485BPOS 1 merged.htm INTERNATIONAL EQ ANNUAL UPDATE merged.htm - Generated by SEC Publisher for SEC Filing
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION  
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form N-1A
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 33-32548)  
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 [X]
Pre-Effective Amendment No. [ ]
Post-Effective Amendment No. 115 [X]
and
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 811-05972) UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT
OF 1940  
Amendment No. 116 [X]
 
VANGUARD INTERNATIONAL EQUITY
INDEX FUNDS
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Declaration of Trust)
 
P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482
(Address of Principal Executive Office)
 
Registrant’s Telephone Number (610) 669-1000
 
Anne E. Robinson, Esquire
P.O. Box 876
Valley Forge, PA 19482
 
Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:  
It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)  
[ ] immediately upon filling pursuant to paragraph (b)  
[X] on February 23, 2018 pursuant to paragraph (b)  
[ ] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)  
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)  
[ ] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)  
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485  
If appropriate, check the following box:  
[ ] This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a
previously filed post-effective amendment.  

 


Vanguard International Stock Index Funds
Prospectus
 
 
February 23, 2018
 
 
Investor Shares & Admiral™ Shares
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Investor Shares (VEURX)
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares (VEUSX)
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Investor Shares (VPACX)
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares (VPADX)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Investor Shares (VEIEX)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares (VEMAX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Funds through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard Fund Summaries   Investing With Vanguard 43
European Stock Index Fund 1 Purchasing Shares 43
Pacific Stock Index Fund 7 Converting Shares 46
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund 13 Redeeming Shares 48
Investing in Index Funds 19 Exchanging Shares 52
More on the Funds 20 Frequent-Trading Limitations 52
The Funds and Vanguard 29 Other Rules You Should Know 54
Investment Advisor 30 Fund and Account Updates 59
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 31 Employer-Sponsored Plans 60
Share Price 34 Contacting Vanguard 61
Financial Highlights 36 Additional Information 62
    Glossary of Investment Terms 64

 


 

Vanguard European Stock Index Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of Europe.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $20/year $20/year
$10,000)    
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Management Fees 0.22% 0.08%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.04% 0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.26% 0.10%

 

1


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Investor Shares $27 $84 $146 $331
Admiral Shares $10 $32 $56 $128

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 4% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 1,258 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, and Norway.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to three countries (the United Kingdom, France, and Germany) subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

3


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Investor Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced European Stock Index reflects performance of the MSCI Europe Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Europe Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Investor Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 26.33% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –23.36% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).

4


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Investor Shares      
Return Before Taxes 26.82% 7.49% 1.60%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 25.97 6.67 0.89
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 15.74 5.77 1.20
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares      
Return Before Taxes 27.05% 7.65% 1.74%
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index 26.83% 8.29% 2.05%
FTSE Developed Europe Index 26.13 7.81 1.71
Spliced European Stock Index 26.83 7.89 1.59
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index 27.28

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Investor Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

5


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Investor Shares or Admiral Shares is $3,000 or $10,000, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

6


 

Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of the Pacific region.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $20/year $20/year
$10,000)    
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Management Fees 0.21% 0.07%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.05% 0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.26% 0.10%

 

7


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Investor Shares $27 $84 $146 $331
Admiral Shares $10 $32 $56 $128

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 2,256 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in Japan, Australia, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

8


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to Japan and Australia subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

9


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Investor Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Pacific Stock Index reflects performance of the MSCI Pacific Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Investor Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 23.90% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –17.89% (quarter ended September 30, 2008).

10


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Investor Shares      
Return Before Taxes 28.39% 9.09% 3.52%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 27.51 8.40 2.96
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 16.53 7.01 2.67
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares      
Return Before Taxes 28.62% 9.25% 3.65%
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index 28.42% 8.99% 3.82%
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index 28.06 9.05 3.84
Spliced Pacific Stock Index 28.42 9.53 3.60
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index 28.94

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Investor Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

11


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Investor Shares or Admiral Shares is $3,000 or $10,000, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

12


 

Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in emerging market countries.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $20/year $20/year
$10,000)    
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Management Fees 0.23% 0.07%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.09% 0.07%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.32% 0.14%

 

13


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Investor Shares $33 $103 $180 $406
Admiral Shares $14 $45 $79 $179

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 4,032 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in emerging markets around the world. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

14


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to China, Taiwan, India, Brazil, and South Africa subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are only available to foreign investors through a quota license or the China Stock Connect program.

Index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund‘s target index.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

15


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Investor Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Emerging Markets Index reflects performance of the Select Emerging Markets Index through August 23, 2006; the MSCI Emerging Markets Index through January 9, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Transition Index through June 27, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Index through November 1, 2015; the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Transition Index through September 18, 2016; and the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Investor Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 34.14% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –27.82% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

16


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Investor Shares      
Return Before Taxes 31.15% 3.31% 1.13%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 30.33 2.58 0.60
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 18.03 2.35 0.79
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares      
Return Before Taxes 31.38% 3.49% 1.29%
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index 31.06%
FTSE Emerging Index 32.13 4.23 1.82
Spliced Emerging Markets Index 31.06 3.73 1.38
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market      
Value Index 31.61

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Investor Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has managed the Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016).

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

17


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Investor Shares or Admiral Shares is $3,000 or $10,000, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

18


 

Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

19


 

More on the Funds

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether a Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Funds’ Investor Shares and Admiral Shares. A separate prospectus offers the Funds’ Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively. In addition, each Fund issues ETF Shares (an exchange-traded class of shares), which are also offered through a separate prospectus.

All share classes offered by a Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that each Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Funds‘ board of trustees, which oversees each Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that each Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, each Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the types of stocks indicated by its name. A Fund may change its 80% policy or indexing strategy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

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Market Exposure

To track their target indexes as closely as possible, the Funds attempt to remain fully invested in the foreign stocks included in their particular indexes.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically
associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate
differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and
governments are not subject to the same accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and
financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S.
government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar
U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond
markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and
regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among
others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign
investments.

 


Each Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

Foreign Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1970–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 69.4% 36.1% 22.0% 15.5%
Worst –43.4 –4.7 0.7 3.1
Average 11.1 9.4 9.5 9.7

 

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The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2017. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Funds in particular.

Keep in mind that the MSCI EAFE Index tracks mainly large- and mid-cap stocks. Historically, small-cap stocks (such as those held by the Funds) have been more volatile than—and at times have performed quite differently from—the large- and mid-cap stocks of the MSCI EAFE Index.

Also note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2008 through 2017, as measured by their respective indexes.

Average Annual Returns for Various Stock Markets1    
  European Pacific Emerging U.S.
  Market2 Market2 Markets2 Market
2008 –46.42% –36.42% –53.33% –37.00%
2009 35.83 24.18 78.51 26.46
2010 3.88 15.92 18.88 15.06
2011 –11.06 –13.74 –18.42 2.11
2012 19.12 14.42 18.22 16.00
2013 25.23 18.27 –2.60 32.39
2014 –6.18 –2.70 –2.19 13.69
2015 –2.84 2.96 –14.92 1.38
2016 –0.40 4.18 11.19 11.96
2017 25.51 24.64 37.28 21.83
1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific
Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured
by the S&P 500 Index.        
2 MSCI Index returns reflect the reinvestment of cash dividends after deduction of withholding tax by applying the maximum
rate of the company’s country of incorporation applicable to institutional investors.    

 

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Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Funds in particular.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors.


Each Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/ regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because each Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/ regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.


The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are only available to foreign investors through a quota license or through the China Stock Connect program.

China A-shares (A-shares) are shares of mainland Chinese companies that are traded locally on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. In order for foreign investors to purchase A-shares, a Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) or Renminbi QFII (RQFII) license and quota are required. The quota available to the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund through a Vanguard entity with an RQFII or QFII license may be limited by a Chinese regulator or the quota use of other Vanguard funds. A-shares are also available to foreign investors through the China Stock Connect program (Stock Connect), subject to separate

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quota limitations. It is possible that the A-shares quota available to the Fund as a foreign investor may not be sufficient to meet the Fund’s investment needs. In this situation, the Fund may underweight A-shares relative to the index or seek an alternative method of economic exposure, such as by purchasing other classes of securities or depositary receipts or by utilizing derivatives. These options could increase the Fund’s index sampling risk or investment cost. Additionally, investing in A-shares generally increases emerging markets risk due in part to government and issuer market controls and the developing settlement and legal systems.

Plain Talk About Regional Versus Broad International Investing
 
Regional funds are international funds that invest in a particular geographical
region, such as Europe or the Pacific Basin. Because they concentrate their
holdings in a single region, these funds typically have higher share price volatility
than broadly diversified international stock funds (which, by investing in many
different foreign markets, may offset losses from one country with gains from
another at any given time).

 

Security Selection

Each Fund attempts to track the investment performance of a benchmark index that measures the return of a particular market segment. Vanguard European Stock Index Fund and Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund use the replication method of indexing, meaning that each Fund generally holds the same stocks as its target index and in approximately the same proportions. Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund uses the sampling method of indexing, meaning that the Fund’s advisor, using computer programs, selects from the target index a representative sample of securities that will resemble the target index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, and other financial characteristics of stocks.

European Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 1,258 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries. Three countries—the United Kingdom, France, and Germany—represent a large portion of the Index. The other countries represented in the Index are much less significant to the Index and, consequently, to the Fund. The Fund’s heavy exposure to three countries subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Pacific Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 2,256 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap Pacific Basin companies. The Japanese

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and Australian stock markets represent a large portion of the Index. The three other markets represented in the Index are South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The Fund’s large investment in the Japanese and Australian stock markets subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, which is made up of approximately 4,032 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in emerging markets around the world and is part of the FTSE China A Inclusion indexes, which contain FTSE China A All Cap Index securities adjusted for the aggregate approved QFII and RQFII quotas available to foreign investors. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

Emerging markets can be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than both U.S. markets and more developed foreign markets. Therefore, the Fund may expose investors to a higher degree of volatility and illiquidity than funds that invest in more developed markets.

Depositary receipts. Each Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, each Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, a Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. A Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. Each Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.

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Other Investment Policies and Risks

Each Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

Each Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Funds to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Funds will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns. The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund may use derivatives as an alternative method of economic exposure to China A-shares.

Each Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Funds may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Each Fund’s target index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider that currently manages and calculates more than 120,000 indexes daily.

Cash Management

Each Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, each Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Under normal circumstances, each Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with other positive cash flows. When this is not an option, each Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions,

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while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, a Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the

Investing With Vanguard section.

Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that each Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. A Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, a Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

Each Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The

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board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although each Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, a Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Funds. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that a Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period.

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Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with
high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-
term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to
shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

The Funds and Vanguard

Each Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.4 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

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Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Funds through its Equity Index Group. As of October 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.8 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Funds on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Funds.

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of each Fund’s average net assets as follows: for the Pacific Stock Index Fund, 0.02%; for the European Stock and Emerging Markets Stock Index Funds, 0.01%.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Funds‘ board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant change in a Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Funds‘ sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to a Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Funds have filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Funds may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved each Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual reports to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are:

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.

Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

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Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1999, has managed investment portfolios since 2010, and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund and the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., The Pennsylvania State University; M.B.A., Drexel University.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, has managed the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016), and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Funds.

Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

Each Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, each Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.

From time to time, a Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.

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Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Funds‘ normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you

complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

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Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

Each Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of a Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan),
you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund
makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.

• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

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Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Funds offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most

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commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose reports—along with each Fund’s financial statements—are included in the Funds‘ most recent annual reports to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual reports by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the European Stock Index Fund’s Investor Shares as an
example. The Investor Shares began fiscal year 2017 with a net asset value (share
price) of $25.27 per share. During the year, each Investor Share earned $0.827
from investment income (interest and dividends) and $6.109 from investments
that had appreciated in value or that were sold for higher prices than the Fund
paid for them.
 
Shareholders received $0.766 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $31.44, reflecting earnings of $6.936
per share and distributions of $0.766 per share. This was an increase of $6.17 per
share (from $25.27 at the beginning of the year to $31.44 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 27.77% for the year.
 
As of October 31, 2017, the Investor Shares had approximately $701 million in net
assets. For the year, the expense ratio was 0.26% ($2.60 per $1,000 of net
assets), and the net investment income amounted to 2.81% of average net
assets. The Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 4% of its net assets.

 

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European Stock Index Fund Investor Shares          
 
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $25.27 $27.98 $29.05 $30.42 $24.69
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .8271 .881 .866 1.2352 .830
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 6.109 (2.738) (1.058) (1.380) 5.800
Total from Investment Operations 6.936 (1.857) (.192) (.145) 6.630
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.766) (.853) (.878) (1.225) (.900)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.766) (.853) (.878) (1.225) (.900)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $31.44 $25.27 $27.98 $29.05 $30.42
 
Total Return3 27.77% –6.63% –0.77% –0.73% 27.47%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $701 $608 $730 $782 $868
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.26% 0.26% 0.26% 0.26% 0.26%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.81% 3.35% 3.05% 4.12%2 3.02%
Portfolio Turnover Rate4 4% 6% 13% 7% 10%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $0.299 and
0.97%, respectively, resulting from income received from Vodafone Group plc in the form of cash and shares in Verizon
Communications Inc. in February 2014.          
3 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.    
4 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the
Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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European Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares        
 
 
 
For a Share Outstanding       Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $58.85 $65.16 $67.64 $70.85 $57.54
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 2.0161 2.151 2.113 2.9832 2.026
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 14.251 (6.379) (2.454) (3.233) 13.503
Total from Investment Operations 16.267 (4.228) (.341) (.250) 15.529
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (1.887) (2.082) (2.139) (2.960) (2.219)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (1.887) (2.082) (2.139) (2.960) (2.219)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $73.23 $58.85 $65.16 $67.64 $70.85
Total Return3 27.99% –6.48% –0.61% –0.61% 27.64%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $4,754 $3,609 $4,137 $3,949 $3,340
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.10% 0.10% 0.12% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.97% 3.51% 3.19% 4.26%2 3.16%
Portfolio Turnover Rate4 4% 6% 13% 7% 10%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $0.695 and 0.97%,
respectively, resulting from income received from Vodafone Group plc in the form of cash and shares in Verizon  
Communications Inc. in February 2014.          
3 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.    
4 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the
Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

38


 

Pacific Stock Index Fund Investor Shares          
 
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $11.42 $10.99 $11.59 $11.76 $9.63
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .2951 .257 .258 .282 .246
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 2.141 .426 (.612 ) (.147) 2.187
Total from Investment Operations 2.436 .683 (.354 ) .135 2.433
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.296) (.253) (.246 ) (.305) (.303)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.296) (.253) (.246 ) (.305) (.303)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $13.56 $11.42 $10.99 $11.59 $11.76
Total Return2 21.71% 6.40% –3.07% 1.21% 25.72%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $296 $281 $309 $360 $398
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.26% 0.26% 0.26% 0.26% 0.26%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.44% 2.39% 2.26% 2.45% 2.27%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 3% 4% 14% 5% 22%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.    
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the
Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

39


 

Pacific Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares          
 
 
For a Share Outstanding       Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $74.10 $71.30 $75.19 $76.32 $62.54
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 2.0491 1.781 1.783 1.937 1.695
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 13.876 2.763 (3.963) (.982) 14.194
Total from Investment Operations 15.925 4.544 (2.180) .955 15.889
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (2.055) (1.744 ) (1.710) (2.085) (2.109)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (2.055) (1.744 ) (1.710) (2.085) (2.109)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $87.97 $74.10 $71.30 $75.19 $76.32
Total Return2 21.90% 6.57% –2.92% 1.32% 25.89%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $2,388 $1,983 $1,981 $2,032 $1,832
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.10% 0.10% 0.12% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.60% 2.55% 2.40% 2.59% 2.41%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 3% 4% 14% 5% 22%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.    
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

40


 

Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Investor Shares        
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $23.85 $22.16 $27.02 $26.78 $26.36
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .6011 .530 .642 .672 .667
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 4.302 1.691 (4.865) .271 .548
Total from Investment Operations 4.903 2.221 (4.223) .943 1.215
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.593) (.531) (.637) (.703) (.795)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.593) (.531) (.637) (.703) (.795)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $28.16 $23.85 $22.16 $27.02 $26.78
Total Return2 20.76% 10.21% –15.74% 3.59% 4.78%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $1,738 $1,570 $1,573 $2,063 $2,181
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.32% 0.32% 0.33% 0.33% 0.33%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.38% 2.50% 2.53% 2.56% 2.45%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 6% 13% 7% 9% 26%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.    
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the
Fund’s capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

41


 

Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Admiral Shares        
 
 
      Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding          
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $31.33 $29.10 $35.49 $35.17 $34.65
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .8601 .747 .903 .946 .940
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 5.645 2.222 (6.394) .361 .709
Total from Investment Operations 6.505 2.969 (5.491) 1.307 1.649
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.845) (.739) (.899) (.987) (1.129)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.845) (.739) (.899) (.987) (1.129)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $36.99 $31.33 $29.10 $35.49 $35.17
Total Return2 21.00% 10.41% –15.60% 3.79% 4.94%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $12,585 $9,166 $8,060 $8,870 $6,959
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.14% 0.14% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.56% 2.68% 2.71% 2.74% 2.63%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 6% 13% 7% 9% 26%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Total returns do not include account service fees that may have applied in the periods shown.    
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

42


 

Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Investor Shares To open and maintain an account. $3,000.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

Account Minimums for Admiral Shares

To open and maintain an account. $10,000. If you request Admiral Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for Admiral Shares, your investment will be placed in Investor Shares of the Fund. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

43


 

How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for Funds and share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

44


 

Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the net asset value (NAV) as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account falls on the last business day of the year, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you select the first of the month for automated withdrawals from your designated bank account, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

45


 

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Admiral Shares. Admiral Shares generally are not available for SIMPLE IRAs and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using

46


 

the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions From Investor Shares to Admiral Shares

Self-directed conversions. If your account balance in a Fund is at least $10,000, you may ask Vanguard to convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. See Contacting Vanguard. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

Automatic conversions. Vanguard conducts periodic reviews of account balances and may, if your account balance in a Fund exceeds $10,000, automatically convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You will be notified before an automatic conversion occurs and will have an opportunity to instruct Vanguard not to effect the conversion. Financial intermediaries, institutional, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares. If you are investing through an intermediary, please contact that firm directly for more information regarding your eligibility.

Conversions to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares

You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from another share class to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the same Fund, provided that your account meets all eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares will not be automatically converted.

Conversions to ETF Shares

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by a Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those

47


 

shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.

Mandatory Conversions to Another Share Class

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for a share class, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to another share class, as appropriate. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or

48


 

fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and your fund account will also be assessed the $10 fee by redeeming additional fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the fee amount. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern

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time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on the last day of the year and if that date is a holiday, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you designate the first of the month for automated withdrawals, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

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If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by a Fund within one business day of the trade date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Share certificates. Share certificates are no longer issued for Vanguard funds. Shares currently held in certificates cannot be redeemed, exchanged, converted, or transferred (reregistered) until you return the certificates (unsigned) to Vanguard by registered mail. For the correct address, see Contacting Vanguard.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 15-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of

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all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a

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fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

• Reregistrations of shares.

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• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request

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individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

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Written instructions also must generally include:

• An original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions may be acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

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Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Account Service Fee

Vanguard charges a $20 account service fee on fund accounts that have a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation. The account service fee applies to both retirement and nonretirement fund accounts and will be assessed on fund accounts in all Vanguard funds, regardless of the account minimum. The fee, which will be collected by redeeming fund shares in the amount of $20, will be deducted from a fund account only once per calendar year.

If you register on vanguard.com and elect to receive electronic delivery of statements, reports, and other materials for all of your fund accounts, the account service fee for balances below $10,000 will not be charged, so long as that election remains in effect.

The account service fee also does not apply to the following:

• Money market sweep accounts owned in connection with a Vanguard Brokerage Services® account.*

• Accounts held through intermediaries.*

• Accounts held by institutional clients.

• Accounts held by Voyager, Voyager Select, Flagship, and Flagship Select clients.

Eligibility is based on total household assets held at Vanguard, with a minimum of $50,000 to qualify for Vanguard Voyager Services®, $500,000 for Vanguard Voyager Select Services®, $1 million for Vanguard Flagship Services®, and $5 million for Vanguard Flagship Select Services. Vanguard determines eligibility by aggregating assets of all qualifying accounts held by the investor and immediate family members who reside at the same address. Aggregate assets include investments in Vanguard mutual funds, Vanguard ETFs®, certain annuities through Vanguard, the Vanguard 529 Plan, and certain small-business accounts. Assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which Vanguard provides recordkeeping services may be included in

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determining eligibility if the investor also has a personal account holding Vanguard mutual funds. Note that assets held in a Vanguard Brokerage Services account (other than Vanguard funds, including Vanguard ETFs) are not included when determining a household’s eligibility.

• Participant accounts in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans.** Please consult your enrollment materials for the rules that apply to your account.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

* Please note that intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services, may charge a separate fee.

** The following Vanguard fund accounts have alternative fee structures: SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Low-Balance Accounts

Each Fund reserves the right to liquidate a fund account whose balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. This liquidation policy applies to nonretirement fund accounts and accounts that are held through intermediaries. Any such liquidation will be preceded by written notice to the investor.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

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Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

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Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard International Stock Index Funds twice a year, in June and December. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Funds‘ Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Employer-Sponsored Plans

Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect a Fund as an investment option.

• If you have any questions about a Fund or Vanguard, including those about a Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.

• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.

• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.

Transactions

Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to a Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.

If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Participant Services 800-523-1188 For information and services for participants in employer-
(Text telephone for people with hearing sponsored plans
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102  
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies

 

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Vanguard Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the processing of your transaction.

Regular Mail (Individuals) The Vanguard Group    
  P.O. Box 1110    
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110  
Regular Mail (Institutions, Intermediaries, and The Vanguard Group    
Employer-Sponsored Plan Participants) P.O. Box 2900    
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900  
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail The Vanguard Group    
  455 Devon Park Drive    
  Wayne, PA 19087-1815  
 
Additional Information        
 
  Inception Newspaper Vanguard CUSIP
  Date Abbreviation Fund Number Number
European Stock Index Fund        
Investor Shares 6/18/1990 Europe 79 922042205
Admiral Shares 8/13/2001 EuropeAdml 579 922042809
Pacific Stock Index Fund        
Investor Shares 6/18/1990 Pacific 72 922042106
Admiral Shares 8/13/2001 PacifAdml 572 922042700
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund        
Investor Shares 5/4/1994 EmerMkt 533 922042304
Admiral Shares 6/23/2006 EmMkAdml 5533 922042841

 

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CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

London Stock Exchange Group companies include FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®”, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence. All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the Indices or the fitness or suitability of the Indices for any particular purpose to which they might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index. An index that consists of approximately 836 common stocks of companies located in Japan, Australia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand.

FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

FTSE Developed Europe Index. An index that is made up of approximately 511 common stocks of companies located in 17 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

64


 

FTSE Emerging Index. A market-capitalization-weighted index representing large- and mid-cap stocks of companies located in emerging markets around the world.

FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Joint Committed Credit Facility. Each Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the fund’s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.

Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time.

65


 

Price/Earnings (P/E) Ratio. The current share price of a stock, divided by its per-share earnings (profits). A stock selling for $20, with earnings of $2 per share, has a price/earnings ratio of 10.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

66


 

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  P.O. Box 2600
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600
 
 
 
 
Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
For More Information If you are a participant in an employer-sponsored plan:
If you would like more information about Vanguard The Vanguard Group
International Stock Index Funds, the following Participant Services
documents are available free upon request: P.O. Box 2900
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders Telephone: 800-523-1188; Text telephone for people
Additional information about the Funds’ investments is with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
available in the Funds’ annual and semiannual reports  
to shareholders. In the annual reports, you will find a If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would
discussion of the market conditions and investment like information about your account, account
strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ transactions, and/or account statements, please call:
performance during their last fiscal year. Client Services Department
Statement of Additional Information (SAI) Telephone: 800-662-2739; Text telephone for people
The SAI provides more detailed information about with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
the Funds and is incorporated by reference into (and Information Provided by the Securities and
thus legally a part of) this prospectus. Exchange Commission (SEC)
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual You can review and copy information about the Funds
reports or the SAI, or to request additional information (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
about the Funds or other Vanguard funds, please visit in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
vanguard.com or contact us as follows: service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
  other information about the Funds are also available in
If you are an individual investor: the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
The Vanguard Group www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
Investor Information Department information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
P.O. Box 2600 following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600 writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
Telephone: 800-662-7447; Text telephone for people Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273  
  Funds’ Investment Company Act file number: 811-05972

 

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

P 072 022018


Vanguard FTSE Europe ETF
Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF
Vanguard FTSE Emerging Markets ETF
Prospectus
 
February 23, 2018
 
 
Exchange-traded fund shares that are not individually redeemable and are listed
on NYSE Arca
 
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund ETF Shares (VGK)
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund ETF Shares (VPL)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund ETF Shares (VWO)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Funds through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard ETF Summaries   More on the Funds and ETF Shares 23
FTSE Europe ETF 1 The Funds and Vanguard 35
FTSE Pacific ETF 7 Investment Advisor 35
FTSE Emerging Markets ETF 13 Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 37
Investing in Vanguard ETF Shares 20 Share Price and Market Price 39
Investing in Index Funds 22 Additional Information 40
    Financial Highlights 41
    Glossary of Investment Terms 46

 


 

Vanguard FTSE Europe ETF

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of Europe.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees   0.07%
12b-1 Distribution Fee   None
Other Expenses   0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses   0.10%

 

1


 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$10 $32 $56 $128

 

This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 4% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 1,258 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, and Norway.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to three countries (the United Kingdom, France, and Germany) subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:

• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.

• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.

• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NYSE Arca without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NYSE Arca officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

3


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s ETF Shares (based on NAV) has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the ETF Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced European Stock Index reflects performance of the MSCI Europe Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Europe Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard European Stock Index Fund ETF Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 26.37% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –23.35% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).

4


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund ETF Shares      
Based on NAV      
Return Before Taxes 27.06% 7.67% 1.75%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 26.16 6.80 0.99
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 15.90 5.90 1.31
Based on Market Price      
Return Before Taxes 26.97 7.46 1.71
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index 26.83% 8.29% 2.05%
FTSE Developed Europe Index 26.13 7.81 1.71
Spliced European Stock Index 26.83 7.89 1.59
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index 27.28

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

5


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You can buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 100,000.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

6


 

Vanguard FTSE Pacific ETF

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of the Pacific region.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees   0.07%
12b-1 Distribution Fee   None
Other Expenses   0.03%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses   0.10%

 

7


 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$10 $32 $56 $128

 

This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 2,256 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in Japan, Australia, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

8


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to Japan and Australia subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:

• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.

• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.

• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NYSE Arca without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NYSE Arca officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

9


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s ETF Shares (based on NAV) has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the ETF Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Pacific Stock Index reflects performance of the MSCI Pacific Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund ETF Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 23.96% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –17.86% (quarter ended September 30, 2008).

10


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund ETF Shares      
Based on NAV      
Return Before Taxes 28.60% 9.25% 3.65%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 27.66 8.51 3.05
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 16.68 7.13 2.78
Based on Market Price      
Return Before Taxes 28.78 9.20 3.66
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index 28.42% 8.99% 3.82%
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index 28.06 9.05 3.84
Spliced Pacific Stock Index 28.42 9.53 3.60
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index 28.94

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

11


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You can buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 100,000.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

12


 

Vanguard FTSE Emerging Markets ETF

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in emerging market countries.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares None through Vanguard  
  (Broker fees vary)  
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
 
Management Fees   0.07%
12b-1 Distribution Fee   None
Other Expenses   0.07%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses   0.14%

 

13


 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$14 $45 $79 $179

 

This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 4,032 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in emerging markets around the world. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

14


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to China, Taiwan, India, Brazil, and South Africa subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are only available to foreign investors through a quota license or the China Stock Connect program.

Index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund‘s target index.

15


 

Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:

• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.

• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.

• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NYSE Arca without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NYSE Arca officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

16


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s ETF Shares (based on NAV) has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the ETF Shares compare with those of the Fund’s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Emerging Markets Index reflects performance of the Select Emerging Markets Index through August 23, 2006; the MSCI Emerging Markets Index through January 9, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Transition Index through June 27, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Index through November 1, 2015; the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Transition Index through September 18, 2016; and the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund ETF Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 34.17% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –27.82% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

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Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund ETF Shares      
Based on NAV      
Return Before Taxes 31.38% 3.50% 1.29%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 30.49 2.71 0.71
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 18.18 2.48 0.90
Based on Market Price      
Return Before Taxes 31.48 3.36 1.31
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index 31.06%
FTSE Emerging Index 32.13 4.23 1.82
Spliced Emerging Markets Index 31.06 3.73 1.38
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market      
Value Index 31.61

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

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Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has managed the Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016).

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You can buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 200,000.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

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Investing in Vanguard ETF® Shares

What Are Vanguard ETF Shares?

Vanguard ETF Shares are an exchange-traded class of shares issued by certain Vanguard mutual funds. ETF Shares represent an interest in the portfolio of stocks or bonds held by the issuing fund. The following ETF Shares are offered through this prospectus:

Vanguard Fund Vanguard ETF Shares Seeks to Track
European Stock Index Fund FTSE Europe ETF Developed European
    stock markets
Pacific Stock Index Fund FTSE Pacific ETF Developed Australian and Far
    East stock markets
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund FTSE Emerging Markets ETF Emerging stock markets
    in Europe, Asia, Africa, and
    Latin America

 

In addition to ETF Shares, each Fund offers four conventional (not exchange-traded) classes of shares. This prospectus, however, relates only to ETF Shares.

How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?

Conventional mutual fund shares can be directly purchased from and redeemed with the issuing fund for cash at the net asset value (NAV), typically calculated once a day. ETF Shares, by contrast, cannot be purchased directly from or redeemed directly with the issuing fund by an individual investor. Rather, ETF Shares can only be purchased or redeemed directly from the issuing fund by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, usually in exchange for baskets of securities and not for cash (although some funds issue and redeem Creation Units in exchange for cash or a combination of cash and securities).

An organized secondary trading market is expected to exist for ETF Shares, unlike conventional mutual fund shares, because ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Individual investors can purchase and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker. Secondary-market transactions occur not at NAV, but at market prices that are subject to change throughout the day based on the supply of and demand for ETF Shares, changes in the prices of the fund’s portfolio holdings, and other factors.

The market price of a fund’s ETF Shares typically will differ somewhat from the NAV of those shares. The difference between market price and NAV is expected to be small most of the time, but in times of market disruption or extreme market volatility, the difference may become significant.

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How Do I Buy and Sell Vanguard ETF Shares?

ETF Shares of the Funds are listed for trading on NYSE Arca. You can buy and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market in the same way you buy and sell any other exchange-traded security—through a broker. Your broker may charge a commission to execute a transaction. You will also incur the cost of the “bid-ask spread,” which is the difference between the price a dealer will pay for a security and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer will sell the same security. Because secondary-market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares and receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread and premiums/ discounts can increase significantly. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of ETF Shares you must buy.

Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive income and capital gains distributions, as well as shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

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Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

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More on the Funds and ETF Shares

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether a Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Funds‘ ETF Shares, an exchange-traded class of shares. A separate prospectus offers the Funds‘ Investor Shares and AdmiralTM Shares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000 and $10,000, respectively. Another prospectus offers the Funds‘ Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively.

All share classes offered by a Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

A Note to Investors

Vanguard ETF Shares can be purchased directly from the issuing Fund only by authorized broker-dealers in exchange for a basket of securities (or, in some cases, for cash or a combination of cash and securities) that is expected to be worth several million dollars. Most individual investors, therefore, will not be able to purchase ETF Shares directly from a Fund. Instead, these investors will purchase ETF Shares on the secondary market with the assistance of a broker.

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

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The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that each Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Funds’ board of trustees, which oversees each Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that each Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, each Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the types of stocks indicated by its name. A Fund may change its 80% policy or indexing strategy only upon 60 days’ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

To track their target indexes as closely as possible, the Funds attempt to remain fully invested in the foreign stocks included in their particular indexes.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically
associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate
differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and
governments are not subject to the same accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and
financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S.
government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar
U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond
markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and
regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among
others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign
investments.

 


Each Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

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To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

Foreign Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1970–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 69.4% 36.1% 22.0% 15.5%
Worst –43.4 –4.7 0.7 3.1
Average 11.1 9.4 9.5 9.7

 

The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2017. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Funds in particular.

Keep in mind that the MSCI EAFE Index tracks mainly large- and mid-cap stocks. Historically, small-cap stocks (such as those held by the Funds) have been more volatile than—and at times have performed quite differently from—the large- and mid-cap stocks of the MSCI EAFE Index.

Also note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2008 through 2017, as measured by their respective indexes.

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Average Annual Returns for Various Stock Markets1    
  European Pacific Emerging U.S.
  Market2 Market2 Markets2 Market
2008 –46.42% –36.42% –53.33% –37.00%
2009 35.83 24.18 78.51 26.46
2010 3.88 15.92 18.88 15.06
2011 –11.06 –13.74 –18.42 2.11
2012 19.12 14.42 18.22 16.00
2013 25.23 18.27 –2.60 32.39
2014 –6.18 –2.70 –2.19 13.69
2015 –2.84 2.96 –14.92 1.38
2016 –0.40 4.18 11.19 11.96
2017 25.51 24.64 37.28 21.83
1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific
Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured
by the S&P 500 Index.        
2 MSCI Index returns reflect the reinvestment of cash dividends after deduction of withholding tax by applying the maximum
rate of the company’s country of incorporation applicable to institutional investors.    

 

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Funds in particular.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors.

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Each Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/ regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because each Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/ regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.


The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are only available to foreign investors through a quota license or through the China Stock Connect program.

China A-shares (A-shares) are shares of mainland Chinese companies that are traded locally on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. In order for foreign investors to purchase A-shares, a Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) or Renminbi QFII (RQFII) license and quota are required. The quota available to the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund through a Vanguard entity with an RQFII or QFII license may be limited by a Chinese regulator or the quota use of other Vanguard funds. A-shares are also available to foreign investors through the China Stock Connect program (Stock Connect), subject to separate quota limitations. It is possible that the A-shares quota available to the Fund as a foreign investor may not be sufficient to meet the Fund’s investment needs. In this situation, the Fund may underweight A-shares relative to the index or seek an alternative method of economic exposure, such as by purchasing other classes of securities or depositary receipts or by utilizing derivatives. These options could increase the Fund’s index sampling risk or investment cost. Additionally, investing in A-shares generally increases emerging markets risk due in part to government and issuer market controls and the developing settlement and legal systems.

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Plain Talk About Regional Versus Broad International Investing
 
Regional funds are international funds that invest in a particular geographical
region, such as Europe or the Pacific Basin. Because they concentrate their
holdings in a single region, these funds typically have higher share price volatility
than broadly diversified international stock funds (which, by investing in many
different foreign markets, may offset losses from one country with gains from
another at any given time).

 

Security Selection

Each Fund attempts to track the investment performance of a benchmark index that measures the return of a particular market segment. Vanguard European Stock Index Fund and Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund use the replication method of indexing, meaning that each Fund generally holds the same stocks as its target index and in approximately the same proportions. Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund uses the sampling method of indexing, meaning that the Fund’s advisor, using computer programs, selects from the target index a representative sample of securities that will resemble the target index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, and other financial characteristics of stocks.

European Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 1,258 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries. Three countries—the United Kingdom, France, and Germany—represent a large portion of the Index. The other countries represented in the Index are much less significant to the Index and, consequently, to the Fund. The Fund’s heavy exposure to three countries subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Pacific Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 2,256 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap Pacific Basin companies. The Japanese and Australian stock markets represent a large portion of the Index. The three other markets represented in the Index are South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The Fund’s large investment in the Japanese and Australian stock markets subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, which is made up of approximately 4,032 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap

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companies located in emerging markets around the world and is part of the FTSE China A Inclusion indexes, which contain FTSE China A All Cap Index securities adjusted for the aggregate approved QFII and RQFII quotas available to foreign investors. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

Emerging markets can be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than both U.S. markets and more developed foreign markets. Therefore, the Fund may expose investors to a higher degree of volatility and illiquidity than funds that invest in more developed markets.

Depositary receipts. Each Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, each Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, a Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. A Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. Each Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

Each Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

Each Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Funds to risks different

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from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Funds will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns. The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund may use derivatives as an alternative method of economic exposure to China A-shares.

Each Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Funds may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Each Fund’s target index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider that currently manages and calculates more than 120,000 indexes daily.

Cash Management

Each Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, each Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Redemptions of ETF Shares are typically met through a combination of cash and securities held by each Fund; see “How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?” If cash is used to meet redemptions, the Fund typically obtains such cash through positive cash flows or the sale of Fund holdings consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and strategy. Please consult the Funds‘ Statement of Additional Information for further information on redemptions of ETF Shares.

Under certain circumstances, a Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

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Temporary Investment Measures

Each Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Special Risks of Exchange-Traded Shares


ETF Shares are not individually redeemable. They can be redeemed with the issuing Fund at NAV only by authorized broker-dealers and only in large blocks known as Creation Units, which would cost millions of dollars to assemble. Consequently, if you want to liquidate some or all of your ETF Shares, you must sell them on the secondary market at prevailing market prices.


The market price of ETF Shares may differ from NAV. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its NAV, there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. These discounts and premiums are likely to be greatest during times of market disruption or extreme market volatility.

Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com shows the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for each Fund’s ETF Shares. The website also discloses, in the Premium/Discount Analysis section of the ETF Shares’ Price & Performance page, how frequently each Fund’s ETF Shares traded at a premium or discount to NAV (based on closing NAVs and market prices) and the magnitudes of such premiums and discounts.


An active trading market may not exist. Although Vanguard ETF Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained. Although this could happen at any time, it is more likely to occur during times of severe market disruption. If you attempt to sell your ETF Shares when an active trading market is not functioning, you may have to sell at a significant discount to NAV. In extreme cases, you may not be able to sell your shares at all.

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Trading may be halted. Trading of Vanguard ETF Shares on an exchange may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from the listing exchange without first being listed on another exchange or (2) exchange officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

Conversion Privilege

Owners of conventional shares issued by a Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

You must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm. To initiate a conversion of conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact your broker.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from Vanguard conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege.

Converting conventional shares to ETF Shares is generally accomplished as follows. First, after your broker notifies Vanguard of your request to convert, Vanguard will transfer your conventional shares from your account to the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard (an account maintained by the broker on behalf of all its customers who hold conventional Vanguard fund shares through the broker). After the transfer, Vanguard’s records will reflect your broker, not you, as the owner of the shares. Next, your broker will instruct Vanguard to convert the appropriate number or dollar amount of conventional shares in its omnibus account to ETF Shares of equivalent value, based on the respective NAVs of the two share classes.

Your Fund’s transfer agent will reflect ownership of all ETF Shares in the name of the Depository Trust Company (DTC). The DTC will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to your broker, and your broker, in turn, will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to you.

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Because the DTC is unable to handle fractional shares, only whole shares can be converted. For example, if you owned 300.25 conventional shares, and this was equivalent in value to 90.75 ETF Shares, the DTC account would receive 90 ETF Shares. Conventional shares with a value equal to 0.75 ETF Shares (in this example, that would be 2.481 conventional shares) would remain in the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard. Your broker then could either (1) credit your account with 0.75 ETF Shares or (2) redeem the 2.481 conventional shares for cash at NAV and deliver that cash to your account. If your broker chose to redeem your conventional shares, you would realize a gain or loss on the redemption that must be reported on your tax return (unless you hold the shares in an IRA or other tax-deferred account). Please consult your broker for information on how it will handle the conversion process, including whether it will impose a fee to process a conversion.

If you convert your conventional shares to ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage, all conventional shares for which you request conversion will be converted to ETF Shares of equivalent value. Because no fractional shares will have to be sold, the transaction will not be taxable.

Here are some important points to keep in mind when converting conventional shares of a Vanguard fund to ETF Shares:

• The conversion process can take anywhere from several days to several weeks, depending on your broker. Vanguard generally will process conversion requests either on the day they are received or on the next business day. Vanguard imposes conversion blackout windows around the dates when a fund with ETF Shares declares dividends. This is necessary to prevent a shareholder from collecting a dividend from both the conventional share class currently held and also from the ETF share class to which the shares will be converted.

• Until the conversion process is complete, you will remain fully invested in a fund’s conventional shares, and your investment will increase or decrease in value in tandem with the NAV of those shares.

• The conversion transaction is nontaxable except, if applicable, to the very limited extent previously described.

A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard.

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Frequent Trading and Market-Timing

Unlike frequent trading of a Vanguard fund’s conventional (i.e., not exchange-traded) classes of shares, frequent trading of ETF Shares does not disrupt portfolio management, increase the fund’s trading costs, lead to realization of capital gains by the fund, or otherwise harm fund shareholders. The vast majority of trading in ETF Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because these trades do not involve the issuing fund, they do not harm the fund or its shareholders. Authorized broker-dealers are authorized to purchase and redeem ETF Shares directly with the issuing fund. Because these trades typically are effected in kind (i.e., for securities and not for cash), they do not cause any of the harmful effects to the issuing fund (as previously noted) that may result from frequent cash trades. For these reasons, the board of trustees of each fund that issues ETF Shares has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing of ETF Shares.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Funds‘ Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Turnover Rate

Although each Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, a Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Funds. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that a Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with
high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-
term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to
shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

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The Funds and Vanguard

Each Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.4 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Funds through its Equity Index Group. As of October 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.8 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Funds on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Funds.

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of each Fund’s average net assets as follows: for the Pacific Stock Index Fund, 0.02%; for the European Stock and Emerging Markets Stock Index Funds, 0.01%.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Funds‘ board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant

35


 

change in a Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Funds‘ sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to a Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Funds have filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Funds may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved each Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual reports to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are:

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.

Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1999, has managed investment portfolios since 2010, and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund and the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., The Pennsylvania State University; M.B.A., Drexel University.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, has managed the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016), and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Funds.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

Each Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, each Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

From time to time, a Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Reinvestment of Distributions

In order to reinvest dividend and capital gains distributions, investors in a Fund’s ETF Shares must hold their shares at a broker that offers a reinvestment service. This can be the broker’s own service or a service made available by a third party, such as the broker’s outside clearing firm or the Depository Trust Company (DTC). If a reinvestment service is available, distributions of income and capital gains can automatically be reinvested in additional whole and fractional ETF Shares of the Fund. If a reinvestment service is not available, investors will receive their distributions in cash. To determine whether a reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, consult your broker.

As with all exchange-traded funds, reinvestment of dividend and capital gains distributions in additional ETF Shares will occur four business days or more after the

37


 

ex-dividend date (the date when a distribution of dividends or capital gains is deducted from the price of a Fund’s shares). The exact number of days depends on your broker. During that time, the amount of your distribution will not be invested in the Fund and therefore will not share in the Fund’s income, gains, and losses.

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional ETF Shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your ETF Shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned ETF Shares.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Funds‘ normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale of ETF Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale of ETF Shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale of ETF Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

Each Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of a Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or

38


 

savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Share Price and Market Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Remember: If you buy or sell ETF Shares on the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price, which may be higher or lower than NAV. Your transaction will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem your ETF Shares in Creation Unit blocks (an option available only to certain authorized broker-dealers) or if you convert your conventional fund shares to ETF Shares.

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism,

39


 

interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard’s website will show the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for each Fund’s ETF Shares.

Additional Information      
 
 
    Vanguard CUSIP
  Inception Date Fund Number Number
European Stock Index Fund      
ETF Shares 3/4/2005 963 922042874
  (Investor Shares    
  6/18/1990)    
Pacific Stock Index Fund      
ETF Shares 3/4/2005 962 922042866
  (Investor Shares    
  6/18/1990)    
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund      
ETF Shares 3/4/2005 964 922042858
  (Investor Shares    
  5/4/1994)    

 

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose reports—along with each Fund’s financial statements—are included in the Funds‘ most recent annual reports to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual reports by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the European Stock Index Fund’s ETF Shares as an
example. The ETF Shares began fiscal year 2017 with a net asset value (share
price) of $47.05 per share. During the year, each ETF Share earned $1.567 from
investment income (interest and dividends) and $11.434 from investments that
had appreciated in value or that were sold for higher prices than the Fund paid for
them.
 
Shareholders received $1.511 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $58.54, reflecting earnings of $13.001
per share and distributions of $1.511 per share. This was an increase of $11.49 per
share (from $47.05 at the beginning of the year to $58.54 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 27.98% for the year.
 
As of October 31, 2017, the ETF Shares had approximately $17.9 billion in net
assets. For the year, the expense ratio was 0.10% ($1.00 per $1,000 of net
assets), and the net investment income amounted to 2.97% of average net
assets. The Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 4% of its net assets.

 

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European Stock Index Fund ETF Shares          
 
 
      Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding          
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $47.05 $52.09 $54.08 $56.64 $46.01
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 1.5671 1.717 1.691 2.3842 1.626
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 11.434 (5.094) (1.970) (2.577) 10.787
Total from Investment Operations 13.001 (3.377) (.279) (.193) 12.413
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (1.511) (1.663) (1.711) (2.367) (1.783)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (1.511) (1.663) (1.711) (2.367) (1.783)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $58.54 $47.05 $52.09 $54.08 $56.64
Total Return 27.98% –6.43% –0.62% –0.60% 27.67%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $17,880 $10,533 $15,578 $11,676 $12,061
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.10% 0.10% 0.12% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.97% 3.51% 3.19% 4.26%2 3.16%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 4% 6% 13% 7% 10%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $0.556 and 0.97%,
respectively, resulting from income received from Vodafone Group plc in the form of cash and shares in Verizon  
Communications Inc. in February 2014.          
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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Pacific Stock Index Fund ETF Shares          
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $59.92 $57.65 $60.80 $61.71 $50.57
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 1.6771 1.440 1.443 1.568 1.372
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 11.195 2.240 (3.210) (.791) 11.475
Total from Investment Operations 12.872 3.680 (1.767) .777 12.847
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (1.662) (1.410) (1.383) (1.687) (1.707)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (1.662) (1.410) (1.383) (1.687) (1.707)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $71.13 $59.92 $57.65 $60.80 $61.71
Total Return 21.89% 6.59% –2.93% 1.31% 25.88%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $5,015 $3,217 $2,931 $2,760 $2,645
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.10% 0.10% 0.12% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.60% 2.55% 2.40% 2.59% 2.41%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 3% 4% 14% 5% 22%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund ETF Shares        
 
 
For a Share Outstanding       Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $37.67 $34.98 $42.66 $42.28 $41.65
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 1.0351 .900 1.086 1.137 1.129
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 6.781 2.679 (7.685) .428 .860
Total from Investment Operations 7.816 3.579 (6.599) 1.565 1.989
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (1.016) (.889) (1.081) (1.185) (1.359)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (1.016) (.889) (1.081) (1.185) (1.359)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $44.47 $37.67 $34.98 $42.66 $42.28
Total Return 20.98% 10.47% –15.59% 3.77% 4.97%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $64,967 $44,636 $37,071 $48,000 $51,083
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.14% 0.14% 0.15% 0.15% 0.15%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.56% 2.68% 2.71% 2.74% 2.63%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 6% 13% 7% 9% 26%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

London Stock Exchange Group companies include FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®”, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence. All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the Indices or the fitness or suitability of the Indices for any particular purpose to which they might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Authorized Participant. Institutional investors that are permitted to purchase Creation Units directly from, and redeem Creation Units directly with, the issuing fund. To be an Authorized Participant, an entity must be a participant in the Depository Trust Company and must enter into an agreement with the fund’s Distributor.

Bid-Ask Spread. The difference between the price a dealer is willing to pay for a security (the bid price) and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer is willing to sell the same security (the ask price).

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Creation Unit. A large block of a specified number of ETF Shares. Certain broker-dealers known as “Authorized Participants” may purchase and redeem ETF Shares from the issuing fund in Creation Unit size blocks.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Ex-Dividend Date. The date when a distribution of dividends and/or capital gains is deducted from the share price of a mutual fund or stock. On the ex-dividend date, the share price drops by the amount of the distribution per share (plus or minus any market activity).

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

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FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index. An index that consists of approximately 836 common stocks of companies located in Japan, Australia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand.

FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

FTSE Developed Europe Index. An index that is made up of approximately 511 common stocks of companies located in 17 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

FTSE Emerging Index. A market-capitalization-weighted index representing large- and mid-cap stocks of companies located in emerging markets around the world.

FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Joint Committed Credit Facility. Each Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the fund’s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.

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Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time.

Price/Earnings (P/E) Ratio. The current share price of a stock, divided by its per-share earnings (profits). A stock selling for $20, with earnings of $2 per share, has a price/earnings ratio of 10.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

48


 

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  Institutional Division
  P.O. Box 2900
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
 
 
 
 
Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
For More Information Information Provided by the Securities and
If you would like more information about Vanguard Exchange Commission (SEC)
FTSE Europe ETF, FTSE Pacific ETF, and FTSE Emerging You can review and copy information about the Funds
Markets ETF, the following documents are available (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
free upon request: in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
  service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders  
  other information about the Funds are also available in
Additional information about the Funds’ investments is  
  the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
available in the Funds’ annual and semiannual reports  
  www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
to shareholders. In the annual reports, you will find a  
  information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
discussion of the market conditions and investment  
  following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
strategies that significantly affected the Funds’  
  writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
performance during their last fiscal year.  
  Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
Statement of Additional Information (SAI)  
  Funds’ Investment Company Act file number: 811-05972
The SAI provides more detailed information about the  
Funds’ ETF Shares and is incorporated by reference  
into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.  
 
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or  
semiannual reports or the SAI, or to request additional  
information about Vanguard ETF Shares, please visit  
vanguard.com or contact us as follows:  
 
The Vanguard Group  
Institutional Investor Information  
P.O. Box 2900  
Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900  
Telephone: 866-499-8473  

 

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646;
and 8,417,623.
Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.
P 963 022018

 


Vanguard International Stock Index Funds
Prospectus
 
 
February 23, 2018
 
 
Institutional Shares & Institutional Plus Shares
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares (VESIX)
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares (VEUPX)
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares (VPKIX)
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares (VPAPX)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares (VEMIX)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares (VEMRX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Funds through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard Fund Summaries   Investing With Vanguard 43
European Stock Index Fund 1 Purchasing Shares 43
Pacific Stock Index Fund 7 Converting Shares 46
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund 13 Redeeming Shares 48
Investing in Index Funds 19 Exchanging Shares 52
More on the Funds 20 Frequent-Trading Limitations 52
The Funds and Vanguard 30 Other Rules You Should Know 54
Investment Advisor 30 Fund and Account Updates 57
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 32 Employer-Sponsored Plans 59
Share Price 35 Contacting Vanguard 60
Financial Highlights 37 Additional Information 61
    Glossary of Investment Terms 63

 


 

Vanguard European Stock Index Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of Europe.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Management Fees 0.06% 0.05%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.02% 0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.08% 0.07%

 

1


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Institutional Shares $8 $26 $45 $103
Institutional Plus Shares $7 $23 $40 $90

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 4% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 1,258 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, and Norway.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to three countries (the United Kingdom, France, and Germany) subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

3


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and tables are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund‘s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The tables show how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced European Stock Index reflects performance of the MSCI Europe Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Europe Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 26.44% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –23.35% (quarter ended September 30, 2011).

4


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares      
Return Before Taxes 27.06% 7.68% 1.77%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 26.15 6.81 1.01
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 15.91 5.91 1.32
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index 26.83% 8.29% 2.05%
FTSE Developed Europe Index 26.13 7.81 1.71
Spliced European Stock Index 26.83 7.89 1.59
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index 27.28
      Since
      Inception
      (Dec. 5,
    1 Year 2014)
Vanguard European Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares      
Return Before Taxes   27.14% 5.71%
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index   26.83% 6.12%
FTSE Developed Europe Index   26.13 5.59
Spliced European Stock Index   26.83 5.76
FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index   27.28

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Institutional Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

5


 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares is $5 million or $100 million, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

6


 

Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in the major markets of the Pacific region.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Management Fees 0.05% 0.05%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.03% 0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses1 0.08% 0.07%
1 The expense information shown in the table for Institutional Plus Shares reflects estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

 

7


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Institutional Shares $8 $26 $45 $103
Institutional Plus Shares $7 $23 $40 $90

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 3% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index is a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 2,256 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in Japan, Australia, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

8


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to Japan and Australia subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

9


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund’s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The table shows how the average annual total returns of the Institutional Shares compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Fund’s Institutional Plus Shares have not yet begun operations. Performance of the Fund’s Institutional Plus Shares would be substantially similar to that of the Institutional Shares because both share classes constitute an investment in the same portfolio of securities; their returns generally should differ only to the extent that the expenses of the two share classes differ. The Spliced Pacific Stock Index reflects performance of the MSCI Pacific Index through March 26, 2013; the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index through September 30, 2015; and the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 24.05% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –17.86% (quarter ended September 30, 2008).

10


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares      
Return Before Taxes 28.54% 9.26% 3.69%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 27.59 8.52 3.08
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 16.65 7.14 2.80
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index 28.42% 8.99% 3.82%
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index 28.06 9.05 3.84
Spliced Pacific Stock Index 28.42 9.53 3.60
FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index 28.94

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

11


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares is $5 million or $100 million, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

12


 

Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of stocks issued by companies located in emerging market countries.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Institutional Institutional Plus
  Shares Shares
Management Fees 0.05% 0.03%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.06% 0.06%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.11% 0.09%

 

13


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. You would incur these hypothetical expenses whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Institutional Shares $11 $35 $62 $141
Institutional Plus Shares $9 $29 $51 $115

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, a market-capitalization-weighted index that is made up of approximately 4,032 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in emerging markets around the world. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

14


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. The Index’s, and therefore the Fund’s, heavy exposure to China, Taiwan, India, Brazil, and South Africa subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are only available to foreign investors through a quota license or the China Stock Connect program.

Index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund‘s target index.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

15


 

Annual Total Returns

The following bar chart and table are intended to help you understand the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund’s Institutional Shares has varied from one calendar year to another over the periods shown. The tables show how the average annual total returns of the share classes presented compare with those of the Fund‘s target index and other comparative indexes, which have investment characteristics similar to those of the Fund. The Spliced Emerging Markets Index reflects performance of the Select Emerging Markets Index through August 23, 2006; the MSCI Emerging Markets Index through January 9, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Transition Index through June 27, 2013; the FTSE Emerging Index through November 1, 2015; the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Transition Index through September 18, 2016; and the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index thereafter. Returns for the FTSE Indexes shown are adjusted for withholding taxes applicable to U.S.-based mutual funds organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Keep in mind that the Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) does not indicate how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on our website at vanguard.com/performance or by calling Vanguard toll-free at 800-662-7447.

Annual Total Returns — Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares


During the periods shown in the bar chart, the highest return for a calendar quarter was 34.18% (quarter ended June 30, 2009), and the lowest return for a quarter was –27.79% (quarter ended December 31, 2008).

16


 

Average Annual Total Returns for Periods Ended December 31, 2017    
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares    
Return Before Taxes 31.43% 3.53% 1.33%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 30.53 2.73 0.75
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 18.22 2.50 0.93
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index 31.06%
FTSE Emerging Index 32.13 4.23 1.82
Spliced Emerging Markets Index 31.06 3.73 1.38
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market      
Value Index 31.61
      Since
      Inception
      (Dec. 15,
  1 Year 5 Years 2010)
Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares    
Return Before Taxes 31.46% 3.55% 2.51%
Comparative Indexes      
(reflect no deduction for fees or expenses)      
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index 31.06%
FTSE Emerging Index 32.13 4.23 2.71
Spliced Emerging Markets Index 31.06 3.73 2.51
FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market      
Value Index 31.61

 

Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown in the preceding table. When after-tax returns are calculated, it is assumed that the shareholder was in the highest individual federal marginal income tax bracket at the time of each distribution of income or capital gains or upon redemption. State and local income taxes are not reflected in the calculations. Please note that after-tax returns are shown only for the Institutional Shares and may differ for each share class. After-tax returns are not relevant for a shareholder who holds fund shares in a tax-deferred account, such as an individual retirement account or a 401(k) plan. Also, figures captioned Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other figures for the same period if a capital loss occurs upon redemption and results in an assumed tax deduction for the shareholder.

17


 

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has managed the Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016).

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since 2016.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares is $5 million or $100 million, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. If you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your plan administrator or your benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how you can invest through your plan.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

18


 

Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund seeks to hold all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are generally inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds. They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

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More on the Funds

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether a Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Funds‘ Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares, which are generally for investors who invest a minimum of $5 million and $100 million, respectively. A separate prospectus offers the Funds‘ Investor Shares and AdmiralShares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000 and $10,000, respectively. In addition, each Fund issues ETF Shares (an exchange-traded class of shares), which are also offered through a separate prospectus.

All share classes offered by a Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund
and any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

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The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that each Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Funds‘ board of trustees, which oversees each Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that each Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, each Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the types of stocks indicated by its name. A Fund may change its 80% policy or indexing strategy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

To track their target indexes as closely as possible, the Funds attempt to remain fully invested in the foreign stocks included in their particular indexes.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest in foreign securities will encounter risks not typically
associated with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate
differently from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and
governments are not subject to the same accounting, auditing, legal, tax, and
financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies and the U.S.
government, and their stocks and bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar
U.S. entities. In addition, foreign stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond
markets, and dealers may be subject to less government supervision and
regulation than their counterparts in the United States. These factors, among
others, could negatively affect the returns U.S. investors receive from foreign
investments.

 


Each Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

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To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign stock market activity. Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price. Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

Foreign Stock Market Average Annual Returns      
(1970–2017)        
  1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years
Best 69.4% 36.1% 22.0% 15.5%
Worst –43.4 –4.7 0.7 3.1
Average 11.1 9.4 9.5 9.7

 

The table covers all of the rolling 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2017. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Funds in particular.

Keep in mind that the MSCI EAFE Index tracks mainly large- and mid-cap stocks. Historically, small-cap stocks (such as those held by the Funds) have been more volatile than—and at times have performed quite differently from—the large- and mid-cap stocks of the MSCI EAFE Index.

Also note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2008 through 2017, as measured by their respective indexes.

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Average Annual Returns for Various Stock Markets1    
  European Pacific Emerging U.S.
  Market2 Market2 Markets2 Market
2008 –46.42% –36.42% –53.33% –37.00%
2009 35.83 24.18 78.51 26.46
2010 3.88 15.92 18.88 15.06
2011 –11.06 –13.74 –18.42 2.11
2012 19.12 14.42 18.22 16.00
2013 25.23 18.27 –2.60 32.39
2014 –6.18 –2.70 –2.19 13.69
2015 –2.84 2.96 –14.92 1.38
2016 –0.40 4.18 11.19 11.96
2017 25.51 24.64 37.28 21.83

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns reflect the reinvestment of cash dividends after deduction of withholding tax by applying the maximum rate of the company’s country of incorporation applicable to institutional investors.

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Funds in particular.

Stocks of publicly traded companies and funds that invest in stocks are often classified according to market value, or market capitalization. These classifications typically include small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap. It is important to understand that market capitalization ranges change over time. Also, interpretations of size vary, and there are no “official” definitions of small-, mid-, and large-cap, even among Vanguard fund advisors.

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Each Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/ regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because each Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/ regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, tax, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.


The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund is subject to China A-shares risk, which is the chance that the Fund may not be able to access a sufficient amount of China A-shares to track its target index. China A-shares are only available to foreign investors through a quota license or through the China Stock Connect program.

China A-shares (A-shares) are shares of mainland Chinese companies that are traded locally on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. In order for foreign investors to purchase A-shares, a Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) or Renminbi QFII (RQFII) license and quota are required. The quota available to the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund through a Vanguard entity with an RQFII or QFII license may be limited by a Chinese regulator or the quota use of other Vanguard funds. A-shares are also available to foreign investors through the China Stock Connect program (Stock Connect), subject to separate quota limitations. It is possible that the A-shares quota available to the Fund as a foreign investor may not be sufficient to meet the Fund’s investment needs. In this situation, the Fund may underweight A-shares relative to the index or seek an alternative method of economic exposure, such as by purchasing other classes of securities or depositary receipts or by utilizing derivatives. These options could increase the Fund’s index sampling risk or investment cost. Additionally, investing in A-shares generally increases emerging markets risk due in part to government and issuer market controls and the developing settlement and legal systems.

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Plain Talk About Regional Versus Broad International Investing
 
Regional funds are international funds that invest in a particular geographical
region, such as Europe or the Pacific Basin. Because they concentrate their
holdings in a single region, these funds typically have higher share price volatility
than broadly diversified international stock funds (which, by investing in many
different foreign markets, may offset losses from one country with gains from
another at any given time).

 

Security Selection

Each Fund attempts to track the investment performance of a benchmark index that measures the return of a particular market segment. Vanguard European Stock Index Fund and Vanguard Pacific Stock Index Fund use the replication method of indexing, meaning that each Fund generally holds the same stocks as its target index and in approximately the same proportions. Vanguard Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund uses the sampling method of indexing, meaning that the Fund’s advisor, using computer programs, selects from the target index a representative sample of securities that will resemble the target index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, and other financial characteristics of stocks.

European Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 1,258 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap companies located in 16 European countries. Three countries—the United Kingdom, France, and Germany—represent a large portion of the Index. The other countries represented in the Index are much less significant to the Index and, consequently, to the Fund. The Fund’s heavy exposure to three countries subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Pacific Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, which is made up of approximately 2,256 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap Pacific Basin companies. The Japanese and Australian stock markets represent a large portion of the Index. The three other markets represented in the Index are South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The Fund’s large investment in the Japanese and Australian stock markets subjects the Fund to a higher degree of country risk than that of more geographically diversified international funds.

Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund. The Fund invests in the common stocks included in the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, which is made up of approximately 4,032 common stocks of large-, mid-, and small-cap

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companies located in emerging markets around the world and is part of the FTSE China A Inclusion indexes, which contain FTSE China A All Cap Index securities adjusted for the aggregate approved QFII and RQFII quotas available to foreign investors. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

Emerging markets can be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than both U.S. markets and more developed foreign markets. Therefore, the Fund may expose investors to a higher degree of volatility and illiquidity than funds that invest in more developed markets.

Depositary receipts. Each Fund, in most cases, will obtain economic exposure to stocks of its target index (component securities) by investing directly in the component securities. However, each Fund reserves the right to obtain economic exposure to component securities indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts (also sold as participatory notes) of the component securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are listed on exchanges or quoted in over-the-counter markets in one country but represent shares of issuers domiciled in another country. Generally, a Fund will hold depositary receipts only when the advisor believes that the Fund would benefit from holding the depositary receipt, rather than the underlying component security. A Fund might opt to hold depositary receipts if the foreign market in which a stock trades does not provide adequate protection to the rights of foreign investors or if government regulators place restrictions on the free flow of capital or currency. Each Fund treats depositary receipts that represent interests in component securities as component securities for purposes of any requirements related to the percentage of component securities held in the Fund’s portfolio.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

Each Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

Each Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in equity futures and options contracts, warrants, convertible securities, and swap agreements, all of which are types of derivatives. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Funds to risks different

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from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities or assets. The Funds will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns. The Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund may use derivatives as an alternative method of economic exposure to China A-shares.

Each Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Funds may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in equity futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Each Fund’s target index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider that currently manages and calculates more than 120,000 indexes daily.

Cash Management

Each Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, each Fund bears its proportionate share of the expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests. Vanguard receives no additional revenue from Fund assets invested in a Vanguard CMT Fund.

Methods Used to Meet Redemption Requests

Under normal circumstances, each Fund typically expects to meet redemptions with other positive cash flows. When this is not an option, each Fund seeks to maintain its risk exposure by selling a cross section of the Fund’s holdings to meet redemptions, while also factoring in transaction costs. Additionally, a Fund may work with larger clients to implement their redemptions in a manner that is least disruptive to the portfolio; see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” under Redeeming Shares in the

Investing With Vanguard section.

Under certain circumstances, including under stressed market conditions, there are additional tools that each Fund may use in order to meet redemptions, including advancing the settlement of market trades with counterparties to match investor redemption payments or delaying settlement of an investor’s transaction to match trade settlement within regulatory requirements. A Fund may also suspend payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven days; see “Emergency circumstances” under Redeeming Shares in the Investing With Vanguard section. Additionally under these unusual circumstances, a Fund may borrow money (subject to certain regulatory

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conditions and if available under board-approved procedures) through an interfund lending facility or through a bank line-of-credit, including a joint committed credit facility, in order to meet redemption requests.

Temporary Investment Measures

Each Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the strategy or policy employed is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to ETF Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of

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frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than retail and government money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although each Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, a Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Financial Highlights section of this prospectus shows historical turnover rates for the Funds. A turnover rate of 100%, for example, would mean that a Fund had sold and replaced securities valued at 100% of its net assets within a one-year period.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Before investing in a mutual fund, you should review its turnover rate. This rate
gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included in the fund’s
expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the greater the
volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that brokerage
commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds with
high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains, including short-
term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders and will be taxable to
shareholders investing through a taxable account.

 

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The Funds and Vanguard

Each Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of over 200 funds holding assets of approximately $4.4 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Funds through its Equity Index Group. As of October 31, 2017, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $3.8 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Funds on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Funds.

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017, the advisory expenses represented an effective annual rate of each Fund’s average net assets as follows: for the Pacific Stock Index Fund, 0.02%; for the European Stock and Emerging Markets Stock Index Funds, 0.01%.

Under the terms of an SEC exemption, the Funds‘ board of trustees may, without prior approval from shareholders, change the terms of an advisory agreement with a third-party investment advisor or hire a new third-party investment advisor—either as a replacement for an existing advisor or as an additional advisor. Any significant

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change in a Fund’s advisory arrangements will be communicated to shareholders in writing. As the Funds‘ sponsor and overall manager, Vanguard may provide investment advisory services to a Fund, on an at-cost basis, at any time. Vanguard may also recommend to the board of trustees that an advisor be hired, terminated, or replaced or that the terms of an existing advisory agreement be revised. The Funds have filed an application seeking a similar SEC exemption with respect to investment advisors that are wholly owned subsidiaries of Vanguard. If granted, the Funds may rely on the new SEC relief.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved each Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the most recent semiannual reports to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are:

Christine D. Franquin, Principal of Vanguard. She has managed investment portfolios since joining Vanguard in 2000 and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen, Belgium; J.D., University of Liege, Belgium; M.S., Clark University.

Justin E. Hales, CFA, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the European Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

Jeffrey D. Miller, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1999, has managed investment portfolios since 2010, and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund and the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., The Pennsylvania State University; M.B.A., Drexel University.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, has managed the Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund since 2008 (co-managed since 2016), and has co-managed the Pacific Stock Index Fund since 2016. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Funds.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

Each Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, each Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund. However, if you are investing through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, your distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional Fund shares.

From time to time, a Fund may pay out higher-than-expected distributions. As an index fund, the Fund must adjust its holdings to reflect changes in its target index. In some cases, such changes may force an index fund to sell securities that have appreciated in value, thereby realizing a capital gain that must be distributed to shareholders. A security may move out of an index for a number of reasons, including a merger or acquisition, a substantial change in the market capitalization of the issuer, or the movement of a country from emerging market to developed market status.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

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• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Funds‘ normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you

complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

• Vanguard (or your intermediary) will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all of your distributions.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

Each Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of a Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

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Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are a tax-exempt investor or investing through a tax-advantaged
account (such as an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan),
you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the fund
makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 24% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

• Provide your correct taxpayer identification number.

• Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard (or your intermediary) must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Funds offered in this prospectus, are not widely available outside the United States. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

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Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security).

The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares, including institutional money market fund shares, held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF shares or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities.

Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

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Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Financial Highlights

The following financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for the periods shown, and certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in each table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost each period on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all distributions). This information has been obtained from the financial statements audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose reports—along with each Fund’s financial statements—are included in the Funds’ most recent annual reports to shareholders. You may obtain a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual reports by visiting vanguard.com or by contacting Vanguard by telephone or mail.

Note: The Pacific Stock Index Fund’s Institutional Plus Shares have not yet begun operations and therefore have no financial performance to report.

Plain Talk About How to Read the Financial Highlights Tables
 
This explanation uses the European Stock Index Fund’s Institutional Shares as an
example. The Institutional Shares began fiscal year 2017 with a net asset value
(share price) of $25.10 per share. During the year, each Institutional Share earned
$0.873 from investment income (interest and dividends) and $6.068 from
investments that had appreciated in value or that were sold for higher prices than
the Fund paid for them.
 
Shareholders received $0.811 per share in the form of dividend distributions. A
portion of each year’s distributions may come from the prior year’s income or
capital gains.
 
The share price at the end of the year was $31.23, reflecting earnings of $6.941
per share and distributions of $0.811 per share. This was an increase of $6.13 per
share (from $25.10 at the beginning of the year to $31.23 at the end of the year).
For a shareholder who reinvested the distributions in the purchase of more
shares, the total return was 28% for the year.
 
As of October 31, 2017, the Institutional Shares had approximately $756 million in
net assets. For the year, the expense ratio was 0.08% ($0.80 per $1,000 of net
assets), and the net investment income amounted to 2.99% of average net
assets. The Fund sold and replaced securities valued at 4% of its net assets.

 

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European Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares        
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $25.10 $27.79 $28.85 $30.21 $24.54
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .8731 .921 .910 1.2822 .871
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 6.068 (2.719) (1.048) (1.371) 5.755
Total from Investment Operations 6.941 (1.798) (.138) (.089) 6.626
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.811) (.892) (.922) (1.271) (.956)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.811) (.892) (.922) (1.271) (.956)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $31.23 $25.10 $27.79 $28.85 $30.21
Total Return 28.00% –6.46% –0.58% –0.55% 27.66%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $756 $574 $867 $1,006 $901
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.08% 0.08% 0.09% 0.09% 0.09%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.99% 3.53% 3.22% 4.29%2 3.19%
Portfolio Turnover Rate3 4% 6% 13% 7% 10%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $0.297 and 0.97%,
respectively, resulting from income received from Vodafone Group plc in the form of cash and shares in Verizon  
Communications Inc. in February 2014.          
3 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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European Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares        
 
 
 
  Year Year Dec. 5, Nov. 1, May 17,
  Ended Ended 20143 to 2013 to 20131 to
  Oct. 31, Oct. 31, Oct. 31, Mar. 17, Oct. 31,
For a Share Outstanding Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 20142 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $112.09 $124.09 $131.51 $126.52 $116.90
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 3.9104 4.121 3.878 2.2535 2.257
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain          
(Loss) on Investments 27.110 (12.133) (7.151) 2.866 9.966
Total from Investment Operations 31.020 (8.012) (3.273) 5.119 12.223
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (3.630) (3.988) (4.147) (.539) (2.603)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (3.630) (3.988) (4.147) (.539) (2.603)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $139.48 $112.09 $124.09 $131.102 $126.52
Total Return 28.03% –6.45% –2.59% 4.06% 10.81%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $122 $99 $242 $110
Ratio of Total Expenses to Average Net Assets 0.07% 0.07% 0.08%6 0.08%6 0.08%6
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 3.00% 3.54% 3.11%6 4.80%5,6 3.20%6
Portfolio Turnover Rate7 4% 6% 13% 7% 10%
1 Inception.          
2 Net asset value as of March 17, 2014, on which date all shares were redeemed.      
3 Recommencement of operations.          
4 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
5 Net investment income per share and the ratio of net investment income to average net assets include $1.242 and 0.97%,
respectively, resulting from income received from Vodafone Group plc in the form of cash and shares in Verizon Communications
Inc. in February 2014.          
6 Annualized.          
7 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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Pacific Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares          
 
 
      Year Ended October 31,
For a Share Outstanding          
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $11.34 $10.91 $11.50 $11.68 $9.57
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .3201 .275 .276 .300 .263
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 2.118 .424 (.601) (.158) 2.174
Total from Investment Operations 2.438 .699 (.325) .142 2.437
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.318) (.269) (.265) (.322) (.327)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.318) (.269) (.265) (.322) (.327)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $13.46 $11.34 $10.91 $11.50 $11.68
Total Return 21.91% 6.61% –2.84% 1.28% 25.96%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $408 $291 $329 $336 $437
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.08% 0.08% 0.09% 0.09% 0.09%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.62% 2.57% 2.43% 2.62% 2.44%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 3% 4% 14% 5% 22%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

40


 

Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Shares      
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $23.82 $22.13 $26.99 $26.74 $26.36
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income .6591 .577 .696 .726 .725
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 4.301 1.683 (4.865) .283 .532
Total from Investment Operations 4.960 2.260 (4.169) 1.009 1.257
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (.650) (.570) (.691) (.759) (.877)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (.650) (.570) (.691) (.759) (.877)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $28.13 $23.82 $22.13 $26.99 $26.74
Total Return 21.06% 10.42% –15.57% 3.85% 4.95%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $5,647 $4,191 $3,645 $4,002 $3,558
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.11% 0.11% 0.12% 0.12% 0.12%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.59% 2.71% 2.74% 2.77% 2.66%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 6% 13% 7% 9% 26%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund Institutional Plus Shares      
 
 
For a Share Outstanding     Year Ended October 31,
Throughout Each Period 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $79.26 $73.61 $89.77 $88.97 $87.68
Investment Operations          
Net Investment Income 2.2211 1.928 2.326 2.436 2.426
Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss)          
on Investments 14.266 5.630 (16.171) .904 1.792
Total from Investment Operations 16.487 7.558 (13.845) 3.340 4.218
Distributions          
Dividends from Net Investment Income (2.177) (1.908) (2.315) (2.540) (2.928)
Distributions from Realized Capital Gains
Total Distributions (2.177) (1.908) (2.315) (2.540) (2.928)
Net Asset Value, End of Period $93.57 $79.26 $73.61 $89.77 $88.97
Total Return 21.04% 10.48% –15.55% 3.83% 4.99%
Ratios/Supplemental Data          
Net Assets, End of Period (Millions) $3,991 $3,026 $2,566 $2,754 $2,320
Ratio of Total Expenses to          
Average Net Assets 0.09% 0.09% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10%
Ratio of Net Investment Income to          
Average Net Assets 2.61% 2.73% 2.76% 2.79% 2.68%
Portfolio Turnover Rate2 6% 13% 7% 9% 26%
1 Calculated based on average shares outstanding.          
2 Excludes the value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind purchases or redemptions of the Fund’s
capital shares, including ETF Creation Units.          

 

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. If you hold Vanguard fund shares through an employer-sponsored retirement or savings plan, please see Employer-Sponsored Plans. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Institutional Shares and Institutional Plus Shares To open and maintain an account. Institutional Shares—$5 million; Institutional Plus Shares—$100 million. If you request Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for the requested share class, your investment will be placed in another share class of the Fund, as appropriate.

Certain Vanguard institutional clients may meet the minimum investment amount by aggregating separate accounts within the same Fund. This aggregation policy does not apply to financial intermediaries.

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Vanguard may charge additional recordkeeping fees for institutional clients whose accounts are recordkept by Vanguard. Please contact your Vanguard representative to determine whether additional recordkeeping fees apply to your account.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for Funds and share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

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By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the net asset value (NAV) as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your designated bank account falls on the last business day of the year, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you select the first of the month for automated withdrawals from your designated bank account, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

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If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, starter checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the NAVs of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares

You are eligible for a self-directed conversion from another share class to Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares of the same Fund, provided that your account meets all eligibility requirements. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), or you may contact Vanguard by telephone or by mail to request this transaction. Accounts that qualify for Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares will not be automatically converted.

Conversions to ETF Shares

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by a Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares by a shareholder. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.

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Mandatory Conversions to Another Share Class

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for a share class, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to another share class, as appropriate. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

Please note that Vanguard charges a $10 wire fee for outgoing wire redemptions. The fee is assessed in addition to, rather than being withheld from, redemption proceeds and is paid directly to the fund. For example, if you redeem $100 via a wire, you will receive the full $100, and your fund account will also be assessed the $10 fee by redeeming additional fund shares. If you redeem your entire fund account, your redemption proceeds will be reduced by the fee amount. The wire fee does not apply to accounts held by Flagship and Flagship Select clients; accounts held through

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intermediaries, including Vanguard Brokerage Services; or accounts held by institutional clients.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund; 12:30 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Federal Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you selected for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares

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generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day. For retirement accounts, if the date you selected for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on the last day of the year and if that date is a holiday, your trade date will be the first business day of the following year. Please note that if you designate the first of the month for automated withdrawals, trades designated for January 1 will receive the next business day’s trade date.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

If your redemption request is received in good order, we typically expect that redemption proceeds will be paid by a Fund within one business day of the trade date; however, in certain circumstances, investors may experience a longer settlement period at the time of the transaction. For further information, see “Potentially disruptive redemptions” and “Emergency circumstances.”

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that

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the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Share certificates. Share certificates are no longer issued for Vanguard funds. Shares currently held in certificates cannot be redeemed, exchanged, converted, or transferred (reregistered) until you return the certificates (unsigned) to Vanguard by registered mail. For the correct address, see Contacting Vanguard.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 15-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require additional documentation, such as a signature guarantee or a notarized signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

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Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Call Vanguard before attempting to exchange a large dollar amount. By calling us before you attempt to exchange a large dollar amount, you may avoid delayed or rejected transactions.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange

Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

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• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy

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previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

When two or more shareholders have the same last name and address, just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report may be sent in an attempt to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, certain tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time

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through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

Written instructions also must generally include:

• An original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions may be acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

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Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply. Your financial intermediary can provide you with account information and any required tax forms.

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Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Low-Balance Accounts

Each Fund reserves the right to convert an investor’s Institutional Shares or Institutional Plus Shares to another share class, as appropriate, if the investor’s fund account balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. Any such conversion will be preceded by written notice to the investor.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a shareholder or a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are in the best interest of a fund.

Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting

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redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, Vanguard (or your intermediary) is required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. These forms are generally available for each calendar year early in the following year. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view certain forms through our website. Vanguard (or your intermediary) may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard International Stock Index Funds twice a year, in June and December. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Funds‘ Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings.

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Employer-Sponsored Plans

Your plan administrator or your employee benefits office can provide you with detailed information on how to participate in your plan and how to elect a Fund as an investment option.

• If you have any questions about a Fund or Vanguard, including those about a Fund’s investment objective, strategies, or risks, contact Vanguard Participant Services toll-free at 800-523-1188 or visit our website at vanguard.com.

• If you have questions about your account, contact your plan administrator or the organization that provides recordkeeping services for your plan.

• Be sure to carefully read each topic that pertains to your transactions with Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right to change its policies without notice to shareholders.

Transactions

Processing times for your transaction requests may differ among recordkeepers or among transaction and funding types. Your plan’s recordkeeper (which may also be Vanguard) will determine the necessary processing time frames for your transaction requests prior to submission to a Fund. Consult your recordkeeper or plan administrator for more information.

If Vanguard is serving as your plan recordkeeper and if your transaction involves one or more investments with an early cut-off time for processing or another trading restriction, your entire transaction will be subject to the restriction when the trade date for your transaction is determined.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Participant Services 800-523-1188 For information and services for participants in employer-
(Text telephone for people with hearing sponsored plans
impairment at 800-749-7273)  
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102  
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies

 

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Vanguard Addresses  
Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the
processing of your transaction.  
 
 
Regular Mail (Individuals) The Vanguard Group
  P.O. Box 1110
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110
Regular Mail (Institutions, Intermediaries, and The Vanguard Group
Employer-Sponsored Plan Participants) P.O. Box 2900
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail The Vanguard Group
  455 Devon Park Drive
  Wayne, PA 19087-1815

 

Additional Information        
 
    Newspaper Vanguard CUSIP
  Inception Date Abbreviation Fund Number Number
European Stock Index Fund        
Institutional Shares 5/15/2000 EuroInst 235 922042502
Institutional Plus Shares 12/5/2014 EuroInstPl 1863 922042627
Pacific Stock Index Fund        
Institutional Shares 5/15/2000 PacInst 237 922042403
Institutional Plus Shares PacInstPl 1864 922042643
Emerging Markets Stock Index Fund        
Institutional Shares 6/22/2000 EmergInst 239 922042601
Institutional Plus Shares 12/15/2010 EmerMktInstPl 1865 922042650

 

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CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

London Stock Exchange Group companies include FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®”, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence. All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the Indices or the fitness or suitability of the Indices for any particular purpose to which they might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Asia Pacific All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

FTSE Developed Asia Pacific Index. An index that consists of approximately 836 common stocks of companies located in Japan, Australia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand.

FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Developed Europe All Cap Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

FTSE Developed Europe Index. An index that is made up of approximately 511 common stocks of companies located in 17 European countries—mostly companies in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Other countries represented in the Index include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

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FTSE Emerging Index. A market-capitalization-weighted index representing large- and mid-cap stocks of companies located in emerging markets around the world.

FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index. An index that measures returns of the FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Index, adjusted to reflect price changes for index securities in markets that have closed prior to the close of the U.S. stock market. Fair value prices and foreign exchange rates as of 4 p.m., Eastern time, are used in the calculation. The FTSE Emerging Markets All Cap China A Inclusion Fair Market Value Index uses tax rates based on the withholding tax rates applicable to dividends received by a regulated investment company (mutual fund) domiciled in the United States.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Joint Committed Credit Facility. Each Fund participates, along with other funds managed by Vanguard, in a committed credit facility provided by a syndicate of lenders pursuant to a credit agreement that may be renewed annually; each fund is individually liable for its borrowings, if any, under the credit facility. The amount and terms of the committed credit facility are subject to approval by the fund’s board of trustees and renegotiation with the lender syndicate on an annual basis.

Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). A stock exchange based in New York City that is open for regular trading on business days, Monday through Friday, from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time. Net asset values (NAVs) are calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. In the rare event the NYSE experiences unanticipated trade disruptions and is unavailable at the close of the trading day, NAVs will be calculated as of the close of regular trading on the Nasdaq (or another alternate exchange if the Nasdaq is unavailable, as determined at Vanguard’s discretion), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time.

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Price/Earnings (P/E) Ratio. The current share price of a stock, divided by its per-share earnings (profits). A stock selling for $20, with earnings of $2 per share, has a price/earnings ratio of 10.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.


 

  Institutional Division
 
  P.O. Box 2900
 
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
 
 
 
 
Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
 
For More Information If you are a client of Vanguard’s Institutional Division:
 
If you would like more information about Vanguard The Vanguard Group
 
International Stock Index Funds, the following Institutional Investor Information Department
 
documents are available free upon request: P.O. Box 2900
 
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders  
  Telephone: 888-809-8102; Text telephone for people
Additional information about the Funds’ investments is  
  with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
available in the Funds’ annual and semiannual reports  
 
to shareholders. In the annual reports, you will find a If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would
 
discussion of the market conditions and investment like information about your account, account
 
strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ transactions, and/or account statements, please call:
 
performance during their last fiscal year.  
  Client Services Department
 
Statement of Additional Information (SAI) Telephone: 800-662-2739; Text telephone for people
 
The SAI provides more detailed information about the with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273
 
Funds and is incorporated by reference into (and thus  
  Information Provided by the Securities and
legally a part of) this prospectus.  
  Exchange Commission (SEC)
 
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or You can review and copy information about the Funds
 
semiannual reports or the SAI, or to request additional (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
 
information about the Funds or other Vanguard funds, in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
 
please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows: service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
 
  other information about the Funds are also available in
If you are an individual investor:  
  the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
The Vanguard Group  
  www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
Investor Information Department  
  information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
P.O. Box 2900  
  following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900  
  writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
Telephone: 800-662-7447; Text telephone for people  
  Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273  
 
  Funds’ Investment Company Act file number: 811-05972

 

© 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

I 235 022018


Vanguard Global ex-U.S. Real Estate Index Fund
Prospectus
 
February 23, 2018
 
Investor Shares & Admiral™ Shares
Vanguard Global ex-U.S. Real Estate Index Fund Investor Shares (VGXRX)
Vanguard Global ex-U.S. Real Estate Index Fund Admiral Shares (VGRLX)
 
 
 
 
This prospectus contains financial data for the Fund through the fiscal year ended October 31, 2017.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Fund Summary 1 Investing With Vanguard 27
Investing in Index Funds 7 Purchasing Shares 27
More on the Fund 8 Converting Shares 31
The Fund and Vanguard 17 Redeeming Shares 33
Investment Advisor 18 Exchanging Shares 37
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 19 Frequent-Trading Limitations 38
Share Price 22 Other Rules You Should Know 40
Financial Highlights 24 Fund and Account Updates 44
    Employer-Sponsored Plans 45
    Contacting Vanguard 46
    Additional Information 47
    Glossary of Investment Terms 49

 


 

Fund Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of international real estate stocks.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee 0.25% 0.25%
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee 0.25% 0.25%
Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below $20/year None
$10,000)    

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Investor Shares Admiral Shares
Management Fees 0.28% 0.10%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses 0.06% 0.04%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.34% 0.14%

 

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Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you were to invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. The first example assumes that the shares provide a return of 5% each year, that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table, and that you redeem your shares at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Investor Shares $86 $163 $247 $494
Admiral Shares $65 $99 $135 $244

 

You would pay the following expenses if you did not redeem your shares (the difference being that the Fund’s 0.25% redemption fee would not apply to any of the following periods, as it would to those in the preceding example):

  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Investor Shares $60 $134 $215 $455
Admiral Shares $39 $70 $104 $204

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 6% of the average value of its portfolio.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the S&P Global ex-U.S. Property Index, a float-adjusted, market-capitalization-weighted index that measures the equity market performance of international real estate stocks in both developed and emerging markets. The Index is composed of stocks of publicly traded equity real estate investment trusts (known as REITs) and certain real estate management and development companies (REMDs). The Fund attempts to replicate the Index by investing all, or substantially all, of its

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assets in the stocks that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Industry concentration risk, which is the chance that real estate stocks will decline because of adverse developments affecting the real estate industry and real property values. Because the Fund concentrates its assets in real estate stocks, industry concentration risk is high. The real estate industry can be adversely affected by, among other things, the value of securities of issuers in the real estate industry, including REITs and REMDs, and changes in real estate values and rental income, property taxes, interest rates, and demographics.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from real estate securities—which frequently are small- or mid-capitalization stocks—will trail returns from global stock markets. Historically, real estate securities have performed quite differently from the global stock markets.

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions.

Asset concentration risk, which is the chance that, because the Fund tends to invest a high percentage of assets in its ten largest holdings, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of relatively few stocks.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, including emerging markets, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/ regional risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Derivatives risk. The Fund may invest in derivatives, w