6-K 1 a9669p.htm FINAL RESULTS a9669p
 
 
 
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
 
Washington DC 20549
 
 
FORM 6-K
 
 
REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER PURSUANT TO RULE 13a-16 AND 15d-16 OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For 23 February 2021
 
 
InterContinental Hotels Group PLC
(Registrant's name)
 
 
Broadwater Park, Denham, Buckinghamshire, UB9 5HJ, United Kingdom
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover Form 20-F or Form 40-F.
 
 
Form 20-F           Form 40-F
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant by furnishing the information contained in this form is also thereby furnishing the information to the Commission pursuant to Rule 12g3-2(b) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
 
Yes           No
 
 
If "Yes" is marked, indicate below the file number assigned to the registrant in connection with Rule 12g3-2(b): Not applicable
 
 
 
 
 
EXHIBIT INDEX
 
99.1
Final Results dated 23 February 2021
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exhibit No: 99.1
 
 
 
 IHG PLC – Full Year Results to 31 December 2020
 
 
Reported
 
Underlying5
 
2020
2019
% Change
 
% Change
 
REPORTABLE SEGMENTS1
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue2
$992m
$2,083m
(52)%
 
(52)%
 
Revenue from fee business
$823m
$1,510m
(45)%
 
(45)%
 
Operating profit2
$219m
$865m
(75)%
 
(75)%
 
Fee margin3
34.1%
54.1%
(20.0)%pts
 
 
 
Adjusted EPS4
31.3¢
303.3¢
(90)%
 
KEY METRICS
GROUP RESULTS
 
 
 
 
 $13.5bn total gross revenue (down 52%; (51)% at CER)
Total revenue
$2,394m
$4,627m
(48)%
 
Operating (loss)/profit
$(153)m
$630m
(124)%
 
 (52.5)% global FY RevPAR
Basic EPS
(142.9)¢
210.4¢
(168)%
 
Total dividend per share
-
39.9¢
(100)%
 
 (53.2)% global Q4 RevPAR
Net debt
$2,529m
$2,665m
(5)%
 
1 Excludes System Fund results, hotel cost reimbursements and exceptional items. 2 Comprises the Group’s fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
 
3 Excludes owned, leased and managed lease hotels, significant liquidated damages and the results of the Group’s captive insurance company. 4 Calculated using results from Reportable Segments and Adjusted Interest, and excluding changes in fair value of contingent consideration. 5 Reportable segment results excluding significant liquidated damages, current year disposals and stated at constant 2020 exchange rates (CER). Definitions for Non-GAAP measures can be found in the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section in the Business Review, along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
 
 
FY RevPAR (52.5)%; variation by region reflects local market Covid-19 restrictions and recovery pace; Greater China recovery most advanced with Q4 RevPAR (18.2)%, Americas (49.5)%, EMEAA (70.5)%.
Continued outperformance in key markets, driven by portfolio mix and resilience of our business model.
$150m reduction in fee business costs; targeting ~$75m to be sustainable into 2021, while still investing for growth.
Operating profit from reportable segments down 75% to $219m before System Fund result of $(102)m and operating exceptionals of $(270)m, predominantly comprising charges already taken in H1 2020, including impairments to owned and leased hotels and acquired management agreements.
Strong cash management, resulting in free cash inflow of $29m, with an inflow in H2. Total available liquidity of $2.1bn (on pro forma basis for repayment of £600m UK Government CCFF at March 2021 maturity).
Global estate now 886k rooms (5,964 hotels), with +0.3% net system size growth (+2.2% excluding impact of SVC portfolio termination); opened 39k rooms (285 hotels), +4.5% gross growth.
Signed 56k rooms (360 hotels); Holiday Inn Brand Family half of all signings; conversions ~25% of all signings.
Global pipeline now 272k rooms (1,815 hotels); 11% share of industry pipeline vs 4% current market share.
Long-term attractiveness of our markets and segments remains; strategic priorities evolved to drive future growth.
New 2030 Responsible Business Plan, Journey to Tomorrow, sets out ambitious commitments including our environmental targets, support for communities and championing diversity, inclusion and equality.
 
 

Keith Barr, Chief Executive Officer, IHG Hotels & Resorts, said:
 
“Since the very start of the pandemic, we have worked tirelessly to prioritise the health and safety of colleagues and customers, quickly protect our business and our thousands of hotel owners, and help support a strong recovery as travel returns. I would like to thank our hotel colleagues and owners for their incredible efforts, including all they have done to help our communities in such difficult times, bringing to life our purpose of True Hospitality for Good around the world.
 
2020 was clearly the most challenging year in our history, with Covid-19 heavily impacting demand across our industry. 2021 has begun with many of these challenges still in place, with more meaningful progress towards recovery for the industry unlikely until later in the year and dependent on global vaccine rollouts, lifting of restrictions and an acceleration in economic activity.
 
The shape of recovery remains varied globally, but we’ve continued to outperform the industry in key markets thanks to the strength of our teams, business model and segments in which we compete. This includes our industry-leading position in upper midscale, where demand remains stronger. To succeed in this environment, we’ve evolved our purpose as well as our strategic priorities, ensuring a focus on continued investment in our brands and digital capabilities to maximise revenue for our hotels and create more seamless guest experiences; keeping guests and owners at the heart of everything we do; and strengthening how we care for our people, communities and planet. These elements form the pillars of our corporate strategy, which together with our new 2030 Responsible Business Plan, will ensure we continue to successfully and sustainably grow our brands and business.
 
Despite so many challenges in 2020, the long-term confidence we share with our owners was reflected by another 285 hotels opening during the year and an average of almost one new signing a day. Conversion activity increased across our brand portfolio, including the launch of voco in the US and China, taking the brand to more than 20 countries. We’re building avid and Atwell Suites to be future brands of scale, while continuing to drive the growth of our established brands, with strong performances for Hotel Indigo and Kimpton, and our Holiday Inn Brand Family accounting for 60% of all openings and half of all signings in 2020.
 
Having demonstrated resilience and outperformed in 2020, we continue to work closely with owners to capture demand, alongside investing to capitalise on our industry’s long-term growth prospects. Our preferred brands in attractive markets and segments, even stronger technology and loyalty platforms, and a substantial proportion of our pipeline being under construction, give us confidence in our ability to achieve industry-leading net rooms growth as the market recovers.”
 
 
 

Our response to Covid-19
 
The onset of Covid-19 led to the worst period of demand in our industry’s history. The experience has outlined the importance of purpose, giving new meaning to our potential to effect positive change, and highlighted the growing expectation that we must deliver that change in a challenging world. We have therefore evolved our purpose from True Hospitality for everyone, to True Hospitality for Good – still committed to looking after all those we interact with, but now more focused on the difference we can make to our people, guests, communities and planet.
 
 
 
The experience of 2020 has also demonstrated the importance of agility and rapid decision-making in order to carry out short-term actions, whilst still retaining an absolute focus on the long term. Embedded into IHG’s business model are our behaviours, which are aligned to our purpose and strategy, encouraging employees to: Move Fast; be Solutions Focused; Think Return; and Build One Team.
 
 
 
Our responses to the pandemic have therefore been framed with pace, thought and care, guided by our purpose and a commitment to do the right thing for all our stakeholders, alongside taking every step to position IHG to outperform in the future and to deliver long-term sustainable value. These responses included our actions to significantly reduce costs where appropriate to do so, and to preserve cash to maintain substantial liquidity and support our conservative balance sheet approach. Key actions taken to support specific stakeholders included:
 
Colleagues: provided clear safety procedures and training; offered mental health, wellbeing and parenting resources to support colleagues working remotely; launched support fund for employees affected by temporary changes to working hours; created a job centre and alumni network for displaced hotel and corporate colleagues.
Guests: reassured consumers with the launch of our IHG Clean Promise and offered corporate clients an enhanced Meet with Confidence programme, both underpinned by new science-led cleaning and safety protocols; provided a flexible cancellation policy and Book Now Pay Later offer; protected status and points expiry for loyalty members.
Owners: offered temporary fee discounts and increased payment flexibility to protect cash flow; delayed mandated renovations and relaxed brand standards to conserve funding; managed temporary hotel closures and re-openings, alongside developing tailored recovery toolkits and targeted marketing campaigns to drive demand; collaborated closely with governments and trade bodies to drive sustained industry support and aid the safe resumption of travel.
Communities: repurposed our hotels to accommodate frontline workers, help travellers quarantine and offer the homeless a safe place to stay; used our hotel kitchens and resources to provide care packages for the vulnerable; worked with charity partners to fund vital work from supporting foodbanks to rebuilding communities; enabled loyalty members to donate points to charitable causes.
 
 

Industry fundamentals remain attractive; IHG well-placed to capitalise
 
While the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic has been severe, our industry has recovered strongly from previous cyclical and exogenous events, and the long-term attractiveness of our industry and future growth potential remains unchanged.
 
Prior to 2020, the Travel & Tourism sector outpaced global economic growth for a decade. Over the past five years, one in four new jobs globally were created by the sector, which contributed almost $9 trillion, 10%, to the world’s GDP in 2019. Against this backdrop, the hotel industry has seen RevPAR and branded market share grow consistently over this last decade.
 
In the current environment, IHG’s weighting towards essential business and domestic leisure travel adds resilience relative to the wider industry. Our brands within the midscale segments, including the Holiday Inn Brand Family, represent ~70% of our system size and have performed well in 2020, given market conditions. In particular, our market-leading Holiday Inn Express brand is strongly positioned in upper midscale, with this segment representing ~70% of our rooms in the US and has historically been impacted less and recovered faster than other segments in economic downturns. Our business is also weighted towards non-urban markets that are less reliant on international inbound travel (~95% of our US business is domestic driven) and less reliant on large group meetings and events. These weightings, and our asset-light model, have supported IHG’s ability to outperform.
 
As has been the case in previous downturns, because of IHG’s asset-light model and weightings, together with leveraging our scale efficiencies and ability to continue investing in brands, technology and loyalty programmes, we expect to be able to gain further market share. This growth will be partly driven by the potential for increased conversion activity (either from independently branded hotels or other real estate), as well as an ongoing level of new-build development, reflecting lenders’ recognition of the strength and value of IHG’s enterprise and reputation for generating attractive returns. While new-build development in our industry has been temporarily impacted by Covid-19, we expect it to return to robust levels of growth in supply over the longer term. In addition, we anticipate that an increased consumer focus on trusted brands, booking flexibility and cleanliness standards should favour our leading brands with both owners and guests.
 
As a recovery becomes sustained, pre-existing long-term industry tailwinds, such as a growing global population, rising middle classes, the increasing desire for travel and new experiences, and the human need to physically interact and collaborate, give confidence as drivers of continued market growth.
 
 

System and pipeline demonstrate continued progress
 
The long-term attractiveness of IHG’s brands and the markets we operate in have supported continued opening and signing activity throughout the year:
 
With a global system of 886k rooms (5,964 hotels), net system size growth was +0.3% year-on-year. Excluding the SVC portfolio termination of 17k rooms (102 hotels), net system size growth was +2.2%. Other removals were predominantly those planned as a result of our continued focus on a high-quality estate. Gross growth was +4.5%.
39k rooms (285 hotels) were opened in the year. Of these, ~25% were conversions, reflecting an increased level of conversion activity in each of our brands, with the balance being new builds.
56k rooms (360 hotels) were signed, with 20-40 hotels signed in each month during 2020. ~25% of the signings were conversions (27% in Q4).
Global pipeline at 272k rooms (1,815 hotels), which represents over 30% of current system size.
Ground breaks continued in every month, and currently around 40% of our global pipeline is under construction, which is a similar proportion to a year earlier.
Our current system is weighted 68% across midscale segments, 22% upscale and 10% luxury; our pipeline is similarly weighted 61%, 31% and 8%, respectively.
Our current system by region is 58% Americas, 26% EMEAA and 16% Greater China; our pipeline is 38% Americas, 28% EMEAA and 34% Greater China.
Reflecting our asset-light model, the current system is 71% franchised and 28% managed, with 1% represented by owned, leased or managed lease properties; the pipeline is 58% franchised and 42% managed.
 
The regional performance commentary includes further highlights of system and pipeline development. The Business Review provides further detail of the system and pipeline by region, and further analysis by brand and by ownership type.
 
 

Our strategic priorities
 
Our ambition is to deliver industry-leading net rooms growth. To achieve this, our strategy is focused on using our scale and expertise to create the exceptional guest experiences and owner returns needed to grow our brands in the industry’s most valuable markets and segments. Our work is underpinned by a culture that retains and attracts the best people and embraces opportunities to positively impact the world around us, reflecting our purpose of True Hospitality for Good.
 
Our actions are guided by four strategic priorities that will increase guest and owner demand for our brands; prioritise services and solutions that create superior guest experiences and stronger owner returns; accelerate our digital first approach; and ensure we continue to invest in our people and communities and sustainably grow our business.
 
1.
Build loved and trusted brands
 
As we look to the future, we have grouped our brands into four collections that present the breadth of our portfolio in a more intuitive way for consumers. This move forms part of our refreshed approach to use the IHG Hotels & Resorts masterbrand, to more prominently enhance our brand perception, sharpen our marketing and help us capture a greater share of demand. The collections are:
Luxury & Lifestyle: Six Senses Hotels Resorts Spas, Regent Hotels & Resorts, InterContinental Hotels & Resorts, Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants, Hotel Indigo
Premium: Crowne Plaza Hotels & Resorts, HUALUXE Hotels & Resorts, EVEN Hotels, voco Hotels
Essentials: Holiday Inn Hotels & Resorts, Holiday Inn Express, avid hotels
Suites: Atwell Suites, Staybridge Suites, Holiday Inn Club Vacations, Candlewood Suites
 
Across our portfolio, we continue to move at pace to take our newer brands to scale in the most attractive segments and high-growth markets, and to invest in the growth of our established brands by focusing on design, service and quality.
 
Scaling up our newest brands – voco, avid hotels and Atwell Suites
Our voco brand is now present in more than 20 countries, with over 50 openings and signings since launch in 2018 and tracking well against our aim of 200 hotels within 10 years. The brand is ideally positioned to capitalise on an increasing number of conversion opportunities, and represented 13% of IHG’s conversion signings globally in 2020. During the year, we launched voco in Greater China and the Americas, including two conversions in New York City. In EMEAA, progress included the first opening in Northern Europe (voco Villach, Austria) and further momentum elsewhere in Europe including openings in Paris Montparnasse and Strasbourg Centre, and a signing in Milan. The brand’s evolution has also seen the first resort location (Saipan) and the first all-suite property (Doha) added. All three regions anticipate increased voco signings and openings in 2021.
 
We expect avid hotels to be our next brand of scale in the midscale segment. Its low cost to build, lean staffing model and attractive operating economics are expected to increasingly appeal to owners in a more constrained economic environment, and equally to guests, who look for hospitality delivered exceptionally well at an attractive price point. Since launch in 2017, there have been more than 200 signings, and across the 24 openings to date, customer feedback and satisfaction scores have been consistently high. This year saw the brand expand beyond the US, with the first opening in Mexico, built in just 10 months, and the first ground break in Canada.
 
Our upper midscale all-suites brand, Atwell Suites, launched in September 2019 and is also growing at pace. Signings have grown to 19, with vibrant locations such as Denver, Austin and Charlotte added, and construction underway on our first property in Miami.
 
Well-established brands with further growth opportunities
Holiday Inn Express grew to almost 3,000 hotels in 2020, with 136 new openings, maintaining its segment leadership position. A further 132 signings brought its pipeline to 683, which represents over 20% of the current estate. Building on guest and owner feedback, a further evolution of the current Formula Blue guest room and public areas design has been launched. Focused on strong owner returns, the new design has a purchase-ready supply chain that leverages our procurement scale and delivers more than 10% cost savings to owners.
 
Our Holiday Inn brand opened 32 hotels taking the total estate to 1,248, while 48 hotel signings took its global pipeline to 262. Notable conversions included Holiday Inn Club Vacations in New Orleans and that for Holiday Inn Hotel & Suites Shin Osaka, Japan, which achieved signing-to-open in just 60 days, with other conversions including Shanghai Nanjing Road and The Hague in the Netherlands.
 
Our established extended stay portfolio of Staybridge Suites and Candlewood Suites saw strength and resilience of demand, including nearly 60% occupancy for the year, an increase in market share and high customer satisfaction scores. With 25 signings and 44 openings in the year, the portfolio is now 669 hotels. Over 80 Candlewood hotels have so far committed to new designs over the next two years, and over 100 at Staybridge, which is also continuing its international expansion with further properties in Mexico and Dubai and a first in Bangkok.
 
For Crowne Plaza, 19 openings took the total estate to 429, including Adelaide, Sydney Darling Harbour and 10 properties in Greater China, with Shanghai Hongqiao marking the 100th for the brand in the region. The brand benefitted from a number of further conversions including those in Budapest, Bangkok and Shenzhen Futian; with 27 signings in total, its global pipeline increased to 89.
 
Expanding a powerful Luxury & Lifestyle offer
Since 2015, we have added Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants, Regent Hotels & Resorts and Six Senses Hotels Resorts Spas to our Luxury & Lifestyle offer, alongside accelerating the international expansion of our InterContinental Hotels & Resorts and Hotel Indigo brands. Across these five brands which capture uniquely different stay occasions, we opened 32 hotels in 2020 to reach a portfolio of 431 in over 70 countries. There were 56 hotels signed into the pipeline, with conversions being ~30% of these and representing an ongoing opportunity across our Luxury & Lifestyle offer.
 
We continue to reinforce the position of InterContinental as the largest global luxury hotel brand. It is now present in over 60 countries with more than 200 hotels. Notable recent openings included those at Dongguan and Chongqing in Greater China, while the InterContinental Rome conversion marks the return of the brand to Italy and Rabat our re-entry into Morocco. Two other key conversions were the prestigious Imperial Mae Ping Hotel in Chiang Mai and Fiji’s Grand Pacific Hotel in Suva, one of the most famous hotels in the Pacific. The brand’s pipeline stands at 69 properties.
 
In 2020, we added seven new signings to our world-renowned Six Senses brand, including Belize, Brazil, Italy, Japan and Saudi Arabia, increasing the global pipeline to 31, which will significantly grow the current estate of 16. Four signings have been added to Regent since acquisition, taking the pipeline to six properties. The conversion of the Regent Shanghai Pudong marked the opening of our first property since buying the brand and showcases new hallmarks that position Regent in the top tier of luxury. Renovation is progressing to rebrand the InterContinental Hong Kong back to Regent; Regent Phu Quoc, Vietnam, will open later this year, increasing the estate to eight; and recent signings will see the brand enter the Middle East, including Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
 
Kimpton opened another 16 hotels in the year, taking the estate to 73. Major openings included Miami Palomar South Beach, Maa-Lai Bangkok, the first in South East Asia, and Shinjuku Tokyo, the first in Japan. The brand’s global pipeline now stands at 32, with the signing of Kimpton Shanghai New Bund a key step to developing Kimpton in Greater China. The brand is also developing strongly in key resort destinations, signing further properties in Mallorca and Mexico.
 
Good momentum for Hotel Indigo continues, after a record level of signings in 2019. The brand now has 125 open hotels and a pipeline of 104. Openings included five hotels in the US, leading locations in Dubai Downtown and in Bath, UK, a conversion property in Italy and brand debuts in Japan and Cyprus. Recent signings include a brand entry in Australia and a resort in the Galapagos.
 
Continued progress across our other brands
Our HUALUXE Hotels & Resorts estate increased to 12 hotels, with developments including a rebranding to HUALUXE Shanghai Twelve at Hengshan, opening the historic HUALUXE Xi’an Tanghua, and signing a conversion for Shanghai Changfeng Park.
 
The first EVEN Hotel outside of the Americas opened in Greater China at Nanjing Yangtze River, with our wellness-focused offering now in 16 hotels, and with over 30 more in the pipeline globally.
 
Continued focus on quality and consistency of our estate
Our ambition remains to deliver an industry-leading level of net rooms growth, while at the same time protecting our longer-term growth prospects by ensuring the health of our brands and consistency of the guest experience and quality of our hotel estate. Between 2016 and 2019, our gross opening pace accelerated from just over 5% to almost 8%, while our focus on brand health and quality saw the exit of 2.1-2.3% of the system each year. As a result, ahead of the most recent year which has been impacted by Covid-19, we achieved an improvement in net rooms growth from 3.1% in 2016 to 5.6% in 2019.
 
In recent years, exits have included a higher proportion of Holiday Inn and Crowne Plaza hotels in the Americas, reflecting our continued focus on increasing the average quality of those brands. This has occurred in conjunction with initiatives to drive physical and service consistency, such as the Holiday Inn Open Lobby concept and the Crowne Plaza Accelerate programme.
 
Holiday Inn and Crowne Plaza are both powerful global brands with significant further growth prospects, each with sizeable pipelines representing around 20% of their current estates. To support their further growth opportunities, we will continue to focus on ensuring we deliver against guest expectations for quality and consistency, which have increased and become even more important post Covid-19. Across the two brands, the total global estate is 1,677 hotels with a further 351 in the pipeline. Currently 10-15% of this total estate, around 200 hotels, are being reviewed, focused on those that are below where we would like them to be in areas such as customer satisfaction and property condition. These hotels generated 2020 fee income of approximately $20m. We will be working closely with the owners of these hotels to help them raise their quality levels, including the potential to implement service or property improvement plans. We will continue to provide further updates as these initiatives develop, and on our overarching growth plans for these key brands.
 
Through this continuous focus on brand health and quality, and by working with our owners to help them deliver True Hospitality for Good, we are confident this will support IHG being well-placed for industry recovery and will ensure long-term, sustainable growth.
 
2.
Customer centric in all we do
Delivering True Hospitality means creating seamless and tailored guest experiences that generate increased demand, and ensuring that as we deliver those things we do so with efficient operations and high returns in mind for our owners.
 
Despite the operational challenges of Covid-19, our Guest Satisfaction Index was net positive throughout the year, outperforming competitors. Actions in 2020 included:
 
Ensuring cleanliness, health and safety: Reflecting the heightened focus, we launched the IHG Clean Promise, using new science-led protocols and redefined service procedures, in partnership with industry-leading experts. Our IHG Way of Clean programme was enhanced to include new training and equipment, increased guest communication and verification processes to ensure our standards are adhered to. Since launch, we have seen an over 30% uplift in the number of positive third-party social media guest reviews on cleanliness, and delivered improvements in customer satisfaction scores.
 
Enhanced management information for owners: Using machine learning technology, we have optimised our Revenue Management for Hire (RMH) services to help owners protect pricing and returns during periods of volatile demand. Price management solutions are also increasingly automated to simplify and reduce the number of rates. Real-time scorecard metrics, such as analysis of guest satisfaction measures, RevPAR, financial and operational performance, are now presented live on our Owner Engagement Portals, which will continually evolve to provide our global owner community with specific recommendations for action.
 
Lowered owner costs: While changes to safety and cleanliness protocols have increased costs, we have worked closely with owners to reduce costs elsewhere to offset these. This has included the appropriate temporary relaxation of certain brand standards, which have lowered overall costs per occupied room. Our actions on procurement services are also driving substantial benefits for owners. Our centralised hotel goods and services procurement capabilities have significantly expanded. Into 2021, we will be extending our reach across other categories of products and services that our owners buy, to drive additional savings for them.
 
Solution developments for corporate customers: Our award-winning Business Edge platform, which supports small and midsize enterprise (SME) customers, goes from strength to strength. It continued to grow in 2020 to almost 40,000 accounts, leading the market with its technology platform and innovative content and partnerships.
 
Our Meet with Confidence programme has incorporated new protocols from our IHG Clean Promise, as well as extending flexibility policies and enhancing other standards. With technology partners we are now piloting our hybrid meetings offer: over 90% of meetings currently booked for under 50 participants, and IHG’s meeting spaces are weighted towards those used for small and medium sized events, which can be augmented through a strong virtual and hybrid solution.
 
Enhanced loyalty offer: IHG Rewards members traditionally account for around half of guest stays. During 2020, prioritisation of our loyalty marketing supported demand from our most loyal members, who proved the most resilient during the toughest Covid-impacted periods. Dynamic pricing for Reward Nights has rolled out globally, with rates now set daily, enabling more than 80% of hotels to reduce their points pricing to deliver around 25% more value for guests outside of peak times. This has led to a 30% increase in Reward Night redemption since launch. IHG Rewards was also recognised in 2020 as Best Hotel Rewards Program and Best for Families by NerdWallet for good value, ease to earn and our response to Covid-19.
 
3.
Create digital advantage
Our digital-first approach enables seamless guest experiences across the entirety of the guest journey, drives direct bookings, creates efficiencies, and delivers the right data, insights, technology and platforms to drive performance for owners. Our focus includes:
 
The next phase of our GRS - attribute pricing: This key development for IHG’s Guest Reservation System (GRS) within our cloud-based IHG Concerto platform is expected to be live across the estate by the end of this year, enabling tailoring of stays and selection of add-ons. Initial pilots in 2020 were conducted in each region, demonstrating to owners the ability to generate maximum value from their hotel’s unique attributes.
 
Defining the digital journey and experience for guests: Leveraging our investment in IHG Concerto on behalf of our owners, we have been able to remotely and rapidly deploy further technological developments to support a safe and secure guest experience and reduce unnecessary contact. Digital check-in has been fully implemented in over 1,000 properties, receiving strong guest satisfaction scores, and with roll out to 4,500 hotels expected by the end of 2021, while Digital check-out is already live in 4,000 hotels.
 
Increasing our data-driven capabilities: We have invested to enable highly personal and targeted promotions, informed by consumer analysis of those searching and travelling, and where we can most effectively influence incremental behaviour. Data-driven analysis is also being applied to guest feedback, ensuring it informs decision making and is quickly addressed to drive improvements in satisfaction measures.
 
Tailoring digital reach and partnerships: We launched our first flagship store on the leading Chinese OTA platform, as part of IHG’s partnership with Ctrip, part of Trip.com Group. We also debuted our loyalty partnership with Mr & Mrs Smith, the world-renowned travel club and boutique hotel specialists, giving IHG Rewards members an even wider selection of Luxury & Lifestyle hotels at which to earn and redeem points.
 
Enterprise contribution and growth of our digital channels: Enterprise contribution is an indicator of the value IHG systems bring to our owners, including the success of our technology platforms, marketing, sales and loyalty distribution channels. Enterprise contribution has been growing each year and reached over 75% in 2019, though in 2020 it modestly reduced given the rise in guests calling hotels directly to understand Covid precautions or checking-in without prior reservation. Our digital channels are amongst our largest components of enterprise contribution, with our mobile app seeing the fastest recovery amongst channel segments; we expect this to be a continued driver of future growth.
 
4.
Care for our people, communities and planet
We operate within a culture that respects and invests in our people and embraces the opportunity to contribute positively to local communities, and act responsibly and sustainably in the world around us. This priority has become a central pillar to delivering our strategy, and to evolving our purpose from True Hospitality for everyone to True Hospitality for Good. To deliver this, we have announced wide-ranging commitments through our new 2030 Responsible Business Plan, Journey to Tomorrow, including:
 
Championing diversity, inclusion and equality: We’re committed to driving gender balance and a doubling of under-represented groups across our leadership; cultivating an inclusive culture for our colleagues, owners and suppliers; supporting all colleagues to prioritise their wellbeing; and advancing human rights.
 
Long-term support for communities: We want to improve the lives of 30 million people in our communities around the world. We aim to do this by driving economic and social change through skills training and innovation; supporting our communities when natural disasters strike; and collaborating to aid those facing food poverty.
 
Ambitious environmental targets: We aspire to grow in a way that protects the world around us. This approach includes targets to reduce absolute carbon emissions from our owned, leased and managed hotels by 15% by 2030, and to reduce carbon emissions per square metre from our franchised hotels by 46% by 2030, both against a 2018 base year. For new build hotels, our target is to operate these at very low/zero carbon emissions. We will also pioneer the transformation to a minimal waste hospitality industry, eliminating single use items or moving to reusable or recyclable alternatives across the guest stay, and minimising water use and food waste through a “prevent, donate, divert” plan. Nearer term, we are on track to deliver our pledge to remove single-use miniature bathroom amenities from our hotels by the end of 2021. Our 2030 plan also includes initiatives targeting water conservation and helping to secure water access in those areas at greatest risk.
 
We are making good progress in adopting the recommendations of the Taskforce on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). We are also driving innovation, peer learning and collaboration through: our work as a founding member of the Sustainable Hospitality Alliance; partnering with the World Travel and Tourism Council and the American Hotel & Lodging Association; and in representation at important events, such as G20 Tourism, which brought private and public sector leaders together to discuss how the industry can protect jobs and support the broader travel and tourism sector. Early in 2021, we also launched our new IHG Owners Association Environmental Sustainability Committee to ensure close collaboration with our hotels and to find opportunities to partner on key initiatives.
 
 

Regional performance
 
Americas
RevPAR decreased 48.5% (Q4: down 49.5%), driven by occupancy reducing to 42.3% (Q4: 41.7%). US RevPAR was down 46.9%, with our performance ahead of the industry. The US franchised estate, which benefits from a weighting towards domestic demand-driven midscale and upper midscale hotels, with a lower reliance on large group business and higher distribution in non-urban markets, declined by 44%. This compares to a 70% decline for the US managed estate, which is weighted to luxury and upscale hotels in urban markets. On a segment basis, the RevPAR decline was most acute in luxury (down 71%) and upper upscale (down 66%), whereas upper midscale, which represents ~70% of our rooms in the US, declined by 44%.
 
Reported revenue1 of $512m was down 51% (decreased 51% at CER and underlying2) and reported operating profit1 of $296m decreased 58% (down 57% at CER and underlying2).
 
Underlying fee business revenue2 declined by 46% to $457m, whilst underlying fee business operating profit2 declined by 51% to $323m. The decline in demand at our managed hotels led to $8m lower recognition of incentive management fees; there was also an increase in expected credit losses. There was offset to these from the progress made in reducing fee business costs, as well as the benefit of a $4m litigation settlement at one hotel, and the recognition of an $8m payroll tax credit.
 
Reported owned, leased and managed lease revenue1 was down 71% to $55m, with a reported operating loss1 of $27m compared to $37m profit in the prior year. The mitigation of renovation-related losses by business interruption insurance at one hotel was more than offset by extended periods of closure and low occupancy across the entire estate, reflecting the greater dependency on international travellers in urban and resort locations.
 
There were 16.7k rooms (167 hotels) opened in the year. Of the 27.4k rooms (176 hotels) removed, 16.7k (102 hotels) related to the SVC portfolio termination. The net system size reduction was (2.0)% to 514.0k rooms (4,298 hotels); excluding the SVC impact, there was net system growth of 1.1%. 79 hotels or 2% of the Americas estate remained temporarily closed at the end of the year. We signed 14.0k rooms (137 hotels) in the region; the pipeline stands at 102.8k rooms (986 hotels), which represents 20% of the current system size in the region.
 
EMEAA
RevPAR decreased 64.8% (Q4: down 70.5%), driven by occupancy reducing to 32% (Q4: 29%). In the UK, RevPAR was down 65%, with the fourth quarter decline of 74% particularly impacted by government-mandated hotel closures and travel restrictions. Continental Europe RevPAR was down 74%. Elsewhere, the Middle East was down 53%, with Australia down 56%, South East Asia and Korea down 61% and Japan down 62%.
 
Reported revenue1 of $221m decreased 69% (down 70% at CER) and the reported operating loss1 was $50m, a reduction of $267m on the prior year. Results included the benefit of a final $1m from a previously disclosed individually significant liquidated damages settlement (FY 2019: $11m).
 
On an underlying basis, revenue2 decreased 69% to $218m and the operating loss2 was $54m compared to $206m profit in the prior year. Underlying fee business revenue2 was down 67% to $106m, with an operating loss2 of $19m compared to a $192m profit in the prior year. The adverse impact from hotel closures and subdued demand across the estate resulted in $76m lower incentive management fees and there was also an increase in expected credit losses. These impacts were partially offset by cost reduction measures.
 
Reported owned, leased and managed lease revenue1 was down 70% to $114m, with operating profit1 decreasing $47m to an operating loss of $32m. This portfolio consists of 12 properties in the UK and a further five elsewhere in the region, most of which were closed for a large proportion of the year. The operating loss includes the significant cost reduction measures undertaken across the estate, together with rent reductions received; there was also the benefit of a $3m gain from the sale of the leased Holiday Inn Melbourne Airport for proceeds of $2m as previously disclosed.
 
There were 11.3k rooms (61 hotels) opened and 6.8k rooms (38 hotels) removed in the year (including 2.1k rooms relating to a previously flagged portfolio of hotels in Germany), resulting in net system size growth of 2.0% to 227.8k rooms (1,149) hotels. 215 hotels or 19% of the EMEAA estate remained temporarily closed at the end of the year. We signed 13.9k rooms (82 hotels) in the region; the pipeline stands at 76.1k rooms (389 hotels), which represents 33% of the current system size in the region.
 
Greater China
RevPAR decreased 40.5% (Q4: down 18.2%), outperforming the industry, with occupancy reducing to 42% (Q4: 57%). In Mainland China, RevPAR was down 37%. Tier 1 cities were down 48%, impacted by their greater weighting toward international travel and group events and meetings demand. Tier 2-4 cities, which are weighted more towards domestic travel and leisure demand, performed relatively better with a decline of 31%.
 
RevPAR in Hong Kong SAR was down 78%, impacted by the reliance on inbound travel and the uncertainty posed by the political disputes, whilst Macau SAR RevPAR was down 76%.
 
Reported revenue1 of $77m decreased by 43% (decreased 44% at CER) and the reported operating profit1 was $35m, down 52% on the prior year.
 
On an underlying basis, revenue2 decreased by 44% to $77m, with an operating profit2 of $35m compared to $73m in the prior year. The adverse impact from the trading environment, including lower recognition of incentive management fees (down $32m versus the prior year), were in part offset by cost reductions across the region.
 
There were 11.4k rooms (57 hotels) opened and 2.7k rooms (10 hotels) removed in the year, resulting in net system size growth of 6.4% to 144.2k rooms (517 hotels). We signed 28.2k rooms (141 hotels) in the region, with a year-on-year increase achieved in the second half of the year. The pipeline stands at 93.2k rooms (440 hotels), which represents 65% of the current system size in the region.
 
 

Cash generation, liquidity and financing
 
Cash flow
IHG took rapid and decisive actions to preserve cash from the start of the pandemic, such that:
Free cash flow3 was an inflow of $29m, down $480m on 2019, driven by the adverse impact from hotel closures and subdued demand on trading. These were partially offset by a working capital inflow, reflecting the proactive management of balances and measures to drive timely billing and collections from our owners. Despite the most severe period of impact on trading, free cash flow was broadly neutral in Q2, improving to an inflow in the second half. Invoices paid by our owners within 90 days of due date has been improving since May 2020 and is now over 90% in the Americas; the number of hotels targeted for payment plans has similarly reduced, with a large number of plans already paid in full.
Exceptional cash costs of $87m, including $45m relating to reorganisation costs ($15m of which was incurred by the System Fund).
Net capital expenditure3 was $67m (2019: $211m), with $148m gross (2019: $265m), thereby achieving the targeted $100m reduction initially set out in March 2020. Capex comprised: $107m maintenance capex and key money; $6m gross recyclable investments; and $35m System Fund capital investments; offset by $23m net disposal proceeds and distributions from associates and joint ventures, and $58m System Fund depreciation and amortisation. Our capex guidance is unchanged at around $150m net per annum and up to $350m gross into the medium term.
Net debt of $2,529m, down $136m on the 2019 close; this included a reduction in lease obligations ($71m from exceptional derecognition and $90m from an exceptional lease termination), partly offset by $101m of adverse foreign exchange and other adjustments.
 
Liquidity and financing
IHG has taken steps to strengthen liquidity as part of maintaining a conservative balance sheet and leverage approach, including:
Amended our existing $1.35bn syndicated and bilateral revolving credit facilities (RCF) to include a waiver of existing covenants up to and including 31 December 2021. The covenants for 30 June 2022 and 31 December 2022 have been relaxed on a theoretical severe downside scenario. During the period of waivers and relaxations, a $400m minimum liquidity covenant (defined as unrestricted cash and undrawn facilities with a remaining term of 6 months) has been introduced.
Extended the maturity of the RCF for 18 months to September 2023.
Issued £600m of commercial paper under the UK Government’s Covid Corporate Financing Facility (CCFF), maturing on 16 March 2021, when it will be repaid.
To optimise our staggered bond maturity profile, in October 2020 we issued €500m 1.625% bonds and £400m 3.375% bonds maturing in 2024 and 2028 respectively; we concurrently repaid early £227m of our £400m 3.875% bonds maturing in November 2022, thereby resulting in net proceeds raised of $0.8bn.
Our next bond maturity is the £173m that remains to be repaid in November 2022, with no further bond maturities until Q4 2024.
 
These steps, together with our cost actions and cash preservation, have increased our total available liquidity at 31 December 2020 to $2,925m, comprising $1,575m of net cash balances6 and the undrawn RCF of $1,350m. On a pro forma basis for the repayment of the UK Government CCFF maturing in March 2021, total available liquidity would be $2.1bn.
 
Shareholder returns
On 20 March 2020, IHG’s Board withdrew its recommendation of a final dividend in respect of 2019 of 85.9¢ per share, a payment of which would have had a cash outflow of ~$150m in the first half of 2020.
 
A final dividend in respect of 2020 is not proposed and there was no interim dividend for the year. The Board will consider future dividends once visibility of the pace and scale of market recovery has improved.
 
 

Other financial measures
 
Cost actions
In light of the emerging Covid-19 global pandemic in March 2020, immediate measures were taken to reduce costs to protect profitability through reducing salary and incentives, including substantial decreases for Board and Executive Committee members, and challenging all areas of discretionary spend.
The targeted $150m of Fee Business cost reductions was achieved over the balance of the 2020 financial year.
Similar actions were taken across the System Fund, in response to expected lower assessment fee receipts, particularly through reducing marketing spend.
Cost containment action taken across our owned, leased and managed lease hotels, contributed to $293m of cost reduction during the year for the estate.
Looking ahead, plans are in place to achieve ~$75m of cost savings (versus the 2019 cost base) to be sustainable in 2021, through ongoing control of discretionary spend and a re-balancing of resources and actions to drive further productivity, whilst continuing to invest appropriately in growth initiatives.
 
Net central costs
Central revenues of $182m were $3m lower, driven by temporary technology fee discounts being largely offset by the increased revenues from the changes to System Fund recognition. There were lower central overheads from our measures to reduce our Fee Business costs. As a result, the Group’s central operating loss before exceptional items was $62m, $63m lower year-on-year.
 
The changes to System Fund recognition impacted a portion of co-brand credit card revenue and the financial results of the Ambassador programme (the InterContinental Hotels & Resorts paid-for loyalty programme). The net effect increased 2020 revenue and operating profit from reportable segments by $20m and $21m respectively. The changes were effective from 1 January 2020, with amounts recognised in prior years unchanged. As previously announced, if the changes had been effective in 2019, the increases would have been $18m and $22m respectively in that year. See note 4 to the Group Financial Statements for further information.
 
Fee margin
2020 fee margin7 was 34.1%, a reduction from 54.1% in 2019, impacted by the adverse trading conditions which were partially offset by cost reduction measures.
 
System Fund
System Fund revenues and costs are recognised on a gross basis with the in-year surplus or deficit recorded in the Group income statement, but excluded from results from reportable segments, underlying results and adjusted EPS, as the Fund is operated for the benefit of the hotels in the IHG System and is not managed to generate a profit or loss for IHG over the longer term.
 
In 2020 we recorded a System Fund income statement deficit of $102m (2019: deficit of $49m), largely due to lower assessment fees reflecting the level of reduction in hotel revenues and fee reliefs given, partly offset by actions targeted to lower costs such as through a reduction in marketing spend. System Fund expenses included $24m of expected credit losses, $20m reorganisation costs and $41m impairment principally relating to the US corporate headquarters.
 
Interest
Net financial expenses were $140m (2019: $115m). Adjusted interest expense3, which excludes exceptional finance expenses of $14m and adds back interest relating to the System Fund of $4m (2019: $18m), was $130m (2019: $133m). The lower interest payable to the System Fund largely resulted from lower balances and interest rates in 2020. This was broadly offset by increased interest expense on the Group’s higher gross debt levels during the year.
 
Tax
The effective rate5 for 2020 was 38% (2019: 24%), which included the recognition of a tax credit of $27m on one-off items, predominantly in connection with adjustments to deferred taxes following an internal group restructuring, UK law change and prior year items. Excluding these one-off items, the effective tax rate would have been 69%, elevated compared to prior years due to the distortive impact of unrelieved foreign taxes, the geographic profit mix and other non-tax deductible expenses against the low profit base. The Group also suffered significant US minimum taxes as part of the BEAT regulations, and could not recognise the benefit for tax purposes of losses arising in certain territories in the year. The effective tax rate is expected to be similarly elevated in 2021, although forecasting in this area remains challenging given the uncertainties in the near-term outlook. A return to the previous mid-20s percentage point range would occur on a recovery to prior levels and mix of profits, and assuming no change to tax legislation and rates in each tax jurisdiction.
 
Exceptional items
Exceptional items predominantly comprise impairment charges, with Covid-19 considered as a trigger for impairment testing of all non-current assets. Cash flow projections used for impairment testing were based on the latest financial forecasts and assume that RevPAR recovers to 2019 levels over a five-year period from 2021.
 
Operating exceptionals total a net charge of $270m ($255m net charge in the first half of the year), driven by the following items:
impairment of financial assets, comprising trade deposits and loans ($48m) which are now not expected to be recoverable, together with an impairment of contract assets ($53m);
impairment of other non-current assets, including property, plant and equipment principally related to owned and leased hotels ($90m), the recoverable amounts of acquired management agreements ($48m) and the net impact on our investment in associates ($19m);
reorganisation costs, reflecting the reassessment of near-term priorities and the resources needed to support reduced levels of demand ($27m);
a gain on lease termination relating to one leased hotel that was part of the SVC portfolio ($30m);
a $22m gain arising from the net effect of the derecognition of right-of-use assets ($49m) and lease liabilities ($71m), resulting from a change in accounting estimate in relation to the UK leased portfolio and two German leases whereby the leases will now be accounted for as fully variable, together with a provision for onerous contractual expenditure ($10m).
 
In addition, there was $14m of exceptional financial expense relating to the premium on the partial repayment of the 2022 bonds, and a $21m exceptional fair value gain on contingent purchase consideration has been recognised, arising from a reduction in expected future rents payable on the UK leased portfolio.
 
Foreign exchange
The impact of the movement in average USD exchange rates for 2020 against a number of currencies (particularly Sterling, Euro and Renminbi) netted to a $1m favourable impact on 2020 operating profit from reportable segments4.
 
If the average exchange rate during January 2021 had existed throughout 2020, the 2020 operating profit from reportable segments would have been $2m lower.
 
A breakdown of constant currency vs. actual currency RevPAR by region is set out in Appendix 2.
 
Notes:
1 Comprises the Group’s fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels from reportable segments. This excludes exceptional items, System Fund results and hotel cost reimbursements.
2 Results from reportable segments excluding significant liquidated damages and current year acquisitions and disposals at constant 2020 exchange rates (CER). The ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section in the Business Review contains definitions and reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
3 Definitions for Non-GAAP measures, including free cash flow, net capital expenditure, adjusted interest and net debt, can be found the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section in the Business Review, along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
4 Based on monthly average exchange rates each year.
5 Excludes exceptional items and System Fund results.
6 Cash and cash equivalents, net of overdrafts and restricted cash.
7 Excludes owned, leased and managed lease hotels, significant liquidated damages and the results of the Group’s captive insurance company.
 
 
 
Appendix 1: RevPAR movement summary
 
Full Year 2020
Q4 2020
 
RevPAR
ADR
Occupancy
RevPAR
ADR
Occupancy
Group
(52.5)%
(17.0)%
(29.5)%pts
(53.2)%
(22.4)%
(26.5)%pts
Americas
(48.5)%
(16.2)%
(26.5)%pts
(49.5)%
(21.5)%
(23.1)%pts
EMEAA
(64.8)%
(18.4)%
(41.9)%pts
(70.5)%
(24.4)%
(44.9)%pts
G. China
(40.5)%
(13.3)%
(19.2)%pts
(18.2)%
(8.6)%
(6.7)%pts
 
Appendix 2: RevPAR movement at constant exchange rates (CER) vs. actual exchange rates (AER)
 
Full Year 2020
Q4 2020
 
CER
AER
Difference
CER
AER
Difference
Group
(52.5)%
(52.5)%
0.0%pts
(53.2)%
(52.6)%
0.6%pts
Americas
(48.5)%
(48.7)%
(0.2)%pts
(49.5)%
(49.6)%
(0.1)%pts
EMEAA
(64.8)%
(64.7)%
0.1%pts
(70.5)%
(70.0)%
0.5%pts
G. China
(40.5)%
(39.7)%
0.8%pts
(18.2)%
(13.2)%
5.0%pts
 
Appendix 3: monthly RevPAR
 
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Group
(1.5)%
(10.8)%
(55.1)%
(81.9)%
(75.6)%
(67.4)%
(58.1)%
(51.0)%
(50.9)%
(51.9)%
(55.3)%
(52.4)%
Americas
0.2%
(0.9)%
(49.0)%
(80.1)%
(72.5)%
(62.0)%
(54.0)%
(48.6)%
(46.4)%
(48.0)%
(51.4)%
(49.5)%
EMEAA
2.1%
(11.3)%
(62.7)%
(89.3)%
(88.5)%
(85.3)%
(74.7)%
(66.3)%
(69.9)%
(70.5)%
(72.4)%
(68.6)%
G. China
(24.6)%
(89.3)%
(81.4)%
(71.2)%
(57.1)%
(48.6)%
(35.9)%
(20.2)%
(11.0)%
(16.9)%
(22.5)%
(15.1)%
 
Appendix 4: Full Year system and pipeline summary (rooms)
 
System
Pipeline
 
Openings
Removals
Net
Total
YoY%
Signings
Total
Group
39,392
(36,919)
2,473
886,036
0.3%
56,146
272,057
Americas
16,746
(27,381)
(10,635)
514,012
(2.0)%
14,039
102,757
EMEAA
11,288
(6,809)
4,479
227,849
2.0%
13,903
76,120
G. China
11,358
(2,729)
8,629
144,175
6.4%
28,204
93,180
 
Appendix 5: Full Year financial headlines
 
GROUP
REPORTABLE SEGMENTS
 
Total
Americas
EMEAA
G. China
Central
2020
2019
2020
2019
2020
2019
2020
2019
2020
2019
Revenue ($m)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue from reportable segments
992
2,083
512
1,040
221
723
77
135
182
185
System Fund
765
1,373
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Hotel Cost Reimbursements
637
1,171
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Group Revenue
2,394
4,627
512
1,040
221
723
77
135
182
185
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Profit ($m)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fee Business excluding central overheads
340
938
323
663
(18)
202
35
73
-
-
Owned, leased & managed lease
(59)
52
(27)
37
(32)
15
-
-
-
-
Central
(62)
(125)
-
-
-
-
-
-
(62)
(125)
Operating profit/(loss) from reportable segments
219
865
296
700
(50)
217
35
73
(62)
(125)
System Fund result
(102)
(49)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Operating profit/(loss) before exceptionals
117
816
296
700
(50)
217
35
73
(62)
(125)
Operating exceptional items
(270)
(186)
(118)
(62)
(128)
(109)
(5)
-
(19)
(15)
Operating (loss)/profit after exceptionals
(153)
630
178
638
(178)
108
30
73
(81)
(140)
 
Appendix 6: % change in operating profit before exceptional items from reportable segments at AER and CER
 
Total*
Americas
EMEAA
G. China
Reported
AER
CER
AER
CER
AER
CER
AER
CER
Growth / (decline)
(75)%
(75)%
(58)%
(57)%
(123)%
(123)%
(52)%
(52)%
* After central overheads
 
Appendix 7: Underlying % change in operating profit from reportable segments
 
Total*
Americas
EMEAA
G. China
Growth / (decline)
(75)%
(57)%
(126)%
(52)%
* After central overheads
 
 
 
Appendix 8: definitions
Definitions for Non-GAAP measures can be found in the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section in the Business Review, along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
Total gross revenue: total rooms revenue from franchised hotels and total hotel revenue from managed, owned, leased and managed lease hotels. Other than owned, leased and managed lease hotels, it is not revenue attributable to IHG, as it is derived mainly from hotels owned by third parties.
Reportable segments: Group results excluding System Fund results, hotel cost reimbursements and exceptional items.
Fee business revenue: revenue from reportable segments excluding the results of the Group’s owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
Fee margin: adjusted to exclude owned, leased and managed lease hotels, significant liquidated damages, and the results of the Group’s captive insurance company.
Significant liquidated damages: $1m in 2020 ($1m in EMEAA fee business); $11m in 2019 ($11m in EMEAA fee business).
Operating profit from reportable segments: comprises the Group’s fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
Underlying % change in operating profit from reportable segments: at CER and excludes significant liquidated damages, in-year acquisitions and current year disposals.
RevPAR, ADR and occupancy: RevPAR (revenue per available room), ADR (average daily rate) and occupancy are on a comparable basis unless otherwise stated, based on comparability as at 31 December 2020 and hotels that have traded in all months in both 2020 and 2019. The principal exclusions in deriving these measures are new openings, properties under major refurbishment and removals. These measures include the adverse impact of hotels temporarily closed as a result of Covid-19. Monthly RevPAR reflects those hotels which have been designated as comparable at the end of the respective quarterly period. RevPAR and ADR are on a CER basis unless otherwise stated.
Total RevPAR: Revenue per available room including hotels that have opened or exited in either 2019 or 2020. On a CER basis.
AER: actual exchange rates used for each respective period.
CER: constant exchange rates with 2020 exchange rates applied to each comparable period in 2019. The USD:GBP exchange rate for 2020 was 0.78 (2019: 0.78). The USD:EUR exchange rate for 2020 was 0.88 (2019: 0.89).
Guest Satisfaction Index (GSI): an IHG metric that uses third party aggregated social review data to benchmark IHG guest satisfaction performance against that of our competitors.
Adjusted Interest: adds back interest relating to the System Fund and excludes exceptional items.
Adjusted EPS: calculated using results from Reportable Segments and Adjusted Interest, and excluding changes in fair value of contingent consideration.
Free cash flow: Cash flow from operating activities excluding payments of contingent purchase consideration, less purchase of shares by employee share trusts, maintenance capital expenditure and the principal element of lease payments.
 
For further information, please contact:
Investor Relations (Stuart Ford; Rakesh Patel; Kavita Tatla)
+44 (0)1895 512 176
+44 (0)7527 419 431
Media Relations (Yasmin Diamond; Mark Debenham)
+44 (0)1895 512 097
+44 (0)7527 424 046
 
Presentation for analysts and shareholders:
A conference call and webcast presented by Keith Barr, Chief Executive Officer, and Paul Edgecliffe-Johnson, Chief Financial Officer and Group Head of Strategy, will commence at 9:30am (London time) on 23 February 2021 and can be accessed at www.ihgplc.com/en/investors/results-and-presentations or directly on https://www.investis-live.com/ihg/601020452fb49a0a006e5b57/ndps
 
For analysts and shareholders wishing to ask questions, please use the dial-in details below which will have a Q&A facility:
UK local:
0203 936 2999
UK:
0800 640 6441
US:
+1 855 979 6654
All other locations:
+44 203 936 2999
Passcode:
37 47 52
 
An archived webcast of the presentation is expected to be available later on the day of the results and will remain on it for the foreseeable future, accessed at www.ihgplc.com/en/investors/results-and-presentations. An audio replay will also be available for 7 days using the following details:
UK:
0203 936 3001
All other locations:
+44 203 936 3001
Passcode:
60 30 28
 
Website:
The full release and supplementary data will be available on our website from 7:00am (London time) on 23 February. The web address is www.ihgplc.com/en/investors/results-and-presentations.
 
About IHG Hotels & Resorts:
IHG Hotels & Resorts [LON:IHG, NYSE:IHG (ADRs)] is a global hospitality company, with a purpose to provide True Hospitality for Good.
 
With a family of 16 hotel brands and IHG Rewards, one of the world’s largest hotel loyalty programmes, IHG has nearly 6,000 open hotels in more than 100 countries, and a further 1,800 due to open over the next five years.
 
-
Luxury and lifestyle: Six Senses Hotels Resorts Spas, Regent Hotels & Resorts, InterContinental Hotels & Resorts, Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants, Hotel Indigo
-
Premium: HUALUXE Hotels & Resorts, Crowne Plaza Hotels & Resorts, EVEN Hotels, voco Hotels
-
Essentials: Holiday Inn Hotels & Resorts, Holiday Inn Express, avid hotels
-
Suites: Atwell Suites, Staybridge Suites, Holiday Inn Club Vacations, Candlewood Suites
 
InterContinental Hotels Group PLC is the Group’s holding company and is incorporated in Great Britain and registered in England and Wales. Approximately 350,000 people work across IHG’s hotels and corporate offices globally.
 
Visit us online for more about our hotels and reservations and IHG Rewards. For our latest news, visit our Newsroom and follow us on LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter.
 
Cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements:
This announcement contains certain forward-looking statements as defined under United States law (Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) and otherwise. These forward-looking statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts. Forward-looking statements often use words such as ‘anticipate’, ‘target’, ‘expect’, ‘estimate’, ‘intend’, ‘plan’, ‘goal’, ‘believe’ or other words of similar meaning. These statements are based on assumptions and assessments made by InterContinental Hotels Group PLC’s management in light of their experience and their perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors they believe to be appropriate. By their nature, forward-looking statements are inherently predictive, speculative and involve risk and uncertainty. There are a number of factors that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by, such forward-looking statements. The main factors that could affect the business and the financial results are described in the ‘Risk Factors’ section in the current InterContinental Hotels Group PLC’s Annual report and Form 20-F filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
 
 
This Business Review provides a commentary on the performance of InterContinental Hotels Group PLC
(the Group or IHG) for the financial year ended 31 December 2020.
 
 
 
GROUP PERFORMANCE
 
 
            12 months ended 31 December
Group results
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
Revenuea
 
 
 
Americas
512
1,040
(50.8)
EMEAA
221
723
(69.4)
Greater China
77
135
(43.0)
Central
182
185
(1.6)
 
____
____
____
Revenue from reportable segments
992
2,083
(52.4)
 
 
 
 
System Fund revenues
765
1,373
(44.3)
Reimbursement of costs
637
1,171
(45.6)
 
____
____
____
Total revenue
2,394
4,627
(48.3)
 
____
____
____
Operating profita
 
 
 
Americas
296
700
(57.7)
EMEAA
(50)
217
(123.0)
Greater China
35
73
(52.1)
Central
(62)
(125)
(50.4)
 
____
____
____
Operating profit from reportable segments
219
865
(74.7)
System Fund result
(102)
(49)
108.2
 
____
____
____
Operating profit before exceptional items
117
816
(85.7)
Operating exceptional items
(270)
(186)
45.2
 
____
____
____
Operating (loss)/profit
(153)
630
(124.3)
Net financial expenses
(140)
(115)
21.7
Fair value gains on contingent purchase consideration
13
27
(51.9)
 
____
____
____
(Loss)/profit before tax
(280)
542
(151.7)
 
____
____
____
(Loss)/earnings per ordinary share
 
 
 
 
Basic
(142.9)¢
210.4¢
(167.9)
 
Adjustedb
31.3¢
303.3¢
(89.7)
 
 
 
 
 
Average US dollar to sterling exchange rate
$1: £0.78
$1: £0.78
-
 
 
Group results
 
Covid-19 significantly impacted IHG’s financial performance in 2020, resulting in large RevPAR declines in all regions, commencing in the first quarter as governments across the globe successively imposed significant and wide-reaching restrictions on mobility between and within countries. The peak impact to the Group was witnessed at the beginning of the second quarter at the point where travel and movement restrictions were in place across much of the US and Europe, whilst domestic travel restrictions were starting to be lifted in China. Many hotels were temporarily closed during the height of the first wave of the pandemic with ~15% of IHG’s global estate shut by the end of April. Performance improved into the third quarter, driven by increases in domestic travel in countries that had lifted restrictions, including the US, where our performance has been ahead of the industry. As Covid-19 cases rose through the fourth quarter, particularly in the US and Europe, varying levels of restrictions were reintroduced in several countries, resulting in a slowing in the pace of RevPAR recovery.

Overall, Group comparable RevPARc declined 25% in the first quarter, 75% in the second quarter, 53% in the third quarter, 53% in the fourth quarter and 53% in the full year, all compared to the prior year.
 
During the year ended 31 December 2020, total revenue decreased by $2,233m (48.3%) to $2,394m, whilst revenue from reportable segments decreased by $1,091m (52.4%) to $992m, due to the significant and wide-ranging impacts of Covid-19 on both fee revenue and revenues from owned, leased and managed lease hotels. Operating profit decreased by $783m (124.3%) to a loss of $153m and profit before tax decreased by $822m (151.7%) to a loss of $280m, driven predominantly by materially lower fee revenues, significantly lower revenues in the owned, leased and managed lease estate, coupled with a $53m decrease in System Fund result to a $102m deficit, a $84m net increase in operating exceptional charges, and an increase in expected credit losses. These reductions in revenue and increases in charges were partially offset by rapid and decisive action by management to mitigate against the scale and speed of trading disruption through limiting discretionary spend, reducing salaries and incentives, and other targeted cost reductions. The $270m operating exceptional charge was driven principally by: $274m of impairment charges including $48m recognised in relation to trade deposits and loans, $53m recognised in relation to contract assets, $48m recognised in relation to acquired management agreements and $90m recognised in relation to property, plant and equipment, substantially all relating to owned and leased hotel assets. Additionally, a $52m credit was recognised in related to the derecognition or termination of certain leases. See Other Financial Information for further information of impairments.
 
Operating profit from reportable segments decreased by $646m (74.7%) to $219m.
 
Underlyingb revenue and underlyingb operating profit decreased by $1,071m (52.0%) and $635m (74.7%) respectively.
 
IHG System size increased by 0.3% to 886,036 rooms, increasing by 2.2% excluding the impact of the exit of hotels associated with the SVC portfolio, whilst underlying fee revenueb decreased by 45.0%.
 
Fee marginb decreased by 20.0 percentage points to 34.1%, impacted by the significant reduction in fee revenue driven by Covid-19, partially offset by targeted cost reductions.
 
Basic earnings per ordinary share decreased by 167.9% to a loss per ordinary share of (142.9)¢, whilst adjustedb earnings per ordinary share decreased by 89.7% to 31.3¢.
 

 
a.
Americas and EMEAA include revenue and operating profit before exceptional items from both fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels. Greater China includes revenue and operating profit before exceptional items from fee business.
b.
Definitions for Non-GAAP revenue and operating profit measures can be found in the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
c.
Comparable RevPAR and occupancy include the adverse impact of hotels temporarily closed as a result of Covid-19.
 
 
 
 
 
 
12 months ended 31 December
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020
 
2019
 
%
Total gross revenuea
$bn
 
$bn
 
changeb
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
InterContinental
2.0
 
5.1
 
(60.2)
Kimpton
0.4
 
1.4
 
(71.2)
HUALUXE
0.1
 
0.1
 
5.3
Crowne Plaza
1.8
 
4.3
 
(57.3)
Hotel Indigo
0.3
 
0.6
 
(56.9)
EVEN Hotels
0.0
 
0.1
 
(66.8)
Holiday Inn
2.8
 
6.3
 
(55.0)
Holiday Inn Express
4.2
 
7.3
 
(42.4)
Staybridge Suites
0.7
 
1.0
 
(32.8)
Candlewood Suites
0.7
 
0.9
 
(22.3)
Other
0.5
 
0.8
 
(41.1)
 
____
 
____
 
____
Total
13.5
 
27.9
 
(51.5)
 
____
 
____
 
____
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Fee business
13.3
 
27.3
 
(51.1)
Owned, leased and managed lease
0.2
 
0.6
 
(70.6)
 
____
 
____
 
____
Total
13.5
 
27.9
 
(51.5)
 
____
 
____
 
____
 
 
Total gross revenue in IHG’s System decreased 51.5% (51.4% decrease at constant currency) to $13.5bn, due to the significant RevPAR decline of 52.5% driven by the global impact of Covid-19.
 
 
 
 
a.
Total gross revenue provides a measure of the overall strength of the Group’s brands. It comprises total rooms revenue from franchised hotels and total hotel revenue from managed, owned, leased and managed lease hotels and excludes revenue from the System Fund and reimbursement of costs. Other than owned, leased and managed lease hotels, total gross revenue is not revenue attributable to IHG as it is derived from hotels owned by third parties.
b.
Year-on-year percentage movement calculated from source figures, to provide better illustration of relative impact of Covid-19 on brands and on fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
 
 
 
 
 
Hotels
Rooms
Global hotel and room count
 
Change
 
Change
at 31 December
2020
over 2019
2020
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
16
(2)
1,129
(319)
 
Regent
7
1
2,190
187
 
InterContinental
205
(7)
69,941
(1,040)
 
Kimpton
73
7
13,085
39
 
HUALUXE
12
3
3,433
723
 
Crowne Plaza
429
(2)
118,879
(1,703)
 
Hotel Indigo
125
7
15,604
1,030
 
EVEN Hotels
16
3
2,410
461
 
voco
18
6
5,077
784
 
Holiday Inn1
1,276
(8)
236,554
(3,340)
 
Holiday Inn Express
2,966
91
309,487
10,253
 
avid hotels
24
17
2,156
1,521
 
Staybridge Suites
303
3
32,895
262
 
Candlewood Suites
366
(44)
32,435
(5,897)
 
Other2
128
(14)
40,761
(488)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
5,964
61
886,036
2,473
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
5,005
135
627,348
12,374
 
Managed
936
(71)
253,288
(8,965)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
23
(3)
5,400
(936)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
 
5,964
61
886,036
2,473
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.
Includes 47 Holiday Inn Resort® properties (11,446 rooms) and 28 Holiday Inn Club Vacations® properties (8,679 rooms), (2019: 46 Holiday Inn Resort properties (11,502 rooms) and 28 Holiday Inn Club Vacations properties (8,592 rooms)).
2.
Includes three open hotels that will be re-branded to voco.
 
 
 
Hotels
Rooms
Global Pipeline
 
Change
 
Change
at 31 December
2020
over 2019
2020
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
               31
                 6
          2,239
             469
 
Regent
                 6
                 1
          1,535
             591
 
InterContinental
               69
                 4
        17,774
             756
 
Kimpton
               32
               (1)
          6,265
               62
 
HUALUXE
               25
                 3
          6,907
             727
 
Crowne Plaza
               89
                 1
        24,228
            (278)
 
Hotel Indigo
             104
                 3
        15,704
             556
 
EVEN Hotels
               31
                 5
          5,046
             704
 
voco
               29
               12
          8,179
          1,959
 
Holiday Inn1
             262
              (13)
        51,163
         (1,746)
 
Holiday Inn Express
             683
              (71)
        87,152
         (8,722)
 
avid hotels
             192
              (15)
        17,526
         (1,542)
 
Staybridge Suites
             155
              (27)
        17,490
         (3,244)
 
Candlewood Suites
               73
              (18)
          6,369
         (1,817)
 
Atwell Suites
               19
                 9
          1,849
             849
 
Other2
               15
               (2)
          2,631
            (310)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
1,815
(103)
272,057
(10,986)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
          1,310
            (101)
      159,068
(7,573)
 
Managed
             504
               (2)
      112,834
(3,413)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
                 1
               -
             155
-
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
 
1,815
(103)
272,057
(10,986)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
1.
Includes 34 Holiday Inn Resort properties (7,251 rooms) and zero Holiday Inn Club Vacations property (zero rooms), (2019: 29 Holiday Inn Resort properties (6,335 rooms) and one Holiday Inn Club Vacations properties (110 rooms)).
2.
Includes one hotel to be branded as voco.
 
 
 
 
AMERICAS
 
        12 months ended 31 December
Americas Results
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
Revenue from the reportable segmenta
 
 
 
 
Fee business
457
853
(46.4)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
55
187
(70.6)
 
____
____
____
Total
 
512
1,040
(50.8)
 
____
____
____
Operating profit from the reportable segmenta
 
 
 
 
Fee business
323
663
(51.3)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
(27)
37
(173.0)
 
____
____
____
 
 
296
700
(57.7)
Operating exceptional items
 
(118)
(62)
90.3
 
____
____
____
Operating profit
178
638
(72.1)
 
____
____
____
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas Comparable RevPARb movement on previous year
12 months ended
31 December
2020
Fee business
 
 
 
InterContinental
(71.0%)
 
 
Kimpton
(69.7%)
 
 
Crowne Plaza
(65.1%)
 
 
Hotel Indigo
(57.0%)
 
 
EVEN Hotels
(74.2%)
 
 
Holiday Inn
(52.0%)
 
 
Holiday Inn Express
(41.6%)
 
 
Staybridge Suites
(36.0%)
 
 
Candlewood Suites
(23.0%)
 
 
All brands
(48.5%)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
 
 
 
EVEN Hotels
(62.0%)
 
 
Holiday Inn
(62.2%)
 
 
All brands
(62.1%)
 
 
 
Americas results
 
Following solid trading in the first two months of 2020, Covid-19 rapidly impacted the Americas region from March leading to sharp declines in RevPAR across the region. Occupancy levels dropped to historic lows in April, as physical distancing and travel restrictions came into effect across the region, with ~10% of hotels closed in the US by the end of April. In the US, occupancyb was ~20% at the lowest point.
 
As the second quarter progressed and restrictions began to be lifted, the beginnings of a recovery were seen in both RevPAR and occupancy. By the end of June the majority of hotels had reopened with just ~3% of US hotels closed and occupancyb in the US of ~42%. The initial recovery continued into the third quarter, led by the US franchised estate, which benefits from a weighting towards hotels in the midscale segments. Those hotels derive the majority of their business from domestic demand and have a lower reliance on large group business and higher distribution in non-urban markets. The recovery continued into the fourth quarter at a slower pace, as a resurgence in Covid-19 cases led to the reinstatement of restrictions in a number of locations across the US. By the end of the year only ~1% of hotels were closed in the US.
 
Comparable RevPARb in the Americas declined 19% in the first quarter of 2020, 71% in the second quarter, 50% in the third quarter and 50% in the fourth quarter, with a decline of 49% for the full year.
 
Revenue from the reportable segmenta decreased by $528m (50.8%) to $512m, driven by the impacts of Covid-19. Operating profit decreased by $460m (72.1%) to $178m, driven by the reduction in revenue and a $56m net increase in operating exceptional charges, partially offset by cost saving measures. Operating profit from the reportable segmenta decreased by $404m (57.7%) to $296m. On an underlyingc basis, revenue decreased by $523m (50.5%), whilst underlyingc operating profit decreased by $400m (57.5%).
 
Revenue and operating profit from the reportable segmenta are further analysed by fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
 
Fee business revenuec decreased by $396m (46.4%) to $457m, driven by the significant impact of Covid-19 from March onwards on RevPAR and consequently fee revenues, including an $8m reduction in recognition of incentive management fees, and was also partly impacted by adverse foreign exchanged ($5m). Fee business operating profitc decreased by $340m (51.3%) to $323m, due to reductions in fee revenue and an increase in expected credit losses, partially offset by cost savings commencing in the second quarter. Fee business operating profitc also benefited from a $4m favourable litigation settlement relating to one hotel, and the recognition of an $8m payroll tax credit, and was partly impacted by adverse foreign exchanged ($4m).
 
Owned, leased and managed lease revenuec decreased by $132m (70.6%) to $55m, as the majority of hotels were closed during much of the second quarter, whilst owned, leased and managed lease operating profitc decreased by $64m (173.0%) to a loss of $27m, driven by the impact of lower occupancy and closures, partially offset by the implementation of cost savings and the benefit of $4m business interruption insurance at one hotel. There was no material impact of foreign exchanged on either revenue or operating profit.
 
 
 
a.
Americas reportable segment includes revenue and operating profit before exceptional items, excluding System Fund revenues and expenses and reimbursement of costs, for both fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
b.
Comparable RevPAR and occupancy include the adverse impact of hotels temporarily closed as a result of Covid-19.
 
c.
Definitions for Non-GAAP revenue and operating profit measures can be found in the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
d.
The impact of movements between the previous year’s actual exchange rates and average rates in 2020.
 
 
 
 
Hotels
 
Rooms
 
Americas hotel and room count
at 31 December
2020
Change
over 2019
2020
Change
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
InterContinental
           46
           (5)
16,789
(1,107)
 
Kimpton
           64
             3
11,097
(900)
 
Crowne Plaza
         136
         (13)
35,405
(4,470)
 
Hotel Indigo
           67
             3
8,793
526
 
EVEN Hotels
             15
             2
2,239
290
 
voco
             1
         1
49
49
 
Holiday Inn1
         766
(17)
130,942
(4,344)
 
Holiday Inn Express
      2,425
           57
220,342
5,349
 
avid Hotels
           24
17
2,156
1,521
 
Staybridge Suites
         285
           2
30,057
(187)
 
Candlewood Suites
      366
(44)
32,435
(5,897)
 
Other2
         103
         (15)
23,708
(1,465)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
4,298
(9)
514,012
(10,635)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
4,105
97
471,802
6,537
 
Managed
Owned, leased and managed lease
187
6
(105)
(1)
40,391
1,819
(16,769)
(403)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
4,298
(9)
514,012
(10,635)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
1.
Includes 22 Holiday Inn Resort properties (6,003 rooms) and 28 Holiday Inn Club Vacations property (8,679 rooms), (2019: 22 Holiday Inn Resort properties (6,003 rooms) and 28 Holiday Inn Club Vacations properties (8,592 rooms)).
2.
Includes one open hotel that will be re-branded to voco.
 
 
 
 
 
Hotels
 
Rooms
 
Americas pipeline
at 31 December
2020
Change
over 2019
2020
Change
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
7
2
519
97
 
InterContinental
7
-
1,724
175
 
Kimpton
20
(1)
3,483
24
 
Crowne Plaza
                 6
1
1,250
157
 
Hotel Indigo
               31
(6)
4,155
(1,017)
 
EVEN Hotels
               16
1
1,975
109
 
voco
             2
2
274
274
 
Holiday Inn1
             80
(18)
10,446
(2,060)
 
Holiday Inn Express
             386
(62)
37,355
(5,748)
 
avid hotels
              191
(15)
17,311
(1,542)
 
Staybridge Suites
              135
(27)
14,061
(2,813)
 
Candlewood Suites
                73
(18)
6,369
(1,817)
 
Atwell Suites
              19
9
1,849
849
 
Other
              13
(3)
1,986
(793)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
986
(135)
102,757
(14,105)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
944
(133)
96,528
(13,458)
 
Managed
42
(2)
6,229
(647)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
986
(135)
102,757
(14,105)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
1.
Includes three Holiday Inn Resort properties (490 rooms) and zero Holiday Inn Club Vacations property (zero rooms), (2019: three Holiday Inn Resort properties (490 rooms) and one Holiday Inn Club Vacations property (110 rooms)).
 
 
 
 
EMEAA
 
 
         12 months ended 31 December
EMEAA results
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
Revenue from the reportable segmenta
 
 
 
 
Fee business
107
337
(68.2)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
114
386
(70.5)
 
____
____
____
Total
 
221
723
(69.4)
 
____
____
____
Operating (loss)/profit from the reportable segmenta
 
 
 
 
Fee business
(18)
202
(108.9)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
(32)
15
(313.3)
 
____
____
____
 
 
(50)
217
(123.0)
Operating exceptional items
 
(128)
(109)
17.4
 
 
____
____
____
Operating (loss)/profit
(178)
108
(264.8)
 
____
____
____
 
 
 
 
 
 
EMEAA comparable RevPARb movement on previous year
12 months ended
31 December
2020
 
 
Fee business
 
 
InterContinental
(64.8%)
 
Crowne Plaza
(64.5%)
 
Hotel Indigo
(73.7%)
 
Holiday Inn
(64.3%)
 
Holiday Inn Express
(64.5%)
 
Staybridge Suites
(46.6%)
 
All brands
(64.6%)
 
 
 
Owned, leased and managed leases
 
 
InterContinental
(66.7%)
 
All brands
(74.2%)
 
 
 
 
 
EMEAA results
 
Covid-19 impacted EMEAA from the second half of February onwards as government-mandated international and domestic travel restrictions progressed across the region, resulting in a significant drop in RevPAR in the first quarter and culminating in ~50% of IHG’s hotels in the region being closed by April, with occupancyb dropping to ~11% in the month. Restrictions remained in place through much of the second quarter, severely impacting travel, particularly in Europe. The rate of RevPAR decline improved in the third quarter as government-mandated closures and travel restrictions were partially eased, with demand largely leisure-related. Demand began to weaken again in September and the fourth quarter was further impacted by the reinstatement of restrictions in many countries following a second wave of Covid-19 cases building through the autumn. By the end of the year ~80% of hotels were open across EMEAA.
 
Comparable RevPARb declined 26% in the first quarter, 88% in the second quarter, 70% in the third quarter and 71% in the fourth quarter, with a decline of 65% for the full year.
 
Revenue from the reportable segmenta decreased by $502m (69.4%) to $221m as the impact of Covid-19 resulted in a significant reduction in fees as well as temporary closure of many owned, leased and managed lease hotels. Operating profit decreased by $286m (264.8%) to an operating loss of $178m, driven by the reduction in revenue and a $19m net increase in operating exceptional charges, partially offset by planned cost saving measures. Operating profit from the reportable segmenta decreased by $267m (123.0%) to a loss of $50m. On an underlyingc basis, revenue decreased by $486m (69.0%) and underlyingc operating profit decreased by $260m (126.2%) to a loss of $54m.
 
Revenue and operating profit from the reportable segmenta are further analysed by fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
 
Fee business revenuec decreased by $230m (68.2%) to $107m, driven by the significant impact of Covid-19 on RevPAR and consequently fee revenues, including a $76m reduction in recognition of incentive management fees. There was no material impact of foreign exchanged.
 
Fee business operating profitc decreased by $220m (108.9%) to an operating loss of $18m, driven by lower fee revenue and an increase in expected credit losses, partially offset by cost savings commencing in the second quarter, and partly benefiting from the impact of foreign exchanged ($1m).
 
Owned, leased and managed lease revenuec decreased by $272m (70.5%) to $114m, (foreign exchanged benefit $4m), as occupancy dropped rapidly through March and the majority of hotels were closed for a large proportion of the year. Owned, leased and managed lease operating profitc reduced by $47m (313.3%) to an operating loss of $32m, (foreign exchanged benefit $1m), driven by the impact of lower occupancy and closures, partially offset by the implementation of cost reduction measures undertaken across the estate, together with rent reductions received; there was also the benefit of a $3m gain from the sale of the lease on the Holiday Inn Melbourne Airport.
 
 
 
a.
EMEAA reportable segment includes revenue and operating profit before exceptional items, excluding System Fund revenues and expenses and reimbursement of costs, for both fee business and owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
b.
Comparable RevPAR and occupancy include the adverse impact of hotels temporarily closed as a result of Covid-19.
 
c.
Definitions for Non-GAAP revenue and operating profit measures can be found in the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
d.
The impact of movements between the previous year’s actual exchange rates and average rates in 2020.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hotels
Rooms
EMEAA hotel and room count
 
Change
 
Change
at 31 December
2020
over 2019
2020
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
               15
               (2)
          1,007
            (319)
 
Regent
                 3
               -
             771
               -
 
InterContinental
             108
               (5)
        32,474
         (1,041)
 
Kimpton
                 8
                 4
          1,859
             939
 
Crowne Plaza
             188
                 2
        46,524
             113
 
Hotel Indigo
               46
                 5
          5,066
             627
 
voco
               16
                 4
          4,880
             587
 
Holiday Inn1
             401
                 7
        74,984
          1,552
 
Holiday Inn Express
             329
                 5
        47,356
             902
 
Staybridge Suites
               18
                 1
          2,838
             449
 
Other2
               17
                 2
        10,090
             670
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
1,149
23
227,849
4,479
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
             774
                 1
      125,720
            (735)
 
Managed
             358
               24
        98,548
          5,747
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
               17
               (2)
          3,581
            (533)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
 
          1,149
23
      227,849
4,479
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
1.
Includes 17 Holiday Inn Resort properties (3,330 rooms), (2019: 17 Holiday Inn Resort properties (3,604 rooms)).
2.
Includes two open hotels that will be re-branded to voco.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hotels
Rooms
EMEAA Pipeline
 
Change
 
Change
at 31 December
2020
over 2019
2020
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
               21
                 4
          1,551
             372
 
Regent
                 5
                 1
          1,255
             591
 
InterContinental
               33
                 2
          7,485
              (22)
 
Kimpton
                 6
               (1)
          1,128
            (119)
 
Crowne Plaza
               35
               -
          9,101
            (314)
 
Hotel Indigo
               41
                 1
          6,047
             395
 
voco
               26
                 9
          7,774
          1,554
 
Holiday Inn1
             108
              (11)
        22,554
         (3,382)
 
Holiday Inn Express
               92
              (20)
        15,233
         (3,816)
 
avid hotels
                 1
               -
             215
               -
 
Staybridge Suites
               20
               -
          3,429
            (431)
 
Other
                 1
               -
             348
             186
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
389
(15)
76,120
(4,986)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
             155
              (10)
        25,652
         (1,679)
 
Managed
             233
               (5)
        50,313
         (3,307)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
                 1
               -
             155
               -
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
 
389
(15)
76,120
(4,986)
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.
Includes 18 Holiday Inn Resort properties (3,553 rooms), (2019: 18 Holiday Inn Resort properties (3,662 rooms)).
 
 
 
 
 
 
GREATER CHINA
 
 
 
       12 months ended 31 December
 
 
 
 
Greater China results
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
 
 
 
 
Revenue from the reportable segmenta
 
 
 
 
Fee business
77
135
(43.0)
 
 
____
____
____
Total
 
77
135
(43.0)
 
____
____
____
Operating profit from the reportable segmenta
 
 
 
 
Fee business
35
73
(52.1)
 
____
____
____
Operating exceptional items
(5)
-
-
 
____
____
____
Operating profit
30
73
(58.9)
 
____
____
____
 
 
 
 
 
Greater China comparable RevPARb movement on previous year
12 months ended
31 December
2020
 
 
Fee business
 
 
InterContinental
(36.8%)
 
HUALUXE
(20.4%)
 
Crowne Plaza
(38.4%)
 
Hotel Indigo
(44.0%)
 
Holiday Inn
(46.9%)
 
Holiday Inn Express
(40.6%)
 
All brands
 
(40.5%)
 
 
Greater China results
 
Covid-19 impacted Greater China earliest of IHG’s three regions as government measures were introduced rapidly from the end of January to contain the spread of the virus. At the lockdown period trough, 40% of the region’s hotels were temporarily closed. Occupancyb dropped to single digits and comparable RevPARb declined by 89% in February, the month most impacted by Covid-19. Domestic travel restrictions started to ease through the second quarter and travel slowly started to recover. The recovery continued through the summer and into the third quarter, boosted by domestic leisure demand, with some resort destinations seeing absolute year-on-year growth in RevPAR, despite continued overall decline across the region. The recovery in RevPAR continued into the fourth quarter but at a slower pace and less than 1% of hotels remained closed by the end of December. Hong Kong SAR was impacted by uncertainty posed by political disputes throughout 2020, as well as by Covid-19.
 
Comparable RevPARb declined by 65% in the first quarter, 59% in the second quarter, 23% in the third quarter and 18% in the fourth quarter, with a decline of 41% for the full year.
 
 
Revenue from the reportable segmenta decreased by $58m (43.0%) to $77m, driven by the impact of Covid-19 on fee revenues, partially offset by 6.4% net rooms growth. Operating profit decreased by $43m (58.9%) to $30m as revenue reductions, including a $32m reduction in recognition of incentive management fees, and a $5m net increase in operating exceptional charges were partially offset by cost savings. Operating profit from the reportable segmenta decreased by $38m (52.1%) to $35m. Underlyingc revenue decreased by $60m (43.8%) to $77m and underlyingc operating profit decreased by $38m (52.1%) to $35m.
 
 
 
a.
Greater China reportable segment includes revenue and operating profit before exceptional items, excluding System Fund revenue and expenses and reimbursement of costs, for the fee business.
b.
Comparable RevPAR and occupancy include the adverse impact of hotels temporarily closed as a result of Covid-19.
 
c.
Definitions for Non-GAAP revenue and operating profit measures can be found in the ‘Use of Non-GAAP measures’ section along with reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable line items within the Group Financial Statements.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hotels
Rooms
Greater China hotel and room count
 
Change
 
Change
 
at 31 December
2020
over 2019
2020
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
                 1
               -
             122
               -
 
 
Regent
                 4
                 1
          1,419
             187
 
 
InterContinental
               51
                 3
        20,678
          1,108
 
 
Kimpton
                 1
               -
             129
               -
 
 
HUALUXE
               12
                 3
          3,433
             723
 
 
Crowne Plaza
             105
                 9
        36,950
          2,654
 
 
Hotel Indigo
               12
               (1)
          1,745
            (123)
 
 
EVEN Hotels
                 1
                 1
             171
             171
 
 
voco
                 1
                 1
             148
             148
 
 
Holiday Inn1
             109
                 2
        30,628
            (548)
 
 
Holiday Inn Express
             212
               29
        41,789
          4,002
 
 
Other
                 8
               (1)
          6,963
             307
 
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
Total
517
47
144,175
8,629
 
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
             126
               37
        29,826
          6,572
 
 
Managed
             391
               10
      114,349
          2,057
 
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
Total
 
517
47
144,175
8,629
 
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.
Includes eight Holiday Inn Resort properties (2,113 rooms), (2019: seven Holiday Inn Resort properties (1,895 rooms)).
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hotels
Rooms
Greater China Pipeline
 
Change
 
Change
at 31 December
2020
over 2019
2020
over 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Analysed by brand
 
 
 
 
 
Six Senses
                 3
               -
             169
               -
 
Regent
                 1
               -
             280
               -
 
InterContinental
               29
                 2
          8,565
             603
 
Kimpton
                 6
                 1
          1,654
             157
 
HUALUXE
               25
                 3
          6,907
             727
 
Crowne Plaza
               48
               -
        13,877
            (121)
 
Hotel Indigo
               32
                 8
          5,502
          1,178
 
EVEN Hotels
               15
                 4
          3,071
             595
 
voco
                 1
                 1
             131
             131
 
Holiday Inn1
               74
               16
        18,163
          3,696
 
Holiday Inn Express
             205
               11
        34,564
             842
 
Other2
                 1
                 1
             297
             297
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
440
47
93,180
8,105
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Analysed by ownership type
 
 
 
 
 
Franchised
             211
               42
        36,888
          7,564
 
Managed
             229
                 5
        56,292
             541
 
 
____
____
______
_____
Total
 
440
47
93,180
8,105
 
 
____
____
______
_____
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.
Includes 12 Holiday Inn Resort properties (3,208 rooms), (2019: Eight Holiday Inn Resort properties (2,183 rooms)).
2.
Includes one hotel to be branded as voco.
 
 
 
 
 
CENTRAL
 
 
12 months ended 31 December
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
Central results
$m
$m
change
 
 
 
 
Revenue
182
185
(1.6)
Gross costs
(244)
(310)
(21.3)
 
____
____
____
 
 
(62)
(125)
(50.4)
Exceptional items
 
(19)
(15)
26.7
 
____
____
____
Operating loss
(81)
(140)
(42.1)
 
____
____
____
 
 
Central results
 
 
The net operating loss decreased by $59m (42.1%), benefiting from a reduction in gross costs, partially offset by a $4m (26.7%) increase in operating exceptional charges.
 
Central revenue, which mainly comprises technology fee income, decreased by $3m (1.6%) to $182m, driven by the impacts of Covid-19 and temporary discounts on technology fees being largely offset by the $20m net benefit of movement in recognition of some items between System Fund and reportable segments (see note 4 to the Group Financial Statements for further information). Revenue was also partly impacted by adverse foreign exchangea ($1m).
 
Gross costs decreased by $66m (21.3%), driven by cost saving measures introduced from the second quarter. Gross costs also partly benefited from the impact of foreign exchangea ($1m).
 
 
The operating loss before exceptional items decreased by $63m, benefiting from the net movement in recognition of some revenues and expenses between the System Fund and reportable segments ($21m), see note 4 to the Group Financial Statements for further information. There was no material impact of foreign exchangea.
 
 
 
a.
The impact of movements between the previous year’s actual exchange rates and average rates in 2020.
 
 
 
 
OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
System Fund
 
The Group operates a System Fund to collect and administer cash assessments from hotel owners for the specific purpose of use in marketing, the Guest Reservation System, and hotel loyalty programme, IHG Rewards. The System Fund also benefits from proceeds from the sale of loyalty points under third-party co-branding arrangements. The Fund is not managed to generate a profit or loss for IHG over the longer term, although an in-year surplus or deficit can arise, but is managed for the benefit of hotels in the IHG System with the objective of driving revenues for the hotels.
 
In the year to 31 December 2020, System Fund revenue decreased by $608m (44.3%) to $765m, largely due to lower assessment fees reflecting the level of reduction in hotel revenues resulting from Covid-19, as well as fee reliefs given, and lower loyalty revenue due to lower redemption activity. This was partially offset by a favourable adjustment relating to a change in the actuarial assumptions around the ultimate rate of consumption of IHG Rewards points (‘breakage’) leading to increased revenue recognition year-over-year. A System Fund income statement deficit of $102m was recorded over the year, resulting from lower revenues, partly offset by actions targeted to lower costs including a reduction in marketing spend. System Fund expenses included $24m of expected credit losses, $20m reorganisation costs and $41m impairment principally relating to the US corporate headquarters.
 
 
 
Reimbursement of costs
 
In the year to 31 December 2020, reimbursable revenue decreased by $534m (45.6%) to $637m. The reduction reflects the significant impact from Covid-19 on our hotels including hotel closures and staff furloughs, meaning the overall scale of reimbursements fell.
 
Cost reimbursements revenue represents reimbursements of expenses incurred on behalf of managed and franchised properties and relates, predominantly, to payroll costs at managed properties where we are the employer. As we record cost reimbursements based upon costs incurred with no added mark up, this revenue and related expenses have no impact on either our operating profit or net income.
 
 
 
Exceptional items
 
Exceptional items are identified by virtue of their size, nature, or incidence and are excluded from the calculation of adjusted earnings per ordinary share as well as other Non-GAAP measures (see Use of Non-GAAP measures) in order to provide a more meaningful comparison of performance and can include, but are not restricted to, gains and losses on the disposal of assets, impairment charges and reversals, and reorganisation costs.
 
 
 
Pre-tax exceptional items totalled a net charge of $263m (2019: $148m net charge) and include:
 
 
$22m net gain relating to derecognition of lease assets and liabilities;
$30m gain on lease termination;
$10m provision for onerous contractual expenditure relating to the UK portfolio;
$27m reorganisation costs (2019: $20m);
$6m acquisition and integration costs due to the Six Senses acquisition (2019: $7m);
$5m net litigation costs (2019: $28m);
$48m impairment of financial assets;
$226m impairment charges of non-current assets (2019: $131m) of which $113m relates to Americas, $100m to EMEAA, $4m to Greater China and $9m to Central;
$14m exceptional financial expenses; and
$21m fair value gain on contingent purchase consideration relating to the UK portfolio.
 
 
Further information on exceptional items can be found in note 5 to the Group Financial Statements.
 
 
 
Net financial expenses
 
Net financial expenses increased by $25m to $140m, primarily due to $14m exceptional financial expenses relating to the partial repayment of the 2022 bonds (see below), $8m interest on the new bonds issued and $3m relating to commercial paper. Adjusted interest (see Use of Non-GAAP measures), which excludes exceptional finance expenses and adds back interest relating to the System Fund, reduced by $3m to $130m. The lower interest payable to the System Fund largely resulted from lower interest rates in 2020.
 
In October 2020 the Group issued a tender offer for its £400m 3.875% 2022 bonds resulting in a repayment of £227m. The Group concurrently issued €500m 1.625% 2024 bonds and £400m 3.375% 2028 bonds to strengthen liquidity and extend the maturity profile of the Group’s debt. The $14m premium on repayment and associated write-off of fees and discount are classified as exceptional costs due to their size and nature.
 
Excluding amounts classified as exceptional, financial expenses includes $69m (2019: $63m) of total interest costs on the public bonds, which are fixed rate debt. Interest expense on lease liabilities was $37m (2019: $41m).
 
 
 
Fair value gains/losses on contingent purchase consideration
 
Contingent purchase consideration arose on the acquisitions of Regent, the UK portfolio and Six Senses. The net gain of $13m (2019: $27m) comprises an exceptional gain of $21m in respect of the UK portfolio (see exceptional items above), offset by a loss of $8m in respect of Regent driven by a reduction in US corporate bond rates. The total contingent purchase consideration liability at 31 December 2020 is $79m (2019: $91m).
 
 
Taxation
 
The effective rate of tax on profit before exceptional items and System Fund was 38% (2019: 24%) which included the recognition of tax credits on one-off items, predominantly in connection with adjustments to deferred taxes following an internal group restructuring, UK law change and prior year items. Excluding these one-off items, the effective tax rate would be 69%, elevated compared to prior years due to the distortive impact of unrelieved foreign taxes, the Group’s geographic profit mix and other non-tax deductible expenses against the low profit base. The Group also suffered significant US minimum profit taxes and could not recognise the benefit for tax purposes of losses arising in certain territories in the year.
 
Taxation within exceptional items totalled a credit of $52m (2019: credit of $20m) and relates to the tax impact of the exceptional items set out above. Further information on tax within exceptional items can be found in note 5 to the Group Financial Statements.
 
 
Net tax paid in 2020 totalled $41m (2019: $141m). The 2020 tax paid was less than 2019 principally due to refunds in respect of prior year periods of $24m, as well as lower ‘in-year’ corporate tax payments required as a result of the deterioration in global trading.
 
IHG pursues an approach to tax that is consistent with its business strategy and its overall business conduct principles. The approach seeks to ensure full compliance with all tax filing, payment and reporting obligations on the basis of communicative and transparent relationships with tax authorities. Policies and procedures related to tax risk management are subject to regular review and update and are approved by the IHG Audit Committee.
 
The Group’s Approach to Tax document is available on IHG’s website at www.ihgplc.com/responsible-business.
 
 
 
Dividends
 
On 20 March 2020, IHG’s Board withdrew its recommendation of a final dividend in respect of 2019 of 85.9¢ per share, a payment of which would have had a cash outflow of approximately $150m in the first half of 2020.
 
A final dividend in respect of 2020 is not proposed and there was no interim dividend for the year. The Board will consider future dividends once visibility of the pace and scale of market recovery has improved.
 
 
 
Earnings per ordinary share
 
Given the impact of Covid-19 on operations and the exceptional items charged this year, the Group’s basic loss per ordinary share is 142.9¢ (2019: basic earnings per ordinary share: 210.4¢). Adjusted earnings per ordinary share decreased by 89.7% to 31.3¢.
 
 
 
Share price and market capitalisation
 
The IHG share price closed at £46.90 on 31 December 2020, down from £52.08 on 31 December 2019. The market capitalisation of the Group at the year-end was £8.6bn.
 
 
 
Sources of liquidity
 
As at 31 December 2020 the Group had total liquidity of $2,925m, comprising $1,350m of undrawn bank facilities and $1,575m of cash and cash equivalents (net of overdrafts and restricted cash).
 
The Group currently has $2,898m of sterling and euro bonds outstanding. The current bonds mature in November 2022 (£173m), October 2024 (€500m), August 2025 (£300m), August 2026 (£350m), May 2027 (€500m) and October 2028 (£400m).
 
In October 2020 the Group issued a €500m 1.625% bond repayable in October 2024 and a £400m 3.375% bond repayable in October 2028. Currency swaps were transacted at the same time as the €500m bonds were issued in order to swap the proceeds and interest flows into pounds sterling. The currency swaps fix the bond debt at £454m, with interest payable semi-annually at a rate of 2.65%. The Group also repaid £227m of the £400m 3.875% bond maturing in November 2022. The Group currently has a senior unsecured long-term credit rating of BBB- from Standard and Poor’s. In the event this rating was downgraded below BBB- there would be an additional step up coupon of 125bps payable on the bonds which would result in an additional interest cost of approximately $36m per year.

In April 2020, the Group issued £600m of commercial paper under the UK Covid Corporate Financing Facility (CCFF). This will be repaid on 16 March 2021 when it matures.
 
The Group is further financed by a $1,275m revolving syndicated bank facility (the Syndicated Facility) and a $75m revolving bilateral facility (the Bilateral Facility). During the year the maturity of these facilities was extended by 18 months from March 2022 to September 2023. The facilities were undrawn at 31 December 2020 (31 December 2019: $125m). The Syndicated and Bilateral Facilities contain the same terms and two financial covenants: interest cover and a leverage ratio. Covenants are monitored on a ‘frozen GAAP’ basis excluding the impact of IFRS 16 and are tested at half year and full year on a trailing 12-month basis. The interest cover covenant requires a ratio of Covenant EBITDA to Covenant interest payable above 3.5:1 and the leverage ratio requires Covenant net debt to Covenant EBITDA of below 3.5:1. Covenant EBITDA is calculated (on a frozen GAAP basis) as operating profit before exceptional items, depreciation and amortisation and System Fund revenues and expenses. See note 10 to the Group Financial Statements for further information.
 
These covenants have been waived from 30 June 2020 through 31 December 2021 and have been relaxed for test dates in 2022. A minimum liquidity covenant of $400m has been introduced which will be tested at each test date up to and including 31 December 2022. The amended leverage ratio and interest cover covenant test levels for the facilities are as follows:
 
 
 
 
June & December 2021
June 2022
December 2022
Leverage ratio
Waived
Less than 7.5x
Less than 6.5x
Interest cover
Waived
Greater than 1.5x
Greater than 2.0x
 
 
The Group is in compliance with all of the applicable financial covenants in its loan documents, none of which are expected to present a material restriction on funding in the near future.
 
The Group has started to review and plan for the expected discontinuation of LIBOR after 2021. The Group’s main exposure to LIBOR is the underlying reference rate in the Syndicated and Bilateral Facilities. The terms of this agreement will need to be renegotiated to address the discontinuation of LIBOR. The replacement of LIBOR with alternative reference rates is not expected to have a material impact on the Group at this stage.
 
Borrowings included bank overdrafts of $51m (2019: $87m), which were matched by an equivalent amount of cash and cash equivalents under the Group’s cash pooling arrangements. Under these arrangements, each pool contains a number of bank accounts with the same financial institution, and the Group pays interest on net overdraft balances within each pool. The cash pools are used for day-to-day cash management purposes and are managed daily as closely as possible to a zero balance on a net basis for each pool. Overseas subsidiaries are typically in a cash-positive position, with the most significant balances in the US, and the matching overdrafts are held by the Group’s central treasury company in the UK.
 
 
 
Net debt of $2,529m (2019: $2,665m) is analysed by currency as follows:
 
 
 
2020
2019
Borrowings
 
$m
$m
 
Sterling*
3,716
2,022
 
US dollar
416
721
 
Euros
20
44
 
Other
52
73
Cash and cash equivalents
 
 
 
Sterling
(1,305)
(25)
 
US dollar
(261)
(91)
 
Euros
(12)
(13)
 
Canadian dollar
(8)
(7)
 
Chinese renminbi
(60)
(17)
 
Other
(29)
(42)
 
 
____
____
Net debt
 
2,529
2,665
 
 
 
 
Average debt levels
2,554
2,720
 
 
* Includes the impact of currency swaps.
 
 
 
 
 
USE OF NON-GAAP MEASURES
 
In addition to performance measures directly observable in the Financial Statements (IFRS measures), the Business Review presents certain financial measures when discussing the Group’s performance which are not measures of financial performance or liquidity under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). In management’s view these measures provide investors and other stakeholders with an enhanced understanding of IHG’s operating performance, profitability, financial strength and funding requirements. These measures do not have standardised meanings under IFRS, and companies do not necessarily calculate these in the same way.
 
 
 
Global revenue per available room (RevPAR) growth
 
RevPAR is the primary metric used by management to track hotel performance across regions and brands. RevPAR is also a commonly used performance measure in the hotel industry.
 
RevPAR comprises IHG’s System rooms revenue divided by the number of room nights available and can be derived from occupancy rate multiplied by average daily rate (ADR). ADR is rooms revenue divided by the number of room nights sold.
 
References to RevPAR, occupancy and ADR are presented on a comparable basis, comprising groupings of hotels that have traded in all months in both the current and prior year. The principal exclusions in deriving this measure are new hotels (including those acquired), hotels closed for major refurbishment and hotels sold in either of the two years. These measures include the adverse impact of hotels temporarily closed as a result of Covid-19.
 
RevPAR and ADR are quoted at a constant US$ conversion rate, in order to allow a better understanding of the comparable year-on-year trading performance excluding distortions created by fluctuations in exchange rates.
 
 
 
Total gross revenue from hotels in IHG’s System
 
Total gross revenue is revenue not wholly attributable to IHG, however, management believes this measure is meaningful to investors and other stakeholders as it provides a measure of System performance, giving an indication of the strength of IHG’s brands and the combined impact of IHG’s growth strategy and RevPAR performance.
 
Total gross revenue refers to revenue which IHG has a role in driving and from which IHG derives an income stream.
 
Total gross revenue comprises:
 
total rooms revenue from franchised hotels;
total hotel revenue from managed hotels includes food and beverage, meetings and other revenues and reflects the value IHG drives to managed hotel owners by optimising the performance of their hotels; and
total hotel revenue from owned, leased and managed lease hotels.
 
 
Other than total hotel revenue from owned, leased and managed lease hotels, total gross hotel revenue is not revenue attributable to IHG as these managed and franchised hotels are owned by third parties.
 
 
Revenue and operating profit measures
 
Revenue and operating profit from (1) fee business and (2) owned, leased and managed lease hotels, are described as ‘revenue from reportable segments’ and ‘operating profit from reportable segments’, respectively. These measures are presented for each of the Group’s regions. Management believes revenue and operating profit from reportable segments is meaningful to investors and other stakeholders as it excludes the following elements and reflects how management monitors the business:
 
System Fund – the Fund is not managed to generate a profit or loss for IHG over the longer term, but is managed for the benefit of the hotels within the IHG System. The System Fund is operated to collect and administer cash assessments from hotel owners for the specific purpose of use in marketing, the Guest Reservation Systems and hotel loyalty programme.
 
Revenues related to the reimbursement of costs – there is a cost equal to these revenues so there is no profit impact. Cost reimbursements are not applicable to all hotels, and growth in these revenues is not reflective of growth in the performance of the Group. As such, management do not include these revenues in their analysis of results.
 
Exceptional items – these are identified by virtue of either their size, nature, or incidence and can include, but are not restricted to, gains and losses on the disposal of assets, impairment charges and reversals, and reorganisation costs. As each item is different in nature and scope, there will be little continuity in the detailed composition and size of the reported amounts which affect performance in successive periods. Separate disclosure of these amounts facilitates the understanding of performance including and excluding such items.
 
In further discussing the Group’s performance in respect of revenue and operating profit, additional non-IFRS measures are used and explained further below:
 
Underlying revenue;
Underlying operating profit;
Underlying fee revenue; and
Fee margin.
 
Operating profit measures are, by their nature, before interest and tax. Management believes such measures are useful for investors and other stakeholders when comparing performance across different companies as interest and tax can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. For example, interest expense can be highly dependent on a company’s capital structure, debt levels and credit ratings. In addition, the tax positions of companies can vary because of their differing abilities to take advantage of tax benefits and because of the tax policies of the various jurisdictions in which they operate.
 
Although management believes these measures are useful to investors and other stakeholders in assessing the Group’s ongoing financial performance and provide improved comparability between periods, there are limitations in their use as compared to measures of financial performance under IFRS. As such, they should not be considered in isolation or viewed as a substitute for IFRS measures. In addition, these measures may not necessarily be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies due to potential inconsistencies in the methods of calculation.
 
 
 
Underlying revenue and underlying operating profit
 
These measures adjust revenue from reportable segments and operating profit from reportable segments, respectively, to exclude revenue and operating profit generated by owned, leased and managed lease hotels which have been disposed, and significant liquidated damages, which are not comparable year-on-year and are not indicative of the Group’s ongoing profitability. The revenue and operating profit of current year acquisitions are also excluded as these obscure underlying business results and trends when comparing to the prior year. In addition, in order to remove the impact of fluctuations in foreign exchange, which would distort the comparability of the Group’s operating performance, prior year measures are restated at constant currency using current year exchange rates.
 
Management believes these are meaningful to investors and other stakeholders to better understand comparable year-on-year trading and enable assessment of the underlying trends in the Group’s financial performance.
 
 
 
Underlying fee revenue growth
 
Underlying fee revenue is used to calculate underlying fee revenue growth. Underlying fee revenue is calculated on the same basis as underlying revenue as described above but for the fee business only.
 
Management believes underlying fee revenue is meaningful to investors and other stakeholders as an indicator of IHG’s ability to grow the core fee-based business, aligned to IHG’s asset-light strategy.
 
 
 
Fee margin
 
Fee margin is presented at actual exchange rates and is a measure of the profit arising from fee revenue. Fee margin is calculated by dividing ‘fee operating profit’ by ‘fee revenue’. Fee revenue and fee operating profit are calculated from the revenue from reportable segments and operating profit from reportable segments, as defined above, adjusted to exclude the revenue and operating profit from the Group’s owned, leased and managed lease hotels and significant liquidated damages.
 
In addition, fee margin is adjusted for the results of the Group’s captive insurance company, where premiums are intended to match the expected claims over the longer term, and as such these amounts are adjusted from the fee margin to better depict the profitability of the fee business.
 
Management believes fee margin is meaningful to investors and other stakeholders as an indicator of the sustainable long-term growth in the profitability of IHG’s core fee-based business, as the scale of IHG’s operations increases with growth in IHG’s System size.
 
 
 
Adjusted interest
 
Adjusted interest is presented before exceptional items and excludes the following items of interest which are recorded within the System Fund:
 
IHG records an interest charge on the outstanding cash balance relating to the IHG Rewards programme. These interest payments are recognised as interest income for the Fund and interest expense for IHG.
The System Fund also benefits from the capitalisation of interest related to the development of the next-generation Guest Reservation System.
 
As the Fund is included on the Group Income Statement, these amounts are included in the reported net Group financial expenses, reducing the Group’s effective interest cost. Given results related to the System Fund are excluded from adjusted measures used by management, these are excluded from adjusted interest and adjusted earnings per ordinary share (see below).
 
Management believes adjusted interest is a meaningful measure for investors and other stakeholders as it provides an indication of the comparable year-on-year expense associated with financing the business including the interest on any balance held on behalf of the System Fund.
 
 
 
Tax excluding the impact of exceptional items and System Fund
 
As outlined above, exceptional items can vary year-on-year and, where subject to tax at a different rate than the Group as a whole, therefore they can impact the current year’s tax charge. The System Fund is not managed to a profit or loss for IHG over the longer term and is, in general, not subject to tax either.
 
Management believes removing these provides a better view of the Group’s underlying tax rate on ordinary operations and aids comparability year-on-year, thus providing a more meaningful understanding of the Group’s ongoing tax charge.
 
 
 
Adjusted earnings per ordinary share
 
Adjusted earnings per ordinary share adjusts the profit available for equity holders used in the calculation of basic earnings per share to remove System Fund revenue and expenses, the items of interest related to the System Fund as excluded in adjusted interest, the change in fair value of contingent purchase consideration, exceptional items, and the related tax impacts of such adjustments.
 
Management believes that adjusted earnings per share is a meaningful measure for investors and other stakeholders as it provides a more comparable earnings per share measure aligned with how management monitors the business.
 
 
 
Net debt
 
Net debt is used in the monitoring of the Group’s liquidity and capital structure and is used by management in the calculation of the key ratios attached to the Group’s bank covenants and with the objective of maintaining an investment grade credit rating. Net debt is used by investors and other stakeholders to evaluate the financial strength of the business.
 
Net debt comprises loans and other borrowings, lease liabilities, the exchange element of the fair value of derivatives hedging debt values, less cash and cash equivalents.
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
Adjusted EBITDA has been added as a measure in 2020 as it has become an increasingly useful measure to investors for comparing the performance of different companies.
 
One of the key measures used by the Group in monitoring its debt and capital structure is the net debt:adjusted EBITDA ratio, which is managed with the objective of maintaining an investment grade credit rating. The Group has a stated aim of maintaining this ratio at 2.5-3.0x. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as operating profit, excluding System Fund revenues and expenses, exceptional items and depreciation and amortisation.
 
Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors and other stakeholders for comparing the performance of different companies as depreciation, amortisation and exceptional items are eliminated. It can also be used as an approximation of operational cash flow generation. This measure is relevant to the Group’s banking covenants, which have been waived until 31 December 2021. Details of covenant levels and performance against these is provided in note 10 to the Group Financial Statements. The leverage ratio uses a Covenant EBITDA measure which is calculated on a ‘frozen GAAP’ basis, which excludes the effect of IFRS 16.
 
 
 
Gross capital expenditure, net capital expenditure, free cash flow
 
These measures have limitations as they omit certain components of the overall cash flow statement. They are not intended to represent IHG’s residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures, nor do they reflect the Group’s future capital commitments. These measures are used by many companies, but there can be differences in how each company defines the terms, limiting their usefulness as a comparative measure. Therefore, it is important to view these measures only as a complement to the Group statement of cash flows.
 
 
 
Gross capital expenditure
 
Gross capital expenditure represents the consolidated capital expenditure of IHG inclusive of System Fund capital investments. Gross capital expenditure is defined as net cash from investing activities, adjusted to include contract acquisition costs (key money). In order to demonstrate the capital outflow of the Group, cash flows arising from any disposals or distributions from associates and joint ventures are excluded. The measure also excludes any material investments made in acquiring businesses, including any subsequent payments of deferred or contingent purchase consideration included within investing activities, which represent ongoing payments for acquisitions.
 
Gross capital expenditure is reported as either maintenance, recyclable, or System Fund. This disaggregation provides useful information as it enables users to distinguish between:
 
System Fund capital investments which are strategic investments to drive growth at hotel level;
recyclable investments (such as investments in associates and joint ventures), which are intended to be recoverable in the medium term and are to drive the growth of the Group’s brands and expansion in priority markets; and
maintenance capital expenditure (including contract acquisition costs), which represents a permanent cash outflow.
 
Management believes gross capital expenditure is a useful measure as it illustrates how the Group continues to invest in the business to drive growth. It also allows for comparison year-on-year.
 
 
 
Net capital expenditure
 
Net capital expenditure provides an indicator of the capital intensity of IHG’s business model. Net capital expenditure is derived from net cash from investing activities, adjusted to include contract acquisition costs (net of repayments) and to exclude any material investments made in acquiring businesses, including any subsequent payments of deferred or contingent purchase consideration included within investing activities, which are typically non-recurring in nature. Net capital expenditure includes the inflows arising from any disposal receipts, or distributions from associates and joint ventures.
 
In addition, System Fund depreciation and amortisation relating to property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, respectively, is added back, reducing the overall cash outflow. This reflects the way in which System Funded capital investments are recharged to the System Fund, over the life of the asset.
 
Management believes net capital expenditure is a useful measure as it illustrates the net capital investment by IHG, after taking into account capital recycling through asset disposal and the funding of strategic investments by the System Fund. It provides investors and other stakeholders with visibility of the cash flows which are allocated to long-term investments to drive the Group’s strategy.
 
 
 
Free cash flow
 
Free cash flow is net cash from operating activities adjusted for: (1) the inclusion of the cash outflow arising from the purchase of shares by employee share trusts reflecting the requirement to satisfy incentive schemes which are linked to operating performance; (2) the inclusion of maintenance capital expenditure (excluding contract acquisition costs); (3) the inclusion of the principal element of lease payments; and (4) the exclusion of payments of deferred or contingent purchase consideration included within net cash from operating activities.
 
In 2016, free cash flow was also adjusted for the cash receipt arising from the renegotiation of a long-term partnership agreement.
 
Management believes free cash flow is a useful measure for investors and other stakeholders, as it represents the cash available to invest back into the business to drive future growth and pay the ordinary dividend, with any surplus being available for additional returns to shareholders.
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue and operating profit Non-GAAP reconciliations
 
Highlights for the year ended 31 December 2020
 
 
 
Reportable segments
Revenue
 
Operating profit
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
 
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
 
$m
$m
change
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Group income statement
2,394
4,627
(48.3)
 
(153)
630
(124.3)
System Fund
(765)
(1,373)
(44.3)
 
102
49
108.2
Reimbursement of costs
(637)
(1,171)
(45.6)
 
-
-
-
Operating exceptional items
-
-
-
 
270
186
45.2
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Reportable segments
992
2,083
(52.4)
 
219
865
(74.7)
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Reportable segments analysed as:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fee business
823
1,510
(45.5)
 
278
813
(65.8)
Owned, leased and managed lease
169
573
(70.5)
 
(59)
52
(213.5)
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Reportable segments
992
2,083
(52.4)
 
219
865
(74.7)
 
 
Underlying revenue and underlying operating profit
 
 

 

 
 
 
  
      Revenue
 
 
 
Operating profit
 
 



 



 



 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020  
2019  
%  
 
2020  
2019  
%  
 
$m  
$m  
change  
 
$m  
$m  
change  
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable segments (see above)
992
2,083
(52.4)
 
219
865
(74.7)
Significant liquidated damagesa
(1)
(11)
(90.9)
 
(1)
(11)
(90.9)
Owned asset disposalb
(2)
(12)
(83.3)
 
(3)
(2)
50.0
Currency impact
-
-
-
 
-
(2)
-
 
____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Underlying revenue and underlying operating profit
989
2,060
(52.0)
 
215
850
(74.7)
 
 
 
a.
$1m recognised in 2020 ($4m in 2019) reflects the continued recognition of the significant liquidated damages related to the previously disclosed exit of a portfolio of 2.1k hotels in Germany.
b.
The results of the Holiday Inn Melbourne Airport have been removed in 2020 (being the year of disposal) and the prior year to determine underlying growth compared to the prior year.
c.
Revenue and operating profit relating to acquisitions made in 2019 are not excluded when comparing 2020 and 2019 results as the results of acquisitions are only excluded in the year of acquisition when comparing to the prior year.
 
 
 
Underlying fee revenue
 
 
                            Revenue
                                                        Operating profit
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
 
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
 
$m
$m
change
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable segments fee business (see above)
823
1,510
(45.5)
 
278
813
(65.8)
Significant liquidated damages
(1)
(11)
(90.9)
 
(1)
(11)
(90.0)
Currency impact
-
(4)
-
 
-
(3)
-
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Underlying fee revenue
822
1,495
(45.0)
 
277
799
(65.3)
 
 
Americas
 
 
                                                                    Revenue
 
                           Operating profita
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020
2019
%
 
2020
2019
%
 
$m
$m
change
 
$m
$m
change
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Group financial statements
512
1,040
(50.8)
 
296
700
(57.7)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable segments analysed as:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fee business
457
853
(46.4)
 
323
663
(51.3)
Owned, leased and managed lease
55
187
(70.6)
 
(27)
37
(173.0)
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
 
512
1,040
(50.8)
 
296
700
(57.7)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable segments (see above)
512
1,040
(50.8)
 
296
700
(57.7)
Currency impact
-
(5)
-
 
-
(4)
-
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Underlying revenue and underlying operating profit
512
1,035
(50.5)
 
296
696
(57.5)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned, leased and managed lease included in the above
(55)
(187)
(70.6)
 
27
(37)
(173.0)
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
Underlying fee business
457
848
(46.1)
 
323
659
(51.0)
a.
Before exceptional items
 
 
 
EMEAA
 
 
                                                             Revenue
 
                                            Operating (loss)/profitd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2020
2019c
%
 
2020
2019c
%
 
 
$m
$m
change
 
$m
$m
change
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Group financial statements
221
723
(69.4)
 
(50)
217
(123.0)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable segments analysed as:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fee business
107
337
(68.2)
 
(18)
202
(108.9)
 
Owned, leased and managed lease
114
386
(71.5)
 
(32)
15
(313.3)
 
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
 
 
221
723
(69.4)
 
(50)
217
(123.0)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable segments (see above)
221
723
(69.4)
 
(50)
217
(123.0)
 
Significant liquidated damagesa
(1)
(11)
(90.9)
 
(1)
(11)
(90.9)
 
Owned asset disposalb
(2)
(12)
(83.3)
 
(3)
(2)
50.0
 
Currency impact
-
4
-
 
-
2
-
 
 
_____
_____
_____
 
_____
_____
_____
 
Underlying revenue and underlying operating profit
218
704
(69.0)
 
(54)
206
(126.2)