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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
FORM 10-K 
 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______ 
Commission file number 1-10890 
HORACE MANN EDUCATORS CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware37-0911756
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1 Horace Mann Plaza, Springfield, Illinois 62715-0001
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code) 
Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code: 217-789-2500
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareHMNNew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the registrant's Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant based on the closing price of the registrant's Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange and the shares outstanding on June 30, 2021, was $1,511.2 million. 
As of February 16, 2022, the registrant had 41,351,438 shares of Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Certain portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of this Form 10-K as specified in those Items and will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2021.
Auditor Name: KPMG LLP
Auditor Location: Chicago, Illinois
Auditor Firm ID: 185



HORACE MANN EDUCATORS CORPORATION
FORM 10-K
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
INDEX
PartItemPage



PART I
ITEM 1. I Business
Introduction
Measures within this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not based on accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (non-GAAP) are marked with an asterisk (*) the first time they are presented within Part I of this report. An explanation of these measures is contained in the Glossary of Selected Terms included as Exhibit 99.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are reconciled to the most directly comparable measures prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) in the Appendix to the Company's Fourth Quarter 2021 Investor Supplement.
Forward-looking Information
Horace Mann Educators Corporation (referred to in this report as "we", "our", "us", the "Company", "Horace Mann" or "HMEC") is an insurance holding company. Our actual results could differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements. Additional information concerning factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements is contained in Part I - Item 1A and in Part II - Item 7 of this report.
Overview, History and Available Information
We are an insurance holding company incorporated in Delaware. In 2021, through our subsidiaries, we marketed and underwrote:
personal lines of property and casualty insurance, primarily auto and property coverages
supplemental insurance products, including cancer, heart, hospital, supplemental disability and accident
retirement products, primarily tax-qualified fixed and variable annuities
life insurance, primarily traditional term and whole life insurance products
In 2021 and prior, we conducted and managed our business through five reporting segments. The four operating segments, representing the major lines of business, were: Property & Casualty, Supplemental, Retirement and Life.
Beginning in 2022, we will conduct business in three operating segments: (1) Property & Casualty, (2) Life & Retirement, and (3) Supplemental & Group Benefits. The Property & Casualty and Life & Retirement segments will be within the Individual Insurance & Financial Services Division. The Supplemental & Group Benefits segment will also function as a division, and will include the results of Madison National Life Insurance Company, Inc. (Madison National), which was acquired effective January 1, 2022.
hmn-20211231_g1.jpg


Horace Mann Educators Corporation
Annual Report on Form 10-K 1


This change aligns with how we will make operating decisions and assess performance, maintaining discrete segment financial information to evaluate performance and allocate resources.
We do not allocate the impact of corporate-level transactions to the operating segments, consistent with the basis for management's evaluation of the results of those segments, but classify those items in a separate reporting segment, Corporate & Other.
Founded by Educators for Educators®, our business began in Springfield, Illinois in 1945 when two school teachers started selling auto insurance to other teachers within Illinois. We expanded our business to other states and broadened our product line to include life insurance in 1949, 403(b) tax-qualified retirement annuities in 1961 and property insurance in 1965. In 2019, we added our Supplemental segment and increased our market share when we acquired all of the equity interests in NTA Life Enterprises, LLC (NTA). On January 1, 2022, we enhanced our value proposition for school districts by acquiring Madison National.
Madison National is a leading writer of employer-paid and sponsored benefits provided to educators by K-12 school districts. Founded in 1961 and headquartered in Madison, Wisconsin, it offers short- and long-term group disability, group term, and worksite solutions products, including accident, critical illness and fixed indemnity. Over half of Madison National’s premiums are from Midwestern districts, so there is opportunity for geographic expansion, leveraging Horace Mann’s national footprint.
Our common stock has traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol HMN since our initial public offering in November 1991.
We provide protection and savings products that primarily benefit K-12 teachers, administrators and other employees of public schools and their families. Our more than 1 million households typically have moderate annual incomes. Their financial planning tends to focus on retirement, security, savings and primary insurance needs. We believe that we are the largest national multi-line insurance and financial services company focused on the nation's educators as its primary market.
Today, we market primarily through a dedicated sales force of full-time Exclusive Agents supported by our Customer Contact Center. These agents sell our products and limited third-party vendor products made available through the Horace Mann General Agency. Some of these agents are former educators or individuals with close ties to the educational community who utilize their contacts within, and knowledge of, the target market. Beginning in 2022, we will also work with benefit brokers and others to bring employer-paid and voluntary benefit solutions for educators directly to district decision makers. School districts, particularly large ones, often work with organizations with special expertise in benefits plan design to help develop plans that support employee recruitment and retention.
Our premiums and contract charges earned for the year ended December 31, 2021 were $889.6 million. Premiums written and contract deposits* for the year ended December 31, 2021 were $1.3 billion. Net income was $142.8 million. Our total assets were $14.4 billion at December 31, 2021. Total investments were $7.4 billion at December 31, 2021 and consisted primarily of investment grade fixed maturity securities.
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and all amendments to those reports, are available free of charge through the Investors section of our website, investors.horacemann.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The EDGAR filings of such reports are also available at the SEC's website, www.sec.gov.
Also available in the Investors section of our website are our corporate governance principles, code of conduct, and code of ethics, as well as the charters of the HMEC Board of Directors (Board) Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Executive Committee, Investment and Finance Committee, and Nominating and Governance Committee. Copies also may be obtained by writing to Investor Relations, Horace Mann Educators Corporation, 1 Horace Mann Plaza, Springfield, Illinois 62715-0001. Our environmental, social and governance reporting is available through the corporate social responsibility section of our website, csr.horacemann.com.
On June 15, 2021, our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) submitted the Annual Section 12(a) CEO Certification to the NYSE without any qualifications. We filed with the SEC, as exhibits to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, the CEO and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) certifications required under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
2 Annual Report on Form 10-K
Horace Mann Educators Corporation


Corporate Strategy
Our vision is to be the company of choice to provide financial solutions for educators and others who serve their communities. We believe the unique value of Horace Mann is providing solutions tailored for educators at each stage of their lives, empowering them to achieve lifelong financial success.
Education Market
With the addition of Madison National, we serve approximately 1 million households in the United States of America (U.S.). Horace Mann, Madison National and NTA have all served a customer base of about 80% educators. There is significant opportunity to grow in this niche market. The U.S. Department of Education estimates that there are approximately 7.5 million K-12 school teachers, administrators and support staff nationwide, and the number of needed educator positions continues to grow.
Because of the primary focus on this niche market, we have a largely homogeneous customer set with similar characteristics and preferred risk profiles. This allows for more precise underwriting processes and more targeted marketing operations, amplifying the benefit of successful approaches.
Growth Strategy
We established our solutions orientation for the education market through a focus on products, distribution and infrastructure (PDI):
Products designed to meet educators’ needs and protect their unique risks;
Knowledgeable, trusted distribution tailored to educator preferences; and
Modern, scalable infrastructure that is easy to do business with.
Since July 2019, we completed several transactions to support our PDI strategy: acquiring NTA and Madison National, as well as reinsuring a $2.9 billion block of legacy annuity business. The annuity reinsurance transaction reduced interest rate risk while releasing capital that was redeployed into higher-margin products.
As a result, we have become a larger, more diverse company that expects to leverage our transformation to increase our share of the education market.
With the addition of Madison National's offerings, we can now offer a full suite of employer-paid and voluntary benefits to help school districts address educator recruitment and retention. Educators are generally paid less than private-sector jobs with similar educational requirements, and attrition has long been high compared to other professions. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to exacerbate school district administrators' staffing concerns. One avenue administrators pursue to address educator compensation is adding or improving employee benefit packages.
Relevant Products
At the core of our value proposition is the commitment to providing relevant products and solutions to address the issues that educators face at each stage of their career and life. Our protection products, including auto, property, life, disability and specialty health insurance, as well as our savings products, are tailored to meet the insurance and financial services needs of educators. Over the past few years, we have strengthened those offerings with the addition of employer-paid group products, as well as the introduction of our Retirement Advantage® open architecture platform for 403(b)(7) and other defined contribution plans. We modernized our traditional life insurance products, and made significant improvements in our auto and property offerings.
We offer complimentary solutions for educators as well. One example is Student Loan Solutions, relevant for many educators and particularly those new to the profession for whom student loan debt may preclude saving for retirement at the point when those savings would have the most time to grow and make a significant impact at retirement age. We offer complimentary online student loan management accounts for all educators nationwide, which includes guidance on how to successfully qualify for federal student loan forgiveness available to public sector employees.
Trusted Distribution
We aim to provide solutions to educators however they get their protection and savings products, whether that is through an individual purchase or coverage is provided through their school district employer. The core
Horace Mann Educators Corporation
Annual Report on Form 10-K 3


component of the individual educator strategy is our local agents, who support the educational community through both in-person and virtual activities, such as providing financial wellness workshops and hosting school events. Our trusted adviser model builds particularly strong brand loyalty and affinity.
To meet the preferences of customers who prefer "on demand" services, our direct sales team is available by phone or electronically to respond to questions or bind coverages. Customers can also secure auto, property and life quotes and coverage comparisons online. As customer needs become more complex, they frequently seek the help of a trusted advisor.
For our employer-paid worksite offerings, we will primarily work through established benefit brokers that assist in the design of employee benefits plans and offerings. In addition, we will continue to enhance our Section 125 Employer Services platform offering to expand the menu of benefits available to all school district employees, such as retirement savings and voluntary supplemental insurance products. Worksite distribution often includes the support of a benefit enrollment team.
To build brand awareness, engage with the educator community, and stay abreast of developments and challenges faced by educators, we partner with multiple national, state and local associations. Through strategic alliances with a diverse group of educator associations (e.g., the American Association of School Administrators, The School Superintendents Association and the Association of School Business Officials), we build relationships with administrators. Through partnerships with some state and local National Education Association (NEA) teacher associations, we have the opportunity to build our brand awareness and discuss issues and challenges faced by individual educators.
Modern Infrastructure
We are implementing a multi-year effort to upgrade our infrastructure and enhance our digital capabilities to ensure our operation runs efficiently and educators can connect with us in the manner they prefer. Key projects include the Guidewire property and casualty platform, which increases customer convenience through improved digital capabilities, e-signatures, real-time policy issuance and changes, coverage comparison features and consolidated billing, and the LifePro administration system for our life, annuity and supplemental products, which offers substantial benefits in terms of customer experience and operating efficiencies.
In 2017, we completed the first phase of a Guidewire implementation focused on the claims system that resulted in reduced cycle times and more insight into customer and loss trends. The second phase (which is focused on policy administration and billing) is currently underway. As of January 2022, the system was launched in seven states, representing close to 40% of total Property & Casualty premiums written. Similar to the claims system implementation, it offers substantial benefits in terms of data segmentation and analysis, digital capabilities and ease of use.
In 2022, we are implementing LifePro for new life insurance policies, leveraging the knowledge gained in our supplemental business, which has used LifePro for seven years. Over the next three years, we expect to implement additional life and retirement products.
During the pandemic, we accelerated planned technology solutions, including video meetings software, enhanced e-signature capabilities, and dynamic online appointment setting tools. These upgrades made it easier for both agents and customers to conduct business online, including annual policy reviews where our agents address any new or additional coverage needs. These upgrades will serve us well in the future, allowing us to easily pivot between in-person and virtual customer engagement, depending on individual situations.
Human Capital Resources
Horace Mann's mission of helping educators achieve lifelong financial success resonates strongly with our 1,450 employees. Almost 90% of employees and agents said serving educators is an important reason why they work at Horace Mann in a 2019 survey. In interactions with customers, each other and all stakeholders, we aim to reflect the core values at the heart of who we are: compassionate, trustworthy, straightforward, approachable, respectful and knowledgeable.
We believe that an engaged employee base is critical to deliver on our commitment to educators and achieve our business objectives. Our strategy to attract and retain talented employees is based on offering a competitive Total Rewards package, a flexible work environment and investing in employee professional development. In
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Horace Mann Educators Corporation


addition to competitive base salaries, every Horace Mann employee is eligible for an annual bonus program based on company performance and annual merit increases based on individual performance.
We strive to have policies and practices in place to attract top talent, maintain high levels of employee engagement and increase retention, such as reviewing highly skilled and hard-to-fill positions to ensure market competitiveness and creating a robust “stay interview” process. In 2021, we introduced a hybrid workforce model, in which more than 70% of our employees have the ability to work remotely as part of their regular weekly schedule.
We have long strived to foster an inclusive culture in which individual differences are recognized, respected and appreciated. In 2021, we took several steps to deliberately advance our focus in this cultural initiative, including introducing company-wide learning opportunities hosted by our Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) Council, and designating Juneteenth as a company holiday beginning in 2022. For the fourth year in a row, Horace Mann was named to the Bloomberg Gender-Equality Index, which recognizes corporate commitment to transparency in gender reporting and advancing women’s equality.
We have no collective bargaining agreements with any employees.
Reporting Segments
In 2021, we conducted and managed our business through five reporting segments: Property & Casualty, Supplemental, Retirement, Life and Corporate & Other.
These segments are defined based on the way management organizes the segments for making operating decisions and assessing performance. Management maintains discrete financial information for these segments to evaluate performance and allocate resources.
The calculations of segment data are described in more detail in Part II - Item 8, Note 19 of the Consolidated Financial Statements in this report. Additionally, the business operations of each segment are explained in this section. The financial performance of each segment is discussed in Part II - Item 7 of this report.
Property & Casualty
Our primary property and casualty insurance products include private passenger auto insurance and residential home insurance.
We offer standard auto coverages, including liability, collision and comprehensive. Property coverage includes both homeowners and renters policies. For both auto and property coverage, we offer educators a discounted rate and the Educator Advantage® package of features. This includes value-added benefits specifically for educators, such as liability coverage for transporting students in an insured vehicle and reimbursement for stolen school fundraising items.
We have programs in a majority of states to provide higher-risk auto and property coverages. We also have a number of other insurance coverages with third-party vendors that underwrite and bear the risk of such insurance. We receive commissions on these risks.
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376,302 auto risks in force and
176,446 property risks in force at December 31, 2021.

Similarly, we have increased our offering of third-party vendor products in many areas to meet additional educator needs such as coverage for small business owners or classic/collector autos.

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Annual Report on Form 10-K 5


Catastrophe Losses (Pretax)(1)
The number of catastrophe events and the level of catastrophe losses can fluctuate significantly from year to year. Our catastrophe losses for the last five years are shown in the following table ($ in millions).
YearMonthEvent DescriptionStates/RegionTotal
2021$78.2 
FebruaryWinter Storm ViolaAR, IL, LA, MO, OK, TN, TX5.1 
AugustHurricane IdaAL, AK, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MA, MS, NJ, NY, NC, PA ,RI, TN, VI, WV24.0 
DecemberWildfire MarshallCO5.3 
Other single events less than $5.0 million43.8 
2020$84.4 
AugustDerechoIA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, OH, SD, WI6.5 
AugustHurricane LauraAR, LA, MS, TN, TX9.5 
OctoberHurricane DeltaAL, AR, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX3.3 
OctoberHurricane ZetaAL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC2.7 
Other single events less than $5.0 million62.4 
2019$52.0 
MayWind and HailCO, IA, IL, IN, KS, MO, NE, OH, OK, PA, WY5.5 
Other single events less than $5.0 million46.5 
2018$114.1 
JuneWind and HailCO, UT8.2 
JulyCarr FireCA5.9 
SeptemberHurricane FlorenceSoutheast and Mid-Atlantic11.4 
OctoberHurricane MichaelSoutheastern U.S.4.5 
November
Camp Fire(2)
CA31.2
Other single events less than $5.0 million52.9 
2017$61.8 
MayWind, Hail, TornadoCO10.0 
JuneWind and HailMN (primarily)10.0 
AugustHurricane HarveySoutheastern U.S.4.8 
AugustHurricane IrmaEastern U.S.3.0 
Other single events less than $5.0 million34.0 
(1)    Net of reinsurance and before income tax benefits. Includes allocated loss adjustment expenses.
(2)    As recognized in 2018 and excludes subrogation recoveries of $4.8 million pretax received in 2020.

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Horace Mann Educators Corporation


Fluctuations in catastrophe losses impact a property and casualty insurance company's claims and claim expenses incurred and paid.
Claims and Claim Expenses Incurred(1), 2019 - 2021 ($ in millions)
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(1)    Claims and claim expenses incurred include the impact of prior years' reserve development as quantified in Property & Casualty reserves. Catastrophe totals are net of reinsurance and before income tax benefits.
Property & Casualty Reserves
Property & Casualty unpaid claims and claim expenses (loss reserves) represent management's estimate of ultimate unpaid costs of losses and settlement expenses for reported claims and claims that have been incurred but not yet reported (IBNR). We calculate and record a single best estimate of the reserve as of each reporting date in conformity with generally accepted actuarial standards. We engage an independent property and casualty actuarial consulting firm to prepare an independent study of our Property & Casualty reserves at December 31st of each year. For additional information regarding the process used to estimate Property & Casualty reserves and the risk factors involved, as well as a summary reconciliation of the beginning and ending Property & Casualty insurance claims and claim expense reserves and prior years' reserve development recorded in each of the three years ended December 31, 2021, see Part I - Item 1A - Risk Factors - "Our property and casualty loss reserves may not be adequate", Part II - Item 7, Application of Critical Accounting Estimates and Results of Operations for the Property & Casualty Segment, and Part II - Item 8, Note 8 of the Consolidated Financial Statements of this report.
All of our reserves for Property & Casualty unpaid claims and claim expenses are carried at the full value of estimated liabilities and are not discounted for interest expected to be earned on the reserves. Due to the nature of our personal lines business, we have no exposure to losses related to claims for toxic waste cleanup, other environmental remediation or asbestos-related illnesses other than claims under property insurance policies for environmental related items such as mold.
Property & Casualty Reinsurance
All reinsurance is obtained through contracts which generally are entered into for each calendar year. Although reinsurance does not legally discharge us from primary liability for the full amount of our risks, it does allow for recovery from assuming reinsurers to the extent of the reinsurance ceded. Past due reinsurance recoverables as of December 31, 2021 were not material.
We maintain catastrophe excess of loss reinsurance coverage. For 2021, our catastrophe excess of loss reinsurance coverage consisted of one contract in addition to a minimal amount of coverage by the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund. The catastrophe excess of loss reinsurance contract provided 95% coverage for catastrophe losses above a $25.0 million retention per occurrence up to $175.0 million per occurrence. This contract consisted of three layers, each of which provided for one mandatory reinstatement. The layers were $25.0 million excess of $25.0 million, $40.0 million excess of $50.0 million and $85.0 million excess of $90.0 million. Our 2022 catastrophe excess of loss reinsurance coverage is unchanged from 2021.
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Annual Report on Form 10-K 7


We have not joined the California Earthquake Authority (CEA). Our exposure to losses from earthquakes is managed through our underwriting standards, our earthquake policy coverage limits and deductible levels, and the geographic distribution of our business, as well as our reinsurance program. After reviewing the exposure to earthquake losses from our own risks and from what it would be with participation in the CEA, including estimated start-up and ongoing costs related to CEA participation, we believe it is in our best economic interest to offer earthquake coverage directly to our property policyholders.
For liability coverages in 2021, we reinsured each loss above a retention of $1.0 million up to $5.0 million per occurrence and $20.0 million in a clash event. A clash cover is a reinsurance casualty excess contract requiring two or more casualty coverages or risks issued by us to be involved in the same loss occurrence for coverage to apply. Our 2021 liability contract provides 85% coverage for losses of $1.0 million up to $5.0 million. For 2022, the reinsurance layer of $1.0 million up to $5.0 million occurrence has been eliminated. The 2022 clash event coverage is unchanged from 2021.
We market personal lines excess liability risks. The limits of these risks are $1.0 million to $5.0 million in excess of $0.5 million of underlying auto and homeowners liability coverage. We reinsure these risks on a quota share basis with General Reinsurance Corporation who assumes 95% of losses, including allocated loss adjustment expenses and premiums for all states except Massachusetts. For business written in Massachusetts, the quota share portion is 75%.
For auto insurance sold in Michigan, Personal Injury Protection (PIP) unlimited coverage is offered in compliance with Michigan state law. For these risks with unlimited coverage, we participate in the Michigan Catastrophic Claims Association (MCCA). For risks issued in 2021, MCCA reimbursed PIP losses including allocated loss adjustment expenses in excess of $0.6 million.
For property coverages, in 2021, we reinsured each loss above a retention of $1.0 million up to $5.0 million per risk, including catastrophe losses. Also, we could submit to the reinsurers two per risk losses from the same occurrence for a total of $8.0 million of property recovery in any one event. Our 2021 property contract provides 85% coverage for losses of $1.0 million up to $5.0 million. This reinsurance layer has been eliminated for 2022.
The following table identifies our most significant reinsurers under the catastrophe first event excess of loss reinsurance program, their percentage participation in this program and their ratings by A.M. Best Company (A.M. Best) and Standard & Poor's Global Inc. (S&P) as of January 1, 2022. No other single reinsurer's percentage participation in 2022 or 2021 exceeds 5%. We monitor reinsurers' financial strength by reviewing A.M. Best and S&P ratings.
Property Catastrophe First Event Excess of Loss Reinsurance Participants In Excess of 5%
A.M. Best RatingS&P RatingReinsurerParent20222021
AA+Lloyd's of London Syndicates14.2 %19.4 %
A+A+Everest Reinsurance CompanyEverest Re Group, Ltd10.7 %7.1 %
A+AA-Swiss Re Underwriters Agency, Inc.Swiss Reinsurance Company, Zurich9.9 %9.6 %
NRA+R+V Versicherung AGDZ BANK AG8.9 %8.7 %
A+AA-SCOR Global P&C SESCOR SE6.7 %6.7 %
A+A+Transatlantic Reinsurance CompanyAlleghany Corporation5.3 %4.9 %
NR - Not rated.

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Horace Mann Educators Corporation


Supplemental
We entered the supplemental market in July 2019 when we acquired NTA. Our supplemental insurance products include cancer, heart, hospital, supplemental disability and accident. A typical supplemental policy offers "HIPAA Excepted" benefits with simplified issuance. Our supplemental products are limited benefit products that offer defined benefit amounts paid directly to the insured, and are payable in addition to any other insurance coverages. An insured can use the supplemental payments to cover medical or non-medical costs.
Supplemental products remain an important tool in the changing healthcare landscape with higher deductible health care plans and expanded voluntary offerings along with an increasing focus on health and wellness. Our supplemental products are well designed, offering indemnity benefits only rather than reimbursement of actual costs. The benefit risk is well controlled with no coverage for pre-existing conditions and specified benefit maximums per occurrence or time period. Diagnosis or treatment is required for benefit payment.
Our supplemental disability products have elimination and short-term benefit periods. Sound underwriting techniques and significant underwriting expertise help ensure loss experience is commensurate with pricing expectations.
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277,896 total Supplemental policies in force at December 31, 2021.

Supplemental Reserves
Supplemental policy reserves represent our best estimate of the present value of future ultimate benefits, net of future premiums, to be provided for cancer, heart, hospital, supplemental disability and accident claims. Unpaid claims and claim expenses provide provisions for claims reported to us plus an estimated accrual for IBNR claims.
Supplemental Reinsurance
We retain all of the risk on our supplemental health product lines, including accidental death risk embedded within certain products. However, our other accidental death and dismemberment risks issued through all other policies and riders are ceded 100%. The maximum life insurance risk retained on any individual life by our Supplemental segment is $100,000. The excess risk on the life insurance products issued by our Supplemental segment is ceded to and reinsured by a third party that is rated A (Excellent) by A.M. Best.
Retirement
Our Retirement segment primarily markets 403(b) tax-qualified fixed, fixed indexed and variable annuities; the Horace Mann Retirement Advantage® open architecture platform for 403(b)(7) and other defined contribution plans; and other retirement products to educators. Educators in our target market continue to benefit from the provisions of Section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) which allows public school employees and employees of other tax-exempt organizations, such as not-for-profit private schools, to utilize pretax income to make periodic contributions to a qualified retirement plan (also see Regulation - Regulation at Federal Level).
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Annual Report on Form 10-K 9


We entered the educator retirement annuity market in 1961 and are one of the largest participants in the K-12 educator portion of the 403(b) tax-qualified annuity market, measured by 403(b) net written premium on a statutory accounting basis. Our 403(b) tax-qualified annuities are voluntarily purchased by individuals employed by public school systems or other tax-exempt organizations through employee benefit plans of those entities.
In 2021, 47.7% of net annuity contract deposits* were for 403(b) tax-qualified annuities. At December 31, 2021, 62.3% of accumulated annuity value on deposit were 403(b) tax-qualified. To further assist registered representatives in delivering our value proposition, we have entered into third-party vendor agreements to market 529 college savings programs and provide brokerage clearing arrangements.
Assets under Management
We market both fixed and variable annuity contracts, primarily on a tax-qualified basis. Total accumulated fixed and variable annuity cash value on deposit at December 31, 2021 was $5.3 billion, net of reinsurance.
Fixed-only annuities provide a guarantee of principal and a guaranteed minimum rate of return. These contracts are backed by our general account investments. We bear the investment risk associated with the investments and may change the declared interest rate on these contracts subject to contract guarantees.
We also offer fixed indexed annuity (FIA) products with interest crediting strategies linked to the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA).


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    229,629 annuity contracts in force at December 31, 2021.
Variable annuities combine a fixed account option with equity-linked and bond-linked sub-account options. By utilizing tools that provide assistance in determining needs and making asset allocation decisions, contractholders are able to choose the investment mix that matches their personal risk tolerance and retirement goals. As of December 31, 2021, we had 121 variable sub-account options including funds managed by some of the larger participants in the mutual fund industry.
Annuities are marketed under the Personal Retirement Planner annuity series, which includes a flexible premium deferred variable annuity, a flexible premium deferred fixed indexed annuity, a single premium deferred fixed annuity and a single premium immediate annuity. Consistent across all of these products is the elimination of any surrender charges for early withdrawal.
Assets under Administration
In addition to annuities, we market the Horace Mann Retirement Advantage® open architecture platform for 403(b)(7) and other defined contribution plans. This platform combines a wide array of mutual funds integrated with a group unallocated fixed annuity stable value fund. This platform provides us with greater flexibility to offer customized 403(b)(7) and other qualified plan solutions to better meet the needs of school districts and other non-for-profit plan sponsors. In 2019, we acquired recordkeeping administrator, Benefit Consultants Group, Inc. (BCG) and we migrated the administration of our Horace Mann Retirement Advantage® platform from a third-party vendor to the BCG platform. We offer our group unallocated fixed annuity, Horace Mann Stable Value Solution, as an option within a number of the 401(k) plans BCG administers. BCG had $1.6 billion of recordkeeping assets under administration as of December 31, 2021.
Annuity Reinsurance
Effective April 1, 2019, we reinsure a $3.2 billion block of in force fixed and variable annuity business with a minimum crediting rate of 4.5%. The reinsured fixed business represents approximately 50% of our in force fixed annuity account balances. The arrangement contains investment guidelines and a trust to help meet our risk management objectives. Under the annuity reinsurance agreement, approximately $2.4 billion of fixed annuity reserves are reinsured on a coinsurance basis. The separate account assets and liabilities of approximately $0.8 billion are reinsured on a modified coinsurance basis and thus, remain on our consolidated
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financial statements, but the related results of operations are fully reinsured. The annuity reinsurance agreement does not expose the reinsurer (i.e., RGA Reinsurance Company, a subsidiary of Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated) to a reasonable possibility of a significant loss from insurance risk. Therefore, we recognize the annuity reinsurance agreement using the deposit method of accounting.
Retirement Assets Under Administration, 2019 - 2021 ($ in billions)
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Life
We entered the individual life insurance business in 1949. We primarily offer traditional term and whole life insurance products as well as indexed universal life (IUL) products and, from time to time, revise products and product features or develop new products. Additionally, we offer educator rates for our customers.
During 2021, the average face amount of individual life insurance policies issued by us was approximately $191,000 and the average face amount of all life insurance policies in force at December 31, 2021 was approximately $102,000.
We offer a lineup of several product portfolios. Life by Design® is a portfolio of our manufactured and branded life insurance products that specifically address the financial planning needs of educators. The Life by Design® portfolio features individual whole life and individual term products, including 10, 15, 20 and 30-year level term policies. The Life by Design® policies have premiums that are guaranteed for the duration of the contract.










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Horace Mann Educators Corporation
Annual Report on Form 10-K 11


We offer a combination product called Life Select® that mixes a base of either traditional whole life, 20-pay life or life paid-up at age 65 with a variety of term riders to allow for more flexibility in tailoring the coverage to customers' varying life insurance needs. Additional products include single premium whole life products and Cash Value Term — a term policy that builds cash value while providing the income protection of traditional level term life insurance.
We offer an IUL product with interest crediting strategies linked to the S&P 500 Index and the DJIA, offering a contingent return based on equity market performance. Along with expanded product offerings, new marketing support tools continue to be introduced to aid the agency force.
We also maintain a closed block of Experience Life policies. This product, discontinued in 2006, represents a flexible premium life insurance contract consisting mainly of whole life and term elements, along with an interest bearing policy account.
Life Reinsurance
The maximum individual life insurance risk retained by our Life segment is $500,000 on any individual life, while either $100,000 or $125,000 is retained on each group life policy depending on the type of coverage. The excess of the amounts retained are reinsured with life reinsurers that are rated A (Excellent) or above by A.M. Best. We also maintain a life catastrophe reinsurance program. In 2021, we reinsured 100% of the catastrophe risk in excess of $1.0 million up to $35.0 million per occurrence, with one reinstatement. For 2021, our catastrophe risk coverage is unchanged. Our life catastrophe risk reinsurance program covers acts of terrorism and includes nuclear, biological and chemical explosions but excludes other acts of war.
Corporate & Other
Corporate & Other includes capital raising activities (including debt financing and related interest expense), net investment gains (losses), certain public company expenses and other corporate-level transactions including expenses related to business acquisition activity. We do not allocate the impact of corporate-level transactions to the operating segments, consistent with the basis for management's evaluation of the results of those segments.
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2021 Geographic Composition of Business
Our business is geographically diversified. For the year ended December 31, 2021, based on direct premiums and contract deposits for all product lines, the top five states and their portion of total direct insurance premiums and contract deposits were California, 10.2%; Texas, 7.5%; North Carolina, 7.0%; Minnesota, 5.4%; and Pennsylvania, 5.1%.
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$622.1 million in direct premiums, defined as premiums earned before reinsurance as determined under statutory accounting principles. Our Property & Casualty subsidiaries are licensed to write business in 48 states and the District of Columbia.
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$625.1 million in direct premiums and contract deposits, defined as premiums collected before reinsurance as determined under statutory accounting principles. Our principal life subsidiary is licensed to write business in 49 states and the District of Columbia.
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$125.6 million in direct premiums, defined as premiums earned before reinsurance as determined
under statutory accounting principles. Our principal supplemental insurance subsidiaries are
licensed to write business in all 50 states, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia.
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Annual Report on Form 10-K 13


Competition
We have over 75 years of experience serving the education market and are uniquely positioned to tailor financial solutions for educators at each stage of their lives, empowering them to achieve lifelong financial success. We believe this helps us succeed in a highly competitive environment. The insurance industry consists of a large number of insurance companies, some of which have substantially greater financial resources, widespread advertising campaigns, more diversified product lines, greater economies of scale and/or lower-cost marketing approaches compared to us. In our target market, we believe that our principal competitive advantages in the sale of property and casualty and supplemental insurance products are overall service, worksite sales and service, price, and name recognition. We believe that our principal competitive advantages in the sale of retirement products and life insurance are worksite sales and service, product features, perceived stability of the insurer, price, overall service and name recognition.
With our focus on the education market, we can benefit from a homogeneous customer set that permits more precise underwriting processes and more targeted marketing operations, amplifying the benefit of successful approaches. We seek to provide:
Products designed to meet educators’ needs and protect their unique risks;
Knowledgeable, trusted distribution tailored to educator preferences; and
Modern, scalable infrastructure that is easy to do business with.
Competition in this market for personal protection products is from a number of national providers of personal auto, property, supplemental and life insurance including State Farm, Allstate, Farmers, Liberty Mutual, Aflac, Unum and Nationwide, as well as a number of regional companies. We also compete for auto business with other companies such as GEICO, Progressive and USAA, many of which feature direct marketing distribution. A number of technology start-ups have also entered the market.
National providers of annuities and other financial service platforms that serve the retirement needs of educators and others that serve the community, include The Variable Annuity Life Insurance Company, a subsidiary of American International Group; AXA, Voya Financial, Inc., Life Insurance Company of the Southwest, a subsidiary of National Life Insurance Company; Security Benefit, and Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association – College Retirement Equities Fund. Select mutual fund families and financial planners also compete in this marketplace.
The market for tax-deferred retirement products in our target market has been impacted by the revised Code Section 403(b) regulations, which made the 403(b) market more comparable to the 401(k) market than it was in the past. This change has made the 403(b) market more attractive to some of the larger companies experienced in 401(k) plans, including both insurance and mutual fund companies, that had not previously been active competitors in this business.
Investments
Our investment strategy is primarily focused on generating income to support product liabilities, and balances principal protection and risk. Our investment objectives are implemented through portfolios that primarily emphasize investment grade fixed maturity securities that are selected to match the anticipated duration of our liabilities. In addition to these securities, we also invest in limited partnership interests (which include commercial mortgage loan funds) and equity securities to help improve overall returns.
We have separate investment strategies and guidelines for our Property & Casualty, Supplemental, Retirement and Life portfolios, which recognize different characteristics of the associated insurance liabilities, as well as different tax and regulatory environments. We manage interest rate exposure for our portfolios through asset/liability management techniques that attempt to coordinate the duration of the assets with the duration of the insurance policy liabilities. Duration of assets and liabilities will generally differ only because of opportunities to increase yields or because policy values are not interest rate sensitive, as is the case in Property & Casualty and Supplemental.
The investments of each insurance subsidiary must comply with the insurance laws of such insurance subsidiary's domiciliary state. These laws prescribe the type and amount of investments that may be purchased and held by insurance companies. In general, these laws permit investments, within specified limits and subject
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to certain qualifications, in federal, state and municipal obligations, corporate bonds, mortgage-backed securities, other asset-backed securities, preferred stocks, common stocks, real estate mortgages, real estate and alternative investments.
Investment Portfolio at December 31, 2021
($ in millions)% of Total
Carrying
Value
Carrying Value
TotalLife and
Retirement
Supplemental
Property &
Casualty(7)
Amortized
Cost, net(8)
Publicly Traded Fixed Maturity Securities, Equity
Securities and Short-term Investments:
U.S. Government and agency obligations:(1)
Mortgage-backed securities
8.9 %$662.5 $546.2 $104.4 $11.9 $612.1 
Other, including U.S. Treasury securities
4.9 365.9 340.5 13.8 11.6 342.5 
Investment grade corporate and public utility
bonds
21.8 1,626.4 1,235.2 204.1 187.1 1,483.9 
Non-investment grade corporate and
public utility bonds(2)
3.0 220.9 185.0 11.3 24.6 213.3 
Investment grade municipal bonds21.6 1,607.4 1,114.7 113.2 379.5 1,429.4 
Non-investment grade municipal bonds(2)
0.8 57.3 31.4 6.7 19.2 54.0 
Investment grade other asset-backed
securities(3)
13.6 1,017.6 819.3 108.5 89.8 1,011.7 
Non-investment grade other asset-backed
securities(2)(3)
0.3 24.6 24.3 0.3 — 30.2 
Foreign government bonds0.6 43.6 43.6 — — 40.2 
Redeemable preferred stock0.4 29.7 28.6 1.1 — 27.4 
Equity securities:
Non-redeemable preferred stocks,
investment grade
1.3 99.8 92.5 7.3 — 99.8 
Non-redeemable preferred stocks,
non-investment grade
0.3 19.7 17.2 1.5 1.0 19.7 
Common stocks0.1 5.9 0.1 — 5.8 5.9 
Closed-end fund0.3 21.5 — — 21.5 21.5 
Short-term investments(4)
2.1 157.8 87.5 17.2 53.1 157.8 
Total publicly traded securities
80.0 5,960.6 4,566.1 589.4 805.1 5,549.4 
Other Invested Assets:
Investment grade private placements6.9 513.7 485.8 27.9 — 490.9 
Non-investment grade private placements(2)
0.9 70.0 61.1 8.9 — 70.1 
Mortgage loans(5)
0.1 6.7 6.7 — — 6.7 
Policy loans(5)
1.9 142.1 141.3 0.8 — 142.1 
Limited partnership interests9.6 712.8 492.9 48.1 171.8 712.8 
Other0.6 43.6 39.1 3.5 1.0 43.6 
Total other invested assets
20.0 1,488.9 1,226.9 89.2 172.8 1,466.2 
Total investments(6)
100.0 %$7,449.5 $5,793.0 $678.6 $977.9 $7,015.6 
(1)All investment grade that includes $325.1 million fair value of investments guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government and $703.2 million fair value of federally sponsored agency securities which are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
(2)A non-investment grade rating is assigned to a security when it is acquired or when it is downgraded from investment grade, primarily on the basis of the S&P rating for such security, or if there is no S&P rating, the Moody's Investors Service, Inc. (Moody's) or Fitch Ratings, Inc. (Fitch) rating for such security, or if there is no S&P, Moody's or Fitch rating, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners' (NAIC) rating for such security. The rating agencies monitor securities and their issuers regularly, and make changes to the ratings as necessary. We incorporate rating changes on a monthly basis.
(3)Includes commercial mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, other mortgage-backed securities and collateralized loan obligations.
(4)Short-term investments mature within one year of being acquired and are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. Short-term investments of $157.8 million are all money market funds and not rated.
(5)Mortgage loans are carried at amortized cost, net and policy loans are carried at unpaid principal balances.
(6)Approximately 7.4% of our investment portfolio, having a carrying value of $551.7 million as of December 31, 2021, consisted of securities with some form of credit support, such as insurance. Of the securities with credit support as of December 31, 2021, municipal bonds represented $386.3 million carrying value.
(7)Includes $1.0 million of equity securities and $1.0 million of short-term investments held in Corporate & Other.
(8)The values of limited partnership interests are carried using the equity method of accounting which approximates fair value.
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Fixed Maturity Securities
For reporting purposes, we have classified the entire portfolio of fixed maturity securities as "available for sale" and the portfolio is carried at fair value. The adjustment for net unrealized investment gains (losses) on fixed maturity securities available for sale is recognized as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) within shareholders' equity, net of applicable deferred taxes and the related impact from deferred policy acquisition costs (DAC) associated with annuity contracts and life insurance products with account values. Fixed maturity securities held for indefinite periods of time include securities that we intend to use as part of our asset/liability management strategy and that may be sold in response to changes in interest rates, resultant prepayment risk and other related factors, other than securities that are in an unrealized loss position for which we have the stated intent to hold until recovery.
Fixed Maturity Securities Portfolio at December 31, 2021
% of Fixed Maturity
Securities Portfolio
% of Total
Investment Portfolio
Investment grade85.5 %71.6 %
Non-investment grade14.5 %12.1 %
Average credit qualityA+A+
Average option-adjusted duration6.7 6.7 
Percent maturing in next 5 years31.0 %26.0 %
Cash Flow
Information regarding our sources and uses of cash, including payment of principal and interest with respect to our indebtedness, and payment of dividends to our shareholders, is contained in Part II - Item 8, Note 14 of the Consolidated Financial Statements and in Part II - Item 7, Liquidity and Capital Resources — Cash Flow and — Capital Resources of this report.
The ability of our insurance subsidiaries to pay cash dividends to us is subject to state insurance department regulations which generally permit dividends to be paid for any 12 month period in amounts equal to the greater of (i) net income for the preceding calendar year or (ii) 10% of surplus, determined in conformity with statutory accounting principles, as of the preceding December 31st. Any dividend in excess of these levels requires the prior approval of the Director or Commissioner of the state insurance department of the state in which the dividend paying insurance subsidiary is domiciled. The aggregate amount of dividends that may be paid in 2022 from all of our insurance subsidiaries, including Madison National, without prior regulatory approval is approximately $134.8 million, excluding the impact and timing of prior year dividends, of which $57.0 million was paid during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, if insurance regulators otherwise determine that payment of a dividend or any other payment to an affiliate would be detrimental to an insurance subsidiary's policyholders or creditors, because of the financial condition of the insurance subsidiary or otherwise, the regulators may block dividends or other payments to affiliates that would otherwise be permitted without prior approval.
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Regulation
General Regulation at State Level
As an insurance holding company, we are subject to extensive regulation by the states in which our insurance subsidiaries are domiciled or transact business. Some regulations, such as those addressing unclaimed property, generally apply to all corporations. In addition, the laws of the various states establish regulatory agencies with broad administrative powers, which relate to a wide variety of matters, including granting and revoking licenses to transact business, regulating trade practices and rate setting, licensing agents, requiring statutory financial statements, monitoring insurer solvency and reserve adequacy, and prescribing the type and amount of investments permitted and the manner in which they may be sold. On an ongoing basis, various state legislators and insurance regulators examine the nature and scope of state insurance regulation.
In addition to individual state monitoring and regulation, state regulators develop coordinated regulatory policies through the NAIC. States have adopted NAIC risk-based capital guidelines to evaluate the adequacy of statutory capital and surplus in relation to an insurance company's risks. Based on current guidelines, the risk-based capital statutory requirements are not expected to have a negative regulatory impact on our insurance subsidiaries. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, statutory capital and surplus of each of our insurance subsidiaries were above required levels. States have also adopted the NAIC's U.S. Own Risk and Solvency Assessment which requires insurance companies to submit their own assessment of their current and future risks and provide a consolidated group-level perspective on risk and capital formulated through an internal risk self-assessment process.
Regulation of insurance continues to evolve. Some changes arise as a result of economic developments, such as changes in investment laws made to recognize new investment products or to respond to perceived investment risks, while others reflect concerns about consumer privacy, insurance availability, prices, allegations of unfair-discriminatory pricing, underwriting practices, or solvency concerns. Over the past several years, legislation, regulatory measures, and voter initiatives have been introduced, and in some cases adopted, which deal with use of non-public consumer information, cybersecurity, use of credit information in underwriting and rating, insurance rate development, rate of return limitations, and the ability of insurers to cancel or non-renew insurance policies.
Assessments Against Insurers and Mandatory Insurance Facilities
Under insurance insolvency or guaranty laws in most states in which we operate, insurers doing business therein can be assessed for policyholder losses related to insolvencies of other insurance companies, and many assessments paid by us pursuant to these laws may be used as credits for a portion of our premium taxes in certain states. Also, we are required to participate in various mandatory insurance facilities in proportion to the amount of our direct writings in the applicable state. For the three years ended December 31, 2021, the impacts of the above industry items were not material to our results of operations.
Regulation at Federal Level
Although the federal government generally does not directly regulate the insurance industry, federal initiatives often impact the insurance business. Current and proposed federal measures which may significantly affect insurance and retirement business include employee benefits regulation, standards applied to employer sponsored retirement plans, standards applied to broker-dealers and investment advisers, controls on the costs of medical care, medical entitlement programs such as Medicare, structure of retirement plans and accounts, changes to the insurance industry antitrust exemption, and minimum solvency requirements. Also, see Part I - Item 1A of this report. Other federal regulation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and USA PATRIOT Act, including its anti-money laundering regulations, also impact our business.
The variable annuities underwritten by Horace Mann Life Insurance Company (HMLIC) are regulated by the SEC. Horace Mann Investors, Inc., and BCG Securities, Inc., our broker-dealer and Registered Investment Adviser subsidiaries, are also regulated by the SEC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., the Municipal Securities Rule-making Board and various state securities regulators.
Changes in federal income taxation of the build-up of cash value within a life insurance policy or an annuity contract could have a materially adverse impact on our ability to market and sell such products. Various
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legislation to this effect has been proposed in the past, but has not been enacted. Although no such legislative proposals are known to exist at this time, such proposals may be made again in the future. Changes in other federal and state laws and regulations could also affect the relative tax and other advantages of our annuity and life products.
Financial Regulation Legislation
In addition, from time to time, the United States Congress and certain federal agencies investigate the current condition of the insurance industry to determine whether federal regulation is necessary. For example, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) created the Federal Insurance Office (FIO) within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. FIO studies the current insurance regulatory system and is charged with monitoring and providing specific reports on various aspects of the insurance industry, including the collection of information about the insurance industry and monitoring the industry for systemic risk. However, FIO does not have general supervisory or regulatory authority over the business of insurance.
Changing Climate Conditions
Horace Mann continually works to better understand and manage climate risks that directly affect our stakeholders. This is an important issue for the insurance industry. We recognize climate change as a growing concern, and continually work to better understand and manage climate risks that directly affect our customers, insurance products and investment portfolio. Our Board formally recognizes the importance of carbon neutrality.
Our Board oversees our Enterprise Risk Management Committee’s risk assessments and risk mitigation strategies, including recommended actions to address climate change risks. These actions include managing climate risks through our ongoing risk assessments to help us improve the accuracy of our climate-related risk models, refine how we price and underwrite policies, and avoid an over concentration of insurance coverages and investments in geographies likely to be affected by climate risk. We also have in place a conservative reinsurance program as an additional layer of protection against large property and casualty catastrophe losses. Our coverage for $25 million to $175 million of losses shares the risk with other insurance companies.
We also are working to mitigate the impact of climate risks on our results. Rising temperatures and changing weather patterns in recent years are widely associated with more frequent and severe weather events and natural catastrophes, leading to higher insurance claims and costs and create additional uncertainty as to future trends and exposures. We want to be there for our customers in the event of a loss of our customers' property and help them recover from hurricanes, windstorms, hail, severe winter weather, wildfires and earthquakes. Our deep commitment to helping our customers was evident in our response to the 2018 Camp Fire in California and the subsequent launch of a pilot wildfire certification program.
As we look ahead, we believe climate change risks should be understood, modeled and better priced into our insurance products and services. There are also public policy implications, such as discouraging overbuilding in high-risk areas through flood insurance requirements and state regulatory approaches to insurance premium approvals; and modifying and enforcing building codes to better protect at-risk communities against the effects of natural catastrophes.
Similar to other insurers, we may be subject to increased losses from catastrophes and other weather-related events that are exacerbated by weather/climate variability.
As we discuss in Part I - Item 1A—Risk Factors—“Catastrophe events, as well as significant weather events not designated as catastrophes, can have a material adverse affect on our financial condition and results of operations” of this report, several factors make increased losses more likely:
More people living in high-risk areas combined with population growth in areas with weaker enforcement of building codes, urban expansion and an increase in the average size of a house. For example, hurricane activity has impacted areas further inland than previously experienced, and demographic changes have resulted in larger populations located in coastal areas that historically have been subject to severe storms and related storm surge, expanding the potential for losses from hurricanes.
Elevated frequency and severity of wildfire losses due in part to record droughts in western states that some climate studies suggest are likely to increase over time, as well as demographic changes in areas prone to wildfires.
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Less reliable catastrophe models due to the increased unpredictability in frequency and severity of severe weather events, emerging trends in climate conditions, inadequate reflection of regulatory changes and the other factors mentioned above.
In addition, changing climate conditions may present other issues for our business as discussed in Part I - Item 1A - Risk Factors of this report. For example, among other things:
Changing climate conditions could also impact the creditworthiness of issuers of securities in which we invest. For example, water supply adequacy could impact the creditworthiness of bond issuers with significant assets or business activities in the Southwestern United States, and more frequent and/or severe hurricanes could impact the creditworthiness of issuers with significant assets or business activities in the Southeastern United States, among other areas. See Part I - Item 1A—Risk Factors— “If our investment strategy is not successful, we could suffer unexpected losses” of this report.
Increased regulation adopted in response to potential changes in climate conditions may impact us and our customers, including state insurance regulations that could impact our ability to manage property exposures in areas vulnerable to significant climate driven losses. For example, one state passed legislation that restricted a carrier's ability to cancel or non-renew certain policies within or adjacent to declared state of emergency zip codes. If we are unable to implement risk-based pricing, modify policy terms or reduce exposures to the extent necessary to address rising losses related to catastrophes and smaller scale weather events (should those increased losses occur), our business may be adversely affected. See Part I - Item 1— Business – Regulation of this report.
Enterprise Risk Management
As a multi-line insurance company, we are exposed to many risks which are a function of the products we underwrite and the environments within which we operate. Since certain risks can be correlated, an event or a series of events can impact multiple areas of our business simultaneously and have a material effect on our results of operations, financial position and liquidity. These exposures require an entity-wide view of risk and an understanding of the potential impact on all aspects of our operations. It also requires us to manage our risk-taking to be within our appetite in a prudent and balanced effort to create and preserve value for all our stakeholders. Our Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) activities involve both the identification and assessment of a broad range of risks and the execution of coordinated strategies to effectively manage them. ERM also includes an evaluation of our risk capital needs, which takes into account regulatory requirements and credit rating considerations, in addition to economic and other factors. ERM is an integral part of our business operations. All risk owners across all functions, all corporate leaders and the Board are engaged in ERM. ERM involves risk-based analytics, as well as reporting and feedback throughout the enterprise in support of our long-term financial strategies and objectives.
We use property and casualty catastrophe models that are run by our reinsurance intermediary. Life and retirement asset cash flows are projected using third-party software for certain security types. We also utilize proprietary third-party computer modeling processes to evaluate capital adequacy. These analytical techniques are an integral component of our ERM process and further support our long-term financial strategies and objectives.
Within Horace Mann, ERM is an ongoing assessment process used to identify and manage or mitigate risk, which will continue to influence our strategy and direction. The ERM Committee objectives include the following:
Apply appropriate consideration to risk in strategic and operational decision-making
Define and communicate risk appetite and risk management policies
Approve and oversee processes aimed at identifying, evaluating, and managing risk
Monitor and discuss emerging risks and risk management capabilities
The ERM Committee is composed of senior executives from across Horace Mann and has ultimate oversight over the risk management process, with each leader having ownership and accountability over certain identified key risks. In 2020, a Chief Risk Officer (CRO) was appointed and, in conjunction with the ERM Committee, is responsible for working with the business leaders to ensure that they are actively monitoring and managing their
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key risks. The CRO is also responsible for developing and monitoring key corporate level risks that encompass more than one business/division. There is ongoing and regular communication within the ERM Committee.
Members of the ERM Committee are responsible for updates to the Board and various Board committees on key risks and emerging risk topics. The interaction of all the various individuals, committees, reports, and processes results in an on-going process, which we believe puts us in the best position to effectively and efficiently manage risk.
Our ERM efforts build upon the foundation of an effective internal control environment. However, we can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that these objectives will be met. Further, the design of any risk management or control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits must be considered relative to their costs. As a result, the possibility of material financial loss remains despite our significant and comprehensive ERM efforts. An investor should carefully consider the risks and all of the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including disclosures in Part I - Item 1A—Risk Factors, Part II - Item 7A—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, and Part II - Item 8—Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
ITEM 1A. I Risk Factors
The following are certain risk factors that could affect our business, financial position and results of operations. The risks that we have highlighted in the following section of this report are not the only ones that we face.
Our business involves various risks and uncertainties which are based on the lines of business we write as well as more global risks associated with the general business and insurance industry environments.
Further, to the effects of COVID-19 and resulting disruptions on our business and operations as discussed in Item 7 of this report and in the risk factors below, additional or unforeseen effects from COVID-19 and the global economic climate may give rise to or amplify many of the risk factors discussed below.
Risks Related to Economic Conditions, Market Conditions and Investments
Volatile financial markets and adverse economic environments can affect financial market risk as well as our financial condition and results of operations.
Financial markets in the U.S. and elsewhere can experience extreme volatility and disruption for uncertain periods of time. During such times, stresses affecting the global banking system can lead to economic volatility, which can exert significant downward pressure on prices of equity securities and many other investment asset classes and result in severely constrained credit and capital markets, particularly for financial institutions, and an overall loss of investor confidence. Many states and local governments can also be impacted by adverse economic conditions, which could have an impact on both our niche market and our investment portfolio. Like other financial institutions that face significant financial market risk in their operations, we have been adversely affected by these conditions and could be adversely impacted by similar circumstances in the future. Our ability to access the capital markets to refinance outstanding indebtedness or raise capital could be impaired during significant financial market disruptions.
As discussed further in subsequent risk factors, in addition to the effects of financial markets volatility, a prolonged economic recession may have other adverse impacts on our financial condition and results of operations.
If our investment strategy is not successful, we could suffer unexpected losses.
The success of our investment strategy is crucial to the success of our business. Specifically, our fixed maturity securities portfolio is subject to a number of risks including:
interest rate risk, which is the risk that interest rates will decline and funds reinvested will earn less than expected;
market value risk, which is the risk that invested assets will decrease in value due to changes in yields realized on the assets and prevailing market yields for similar assets, an unfavorable change in the
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liquidity of the asset or an unfavorable change in the financial prospects or a downgrade in the credit rating of the issuer of the asset;
credit risk, which is the risk that the value of certain investments become impaired due to deterioration in the financial condition of one or more issuers of those instruments or the deterioration in performance or credit quality of the underlying collateral of certain structured securities and, ultimately, the risk of permanent loss in the event of default by an issuer or underlying credit;
market fundamentals risk, which is the risk that there are changes in the market that can have an unfavorable impact on securities valuation such as availability of credit in the capital markets, re-pricing of credit risk, reduced market liquidity due to broker-dealers' unwillingness to hold inventory, and increased market volatility;
concentration risk, which is the risk that the portfolio may be too heavily concentrated in the securities of one or more issuers, sectors or industries, which could result in a significant decrease in the value of the portfolio in the event of deterioration in the financial condition of those issuers or the market value of their securities;
liquidity risk, which is the risk that liabilities are surrendered or mature sooner than anticipated requiring the sale of assets at an undesirable time to provide for policyholder surrenders, withdrawals or claims; and,
regulatory risk, which is the risk that regulatory bodies or governments, in the U.S. or in other countries, may make substantial investments or take significant ownership positions in, or ultimately nationalize, financial institutions or other issuers of securities held in our investment portfolio, which could adversely impact the seniority or contractual terms of the securities. Regulatory risk could also come from changes in tax laws or bankruptcy laws that could adversely impact the valuation and/or after tax yields of certain invested assets.
Although our defined benefit pension plan has been frozen since 2002, declining financial markets could also cause, and in the past have caused, the value of the investments in this plan to decrease, resulting in additional pension expense, a reduction in other comprehensive income and an increase in required contributions to this plan, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The determination of fair value of our fixed maturity securities portfolio includes methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations and could result in changes to investment valuations that may materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.
The determination of fair value is made at a specific point in time, based on available market information and judgments about financial instruments, including estimates of the timing and amounts of expected future cash flows and the credit standing of the issuer or counterparty. The use of different methodologies and assumptions may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. During periods of market disruption, including periods of rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be difficult to value certain securities if trading becomes less frequent and/or market data becomes less observable. There may be certain asset classes that were in active markets with significant observable data that become illiquid due to the financial environment. In such cases, fair value determination may require more subjectivity and management judgment and those fair values may differ materially from the value at which the investments could ultimately be sold. Further, rapidly changing and unprecedented credit and equity market conditions could materially impact the valuation of securities and the period-to-period changes in fair value could vary significantly. The difference between fair value and amortized cost, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the related impact on DAC associated with annuity contracts and life insurance products with account values is reflected as a component of AOCI within shareholders' equity. Decreases in the fair value of investments could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Equity method adjustments on certain investments in limited partnership interests as well as fair value accounting for equity securities and derivatives may reduce profitability and/or cause volatility in our results of operations.
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We invest in limited partnership interests, which are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. This means that our proportionate share of the changes in fair value of the underlying net asset values are reported in net investment income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. As a result, the amount of net investment income recognized from these investments can vary substantially from period to period. Equity and credit market volatility may reduce net investment income from these types of investments and negatively impact the results of operations. Changes in fair value from applying fair value accounting to equity securities, which are reported in net investment gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, may cause volatility in our results of operations.
The application of fair value accounting for derivatives and embedded derivatives in FIA and IUL products may cause volatility in our results of operations.
Risks Related to Property & Casualty Segment
Catastrophe events, as well as significant weather events not designated as catastrophes, can have a material adverse affect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Underwriting results of property and casualty insurers are subject to weather and other conditions prevailing in an accident year. While one year may be relatively free of major weather or other disasters — not all of which are designated by the insurance industry as a catastrophe, another year may have numerous such events causing results for such a year to be materially worse than for previous years.
Our Property & Casualty insurance subsidiaries have experienced, and we anticipate that in the future they will continue to experience, catastrophe losses. A catastrophe event, a series of multiple catastrophe events or a series of non-catastrophe severe weather events could have a material adverse effect on the financial condition and results of operations of our insurance subsidiaries.
Various events can cause catastrophes, including hurricanes, windstorms, hail, severe winter weather, wildfires, earthquakes, explosions and terrorism. The frequency and severity of these catastrophes are inherently unpredictable. The extent of losses from a catastrophe is a function of both the total amount of insured exposures in the area affected by the event and the severity of the event. Although catastrophes can cause losses in a variety of property and casualty lines, most of the catastrophe-related claims of our insurance subsidiaries are related to property coverages. Our ability to provide accurate estimates of ultimate catastrophe losses is based on several factors, including:
the proximity of the catastrophe occurrence date to the date of our estimate;
potential inflation of property repair costs in the affected area;
the occurrence of multiple catastrophes in a geographic area over a relatively short period of time; and
the outcome of litigation which may be filed against us by policyholders, state attorneys general and other parties relative to loss coverage disputes and loss settlement payments.
Based on 2021 direct premiums earned, 57.8% of the total annual premiums for our Property & Casualty business were for policies issued in the ten largest states in which the insurance subsidiaries write property and casualty coverage. Included in this top ten group are certain states which are considered to be more prone to catastrophe occurrences: California, Texas, North Carolina, Minnesota, South Carolina, Louisiana and Colorado.
Our property and casualty loss reserves may not be adequate.
Our Property & Casualty insurance subsidiaries maintain loss reserves to provide for their estimated ultimate liability for losses and loss adjustment expenses with respect to reported and unreported claims incurred as of the end of each reporting date. If these loss reserves prove inadequate, a loss is recognized and measured by the amount of the shortfall and, as a result, the financial condition and results of operations of the insurance subsidiaries may be adversely affected, potentially affecting their ability to distribute cash to us.
Reserves do not represent an exact calculation of liability. Reserves represent estimates, generally involving actuarial projections at a given time, of what the insurance subsidiaries expect the ultimate settlement and adjustment of claims will cost, net of salvage and subrogation. Estimates are based on assessments of known facts and circumstances, assumptions related to the ultimate cost to settle such claims, estimates of future
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trends in claims severity and frequency, changing judicial theories of liability and other factors. These variables are affected by both internal and external events, including changes in claims handling procedures, economic inflation, unpredictability of court decisions, plaintiffs' expanded theories of liability, risks inherent in major litigation and legislative changes. Many of these items are not directly quantifiable, particularly on a prospective basis. Significant reporting lags may exist between the occurrence of an insured event and the time it is actually reported. Our insurance subsidiaries adjust their reserve estimates regularly as experience develops and further claims are reported and settled.
Due to the inherent uncertainty in estimating reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses, we cannot be certain that the ultimate liability will not exceed amounts reserved, with a resulting adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Supplemental Segment
Actual experience may differ from actuarial assumptions, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Historical results may not be indicative of future performance due to, among other things, changes in our mix of business, regulatory actions or changes in legal doctrine impacting our products or lines of business, or any number of economic cyclical effects. Reserves do not represent an exact calculation of future benefit liabilities but are instead actuarial and statistical-based estimates. Actual experience may differ from our reserve assumptions. There are no assurances that reserves will be sufficient to fund our future liabilities in all scenarios. Future loss development may require reserves to be increased, which could adversely affect earnings in current and future periods. Adjustments to reserve amounts may be required in the event of changes from the assumptions regarding future morbidity, mortality, persistency and interest rates used in calculating the reserve amounts, which could have a material adverse affect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Life & Retirement Segments
A sustained period of low interest rates or interest rate fluctuations could negatively affect net interest margin derived from the difference between interest earned on investments and interest paid under fixed annuity and life insurance products with account values.
Significant changes in interest rates expose us to the risk of not earning the appropriate level of income or experiencing losses based on the differences between the interest earned on investments and the credited interest paid on outstanding fixed annuity and life insurance products with account values. Significant changes in interest rates may affect:
the ability to maintain appropriate interest rate spreads over the rates guaranteed in fixed annuity and life products with account values;
the book yield of the investment portfolio; and
the net unrealized investment gains (losses) in the portfolio and the related after tax effect on shareholders' equity and total capital.
Both rising and declining interest rates can negatively affect the income derived from interest rate spreads on annuity and life insurance products with account values. During periods of falling interest rates or a sustained period of low interest rates, investment earnings will be lower because new investments in fixed maturity securities likely will bear lower interest rates. We may not be able to fully offset the decline in investment earnings with lower crediting rates on fixed annuity products, particularly in a multi-year period of low interest rates. As of the time of issuance of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, yields on new investments remain at historically low levels. If interest rates do remain low over an extended period of time, it could pressure investment income by having to invest insurance cash flows and reinvest the cash flows from the investment portfolio in lower yielding securities.
During periods of rising interest rates, there may be competitive pressure to increase the crediting rates on fixed annuity products. We may not, however, immediately have the ability to acquire investments with interest rates
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sufficient to offset an increase in crediting rates under fixed annuity products. Therefore, changes in interest rates could affect interest rate spreads.
Changes in interest rates may also affect business in other ways. For example, a rapidly changing interest rate environment may result in less competitive crediting rates on certain fixed rate products which could make those products less attractive, leading to lower sales and/or increases in the level of life insurance and fixed annuity product surrenders and withdrawals. New business volume also could be negatively impacted by product or agent compensation changes which we might make to mitigate the income effect of spread compression. Interest rate fluctuations that impact future profits may also impact DAC amortization.
The Retirement business may be, and in the past has been, adversely affected by volatile or declining financial market conditions.
Conditions in the U.S. and international financial markets affect the sale and profitability of retirement products. In general, sales of fee-based products decrease when financial markets are declining or experiencing a higher than normal level of volatility over an extended period of time. Therefore, weak and/or volatile financial market performance may adversely affect sales of fee-based products to potential customers, may cause current customers to withdraw or reduce the amounts invested in fee-based products and may reduce the market value of existing customers' investments in fee-based products, in turn reducing the amount of fee-based product revenues generated. In addition, some variable annuity products offer guaranteed minimum death benefit features, which provide for a benefit if the contractholder dies and the contract value is less than a specified amount. A decline in the financial markets could cause the contract value to fall below this specified amount, increasing exposure to losses from variable annuity products featuring guaranteed minimum death benefits. Declining or volatile financial markets that impact future profits may also impact DAC amortization.
Deviations from assumptions regarding future market appreciation, interest spreads, business persistency, mortality and morbidity used in calculating life and annuity reserves and DAC amortization could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The processes of calculating reserves and DAC amortization for the life and annuity businesses involve the use of a number of assumptions, including those related to market appreciation (the rate of growth in market value of the underlying variable annuity sub-accounts due to price appreciation), interest spreads (the interest rates expected to be received on investments less the rate of interest credited to contractholders), business persistency (how long a contract stays with us), mortality (the relative incidence of death over a given period of time) and morbidity (the relative incidence of disability resulting from disease or physical impairment). We periodically review the adequacy of these reserves and DAC recoverability on an aggregate basis and, if future experience is estimated to differ significantly from previous assumptions, adjustments to reserves and DAC amortization may be required that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
A reduction or elimination of the tax advantages of retirement and life products and/or a change in the tax benefits of various government-authorized retirement programs, such as 403(b) products and individual retirement accounts (IRAs), could make our products less attractive to clients and adversely affect our results of operations.
A significant part of our retirement business involves fixed and variable 403(b) tax-qualified products, which are purchased voluntarily by individuals employed by public school systems or other tax-exempt organizations. Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in federal and state laws and regulations that affect the relative tax and other advantages of our life and retirement products to clients or the tax benefits of programs utilized by our customers. As a result of persisting economic conditions, revenue challenges exist at federal, state and local government levels. These challenges could increase the risk of future adverse impacts on current tax-advantaged products or result in notable reforms to educator pension programs. Also, see Part I - Item 1, Regulation of this report.
Current federal income tax laws generally permit the tax-deferred accumulation of earnings on the premiums paid by holders of retirement and life insurance products. Taxes, if any, are generally payable on income attributable to a distribution under the contract for the year in which the distribution is made. From time to time, Congress has considered legislation that would reduce or eliminate the benefit of such deferral of taxation on the
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accretion of value within life insurance and non-qualified annuity contracts. Enactment of this legislation, or other tax reform efforts could result in fewer sales of life insurance and retirement products.
Strategic Risks
The integration of Madison National may not be as successful as anticipated.
The Madison National acquisition involves numerous operational, strategic, financial, accounting, legal, tax and other risks. Difficulties in executing the acquisition strategy may cause our financial results to differ from our expectations or the expectations of the investor community. Potential difficulties that may be encountered in the integration process include, among other factors:
the inability to successfully integrate the businesses and distribution force of Madison National in a manner that permits us to achieve the full revenue and cost savings desired from the acquisition;
complexities associated with managing the larger, more complex, business;
loss of key employees;
disruption of, or loss of momentum in, each company's ongoing business; and,
Madison National's distribution risk inherent in its in force block, which is highly concentrated with one distribution partner.
Lack of successful execution on acquisition integration strategies could result in impairment of goodwill and intangible assets that could adversely affect our results of operations.
We accounted for the NTA and BCG acquisitions using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recognized on our consolidated balance sheet at their respective fair values as of the acquisition date, including recognition of intangible assets. Any excess of the purchase consideration over the fair value of the acquired net tangible and intangible assets is recognized as goodwill.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet reflected goodwill of $24.1 million and intangible assets of $145.4 million recognized in connection with the NTA and BCG acquisitions (see Part II - Item 8, Note 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information). To the extent the acquisitions do not provide the modeled returns, the value of goodwill or intangible assets could become impaired and thus, we may be required to recognize material non-cash charges relating to such impairment, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
The personal lines insurance and retirement markets are highly competitive and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by competitive forces.
We operate in a highly competitive environment and compete with numerous insurance companies, as well as mutual fund families, independent agent companies and financial planners. In some instances and geographic locations, competitors have specifically targeted the educator marketplace with specialized products and programs. We compete in our target market with a number of national providers of personal auto and property insurance and life insurance and retirement products.
The insurance industry consists of a large number of insurance companies, some of which have substantially greater financial resources, more diversified product lines, more sophisticated product pricing, greater economies of scale and/or lower-cost marketing approaches compared to us. In our target market, we believe that the principal competitive factors in the sale of property and casualty insurance products and supplemental insurance products are overall service, worksite sales and service, price, and name recognition. We believe that for our market, the principal competitive factors in the sale of retirement products and life insurance products are worksite sales and service, product features, perceived stability of the insurer, price, overall service and name recognition.
Particularly in the Property & Casualty business, our insurance subsidiaries have experienced pricing and profitability cycles. During these periods of intense competition, they may be unable to add policyholders and increase revenues without adversely impacting profit margins. With respect to these cycles, the factors having
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the greatest impact include significant and/or rapid changes in loss costs, including changes in loss frequency and/or severity, prior approval and restrictions in certain states for price increases, intense price competition, less restrictive underwriting standards, aggressive marketing, and increased advertising, which have resulted in higher industry-wide combined loss and expense ratios. During the current cycle, and potentially beyond, competition from direct writers and large, mass market carriers has been particularly aggressive, evidenced in part by their significant national advertising expenditures. In addition, advancements in vehicle technology and safety features, such as accident prevention technologies or the development of autonomous or partially autonomous vehicles — once widely available and utilized, as well as expanded availability of usage-based insurance, could materially alter the way that auto insurance is marketed, priced and underwritten. The inability of our insurance subsidiaries to effectively anticipate the impact of these issues on our business and compete successfully in the property and casualty business could adversely affect their financial condition and results of operations and the resulting ability to distribute cash to us.
In the Retirement business, there are several factors driving increased competition. First, the current IRS Section 403(b) regulations have made the 403(b) market similar to the 401(k) market. These changes have increased and could continue to increase the number of competitors in the 403(b) market, as it has become more attractive to some of the larger companies experienced in 401(k) plans, including both insurance and mutual fund companies, that had not previously been active competitors in this business. Further, while not yet widespread, there has been continued pressure in some states to adopt state-sponsored or mandated 403(b) plans with single-provider or limited-provider options; this pressure has come from competitor lobbying efforts and state legislature pension reform initiatives. The inability of our insurance subsidiaries to compete successfully in these circumstances could adversely affect their financial condition and results of operations and the resulting ability to distribute cash to us.
If we are not able to effectively develop and expand our marketing operations, including agents and other points of distribution, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our agencies are owned primarily by non-employee, independent contractor Exclusive Distributors with most agencies operating in outside offices with licensed producers. The economic viability of each agency is directly dependent on the productivity of the agency and the success at penetrating, serving and cross-selling our educator market.
Our success in marketing and selling our products is largely dependent upon the efforts of our agent sales force and the success of their agency operations. As we expand our business, we may need to expand the number of agencies marketing our products. If we are unable to appoint additional agents, fail to retain high-producing agents, are unable to maintain the productivity of those agency operations or are unable to maintain market penetration in existing territories, sales of our products could likely decline and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we are not able to maintain secure access to educators, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to successfully increase new business in the educator market is largely dependent on our ability to effectively access educators either in their school buildings or through other approaches. While this is especially true for the sale of 403(b) tax-qualified retirement products via payroll deduction, any significant decrease in access, either through fewer payroll slots, increased security measures, impacts of state or federal level pension reform initiatives, requirements of national and state Do Not Call registries, or for other reasons, could adversely affect the sale of all lines of business and require us to change our traditional approach to worksite marketing and promotion, as well as contact with potential customers. With the current IRS regulations regarding Section 403(b) arrangements, including retirement products, our ability to maintain and increase our share of the 403(b) market, and the access it gives for other product lines, will depend on our ability to successfully compete in this market. Some school districts and benefit consultants have placed emphasis on the relative financial strength ratings of competing companies, as well as low cost product and distribution approaches, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to other more highly-rated insurance companies.
Our ability to maintain and obtain product and corporate endorsements from, and/or marketing agreements with, local, state and national education-related associations is important to our marketing strategy. In addition to teacher organizations, we have established relationships with various other educator, principal, school
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administrator and school business official groups. These contacts and endorsements help to establish our brand name and presence in the educational community and to enhance access to educators.
Operational Risks
A large-scale pandemic, the occurrence of terrorism or military actions may have an adverse effect on our business.
A large-scale pandemic, the occurrence of terrorism or military and other actions, may result in loss of life, property damage, and disruptions to commerce and reduced economic activity. Some of the assets in our investment portfolio may be adversely affected by declines in the equity markets, changes in interest rates, reduced liquidity and economic activity caused by a large-scale pandemic. Additionally, a large-scale pandemic or terrorist act could have a material effect on sales, liquidity and operating results.
Further, the global pandemic caused by COVID-19 that was initially reported in December 2019 has developed into a worldwide crisis over subsequent months and is causing significant human suffering as well as widespread economic damage. The effects of the outbreak on the U.S. economy, our customers, our agents, our employees, our investments and our communities, as well as any preventative or protective actions that we, our employees and agency force, our third-party service providers and suppliers, or governments may take to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 could have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct business and on our financial condition and results of operations. Impacts to our business have been and could continue to be widespread and may result in the following:
employees contracting COVID-19;
reductions in our operating effectiveness as our employees work from home;
increased competition in hiring and retaining employees and agents;
sustained lack of access to schools and educators that could materially impact our sales and premium volumes;
public school systems facing budget constraints due to the economic impacts of the pandemic that could result in educator layoffs;
unprecedented volatility in financial markets that could materially affect our investment portfolio valuations and returns as well as our ability to generate targeted spreads on indexed products;
regulatory mandates and/or legislative changes, including premium grace periods and premium credits;
changes in frequency and/or severity of claims;
increased credit risk;
business disruption for insurance agents who market and sell our insurance products; and
business disruptions to third parties at which we outsource certain business functions to or on which we rely for technology.
The full extent to which COVID-19 could affect the global economy, the financial markets and our business, our financial condition and our results of operations will depend on future developments and factors that cannot be predicted.
Climate change may adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Climate change presents risk to us and there are concerns that the increased frequency and severity of weather-related catastrophes and other losses is indicative of changing weather patterns, whether as a result of climate-warming trends (global climate change) caused by human activities or otherwise, which could cause such events to persist. Increased weather-related catastrophes could lead to higher overall losses, which we may not be able to recoup, particularly in a highly regulated and competitive environment, and higher reinsurance costs. Certain catastrophe models assume an increase in frequency and severity of certain weather or other events, which
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could result in a disproportionate impact on insurers with certain geographic concentrations of risk. This could also likely increase the risks of writing property insurance in coastal areas or areas susceptible to wildfires or flooding, particularly in jurisdictions that restrict pricing and underwriting flexibility. The threat of rising sea levels or other catastrophe losses as a result of global climate change may also cause property values in coastal or such other communities to decrease, reducing the total amount of insurance coverage that is required.
In addition, global climate change could have an impact on our fixed maturity security and limited partnership portfolios, resulting in realized and unrealized losses in future periods that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. It is not possible to foresee which, if any, assets, industries or markets may be materially and adversely affected, nor is it possible to foresee the magnitude of such effect. Further, it is also possible that the legal, regulatory and social responses to climate change could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Data security breaches or denial of service on our websites could have an adverse effect on our business and reputation.
Unauthorized access to and unintentional dissemination of our confidential, highly-sensitive customer, employee or company data or other breaches of data security in our facilities, networks or databases, or those of our agents or third-party vendors - including information technology and software vendors, could result in loss or theft of assets or sensitive information, data corruption or operational disruption that may expose us to liability and/or regulatory action and may have an adverse impact on our customers, employees, investors, reputation and business. In addition, any compromise of the security of company data or prolonged denial of service on our websites could harm our business and reputation. Additionally, we recognize the increased external threats of data breaches in the marketplace resulting in non-public data of customers becoming increasingly available in the public domain.
Successful execution of our business growth strategy is dependent on effective implementation of new or enhanced technology systems and applications.
Our ability to effectively execute our business growth strategy and leverage potential economies of scale is dependent on our ability to provide the requisite technology components for that strategy. While we have effectively upgraded our infrastructure technologies with improvements in our data center, a new communications platform and enhancements to our disaster recovery capabilities, our ability to replace or supplement dated, monolithic legacy business systems — such as our Life, Retirement and Property & Casualty policy administrative systems — with more flexible, maintainable, and customer accessible solutions will be necessary to achieve our plans. The inherent difficulty in replacing and/or modernizing these older technologies, coupled with our limited experience in these endeavors, presents an increased risk of failing to deliver these technology solutions in a cost effective and timely manner. Our scale will require us to develop innovative solutions to address these challenges, including consideration of "software as a service" arrangements and other third-party based information technology capabilities. More modern approaches to software development and utilization of third-party vendors can augment our internal capacity for these implementations, but may not adequately reduce the operational risks of timely and cost effective delivery.
Loss of key vendor relationships could affect our operations.
We increasingly rely on services and products provided by a number of vendors in the U.S. and abroad. These include, for example, vendors of computer hardware and software, including on-demand software, and vendors of services such as investment management advisement, information technology services — such as those associated with the Life, Retirement and Property & Casualty policy administrative systems — and delivery services for customer policy-level communications. In the event that one or more of our vendors suffers a bankruptcy or otherwise becomes unable to continue to provide products or services, we may suffer operational difficulties and financial losses.
Our ability to attract, develop, engage, and retain top talent, maintain optimal staffing levels, and foster/sustain a highly inclusive and engaging culture is critical to our success.
Competition from within the insurance industry and from other industries, including the technology sector, for qualified employees with highly specialized knowledge in areas such as underwriting, data and analytics, technology and e-commerce, has often been intense and we have experienced increased competition in hiring and retaining employees.
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Factors that affect our ability to attract and retain such employees include:
Competitive total rewards; including compensation and benefits
Robust training and development programs
Reputation as a successful business with a culture of fair hiring, and of training and promoting qualified employees
Recognition and responsiveness to changing trends (i.e., remote/hybrid work arrangements) and other circumstances that affect employees
The unexpected loss of key personnel could have a material adverse impact on our business because of the loss of their skills, knowledge of our products and offerings and years of industry experience and, in some cases, the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.
Financial Strength, Credit and Counterparty Risks
Losses due to defaults by others could reduce our profitability or negatively affect the value of our investments.
Third-party debtors may not pay or perform their obligations. These parties may include the issuers whose securities we hold, customers, reinsurers, borrowers under mortgage loans, trading counterparties, derivative counterparties, clearing agents, exchanges, clearing houses and other financial intermediaries. These parties may default on their obligations to us due to bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, downturns in the economy or real estate values, operational failure or other reasons.
During or following an economic downturn, our municipal bond portfolio could be subject to a higher risk of default or impairment due to declining municipal tax bases and revenue. States are currently barred from seeking protection in federal bankruptcy court. However, federal legislation could possibly be enacted to allow states to declare bankruptcy in connection with deficit reductions or mounting unfunded pension liabilities, which could adversely impact the value of our municipal bond portfolio.
The default of a major market participant could disrupt the securities markets or clearance and settlement systems in the U.S. or abroad. A failure of a major market participant could cause some clearance and settlement systems to assess members of that system, including our broker-dealer and Registered Investment Adviser regulatory entities, or could lead to a chain of defaults that could adversely affect us. A default of a major market participant could disrupt various markets, which could in turn cause market declines or volatility and negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Uncollectible reinsurance, as well as reinsurance availability and pricing, can have a material adverse effect on our business volume and profitability.
Reinsurance is a contract by which one insurer, called a reinsurer, agrees to cover a portion of the losses incurred by a second insurer in the event a claim is made under a policy issued by the second insurer. Although a reinsurer is liable to our insurance subsidiaries according to the terms of the reinsurance policy, the insurance subsidiaries remain primarily liable as the direct insurers on all risks reinsured. As a result, reinsurance does not eliminate the obligation of our insurance subsidiaries to pay all claims, and each insurance subsidiary is subject to the risk that one or more of its reinsurers will be unable or unwilling to honor its obligations.
Although we limit participation in our reinsurance programs to reinsurers with high financial strength ratings and also limit the amount of coverage from each reinsurer, our insurance subsidiaries cannot guarantee that their reinsurers will pay in a timely fashion, if at all. Reinsurers may become financially unsound by the time that they are called upon to pay amounts due, which may not occur for many years.
Additionally, the availability and cost of reinsurance are subject to prevailing market conditions beyond our control. For example, significant losses from hurricanes or terrorist attacks, an increase in capital requirements, or a future lapse of the provisions of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act could have a significant adverse effect on the reinsurance market.
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If one of our insurance subsidiaries is unable to obtain adequate reinsurance at reasonable rates, that insurance subsidiary would have to increase its risk exposure and/or reduce the level of its underwriting commitments, which could have a material adverse effect upon the business volume and profitability of the subsidiary. Alternatively, the insurance subsidiary could elect to pay the higher than reasonable rates for reinsurance coverage, which could have a material adverse effect upon its profitability until policy premium rates could be raised, in some cases subject to approval by state regulators, to incorporate this additional cost.
We are subject to the credit risk of our counterparties, including reinsurers who reinsure business from our insurance companies.
Our insurance subsidiaries may cede certain risks to third-party insurance companies through reinsurance. HMLIC entered into a reinsurance agreement with RGA to effectuate the reinsurance of a block of in force fixed and variable annuities on a coinsurance and modified coinsurance basis. The variable portion of the reinsured annuities is reinsured on a modified coinsurance basis and assets supporting the variable account liabilities are still held in separate accounts. Because the reinsurance agreement covers a large volume of our in force annuity business, the transaction exposes us to a concentration of credit risk with respect to this counterparty. RGA's financial obligations for the general account liabilities of the reinsured annuity contracts are secured by its assets placed in a comfort trust for our sole use and benefit. Upon RGA's material breach of the reinsurance agreement, deterioration of its risk-based capital ratio to a certain level, or certain other events, we may recapture the reinsured business. However, in the event of RGA's insolvency, our right to use the assets in the trust account may be delayed. Also, if at the time of its insolvency the trust account is not funded at a level to fully discharge all its obligations, our claims to the extent not covered by the assets in the trust would be those of a general creditor.
Any downgrade in or adverse change in outlook for our claims-paying ratings, financial strength ratings or credit ratings could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Claims-paying ratings and financial strength ratings have become an increasingly important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. In the evolving 403(b) retirement market, school districts and benefit consultants have placed an emphasis on the relative financial strength ratings of competing companies. Each rating agency reviews its ratings periodically and from time to time may modify its rating criteria including, among other factors, its expectations regarding capital adequacy, profitability and revenue growth. A downgrade in the ratings or adverse change in the ratings outlook of any of our insurance subsidiaries by a major rating agency could result in substantial loss of business for that subsidiary if school districts, policyholders or independent agents move their business to other companies having higher claims-paying ratings and financial strength ratings than we have. This loss of business could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations and financial condition of that subsidiary.
A downgrade of our debt rating also could adversely affect our cost and flexibility of borrowing, which could have an adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
An inability to access Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) funding could adversely affect our results of operations.
Any changes in requirements to retain membership in the FHLB, or changes in regulation, could impact our eligibility for continued FHLB membership or our FHLB funding capacity. Any event that adversely affects amounts received from FHLB could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. See Part II - Item 7, Financing Activities of this report for more information about FHLB activities.
Regulatory and Legal Risks
The results of the recent U.S. Presidential and Congressional elections may create significant changes in tax rates, laws or regulations which could adversely impact our financial results.
With the change in administration, there are initiatives at the federal level to reverse the corporate tax cuts in the favorable Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA), increasing the federal corporate income tax from the current rate of 21%. Any future legislative action could increase our costs, the impact of which could be significant. We are unable to predict the outcome or effects of any of these potential actions or any other legislative or regulatory proposals as they relate to our businesses. For example, any proposals to make changes related to
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U.S. tax law, such as those involving a reduction or elimination of the tax advantages of retirement and life products as noted in Part I - Item 1A – Risk Factors, Risks Related to Life & Retirement Segments of this report, may have a material adverse effect on our future business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects.
The insurance industry is highly regulated.
We are subject to extensive regulation and supervision in the jurisdictions in which we do business. Each jurisdiction has a unique and complex set of laws and regulations. Furthermore, certain federal laws impose additional requirements on businesses, including insurers. Regulation generally is designed to protect the interests of policyholders, as opposed to stockholders and non-policyholder creditors. Such regulations, among other things, impose restrictions on the amount and type of investments our insurance subsidiaries may hold. Certain states also regulate the rates insurers may charge for certain property and casualty products. Legislation and voter initiatives have expanded, in some instances, the states' regulation of rates and have increased data reporting requirements. Consumer-related pressures to roll back rates, even if not enacted by legislation or upheld upon judicial appeal, may affect our ability to obtain timely rate increases or operate at desired levels of profitability. Changes in insurance regulations, including those affecting the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to distribute cash to us and those affecting the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to write profitable property and casualty insurance policies in one or more states, may adversely affect the financial condition and results of operations of the insurance subsidiaries. In addition, consumer privacy requirements may increase our cost of processing business. Our ability to comply with laws and regulations, at a reasonable cost, and to obtain necessary regulatory action in a timely manner, is and will continue to be critical to our success.
The NAIC has adopted a system of assessing minimum capital adequacy that is applicable to our insurance subsidiaries. This system, known as risk-based capital, is used to identify companies that may merit further regulatory action by analyzing the adequacy of the insurer's surplus in relation to statutory requirements. Our insurance subsidiaries could be adversely affected by regulations that change statutory surplus and risk-based capital requirements. Insurance companies write business based, in part, upon guidelines including capital ratios considered by the NAIC and various rating agencies. Some of these ratios include risk-based capital ratios for property and casualty insurance companies, supplemental insurance companies and life insurance companies, as well as a ratio of premiums to surplus for property and casualty insurance companies. Risk-based capital ratios measure an insurer's capital adequacy and consider various risks such as underwriting, investment, credit, asset concentration and interest rate. If our insurance subsidiaries cannot maintain profitability in the future or if significant investment valuation losses are incurred, they may be required to draw on their surplus, thereby reducing capital adequacy, in order to pay dividends to us to enable us to meet our financial obligations. As their surplus is reduced by the payment of dividends, continuing losses or both, our insurance subsidiaries' ability to write business and maintain acceptable financial strength ratings could also be reduced. This could have a material adverse effect upon the business volume and profitability of the insurance subsidiaries as well as result in increased regulatory scrutiny or action by state regulatory authorities.
Because state legislatures remain concerned about the availability and affordability of property and casualty insurance and the protection of policyholders, our insurance subsidiaries expect that they will continue to face efforts by those legislatures to expand regulations to address these concerns. Resulting new legislation could adversely affect the financial condition and results of operations of our insurance subsidiaries.
In the event of insolvency, liquidation or other reorganization of any of our insurance subsidiaries, our creditors and stockholders would have no right to proceed against any such insurance subsidiary or cause the liquidation or bankruptcy of any such insurance subsidiary under federal or state bankruptcy laws. The insurance laws of the domiciliary state would govern such proceedings and the relevant insurance commissioner would act as liquidator or rehabilitator for the insurance subsidiary. Creditors and policyholders of any such insurance subsidiary would be entitled to full payment from the assets of the insurance subsidiary before we, as a stockholder, would be entitled to receive any distribution.
The financial position of our insurance subsidiaries also may be affected by court decisions that expand insurance coverage beyond the intention of the insurer at the time it originally issued an insurance policy.
Dodd-Frank created FIO within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. FIO studies the current insurance regulatory system and is charged with monitoring and providing specific reports on various aspects of the insurance industry. However, FIO does not have general supervisory or regulatory authority over the business of insurance. FIO has suggested an expanded federal role in some circumstances. Additional regulations could adversely
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affect the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, financial condition and results of operations of us, insurers of similar size and/or the insurance industry as a whole.
Regulatory initiatives, including the enactment of Dodd-Frank, could adversely affect liquidity and volatility of financial markets in which we participate.
In response to the credit and financial crisis, U.S. and overseas governmental and regulatory authorities are considering or implementing enhanced or new regulatory requirements intended to prevent future crises or stabilize the institutions under their supervision. Such measures are leading to stricter regulation of financial institutions. Changes from Dodd-Frank and other U.S. and overseas governmental initiatives have created uncertainty and could continue to adversely impact liquidity and increase volatility of the financial markets in which we participate and, in turn, negatively affect our financial condition or results of operations.
Statutory and regulatory developments could adversely impact our business by increasing costs or making our business less profitable.
The costs of running our business and its profitability could be adversely impacted by laws, rules and regulations that affect the business and financial communities, including changes to the interpretation or enforcement of laws governing standards of care applicable to broker-dealers and investment advisors. New laws, rules and regulations, or changes to the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws, rules or regulations, could also result in limitations on the products and services we offer or plan to offer to clients, modifications to our current or future business practices, compressed margins, increased capital requirements, and additional costs. For example, in June 2019, the SEC adopted new Regulation Best Interest, which imposes an overarching standard of conduct that requires broker-dealers and their associated persons to act in the best interest of their retail customers when making securities recommendations and imposes a number of new compliance and disclosure obligations on broker-dealers. Other state legislatures (including Nevada, New Jersey and Massachusetts) have or are considering, statutes that impose fiduciary standards and other obligations on broker-dealers and investment advisers operating in their states. The DOL also recently adopted its final rule regarding ERISA fiduciary investment advice, which focuses on, among other things, the fiduciary status of rollover recommendations made by financial professionals to retirement investors. We expect that these laws, regulations and proposals could negatively impact our business, including by increasing our legal, compliance and information technology costs, and potentially other costs, including greater risks of client lawsuits and enforcement activity by regulators. These changes may also affect the products and services we choose to offer to clients, as well as the compensation that we and our financial professionals receive in connection with such products and services, which could adversely impact our ability to recruit and retain key personnel.
It is also unclear how and whether other regulators, such as other state securities and insurance regulators may respond to, or enforce elements of, these new laws and regulations, or develop their own similar laws and regulations. The impacts, degree and timing of the effect of these laws and regulations on our business cannot now be anticipated or planned for, and may have further adverse impacts on our products and services, and the results of our operations.
Further, the Dodd-Frank Act enacted wide-ranging changes in the supervision and regulation of the financial industry providing greater oversight of financial industry participants, enhanced public company corporate governance practices and executive compensation disclosures, and greater protections to individual consumers and investors. Certain elements of the Dodd-Frank Act remain subject to implementing regulations that are yet to be adopted by the applicable regulatory agencies. Compliance with adopted regulations could affect the products and services we choose to offer and would likely result in increased compliance costs.
Our business costs and profitability may be adversely impacted by current and future rule making and enforcement activity by the various federal, state and other regulatory organizations to which we are subject.
Litigation may harm our financial strength or reduce our profitability.
Companies in the insurance industry have been subject to substantial litigation resulting from claims, disputes and other matters. Most recently, they have faced expensive claims, including class action lawsuits, alleging, among other things, improper sales practices and improper claims settlement procedures. Negotiated settlements of certain such actions have had a material adverse effect on many insurance companies. The resolution of similar future claims against any of our insurance subsidiaries, including the potential adverse effect on our reputation and charges against the earnings of our insurance subsidiaries as a result of legal defense
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costs, a settlement agreement or an adverse finding or findings against our insurance subsidiaries in such a claim, could have a material adverse effect on the financial condition and results of operations of our insurance subsidiaries.
Events, including those external to our operations, could damage our reputation.
There are many events which may harm our reputation, including, but not limited to, those discussed in this Item 1A regarding regulatory investigations, legal proceedings, and cyber or other information security incidents. Any negative public perception, founded or otherwise, can be widely and rapidly shared over social media or other means, and could cause damage to our reputation. Damage to our reputation could reduce demand for our insurance products, reduce our ability to recruit and retain employees, or lead to greater regulatory scrutiny of our operations.
As an insurance company, we are paid to accept certain risks. Those who conduct our business, including executive officers and members of management, employees and independent agents, do so in part by making decisions that involve exposing us to risk. These include decisions such as maintaining effective underwriting and pricing discipline, maintaining effective claims management and customer service performance, managing our investment portfolio, delivering effective technology solutions, complying with established sales practices, executing our capital management strategy, exiting a line of business and/or pursuing strategic growth initiatives, and other decisions. Although we employ controls and procedures designed to monitor business decisions and prevent us from taking excessive risks or unintentionally failing to comply with internal policies and practices, there can be no assurance that these controls and procedures will be effective. If our employees and independent agents take excessive risks and/or fail to comply with internal policies and practices, the impact of those events may damage our market position and reputation.
Individual states may impose additional cybersecurity regulations, increasing the complexity of compliance.
Our businesses must comply with regulations to control the privacy of customer, employee and third party data. State and federal regulations regarding data privacy, including the California Consumer Privacy Act, are becoming increasingly more onerous. A misuse or mishandling of confidential or proprietary information could result in legal liability, regulatory action and reputational harm. Third parties, including third party administrators and cloud-based systems, are also subject to cyber-breaches of confidential information, along with the other risks outlined above, any one of which may result in us incurring substantial remediation costs and other negative consequences, including a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
ITEM 1B. I Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
ITEM 2. I Properties
As of December 31, 2021, we owned two buildings located in Springfield, Illinois comprised of our headquarters of approximately 225,000 square feet and another building of approximately 12,000 square feet. In addition, we lease office space in suburban Dallas, Texas (approximately 114,000 of rentable square feet), suburban Raleigh, North Carolina, and Cherry Hill, New Jersey which are utilized by one or more of all five reporting segments, depending on the location. For more information on reporting segments, see Part I - Item 1, Reporting Segments of this report. We believe our properties and facilities are suitable and adequate for current operations.
ITEM 3. I Legal Proceedings
At the time of issuance of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we do not have pending litigation from which there is a reasonable possibility of material loss.
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ITEM 4. I Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

PART II
ITEM 5. I Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information and Dividends
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol HMN. The following table provides the high and low closing prices of our common stock on the NYSE Composite Tape and the cash dividends paid per share of common stock during the periods indicated.
Market PriceDividend Paid
Fiscal PeriodHighLow
2021:
Fourth Quarter$41.10 $36.70 $0.31 
Third Quarter41.81 37.00 0.31 
Second Quarter43.71 37.16 0.31 
First Quarter43.98 38.04 0.31 
2020:
Fourth Quarter$43.63 $33.46 $0.30 
Third Quarter40.99 32.76 0.30 
Second Quarter40.46 31.30 0.30 
First Quarter45.66 31.40 0.30 

The payment of dividends in the future is subject to the discretion of the Board and will depend upon general business conditions, legal restrictions and other factors the Board may deem to be relevant. Additional information is contained in Part I - Item 1, Cash Flow and in Part II - Item 8, Note 14 of the Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
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Shareholder Return Performance Graph
The graph below sets forth the total five-year shareholder return on our common stock. The graph assumes a $100 investment at December 31, 2016. The S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Insurance Index assume an annual reinvestment of dividends in calculating total return. We assume reinvestment of quarterly dividends when paid.
Comparison of Cumulative Five Year Total Return to Shareholders
hmn-20211231_g11.jpg
Dec. 2016Dec. 2017Dec. 2018Dec. 2019Dec. 2020Dec. 2021
HMEC$100 $106 $92 $111 $110 $105 
S&P 500 Insurance Index100 116 103 133 133 174 
S&P 500 Index100 122 116 153 181 233 
Holders and Shares Issued
As of February 16, 2022, the number of holders of our common stock was approximately 40,000.
During 2021, stock options were exercised for the issuance of 8,015 shares or 0.02% of our common stock issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020. We received $0.3 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options, which was used for general corporate purposes.
For information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K regarding the equity compensation plan, see Part III - Item 12, of this report.
Horace Mann Educators Corporation
Annual Report on Form 10-K 35


Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On September 30, 2015, the Board authorized a share repurchase program allowing repurchases of up to $50.0 million of our common stock, par value $0.001 (Program). The Program authorizes the repurchase of common stock in open market or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, depending on market conditions. The Program does not have an expiration date and may be limited or terminated at any time without notice.
For the quarterly periods ended 2021 and 2020, we repurchased shares of our common stock under the Program as follows:
Period

Total Number
of Shares
Purchased



Average Price
Paid per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
under the Program
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that may yet be
Purchased under the Program
2021:
Fourth Quarter96,073 $37.14 96,073 $15.3 million
Third Quarter5,000 $36.88 5,000 $18.9 million
Second Quarter200 $37.01 200 $19.1 million
First Quarter39,485 $38.44 39,485 $19.1 million
2020:
Fourth Quarter— — — $20.6 million
Third Quarter— — — $20.6 million
Second Quarter— — — $20.6 million
First Quarter52,095 $41.17 52,095 $20.6 million
ITEM 6. I [Reserved]
36 Annual Report on Form 10-K
Horace Mann Educators Corporation


ITEM 7. I Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A)
($ in millions, except per share data)

Measures within this MD&A that are not based on accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (non-GAAP) are marked with an asterisk (*) the first time they are presented within this Part II - Item 7. An explanation of these measures is contained in the Glossary of Selected Terms included as Exhibit 99.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are reconciled to the most directly comparable measures prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) in the Appendix to the Company's Fourth Quarter 2021 Investor Supplement.
Increases or decreases in our MD&A that are not meaningful are marked "N.M.".
Forward-looking Information
Statements made in the following discussion that are not historical in nature are forward-looking within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. Horace Mann Educators Corporation (referred to in this report as "we", "our", "us", the "Company", "Horace Mann" or "HMEC") is an insurance holding company. We are not under any obligation to (and expressly disclaim any such obligation to) update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. It is important to note that our actual results could differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements due to a number of risks and uncertainties inherent in our business. See Part I - Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding risks and uncertainties.
This MD&A covers the following:
Page






Horace Mann Educators Corporation
Annual Report on Form 10-K 37


Introduction
The purpose of our MD&A is to provide an understanding of our consolidated results of operations and financial condition and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto contained in Part II - Item 8 of this report. Our MD&A generally discusses the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. For a discussion of the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, please refer to Part II - Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on February 26, 2021.
HMEC is an insurance holding company and through its subsidiaries, we market and underwrite personal lines of property and casualty insurance products, supplemental insurance products, retirement products and life insurance products in the United States of America (U.S.). We market our products primarily to K-12 teachers, administrators and other employees of public schools and their families.
On July 14, 2021, we announced that we entered into a Stock Purchase Agreement (Agreement), by and among us and Independence Capital Corp. and Independence Holding Company (Seller) to acquire all the equity interests in Madison National Life Insurance Company, Inc., an insurance company organized under the laws of the State of Wisconsin (Madison National). The Agreement provided, among other things, that, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Agreement, we would acquire all the equity interests in Madison National (Acquisition) for $172.5 million. The Seller will have a potential earn-out of up to $12.5 million payable in cash, if specified financial targets are achieved by the end of 2023.
Effective January 1, 2022, we acquired Madison National. As a result of the acquisition, Madison National became a wholly owned subsidiary of HMEC.
COVID-19 Considerations
Beginning in March 2020, the global pandemic associated with the novel coronavirus COVID-19 and related economic conditions introduced unprecedented challenges for our country. Those challenges are ongoing. We relied on our previously developed Corporate Pandemic Plan to address preparation, prevention and response measures specific to COVID-19 while allowing flexibility to quickly react to evolving circumstances and implement varying actions accordingly.
As discussed in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021, we continue to successfully meet the challenges of the pandemic environment and are now operating in a hybrid model. Our return to office plans are being guided by data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In the hybrid working environment, we continue to monitor cybersecurity including increasing security and network monitoring to proactively identify and prevent potential security threats and vulnerabilities. We also are identifying and assessing critical third-party vendors and ensuring their ability to continue to perform as anticipated.
Although educators have largely remained employed through the pandemic, the impact of the pandemic resulted in slower growth in new sales, particularly sales generated from in-person events at schools. We continue to work with our network of exclusive agents to make sure they are using virtual and other tools so they can reach current and potential educator customers regardless of the level of access they have to a specific school.
For further discussion regarding the current period and potential future impacts of COVID-19 and related economic conditions on HMEC, see Outlook for 2022 and other content within this MD&A as well as Part I - Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.







38 Annual Report on Form 10-K
Horace Mann Educators Corporation


Consolidated Financial Highlights
($ in millions)Year Ended December 31,2021-2020
20212020Change %
Total revenues$1,330.1 $1,310.4 1.5 %
Net income142.8 133.3 7.1