in July 2005 he assumed leadership of Cisco’s Canada channel sales organization. In December 2007, Mr. Robbins was promoted to Senior Vice President, U.S. Commercial, and in August 2009 he was appointed Senior Vice President, U.S. Enterprise, Commercial and Canada. In July 2011, Mr. Robbins was named Senior Vice President, Americas. In October 2012, Mr. Robbins was promoted to Senior Vice President, Worldwide Field Operations, in which position he served until assuming the role of Chief Executive Officer.
Mr. Chambers has served as a member of the Board of Directors since November 1993. Mr. Chambers, who was appointed Executive Chairman in July 2015, served as Cisco’s Chief Executive Officer from January 1995 until July 2015, and he also served as President from January 1995 to November 2006. He joined Cisco as Senior Vice President in January 1991 and was promoted to Executive Vice President in June 1994, prior to assuming the roles of President and Chief Executive Officer in January 1995. Before joining Cisco, Mr. Chambers was employed by Wang Laboratories, Inc. for eight years, where, in his last role, he was the Senior Vice President of U.S. Operations.
Mr. Chandler joined Cisco in July 1996, upon Cisco’s acquisition of StrataCom, Inc., where he served as General Counsel. He served as Cisco’s Managing Attorney for Europe, the Middle East, and Africa from December 1996 until June 1999; as Director, Worldwide Legal Operations from June 1999 until February 2001; and was promoted to Vice President, Worldwide Legal Services in February 2001. In October 2001, Mr. Chandler was promoted to Vice President, Legal Services and General Counsel, and in May 2003 he additionally was appointed Secretary, a position he held through November 2015. In February 2006, Mr. Chandler was promoted to Senior Vice President, and in May 2012 he was appointed Chief Compliance Officer. Before joining StrataCom, Mr. Chandler had served as Vice President, Corporate Development and General Counsel of Maxtor Corporation.
Mr. Dedicoat joined Cisco in June 1995 and has held various leadership positions within Cisco’s sales organization. From June 1995 through April 1999, he served as a manager and then as a director within the United Kingdom portion of Cisco’s Europe sales organization, overseeing both commercial and enterprise accounts. In April 1999, Mr. Dedicoat was appointed Vice President, Europe, and in June 2003 he was promoted to Senior Vice President, Europe, serving as Cisco’s lead sales executive for Europe. In July 2011, Mr. Dedicoat was appointed Senior Vice President, EMEA (Europe, Middle East, and Africa). Mr. Dedicoat was appointed to his current position effective July 2015.
Ms. Jacoby joined Cisco in March 1995 and has held a number of leadership positions with Cisco. She served, successively, as a manager, director and vice president within Cisco’s global supply chain organization from March 1995 until November 2003. In November 2003, Ms. Jacoby assumed the role of Vice President, Customer Service and Operations Systems, serving in this capacity until October 2006 when she was appointed Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer (CIO) of Cisco. Ms. Jacoby held the SVP/CIO position until being promoted to her current position effective July 2015. She is a member of the board of directors of S&P Global Inc.
Ms. Kramer joined Cisco in January 2012 as Senior Vice President, Corporate Finance. She served in that position until October 2014 and served as Cisco’s Senior Vice President, Business Technology and Operations Finance from October 2013 until December 2014. She was appointed to her current position effective January 2015. From January 2009 until she joined Cisco, Ms. Kramer served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of GE Healthcare Systems. Ms. Kramer served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of GE Healthcare Diagnostic Imaging from August 2007 to January 2009 and as Chief Financial Officer of GE Healthcare Biosciences from January 2006 to July 2007. Prior to that, Ms. Kramer held various leadership positions with GE corporate and other GE businesses. She is a member of the board of directors of Gilead Sciences, Inc.

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Ms. Walker joined Cisco in November 2008, serving from November 2008 through January 2012 as Vice President, Services Marketing. From February 2012 to January 2013, Ms. Walker served as Senior Vice President, Segment, Services and Partner Marketing, and from February 2013 until May 2015 as Senior Vice President, Go To Market. In May 2015, Ms. Walker was promoted to her current position. Ms. Walker joined Cisco from Hewlett-Packard, where she held business and consumer leadership positions including Vice President of Alliances and Marketing for HP Services, and Vice President of Strategy and Marketing for both the Consumer Digital Entertainment and Personal Systems groups.

Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Set forth below and elsewhere in this report and in other documents we file with the SEC are descriptions of the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report.
OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY FLUCTUATE IN FUTURE PERIODS, WHICH MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR STOCK PRICE
Our operating results have been in the past, and will continue to be, subject to quarterly and annual fluctuations as a result of numerous factors, some of which may contribute to more pronounced fluctuations in an uncertain global economic environment. These factors include:  
 
 
Fluctuations in demand for our products and services, especially with respect to telecommunications service providers and Internet businesses, in part due to changes in the global economic environment
 
 
Changes in sales and implementation cycles for our products and reduced visibility into our customers’ spending plans and associated revenue
 
 
Our ability to maintain appropriate inventory levels and purchase commitments
 
 
Price and product competition in the communications and networking industries, which can change rapidly due to technological innovation and different business models from various geographic regions
 
 
The overall movement toward industry consolidation among both our competitors and our customers
 
 
The introduction and market acceptance of new technologies and products and our success in new and evolving markets, including in our newer product categories such as data center and collaboration and in emerging technologies, as well as the adoption of new standards
 
 
New business models for our offerings, such as other-as-a-service (XaaS), where costs are borne up front while revenue is recognized over time
 
 
Variations in sales channels, product costs, mix of products sold, or mix of direct sales and indirect sales.
 
 
The timing, size, and mix of orders from customers
 
 
Manufacturing and customer lead times
 
 
Fluctuations in our gross margins, and the factors that contribute to such fluctuations, as described below
 
 
The ability of our customers, channel partners, contract manufacturers and suppliers to obtain financing or to fund capital expenditures, especially during a period of global credit market disruption or in the event of customer, channel partner, contract manufacturer or supplier financial problems
 
 
Share-based compensation expense
 
 
Actual events, circumstances, outcomes, and amounts differing from judgments, assumptions, and estimates used in determining the values of certain assets (including the amounts of related valuation allowances), liabilities, and other items reflected in our Consolidated Financial Statements
 
 
How well we execute on our strategy and operating plans and the impact of changes in our business model that could result in significant restructuring charges

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Our ability to achieve targeted cost reductions
 
 
Benefits anticipated from our investments in engineering, sales, service, and marketing
 
 
Changes in tax laws or accounting rules, or interpretations thereof
As a consequence, operating results for a particular future period are difficult to predict, and, therefore, prior results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in future periods. Any of the foregoing factors, or any other factors discussed elsewhere herein, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition that could adversely affect our stock price.
OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY UNFAVORABLE ECONOMIC AND MARKET CONDITIONS AND THE UNCERTAIN GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
Challenging economic conditions worldwide have from time to time contributed, and may continue to contribute, to slowdowns in the communications and networking industries at large, as well as in specific segments and markets in which we operate, resulting in:
 
 
Reduced demand for our products as a result of continued constraints on IT-related capital spending by our customers, particularly service providers, and other customer markets as well
 
 
Increased price competition for our products, not only from our competitors but also as a consequence of customers disposing of unutilized products
 
 
Risk of excess and obsolete inventories
 
 
Risk of supply constraints
 
 
Risk of excess facilities and manufacturing capacity
 
 
Higher overhead costs as a percentage of revenue and higher interest expense
The global macroeconomic environment has been challenging and inconsistent. Instability in the global credit markets, the impact of uncertainty regarding global central bank monetary policy, the instability in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world including as a result of the recent United Kingdom “Brexit” referendum to withdraw from the European Union, the current economic challenges in China, including global economic ramifications of Chinese economic difficulties, and other disruptions may continue to put pressure on global economic conditions. If global economic and market conditions, or economic conditions in key markets, remain uncertain or deteriorate further, we may experience material impacts on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Our operating results in one or more segments may also be affected by uncertain or changing economic conditions particularly germane to that segment or to particular customer markets within that segment. For example, emerging countries in the aggregate experienced a decline in orders during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, and also in fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015.
In addition, reports of certain intelligence gathering methods of the U.S. government could affect customers’ perception of the products of IT companies which design and manufacture products in the United States. Trust and confidence in us as an IT supplier is critical to the development and growth of our markets. Impairment of that trust, or foreign regulatory actions taken in response to reports of certain intelligence gathering methods of the U.S. government, could affect the demand for our products from customers outside of the United States and could have an adverse effect on our operating results.
WE HAVE BEEN INVESTING AND EXPECT TO CONTINUE TO INVEST IN KEY PRIORITY AND GROWTH AREAS AS WELL AS MAINTAINING LEADERSHIP IN ROUTING, SWITCHING AND SERVICES, AND IF THE RETURN ON THESE INVESTMENTS IS LOWER OR DEVELOPS MORE SLOWLY THAN WE EXPECT, OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY BE HARMED
We expect to realign and dedicate resources into key priority and growth areas, such as security, IoT, collaboration, next generation data center, cloud, and software, while also focusing on maintaining leadership in routing, switching and services. However, the return on our investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments (including if our selection of areas for investment does not play out as we expect), or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be adversely affected.

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OUR REVENUE FOR A PARTICULAR PERIOD IS DIFFICULT TO PREDICT, AND A SHORTFALL IN REVENUE MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
As a result of a variety of factors discussed in this report, our revenue for a particular quarter is difficult to predict, especially in light of a challenging and inconsistent global macroeconomic environment and related market uncertainty.
Our revenue may grow at a slower rate than in past periods or decline as it did in fiscal 2014 on a year-over-year basis. Our ability to meet financial expectations could also be adversely affected if the nonlinear sales pattern seen in some of our past quarters recurs in future periods. We have experienced periods of time during which shipments have exceeded net bookings or manufacturing issues have delayed shipments, leading to nonlinearity in shipping patterns. In addition to making it difficult to predict revenue for a particular period, nonlinearity in shipping can increase costs, because irregular shipment patterns result in periods of underutilized capacity and periods in which overtime expenses may be incurred, as well as in potential additional inventory management-related costs. In addition, to the extent that manufacturing issues and any related component shortages result in delayed shipments in the future, and particularly in periods in which our contract manufacturers are operating at higher levels of capacity, it is possible that revenue for a quarter could be adversely affected if such matters occur and are not remediated within the same quarter.
The timing of large orders can also have a significant effect on our business and operating results from quarter to quarter, primarily in the United States and in emerging countries. From time to time, we receive large orders that have a significant effect on our operating results in the period in which the order is recognized as revenue. The timing of such orders is difficult to predict, and the timing of revenue recognition from such orders may affect period to period changes in revenue. As a result, our operating results could vary materially from quarter to quarter based on the receipt of such orders and their ultimate recognition as revenue.
Inventory management remains an area of focus. We have experienced longer than normal manufacturing lead times in the past which have caused some customers to place the same order multiple times within our various sales channels and to cancel the duplicative orders upon receipt of the product, or to place orders with other vendors with shorter manufacturing lead times. Such multiple ordering (along with other factors) or risk of order cancellation may cause difficulty in predicting our revenue and, as a result, could impair our ability to manage parts inventory effectively. In addition, our efforts to improve manufacturing lead-time performance may result in corresponding reductions in order backlog. A decline in backlog levels could result in more variability and less predictability in our quarter-to-quarter revenue and operating results. In addition, when facing component supply-related challenges, we have increased our efforts in procuring components in order to meet customer expectations which in turn contribute to an increase in purchase commitments. Increases in our purchase commitments to shorten lead times could also lead to excess and obsolete inventory charges if the demand for our products is less than our expectations.
We plan our operating expense levels based primarily on forecasted revenue levels. These expenses and the impact of long-term commitments are relatively fixed in the short term. A shortfall in revenue could lead to operating results being below expectations because we may not be able to quickly reduce these fixed expenses in response to short-term business changes.
Any of the above factors could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial results.
WE EXPECT GROSS MARGIN TO VARY OVER TIME, AND OUR LEVEL OF PRODUCT GROSS MARGIN MAY NOT BE SUSTAINABLE
Although our product gross margin increased in fiscal 2016, our level of product gross margins have declined in certain prior periods and could decline in future quarters due to adverse impacts from various factors, including:  
 
 
Changes in customer, geographic, or product mix, including mix of configurations within each product group
 
 
Introduction of new products, including products with price-performance advantages, and new business models for our offerings such as XaaS
 
 
Our ability to reduce production costs
 
 
Entry into new markets or growth in lower margin markets, including markets with different pricing and cost structures, through acquisitions or internal development
 
 
Sales discounts
  
 
Increases in material, labor or other manufacturing-related costs, which could be significant especially during periods of supply constraints
 
 
Excess inventory and inventory holding charges

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Obsolescence charges
 
 
Changes in shipment volume
 
 
The timing of revenue recognition and revenue deferrals
 
 
Increased cost, loss of cost savings or dilution of savings due to changes in component pricing or charges incurred due to inventory holding periods if parts ordering does not correctly anticipate product demand or if the financial health of either contract manufacturers or suppliers deteriorates
 
 
Lower than expected benefits from value engineering
 
 
Increased price competition, including competitors from Asia, especially from China
 
 
Changes in distribution channels
 
 
Increased warranty costs
 
 
Increased amortization of purchased intangible assets, especially from acquisitions
 
 
How well we execute on our strategy and operating plans
Changes in service gross margin may result from various factors such as changes in the mix between technical support services and advanced services, as well as the timing of technical support service contract initiations and renewals and the addition of personnel and other resources to support higher levels of service business in future periods.
SALES TO THE SERVICE PROVIDER MARKET ARE ESPECIALLY VOLATILE, AND WEAKNESS IN SALES ORDERS FROM THIS INDUSTRY MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
Sales to the service provider market have been characterized by large and sporadic purchases, especially relating to our router sales and sales of certain products in our newer product categories such as Data Center, Collaboration, and Service Provider Video, in addition to longer sales cycles. Sales to the service provider market decreased in 2016. At various times in the past, including in fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015, we experienced significant weakness in sales to service providers. Sales to the service provider market could continue to decline and, as has been the case in the past, such sales weakness could persist over extended periods of time given fluctuating market conditions. Sales activity in this industry depends upon the stage of completion of expanding network infrastructures; the availability of funding; and the extent to which service providers are affected by regulatory, economic, and business conditions in the country of operations. Weakness in orders from this industry, including as a result of any slowdown in capital expenditures by service providers (which may be more prevalent during a global economic downturn or periods of economic uncertainty), could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Such slowdowns may continue or recur in future periods. Orders from this industry could decline for many reasons other than the competitiveness of our products and services within their respective markets. For example, in the past, many of our service provider customers have been materially and adversely affected by slowdowns in the general economy, by overcapacity, by changes in the service provider market, by regulatory developments, and by constraints on capital availability, resulting in business failures and substantial reductions in spending and expansion plans. These conditions have materially harmed our business and operating results in the past, and some of these or other conditions in the service provider market could affect our business and operating results in any future period. Finally, service provider customers typically have longer implementation cycles; require a broader range of services, including design services; demand that vendors take on a larger share of risks; often require acceptance provisions, which can lead to a delay in revenue recognition; and expect financing from vendors. All these factors can add further risk to business conducted with service providers.
DISRUPTION OF OR CHANGES IN OUR DISTRIBUTION MODEL COULD HARM OUR SALES AND MARGINS
If we fail to manage distribution of our products and services properly, or if our distributors’ financial condition or operations weaken, our revenue and gross margins could be adversely affected.
A substantial portion of our products and services is sold through our channel partners, and the remainder is sold through direct sales. Our channel partners include systems integrators, service providers, other resellers, and distributors. Systems integrators and service providers typically sell directly to end users and often provide system installation, technical support, professional services, and other support services in addition to network equipment sales. Systems integrators also typically integrate our products into an overall solution, and a number of service providers are also systems integrators. Distributors stock inventory and typically sell to systems integrators, service providers, and other resellers. We refer to sales through distributors as our two-tier system of

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sales to the end customer. Revenue from distributors is generally recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them. These distributors are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling prices, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs. If sales through indirect channels increase, this may lead to greater difficulty in forecasting the mix of our products and, to a degree, the timing of orders from our customers.
Historically, we have seen fluctuations in our gross margins based on changes in the balance of our distribution channels. Although variability to date has not been significant, there can be no assurance that changes in the balance of our distribution model in future periods would not have an adverse effect on our gross margins and profitability.
Some factors could result in disruption of or changes in our distribution model, which could harm our sales and margins, including the following:
 
 
We compete with some of our channel partners, including through our direct sales, which may lead these channel partners to use other suppliers that do not directly sell their own products or otherwise compete with them
 
 
Some of our channel partners may demand that we absorb a greater share of the risks that their customers may ask them to bear
 
 
Some of our channel partners may have insufficient financial resources and may not be able to withstand changes and challenges in business conditions
 
 
Revenue from indirect sales could suffer if our distributors’ financial condition or operations weaken
In addition, we depend on our channel partners globally to comply with applicable regulatory requirements. To the extent that they fail to do so, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Further, sales of our products outside of agreed territories can result in disruption to our distribution channels.
THE MARKETS IN WHICH WE COMPETE ARE INTENSELY COMPETITIVE, WHICH COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR ACHIEVEMENT OF REVENUE GROWTH
The markets in which we compete are characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and a migration to networking and communications solutions that offer relative advantages. These market factors represent a competitive threat to us. We compete with numerous vendors in each product category. The overall number of our competitors providing niche product solutions may increase. Also, the identity and composition of competitors may change as we increase our activity in newer product categories such as data center and collaboration and in key priority and growth areas. For example, as products related to network programmability, such as SDN products, become more prevalent, we expect to face increased competition from companies that develop networking products based on commoditized hardware, referred to as "white box" hardware, to the extent customers decide to purchase those product offerings instead of ours. In addition, the growth in demand for technology delivered as a service enables new competitors to enter the market.
As we continue to expand globally, we may see new competition in different geographic regions. In particular, we have experienced price-focused competition from competitors in Asia, especially from China, and we anticipate this will continue. For information regarding our competitors, see the section entitled “Competition” contained in Item 1. Business of this report.
Some of our competitors compete across many of our product lines, while others are primarily focused in a specific product area. Barriers to entry are relatively low, and new ventures to create products that do or could compete with our products are regularly formed. In addition, some of our competitors may have greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. As we expand into new markets, we will face competition not only from our existing competitors but also from other competitors, including existing companies with strong technological, marketing, and sales positions in those markets. We also sometimes face competition from resellers and distributors of our products. Companies with which we have strategic alliances in some areas may be competitors in other areas, and in our view this trend may increase.
For example, the enterprise data center is undergoing a fundamental transformation arising from the convergence of technologies, including computing, networking, storage, and software, that previously were segregated. Due to several factors, including the availability of highly scalable and general purpose microprocessors, ASICs offering advanced services, standards based protocols, cloud computing and virtualization, the convergence of technologies within the enterprise data center is spanning multiple, previously independent, technology segments. Also, some of our current and potential competitors for enterprise data center business have made acquisitions, or announced new strategic alliances, designed to position them to provide end-to-end technology solutions for the enterprise data center. As a result of all of these developments, we face greater competition in the development and sale of enterprise data center technologies, including competition from entities that are among our long-term strategic alliance

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partners. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us.
The principal competitive factors in the markets in which we presently compete and may compete in the future include:
 
 
The ability to provide a broad range of networking and communications products and services
 
 
Product performance
 
 
Price
 
 
The ability to introduce new products, including products with price-performance advantages
 
 
The ability to reduce production costs
 
 
The ability to provide value-added features such as security, reliability, and investment protection
 
 
Conformance to standards
 
 
Market presence
 
 
The ability to provide financing
 
 
Disruptive technology shifts and new business models
We also face competition from customers to which we license or supply technology and suppliers from which we transfer technology. The inherent nature of networking requires interoperability. As such, we must cooperate and at the same time compete with many companies. Any inability to effectively manage these complicated relationships with customers, suppliers, and strategic alliance partners could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition and accordingly affect our chances of success.
OUR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT RELATING TO OUR SALES TO OUR TWO-TIER DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL IS COMPLEX, AND EXCESS INVENTORY MAY HARM OUR GROSS MARGINS
We must manage our inventory relating to sales to our distributors effectively, because inventory held by them could affect our results of operations. Our distributors may increase orders during periods of product shortages, cancel orders if their inventory is too high, or delay orders in anticipation of new products. They also may adjust their orders in response to the supply of our products and the products of our competitors that are available to them, and in response to seasonal fluctuations in end-user demand. Revenue to our distributors generally is recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them, and they are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling price, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs. Inventory management remains an area of focus as we balance the need to maintain strategic inventory levels to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements. When facing component supply-related challenges, we have increased our efforts in procuring components in order to meet customer expectations. If we ultimately determine that we have excess inventory, we may have to reduce our prices and write down inventory, which in turn could result in lower gross margins.
SUPPLY CHAIN ISSUES, INCLUDING FINANCIAL PROBLEMS OF CONTRACT MANUFACTURERS OR COMPONENT SUPPLIERS, OR A SHORTAGE OF ADEQUATE COMPONENT SUPPLY OR MANUFACTURING CAPACITY THAT INCREASED OUR COSTS OR CAUSED A DELAY IN OUR ABILITY TO FULFILL ORDERS, COULD HAVE AN ADVERSE IMPACT ON OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATING RESULTS, AND OUR FAILURE TO ESTIMATE CUSTOMER DEMAND PROPERLY MAY RESULT IN EXCESS OR OBSOLETE COMPONENT SUPPLY, WHICH COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR GROSS MARGINS
The fact that we do not own or operate the bulk of our manufacturing facilities and that we are reliant on our extended supply chain could have an adverse impact on the supply of our products and on our business and operating results:
 
 
Any financial problems of either contract manufacturers or component suppliers could either limit supply or increase costs
 
 
Reservation of manufacturing capacity at our contract manufacturers by other companies, inside or outside of our industry, could either limit supply or increase costs

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Industry consolidation occurring within one or more component supplier markets, such as the semiconductor market, could either limit supply or increase costs
A reduction or interruption in supply; a significant increase in the price of one or more components; a failure to adequately authorize procurement of inventory by our contract manufacturers; a failure to appropriately cancel, reschedule, or adjust our
requirements based on our business needs; or a decrease in demand for our products could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition and could materially damage customer relationships. Furthermore, as a result of binding price or purchase commitments with suppliers, we may be obligated to purchase components at prices that are higher than those available in the current market. In the event that we become committed to purchase components at prices in excess of the current market price when the components are actually used, our gross margins could decrease. We have experienced longer than normal lead times in the past. Although we have generally secured additional supply or taken other mitigation actions when significant disruptions have occurred, if similar situations occur in the future, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. See the risk factor above entitled “Our revenue for a particular period is difficult to predict, and a shortfall in revenue may harm our operating results.”
Our growth and ability to meet customer demands depend in part on our ability to obtain timely deliveries of parts from our suppliers and contract manufacturers. We have experienced component shortages in the past, including shortages caused by manufacturing process issues, that have affected our operations. We may in the future experience a shortage of certain component parts as a result of our own manufacturing issues, manufacturing issues at our suppliers or contract manufacturers, capacity problems experienced by our suppliers or contract manufacturers including capacity or cost problems resulting from industry consolidation, or strong demand in the industry for those parts. Growth in the economy is likely to create greater pressures on us and our suppliers to accurately project overall component demand and component demands within specific product categories and to establish optimal component levels and manufacturing capacity, especially for labor-intensive components, components for which we purchase a substantial portion of the supply, or the re-ramping of manufacturing capacity for highly complex products. During periods of shortages or delays the price of components may increase, or the components may not be available at all, and we may also encounter shortages if we do not accurately anticipate our needs. We may not be able to secure enough components at reasonable prices or of acceptable quality to build new products in a timely manner in the quantities or configurations needed. Accordingly, our revenue and gross margins could suffer until other sources can be developed. Our operating results would also be adversely affected if, anticipating greater demand than actually develops, we commit to the purchase of more components than we need, which is more likely to occur in a period of demand uncertainties such as we are currently experiencing. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter these problems in the future. Although in many cases we use standard parts and components for our products, certain components are presently available only from a single source or limited sources, and a global economic downturn and related market uncertainty could negatively impact the availability of components from one or more of these sources, especially during times such as we have recently seen when there are supplier constraints based on labor and other actions taken during economic downturns. We may not be able to diversify sources in a timely manner, which could harm our ability to deliver products to customers and seriously impact present and future sales.
We believe that we may be faced with the following challenges in the future:  
 
 
New markets in which we participate may grow quickly, which may make it difficult to quickly obtain significant component capacity
 
 
As we acquire companies and new technologies, we may be dependent, at least initially, on unfamiliar supply chains or relatively small supply partners
 
 
We face competition for certain components that are supply-constrained, from existing competitors, and companies in other markets
Manufacturing capacity and component supply constraints could continue to be significant issues for us. We purchase components from a variety of suppliers and use several contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for our products. During the normal course of business, in order to improve manufacturing lead-time performance and to help ensure adequate component supply, we enter into agreements with contract manufacturers and suppliers that either allow them to procure inventory based upon criteria as defined by us or that establish the parameters defining our requirements. In certain instances, these agreements allow us the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust our requirements based on our business needs prior to firm orders being placed. When facing component supply-related challenges, we have increased our efforts in procuring components in order to meet customer expectations, which in turn contributes to an increase in purchase commitments. Increases in our purchase commitments to shorten lead times could also lead to excess and obsolete inventory charges if the demand for our products is less than our expectations. If we fail to anticipate customer demand properly, an oversupply of parts could result in excess or obsolete components that could

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adversely affect our gross margins. For additional information regarding our purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers, see Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
WE DEPEND UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND ENHANCEMENTS TO EXISTING PRODUCTS, AND IF WE FAIL TO PREDICT AND RESPOND TO EMERGING TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS AND CUSTOMERS’ CHANGING NEEDS, OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND MARKET SHARE MAY SUFFER
The markets for our products are characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, new product introductions, and evolving methods of building and operating networks. Our operating results depend on our ability to develop and introduce new products into existing and emerging markets and to reduce the production costs of existing products. Many of our strategic initiatives and investments we have made, and our architectural approach, are designed to enable the increased use of the network as the platform for automating, orchestrating, integrating, and delivering an ever-increasing array of IT-based products and services. For example, several years ago we launched our Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS), our next-generation enterprise data center platform architected to unite computing, network, storage access and virtualization resources in a single system, which is designed to address the fundamental transformation occurring in the enterprise data center. While our Cisco UCS offering remains a significant focus area for us, several market transitions are also shaping our strategies and investments.
One such market transition we are focusing on is the move towards more programmable, flexible and virtual networks. We believe the successful products and solutions in this market will combine ASICs, hardware and software elements together. Other examples include our focus on security; the market transition related to digital transformation and IoT; and the transition in cloud.
The process of developing new technology, including technology related to more programmable, flexible and virtual networks and technology related to other market transitions— such as security, digital transformation and IoT, and cloud— is complex and uncertain, and if we fail to accurately predict customers’ changing needs and emerging technological trends our business could be harmed. We must commit significant resources, including the investments we have been making in our priorities to developing new products before knowing whether our investments will result in products the market will accept. In particular, if our model of the evolution of networking does not emerge as we believe it will, or if the industry does not evolve as we believe it will, or if our strategy for addressing this evolution is not successful, many of our strategic initiatives and investments may be of no or limited value. For example, if we do not introduce products related to network programmability, such as software-defined-networking products, in a timely fashion, or if product offerings in this market that ultimately succeed are based on technology, or an approach to technology, that differs from ours, such as, for example, networking products based on “white box” hardware, our business could be harmed. Similarly, our business could be harmed if we fail to develop, or fail to develop in a timely fashion, offerings to address other transitions, or if the offerings addressing these other transitions that ultimately succeed are based on technology, or an approach to technology, different from ours.
Our strategy is to lead our customers in their digital transition with solutions including pervasive, industry-leading security that intelligently connect nearly everything that can be connected. Over the last few years, we have been transforming our business to move from selling individual products and services to selling products and services integrated into architectures and solutions. As a part of this transformation, we continue to make changes to how we are organized and how we build and deliver our technology. If our strategy for addressing our customer needs, or the architectures and solutions we develop do not meet those needs, or the changes we are making in how we are organized and how we build and deliver or technology is incorrect or ineffective, our business could be harmed.
Furthermore, we may not execute successfully on our vision or strategy because of challenges with regard to product planning and timing, technical hurdles that we fail to overcome in a timely fashion, or a lack of appropriate resources. This could result in competitors, some of which may also be our strategic alliance partners, providing those solutions before we do and loss of market share, revenue, and earnings. In addition, the growth in demand for technology delivered as a service enables new competitors to enter the market. The success of new products depends on several factors, including proper new product definition, component costs, timely completion and introduction of these products, differentiation of new products from those of our competitors, and market acceptance of these products. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify new product opportunities, develop and bring new products to market in a timely manner, or achieve market acceptance of our products or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive. The products and technologies in our other product categories and key growth areas may not prove to have the market success we anticipate, and we may not successfully identify and invest in other emerging or new products.
CHANGES IN INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKET CONDITIONS COULD LEAD TO CHARGES RELATED TO DISCONTINUANCES OF CERTAIN OF OUR PRODUCTS OR BUSINESSES, ASSET IMPAIRMENTS AND WORKFORCE REDUCTIONS OR RESTRUCTURINGS
In response to changes in industry and market conditions, we may be required to strategically realign our resources and to consider restructuring, disposing of, or otherwise exiting businesses. Any resource realignment, or decision to limit investment in or dispose of or otherwise exit businesses, may result in the recording of special charges, such as inventory and technology-related write-offs, workforce reduction or restructuring costs, charges relating to consolidation of excess facilities, or claims from third parties

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who were resellers or users of discontinued products. Our estimates with respect to the useful life or ultimate recoverability of our carrying basis of assets, including purchased intangible assets, could change as a result of such assessments and decisions. Although in certain instances our supply agreements allow us the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust our requirements based on our business needs prior to firm orders being placed, our loss contingencies may include liabilities for contracts that we cannot cancel with contract manufacturers and suppliers. Further, our estimates relating to the liabilities for excess facilities are affected by changes in real estate market conditions. Additionally, we are required to perform goodwill impairment tests on an annual basis and between annual tests in certain circumstances, and future goodwill impairment tests may result in a charge to earnings.
In August 2016, we announced a restructuring plan under which we began taking action in the first quarter of fiscal 2017. The implementation of this restructuring plan may be disruptive to our business, and following completion of the restructuring plan our business may not be more efficient or effective than prior to implementation of the plan. Our restructuring activities, including any related charges and the impact of the related headcount restructurings, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
OVER THE LONG TERM WE INTEND TO INVEST IN ENGINEERING, SALES, SERVICE AND MARKETING ACTIVITIES, AND THESE INVESTMENTS MAY ACHIEVE DELAYED, OR LOWER THAN EXPECTED, BENEFITS WHICH COULD HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
While we intend to focus on managing our costs and expenses, over the long term, we also intend to invest in personnel and other resources related to our engineering, sales, service and marketing functions as we realign and dedicate resources on key priority and growth areas, such as security, IoT, collaboration, next generation data center, cloud, and software, and we also intend to focus on maintaining leadership in routing, switching and services. We are likely to recognize the costs associated with these investments earlier than some of the anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be adversely affected.
OUR BUSINESS SUBSTANTIALLY DEPENDS UPON THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THE INTERNET AND INTERNET-BASED SYSTEMS
A substantial portion of our business and revenue depends on growth and evolution of the Internet, including the continued development of the Internet and the anticipated market transitions, and on the deployment of our products by customers who depend on such continued growth and evolution. To the extent that an economic slowdown or uncertainty and related reduction in capital spending adversely affect spending on Internet infrastructure, including spending or investment related to anticipated market transitions, we could experience material harm to our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Because of the rapid introduction of new products and changing customer requirements related to matters such as cost-effectiveness and security, we believe that there could be performance problems with Internet communications in the future, which could receive a high degree of publicity and visibility. Because we are a large supplier of networking products, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be materially adversely affected, regardless of whether or not these problems are due to the performance of our own products. Such an event could also result in a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock independent of direct effects on our business.
WE HAVE MADE AND EXPECT TO CONTINUE TO MAKE ACQUISITIONS THAT COULD DISRUPT OUR OPERATIONS AND HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
Our growth depends upon market growth, our ability to enhance our existing products, and our ability to introduce new products on a timely basis. We intend to continue to address the need to develop new products and enhance existing products through acquisitions of other companies, product lines, technologies, and personnel. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including the following:
 
 
Difficulties in integrating the operations, systems, technologies, products, and personnel of the acquired companies, particularly companies with large and widespread operations and/or complex products
 
 
Diversion of management’s attention from normal daily operations of the business and the challenges of managing larger and more widespread operations resulting from acquisitions
 
 
Potential difficulties in completing projects associated with in-process research and development intangibles
 
 
Difficulties in entering markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience and where competitors in such markets have stronger market positions
 
 
Initial dependence on unfamiliar supply chains or relatively small supply partners

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Insufficient revenue to offset increased expenses associated with acquisitions
 
 
The potential loss of key employees, customers, distributors, vendors and other business partners of the companies we acquire following and continuing after announcement of acquisition plans
Acquisitions may also cause us to:  
 
 
Issue common stock that would dilute our current shareholders’ percentage ownership
 
 
Use a substantial portion of our cash resources, or incur debt
 
 
Significantly increase our interest expense, leverage and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition
 
 
Assume liabilities
 
 
Record goodwill and intangible assets that are subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges
 
 
Incur amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets
 
 
Incur tax expenses related to the effect of acquisitions on our intercompany R&D cost sharing arrangement and legal structure
 
 
Incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses
 
 
Become subject to intellectual property or other litigation
Mergers and acquisitions of high-technology companies are inherently risky and subject to many factors outside of our control, and no assurance can be given that our previous or future acquisitions will be successful and will not materially adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition. Failure to manage and successfully integrate acquisitions could materially harm our business and operating results. Prior acquisitions have resulted in a wide range of outcomes, from successful introduction of new products and technologies to a failure to do so. Even when an acquired company has already developed and marketed products, there can be no assurance that product enhancements will be made in a timely fashion or that pre-acquisition due diligence will have identified all possible issues that might arise with respect to such products.
From time to time, we have made acquisitions that resulted in charges in an individual quarter. These charges may occur in any particular quarter, resulting in variability in our quarterly earnings. In addition, our effective tax rate for future periods is uncertain and could be impacted by mergers and acquisitions. Risks related to new product development also apply to acquisitions. See the risk factors above, including the risk factor entitled “We depend upon the development of new products and enhancements to existing products, and if we fail to predict and respond to emerging technological trends and customers’ changing needs, our operating results and market share may suffer” for additional information.
ENTRANCE INTO NEW OR DEVELOPING MARKETS EXPOSES US TO ADDITIONAL COMPETITION AND WILL LIKELY INCREASE DEMANDS ON OUR SERVICE AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS
As we focus on new market opportunities and key priority and growth areas, we will increasingly compete with large telecommunications equipment suppliers as well as startup companies. Several of our competitors may have greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. Additionally, as customers in these markets complete infrastructure deployments, they may require greater levels of service, support, and financing than we have provided in the past, especially in emerging countries. Demand for these types of service, support, or financing contracts may increase in the future. There can be no assurance that we can provide products, service, support, and financing to effectively compete for these market opportunities.
Further, provision of greater levels of services, support and financing by us may result in a delay in the timing of revenue recognition. In addition, entry into other markets has subjected and will subject us to additional risks, particularly to those markets, including the effects of general market conditions and reduced consumer confidence. For example, as we add direct selling capabilities globally to meet changing customer demands, we will face increased legal and regulatory requirements.

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INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION MAY LEAD TO INCREASED COMPETITION AND MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
There has been a trend toward industry consolidation in our markets for several years. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or hold their market positions in an evolving industry and as companies are acquired or are unable to continue operations. For example, some of our current and potential competitors for enterprise data center business have made acquisitions, or announced new strategic alliances, designed to position them with the ability to provide end-to-end technology solutions for the enterprise data center. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us. We believe that industry consolidation may result in stronger competitors that are better able to compete as sole-source vendors for customers. This could lead to more variability in our operating results and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Furthermore, particularly in the service provider market, rapid consolidation will lead to fewer customers, with the effect that loss of a major customer could have a material impact on results not anticipated in a customer marketplace composed of more numerous participants.
PRODUCT QUALITY PROBLEMS COULD LEAD TO REDUCED REVENUE, GROSS MARGINS, AND NET INCOME
We produce highly complex products that incorporate leading-edge technology, including both hardware and software. Software typically contains bugs that can unexpectedly interfere with expected operations. There can be no assurance that our pre-shipment testing programs will be adequate to detect all defects, either ones in individual products or ones that could affect numerous shipments, which might interfere with customer satisfaction, reduce sales opportunities, or affect gross margins. From time to time, we have had to replace certain components and provide remediation in response to the discovery of defects or bugs in products that we had shipped. There can be no assurance that such remediation, depending on the product involved, would not have a material impact. An inability to cure a product defect could result in the failure of a product line, temporary or permanent withdrawal from a product or market, damage to our reputation, inventory costs, or product reengineering expenses, any of which could have a material impact on our revenue, margins, and net income. For example, in the second quarter of fiscal 2014, we recorded a pre-tax charge of $655 million related to the expected remediation costs for certain products sold in prior fiscal years containing memory components manufactured by a single supplier between 2005 and 2010.
DUE TO THE GLOBAL NATURE OF OUR OPERATIONS, POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC CHANGES OR OTHER FACTORS IN A SPECIFIC COUNTRY OR REGION COULD HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
We conduct significant sales and customer support operations in countries around the world. As such, our growth depends in part on our increasing sales into emerging countries. We also depend on non-U.S. operations of our contract manufacturers, component suppliers and distribution partners. Emerging countries in the aggregate experienced a decline in orders during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, and also in fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2015. We continue to assess the sustainability of any improvements in these countries and there can be no assurance that our investments in these countries will be successful. Our future results could be materially adversely affected by a variety of political, economic or other factors relating to our operations inside and outside the United States, including impacts from global central bank monetary policy; issues related to the political relationship between the United States and other countries that can affect the willingness of customers in those countries to purchase products from companies headquartered in the United States; and the challenging and inconsistent global macroeconomic environment, any or all of which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition, including, among others, the following:
 
 
Foreign currency exchange rates
 
 
Political or social unrest
 
 
Economic instability or weakness or natural disasters in a specific country or region, including the current economic challenges in China and global economic ramifications of Chinese economic difficulties; instability as a result of Brexit; environmental and trade protection measures and other legal and regulatory requirements, some of which may affect our ability to import our products, to export our products from, or sell our products in various countries
 
 
Political considerations that affect service provider and government spending patterns
 
 
Health or similar issues, such as a pandemic or epidemic
 
 
Difficulties in staffing and managing international operations
 
 
Adverse tax consequences, including imposition of withholding or other taxes on our global operations

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WE ARE EXPOSED TO THE CREDIT RISK OF SOME OF OUR CUSTOMERS AND TO CREDIT EXPOSURES IN WEAKENED MARKETS, WHICH COULD RESULT IN MATERIAL LOSSES
Most of our sales are on an open credit basis, with typical payment terms of 30 days in the United States and, because of local customs or conditions, longer in some markets outside the United States. We monitor individual customer payment capability in granting such open credit arrangements, seek to limit such open credit to amounts we believe the customers can pay, and maintain reserves we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts. Beyond our open credit arrangements, we have also experienced demands for customer financing and facilitation of leasing arrangements. We expect demand for customer financing to continue, and recently we have been experiencing an increase in this demand as the credit markets have been impacted by the challenging and inconsistent global macroeconomic environment, including increased demand from customers in certain emerging countries.
We believe customer financing is a competitive factor in obtaining business, particularly in serving customers involved in significant infrastructure projects. Our loan financing arrangements may include not only financing the acquisition of our products and services but also providing additional funds for other costs associated with network installation and integration of our products and services.
Our exposure to the credit risks relating to our financing activities described above may increase if our customers are adversely affected by a global economic downturn or periods of economic uncertainty. Although we have programs in place that are designed to monitor and mitigate the associated risk, including monitoring of particular risks in certain geographic areas, there can be no assurance that such programs will be effective in reducing our credit risks.
In the past, there have been significant bankruptcies among customers both on open credit and with loan or lease financing arrangements, particularly among Internet businesses and service providers, causing us to incur economic or financial losses. There can be no assurance that additional losses will not be incurred. Although these losses have not been material to date, future losses, if incurred, could harm our business and have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. A portion of our sales is derived through our distributors. These distributors are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling prices, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs. We maintain estimated accruals and allowances for such business terms. However, distributors tend to have more limited financial resources than other resellers and end-user customers and therefore represent potential sources of increased credit risk, because they may be more likely to lack the reserve resources to meet payment obligations. Additionally, to the degree that turmoil in the credit markets makes it more difficult for some customers to obtain financing, those customers’ ability to pay could be adversely impacted, which in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
WE ARE EXPOSED TO FLUCTUATIONS IN THE MARKET VALUES OF OUR PORTFOLIO INVESTMENTS AND IN INTEREST RATES; IMPAIRMENT OF OUR INVESTMENTS COULD HARM OUR EARNINGS
We maintain an investment portfolio of various holdings, types, and maturities. These securities are generally classified as available-for-sale and, consequently, are recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value with unrealized gains or losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax. Our portfolio includes fixed income securities and equity investments in publicly traded companies, the values of which are subject to market price volatility to the extent unhedged. If such investments suffer market price declines, as we experienced with some of our investments in the past, we may recognize in earnings the decline in the fair value of our investments below their cost basis when the decline is judged to be other than temporary. For information regarding the sensitivity of and risks associated with the market value of portfolio investments and interest rates, refer to the section titled “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” Our investments in private companies are subject to risk of loss of investment capital. These investments are inherently risky because the markets for the technologies or products they have under development are typically in the early stages and may never materialize. We could lose our entire investment in these companies.
WE ARE EXPOSED TO FLUCTUATIONS IN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES THAT COULD NEGATIVELY IMPACT OUR FINANCIAL RESULTS AND CASH FLOWS
Because a significant portion of our business is conducted outside the United States, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve, and they could have a material adverse impact on our financial results and cash flows. Historically, our primary exposures have related to nondollar-denominated sales in Japan, Canada, and Australia and certain nondollar-denominated operating expenses and service cost of sales in Europe, Latin America, and Asia, where we sell primarily in U.S. dollars. Additionally, we have exposures to emerging market currencies, which can have extreme currency volatility. An increase in the value of the dollar could increase the real cost to our customers of our products in those markets outside the United States where we sell in dollars and a weakened dollar could increase the cost of local operating expenses and procurement of raw materials to the extent that we must purchase components in foreign currencies.

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Currently, we enter into foreign exchange forward contracts and options to reduce the short-term impact of foreign currency fluctuations on certain foreign currency receivables, investments, and payables. In addition, we periodically hedge anticipated foreign currency cash flows. Our attempts to hedge against these risks may result in an adverse impact on our net income.
OUR PROPRIETARY RIGHTS MAY PROVE DIFFICULT TO ENFORCE
We generally rely on patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secret laws to establish and maintain proprietary rights in our technology and products. Although we have been issued numerous patents and other patent applications are currently pending, there can be no assurance that any of these patents or other proprietary rights will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented or that our rights will, in fact, provide competitive advantages to us. Furthermore, many key aspects of networking technology are governed by industrywide standards, which are usable by all market entrants. In addition, there can be no assurance that patents will be issued from pending applications or that claims allowed on any patents will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. The outcome of any actions taken in these foreign countries may be different than if such actions were determined under the laws of the United States. Although we are not dependent on any individual patents or group of patents for particular segments of the business for which we compete, if we are unable to protect our proprietary rights to the totality of the features (including aspects of products protected other than by patent rights) in a market, we may find ourselves at a competitive disadvantage to others who need not incur the substantial expense, time, and effort required to create innovative products that have enabled us to be successful.
WE MAY BE FOUND TO INFRINGE ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OF OTHERS
Third parties, including customers, have in the past and may in the future assert claims or initiate litigation related to exclusive patent, copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property rights to technologies and related standards that are relevant to us. These assertions have increased over time as a result of our growth and the general increase in the pace of patent claims assertions, particularly in the United States. Because of the existence of a large number of patents in the networking field, the secrecy of some pending patents, and the rapid rate of issuance of new patents, it is not economically practical or even possible to determine in advance whether a product or any of its components infringes or will infringe on the patent rights of others. The asserted claims and/or initiated litigation can include claims against us or our manufacturers, suppliers, or customers, alleging infringement of their proprietary rights with respect to our existing or future products or components of those products. Regardless of the merit of these claims, they can be time-consuming, result in costly litigation and diversion of technical and management personnel, or require us to develop a non-infringing technology or enter into license agreements. Where claims are made by customers, resistance even to unmeritorious claims could damage customer relationships. There can be no assurance that licenses will be available on acceptable terms and conditions, if at all, or that our indemnification by our suppliers will be adequate to cover our costs if a claim were brought directly against us or our customers. Furthermore, because of the potential for high court awards that are not necessarily predictable, it is not unusual to find even arguably unmeritorious claims settled for significant amounts. If any infringement or other intellectual property claim made against us by any third party is successful, if we are required to indemnify a customer with respect to a claim against the customer, or if we fail to develop non-infringing technology or license the proprietary rights on commercially reasonable terms and conditions, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. For additional information regarding our indemnification obligations, see Note 12(g) to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.
Our exposure to risks associated with the use of intellectual property may be increased as a result of acquisitions, as we have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to such technology or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks. Further, in the past, third parties have made infringement and similar claims after we have acquired technology that had not been asserted prior to our acquisition.
WE RELY ON THE AVAILABILITY OF THIRD-PARTY LICENSES
Many of our products are designed to include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties. It may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of these products. There can be no assurance that the necessary licenses would be available on acceptable terms, if at all. The inability to obtain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Moreover, the inclusion in our products of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis could limit our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our products.

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OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED AND DAMAGE TO OUR REPUTATION MAY OCCUR DUE TO PRODUCTION AND SALE OF COUNTERFEIT VERSIONS OF OUR PRODUCTS
As is the case with leading products around the world, our products are subject to efforts by third parties to produce counterfeit versions of our products. While we work diligently with law enforcement authorities in various countries to block the manufacture of counterfeit goods and to interdict their sale, and to detect counterfeit products in customer networks, and have succeeded in prosecuting counterfeiters and their distributors, resulting in fines, imprisonment and restitution to us, there can be no guarantee that such efforts will succeed. While counterfeiters often aim their sales at customers who might not have otherwise purchased our products due to lack of verifiability of origin and service, such counterfeit sales, to the extent they replace otherwise legitimate sales, could adversely affect our operating results.
OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS COULD BE MATERIALLY HARMED BY UNCERTAINTIES OF REGULATION OF THE INTERNET
Currently, few laws or regulations apply directly to access or commerce on the Internet. We could be materially adversely affected by regulation of the Internet and Internet commerce in any country where we operate. Such regulations could include matters such as voice over the Internet or using IP, encryption technology, sales or other taxes on Internet product or service sales, and access charges for Internet service providers. The adoption of regulation of the Internet and Internet commerce could decrease demand for our products and, at the same time, increase the cost of selling our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
CHANGES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS REGULATION AND TARIFFS COULD HARM OUR PROSPECTS AND FUTURE SALES
Changes in telecommunications requirements, or regulatory requirements in other industries in which we operate, in the United States or other countries could affect the sales of our products. In particular, we believe that there may be future changes in U.S. telecommunications regulations that could slow the expansion of the service providers’ network infrastructures and materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition, including "net neutrality" rules to the extent they impact decisions on investment in network infrastructure.
Future changes in tariffs by regulatory agencies or application of tariff requirements to currently untariffed services could affect the sales of our products for certain classes of customers. Additionally, in the United States, our products must comply with various requirements and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission and other regulatory authorities. In countries outside of the United States, our products must meet various requirements of local telecommunications and other industry authorities. Changes in tariffs or failure by us to obtain timely approval of products could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
FAILURE TO RETAIN AND RECRUIT KEY PERSONNEL WOULD HARM OUR ABILITY TO MEET KEY OBJECTIVES
Our success has always depended in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical, managerial, sales, and marketing personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially in the Silicon Valley area of Northern California. Stock incentive plans are designed to reward employees for their long-term contributions and provide incentives for them to remain with us. Volatility or lack of positive performance in our stock price or equity incentive awards, or changes to our overall compensation program, including our stock incentive program, resulting from the management of share dilution and share-based compensation expense or otherwise, may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees. As a result of one or more of these factors, we may increase our hiring in geographic areas outside the United States, which could subject us to additional geopolitical and exchange rate risk. The loss of services of any of our key personnel; the inability to retain and attract qualified personnel in the future; or delays in hiring required personnel, particularly engineering and sales personnel, could make it difficult to meet key objectives, such as timely and effective product introductions. In addition, companies in our industry whose employees accept positions with competitors frequently claim that competitors have engaged in improper hiring practices. We have received these claims in the past and may receive additional claims to this effect in the future.
ADVERSE RESOLUTION OF LITIGATION OR GOVERNMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS OR FINANCIAL CONDITION
We are a party to lawsuits in the normal course of our business. Litigation can be expensive, lengthy, and disruptive to normal business operations. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict. For example, Brazilian authorities have investigated our Brazilian subsidiary and certain of its current and former employees, as well as a Brazilian importer of our products, and its affiliates and employees, relating to alleged evasion of import taxes and alleged improper transactions involving the subsidiary and the importer. Brazilian tax authorities have assessed claims against our Brazilian subsidiary based on a theory of joint liability with the Brazilian importer for import taxes, interest, and penalties. In the first quarter of fiscal 2013, the Brazilian federal tax authorities asserted an additional claim against our Brazilian subsidiary based on a theory of joint liability with respect

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to an alleged underpayment of income taxes, social taxes, interest, and penalties by a Brazilian distributor. This claim was dismissed on its merits during the third quarter of fiscal 2016. The asserted claims by Brazilian federal tax authorities which remain are for calendar years 2003 through 2007, and the asserted claims by the tax authorities from the state of Sao Paulo are for calendar years 2005 through 2007. The total asserted claims by Brazilian state and federal tax authorities aggregate to $249 million for the alleged evasion of import and other taxes, $1.3 billion for interest, and $1.2 billion for various penalties, all determined using an exchange rate as of July 30, 2016. We have completed a thorough review of the matters and believe the asserted claims against our Brazilian subsidiary are without merit, and we are defending the claims vigorously. While we believe there is no legal basis for the alleged liability, due to the complexities and uncertainty surrounding the judicial process in Brazil and the nature of the claims asserting joint liability with the importer, we are unable to determine the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome against our Brazilian subsidiary and are unable to reasonably estimate a range of loss, if any. We do not expect a final judicial determination for several years. An unfavorable resolution of lawsuits or governmental investigations could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, or financial condition. For additional information regarding certain of the matters in which we are involved, see Item 3, “Legal Proceedings,” contained in Part I of this report.
CHANGES IN OUR PROVISION FOR INCOME TAXES OR ADVERSE OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM EXAMINATION OF OUR INCOME TAX RETURNS COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR RESULTS
Our provision for income taxes is subject to volatility and could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries that have lower tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries that have higher tax rates; by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; by changes to domestic manufacturing deduction laws, regulations, or interpretations thereof; by expiration of or lapses in tax incentives; by transfer pricing adjustments, including the effect of acquisitions on our intercompany R&D cost sharing arrangement and legal structure; by tax effects of nondeductible compensation; by tax costs related to intercompany realignments; by changes in accounting principles; or by changes in tax laws and regulations, treaties, or interpretations thereof, including possible changes to the taxation of earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, the deductibility of expenses attributable to foreign income, or the foreign tax credit rules. Significant judgment is required to determine the recognition and measurement attribute prescribed in the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), an international association comprised of 34 countries, including the United States, has recently made changes to numerous long-standing tax principles. There can be no assurance that these changes, once adopted by countries, will not have an adverse impact on our provision for income taxes. Further, as a result of certain of our ongoing employment and capital investment actions and commitments, our income in certain countries is subject to reduced tax rates. Our failure to meet these commitments could adversely impact our provision for income taxes. In addition, we are subject to the continuous examination of our income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. There can be no assurance that the outcomes from these continuous examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS ARE ESPECIALLY SUBJECT TO THE RISKS OF EARTHQUAKES, FLOODS, AND OTHER NATURAL CATASTROPHIC EVENTS
Our corporate headquarters, including certain of our research and development operations are located in the Silicon Valley area of Northern California, a region known for seismic activity. Additionally, a certain number of our facilities are located near rivers that have experienced flooding in the past. Also certain of our suppliers and logistics centers are located in regions that have been or may be affected by earthquake, tsunami and flooding activity which in the past has disrupted, and in the future could disrupt, the flow of components and delivery of products. A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, a hurricane, volcano, or a flood, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
MAN-MADE PROBLEMS SUCH AS CYBER-ATTACKS, DATA PROTECTION BREACHES, COMPUTER VIRUSES OR TERRORISM MAY DISRUPT OUR OPERATIONS, HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND DAMAGE OUR REPUTATION, AND CYBER-ATTACKS OR DATA PROTECTION BREACHES ON OUR CUSTOMERS’ NETWORKS, OR IN CLOUD-BASED SERVICES PROVIDED BY OR ENABLED BY US, COULD RESULT IN LIABILITY FOR US, DAMAGE OUR REPUTATION OR OTHERWISE HARM OUR BUSINESS
Despite our implementation of network security measures, the products and services we sell to customers, and our servers, data centers and the cloud-based solutions on which our data, and data of our customers, suppliers and business partners are stored, are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, data protection breaches, computer viruses, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering or human error. Any such event could compromise our networks or those of our customers, and the information stored on our networks or those of our customers could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen, which could subject us to liability to our customers, suppliers, business partners and others, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition and may cause damage to our reputation. Efforts to limit the ability of malicious third parties to disrupt the operations of the Internet or undermine our own security efforts may be costly to implement and meet with resistance, and may not be successful. Breaches of network security in our customers’ networks, or in cloud-based services provided by or enabled by us,

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regardless of whether the breach is attributable to a vulnerability in our products or services, could result in liability for us, damage our reputation or otherwise harm our business.
In addition, the continued threat of terrorism and heightened security and military action in response to this threat, or any future acts of terrorism, may cause further disruptions to the economies of the United States and other countries and create further uncertainties or otherwise materially harm our business, operating results, and financial condition. Likewise, events such as loss of infrastructure and utilities services such as energy, transportation, or telecommunications could have similar negative impacts. To the extent that such disruptions or uncertainties result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or the manufacture or shipment of our products, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
IF WE DO NOT SUCCESSFULLY MANAGE OUR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES, WE MAY NOT REALIZE THE EXPECTED BENEFITS FROM SUCH ALLIANCES AND WE MAY EXPERIENCE INCREASED COMPETITION OR DELAYS IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
We have several strategic alliances with large and complex organizations and other companies with which we work to offer complementary products and services and have established a joint venture to market services associated with our Cisco Unified Computing System products. These arrangements are generally limited to specific projects, the goal of which is generally to facilitate product compatibility and adoption of industry standards. There can be no assurance we will realize the expected benefits from these strategic alliances or from the joint venture. If successful, these relationships may be mutually beneficial and result in industry growth. However, alliances carry an element of risk because, in most cases, we must compete in some business areas with a company with which we have a strategic alliance and, at the same time, cooperate with that company in other business areas. Also, if these companies fail to perform or if these relationships fail to materialize as expected, we could suffer delays in product development or other operational difficulties. Joint ventures can be difficult to manage, given the potentially different interests of joint venture partners.
OUR STOCK PRICE MAY BE VOLATILE
Historically, our common stock has experienced substantial price volatility, particularly as a result of variations between our actual financial results and the published expectations of analysts and as a result of announcements by our competitors and us. Furthermore, speculation in the press or investment community about our strategic position, financial condition, results of operations, business, security of our products, or significant transactions can cause changes in our stock price. In addition, the stock market has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market price of many technology companies, in particular, and that have often been unrelated to the operating performance of these companies. These factors, as well as general economic and political conditions and the announcement of proposed and completed acquisitions or other significant transactions, or any difficulties associated with such transactions, by us or our current or potential competitors, may materially adversely affect the market price of our common stock in the future. Additionally, volatility, lack of positive performance in our stock price or changes to our overall compensation program, including our stock incentive program, may adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, virtually all of whom are compensated, in part, based on the performance of our stock price.
THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION WILL NOT BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY OUR INCURRENCE OF DEBT
As of the end of fiscal 2016, we have senior unsecured notes outstanding in an aggregate principal amount of $28.4 billion that mature at specific dates from calendar year 2017 through 2040. We have also established a commercial paper program under which we may issue short-term, unsecured commercial paper notes on a private placement basis up to a maximum aggregate amount outstanding at any time of $3.0 billion, and we had no commercial paper notes outstanding under this program as of July 30, 2016. The outstanding senior unsecured notes bear fixed-rate interest payable semiannually, except $3.4 billion of the notes which bears interest at a floating rate payable quarterly. The fair value of the long-term debt is subject to market interest rate volatility. The instruments governing the senior unsecured notes contain certain covenants applicable to us and our wholly-owned subsidiaries that may adversely affect our ability to incur certain liens or engage in certain types of sale and leaseback transactions. In addition, we will be required to have available in the United States sufficient cash to service the interest on our debt and repay all of our notes on maturity. There can be no assurance that our incurrence of this debt or any future debt will be a better means of providing liquidity to us than would our use of our existing cash resources, including cash currently held offshore. Further, we cannot be assured that our maintenance of this indebtedness or incurrence of future indebtedness will not adversely affect our operating results or financial condition. In addition, changes by any rating agency to our credit rating can negatively impact the value and liquidity of both our debt and equity securities, as well as the terms upon which we may borrow under our commercial paper program or future debt issuances.

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Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 2.
Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located at an owned site in San Jose, California, in the United States of America. The locations of our headquarters by geographic segment are as follows:
Americas
 
EMEA
 
APJC
San Jose, California, USA
 
Amsterdam, Netherlands
 
Singapore
In addition to our headquarters site, we own additional sites in the United States, which include facilities in the surrounding areas of San Jose, California; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; Richardson, Texas; Lawrenceville, Georgia; and Boston, Massachusetts. We also own land for expansion in some of these locations. In addition, we lease office space in many U.S. locations.
Outside the United States our operations are conducted primarily in leased sites, such as our Globalisation Centre East campus in Bangalore, India. Other significant sites (in addition to the two non-U.S. headquarters locations) are located in Belgium, Canada, China, Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom.
We believe that our existing facilities, including both owned and leased, are in good condition and suitable for the conduct of our business. For additional information regarding obligations under operating leases, see Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Brazil Brazilian authorities have investigated our Brazilian subsidiary and certain of its current and former employees, as well as a Brazilian importer of our products, and its affiliates and employees, relating to alleged evasion of import taxes and alleged improper transactions involving the subsidiary and the importer. Brazilian tax authorities have assessed claims against our Brazilian subsidiary based on a theory of joint liability with the Brazilian importer for import taxes, interest, and penalties. In addition to claims asserted by the Brazilian federal tax authorities in prior fiscal years, tax authorities from the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo have asserted similar claims on the same legal basis in prior fiscal years. In the first quarter of fiscal 2013, the Brazilian federal tax authorities asserted an additional claim against our Brazilian subsidiary based on a theory of joint liability with respect to an alleged underpayment of income taxes, social taxes, interest, and penalties by a Brazilian distributor. This claim was dismissed on its merits during the third quarter of fiscal 2016.
The asserted claims by Brazilian federal tax authorities which remain are for calendar years 2003 through 2007, and the asserted claims by the tax authorities from the state of Sao Paulo are for calendar years 2005 through 2007. The total asserted claims by Brazilian state and federal tax authorities aggregate to $249 million for the alleged evasion of import and other taxes, $1.3 billion for interest, and $1.2 billion for various penalties, all determined using an exchange rate as of July 30, 2016. We have completed a thorough review of the matters and believe the asserted claims against our Brazilian subsidiary are without merit, and we are defending the claims vigorously. While we believe there is no legal basis for the alleged liability, due to the complexities and uncertainty surrounding the judicial process in Brazil and the nature of the claims asserting joint liability with the importer, we are unable to determine the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome against our Brazilian subsidiary and are unable to reasonably estimate a range of loss, if any. We do not expect a final judicial determination for several years.
Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States At the request of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and the U.S. Department of Justice, we have conducted an investigation into allegations which we and those agencies received regarding possible violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act involving business activities of our operations in Russia and certain of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and by certain resellers of our products in those countries. We take any such allegations very seriously and we have fully cooperated with and shared the results of our investigation with the SEC and the Department of Justice. Based on the investigation results, both the SEC and the Department of Justice have recently informed us that they have decided not to bring enforcement actions.
Backflip Software Backflip Software, Inc. (“Backflip”) asserted contract, tort, and fraud claims against us in Santa Clara County, California Superior Court. The proceeding was instituted on March 5, 2013. Backflip alleges that we conspired with Backflip's then-CEO to allow us to access and use a copy of Backflip's source code via a pre-existing escrow agreement, and that, subsequently, we used that source code in violation of trade secret law and the parties' software license agreement. Five claims brought by Backflip were dismissed by the Court in an order dated August 1, 2016; the claims remaining in the case are for breach of contract and misappropriation of trade secrets.  Backflip will seek compensatory and enhanced damages during a trial currently set for September 12, 2016.  We believe that we have strong arguments that we were entitled to access and use a copy of the source code

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under the parties’ software license agreement and did not violate trade secret law. In addition, if the jury were to find for Backflip on some or all of its claims, we believe that damages would not be material given our assessment of the value of the Backflip intellectual property that we are alleged to have misappropriated.  However, due to the uncertainty surrounding the litigation process, we are unable to reasonably estimate the ultimate outcome of this litigation at this time.
SRI International On September 4, 2013, SRI International, Inc. (“SRI”) asserted patent infringement claims against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, accusing our products and services in the area of network intrusion detection of infringing two U.S. patents. SRI sought monetary damages of at least a reasonable royalty and enhanced damages. The trial on these claims began on May 2, 2016 and on May 12, 2016, the jury returned a verdict finding willful infringement of the asserted patents. The jury awarded SRI damages of $23.7 million and the Court will decide whether to award enhanced damages and attorneys’ fees and whether an ongoing royalty should be awarded through the expiration of the patents in 2018. In June 2016, we filed post-trial motions. We also intend to pursue an appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit on various grounds. We believe we have strong arguments to overturn the jury verdict and/or reduce the damages award. While the ultimate outcome of the case may still result in a loss, we do not expect it to be material.
SSL SSL Services, LLC (“SSL”) has asserted claims for patent infringement against us in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The proceeding was instituted on March 25, 2015. SSL alleges that our AnyConnect products that include Virtual Private Networking functions infringed a U.S. patent owned by SSL. SSL seeks money damages from us. On August 18, 2015, Cisco petitioned the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB”) of the United States Patent and Trademark Office to review whether the patent SSL has asserted against us is valid over prior art. On February 23, 2016, a PTAB multi-judge panel found a reasonable likelihood that Cisco would prevail in showing that SSL’s patent claims are unpatentable and instituted proceedings. The PTAB scheduled a hearing to review our petition for November 16, 2016. Although a trial of SSL’s claim in district court in Texas was set for September 6, 2016, the district court issued an order on June 28, 2016 staying the district court case pending the final written decision from the PTAB. We believe we have strong arguments that our products do not infringe and the patent is invalid. If we did not prevail and a jury were to find that our AnyConnect products infringe, we believe damages, as appropriately measured, would be immaterial. Due to uncertainty surrounding patent litigation processes, however, we are unable to reasonably estimate the ultimate outcome of this litigation at this time.
Kangtega Cisco Systems GmbH (“Cisco GmbH”) is subject to patent claims by Kangtega GmbH (“Kangtega”), instituted on June 6, 2013, alleging that Cisco GmbH infringes in Germany a European Patent by marketing in Germany network intrusion-detection (or firewall) products known as the “ASA” firewall offering. On April 29, 2014, the Mannheim Regional Court dismissed the infringement action finding no infringement by Cisco GmbH of the asserted patent. On November 23, 2016, a court of appeal in Germany (Oberlandesgericht Karlsruhe) will hear an appeal of that judgment. The matter had been set for July 13, 2016, but that hearing was postponed until November 23, 2016. In addition, on July 25, 2016, the German Federal Patent Court issued its grounds for a decision denying Cisco’s nullity request with respect to the Kangtega patent. The nullity decision, which is open to appeal, regards patent validity and was issued in a separate proceeding from the infringement action in which Cisco has previously prevailed. In the infringement action, Kangtega seeks an injunction which would prohibit Cisco GmbH’s activities in Germany with respect to the ASA firewall offering unless Cisco GmbH takes a license from Kangtega or Cisco redesigns the products. We believe the lower court ruling in Cisco’s favor in the infringement action was correct and should be affirmed.  We do not anticipate that the outcome of the case would be material. However, due to uncertainty surrounding the litigation process, we are unable to reasonably estimate the outcome of the appeal and any subsequent appeals to a higher court at this time.
In addition, we are subject to legal proceedings, claims, and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, including intellectual property litigation. While the outcome of these matters is currently not determinable, we do not expect that the ultimate costs to resolve these matters will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. For additional information regarding intellectual property litigation, see “Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors-We may be found to infringe on intellectual property rights of others” herein.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

32


PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(a)
Cisco common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol CSCO. Information regarding quarterly cash dividends declared on Cisco’s common stock during fiscal 2016 and 2015 may be found in Supplementary Financial Data on page 119 of this report. There were 43,798 registered shareholders as of September 2, 2016. The high and low common stock sales prices per share for each period were as follows:
 
FISCAL 2016
 
FISCAL 2015
Fiscal Quarter
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
First quarter
$
29.38

 
$
23.03

 
$
26.01

 
$
22.49

Second quarter
$
29.49

 
$
22.47

 
$
28.70

 
$
23.60

Third quarter
$
28.70

 
$
22.46

 
$
30.31

 
$
25.92

Fourth quarter
$
31.15

 
$
25.81

 
$
29.90

 
$
26.84

(b)
On July 15, 2016, we issued an aggregate of 18,995 shares of our common stock in connection with a transaction under South Africa’s Black Economic Empowerment program to a South African education trust. The offer and sale of the securities were effected without registration in reliance on Regulation S promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(c)
Issuer purchases of equity securities (in millions, except per-share amounts):
Period
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
 
Average Price Paid
per Share 
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs 
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares
That May Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs
May 1, 2016 to May 28, 2016
9

 
$
27.44

 
9

 
$
15,956

May 29, 2016 to June 25, 2016
6

 
$
28.93

 
6

 
$
15,777

June 26, 2016 to July 30, 2016
13

 
$
29.48

 
13

 
$
15,403

Total
28

 
$
28.70

 
28

 
 
On September 13, 2001, we announced that our Board of Directors had authorized a stock repurchase program. As of July 30, 2016, our Board of Directors had authorized the repurchase of up to $112 billion of common stock under this program. During fiscal 2016, we repurchased and retired 148 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $26.45 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $3.9 billion. As of July 30, 2016, we had repurchased and retired 4.6 billion shares of our common stock at an average price of $21.04 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $96.6 billion since inception of the stock repurchase program, and the remaining authorized amount for stock repurchases under this program was $15.4 billion with no termination date.
For the majority of restricted stock units granted, the number of shares issued on the date the restricted stock units vest is net of shares withheld to meet applicable tax withholding requirements. Although these withheld shares are not issued or considered common stock repurchases under our stock repurchase program and therefore are not included in the preceding table, they are treated as common stock repurchases in our financial statements as they reduce the number of shares that would have been issued upon vesting (see Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).


33


Stock Performance Graph
The information contained in this Stock Performance Graph section shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or “filed” or incorporated by reference in future filings with the SEC, or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent that Cisco specifically incorporates it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
The following graph shows a five-year comparison of the cumulative total shareholder return on Cisco common stock with the cumulative total returns of the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P Information Technology Index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in the Company’s common stock and in each of the indexes (with the reinvestment of all dividends) on the date specified. Shareholder returns over the indicated period are based on historical data and should not be considered indicative of future shareholder returns.
Comparison of 5-Year Cumulative Total Return Among Cisco Systems, Inc.,
the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P Information Technology Index

ctr5yrchart.jpg


 
July 2011
 
July 2012
 
July 2013
 
July 2014
 
July 2015
 
July 2016
Cisco Systems, Inc.
$
100.00

 
$
99.79

 
$
167.05

 
$
175.47

 
$
197.66

 
$
219.92

S&P 500
$
100.00

 
$
109.65

 
$
136.86

 
$
163.41

 
$
175.32

 
$
187.36

S&P Information Technology
$
100.00

 
$
112.69

 
$
125.25

 
$
164.35

 
$
181.01

 
$
199.29



34


Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Five Years Ended July 30, 2016 (in millions, except per-share amounts)
Years Ended
July 30, 2016 (1) (2)
 
July 25, 2015 (1)
 
July 26, 2014 (3)
 
July 27, 2013  (4)
 
July 28, 2012
Revenue
$
49,247

 
$
49,161

 
$
47,142

 
$
48,607

 
$
46,061

Net income
$
10,739

 
$
8,981

 
$
7,853

 
$
9,983

 
$
8,041

Net income per share—basic
$
2.13

 
$
1.76

 
$
1.50

 
$
1.87

 
$
1.50

Net income per share—diluted
$
2.11

 
$
1.75

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.86

 
$
1.49

Shares used in per-share calculation—basic
5,053

 
5,104

 
5,234

 
5,329

 
5,370

Shares used in per-share calculation—diluted
5,088

 
5,146

 
5,281

 
5,380

 
5,404

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
0.94

 
$
0.80

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.62

 
$
0.28

Net cash provided by operating activities
$
13,570

 
$
12,552

 
$
12,332

 
$
12,894

 
$
11,491

 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
July 26, 2014
 
July 27, 2013
 
July 28, 2012
Cash and cash equivalents and investments
$
65,756

 
$
60,416

 
$
52,074

 
$
50,610

 
$
48,716

Total assets
$
121,652

 
$
113,373

 
$
105,070

 
$
101,138

 
$
91,697

Debt
$
28,643

 
$
25,354

 
$
20,845

 
$
16,158

 
$
16,266

Deferred revenue
$
16,472

 
$
15,183

 
$
14,142

 
$
13,423

 
$
12,880

(1) 
In the second quarter of fiscal 2016, Cisco completed the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. As a result, revenue from this portion of the Service Provider Video product category will not recur in future periods. The sale resulted in a pre-tax gain of $253 million, net of certain transaction costs incurred in prior periods. The years ended July 30, 2016 and July 25, 2015 include SP Video CPE Business revenue of $504 million and $1,846 million, respectively.
(2) 
In the second quarter of fiscal 2016, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Cisco settled all outstanding items related to Cisco’s federal income tax returns for fiscal 2008 through fiscal 2010. As a result of the settlement, Cisco recorded a net tax benefit of $367 million. Also during the second quarter of fiscal 2016, the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015 reinstated the U.S. federal R&D tax credit permanently. As a result, Cisco recognized tax benefits of $226 million in fiscal 2016, of which $81 million related to fiscal 2015 R&D expenses.
(3) 
In the second quarter of fiscal 2014, Cisco recorded a pre-tax charge of $655 million to product cost of sales, which corresponds to $526 million, net of tax, for the expected remediation cost for certain products sold in prior fiscal years containing memory components manufactured by a single supplier between 2005 and 2010. See Note 12(f) to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(4) 
In the second quarter of fiscal 2013, the IRS and Cisco settled all outstanding items related to Cisco’s federal income tax returns for fiscal 2002 through fiscal 2007. As a result of the settlement, Cisco recorded a net tax benefit of $794 million. Also during the second quarter of fiscal 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 reinstated the U.S. federal R&D tax credit, retroactive to January 1, 2012. As a result, Cisco recognized tax benefits of $184 million in fiscal 2013, of which $72 million related to fiscal 2012 R&D expenses.
No other factors materially affected the comparability of the information presented above.




35


Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbors created under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about the industries in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “targets,” “goals,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “momentum,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “continues,” “endeavors,” “strives,” “may,” variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth and trends in our businesses, and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those under “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and elsewhere herein. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason.
OVERVIEW
Cisco designs and sells broad lines of products, provides services and delivers integrated solutions to develop and connect networks around the world. For over 30 years, we have helped our customers build networks and automate, orchestrate, integrate, and digitize information technology (IT)–based products and services. In an increasingly connected world, Cisco is helping to transform businesses, governments and cities worldwide. Over time, we have expanded to new markets that are a natural extension of our core networking business, as the network has become the platform for delivering an ever-increasing portfolio of IT–based products and services.
A summary of our results is as follows (in millions, except percentages and per-share amounts):
 
Three Months Ended
 
Years Ended
 
 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
Variance
 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
Variance
 
Revenue (1)
$
12,638

 
$
12,843

 
(1.6
)%
 
$
49,247

 
$
49,161

 
0.2
 %
 
Gross margin percentage
63.1
%
 
60.2
%
 
2.9

pts
62.9
%
 
60.4
%
 
2.5

pts
Research and development
$
1,601

 
$
1,548

 
3.4
 %
 
$
6,296

 
$
6,207

 
1.4
 %
 
Sales and marketing
$
2,443

 
$
2,549

 
(4.2
)%
 
$
9,619

 
$
9,821

 
(2.1
)%
 
General and administrative
$
533

 
$
536

 
(0.6
)%
 
$
1,814

 
$
2,040

 
(11.1
)%
 
Total R&D, sales and marketing, general and administrative
$
4,577

 
$
4,633

 
(1.2
)%
 
$
17,729

 
$
18,068

 
(1.9
)%
 
Total as a percentage of revenue
36.2
%
 
36.1
%
 
0.1

pts
36.0
%
 
36.8
%
 
(0.8
)
pts 
Amortization of purchased intangible assets included in operating expenses
$
82

 
$
146

 
(43.8
)%
 
$
303

 
$
359

 
(15.6
)%
 
Restructuring and other charges included in operating expenses
$
13

 
$
73

 
(82.2
)%
 
$
268

 
$
484

 
(44.6
)%
 
Operating income as a percentage of revenue
26.1
%
 
22.4
%
 
3.7

pts
25.7
%
 
21.9
%
 
3.8

pts
Income tax percentage
17.1
%
 
20.9
%
 
(3.8
)
pts
16.9
%
 
19.8
%
 
(2.9
)
pts
Net income
$
2,813

 
$
2,319

 
21.3
 %
 
$
10,739

 
$
8,981

 
19.6
 %
 
Net income as a percentage of revenue
22.3
%
 
18.1
%
 
4.2

pts
21.8
%
 
18.3
%
 
3.5

pts
Earnings per share—diluted
$
0.56

 
$
0.45

 
24.4
 %
 
$
2.11

 
$
1.75

 
20.6
 %
 
(1) During the second quarter of fiscal 2016, we completed the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. As a result, revenue from this portion of the Service Provider Video product category will not recur in future periods. The three months ended July 25, 2015 includes SP Video CPE Business revenue of $487 million. The years ended July 30, 2016 and July 25, 2015 include SP Video CPE Business revenue of $504 million and $1,846 million, respectively.

36



Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015—Financial Performance
For fiscal 2016, our total revenue was flat compared with fiscal 2015, as the service revenue increase of 5% was substantially offset by the product revenue decrease of 1%. In the second quarter of fiscal 2016, we completed the sale of our SP Video CPE Business. Total company revenue for fiscal 2016 increased 3% not including revenue from SP Video CPE products for all periods. Additionally, fiscal 2016 had 53 weeks, compared with 52 weeks in fiscal 2015, thus our results for fiscal 2016 reflect an extra week compared with fiscal 2015. We estimate that the additional revenue associated with the extra week was approximately $265 million, $200 million of which was from our services subscriptions, and $65 million from our software-as-a-service (SaaS) offerings such as WebEx, and a small amount from product distribution. Total gross margin increased by 2.5 percentage points, driven by productivity improvements, the sale of the lower margin SP Video CPE Business, and higher service gross margin. As a percentage of revenue, research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses, collectively, decreased by 0.8 percentage points, driven in part by the $253 million pre-tax gain from the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. Operating income as a percentage of revenue increased by 3.8 percentage points, driven by the factors discussed above as well as a decrease in restructuring and other charges related to the restructuring action announced in August 2014. Diluted earnings per share increased by 21% from the prior year, as a result of both a 20% increase in net income and a decrease in diluted share count of 58 million shares.
Revenue from the Americas decreased by $244 million, driven by the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. Revenue for the Americas segment increased not including SP Video CPE products. EMEA revenue decreased by $41 million, led by a product revenue decline in Russia. Revenue in our APJC segment increased $371 million, led by product revenue growth in China. We saw improvements in our revenue from many emerging countries, and in particular we experienced product revenue growth in the emerging countries of China, India and Mexico of 22%, 18% and 3%, respectively. The “BRICM” countries experienced, in the aggregate, product revenue growth of 3%, despite decreased product revenue in Brazil and Russia of 34% and 31%, respectively.
From a customer market standpoint, in fiscal 2016 we experienced solid product revenue growth in the commercial market and, to a lesser extent, in the public sector and enterprise markets, while the service provider market declined. The decline in the service provider market was driven by the sale of the SP Video CPE Business.
From a product category perspective, total company product revenue, not including SP Video CPE products, increased 2% year over year. This increase was led by product revenue growth in Security and Collaboration which grew 13% and 9%, respectively. We also experienced a 12% increase in revenue from Service Provider Video products (not including the CPE Business for all periods), as well as Data Center and Wireless products which grew 5% and 3%, respectively. Offsetting these increases was a 4% product revenue decrease in our NGN Routing category, driven primarily by a decrease in sales of our high-end router products. In addition, we believe a cautious service provider capital expenditure spending environment negatively impacted sales in this product category. Sales of our Switching products were flat due to higher sales of data center switches, flat sales of switches used in campus environments (which comprises the majority of this product category), and lower sales of storage products. We believe the flat sales of switches used in campus environments was largely driven by uncertainty in the macro environment, which led to a slowdown in customer spending.
Over this past fiscal year, we experienced a challenging environment with significant volatility and a highly competitive landscape. After three consecutive quarters of positive business momentum in both the service provider customer market and emerging countries in the aggregate, these areas experienced a decline in business momentum during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, while the remainder of the business performed well with positive business momentum.
In summary, for fiscal 2016 we experienced solid revenue growth in Security, Switching products used in data centers, Collaboration, and our Services categories. In addition, we continued to make progress in the transition of our business model to software and subscriptions. We remain focused on accelerating innovation across our portfolio, and we believe that we have made solid progress over the past year in these priority areas. While the overall macro environment remains uncertain, we believe we are well positioned. At the same time, we are aggressively investing in priority areas to drive growth over the long term regardless of the environment.


37


Fourth Quarter Snapshot
For the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, as compared with the corresponding period in fiscal 2015, total revenue decreased by 2%. Within the total revenue, product revenue decreased 4% while service revenue increased by 5%. Total company revenue for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 increased 2% not including revenue from SP Video CPE products (which was sold on November 20, 2015) in the prior year period. With regard to our geographic segment performance, on a year-over-year basis, revenue in the Americas and APJC each decreased by 2%, while EMEA was flat. From a product category perspective, total company product revenue, not including SP Video CPE products in the prior year period, increased 1% year over year. This increase was driven by growth from Security products which grew 16% year over year. Total gross margin increased by 2.9 percentage points, as results for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 did not include the lower margin SP Video CPE Business. As a percentage of revenue, research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses collectively increased by 0.1 percentage points. Operating income as a percentage of revenue increased by 3.7 percentage points. Diluted earnings per share increased by 24% from the prior year, primarily as a result of both a 21% increase in net income and a decrease in our diluted share count by 64 million shares.
Strategy and Focus Areas
We see our customers increasingly using technology and, specifically, networks to grow their businesses, drive efficiencies, and try to gain a competitive advantage. In this increasingly digital world, we believe data is the most strategic asset and is increasingly distributed across every organization and ecosystem, on customer premises, at the edge of the network, and in the cloud. The network also plays an increasingly important role enabling our customers to aggregate, automate, and draw insights from this highly distributed data, where there is a premium on security and speed. We believe this is driving them to adopt entirely new IT architectures and organizational structures. We understand how technology can deliver the outcomes our customers want to achieve, and our strategy is to lead our customers in their digital transition with solutions including pervasive, industry-leading security that intelligently connects nearly everything that can be digitally connected.
To deliver on our strategy, we are focused on providing highly secure, automated and intelligent solutions built on infrastructure that connects highly distributed data that is globally dispersed across organizations. Together with our ecosystem of partners and developers, we will provide technology, services, and solutions we believe will enable our customers to gain insight and advantage from this distributed data with scale, security and agility.
For a full discussion of our strategy and focus areas, see Item 1. Business.
Other Key Financial Measures
The following is a summary of our other key financial measures for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 (in millions, except days sales outstanding in accounts receivable (DSO) and annualized inventory turns):
 
 
Fiscal 2016
 
Fiscal 2015
Cash and cash equivalents and investments
 
$65,756
 
$60,416
Cash provided by operating activities
 
$13,570
 
$12,552
Deferred revenue
 
$16,472
 
$15,183
Repurchases of common stock—stock repurchase program
 
$3,918
 
$4,234
Dividends
 
$4,750
 
$4,086
DSO
 
42 days
 
38 days
Inventories
 
$1,217
 
$1,627
Annualized inventory turns
 
14.6
 
12.1



38


CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires us to make judgments, assumptions, and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements. The accounting policies described below are significantly affected by critical accounting estimates. Such accounting policies require significant judgments, assumptions, and estimates used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements, and actual results could differ materially from the amounts reported based on these policies.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria have been met:
Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists. Contracts, Internet commerce agreements, and customer purchase orders are generally used to determine the existence of an arrangement.
Delivery has occurred. Shipping documents and customer acceptance, when applicable, are used to verify delivery. For software, delivery is considered to have occurred upon unrestricted license access and license term commencement, when applicable.
The fee is fixed or determinable. We assess whether the fee is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms associated with the transaction and whether the sales price is subject to refund or adjustment.
Collectibility is reasonably assured. We assess collectibility based primarily on the creditworthiness of the customer as determined by credit checks and analysis, as well as the customer’s payment history.
In instances where final acceptance of the product, system, or solution is specified by the customer, revenue is deferred until all acceptance criteria have been met. When a sale involves multiple deliverables, such as sales of products that include services, the multiple deliverables are evaluated to determine the unit of accounting, and the entire fee from the arrangement is allocated to each unit of accounting based on the relative selling price. Revenue is recognized when the revenue recognition criteria for each unit of accounting are met. For hosting arrangements, we recognize subscription revenue ratably over the subscription period, while usage revenue is recognized based on utilization. Software subscription revenue is deferred and recognized ratably over the subscription term upon delivery of the first product and commencement of the term.
The amount of revenue recognized in a given period is affected by our judgment as to whether an arrangement includes multiple deliverables and, if so, our valuation of the units of accounting. Our multiple element arrangements may contain only deliverables within the scope of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605, Revenue Recognition, deliverables within the scope of ASC 985-605, Software-Revenue Recognition, or a combination of both. According to the accounting guidance prescribed in ASC 605, we use vendor-specific objective evidence of selling price (VSOE) for each of those units, when available. We determine VSOE based on our normal pricing and discounting practices for the specific product or service when sold separately. In determining VSOE, we require that a substantial majority of the historical standalone transactions have the selling prices for a product or service fall within a reasonably narrow pricing range, generally evidenced by approximately 80% of such historical standalone transactions falling within plus or minus 15% of the median rates. When VSOE does not exist, we apply the selling price hierarchy to applicable multiple-deliverable arrangements. Under the selling price hierarchy, third-party evidence of selling price (TPE) will be considered if VSOE does not exist, and estimated selling price (ESP) will be used if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. Generally, we are not able to determine TPE because our go-to-market strategy differs from that of others in our markets, and the extent of our proprietary technology varies among comparable products or services from those of our peers. In determining ESP, we apply significant judgment as we weigh a variety of factors, based on the characteristics of the deliverable. We typically arrive at an ESP for a product or service that is not sold separately by considering company-specific factors such as geographies, competitive landscape, internal costs, profitability objectives, pricing practices used to establish bundled pricing, and existing portfolio pricing and discounting.
As our business and offerings evolve over time, our pricing practices may be required to be modified accordingly, which could result in changes in selling prices, including both VSOE and ESP, in subsequent periods. There were no material impacts during fiscal 2016, nor do we currently expect a material impact in the next 12 months on our revenue recognition due to any changes in our VSOE, TPE, or ESP.
We make sales to distributors which we refer to as two-tier sales to the end customer. Revenue from two-tier distributors is recognized based on a sell-through method using point-of-sale information provided by these distributors. Distributors participate in various cooperative marketing and other incentive programs, and we maintain estimated accruals and allowances for these programs. If actual credits received by distributors under these programs were to deviate significantly from our estimates, which are based on historical experience, our revenue could be adversely affected.

39


Allowances for Receivables and Sales Returns
The allowances for receivables were as follows (in millions, except percentages):
   
 
July 30, 2016

 
July 25, 2015

Allowance for doubtful accounts
 
$
249

 
$
302

Percentage of gross accounts receivable
 
4.1
%
 
5.4
%
Allowance for credit loss—lease receivables
 
$
230

 
$
259

Percentage of gross lease receivables (1)
 
6.6
%
 
7.2
%
Allowance for credit loss—loan receivables
 
$
97

 
$
87

Percentage of gross loan receivables
 
4.5
%
 
4.9
%
(1) Calculated as allowance for credit loss on lease receivables as a percentage of gross lease receivables and residual value before unearned income.
The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on our assessment of the collectibility of customer accounts. We regularly review the adequacy of these allowances by considering internal factors such as historical experience, credit quality and age of the receivable balances as well as external factors such as economic conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay as well as historical and expected default frequency rates, which are published by major third-party credit-rating agencies and are updated on a quarterly basis. We also consider the concentration of receivables outstanding with a particular customer in assessing the adequacy of our allowances for doubtful accounts. If a major customer’s creditworthiness deteriorates, if actual defaults are higher than our historical experience, or if other circumstances arise, our estimates of the recoverability of amounts due to us could be overstated, and additional allowances could be required, which could have an adverse impact on our operating results.
The allowance for credit loss on financing receivables is also based on the assessment of collectibility of customer accounts. We regularly review the adequacy of the credit allowances determined either on an individual or a collective basis. When evaluating the financing receivables on an individual basis, we consider historical experience, credit quality and age of receivable balances, and economic conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. When evaluating financing receivables on a collective basis, we use expected default frequency rates published by a major third-party credit-rating agency as well as our own historical loss rate in the event of default, while also systematically giving effect to economic conditions, concentration of risk and correlation. Determining expected default frequency rates and loss factors associated with internal credit risk ratings, as well as assessing factors such as economic conditions, concentration of risk, and correlation, are complex and subjective. Our ongoing consideration of all these factors could result in an increase in our allowance for credit loss in the future, which could adversely affect our operating results. Both accounts receivable and financing receivables are charged off at the point when they are considered uncollectible.
A reserve for future sales returns is established based on historical trends in product return rates. The reserve for future sales returns as of July 30, 2016 and July 25, 2015 was $126 million and $129 million, respectively, and was recorded as a reduction of our accounts receivable and revenue. If the actual future returns were to deviate from the historical data on which the reserve had been established, our revenue could be adversely affected.
Inventory Valuation and Liability for Purchase Commitments with Contract Manufacturers and Suppliers
Inventory is written down based on excess and obsolete inventories, determined primarily by future demand forecasts. Inventory write-downs are measured as the difference between the cost of the inventory and market, based upon assumptions about future demand, and are charged to the provision for inventory, which is a component of our cost of sales. At the point of the loss recognition, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis.
We record a liability for firm, noncancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers for quantities in excess of our future demand forecasts consistent with the valuation of our excess and obsolete inventory. As of July 30, 2016, the liability for these purchase commitments was $159 million, compared with $156 million as of July 25, 2015, and was included in other current liabilities.

40


Our provision for inventory was $65 million, $54 million, and $67 million in fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. The provision for the liability related to purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers was $134 million, $102 million, and $124 million in fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. If there were to be a sudden and significant decrease in demand for our products, or if there were a higher incidence of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, we could be required to increase our inventory write-downs, and our liability for purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers, and accordingly our profitability, could be adversely affected. We regularly evaluate our exposure for inventory write-downs and the adequacy of our liability for purchase commitments. Inventory and supply chain management remain areas of focus as we balance the need to maintain supply chain flexibility to help ensure competitive lead times with the risk of inventory obsolescence, particularly in light of current macroeconomic uncertainties and conditions and the resulting potential for changes in future demand forecast.
Loss Contingencies and Product Warranties
We are subject to the possibility of various losses arising in the ordinary course of business. We consider the likelihood of impairment of an asset or the incurrence of a liability, as well as our ability to reasonably estimate the amount of loss, in determining loss contingencies. An estimated loss contingency is accrued when it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We regularly evaluate information available to us to determine whether such accruals should be made or adjusted and whether new accruals are required.
Third parties, including customers, have in the past and may in the future assert claims or initiate litigation related to exclusive patent, copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property rights to technologies and related standards that are relevant to us. These assertions have increased over time as a result of our growth and the general increase in the pace of patent claims assertions, particularly in the United States. If any infringement or other intellectual property claim made against us by any third party is successful, or if we fail to develop non-infringing technology or license the proprietary rights on commercially reasonable terms and conditions, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We have recorded a liability for the expected remediation cost for certain products sold in prior fiscal years containing memory components manufactured by a single supplier between 2005 and 2010. In February 2014, on the basis of the growing number of failures as described in Note 12 (f) to the Consolidated Financial Statements, we decided to expand our approach, which resulted in a charge to product cost of sales of $655 million being recorded for the second quarter of fiscal 2014. During fiscal 2016 and 2015, we recorded adjustments to product cost of sales of $74 million and $164 million, respectively to reduce the liability, reflecting net lower than previously estimated future costs to remediate the impacted customer products. Estimating this liability is complex and subjective, and if we experience changes in a number of underlying assumptions and estimates such as a change in claims compared with our expectations, or if the cost of servicing these claims is different than expected, our estimated liability may be impacted.
Our products are generally covered by a warranty for periods ranging from 90 days to five years, and for some products we provide a limited lifetime warranty. We accrue for warranty costs as part of our cost of sales based on associated material costs, technical support labor costs, and associated overhead. Material cost is estimated based primarily upon historical trends in the volume of product returns within the warranty period and the cost to repair or replace the equipment. Technical support labor cost is estimated based primarily upon historical trends in the rate of customer cases and the cost to support the customer cases within the warranty period. Overhead cost is applied based on estimated time to support warranty activities.
If we experience an increase in warranty claims compared with our historical experience, or if the cost of servicing warranty claims is greater than expected, our profitability could be adversely affected.
Fair Value Measurements
Our fixed income and publicly traded equity securities, collectively, are reflected in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at a fair value of $58.1 billion as of July 30, 2016, compared with $53.5 billion as of July 25, 2015. Our fixed income investment portfolio, as of July 30, 2016, consisted primarily of high quality investment-grade securities. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
As described more fully in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, a valuation hierarchy is based on the level of independent, objective evidence available regarding the value of the investments. It encompasses three classes of investments: Level 1 consists of securities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical securities; Level 2 consists of securities for which observable inputs other than Level 1 inputs are used, such as quoted prices for similar securities in active markets or quoted prices for identical securities in less active markets and model-derived valuations for which the variables are derived from, or corroborated by, observable market data; and Level 3 consists of securities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value.

41


Our Level 2 securities are valued using quoted market prices for similar instruments or nonbinding market prices that are corroborated by observable market data. We use inputs such as actual trade data, benchmark yields, broker/dealer quotes, and other similar data, which are obtained from independent pricing vendors, quoted market prices, or other sources to determine the ultimate fair value of our assets and liabilities. We use such pricing data as the primary input, to which we have not made any material adjustments during fiscal 2016 and 2015, to make our assessments and determinations as to the ultimate valuation of our investment portfolio. We are ultimately responsible for the financial statements and underlying estimates.
The inputs and fair value are reviewed for reasonableness, may be further validated by comparison to publicly available information, and could be adjusted based on market indices or other information that management deems material to its estimate of fair value. The assessment of fair value can be difficult and subjective. However, given the relative reliability of the inputs we use to value our investment portfolio, and because substantially all of our valuation inputs are obtained using quoted market prices for similar or identical assets, we do not believe that the nature of estimates and assumptions affected by levels of subjectivity and judgment was material to the valuation of the investment portfolio as of July 30, 2016. Level 3 assets do not represent a significant portion of our total assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of July 30, 2016 and July 25, 2015.
Other-than-Temporary Impairments
We recognize an impairment charge when the declines in the fair values of our fixed income or publicly traded equity securities below their cost basis are judged to be other than temporary. The ultimate value realized on these securities, to the extent unhedged, is subject to market price volatility until they are sold.
If the fair value of a debt security is less than its amortized cost, we assess whether the impairment is other than temporary. An impairment is considered other than temporary if (i) we have the intent to sell the security, (ii) it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery of its entire amortized cost basis, or (iii) we do not expect to recover the entire amortized cost of the security. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on (i) or (ii) described in the prior sentence, the entire difference between the amortized cost and the fair value of the security is recognized in earnings. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (iii), the amount representing credit loss, defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis of the debt security, will be recognized in earnings, and the amount relating to all other factors will be recognized in other comprehensive income (OCI). In estimating the amount and timing of cash flows expected to be collected, we consider all available information, including past events, current conditions, the remaining payment terms of the security, the financial condition of the issuer, expected defaults, and the value of underlying collateral.
For publicly traded equity securities, we consider various factors in determining whether we should recognize an impairment charge, including the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than our cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and our intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
We also have investments in privately held companies, some of which are in the startup or development stages. As of July 30, 2016, our investments in privately held companies were $1,003 million, compared with $897 million as of July 25, 2015, and were included in other assets. We monitor these investments for events or circumstances indicative of potential impairment, and we make appropriate reductions in carrying values if we determine that an impairment charge is required, based primarily on the financial condition and near-term prospects of these companies. These investments are inherently risky because the markets for the technologies or products these companies are developing are typically in the early stages and may never materialize. Our impairment charges on investments in privately held companies were $67 million, $41 million, and $23 million in fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.

42


Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Asset Impairments
Our methodology for allocating the purchase price relating to purchase acquisitions is determined through established valuation techniques. Goodwill represents a residual value as of the acquisition date, which in most cases results in measuring goodwill as an excess of the purchase consideration transferred plus the fair value of any noncontrolling interest in the acquired company over the fair value of net assets acquired, including contingent consideration. We perform goodwill impairment tests on an annual basis in the fourth fiscal quarter and between annual tests in certain circumstances for each reporting unit. The assessment of fair value for goodwill and purchased intangible assets is based on factors that market participants would use in an orderly transaction in accordance with the new accounting guidance for the fair value measurement of nonfinancial assets.
The goodwill recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of July 30, 2016 and July 25, 2015 was $26.6 billion and $24.5 billion, respectively. In response to changes in industry and market conditions, we could be required to strategically realign our resources and consider restructuring, disposing of, or otherwise exiting businesses, which could result in an impairment of goodwill. There was no impairment of goodwill in fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014. For the annual impairment testing in fiscal 2016, the excess of the fair value over the carrying value for each of our reporting units was $40.8 billion for the Americas, $29.4 billion for EMEA, and $13.1 billion for APJC. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, we performed a sensitivity analysis for goodwill impairment with respect to each of our respective reporting units and determined that a hypothetical 10% decline in the fair value of each reporting unit would not result in an impairment of goodwill for any reporting unit.
The fair value of acquired technology and patents, as well as acquired technology under development, is determined at acquisition date primarily using the income approach, which discounts expected future cash flows to present value. The discount rates used in the present value calculations are typically derived from a weighted-average cost of capital analysis and then adjusted to reflect risks inherent in the development lifecycle as appropriate. We consider the pricing model for products related to these acquisitions to be standard within the high-technology communications industry, and the applicable discount rates represent the rates that market participants would use for valuation of such intangible assets.
We make judgments about the recoverability of purchased intangible assets with finite lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may exist. Recoverability of purchased intangible assets with finite lives is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to the future undiscounted cash flows the asset is expected to generate. We review indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. If the asset is considered to be impaired, the amount of any impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the fair value of the impaired asset. Assumptions and estimates about future values and remaining useful lives of our purchased intangible assets are complex and subjective. They can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy and our internal forecasts. Our impairment charges related to purchased intangible assets were $74 million and $175 million during fiscal 2016 and 2015, respectively. There were no impairment charges related to purchased intangible assets during fiscal 2014. Our ongoing consideration of all the factors described previously could result in additional impairment charges in the future, which could adversely affect our net income. 
Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Our effective tax rates differ from the statutory rate, primarily due to the tax impact of state taxes, foreign operations, R&D tax credits, domestic manufacturing deductions, tax audit settlements, nondeductible compensation, international realignments, and transfer pricing adjustments. Our effective tax rate was 16.9%, 19.8%, and 19.2% in fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
Significant judgment is required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining our provision for income taxes. Although we believe our reserves are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different from that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will impact the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. The provision for income taxes includes the impact of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate, as well as the related net interest and penalties.
Significant judgment is also required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence, including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income, and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. In the event that we change our determination as to the amount of deferred tax assets that can be realized, we will adjust our valuation allowance with a corresponding impact to the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made.

43


Our provision for income taxes is subject to volatility and could be adversely impacted by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries that have lower tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries that have higher tax rates; by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; by changes to domestic manufacturing deduction laws, regulations, or interpretations thereof; by expiration of or lapses in tax incentives; by transfer pricing adjustments, including the effect of acquisitions on our intercompany R&D cost-sharing arrangement and legal structure; by tax effects of nondeductible compensation; by tax costs related to intercompany realignments; by changes in accounting principles; or by changes in tax laws and regulations, treaties, or interpretations thereof, including possible changes to the taxation of earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, the deductibility of expenses attributable to foreign income, or the foreign tax credit rules. Significant judgment is required to determine the recognition and measurement attributes prescribed in the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), an international association comprised of 34 countries, including the United States, has recently made changes to numerous long-standing tax principles. There can be no assurance that these changes, once adopted by countries, will not have an adverse impact on our provision for income taxes. As a result of certain of our ongoing employment and capital investment actions and commitments, our income in certain countries is subject to reduced tax rates. Our failure to meet these commitments could adversely impact our provision for income taxes. In addition, we are subject to the continuous examination of our income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. There can be no assurance that the outcomes from these continuous examinations will not have an adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Revenue
The following table presents the breakdown of revenue between product and service (in millions, except percentages):
 
 
Years Ended
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
July 26, 2014
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
 
$
37,254

 
$
37,750

 
$
36,172

 
$
(496
)
 
(1.3
)%
 
$
1,578

 
4.4
%
Percentage of revenue
 
75.6
%
 
76.8
%
 
76.7
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Service
 
11,993

 
11,411

 
10,970

 
582

 
5.1
 %
 
441

 
4.0
%
Percentage of revenue
 
24.4
%
 
23.2
%
 
23.3
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total
 
$
49,247

 
$
49,161

 
$
47,142

 
$
86

 
0.2
 %
 
$
2,019

 
4.3
%

We manage our business primarily on a geographic basis, organized into three geographic segments. Our revenue, which includes product and service for each segment, is summarized in the following table (in millions, except percentages):
 
 
Years Ended
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
July 26, 2014
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas
 
$
29,411

 
$
29,655

 
$
27,781

 
$
(244
)
 
(0.8
)%
 
$
1,874

 
6.7
 %
Percentage of revenue
 
59.7
%
 
60.3
%
 
58.9
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EMEA
 
12,281

 
12,322

 
12,006

 
(41
)
 
(0.3
)%
 
316

 
2.6
 %
Percentage of revenue
 
24.9
%
 
25.1
%
 
25.5
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
APJC
 
7,555

 
7,184

 
7,355

 
371

 
5.2
 %
 
(171
)
 
(2.3
)%
Percentage of revenue
 
15.4
%
 
14.6
%
 
15.6
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
$
49,247

 
$
49,161

 
$
47,142

 
$
86

 
0.2
 %
 
$
2,019

 
4.3
 %

44


Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
For fiscal 2016, as compared with fiscal 2015, total revenue was flat. Total company revenue not including SP Video CPE products increased 3%. Product revenue decreased by1% in total, but increased by 2% for product revenue not including SP Video CPE products. Service revenue increased by 5%. Fiscal 2016 had 53 weeks, compared with 52 weeks in fiscal 2015, thus our results for fiscal 2016 reflect an extra week. We estimate that the additional revenue associated with the extra week was approximately $265 million, $200 million of which was from our services subscriptions, and $65 million from our SaaS offerings such as WebEx, and a small amount from product distribution. Our total revenue grew in our APJC geographic segment, while revenue declined in the Americas and EMEA geographic segments. The emerging countries of BRICM, in the aggregate, experienced 3% product revenue growth, with growth in China, India and Mexico, partially offset by decreases in the other two BRICM countries.
We conduct business globally in numerous currencies. The direct effect of foreign currency fluctuations on revenue has not been material because our revenue is primarily denominated in U.S. dollars. However, if the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to other currencies, as was the case during fiscal 2016, such strengthening could have an indirect effect on our revenue to the extent it raises the cost of our products to non-U.S. customers and thereby reduces demand. A weaker U.S. dollar could have the opposite effect. However, the precise indirect effect of currency fluctuations is difficult to measure or predict because our revenue is influenced by many factors in addition to the impact of such currency fluctuations. Our revenue in fiscal 2016 was adversely affected by the depreciation of certain currencies relative to the U.S. dollar and especially currencies in certain emerging countries, although the indirect effects are difficult to measure.
In addition to the impact of macroeconomic factors, including a reduced IT spending environment and reductions in spending by government entities, revenue by segment in a particular period may be significantly impacted by several factors related to revenue recognition, including the complexity of transactions such as multiple-element arrangements; the mix of financing arrangements provided to channel partners and customers; and final acceptance of the product, system, or solution, among other factors. In addition, certain customers tend to make large and sporadic purchases, and the revenue related to these transactions may also be affected by the timing of revenue recognition, which in turn would impact the revenue of the relevant segment. As has been the case in certain emerging countries from time to time, customers require greater levels of financing arrangements, service, and support, and these activities may occur in future periods, which may also impact the timing of the recognition of revenue.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
For fiscal 2015, as compared with fiscal 2014, total revenue increased by 4%, as product and service revenue each increased by 4%. Our total revenue grew in our Americas and EMEA geographic segments, while revenue declined in the APJC segment. The emerging countries of BRICM, in the aggregate, experienced a 4% product revenue decline, with declines in China and Russia partially offset by increases in the other three BRICM countries.

Product Revenue by Segment
The following table presents the breakdown of product revenue by segment (in millions, except percentages):
 
 
Years Ended
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
July 26, 2014
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
Product revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas
 
$
21,679

 
$
22,261

 
$
20,631

 
$
(582
)
 
(2.6
)%
 
$
1,630

 
7.9
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
58.2
%
 
59.0
%
 
57.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EMEA
 
9,658

 
9,856

 
9,655

 
(198
)
 
(2.0
)%
 
201

 
2.1
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
25.9
%
 
26.1
%
 
26.7
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
APJC
 
5,917

 
5,633

 
5,886

 
284

 
5.0
 %
 
(253
)
 
(4.3
)%
Percentage of product revenue
 
15.9
%
 
14.9
%
 
16.3
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
$
37,254

 
$
37,750

 
$
36,172

 
$
(496
)
 
(1.3
)%
 
$
1,578

 
4.4
 %

During the second quarter of fiscal 2016, we completed the sale of our SP Video CPE Business. As a result, fiscal 2016 includes only four months of product revenue from our SP Video CPE Business. Revenue from this portion of the Service Provider Video product category will not recur in future periods. SP Video CPE Business revenue was $504 million, $1,846 million and $2,240 million for fiscal 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

45


Americas
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
The decrease in product revenue for the Americas segment was driven by a decline of $1,146 million in product sales related to our SP Video CPE Business. Product revenue not including SP Video CPE products increased for the Americas segment. From a customer markets perspective, the decrease in product revenue in the Americas segment of 3% was led by a significant decline in the service provider market driven by the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. We experienced product revenue growth in the commercial, public sector and enterprise markets. The product revenue growth in the public sector market was due primarily to higher sales to state and local governments, partially offset by lower sales to the U.S. federal government. From a country perspective, product revenue decreased by 34% in Brazil and 24% in Canada partially offset by a slight increase in the United States and an increase of 3% in Mexico.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
The increase in product revenue in the Americas segment of 8% was led by solid growth in the public sector, commercial and enterprise markets. The product revenue growth in the public sector market was due primarily to higher sales to the U.S. federal government and, to a lesser extent, higher sales to state and local governments. The product revenue growth in the enterprise and commercial markets was driven by strength in the United States. We experienced a product revenue decline in the service provider market in this segment. From a country perspective, product revenue increased by 8% in the United States, 34% in Mexico, and 2% in Brazil.
EMEA
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
The decrease in product revenue of 2%, or $198 million, for the EMEA segment was driven by a decline of $164 million in product sales related to our SP Video CPE Business. From a customer market perspective, the decrease was driven by product revenue declines in the service provider, public sector and enterprise markets, partially offset by product revenue growth in the commercial market. The decline in sales to the service provider market was due primarily to the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. Product revenue from emerging countries within EMEA decreased by 11%, led by a decline in Russia of 31%. Product revenue for the remainder of the EMEA segment, which primarily consists of countries in Western Europe, increased by 1%.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Product revenue in the EMEA segment increased by 2%, driven by growth in the commercial, public sector and enterprise markets. Product revenue in the service provider market was flat. Product revenue from emerging countries within EMEA increased by 1% and product revenue for the remainder of EMEA grew by 2%.
APJC
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
The increase in product revenue in the APJC segment of 5% was led by solid growth in the service provider market and, to a lesser extent, growth in the enterprise, public sector and commercial markets. From a country perspective, product revenue increased by 22% in China, driven by an increase in sales of Service Provider Video software and solutions products, and 18% in India, partially offset by product revenue decreases of 7% in Japan and 5% in Australia. Product revenue for this geographic segment was adversely impacted by a $32 million decrease in product revenue related to the sale of our SP Video CPE Business.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
The decrease in product revenue in the APJC segment of 4% was led by a significant decline in the service provider market and, to a lesser degree, in the public sector and enterprise markets. These decreases were partially offset by growth in the commercial market. From a country perspective, product revenue decreased by 21% in China and 5% in Japan. We experienced product revenue growth of 15% in India and 8% in Australia.


46


Product Revenue by Groups of Similar Products
In addition to the primary view on a geographic basis, we also prepare financial information related to groups of similar products and customer markets for various purposes. Our product categories consist of the following categories (with subcategories in parentheses): Switching (fixed switching, modular switching, and storage); NGN Routing (high-end routers, mid-range and low-end routers, and other NGN Routing products); Collaboration (unified communications, Cisco TelePresence, and conferencing); Data Center; Wireless; Service Provider Video (video software and solutions, and cable access); Security; and Other Products. The Other Products category consists primarily of emerging technology products and other networking products.
The following table presents revenue for groups of similar products (in millions, except percentages):
 
 
Years Ended
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
July 30, 2016
 
July 25, 2015
 
July 26, 2014
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
 
Variance in Dollars
 
Variance in Percent
Product revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Switching
 
$
14,746

 
$
14,740

 
$
14,001

 
$
6

 
 %
 
$
739

 
5.3
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
39.6
%
 
39.1
%
 
38.7
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

NGN Routing
 
7,408

 
7,704

 
7,606

 
(296
)
 
(3.8
)%
 
98

 
1.3
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
19.9
%
 
20.4
%
 
21.0
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Collaboration
 
4,352

 
4,004

 
3,817

 
348

 
8.7
 %
 
187

 
4.9
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
11.7
%
 
10.6
%
 
10.6
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Data Center
 
3,365

 
3,219

 
2,640

 
146

 
4.5
 %
 
579

 
21.9
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
9.0
%
 
8.5
%
 
7.3
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Wireless
 
2,625

 
2,542

 
2,293

 
83

 
3.3
 %
 
249

 
10.9
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
7.0
%
 
6.7
%
 
6.3
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Service Provider Video (1)
 
2,424

 
3,555

 
3,969

 
(1,131
)
 
(31.8
)%
 
(414
)
 
(10.4
)%
Percentage of product revenue
 
6.5
%
 
9.4
%
 
11.0
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Security
 
1,969

 
1,747

 
1,566

 
222

 
12.7
 %
 
181

 
11.6
 %
Percentage of product revenue
 
5.3
%
 
4.6
%
 
4.3
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Other
 
365

 
239

 
280

 
126

 
52.7
 %
 
(41
)
 
(14.6
)%
Percentage of product revenue
 
1.0
%
 
0.7
%
 
0.8
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 


 
$
37,254

 
$
37,750

 
$
36,172

 
$
(496
)
 
(1.3
)%
 
$
1,578

 
4.4
 %
(1) During the second quarter of fiscal 2016, we completed the sale of the SP Video CPE Business. As a result, fiscal 2016 includes only four months of product revenue from SP Video CPE Business. Includes SP Video CPE Business revenue of $504 million, $1,846 million and $2,240 million for fiscal 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior period amounts to conform to the current period’s presentation.
Switching
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
We believe the flat revenue growth in our Switching product category was driven in large part by the uncertainty in the macro environment which led to a slowdown in customer spending. This led to flat growth in our Switching products used in campus environments which comprise the majority of revenue within this product category. We also experienced decreased revenue from storage products. These impacts were offset by an increase in sales of our Switching products used in data centers, reflecting strength in our Application Centric Infrastructure portfolio.
In terms of subcategories, the increase in revenue from LAN fixed-configuration switches of 5%, or $469 million was substantially offset by decreased revenue from our modular switches of 8%, or $375 million, and the decreased revenue from storage products of 17%, or $88 million. Revenue from our LAN-fixed configuration switches increased due primarily to higher sales of our Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series Switches, Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Switches, Cisco Nexus 9300 Series Switches and Cisco Nexus 3000 Series Switches, partially offset by a decrease in sales of certain other products in this portfolio. Decreased revenue from our modular switches was due primarily to lower sales of most of our Cisco Catalyst Series Switches and also due to lower sales of our Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches, partially offset by sales growth in Cisco Nexus 9500 Series Switches within this product category.

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Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
The increase in revenue in our Switching product category of 5%, or $739 million, was driven by a 9%, or $826 million, increase in revenue from our LAN fixed-configuration switches and, to a lesser extent, a 24%, or $101 million, increase in sales of storage products. Revenue from LAN fixed-configuration switches increased due to higher sales of most of our Cisco Nexus Series Switches and Cisco Catalyst Series Switches within this category. We experienced a decrease in revenue from our modular switches of 4%, or $188 million, driven by lower sales of Cisco Catalyst 6500-E Series Switches and Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches.
NGN Routing
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
We believe a cautious service provider capital expenditure spending environment negatively impacted sales in NGN Routing. Revenue in this product category decreased by 4%, or $296 million, driven by an 8%, or $378 million, decrease in revenue from our high-end router products partially offset by an 11%, or $48 million, increase in revenue from what we categorize as other NGN Routing products and a 1%, or $34 million, increase in revenue from our mid-range and low-end router products. Revenue from high-end router products decreased due to a decrease in revenue from most of our high-end router products, partially offset by higher sales of our CRS-X products. Revenue from other NGN Routing products increased due to higher sales of optical networking products. The revenue increase in the mid-range and low-end routers was primarily driven by higher sales of Cisco ISR products.

Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Revenue in our NGN Routing product category increased by 1%, or $98 million, driven by a 6%, or $248 million, increase in revenue from our high-end router products and a slight increase in revenue from our midrange and low-end router products, partially offset by 28%, or $171 million, decrease in revenue from other NGN Routing products. Revenue from high-end router products increased due to an increase in revenue from most products within our Cisco ASR category and the adoption of our Cisco NCS platform and CRS-X, partially offset by lower sales of our legacy high-end router products. The slight increase in revenue from our midrange and low-end router products was due to higher sales of our Cisco ISR products, partially offset by lower sales of certain of our access products. Revenue from other NGN Routing products decreased primarily due to lower sales of certain optical networking products.
Collaboration
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
Revenue from our Collaboration product category increased by 9%, or $348 million, driven by growth across the various subcategories within this product category. The growth in Conferencing revenue resulted from higher usage and recurring revenue from WebEx, which we include as product revenue in this category. Revenue from Cisco TelePresence products grew due to higher revenue in infrastructure and endpoint products as a result of new product introductions. The increase in Unified Communications revenue was driven by higher software revenue. We continue to increase the amount of deferred revenue and the proportion of recurring revenue related to our Collaboration product category.

Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Revenue in our Collaboration product category increased by 5%, or $187 million, due to increased revenue from our Unified Communications products as a result of higher software revenue and a slight increase in revenue from phones. Higher revenue from our Cisco TelePresence and conferencing products also contributed to the increase. Revenue from Cisco TelePresence products increased due to higher revenue in endpoint products as a result of new product introductions. The increase in conferencing revenue was a result of higher recurring revenue. We continue to increase the amount of deferred revenue and the proportion of recurring revenue related to our Collaboration product category.
Data Center
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
The increase in revenue in our Data Center product category of 5%, or $146 million, was primarily driven by an increase in sales of our Cisco Unified Computing System products, with growth across all geographic segments and most of the customer markets. We believe the uncertainty in the macro environment led to a slowdown of customer spending for products in this category. Additionally, we are seeing a market transition with computing workloads shifting from blade server systems to rack-based systems.  We believe both of these factors adversely impacted the sales of this product category.

48


Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Revenue in our Data Center product category grew by 22%, or $579 million, with sales growth of our Cisco Unified Computing System products across all geographic segments and customer markets. The increase was due in large part to the continued momentum we are experiencing in both data center and cloud environments, as current customers increase their data center build-outs and as new customers deploy these offerings.
Wireless
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
Revenue in our Wireless product category increased by 3%, or $83 million, due primarily to continued growth in sales of Meraki products within this category, partially offset by a decrease in sales of our controllers products. We continue to increase the amount of deferred revenue and the proportion of recurring revenue related to our Wireless product category.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Revenue in our Wireless product category increased by 11%, or $249 million, driven by continued growth in sales of Meraki products combined with continued strength in our 802.11ac portfolio. We continue to increase the amount of deferred revenue and the proportion of recurring revenue related to our Wireless product category.
Service Provider Video
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
The decrease in revenue from our Service Provider Video product category of 32%, or $1,131 million, was driven by a decrease in product sales of $1,342 million related to our SP Video CPE Business which we sold during the second quarter of fiscal 2016. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in revenue from certain cable access products and an increase in revenue from our video software and solutions products, particularly in China.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
The decrease in revenue from our Service Provider Video product category of 10%, or $414 million, was driven by a 16%, or $332 million, decrease in sales of our Service Provider Video infrastructure products, due primarily to lower sales of set-top boxes. We also experienced a decrease in revenue from cable access products within this product category.
Security
Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
Revenue in our Security product category increased 13%, or $222 million, driven by higher sales of advanced threat security, web security and unified threat management products. We continue to increase the amount of deferred revenue and the proportion of recurring revenue related to our Security product category.
Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Revenue in our Security product category was up 12%, or $181 million, driven primarily by sales of Sourcefire products and, to a lesser extent, by higher sales of our high-end firewall products within our network security product portfolio. This increase was partially offset by a slight decrease in revenue from our content security products due to lower sales of web and e-mail security products. We continue to increase the amount of deferred revenue and the proportion of recurring revenue related to our Security product category.
Other Products
The year-over-year increase in revenue in our Other Products category for fiscal 2016 was due to increased revenue from data and analytics offerings, from our cloud-related offerings and from our IoT products, driven by our Jasper acquisition. We experienced a year-over-year decrease in revenue in our Other Products category for fiscal 2015 due in large part to the decrease in sales of our other networking products.




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Service Revenue by Segment
The following table presents the breakdown of service revenue by segment (in millions, except percentages):
 
Years Ended
 
2016 vs. 2015
 
2015 vs. 2014
Years Ended</