485APOS 1 malvern485a022013.htm MALVERN 485A malvern485a022013.htm - Generated by SEC Publisher for SEC Filing
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION  
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form N-1A
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 33-23444) UNDER  
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 [X]
PRE-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. [ ]
POST-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. 55 [X]
and
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 811-05628) UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT
OF 1940  
AMENDMENT NO. 57 [X]

 

Vanguard Malvern Funds
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Declaration of Trust)
P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482
(Address of Principal Executive Office)
Registrant’s Telephone Number (610) 669-1000
Heidi Stam, Esquire
P.O. Box 876
Valley Forge, PA 19482

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)
[ ] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
[ ] on (date), pursuant to paragraph (b)
[ ] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[ ] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
[X ] on April 30, 2013 pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485
If appropriate, check the following box:
[ ] This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-
effective amendment.

 


 

Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund
Prospectus
 
April 30, 2013
 
 
Investor Shares & Institutional Shares
Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund Investor Shares ()
Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund Institutional Shares ()
 
 
 
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus
Dated February 6, 2013
 
Information contained in this prospectus is subject to completion or amendment. A
registration statement for Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund has been filed with the
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has not yet become effective.
Shares of Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund may not be sold, nor may offers to buy be
accepted, prior to the time the registration statement becomes effective. This com
munication shall not constitute an offer to sell, nor shall there be any sale of these
securities in any state in which such offer, solicitation, or sale would be unlawful
prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of any such state.
 
 
 
This is the Fund’s initial prospectus, so it contains no performance data.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Fund Summary 1 Investing With Vanguard 15
More on the Fund 4 Additional Information 15
The Fund and Vanguard 10 Glossary of Investment Terms 16
Investment Advisor 11    
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 12    
Share Price 14    

 


 

Fund Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to transition a portfolio of long-, intermediate-, and short-term inflation-indexed bonds contributed by six Vanguard funds into a portfolio of short-term inflation-indexed bonds that resembles the Barclays U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities 0-5 Year Index (the Index). Upon completion of the transition, it is expected that the Fund will merge into Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Secuities Index Fund, which seeks to track the Index.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Institutional Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees    
(Fees paid directly from your investment)    
  Investor Shares Institutional
    Shares
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases None None
Purchase Fee None None
Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends None None
Redemption Fee None None

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses    
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  
  Investor Shares Institutional
    Shares
Management Expenses XX.XX% XX.XX%
12b-1 Distribution Fee None None
Other Expenses XX.XX% XX.XX%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.20% 0.07%

 

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Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Institutional Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you invest $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the Shares provide a return of 5% a year, that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table, and that you redeem your shares at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year 3 Years
Investor Shares $XX $XX
Institutional Shares $XX $XX

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

Primary Investment Strategies

The Fund has been established to facilitate the transition of three Vanguard Target Retirement Funds and three Vanguard Target Retirement Trusts (collectively, the Investing Funds) from investing in shares of Vanguard Inflation-Protected Securities Fund (the Old Underlying Fund) to investing in shares of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund (the New Underlying Fund). In furtherance of this goal, the Fund, at its inception, will accept a portfolio of long-, intermediate-, and short-term inflation-indexed bonds contributed by the Investing Funds (which the Investing Funds received as the proceeds of in-kind redemptions from the Old Underlying Fund) and thereafter will sell those bonds that are inconsistent with the investment objective of the New Underlying Fund and use the proceeds to purchase bonds that are consistent with the investment objective. The Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in inflation-indexed bonds issued by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities, and corporations. The Fund may invest in bonds of any maturity. At a minimum, all bonds purchased by the Fund will be rated “investment-grade” or, if unrated, will be considered by the advisor to be investment-grade.

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Primary Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money because the Fund is expected to exist for a limited period of time, its risks are different from the risks of other funds that hold inflation-indexed bonds. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Transition Risk, which is the chance that the market for inflation-indexed bonds will be disrupted during the period when the Fund is actively buying and selling such bonds, making it more costly than anticipated to transition the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective.

Interest rate risk, which is the chance that the value of a bond will decline due to an increase in the level of interest rates. Although inflation-indexed bonds seek to provide inflation protection, their prices may decline when interest rates rise and vice versa. Interest rate risk is expected to be moderate for the Fund.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

Annual Total Returns

The Fund began operations on April 30, 2013, so performance information is not yet available.

Investment Advisors
The Vanguard Group, Inc.

Portfolio Managers

Joshua C. Barrickman, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2013

Gemma Wright-Casparius, Principal of Vanguard. She has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2013.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

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More on the Fund

This prospectus describes the primary risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: Generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: The lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Institutional Shares.

Both share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

Shares of the Fund will be made available to six Investing Funds—the Target Retirement Income, Target Retirement 2010, and Target Retirement 2015 Funds, and the Target Retirement Income, Target Retirement 2010, and Target Retirement 2015 Trusts. Shares of the Fund will not be offered to any other prospective investors. Vanguard reserves the right to change the availability of the Fund at any time without prior notice to shareholders.

The following sections explain the primary investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund’s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. However, the Fund‘s policy of investing at least 80% of its assets in inflation-indexed bonds may be changed only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests mainly in investment-grade, inflation-indexed bonds. As a result of this investment strategy, the Fund is subject to certain risks.

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Plain Talk About Inflation-Indexed Securities
 
Unlike a conventional bond, whose issuer makes regular fixed interest payments
and repays the face value of the bond at maturity, an inflation-indexed security
(IIS) provides principal and interest payments that are adjusted over time to reflect
a rise (inflation) or a drop (deflation) in the general price level for goods and
services. This adjustment is a key feature, given that inflation has typically
occurred. However, there have been periods of deflation, such as in 1954 when
the Consumer Price Index (CPI) declined by 0.7%. (Source: Bureau of Labor
Statistics.) Importantly, in the event of deflation, the U.S. Treasury has guaranteed
that it will repay at least the face value of an IIS issued by the U.S. government.
 
Inflation measurement and adjustment for an IIS have two important features.
There is a two-month lag between the time that inflation occurs in the economy
and when it is factored into IIS valuations. This is due to the time required to
measure and calculate the CPI and for the Treasury to adjust the inflation accrual
schedules for an IIS. For example, inflation that occurs in January is calculated
and announced during February and affects IIS valuations throughout the month
of March. In addition, the inflation index used is the non-seasonally adjusted
index. It differs from the CPI that is reported by most news organizations, which
is statistically smoothed to overcome highs and lows observed at different points
each year. The use of the non-seasonally adjusted index can cause the Fund’s
income level to fluctuate.

 


The Fund is subject to transition risk, which is the chance that the market for inflation-indexed bonds will be disrupted during the period when the Fund is actively buying and selling such bonds, making it more costly than anticipated to transition the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective.


The Fund is subject to interest rate risk, which is the chance that the value of a bond will decline due to an increase in the level of interest rates. Although inflation-indexed bonds seek to provide inflation protection, their prices may decline when interest rates rise and vice versa.

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Plain Talk About Real Returns
 
Inflation-indexed securities are designed to provide a “real rate of return”—a
return after adjusting for the impact of inflation. Inflation—a rise in the general
price level—erodes the purchasing power of an investor’s portfolio. For example,
if an investment provides a “nominal” total return of 5% in a given year and
inflation is 2% during that period, the inflation-adjusted, or real, return is 3%.
Investors should be conscious of both the nominal and the real returns on their
investments. Investors in inflation-indexed bond funds who do not reinvest the
portion of the income distribution that comes from inflation adjustments will not
maintain the purchasing power of the investment over the long term. This is
because interest earned depends on the amount of principal invested, and that
principal won’t grow with inflation if the investor does not reinvest the principal
adjustment paid out as part of a fund’s income distributions.

 

Plain Talk About Inflation-Indexed Securities and Interest Rates
 
Interest rates on conventional bonds have two primary components: a “real”
yield and an increment that reflects investor expectations of future inflation. By
contrast, interest rates on an IIS are adjusted for inflation and, therefore, aren’t
affected meaningfully by inflation expectations. This leaves only real rates to
influence the price of an IIS. A rise in real rates will cause the price of an IIS to
fall, while a decline in real rates will boost the price of an IIS.

 


The Fund is subject, to a limited extent, to credit risk, which is the chance that a bond issuer will fail to pay interest and principal in a timely manner, or that negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments will cause the price of that bond to decline.

The credit quality of the Fund depends on the quality of its investments. Because the Fund emphasizes securities backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, the average credit quality of the Fund’s holdings is expected to be high and, consequently, credit risk should be low for the Fund. At a minimum, all bonds purchased by the Fund will be rated investment-grade (in one of the four highest rating categories) or, if unrated, will be considered by the advisor to be investment-grade.

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Plain Talk About Credit Quality
 
A bond’s credit-quality rating is an assessment of the issuer’s ability to pay interest
on the bond and, ultimately, to repay the principal. Credit quality is evaluated by one
of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (for example, Moody‘s or
Standard & Poor‘s) or through independent analysis conducted by a fund’s advisor.
The lower the rating, the greater the chance—in the rating agency’s or advisor’s
opinion—that the bond issuer will default, or fail to meet its payment obligations.
All things being equal, the lower a bond’s credit rating, the higher its yield should be
to compensate investors for assuming additional risk. Investment-grade bonds are
those rated in one of the four highest ratings categories. A fund may treat an
unrated bond as investment-grade if warranted by the advisor’s analysis.

 

Plain Talk About Inflation-Indexed Securities and Taxes
 
Any increase in principal for an IIS resulting from inflation adjustments is
considered by the IRS to be taxable income in the year it occurs. For direct
holders of an IIS, this means that taxes must be paid on principal adjustments
even though these amounts are not received until the bond matures. By contrast,
a mutual fund holding IISs pays out (to shareholders) both interest income and
the income attributable to principal adjustments each quarter in the form of cash
or reinvested shares, and the shareholders must pay taxes on the distributions.

 

Security Selection

The Fund emphasizes inflation-indexed bonds issued by the U.S. government, although it may also hold inflation-indexed bonds issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government and by corporations. The Fund may invest in bonds of any maturity.

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), advisor to the Fund, buys and sells securities to align the portfolio of the Fund with that of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

Up to 20% of the Fund’s assets may be invested in holdings that are not inflation-indexed. The Fund typically will make such investments when inflation-indexed bonds are less attractive. The Fund’s non-inflation-indexed holdings may include the following:

Corporate debt obligations—usually called bonds—represent loans by an investor to a corporation.

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U.S. government and agency bonds represent loans by investors to the U.S.

Treasury Department or a wide variety of government agencies and instrumentalities. Securities issued by most U.S. government entities are neither guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury nor backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. These entities include, among others, the Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs), the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC). Securities issued by the U.S. Treasury and a small number of U.S. government agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA), are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The market values of U.S. government and agency securities and U.S. Treasury securities are subject to fluctuation.

Cash investments is a blanket term that describes a variety of short-term fixed income investments, including money market instruments, commercial paper, bank certificates of deposit, banker’s acceptances, and repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements represent short-term (normally overnight) loans by the Fund to commercial banks or large securities dealers.

Illiquid securities are securities that the Fund may not be able to sell in the ordinary course of business. The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in these securities. Restricted securities are a special type of illiquid security; these securities have not been publicly issued and legally can be resold only to qualified buyers. From time to time, the board of trustees may determine that particular restricted securities are not illiquid, and those securities may then be purchased by the Fund.

Mortgage dollar rolls are transactions in which the Fund sells mortgage-backed securities to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to purchase similar securities in the future at a predetermined price. These transactions simulate an investment in mortgage-backed securities and have the potential to enhance the Fund’s returns and reduce its administrative burdens, compared with holding mortgage-backed securities directly. These transactions may increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. Mortgage dollar rolls will be used only if consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and risk profile.


The Fund may invest in derivatives. In general, derivatives may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of the underlying securities, assets, or market indexes.

Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, bond, or currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), or a market index (such as the Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index). The Fund may invest in derivatives only if the expected risks and rewards of the derivatives are consistent with the investment objective, policies, strategies, and risks of the Fund as disclosed in this prospectus. In particular, derivatives will be used only when they may help the advisor:

8


 

• Invest in eligible asset classes with greater efficiency and lower cost than is possible through direct investment;

• Add value when these instruments are attractively priced; or

• Adjust sensitivity to changes in interest rates.

The Fund‘s derivative investments may include fixed income futures contracts, fixed income options, interest rate swaps, total return swaps, credit default swaps, or other derivatives. Losses (or gains) involving futures contracts can sometimes be substantial—in part because a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in an immediate and substantial loss (or gain) for a fund. Similar risks exist for other types of derivatives.

Plain Talk About Derivatives
 
Derivatives can take many forms. Some forms of derivatives, such as
exchange-traded futures and options on securities, commodities, or indexes,
have been trading on regulated exchanges for decades. These types of
derivatives are standardized contracts that can easily be bought and sold, and
whose market values are determined and published daily. Nonstandardized
derivatives (such as swap agreements), on the other hand, tend to be more
specialized or complex, and may be harder to value.

 

Cash Management

The Fund’s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the at-cost expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund’s best interest, so long as the alternative is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund’s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case if the Fund is transitioning assets from one advisor to another or receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

In addition, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its normal investment policies and strategies—for instance, by allocating substantial assets to cash, commercial paper, or other less volatile instruments—in

9


 

response to adverse or unusual market, economic, political, or other conditions. In doing so, the Fund may succeed in avoiding losses but may otherwise fail to achieve its investment objective.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

The board of trustees of the Fund has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures designed to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing in the Fund. This determination was based on several facts: (1) the Fund’s only shareholders will be other Vanguard funds (the Investing Funds); (2) the Investing Funds will each make a one-time, in-kind purchase of Fund shares; (3) the Investing Funds will make no additional investments into the Fund, either in cash or in kind; and (4) the Fund is expected to exist for a limited period of time. For information on frequent trading limits of other Vanguard funds, please see the appropriate fund’s prospectus.

Turnover Rate

Because the Fund’s investment objective contemplates the sale of a majority of the Fund’s initial portfolio holdings, it is expected that the Fund will have a high turnover rate during its short existence.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Turnover rate gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included
in the fund’s expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the
greater the volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that
dealer markups and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also, funds
with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains that must be
distributed to shareholders as taxable income.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of 180 mutual funds holding assets of approximately $1.9 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

10


 

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc., P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Fixed Income Group. As of September 30, 2012, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $1.6 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

Vanguard’s Fixed Income Group is overseen by:

Mortimer J. Buckley, Chief Investment Officer and Managing Director of Vanguard. As Chief Investment Officer, he is responsible for the oversight of Vanguard’s Equity Investment and Fixed Income Groups. The investments managed by these two groups include active quantitative equity funds, equity index funds, active bond funds, index bond funds, stable value portfolios, and money market funds. Mr. Buckley joined Vanguard in 1991 and has held various senior leadership positions with Vanguard. He received his A.B. in Economics from Harvard and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.

Robert F. Auwaerter, Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Fixed Income Group. He has direct oversight responsibility for all money market funds, bond funds, and stable value portfolios managed by the Fixed Income Group. He has managed investment portfolios since 1978 and has been with Vanguard since 1981. He received his B.S. in Finance from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and an M.B.A. from Northwestern University.

Kenneth E. Volpert, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Taxable Bond Group. He has direct oversight responsibility for all taxable bond funds managed by the Fixed Income Group. He has managed investment portfolios since 1982 and has been with Vanguard since 1992. He received his B.S. from the University of Illinois and an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago.

11


 

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Joshua C. Barrickman, CFA, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1998; has worked in investment management since 1999; has managed investment portfolios since 2005; and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2013. Education: B.S., Ohio Northern University; M.B.A., Lehigh University.

Gemma Wright-Casparius, Principal of Vanguard. She has worked in investment management since 1980; has managed investment portfolios since 2008; and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2013. Education: B.B.A. and M.B.A., Bernard M. Baruch College of The City University of New York.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest less expenses) as well as any net capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. In certain circumstances, the Fund also may distribute return of capital. The Fund’s income dividends are declared and distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year. You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments. Income consists of
interest the fund earns from its money market and bond investments. Capital
gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for higher prices than it paid
for them. These capital gains are either short-term or long-term, depending on
whether the fund held the securities for one year or less or for more than one year.

 

12


 

Plain Talk About Return of Capital
 
Return of capital is the portion of a distribution representing the return of your
original investment in the Fund. Return of capital reduces your cost basis in the
Fund’s shares, and is not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced
to zero. During periods of deflation, the Fund’s inflation-indexed bonds may
experience a downward adjustment in their value. If the downward adjustment
more than offsets the income earned by the bonds, the adjustment may cause
a portion of the dividends previously distributed to shareholders and classified
as income to be reclassified as return of capital.

 

Basic Tax Points

Vanguard will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all your distributions. In addition, investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend and short-term capital gains distributions that you receive are taxable to you as ordinary income.

• Any distributions of net long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you’ve owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

• Your cost basis in the Fund will be decreased by the amount of any return of capital that you receive. This, in turn, will affect the amount of any capital gain or loss that you realize when selling or exchanging your Fund shares.

• Return-of-capital distributions generally are not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced to zero. If your cost basis is at zero, return-of-capital distributions will be treated as capital gains.

• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts will be subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax in tax years beginning on or after

13


 

January 1, 2013, on "net investment income." Net investment income includes dividends paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes. Depending on your state’s rules, however, any dividends attributable to interest earned on direct obligations of the U.S. government may be exempt from state and local taxes. Vanguard will notify you each year how much, if any, of your dividends may qualify for this exemption.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange, generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to each share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On holidays or other days when the Exchange is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not transact purchase or redemption requests.

Debt securities held by a Vanguard fund are valued based on information furnished by an independent pricing service or market quotations. Certain short-term debt instruments used to manage a fund’s cash are valued on the basis of amortized cost. The values of any mutual fund shares held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

When a fund determines that pricing-service information or market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security). A fund also may use fair-value pricing on bond market holidays when the fund is open for business (such as Columbus Day and Veterans Day).

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Investing With Vanguard

Transactions will be based on the next-determined NAV of the Fund’s shares after Vanguard receives the request (or, in the case of new contributions, the next-determined NAV after Vanguard receives the purchase request). If the request is received before the close of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the investor will receive that day’s NAV and trade date. Transaction requests received after that time will receive a trade date of the first business day following the date of receipt. The trade date may vary, depending on the method of payment for the transaction.

Portfolio Holdings

Because the Fund’s only shareholders will be other Vanguard funds, the Fund’s portfolio holdings will not be published on vanguard.com, but will be made available to the Fund’s shareholders upon request.

Additional Information        
 
  Inception Newspaper Vanguard CUSIP
  Date Abbreviation Fund Number Number
TIPS Transitional Fund        
Investor Shares XX XX XXXXXXXXX
Institutional Shares XX XX XXXXXXXXX

 

CFA® is a trademark owned by CFA Institute.

15


 

Glossary of Investment Terms

Average Maturity. The average length of time until bonds held by a fund reach maturity and are repaid. In general, the longer the average maturity, the more a fund’s share price fluctuates in response to changes in market interest rates. In calculating average maturity, a fund uses a bond’s maturity or, if applicable, an earlier date on which the advisor believes it is likely that a maturity-shortening device (such as a call, put, refunding, prepayment, or redemption provision, or an adjustable coupon) will cause the bond to be repaid.

Bond. A debt security (IOU) issued by a corporation, government, or government agency in exchange for the money you lend it. In most instances, the issuer agrees to pay back the loan by a specific date and generally to make regular interest payments until that date.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Cash Investments. Cash deposits, short-term bank deposits, and money market instruments that include U.S. Treasury bills and notes, bank certificates of deposit (CDs), repurchase agreements, commercial paper, and banker’s acceptances.

Coupon. The interest rate paid by the issuer of a debt security until its maturity. It is expressed as an annual percentage of the face value of the security.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Face Value. The amount to be paid at a bond’s maturity; also known as the par value or principal.

Fixed Income Security. An investment, such as a bond, representing a debt that must be repaid by a specified date, and on which the borrower must pay a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Inflation-Indexed Securities. Bonds issued by the U.S. government, government agencies, or corporations, whose principal and interest payments—unlike those of conventional bonds—are adjusted over time to reflect inflation.

16


 

Investment-Grade Bond. A debt security whose credit quality is considered by independent bond-rating agencies, or through independent analysis conducted by a fund’s advisor, to be sufficient to ensure timely payment of principal and interest under current economic circumstances. Debt securities rated in one of the four highest rating categories are considered investment-grade. Other debt securities may be considered by an advisor to be investment-grade.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

Principal. The face value of a debt instrument or the amount of money put into an investment.

Return of Capital. A return of all or part of your original investment in a fund. In general, return of capital reduces your cost basis in a fund’s shares and is not taxable to you until your cost basis has been reduced to zero.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.


 

P.O. Box 2600

Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600

Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com

For More Information

If you would like more information about Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, the following documents are available free upon request:

Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders

Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information (SAI)

The SAI provides more detailed information about the Fund and is incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part of) this prospectus.

To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual report or the SAI, or to request additional information about the Fund or other Vanguard funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as follows:

The Vanguard Group

Investor Information Department P.O. Box 2600 Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600 Telephone: 800-662-7447 (SHIP)

Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would like information about your account, account transactions, and/or account statements, please call:

Client Services Department Telephone: 800-662-2739 (CREW)

Text telephone for people with hearing impairment: 800-749-7273

Information Provided by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

You can review and copy information about the Fund (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and other information about the Fund are also available in the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this information, for a fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.

Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-05628

© 2013 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.

P XX 042013


 

Subject to Completion
Preliminary Statement of Additional Information
Dated April 30, 2013
 
Information contained in this Statement of Additonal Information is subject to completion or amendment. A
registration statement for Vanguard Malvern Funds to add a new Fund, Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, has been filed
with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has not yet become effective.
Shares of Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund may not be sold, nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the
registration statement becomes effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus.

 

PART B
 
VANGUARD® MALVERN FUNDS
 
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 
January 28, 2013 (revised April 30, 2013)
 
This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus but should be read in conjunction with a Fund’s current
prospectuses (dated April 30, 2013, for Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund; dated January 28, 2013, for Vanguard Capital Value
Fund and Vanguard U.S. Value Fund; dated October 10, 2012, for Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index
Fund). To obtain, without charge, a prospectus or the most recent Annual Report to Shareholders, which contains the
Fund’s financial statements as hereby incorporated by reference, please contact The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard).
Phone: Investor Information Department at 800-662-7447
Online: vanguard.com

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Description of the Trust B-2
Fundamental Policies B-4
Investment Strategies and Nonfundamental Policies B-5
Share Price B-26
Purchase and Redemption of Shares B-26
Management of the Funds B-27
Investment Advisory Services B-41
Portfolio Transactions B-45
Proxy Voting Guidelines B-47
Information About the ETF Share Class B-52
Financial Statements B-57
Description of Bond Ratings B-58

 


 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST

Vanguard Malvern Funds (the Trust) currently offers the following funds and share classes (identified by ticker symbol):

    Share Classes1  
Fund2 Investor Admiral Institutional ETF
Vanguard Capital Value Fund VCVLX
Vanguard U.S. Value Fund VUVLX
Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund VTIPX VTAPX VTSPX VTIP
Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund * *
1 Individually, a class; collectively, the classes.        
2 Individually, a Fund; collectively, the Funds.        

 

The Trust has the ability to offer additional funds or classes of shares. There is no limit on the number of full and fractional shares that may be issued for a single fund or class of shares.

Throughout this document, any references to “class” apply only to the extent a Fund issues multiple classes.

Organization

The Trust was organized as a Maryland corporation in 1988 and was reorganized as a Delaware statutory trust in 1998. Prior to its reorganization as a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust was known as Vanguard Asset Allocation Fund, Inc. The Trust changed its name to Vanguard Malvern Funds in 2000. The Trust is registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the 1940 Act) as an open-end management investment company. All Funds within the Trust are classified as diversified within the meaning of the 1940 Act.

Service Providers

Custodians. Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 40 Water Street, Boston, MA 02109 (for Vanguard Capital Value and Vanguard U.S. Value Funds), and JPMorgan Chase Bank, 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017-2070 (for Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund), serve as the Funds‘ custodians. The custodians are responsible for maintaining the Funds‘ assets, keeping all necessary accounts and records of Fund assets, and appointing any foreign sub-custodians or foreign securities depositories.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Two Commerce Square, Suite 1700, 2001 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-7042, serves as the Funds‘ independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm audits the Funds‘ annual financial statements and provides other related services.

Transfer and Dividend-Paying Agent. The Funds‘ transfer agent and dividend-paying agent is Vanguard, P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482.

Characteristics of the Funds‘ Shares

Restrictions on Holding or Disposing of Shares. There are no restrictions on the right of shareholders to retain or dispose of a Fund’s shares, other than those described in the Fund’s current prospectus and elsewhere in this Statement of Additional Information. Each Fund or class may be terminated by reorganization into another mutual fund or class or by liquidation and distribution of the assets of the Fund or class. Unless terminated by reorganization or liquidation, each Fund and share class will continue indefinitely.

Shareholder Liability. The Trust is organized under Delaware law, which provides that shareholders of a statutory trust are entitled to the same limitations of personal liability as shareholders of a corporation organized under Delaware law. This means that a shareholder of a Fund generally will not be personally liable for payment of the Fund’s debts. Some state courts, however, may not apply Delaware law on this point. We believe that the possibility of such a situation arising is remote.

Dividend Rights. The shareholders of each class of a Fund are entitled to receive any dividends or other distributions declared by the Fund for each such class. No shares of a Fund have priority or preference over any other shares of the Fund with respect to distributions. Distributions will be made from the assets of the Fund and will be paid ratably to all

B-2


 

shareholders of a particular class according to the number of shares of the class held by shareholders on the record date. The amount of dividends per share may vary between separate share classes of the Fund based upon differences in the net asset values of the different classes and differences in the way that expenses are allocated between share classes pursuant to a multiple class plan.

Voting Rights. Shareholders are entitled to vote on a matter if (1) the matter concerns an amendment to the Declaration of Trust that would adversely affect to a material degree the rights and preferences of the shares of a Fund or any class; (2) the trustees determine that it is necessary or desirable to obtain a shareholder vote; (3) a merger or consolidation, share conversion, share exchange, or sale of assets is proposed and a shareholder vote is required by the 1940 Act to approve the transaction; or (4) a shareholder vote is required under the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act requires a shareholder vote under various circumstances, including to elect or remove trustees upon the written request of shareholders representing 10% or more of a Fund’s net assets, to change any fundamental policy of a Fund, and to enter into certain merger transactions. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, shareholders of a Fund receive one vote for each dollar of net asset value owned on the record date, and a fractional vote for each fractional dollar of net asset value owned on the record date. However, only the shares of the Fund or class affected by a particular matter are entitled to vote on that matter. In addition, each class has exclusive voting rights on any matter submitted to shareholders that relates solely to that class, and each class has separate voting rights on any matter submitted to shareholders in which the interests of one class differ from the interests of another. Voting rights are noncumulative and cannot be modified without a majority vote.

Liquidation Rights. In the event that a Fund is liquidated, shareholders will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of the Fund’s net assets. In the event that a class of shares is liquidated, shareholders of that class will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of the Fund’s net assets that are allocated to that class. Shareholders may receive cash, securities, or a combination of the two.

Preemptive Rights. There are no preemptive rights associated with the Funds‘ shares.

Conversion Rights. Shareholders of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund may convert their shares into another class of shares of the same Fund upon the satisfaction of any then-applicable eligibility requirements as desribed in the Fund’s current prospectus. Shareholders may not convert into or out of the Fund’s ETF Shares. There are no conversion rights associated with Vanguard Capital Value and Vanguard U.S. Value Funds.

Redemption Provisions. Each Fund’s redemption provisions are described in its current prospectus and elsewhere in this Statement of Additional Information.

Sinking Fund Provisions. The Funds have no sinking fund provisions.

Calls or Assessment. Each Fund’s shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.

Tax Status of the Funds

Each Fund expects to qualify each year as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the IRC). This special tax status means that the Fund will not be liable for federal tax on income and capital gains distributed to shareholders. In order to preserve its tax status, each Fund must comply with certain requirements. If a Fund fails to meet these requirements in any taxable year, the Fund will, in some cases, be able to cure such failure, including by paying a fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, or disposing of certain assets. If the Fund is ineligible to or otherwise does not cure such failure for any year, it will be subject to tax on its taxable income at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gains, will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. In addition, a Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions before regaining its tax status as a regulated investment company.

Dividends received and distributed by each Fund on shares of stock of domestic corporations may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction applicable to corporate shareholders. Corporations must satisfy certain requirements in order to claim the deduction. Capital gains distributed by the Funds are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction.

Vanguard Capital Value Fund and Vanguard U.S. Value Fund may invest in passive foreign investment companies (PFICs). A foreign company is generally a PFIC if 75% or more of its gross income is passive or if 50% or more of its assets produce passive income. Capital gains on the sale of a PFIC will be deemed ordinary income regardless of how long the Fund held it. Also, the Fund may be subject to corporate income tax and an interest charge on certain dividends and

B-3


 

capital gains earned from PFICs, whether or not they are distributed to shareholders. To avoid such tax and interest, a Fund may elect to treat PFICs as sold on the last day of the Fund’s fiscal year, mark-to-market these securities, and recognize any unrealized gains (or losses, to the extent of previously recognized gains) as ordinary income each year. Distributions from the Fund that are attributable to PFICs are characterized as ordinary income.

FUNDAMENTAL POLICIES

Each Fund is subject to the following fundamental investment policies, which cannot be changed in any material way without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s shares. For these purposes, a “majority” of shares means shares representing the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the Fund’s net assets voted, so long as shares representing more than 50% of the Fund’s net assets are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the Fund’s net assets.

Borrowing. Each Fund may borrow money only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Commodities. Each Fund may invest in commodities only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Diversification. With respect to 75% of its total assets, each Fund may not: (1) purchase more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer; or (2) purchase securities of any issuer if, as a result, more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in that issuer’s securities. This limitation does not apply to obligations of the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities.

Industry Concentration. Each Fund (except Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund) will not concentrate its investments in the securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry.

Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund will not concentrate its investments in the securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry, except as may be necessary to approximate the composition of its target index.

Loans. Each Fund may make loans to another person only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Real Estate. Each Fund may not invest directly in real estate unless it is acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments (1) issued by companies that invest, deal, or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate; or (2) backed or secured by real estate or interests in real estate.

Senior Securities. Each Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Underwriting. Each Fund may not act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 (the 1933 Act), in connection with the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

Compliance with the fundamental policies previously described is generally measured at the time the securities are purchased. Unless otherwise required by the 1940 Act (as is the case with borrowing), if a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time the investment is made, a later change in percentage resulting from a change in the market value of assets will not constitute a violation of such restriction. All fundamental policies must comply with applicable regulatory requirements. For more details, see “Investment Strategies and Nonfundamental Policies.”

None of these policies prevents the Funds from having an ownership interest in Vanguard. As a part owner of Vanguard, each Fund may own securities issued by Vanguard, make loans to Vanguard, and contribute to Vanguard’s costs or other financial requirements. See “Management of the Funds” for more information.

B-4


 

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND NONFUNDAMENTAL POLICIES

Some of the investment strategies and policies described on the following pages and in each Fund’s prospectus set forth percentage limitations on a Fund’s investment in, or holdings of, certain securities or other assets. Unless otherwise required by law, compliance with these strategies and policies will be determined immediately after the acquisition of such securities or assets by the Fund. Subsequent changes in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with the Fund’s investment strategies and policies.

The following investment strategies and policies supplement each Fund’s investment strategies and policies set forth in the prospectus. With respect to the different investments discussed as follows, a Fund may acquire such investments to the extent consistent with its investment strategies and policies.

Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities are securities that represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, pools of underlying assets such as debt securities, bank loans, motor vehicle installment sales contracts, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (i.e., credit card) agreements, and other categories of receivables. These underlying assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose entities. Payment of interest and repayment of principal on asset-backed securities may be largely dependent upon the cash flows generated by the underlying assets backing the securities and, in certain cases, may be supported by letters of credit, surety bonds, or other credit enhancements. The rate of principal payments on asset-backed securities is related to the rate of principal payments, including prepayments, on the underlying assets. The credit quality of asset-backed securities depends primarily on the quality of the underlying assets, the level of credit support, if any, provided for the securities, and the credit quality of the credit-support provider, if any. The value of asset-backed securities may be affected by the various factors described above and other factors, such as changes in interest rates, the availability of information concerning the pool and its structure, the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the pool, the originator of the underlying assets, or the entities providing the credit enhancement.

Asset-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate, as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying assets. Prepayments of principal by borrowers or foreclosure or other enforcement action by creditors shorten the term of the underlying assets. The occurrence of prepayments is a function of several factors, such as the level of interest rates, general economic conditions, the location and age of the underlying obligations, and other social and demographic conditions. A fund’s ability to maintain positions in asset-backed securities is affected by the reductions in the principal amount of the underlying assets because of prepayments. A fund’s ability to reinvest prepayments of principal (as well as interest and other distributions and sale proceeds) at a comparable yield is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. The value of asset-backed securities varies with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of U.S. government securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. In periods of rising interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the average life of the underlying securities. Conversely, in periods of falling interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the average life of such assets. Because prepayments of principal generally occur when interest rates are declining, an investor, such as a fund, generally has to reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at lower interest rates than those at which the assets were previously invested. Therefore, asset-backed securities have less potential for capital appreciation in periods of falling interest rates than other income-bearing securities of comparable maturity.

Because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in the underlying assets that is comparable to a mortgage, asset-backed securities present certain additional risks that are not present with mortgage-backed securities. For example, revolving credit receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than by real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying assets. If the servicer of a pool of underlying assets sells them to another party, there is the risk that the purchaser could acquire an interest superior to that of holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issue of asset-backed securities and technical requirements under state law, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the automobiles. Therefore, there is the possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities. Asset-backed securities have been, and may continue to be, subject to greater liquidity risks due to the deterioration of worldwide economic and liquidity conditions that became acute in 2008. In addition,

B-5


 

government actions and proposals that affect the terms of underlying home and consumer loans, thereby changing demand for products financed by those loans, as well as the inability of borrowers to refinance existing loans, have had, and may continue to have, a negative effect on the valuation and liquidity of asset-backed securities.

Borrowing. A fund’s ability to borrow money is limited by its investment policies and limitations; by the 1940 Act; and by applicable exemptions, no-action letters, interpretations, and other pronouncements issued from time to time by the SEC and its staff or any other regulatory authority with jurisdiction. Under the 1940 Act, a fund is required to maintain continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets made for temporary or emergency purposes. Any borrowings for temporary purposes in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets must maintain continuous asset coverage. If the 300% asset coverage should decline as a result of market fluctuations or for other reasons, a fund may be required to sell some of its portfolio holdings within three days (excluding Sundays and holidays) to reduce the debt and restore the 300% asset coverage, even though it may be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint to sell securities at that time.

Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on net asset value of any increase or decrease in the market value of a fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. A fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.

The SEC takes the position that transactions that have a leveraging effect on the capital structure of a fund or are economically equivalent to borrowing can be viewed as constituting a form of borrowing by the fund for purposes of the 1940 Act. These transactions can include entering into reverse repurchase agreements; engaging in mortgage-dollar-roll transactions; selling securities short (other than short sales “against-the-box”); buying and selling certain derivatives (such as futures contracts); selling (or writing) put and call options; engaging in sale-buybacks; entering into firm-commitment and standby-commitment agreements; engaging in when-issued, delayed-delivery, or forward-commitment transactions; and other similar trading practices. (Additional discussion about a number of these transactions can be found on the following pages.) A borrowing transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund maintains an offsetting financial position; segregates liquid assets (with such liquidity determined by the advisor in accordance with procedures established by the board of trustees) equal (as determined on a daily mark-to-market basis) in value to the fund’s potential economic exposure under the borrowing transaction; or otherwise “covers” the transaction in accordance with applicable SEC guidance (collectively, “covers” the transaction). A fund may have to buy or sell a security at a disadvantageous time or price in order to cover a borrowing transaction. In addition, segregated assets may not be available to satisfy redemptions or for other purposes.

Common Stock. Common stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. Common stock typically entitles the owner to vote on the election of directors and other important matters, as well as to receive dividends on such stock. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds, other debt holders, and owners of preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are hybrid securities that combine the investment characteristics of bonds and common stocks. Convertible securities typically consist of debt securities or preferred stock that may be converted (on a voluntary or mandatory basis) within a specified period of time (normally for the entire life of the security) into a certain amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer at a predetermined price. Convertible securities also include debt securities with warrants or common stock attached and derivatives combining the features of debt securities and equity securities. Other convertible securities with features and risks not specifically referred to herein may become available in the future. Convertible securities involve risks similar to those of both fixed income and equity securities. In a corporation’s capital structure, convertible securities are senior to common stock, but are usually subordinated to senior debt obligations of the issuer.

The market value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” and its “conversion value.” A security’s “investment value” represents the value of the security without its conversion feature (i.e., a nonconvertible fixed income security). The investment value may be determined by reference to its credit quality and the current value of its yield to maturity or probable call date. At any given time, investment value is dependent upon such factors as the general

B-6


 

level of interest rates, the yield of similar nonconvertible securities, the financial strength of the issuer, and the seniority of the security in the issuer’s capital structure. A security’s “conversion value” is determined by multiplying the number of shares the holder is entitled to receive upon conversion or exchange by the current price of the underlying security. If the conversion value of a convertible security is significantly below its investment value, the convertible security will trade like nonconvertible debt or preferred stock and its market value will not be influenced greatly by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. In that circumstance, the convertible security takes on the characteristics of a bond, and its price moves in the opposite direction from interest rates. Conversely, if the conversion value of a convertible security is near or above its investment value, the market value of the convertible security will be more heavily influenced by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. In that case, the convertible security’s price may be as volatile as that of common stock. Because both interest rates and market movements can influence its value, a convertible security generally is not as sensitive to interest rates as a similar fixed income security, nor is it as sensitive to changes in share price as its underlying equity security. Convertible securities are often rated below investment grade or are not rated, and they are generally subject to a high degree of credit risk.

Although all markets are prone to change over time, the generally high rate at which convertible securities are retired (through mandatory or scheduled conversions by issuers or through voluntary redemptions by holders) and replaced with newly issued convertibles may cause the convertible securities market to change more rapidly than other markets. For example, a concentration of available convertible securities in a few economic sectors could elevate the sensitivity of the convertible securities market to the volatility of the equity markets and to the specific risks of those sectors. Moreover, convertible securities with innovative structures, such as mandatory-conversion securities and equity-linked securities, have increased the sensitivity of the convertible securities market to the volatility of the equity markets and to the special risks of those innovations, which may include risks different from, and possibly greater than, those associated with traditional convertible securities. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price set in the governing instrument of the convertible security. If a convertible security held by a fund is subject to such redemption option and is called for redemption, the fund must allow the issuer to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell the security to a third party.

Debt Securities. A debt security, sometimes called a fixed income security, is a security consisting of a certificate or other evidence of a debt (secured or unsecured) on which the issuing company or governmental body promises to pay the holder thereof a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest for a specified length of time, and to repay the debt on the specified maturity date. Some debt securities, such as zero-coupon bonds, do not make regular interest payments but are issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Debt securities include a variety of fixed income obligations, including, but not limited to, corporate bonds, government securities, municipal securities, convertible securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. Debt securities include investment-grade securities, non-investment-grade securities, and unrated securities. Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call/prepayment risk, inflation risk, credit risk, and (in the case of foreign securities) country risk and currency risk. The reorganization of an issuer under the federal bankruptcy laws may result in the issuer’s debt securities being cancelled without repayment, repaid only in part, or repaid in part or in whole through an exchange thereof for any combination of cash, debt securities, convertible securities, equity securities, or other instruments or rights in respect of the same issuer or a related entity.

Debt Securities — Inflation-Indexed Securities. Inflation-indexed securities are debt securities, the principal value of which is periodically adjusted to reflect the rate of inflation as indicated by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Inflation-indexed securities may be issued by the U.S. government, by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government, and by corporations. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the CPI accruals as part of a semiannual coupon.

The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed securities is tied to the CPI, which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation, and energy. Inflation-indexed securities issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.

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Inflation—a general rise in prices of goods and services—erodes the purchasing power of an investor’s portfolio. For example, if an investment provides a “nominal” total return of 5% in a given year and inflation is 2% during that period, the inflation-adjusted, or real, return is 3%. Inflation, as measured by the CPI, has occurred in each of the past 50 years, so investors should be conscious of both the nominal and real returns of their investments. Investors in inflation-indexed securities funds who do not reinvest the portion of the income distribution that is attributable to inflation adjustments will not maintain the purchasing power of the investment over the long term. This is because interest earned depends on the amount of principal invested, and that principal will not grow with inflation if the investor fails to reinvest the principal adjustment paid out as part of a fund’s income distributions. Although inflation-indexed securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise because of reasons other than inflation (for example, because of changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.

If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation (i.e., the CPI) falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed securities will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed securities, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the inflation-indexed securities is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate. Other inflation-indexed securities include inflation-related bonds, which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.

The value of inflation-indexed securities should change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates, in turn, are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed securities. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed securities.

Coupon payments that a fund receives from inflation-indexed securities are included in the fund’s gross income for the period during which they accrue. Any increase in principal for an inflation-indexed security resulting from inflation adjustments is considered by Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations to be taxable income in the year it occurs. For direct holders of an inflation-indexed security, this means that taxes must be paid on principal adjustments, even though these amounts are not received until the bond matures. By contrast, a fund holding these securities distributes both interest income and the income attributable to principal adjustments each quarter in the form of cash or reinvested shares (which, like principal adjustments, are taxable to shareholders). It may be necessary for the fund to liquidate portfolio positions, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to make required distributions.

Debt Securities — Structured and Indexed Securities. Structured securities (also called “structured notes”) and indexed securities are derivative debt securities, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. Indexed securities include structured notes as well as securities other than debt securities. The value of the principal of and/or interest on structured and indexed securities is determined by reference to changes in the value of a specific asset, reference rate, or index (the reference) or the relative change in two or more references. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased, depending upon changes in the applicable reference. The terms of the structured and indexed securities may provide that, in certain circumstances, no principal is due at maturity and, therefore, may result in a loss of invested capital. Structured and indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the reference may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rate or the value of the structured or indexed security at maturity may be calculated as a specified multiple of the change in the value of the reference; therefore, the value of such security may be very volatile. Structured and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference. Structured or indexed securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

Debt Securities — U.S. Government Securities. The term “U.S. Government Securities” refers to a variety of debt securities that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury, by various agencies of the U.S. government, and by various instrumentalities that have been established or sponsored by the U.S. government. The term also refers to repurchase agreements collateralized by such securities.

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U.S. Treasury securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Other types of securities issued or guaranteed by Federal agencies and U.S. government-sponsored instrumentalities may or may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The U.S. government, however, does not guarantee the market price of any U.S. government securities. In the case of securities not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, the investor must look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment, and may not be able to assert a claim against the United States itself in the event the agency or instrumentality does not meet its commitment.

Some of the U.S. government agencies that issue or guarantee securities include the Government National Mortgage Association, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Federal Housing Administration, the Maritime Administration, the Small Business Administration, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. An instrumentality of the U.S. government is a government agency organized under Federal charter with government supervision. Instrumentalities issuing or guaranteeing securities include, among others, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal Home Loan Banks, and the Federal National Mortgage Association.

Debt Securities — Variable and Floating Rate Securities. Variable and floating rate securities are debt securities that provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate paid on the security. Variable rate securities provide for a specified periodic adjustment in the interest rate, while floating rate securities have interest rates that change whenever there is a change in a designated benchmark rate or the issuer’s credit quality. There is a risk that the current interest rate on variable and floating rate securities may not accurately reflect current market interest rates or adequately compensate the holder for the current creditworthiness of the issuer. Some variable or floating rate securities are structured with liquidity features such as (1) put options or tender options that permit holders (sometimes subject to conditions) to demand payment of the unpaid principal balance plus accrued interest from the issuers or certain financial intermediaries or (2) auction-rate features, remarketing provisions, or other maturity-shortening devices designed to enable the issuer to refinance or redeem outstanding debt securities (market-dependent liquidity features). Variable or floating rate securities that include market-dependent liquidity features may have greater liquidity risk than other securities, because of (for example) the failure of a market-dependent liquidity feature to operate as intended (as a result of the issuer’s declining creditworthiness, adverse market conditions, or other factors) or the inability or unwillingness of a participating broker-dealer to make a secondary market for such securities. As a result, variable or floating rate securities that include market-dependent liquidity features may lose value, and the holders of such securities may be required to retain them until the later of the repurchase date, the resale date, or maturity. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.

Debt Securities — Zero-Coupon and Pay-in-Kind Securities. Zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities are debt securities that do not make regular cash interest payments. Zero-coupon securities generally do not pay interest. Pay-in-kind securities pay interest through the issuance of additional securities. These securities are generally issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Because such securities do not pay current cash income, the price of these securities can be volatile when interest rates fluctuate. Although these securities do not pay current cash income, federal income tax law requires the holders of zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities to include in income each year the portion of the original issue discount and other non-cash income on such securities accrued during that year. Each fund that holds such securities intends to pass along such interest as a component of the fund’s distributions of net investment income. It may be necessary for the fund to liquidate portfolio positions, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to make required distributions.

Depositary Receipts. Depositary receipts are securities that evidence ownership interests in a security or a pool of securities that have been deposited with a “depository.” Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored and include American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), European Depositary Receipts (EDRs), and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs). For ADRs, the depository is typically a U.S. financial institution and the underlying securities are issued by a foreign issuer. For other depositary receipts, the depository may be a foreign or a U.S. entity, and the underlying securities may have a foreign or a U.S. issuer. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities. Generally, ADRs are issued in registered form, denominated in U.S. dollars, and designed for use in the U.S. securities markets. Other depositary receipts, such as GDRs and EDRs, may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and they are generally designed for use in securities markets outside the United States. Although the two types of depositary receipt facilities (sponsored and unsponsored) are similar, there are differences regarding a holder’s rights and obligations and the practices of market participants.

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A depository may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by (or acquiescence of) the underlying issuer; typically, however, the depository requests a letter of non-objection from the underlying issuer prior to establishing the facility. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the facility. The depository usually charges fees upon the deposit and withdrawal of the underlying securities, the conversion of dividends into U.S. dollars or other currency, the disposition of non-cash distributions, and the performance of other services. The depository of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to depositary receipt holders with respect to the underlying securities.

Sponsored depositary receipt facilities are created in generally the same manner as unsponsored facilities, except that sponsored depositary receipts are established jointly by a depository and the underlying issuer through a deposit agreement. The deposit agreement sets out the rights and responsibilities of the underlying issuer, the depository, and the depositary receipt holders. With sponsored facilities, the underlying issuer typically bears some of the costs of the depositary receipts (such as dividend payment fees of the depository), although most sponsored depositary receipt holders may bear costs such as deposit and withdrawal fees. Depositories of most sponsored depositary receipts agree to distribute notices of shareholder meetings, voting instructions, and other shareholder communications and information to the depositary receipt holders at the underlying issuer’s request.

For purposes of a fund’s investment policies, investments in depositary receipts will be deemed to be investments in the underlying securities. Thus, a depositary receipt representing ownership of common stock will be treated as common stock. Depositary receipts do not eliminate all of the risks associated with directly investing in the securities of foreign issuers.

Derivatives. A derivative is a financial instrument that has a value based on—or “derived from”—the values of other assets, reference rates, or indexes. Derivatives may relate to a wide variety of underlying references, such as commodities, stocks, bonds, interest rates, currency exchange rates, and related indexes. Derivatives include futures contracts and options on futures contracts, forward-commitment transactions, options on securities, caps, floors, collars, swap agreements, and other financial instruments. Some derivatives, such as futures contracts and certain options, are traded on U.S. commodity and securities exchanges, while other derivatives, such as swap agreements, are privately negotiated and entered into in the over-the-counter (OTC) market. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), certain swap agreements may be cleared through a clearinghouse and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility. New regulations could, among other things, increase the costs of such transactions. The risks associated with the use of derivatives are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the securities, assets, or market indexes on which the derivatives are based. Derivatives are used by some investors for speculative purposes. Derivatives also may be used for a variety of purposes that do not constitute speculation, such as hedging, risk management, seeking to stay fully invested, seeking to reduce transaction costs, seeking to simulate an investment in equity or debt securities or other investments, seeking to add value by using derivatives to more efficiently implement portfolio positions when derivatives are favorably priced relative to equity or debt securities or other investments, and for other purposes. There is no assurance that any derivatives strategy used by a fund’s advisor will succeed. The counterparties to the funds’ derivatives will not be considered the issuers thereof for purposes of certain provisions of the 1940 Act and the IRC, although such derivatives may qualify as securities or investments under such laws. The funds’ advisors, however, will monitor and adjust, as appropriate, the funds’ credit risk exposure to derivative counterparties.

Derivative products are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments. The use of a derivative requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the derivative itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the derivative under all possible market conditions.

The use of derivatives generally involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the other party to the contract (usually referred to as a “counterparty”) or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the contract. Additionally, the use of credit derivatives can result in losses if a fund’s advisor does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit derivative is based.

Derivatives may be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular derivative is difficult to purchase or sell. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many OTC derivatives), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price.

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Derivatives may be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when a particular derivative becomes extraordinarily expensive relative to historical prices or the prices of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity.

Because many derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. A derivative transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Like most other investments, derivative instruments are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund’s interest. A fund bears the risk that its advisor will incorrectly forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other financial or economic factors in establishing derivative positions for the fund. If the advisor attempts to use a derivative as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the derivative will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many derivatives (in particular, OTC derivatives) are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

Exchange-Traded Funds. A fund may purchase shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs), including ETF Shares issued by other Vanguard funds. Typically, a fund would purchase ETF shares for the same reason it would purchase (and as an alternative to purchasing) futures contracts: to obtain exposure to all or a portion of the stock or bond market. ETF shares enjoy several advantages over futures. Depending on the market, the holding period, and other factors, ETF shares can be less costly and more tax-efficient than futures. In addition, ETF shares can be purchased for smaller sums, offer exposure to market sectors and styles for which there is no suitable or liquid futures contract, and do not involve leverage.

An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate within a wide range, and a fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the prices of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (1) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a discount or a premium to their net asset value; (2) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (3) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide “circuit breakers” (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage), if the shares are delisted from the exchange without first being listed on another exchange, or if the listing exchange’s officials deem such action appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or to protect investors.

Most ETFs are investment companies. Therefore, a fund’s purchases of ETF shares generally are subject to the limitations on, and the risks of, a fund’s investments in other investment companies, which are described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.”

Vanguard ETF®* Shares are exchange-traded shares that represent an interest in an investment portfolio held by Vanguard funds. A fund’s investments in Vanguard ETF Shares are also generally subject to the descriptions, limitations, and risks described under the heading “Other Investment Companies,” except as provided by an exemption granted by the SEC that permits registered investment companies to invest in a Vanguard fund that issues ETF Shares beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions.

* U.S. Pat. No. 6,879,964 B2; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646.

Foreign Securities. Typically, foreign securities are considered to be equity or debt securities issued by entities organized, domiciled, or with a principal executive office outside the United States, such as foreign corporations and governments. Securities issued by certain companies organized outside the United States may not be deemed to be foreign securities if the company’s principal operations are conducted from the United States or when the company’s

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equity securities trade principally on a U.S. stock exchange. Foreign securities may trade in U.S. or foreign securities markets. A fund may make foreign investments either directly by purchasing foreign securities or indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts or depositary shares of similar instruments (depositary receipts) for foreign securities. Direct investments in foreign securities may be made either on foreign securities exchanges or in the OTC markets. Investing in foreign securities involves certain special risk considerations that are not typically associated with investing in securities of U.S. companies or governments.

Because foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers, there may be less publicly available information about certain foreign issuers than about U.S. issuers. Evidence of securities ownership may be uncertain in many foreign countries. As a result, there are multiple risks that could result in a loss to the fund, including, but not limited to, the risk that a fund’s trade details could be incorrectly or fraudulently entered at the time of the transaction. Securities of foreign issuers are generally less liquid than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. In certain countries, there is less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the United States. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political or social instability, war, terrorism, nationalization, limitations on the removal of funds or other assets, or diplomatic developments that could affect U.S. investments in those countries. Although an advisor will endeavor to achieve most favorable execution costs for a fund’s portfolio transactions in foreign securities under the circumstances, commissions (and other transaction costs) are generally higher than those on U.S. securities. In addition, it is expected that the custodian arrangement expenses for a fund that invests primarily in foreign securities will be somewhat greater than the expenses for a fund that invests primarily in domestic securities. Certain foreign governments levy withholding taxes against dividend and interest income from foreign securities. Although in some countries a portion of these taxes is recoverable by the fund, the nonrecovered portion of foreign withholding taxes will reduce the income received from the companies making up a fund.

The value of the foreign securities held by a fund that are not U.S. dollar-denominated may be significantly affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The U.S. dollar value of a foreign security generally decreases when the value of the U.S. dollar rises against the foreign currency in which the security is denominated, and it tends to increase when the value of the U.S. dollar falls against such currency (as discussed under the heading “Foreign Securities – Foreign Currency Transactions,” a fund may attempt to hedge its currency risks). In addition, the value of fund assets may be affected by losses and other expenses incurred in converting between various currencies in order to purchase and sell foreign securities, as well as by currency restrictions, exchange control regulation, currency devaluations, and political and economic developments.

Foreign Securities — Emerging Market Risk. Investing in emerging market countries involves certain risks not typically associated with investing in the United States, and it imposes risks greater than, or in addition to, risks of investing in more developed foreign countries. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following: greater risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; currency devaluations and other currency exchange rate fluctuations; greater social, economic, and political uncertainty and instability (including amplified risk of war and terrorism); more substantial government involvement in the economy; less government supervision and regulation of the securities markets and participants in those markets, and possible arbitrary and unpredictable enforcement of securities regulations; controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on the fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; unavailability of currency-hedging techniques in certain emerging market countries; the fact that companies in emerging market countries may be smaller, less seasoned, or newly organized; the difference in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards, which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; the risk that it may be more difficult to obtain and/or enforce a judgment in a court outside the United States; and greater price volatility, substantially less liquidity, and significantly smaller market capitalization of securities markets. Also, any change in the leadership or politics of emerging market countries, or the countries that exercise a significant influence over those countries, may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. Furthermore, high rates of inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries. Custodial services and other investment-related costs are often more expensive in emerging market countries, which can reduce a fund’s income from investments in securities or debt instruments of emerging market country issuers.

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Foreign Securities — Foreign Currency Transactions. The value in U.S. dollars of a fund’s non-dollar-denominated foreign securities may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and the fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. To seek to minimize the impact of such factors on net asset values, a fund may engage in foreign currency transactions in connection with its investments in foreign securities. A fund will not speculate in foreign currency exchange and will enter into foreign currency transactions only to attempt to “hedge” the currency risk associated with investing in foreign securities. Although such transactions tend to minimize the risk of loss that would result from a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also may limit any potential gain that might result should the value of such currency increase.

Currency exchange transactions may be conducted either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the rate prevailing in the currency exchange market or through forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies. A forward currency contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are entered into with large commercial banks or other currency traders who are participants in the interbank market. Currency exchange transactions also may be effected through the use of swap agreements or other derivatives.

Currency exchange transactions may be considered borrowings. A currency exchange transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale of foreign currency involved in underlying security transactions, a fund may be able to protect itself against part or all of the possible loss between trade and settlement dates for that purchase or sale resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and such foreign currency. This practice is sometimes referred to as “transaction hedging.” In addition, when the advisor reasonably believes that a particular foreign currency may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, a fund may enter into a forward contract to sell an amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities denominated in such foreign currency. This practice is sometimes referred to as “portfolio hedging.” Similarly, when the advisor reasonably believes that the U.S. dollar may suffer a substantial decline against a foreign currency, a fund may enter into a forward contract to buy that foreign currency for a fixed dollar amount.

A fund may also attempt to hedge its foreign currency exchange rate risk by engaging in currency futures, options, and “cross-hedge” transactions. In cross-hedge transactions, a fund holding securities denominated in one foreign currency will enter into a forward currency contract to buy or sell a different foreign currency (one that the advisor reasonably believes generally tracks the currency being hedged with regard to price movements). The advisor may select the tracking (or substitute) currency rather than the currency in which the security is denominated for various reasons, including in order to take advantage of pricing or other opportunities presented by the tracking currency or because the market for the tracking currency is more liquid or more efficient. Such cross-hedges are expected to help protect a fund against an increase or decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar against certain foreign currencies.

A fund may hold a portion of its assets in bank deposits denominated in foreign currencies, so as to facilitate investment in foreign securities as well as protect against currency fluctuations and the need to convert such assets into U.S. dollars (thereby also reducing transaction costs). To the extent these assets are converted back into U.S. dollars, the value of the assets so maintained will be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations.

The forecasting of currency market movement is extremely difficult, and whether any hedging strategy will be successful is highly uncertain. Moreover, it is impossible to forecast with precision the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of a forward currency contract. Accordingly, a fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such transaction) if its advisor’s predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate. In addition, the use of cross-hedging transactions may involve special risks and may leave a fund in a less advantageous position than if such a hedge had not been established. Because forward currency contracts are privately negotiated transactions, there can be no assurance that a fund will have flexibility to roll over a forward currency contract upon its expiration if it desires to do so. Additionally, there can be no assurance that the other party to the contract will perform its services thereunder.

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Foreign Securities — Foreign Investment Companies. Some of the countries in which a fund may invest may not permit, or may place economic restrictions on, direct investment by outside investors. Fund investments in such countries may be permitted only through foreign government-approved or authorized investment vehicles, which may include other investment companies. Such investments may be made through registered or unregistered closed-end investment companies that invest in foreign securities. Investing through such vehicles may involve layered fees or expenses and may also be subject to the limitations on, and the risks of, a fund’s investments in other investment companies, which are described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Futures contracts and options on futures contracts are derivatives. A futures contract is a standardized agreement between two parties to buy or sell at a specific time in the future a specific quantity of a commodity at a specific price. The commodity may consist of an asset, a reference rate, or an index. A security futures contract relates to the sale of a specific quantity of shares of a single equity security or a narrow-based securities index. The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of the underlying commodity. The buyer of a futures contract enters into an agreement to purchase the underlying commodity on the settlement date and is said to be “long” the contract. The seller of a futures contract enters into an agreement to sell the underlying commodity on the settlement date and is said to be “short” the contract. The price at which a futures contract is entered into is established either in the electronic marketplace or by open outcry on the floor of an exchange between exchange members acting as traders or brokers. Open futures contracts can be liquidated or closed out by physical delivery of the underlying commodity or payment of the cash settlement amount on the settlement date, depending on the terms of the particular contract. Some financial futures contracts (such as security futures) provide for physical settlement at maturity. Other financial futures contracts (such as those relating to interest rates, foreign currencies, and broad-based securities indexes) generally provide for cash settlement at maturity. In the case of cash-settled futures contracts, the cash settlement amount is equal to the difference between the final settlement price on the last trading day of the contract and the price at which the contract was entered into. Most futures contracts, however, are not held until maturity but instead are “offset” before the settlement date through the establishment of an opposite and equal futures position.

The purchaser or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying commodity unless the contract is held until the settlement date. However, both the purchaser and seller are required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures commission merchant (FCM) when the futures contract is entered into. Initial margin deposits are typically calculated as a percentage of the contract’s market value. If the value of either party’s position declines, that party will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to settle the change in value on a daily basis. This process is known as “marking-to-market.” A futures transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

An option on a futures contract (or futures option) conveys the right, but not the obligation, to purchase (in the case of a call option) or sell (in the case of a put option) a specific futures contract at a specific price (called the “exercise” or “strike” price) any time before the option expires. The seller of an option is called an option writer. The purchase price of an option is called the premium. The potential loss to an option buyer is limited to the amount of the premium plus transaction costs. This will be the case, for example, if the option is held and not exercised prior to its expiration date. Generally, an option writer sells options with the goal of obtaining the premium paid by the option buyer. If an option sold by an option writer expires without being exercised, the writer retains the full amount of the premium. The option writer, however, has unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received when the option was written, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying futures contract exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying futures contract. Generally, any profit realized by an option buyer represents a loss for the option writer.

A fund that takes the position of a writer of a futures option is required to deposit and maintain initial and variation margin with respect to the option, as previously described in the case of futures contracts. A futures option transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

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Each Fund intends to comply with Rule 4.5 of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, under which a mutual fund is conditionally excluded from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (CPO). Accordingly, neither the Funds nor Vanguard are subject to registration or regulation as CPOs under the Commodity Exchange Act. A fund will only enter into futures contracts and futures options that are standardized and traded on a U.S. or foreign exchange, board of trade, or similar entity, or quoted on an automated quotation system.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts — Risks. The risk of loss in trading futures contracts and in writing futures options can be substantial because of the low margin deposits required, the extremely high degree of leverage involved in futures and options pricing, and the potential high volatility of the futures markets. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures position may result in immediate and substantial loss (or gain) for the investor. For example, if at the time of purchase, 10% of the value of the futures contract is deposited as margin, a subsequent 10% decrease in the value of the futures contract would result in a total loss of the margin deposit, before any deduction for the transaction costs, if the account were then closed out. A 15% decrease would result in a loss equal to 150% of the original margin deposit if the contract were closed out. Thus, a purchase or sale of a futures contract, and the writing of a futures option, may result in losses in excess of the amount invested in the position. In the event of adverse price movements, a fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if the fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements (and segregation requirements, if applicable) at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, on the settlement date, a fund may be required to make delivery of the instruments underlying the futures positions it holds.

A fund could suffer losses if it is unable to close out a futures contract or a futures option because of an illiquid secondary market. Futures contracts and futures options may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market for such products. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures product at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close a futures or option position. Moreover, most futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movement during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses, because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of future positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses. The inability to close futures and options positions also could have an adverse impact on the ability to hedge a portfolio investment or to establish a substitute for a portfolio investment. Treasury futures are generally not subject to such daily limits.

A fund bears the risk that its advisor will incorrectly predict future market trends. If the advisor attempts to use a futures contract or a futures option as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the futures position will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving futures products can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments.

A fund could lose margin payments it has deposited with its FCM if, for example, the FCM breaches its agreement with the fund or becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In that event, the fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the fund.

Interfund Borrowing and Lending. The SEC has granted an exemption permitting the Vanguard funds to participate in Vanguard’s interfund lending program. This program allows the Vanguard funds to borrow money from and lend money to each other for temporary or emergency purposes. The program is subject to a number of conditions, including, among other things, the requirements that (1) no fund may borrow or lend money through the program unless it receives a more favorable interest rate than is typically available from a bank for a comparable transaction; (2) no equity, taxable bond, or money market fund may loan money if the loan would cause its aggregate outstanding loans through the program to exceed 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, respectively, of its net assets at the time of the loan; and (3) a fund’s interfund loans to any one fund shall not exceed 5% of the lending fund’s net assets. In addition, a Vanguard fund may participate in the program only if and to the extent that such participation is consistent with the fund’s investment objective and investment policies.

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The boards of trustees of the Vanguard funds are responsible for overseeing the interfund lending program. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs.

Investing for Control. The Vanguard funds invest in securities and other instruments for the sole purpose of achieving a specific investment objective. As such, they do not seek to acquire enough of a company’s outstanding voting stock to have control over management decisions. The Vanguard funds do not invest for the purpose of controlling a company’s management.

Loan Interests and Direct Debt Instruments. Loan interests and direct debt instruments are interests in amounts owed by a corporate, governmental, or other borrower to lenders or lending syndicates (in the case of loans and loan participations); to suppliers of goods or services (in the case of trade claims or other receivables); or to other parties. These investments involve a risk of loss in case of the default, insolvency, or bankruptcy of the borrower and may offer less legal protection to the purchaser in the event of fraud or misrepresentation, or there may be a requirement that a purchaser supply additional cash to a borrower on demand.

Purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of interest and repayment of principal. Direct debt instruments may not be rated by a rating agency. If scheduled interest or principal payments are not made, or are not made in a timely manner, the value of the instrument may be adversely affected. Loans that are fully secured provide more protections than unsecured loans in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the borrower’s obligation, or that the collateral could be liquidated. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or they may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Direct indebtedness of developing countries also involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable, or unwilling, to pay interest and repay principal when due.

Corporate loans and other forms of direct corporate indebtedness in which a fund may invest generally are made to finance internal growth, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, the refinancing of existing debt, leveraged buyouts, and other corporate activities. A significant portion of the corporate indebtedness purchased by a fund may represent interests in loans or debt made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions (known as “leveraged buyout” transactions), leveraged recapitalization loans, and other types of acquisition financing. Another portion may also represent loans incurred in restructuring or “work-out” scenarios, including super-priority debtor-in-possession facilities in bankruptcy and acquisition of assets out of bankruptcy. Loans in restructuring or work-out scenarios may be especially vulnerable to the inherent uncertainties in restructuring processes. In addition, the highly leveraged capital structure of the borrowers in any such transactions, whether in acquisition financing or restructuring, may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse or unusual economic or market conditions.

Loans and other forms of direct indebtedness generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and only limited opportunities may exist to sell them in secondary markets. As a result, a fund may be unable to sell loans and other forms of direct indebtedness at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so, or may be able to sell them only at a price that is less than their fair value.

Investments in loans through direct assignment of a financial institution’s interests with respect to a loan may involve additional risks. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the purchaser could become part owner of any collateral and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. In addition, it is at least conceivable that, under emerging legal theories of lender liability, a purchaser could be held liable as a co-lender. Direct debt instruments may also involve a risk of insolvency of the lending bank or other intermediary.

A loan is often administered by a bank or other financial institution that acts as agent for all holders. The agent administers the terms of the loan, as specified in the loan agreement. Unless the purchaser has direct recourse against the borrower, the purchaser may have to rely on the agent to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness. If assets held by the agent for the benefit of a purchaser were determined to be subject to the claims of the agent’s general creditors, the purchaser might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on the loan or loan participation and could suffer a loss of principal or interest.

Direct indebtedness may include letters of credit, revolving credit facilities, or other standby financing commitments that obligate purchasers to make additional cash payments on demand. These commitments may have the effect of requiring a purchaser to increase its investment in a borrower when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower’s condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.

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A fund’s investment policies will govern the amount of total assets that it may invest in any one issuer or in issuers within the same industry. For purposes of these limitations, a fund generally will treat the borrower as the “issuer” of indebtedness held by the fund. In the case of loan participations in which a bank or other lending institution serves as financial intermediary between a fund and the borrower, if the participation does not shift to the fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, SEC interpretations require the fund, in some circumstances, to treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as “issuers” for purposes of the fund’s investment policies. Treating a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness may restrict a fund’s ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls. A mortgage dollar roll is a transaction in which a fund sells a mortgage-backed security to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to purchase a similar security (but not the same security) in the future at a pre-determined price. A mortgage-dollar-roll program may be structured to simulate an investment in mortgage-backed securities at a potentially lower cost, or with potentially reduced administrative burdens, than directly holding mortgage-backed securities. For accounting purposes, each transaction in a mortgage dollar roll is viewed as a separate purchase and sale of a mortgage-backed security. The fund receives cash for a mortgage-backed security in the initial transaction and an agreement is entered into that requires the fund to purchase a similar mortgage-backed security in the future.

The counterparty with which a fund enters into a mortgage-dollar-roll transaction is obligated to provide the fund with similar securities to purchase as those originally sold by the fund. These securities generally must (1) be issued by the same agency and be part of the same program; (2) have similar original stated maturities; (3) have identical net coupon rates; and (4) satisfy “good delivery” requirements, meaning that the aggregate principal amounts of the securities delivered and received back must be within a certain percentage of the initial amount delivered. Mortgage dollar rolls will be used only if consistent with a fund’s investment objective and strategies and will not be used to change a fund’s risk profile.

Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities are securities that represent direct or indirect participation in, or are collateralized by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property or instruments derived from such loans and may be based on different types of mortgages, including those on residential properties or commercial real estate. Mortgage-backed securities include various types of securities, such as government stripped mortgage-backed securities, adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities, and collateralized mortgage obligations.

Generally, mortgage-backed securities represent interests in pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various governmental agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA), by government-related organizations, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), as well as by private issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, and mortgage bankers. The average maturity of pass-through pools of mortgage-backed securities in which a fund may invest varies with the maturities of the underlying mortgage instruments. In addition, a pool’s average maturity may be shortened by unscheduled payments on the underlying mortgages. Factors affecting mortgage prepayments include the level of interest rates, general economic and social conditions, the location of the mortgaged property, and the age of the mortgage. Because prepayment rates of individual mortgage pools vary widely, the average life of a particular pool cannot be predicted accurately.

Mortgage-backed securities may be classified as private, government, or government-related, depending on the issuer or guarantor. Private mortgage-backed securities represent interest in pass-through pools consisting principally of conventional residential or commercial mortgage loans created by nongovernment issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan associations, and private mortgage insurance companies. Private mortgage-backed securities may not be readily marketable. In addition, mortgage-backed securities have been subject to greater liquidity risk due to the deterioration of worldwide economic and liquidity conditions that became especially severe in 2008. Government mortgage-backed securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. GNMA, the principal U.S. guarantor of these securities, is a wholly owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Government-related mortgage-backed securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Issuers include FNMA and FHLMC, which are congressionally chartered corporations. In September 2008, the U.S. Treasury placed FNMA and FHLMC under conservatorship and appointed the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to manage their daily operations. In addition, the U.S. Treasury entered into purchase agreements with FNMA and FHLMC to provide them with capital in exchange for senior preferred stock. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA. Participation certificates representing

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interests in mortgages from FHLMC’s national portfolio are guaranteed as to the timely payment of interest and principal by FHLMC. Private, government, or government-related entities may create mortgage loan pools offering pass-through investments in addition to those described above. The mortgages underlying these securities may be alternative mortgage instruments (that is, mortgage instruments whose principal or interest payments may vary or whose terms to maturity may be shorter than customary).

Mortgage-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. Prepayments of principal by mortgagors or mortgage foreclosures shorten the term of the mortgage pool underlying the mortgage-backed security. A fund’s ability to maintain positions in mortgage-backed securities is affected by the reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments. A fund’s ability to reinvest prepayments of principal at comparable yield is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. The values of mortgage-backed securities vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of U.S. government securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. In periods of rising interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the average life of a pool of mortgages supporting a mortgage-backed security. Conversely, in periods of falling interest rates, the rate of prepayment tends to increase, thereby shortening the average life of such a pool. Because prepayments of principal generally occur when interest rates are declining, an investor, such as a fund, generally has to reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at lower interest rates than those at which its assets were previously invested. Therefore, mortgage-backed securities have less potential for capital appreciation in periods of falling interest rates than other income-bearing securities of comparable maturity.

Mortgage-Backed Securities — Adjustable Rate Mortgage-Backed Securities. Adjustable rate mortgage-backed securities (ARMBSs) have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMBSs permits a fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMBSs are based. Such ARMBSs generally have higher current yield and lower price fluctuations than is the case with more traditional fixed income debt securities of comparable rating and maturity. However, because the interest rates on ARMBSs are reset only periodically, changes in market interest rates or in the issuer’s creditworthiness may affect their value. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, a fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMBSs, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, a fund holding an ARMBS does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMBSs behave more like fixed income securities and less like adjustable rate securities and are thus subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities — Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) are mortgage-backed securities that are collateralized by whole loan mortgages or mortgage pass-through securities. The bonds issued in a CMO transaction are divided into groups, and each group of bonds is referred to as a “tranche.” Under the traditional CMO structure, the cash flows generated by the mortgages or mortgage pass-through securities in the collateral pool are used to first pay interest and then pay principal to the CMO bondholders. The bonds issued under a traditional CMO structure are retired sequentially as opposed to the pro-rata return of principal found in traditional pass-through obligations. Subject to the various provisions of individual CMO issues, the cash flow generated by the underlying collateral (to the extent it exceeds the amount required to pay the stated interest) is used to retire the bonds. Under a CMO structure, the repayment of principal among the different tranches is prioritized in accordance with the terms of the particular CMO issuance. The “fastest-pay” tranches of bonds, as specified in the prospectus for the issuance, would initially receive all principal payments. When those tranches of bonds are retired, the next tranche (or tranches) in the sequence, as specified in the prospectus, receive all of the principal payments until they are retired. The sequential retirement of bond groups continues until the last tranche is retired. Accordingly, the CMO structure allows the issuer to use cash flows of long-maturity, monthly pay collateral to formulate securities with short, intermediate, and long final maturities and expected average lives and risk characteristics.

In recent years, new types of CMO tranches have evolved. These include floating rate CMOs, planned amortization classes, accrual bonds, and CMO residuals. These newer structures affect the amount and timing of principal and

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interest received by each tranche from the underlying collateral. Under certain of these new structures, given classes of CMOs have priority over others with respect to the receipt of prepayments on the mortgages. Therefore, depending on the type of CMOs in which a fund invests, the investment may be subject to a greater or lesser risk of prepayment than other types of mortgage-backed securities.

CMOs may include real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs). REMICs, which were authorized under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, are private entities formed for the purpose of holding a fixed pool of mortgages secured by an interest in real property. A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the IRC and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property. Investors may purchase beneficial interests in REMICs, which are known as “regular” interests, or “residual” interests. Guaranteed REMIC pass-through certificates (REMIC Certificates) issued by FNMA or FHLMC represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust consisting principally of mortgage loans or FNMA, FHLMC, or GNMA-guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates. For FHLMC REMIC Certificates, FHLMC guarantees the timely payment of interest and also guarantees the payment of principal, as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates. FNMA REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by FNMA.

The primary risk of CMOs is the uncertainty of the timing of cash flows that results from the rate of prepayments on the underlying mortgages serving as collateral and from the structure of the particular CMO transaction (that is, the priority of the individual tranches). An increase or decrease in prepayment rates (resulting from a decrease or increase in mortgage interest rates) will affect the yield, average life, and price of CMOs. The prices of certain CMOs, depending on their structure and the rate of prepayments, can be volatile. Some CMOs may also not be as liquid as other securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities — Hybrid ARMs. A hybrid adjustable rate mortgage (hybrid ARM) is a type of mortgage in which the interest rate is fixed for a specified period and then resets periodically, or floats, for the remaining mortgage term. Hybrid ARMs are usually referred to by their fixed and floating periods. For example, a 5/1 ARM refers to a mortgage with a 5-year fixed interest rate period, followed by a 1-year interest rate adjustment period. During the initial interest period (i.e., the initial five years for a 5/1 hybrid ARM), hybrid ARMs behave more like fixed income securities and are thus subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. All hybrid ARMs have reset dates. A reset date is the date when a hybrid ARM changes from a fixed interest rate to a floating interest rate. At the reset date, a hybrid ARM can adjust by a maximum specified amount based on a margin over an identified index. Like ARMBSs, hybrid ARMs have periodic and lifetime limitations on the increases that can be made to the interest rates that mortgagors pay. Therefore, if during a floating rate period interest rates rise above the interest rate limits of the hybrid ARM, a fund holding the hybrid ARM does not benefit from further increases in interest rates.

Mortgage-Backed Securities — Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities (SMBSs) are derivative multi-class mortgage-backed securities. SMBSs may be issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, and special purpose entities formed or sponsored by any of the foregoing.

SMBSs are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (the “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). The price and yield to maturity on an IO class are extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on a fund’s yield to maturity from these securities. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, a fund may fail to recoup some or all of its initial investment in these securities, even if the security is in one of the highest rating categories.

Although SMBSs are purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers, these securities were only recently developed. As a result, established trading markets have not yet developed and, accordingly, these securities may be deemed “illiquid” and thus subject to a fund’s limitations on investment in illiquid securities.

Options. An option is a derivative. An option on a security (or index) is a contract that gives the holder of the option, in return for the payment of a “premium,” the right, but not the obligation, to buy from (in the case of a call option) or sell to (in the case of a put option) the writer of the option the security underlying the option (or the cash value of the index) at

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a specified exercise price prior to the expiration date of the option. The writer of an option on a security has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the underlying security upon payment of the exercise price (in the case of a call option) or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the underlying security (in the case of a put option). The writer of an option on an index has the obligation upon exercise of the option to pay an amount equal to the cash value of the index minus the exercise price, multiplied by the specified multiplier for the index option. The multiplier for an index option determines the size of the investment position the option represents. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size, and strike price, the terms of OTC options (options not traded on exchanges) generally are established through negotiation with the other party to the option contract. Although this type of arrangement allows the purchaser or writer greater flexibility to tailor an option to its needs, OTC options generally involve greater credit risk than exchange-traded options, which are guaranteed by the clearing organization of the exchanges where they are traded.

The buyer (or holder) of an option is said to be “long” the option, while the seller (or writer) of an option is said to be “short” the option. A call option grants to the holder the right to buy (and obligates the writer to sell) the underlying security at the strike price. A put option grants to the holder the right to sell (and obligates the writer to buy) the underlying security at the strike price. The purchase price of an option is called the “premium.” The potential loss to an option buyer is limited to the amount of the premium plus transaction costs. This will be the case if the option is held and not exercised prior to its expiration date. Generally, an option writer sells options with the goal of obtaining the premium paid by the option buyer, but that person could also seek to profit from an anticipated rise or decline in option prices. If an option sold by an option writer expires without being exercised, the writer retains the full amount of the premium. The option writer, however, has unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received when the option was written, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying position exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying position. Generally, any profit realized by an option buyer represents a loss for the option writer. The writing of an option will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

If a trading market in particular options were to become unavailable, investors in those options (such as the funds) would be unable to close out their positions until trading resumes, and they may be faced with substantial losses if the value of the underlying instrument moves adversely during that time. Even if the market were to remain available, there may be times when options prices will not maintain their customary or anticipated relationships to the prices of the underlying instruments and related instruments. Lack of investor interest, changes in volatility, or other factors or conditions might adversely affect the liquidity, efficiency, continuity, or even the orderliness of the market for particular options.

A fund bears the risk that its advisor will not accurately predict future market trends. If the advisor attempts to use an option as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the option will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment, which could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving options can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many options, in particular OTC options, are complex and often valued based on subjective factors. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

Other Investment Companies. A fund may invest in other investment companies to the extent permitted by applicable law or SEC exemption. Under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, a fund generally may invest up to 10% of its assets in shares of investment companies and up to 5% of its assets in any one investment company, as long as no investment represents more than 3% of the voting stock of an acquired investment company. In addition, no funds for which Vanguard acts as an advisor may, in the aggregate, own more than 10% of the voting stock of a closed-end investment company. The 1940 Act and related rules provide certain exemptions from these restrictions. If a fund invests in other investment companies, shareholders will bear not only their proportionate share of the fund’s expenses (including operating expenses and the fees of the advisor), but also, indirectly, may bear the similar expenses of the underlying investment companies. Certain investment companies, such as business development companies (BDCs), are more akin to operating companies and, as such, their expenses are not direct expenses paid by fund shareholders and are not

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used to calculate the fund’s net asset value. SEC rules nevertheless require that any expenses incurred by a BDC be included in a fund’s expense ratio as “Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses.” The expense ratio of a fund that holds a BDC will need to overstate what the fund actually spends on portfolio management, administrative services, and other shareholder services by an amount equal to these Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses. The Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses are not included in a fund’s financial statements, which provide a clearer picture of a fund’s actual operating expenses. Shareholders would also be exposed to the risks associated not only with the investments of the fund, but also with the portfolio investments of the underlying investment companies. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that typically trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or discount to their net asset value. Others are continuously offered at net asset value but also may be traded on the secondary market.

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. Preferred stock normally pays dividends at a specified rate and has precedence over common stock in the event the issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy. However, in the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock. Preferred stock, unlike common stock, often has a stated dividend rate payable from the corporation’s earnings. Preferred stock dividends may be cumulative or non-cumulative, participating, or auction rate. “Cumulative” dividend provisions require all or a portion of prior unpaid dividends to be paid before dividends can be paid to the issuer’s common stock. “Participating” preferred stock may be entitled to a dividend exceeding the stated dividend in certain cases. If interest rates rise, the fixed dividend on preferred stocks may be less attractive, causing the price of such stocks to decline. Preferred stock may have mandatory sinking fund provisions, as well as provisions allowing the stock to be called or redeemed, which can limit the benefit of a decline in interest rates. Preferred stock is subject to many of the risks to which common stock and debt securities are subject. In addition, preferred stock may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than common stock or debt securities due to the fact that preferred stock may trade less frequently and in more limited volume.

Repurchase Agreements. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which a fund acquires a fixed income security (generally a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance, or a certificate of deposit) from a commercial bank, broker, or dealer, and simultaneously agrees to resell such security to the seller at an agreed-upon price and date (normally, the next business day). Because the security purchased constitutes collateral for the repurchase obligation, a repurchase agreement may be considered a loan that is collateralized by the security purchased. The resale price reflects an agreed-upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by a fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument. In these transactions, the securities acquired by a fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and be held by a custodian bank until repurchased. In addition, the investment advisor will monitor a fund’s repurchase agreement transactions generally and will evaluate the creditworthiness of any bank, broker, or dealer party to a repurchase agreement relating to a fund. The aggregate amount of any such agreements is not limited, except to the extent required by law.

The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. One risk is the seller’s ability to pay the agreed-upon repurchase price on the repurchase date. If the seller defaults, the fund may incur costs in disposing of the collateral, which would reduce the amount realized thereon. If the seller seeks relief under the bankruptcy laws, the disposition of the collateral may be delayed or limited. For example, if the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the bankruptcy or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by the fund not within its control and therefore the realization by the fund on such collateral may be automatically stayed. Finally, it is possible that the fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities. Illiquid securities are securities that cannot be sold or disposed of in the ordinary course of business within seven business days at approximately the value at which they are being carried on a fund’s books. The SEC generally limits aggregate holdings of illiquid securities by a mutual fund to 15% of its net assets (5% for money market funds). A fund may experience difficulty valuing and selling illiquid securities and, in some cases, may be unable to value or sell certain illiquid securities for an indefinite period of time. Illiquid securities may include a wide variety of investments, such as (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (unless the agreements have demand/redemption features), (2) OTC options contracts and certain other derivatives (including certain swap agreements), (3) fixed time deposits that are not subject to prepayment or do not provide for withdrawal penalties upon prepayment (other than overnight deposits), (4) loan interests and other direct debt instruments, (5) municipal lease

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obligations, (6) commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act, and (7) securities whose disposition is restricted under the federal securities laws. Illiquid securities include restricted, privately placed securities that, under the federal securities laws, generally may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers. If a substantial market develops for a restricted security held by a fund, it may be treated as a liquid security, in accordance with procedures and guidelines approved by the board of trustees. This generally includes securities that are unregistered, that can be sold to qualified institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, or that are exempt from registration under the 1933 Act, such as commercial paper. Although a fund’s advisor monitors the liquidity of restricted securities, the board of trustees oversees and retains ultimate responsibility for the advisor’s liquidity determinations. Several factors that the trustees consider in monitoring these decisions include the valuation of a security; the availability of qualified institutional buyers, brokers, and dealers that trade in the security; and the availability of information about the security’s issuer.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements. In a reverse repurchase agreement, a fund sells a security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase that security at an agreed-upon price and time. Under a reverse repurchase agreement, the fund continues to receive any principal and interest payments on the underlying security during the term of the agreement. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of securities retained by the fund may decline below the repurchase price of the securities sold by the fund that it is obligated to repurchase. A reverse repurchase agreement may be considered a borrowing transaction for purposes of the 1940 Act. A reverse repurchase agreement transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.” A fund will enter into reverse repurchase agreements only with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the advisor. If the buyer in a reverse repurchase agreement becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, a fund’s use of proceeds from the sale may be restricted while the other party or its trustee or receiver determines if it will honor the fund’s right to repurchase the securities. If the fund is unable to recover the securities it sold in a reverse repurchase agreement, it would realize a loss equal to the difference between the value of the securities and the payment it received for them.

Securities Lending. A fund may lend its investment securities to qualified institutional investors (typically brokers, dealers, banks, or other financial institutions) who may need to borrow securities in order to complete certain transactions, such as covering short sales, avoiding failures to deliver securities, or completing arbitrage operations. By lending its investment securities, a fund attempts to increase its net investment income through the receipt of interest on the securities lent. Any gain or loss in the market price of the securities lent that might occur during the term of the loan would be for the account of the fund. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities lent because of insolvency or other reasons, a fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities lent or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a fund is not able to recover the securities lent, a fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement investment in the market. The value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased. Cash received as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. Currently, Vanguard funds that lend securities invest the cash collateral received in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds.

The terms and the structure of the loan arrangements, as well as the aggregate amount of securities loans, must be consistent with the 1940 Act and the rules or interpretations of the SEC thereunder. These provisions limit the amount of securities a fund may lend to 33 1/3% of the fund’s total assets, and require that (1) the borrower pledge and maintain with the fund collateral consisting of cash, an irrevocable letter of credit, or securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government having at all times not less than 100% of the value of the securities lent; (2) the borrower add to such collateral whenever the price of the securities lent rises (i.e., the borrower “marks-to-market” on a daily basis); (3) the loan be made subject to termination by the fund at any time; and (4) the fund receive reasonable interest on the loan (which may include the fund’s investing any cash collateral in interest-bearing short-term investments), any distribution on the lent securities, and any increase in their market value. Loan arrangements made by each fund will comply with all other applicable regulatory requirements, including the rules of the New York Stock Exchange, which presently require the borrower, after notice, to redeliver the securities within the normal settlement time of three business days. The advisor will consider the creditworthiness of the borrower, among other things, in making decisions with respect to the

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lending of securities, subject to oversight by the board of trustees. At the present time, the SEC does not object if an investment company pays reasonable negotiated fees in connection with lent securities, so long as such fees are set forth in a written contract and approved by the investment company’s trustees. In addition, voting rights pass with the lent securities, but if a fund has knowledge that a material event will occur affecting securities on loan, and in respect of which the holder of the securities will be entitled to vote or consent, the lender must be entitled to call the loaned securities in time to vote or consent. A fund bears the risk that there may be a delay in the return of the securities, which may impair the fund’s ability to vote on such a matter.

Pursuant to Vanguard’s securities lending policy, Vanguard’s fixed income and money market funds are not permitted to, and do not, lend their investment securities.

Swap Agreements. A swap agreement is a derivative. A swap agreement is an agreement between two parties (counterparties) to exchange payments at specified dates (periodic payment dates) on the basis of a specified amount (notional amount) with the payments calculated with reference to a specified asset, reference rate, or index.

Examples of swap agreements include, but are not limited to, interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, equity swaps, commodity swaps, foreign currency swaps, index swaps, excess return swaps, and total return swaps. Most swap agreements provide that when the periodic payment dates for both parties are the same, payments are netted, and only the net amount is paid to the counterparty entitled to receive the net payment. Consequently, a fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement, based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty. Swap agreements allow for a wide variety of transactions. For example, fixed rate payments may be exchanged for floating rate payments; U.S. dollar-denominated payments may be exchanged for payments denominated in a different currency; and payments tied to the price of one asset, reference rate, or index may be exchanged for payments tied to the price of another asset, reference rate, or index.

An option on a swap agreement, also called a “swaption,” is an option that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to enter into a swap on a future date in exchange for paying a market-based “premium.” A receiver swaption gives the owner the right to receive the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. A payer swaption gives the owner the right to pay the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. Swaptions also include options that allow an existing swap to be terminated or extended by one of the counterparties.

The use of swap agreements by a fund entails certain risks, which may be different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the securities and other investments that are the referenced asset for the swap agreement. Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques, risk analyses, and tax planning different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions.

Swap agreements may be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular swap is difficult to purchase or sell. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many OTC swaps), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses. In addition, swap transactions may be subject to a fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities.

Swap agreements may be subject to pricing risk, which exists when a particular swap becomes extraordinarily expensive (or inexpensive) relative to historical prices or the prices of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity or to realize the intrinsic value of the swap agreement.

Because some swap agreements have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. Certain swaps have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. A leveraged swap transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Like most other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund’s interest. A fund bears the risk that its advisor will not accurately forecast future

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market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing swap positions for the fund. If the advisor attempts to use a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many swaps, OTC swaps in particular, are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

The use of a swap agreement also involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. Additionally, the use of credit default swaps can result in losses if a fund’s advisor does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit swap is based.

The market for swaps and swaptions is a relatively new market. It is possible that developments in the market could adversely affect a fund, including its ability to terminate existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements. As previously noted under the heading “Derivatives,” under the Dodd-Frank Act certain swaps that may be used by a fund may be cleared through a clearinghouse and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility.

Tax Matters — Federal Tax Discussion. Discussion herein of U.S. federal income tax matters summarizes some of the important, generally applicable U.S. federal tax considerations relevant to investment in a fund based on the IRC, U.S. Treasury regulations, and other applicable authority. These authorities are subject to change by legislative, administrative, or judicial action, possibly with retroactive effect. A shareholder should consult his or her tax professional regarding the particular situation for information on the possible application of U.S. federal, state, local, foreign, and other taxes.

Tax Matters — Federal Tax Treatment of Derivatives, Hedging, and Related Transactions. A fund’s transactions in derivative instruments (including, but not limited to, options, futures, forward contracts, and swap agreements), as well as any of the fund’s hedging, short sale, securities loan, or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special tax rules that affect the treatment of gains or losses recognized by the fund as ordinary or capital. These transactions may also accelerate the recognition of income or gains to the fund, defer losses to the fund, and cause adjustments in the holding period of the fund’s securities.

In order for a fund to continue to qualify for federal income tax treatment as a regulated investment company, at least 90% of its gross income for a taxable year must be derived from qualifying income—i.e., dividends, interest, income derived from securities loans, gains from the sale of securities or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to the fund’s business of investing in securities or currencies. Any net gain from options, futures, and forward contracts will be treated as qualifying income.

Tax Matters — Federal Tax Treatment of Futures Contracts. A fund generally must recognize for federal income tax purposes, as of the end of each taxable year, any net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts, as well as any gains and losses actually realized during the year. In these cases, any gain or loss recognized with respect to a futures contract is considered to be 60% long-term capital gain or loss and 40% short-term capital gain or loss, without regard to the holding period of the contract. Gains and losses on certain other futures contracts (primarily non-U.S. futures contracts) are not recognized until the contracts are closed and are treated as long-term or short-term, depending on the holding period of the contract. Sales of futures contracts that are intended to hedge against a change in the value of securities held by a fund may affect the holding period of such securities and, consequently, the nature of the gain or loss on such securities upon disposition. A fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on one position, such as futures contracts, to the extent of any unrecognized gains on a related offsetting position held by the fund.

A fund will distribute to shareholders annually any net capital gains that have been recognized for federal income tax purposes on futures transactions. Such distributions will be combined with distributions of capital gains realized on the fund’s other investments and shareholders will be advised on the nature of the distributions.

Tax Matters — Federal Tax Treatment of Non-U.S. Currency Transactions. Special rules govern the federal income tax treatment of certain transactions denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar, determined by reference to the value of one or more currencies other than the U.S. dollar and the disposition of a currency other than the U.S. dollar by a taxpayer whose functional currency is the U.S. dollar. However, foreign-currency-related regulated futures contracts and non-equity options are generally not subject to the special currency rules if they are or would be treated as sold for their fair market value at year end under the marking-to-market rules applicable to other futures contracts unless an

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election is made to have such currency rules apply. With respect to transactions covered by the special rules, foreign currency gain or loss is calculated separately from any gain or loss on the underlying transaction and is normally taxable as ordinary income or loss. A taxpayer may elect to treat, as capital gain or loss, foreign currency gain or loss arising from certain identified forward contracts, futures contracts, and options that are capital assets in the hands of the taxpayer and that are not part of a straddle. The Treasury Department issued regulations under which certain transactions subject to the special currency rules that are part of a “section 988 hedging transaction” (as defined in the IRC and the Treasury regulations) will be integrated and treated as a single transaction or otherwise treated consistently for purposes of the IRC. Any gain or loss attributable to the foreign currency component of a transaction engaged in by a fund that is not subject to the special currency rules (such as foreign equity investments other than certain preferred stocks) will be treated as a capital gain or loss and will not be segregated from the gain or loss on the underlying transaction. It is anticipated that some of the non-U.S. dollar-denominated investments and foreign currency contracts a fund may make or enter into will be subject to the special currency rules described within this policy.

Tax Matters — Foreign Tax Credit. Foreign governments may withhold taxes on dividends and interest paid with respect to foreign securities held by a fund. Foreign governments may also impose taxes on other payments or gains with respect to foreign securities. If, at the close of its fiscal year, more than 50% of a fund’s total assets are invested in securities of foreign issuers, the fund may elect to pass through to shareholders the ability to deduct or, if they meet certain holding period requirements, take a credit for foreign taxes paid by the fund. Similarly, if, at the close of each quarter of a fund’s taxable year, at least 50% of its total assets consist of interests in other regulated investment companies, the fund is permitted to elect to pass through to its shareholders the foreign income taxes paid by the fund in connection with foreign securities held directly by the fund or held by a regulated investment company in which the fund invests that itself has elected to pass through such taxes to shareholders.

Tax Matters — Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Investors. U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments made by non-U.S. investors in Vanguard funds. The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, as extended by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and later by the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, provided relief from U.S. withholding tax for certain properly designated distributions made with respect to a fund’s taxable year beginning prior to 2012, assuming the investor provides valid tax documentation certifying non-U.S. status. The relief does not by its terms apply to a fund’s taxable year beginning in or after 2012 unless so extended by Congress. If Congress extends this relief, Vanguard will generally apply it on a prospective basis, where applicable, to fund distributions made to you if you invest directly with Vanguard. If you hold fund shares (including ETF shares) through a broker or intermediary, your broker or intermediary may apply this relief, if extended, to distributions made to you with respect to those shares. If your broker or intermediary instead collects withholding tax where this relief has been extended and is applicable, you may be able to reclaim such withholding tax from the IRS. Please consult your tax advisor.

Please be aware that the U.S. tax information contained in this Statement of Additional Information is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, for the purpose of avoiding U.S. tax penalties.

Warrants. Warrants are instruments that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

When-Issued, Delayed-Delivery, and Forward-Commitment Transactions. When-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward-commitment transactions involve a commitment to purchase or sell specific securities at a predetermined price or yield in which payment and delivery take place after the customary settlement period for that type of security. Typically, no interest accrues to the purchaser until the security is delivered. When purchasing securities pursuant to one of these transactions, payment for the securities is not required until the delivery date. However, the purchaser assumes the rights and risks of ownership, including the risks of price and yield fluctuations and the risk that the security will not be issued as anticipated. When a fund has sold a security pursuant to one of these transactions, the fund does not participate in further gains or losses with respect to the security. If the other party to a delayed-delivery transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity or suffer a loss. A fund may renegotiate a when-issued or forward-commitment transaction and may sell the underlying securities before delivery, which may result in

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capital gains or losses for the fund. When-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward-commitment transactions will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by the fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Regulatory restrictions in India. Shares of Vanguard Capital Value Fund have not been, and will not be, registered under the laws of India, and are not intended to benefit from any laws in India promulgated for the protection of shareholders. Due to regulatory requirements in India, shares of the Fund shall not be knowingly offered to (directly or indirectly) or sold or delivered to (within India); transferred to or purchased by; or held for, on the account of, or for the benefit of (i) a “person resident in India” (as defined in the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999), (ii) a “nonresident Indian,” an “overseas corporate body,” or a “person of Indian origin,” (as each such term is defined in the Foreign Exchange Management (Deposit) Regulations, 2000), or (iii) any other entity or person disqualified or otherwise prohibited from accessing the Indian securities market under applicable laws, as may be amended from time to time. Each investor, prior to purchasing shares of the Fund, must satisfy itself regarding compliance with these requirements.

SHARE PRICE

Multiple-class funds do not have a single share price. Rather, each class has a share price, called its net asset value, or NAV, that is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (the Exchange), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. NAV per share for the Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index and TIPS Transition Funds is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to each share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. NAV per share for the Capital Value and U.S. Value Funds is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, of the Fund by the number of Fund shares outstanding. On holidays or other days when the Exchange is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not transact purchase or redemption requests. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open.

The Exchange typically observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day; Presidents’ Day (Washington’s Birthday); Good Friday; Memorial Day; Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; and Christmas Day. Although each Fund expects the same holidays to be observed in the future, the Exchange may modify its holiday schedule or hours of operation at any time.

PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

Purchase of Shares (Other than ETF Shares)

The purchase price of shares of each Fund is the NAV per share next determined after the purchase request is received in good order, as defined in the Fund’s prospectus.

The Capital Value, U.S. Value, and TIPS Transition Funds do not charge purchase fees. The Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund charges a 0.25% purchase fee. The purchase fee is paid to the Fund to reimburse it for the transaction costs incurred from purchasing securities. The fee is deducted from all purchases, including exchanges from other Vanguard funds, but not from reinvested dividends and capital gains.

Redemption of Shares (Other than ETF Shares)

The redemption price of shares of each Fund is the NAV next determined after the redemption request is received in good order, as defined in the Fund’s prospectus.

Each Fund may suspend redemption privileges or postpone the date of payment for redeemed shares (1) during any period that the Exchange is closed or trading on the Exchange is restricted as determined by the SEC; (2) during any period when an emergency exists, as defined by the SEC, as a result of which it is not reasonably practicable for the Fund to dispose of securities it owns or to fairly determine the value of its assets; or (3) for such other periods as the SEC may permit.

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The Trust has filed a notice of election with the SEC to pay in cash all redemptions requested by any shareholder of record limited in amount during any 90-day period to the lesser of $250,000 or 1% of the net assets of a Fund at the beginning of such period.

If Vanguard determines that it would be detrimental to the best interests of the remaining shareholders of a Fund to make payment wholly or partly in cash, the Fund may pay the redemption price in whole or in part by a distribution in kind of readily marketable securities held by the Fund in lieu of cash in conformity with applicable rules of the SEC. Investors may incur brokerage charges on the sale of such securities received in payment of redemptions.

The Funds do not charge a redemption fee. Shares redeemed may be worth more or less than what was paid for them, depending on the market value of the securities held by the Fund.

Right to Change Policies

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are deemed to be in the best interest of a fund.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

Each Fund except for Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund has authorized certain agents to accept on its behalf purchase and redemption orders, and those agents are authorized to designate other intermediaries to accept purchase and redemption orders on the Fund’s behalf (collectively, Authorized Agents). A Fund will be deemed to have received a purchase or redemption order when an Authorized Agent accepts the order in accordance with the Fund’s instructions. In most instances, a customer order that is properly transmitted to an Authorized Agent will be priced at the NAV next determined after the order is received by the Authorized Agent.

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS

Vanguard

Each Fund is part of the Vanguard group of investment companies, which consists of more than 170 funds. Through their jointly owned subsidiary, Vanguard, the funds obtain at cost virtually all of their corporate management, administrative, and distribution services. Vanguard also provides investment advisory services on an at-cost basis to several of the Vanguard funds.

Vanguard employs a supporting staff of management and administrative personnel needed to provide the requisite services to the funds and also furnishes the funds with necessary office space, furnishings, and equipment. Each fund pays its share of Vanguard’s total expenses, which are allocated among the funds under methods approved by the board of trustees of each fund. In addition, each fund bears its own direct expenses, such as legal, auditing, and custodial fees.

The funds’ officers are also officers and employees of Vanguard.

Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation (VMC), the funds, and the funds’ advisors have adopted codes of ethics designed to prevent employees who may have access to nonpublic information about the trading activities of the funds (access persons) from profiting from that information. The codes of ethics permit access persons to invest in securities for their own accounts, including securities that may be held by a fund, but place substantive and procedural restrictions on the trading activities of access persons. For example, the codes of ethics require that access persons receive advance approval for most securities trades to ensure that there is no conflict with the trading activities of the funds.

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Vanguard was established and operates under an Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement. The Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement provides that each Vanguard fund may be called upon to invest up to 0.40% of its current net assets in Vanguard. The amounts that each fund has invested are adjusted from time to time in order to maintain the proportionate relationship between each fund’s relative net assets and its contribution to Vanguard’s capital.

As of September 30, 2012, each Fund (other than Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, which did not commence operations until October 10, 2012, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, which did not commence operations until April 30, 2013) had contributed capital to Vanguard as follows:

  Capital Percentage of Percent
  Contribution Fund’s Average of Vanguard’s
Vanguard Fund to Vanguard Net Assets Capitalization
Capital Value Fund $92,000 0.01% 0.04%
U.S. Value Fund 84,000 0.01 0.03

 

Management. Corporate management and administrative services include (1) executive staff, (2) accounting and financial, (3) legal and regulatory, (4) shareholder account maintenance, (5) monitoring and control of custodian relationships, (6) shareholder reporting, and (7) review and evaluation of advisory and other services provided to the funds by third parties.

Distribution. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, 400 Devon Park Drive A39, Wayne, PA 19087, a wholly owned subsidiary of Vanguard, is the principal underwriter for the funds and in that capacity performs and finances marketing, promotional, and distribution activities (collectively, marketing and distribution activities) that are primarily intended to result in the sale of the funds’ shares. VMC offers shares of each fund for sale on a continuous basis. VMC performs marketing and distribution activities at cost in accordance with the conditions of a 1981 SEC exemptive order that permits the Vanguard funds to internalize and jointly finance the marketing, promotion, and distribution of their shares. The funds’ trustees review and approve the marketing and distribution expenses incurred by the funds, including the nature and cost of the activities and the desirability of each fund’s continued participation in the joint arrangement.

To ensure that each fund’s participation in the joint arrangement falls within a reasonable range of fairness, each fund contributes to VMC’s marketing and distribution expenses in accordance with an SEC-approved formula. Under that formula, one half of the marketing and distribution expenses are allocated among the funds based upon their relative net assets. The remaining half of those expenses is allocated among the funds based upon each fund’s sales for the preceding 24 months relative to the total sales of the funds as a group; provided, however, that no fund’s aggregate quarterly rate of contribution for marketing and distribution expenses shall exceed 125% of the average marketing and distribution expense rate for Vanguard, and that no fund shall incur annual marketing and distribution expenses in excess of 0.20% of its average month-end net assets. Each fund’s contribution to these marketing and distribution expenses helps to maintain and enhance the attractiveness and viability of the Vanguard complex as a whole, which benefits all of the funds and their shareholders.

VMC’s principal marketing and distribution expenses are for advertising, promotional materials, and marketing personnel.

Other marketing and distribution activities that VMC undertakes on behalf of the funds may include, but are not limited to:

  • Conducting or publishing Vanguard-generated research and analysis concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy;

  • Providing views, opinions, advice, or commentary concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy;

  • Providing analytical, statistical, performance, or other information concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy;

  • Providing administrative services in connection with investments in the funds or other investments, including, but not limited to, shareholder services, recordkeeping services, and educational services;

  • Providing products or services that assist investors or financial service providers (as defined below) in the investment decision-making process;

  • Providing promotional discounts, commission-free trading, fee waivers, and other benefits to clients of Vanguard Brokerage Services® who maintain qualifying investments in the funds; and

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  • Sponsoring, jointly sponsoring, financially supporting, or participating in conferences, programs, seminars, presentations, meetings, or other events involving fund shareholders, financial service providers, or others concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy, such as industry conferences, prospecting trips, due diligence visits, training or education meetings, and sales presentations.

VMC performs most marketing and distribution activities itself. Some activities may be conducted by third parties pursuant to shared marketing arrangements under which VMC agrees to share the costs and performance of marketing and distribution activities in concert with a financial service provider. Financial service providers include, but are not limited to, investment advisors, broker-dealers, financial planners, financial consultants, banks, and insurance companies. Under these cost- and performance-sharing arrangements, VMC may pay or reimburse a financial service provider (or a third party it retains) for marketing and distribution activities that VMC would otherwise perform. VMC’s cost- and performance-sharing arrangements may be established in connection with Vanguard investment products or services offered or provided to or through the financial service providers. VMC’s arrangements for shared marketing and distribution activities may vary among financial service providers, and its payments or reimbursements to financial service providers in connection with shared marketing and distribution activities may be significant. VMC does not participate in the offshore arrangement Vanguard has established with a third party to provide marketing, promotional, and other services to qualifying Vanguard funds that are distributed in certain foreign countries on a private-placement basis to government-sponsored and other institutional investors. In exchange for such services, the third party receives an annual base (fixed) fee, and may also receive discretionary fees or performance adjustments.

In connection with its marketing and distribution activities, VMC may give financial service providers (or their representatives) (1) promotional items of nominal value that display Vanguard’s logo, such as golf balls, shirts, towels, pens, and mouse pads; (2) gifts that do not exceed $100 per person annually and are not preconditioned on achievement of a sales target; (3) an occasional meal, a ticket to a sporting event or the theater, or comparable entertainment that is neither so frequent nor so extensive as to raise any question of propriety and is not preconditioned on achievement of a sales target; and (4) reasonable travel and lodging accommodations to facilitate participation in marketing and distribution activities.

VMC, as a matter of policy, does not pay asset-based fees, sales-based fees, or account-based fees to financial service providers in connection with its marketing and distribution activities for the Vanguard funds. VMC policy also prohibits marketing and distribution activities that are intended, designed, or likely to compromise suitability determinations by, or the fulfillment of any fiduciary duties or other obligations that apply to, financial service providers. Nonetheless, VMC’s marketing and distribution activities are primarily intended to result in the sale of the funds’ shares, and, as such, its activities, including shared marketing and distribution activities, may influence participating financial service providers (or their representatives) to recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class. In addition, Vanguard or any of its subsidiaries may retain a financial service provider to provide consulting or other services, and that financial service provider also may provide services to investors. Investors should consider the possibility that any of these activities or relationships may influence a financial service provider’s (or its representatives’) decision to recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class. Each financial service provider should consider its suitability determinations, fiduciary duties, and other legal obligations (or those of its representatives) in connection with any decision to consider, recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class.

The following table describes the expenses of Vanguard and VMC that are incurred by the Funds on an at-cost basis. Amounts captioned “Management and Administrative Expenses” include a Fund‘s allocated share of expenses associated with the management, administrative, and transfer agency services Vanguard provides to the funds. Amounts captioned “Marketing and Distribution Expenses” include a Fund‘s allocated share of expenses associated with the marketing and distribution activities that VMC conducts on behalf of the Vanguard funds.

As is the case with all mutual funds, transaction costs incurred by the Funds for buying and selling securities are not reflected in the table. Annual Shared Fund Operating Expenses are based on expenses incurred in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2010, 2011, and 2012, and are presented as a percentage of each Fund‘s average month-end net assets. Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund did not commence operations until October 10, 2012, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund did not commence operations until April 30, 2013.

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Annual Shared Fund Operating Expenses
(Shared Expenses Deducted from Fund Assets)
Vanguard Fund 2010 2011 2012
Capital Value Fund      
Management and Administrative Expenses: 0.20% 0.20% 0.20%
Marketing and Distribution Expenses: 0.02 0.02 0.02
U.S. Value Fund      
Management and Administrative Expenses: 0.17% 0.26% 0.26%
Marketing and Distribution Expenses: 0.02 0.02 0.02

 

The Capital Value Fund’s investment advisor may direct certain security trades, subject to obtaining the best price and execution, to brokers who have agreed to rebate to the Fund part of the commissions generated. Such rebates are used solely to reduce the Fund’s management and administrative expenses and are not reflected in these totals.

Officers and Trustees

Each Vanguard fund is governed by the board of trustees of its trust and a single set of officers. Consistent with the board’s corporate governance principles, the trustees believe that their primary responsibility is oversight of the management of each fund for the benefit of its shareholders, not day-to-day management. The trustees set broad policies for the funds; select investment advisors; monitor fund operations, regulatory compliance, performance, and costs; nominate and select new trustees; and elect fund officers. Vanguard manages the day-to-day operations of the funds under the direction of the board of trustees.

The trustees play an active role, as a full board and at the committee level, in overseeing risk management for the funds. The trustees delegate the day-to-day risk management of the funds to various groups, including portfolio review, investment management, risk management, compliance, legal, fund accounting, and fund financial services. These groups provide the trustees with regular reports regarding investment, valuation, liquidity, and compliance, as well as the risks associated with each. The trustees also oversee risk management for the funds through regular interactions with the funds’ internal and external auditors.

The full board participates in the funds’ risk oversight, in part, through the Vanguard funds’ compliance program, which covers the following broad areas of compliance: investment and other operations; recordkeeping; valuation and pricing; communications and disclosure; reporting and accounting; oversight of service providers; fund governance; and codes of ethics, insider trading controls, and protection of nonpublic information. The program seeks to identify and assess risk through various methods, including through regular interdisciplinary communications between compliance professionals and business personnel who participate on a daily basis in risk management on behalf of the funds. The funds’ chief compliance officer regularly provides reports to the board in writing and in person.

The audit committee of the board, which is composed of all independent trustees, oversees management of financial risks and controls. The audit committee serves as the channel of communication between the independent auditors of the funds and the board with respect to financial statements and financial-reporting processes, systems of internal control, and the audit process. The head of internal audit reports directly to the audit committee and provides reports to the committee in writing and in person on a regular basis. Although the audit committee is responsible for overseeing the management of financial risks, the entire board is regularly informed of these risks through committee reports.

All of the trustees bring to each fund’s board a wealth of executive leadership experience derived from their service as executives (in many cases chief executive officers), board members, and leaders of diverse public operating companies, academic institutions, and other organizations. In determining whether an individual is qualified to serve as a trustee of the funds, the board considers a wide variety of information about the trustee, and multiple factors contribute to the board’s decision. Each trustee is determined to have the experience, skills, and attributes necessary to serve the funds and their shareholders because each trustee demonstrates an exceptional ability to consider complex business and financial matters, evaluate the relative importance and priority of issues, make decisions, and contribute effectively to the deliberations of the board. The board also considers the individual experience of each trustee and determines that the trustee’s professional experience, education, and background contribute to the diversity of perspectives on the board. The business acumen, experience, and objective thinking of the trustees are considered invaluable assets for Vanguard management and, ultimately, the Vanguard funds’ shareholders. The specific roles and experience of each

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board member that factor into this determination are presented on the following pages. The mailing address of the trustees and officers is P.O. Box 876, Valley Forge, PA 19482.

      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held with Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Interested Trustee1        
F. William McNabb III Chairman of the July 2009 Mr. McNabb has served as Chairman of the Board of 180
(1957) Board, Chief   Vanguard and of each of the investment companies  
  Executive Officer,   served by Vanguard, since January 2010; Trustee of  
  and President   each of the investment companies served by  
      Vanguard, since 2009; Director of Vanguard since  
      2008; and Chief Executive Officer and President of  
      Vanguard and of each of the investment companies  
      served by Vanguard, since 2008. Mr. McNabb also  
      serves as Director of Vanguard Marketing Corporation.  
      Mr. McNabb served as a Managing Director of  
      Vanguard from 1995 to 2008.  
 
1 Mr. McNabb is considered an “interested person,” as defined in the 1940 Act, because he is an officer of the Trust.  
Independent Trustees        
Emerson U. Fullwood Trustee January 2008 Mr. Fullwood is the former Executive Chief Staff and 180
(1948)     Marketing Officer for North America and Corporate  
      Vice President (retired 2008) of Xerox Corporation  
      (document management products and services).  
      Previous positions held at Xerox by Mr. Fullwood  
      include President of the Worldwide Channels Group,  
      President of Latin America, Executive Chief Staff Officer  
      of Developing Markets, and President of Worldwide  
      Customer Services. Mr. Fullwood is the Executive in  
      Residence and 2010 Distinguished Minett Professor at  
      the Rochester Institute of Technology. Mr. Fullwood  
      serves as a director of SPX Corporation (multi-industry  
      manufacturing), Amerigroup Corporation (managed  
      health care), the University of Rochester Medical  
      Center, Monroe Community College Foundation, the  
      United Way of Rochester, and North Carolina A&T  
      University.  
 
Rajiv L. Gupta Trustee December 2001 Mr. Gupta is the former Chairman and Chief Executive 180
(1945)     Officer (retired 2009) and President (2006–2008) of  
      Rohm and Haas Co. (chemicals). Mr. Gupta serves as a  
      director of Tyco International, Ltd. (diversified  
      manufacturing and services), Hewlett-Packard  
      Company (electronic computer manufacturing), and  
      Delphi Automotive LLP (automotive components); as  
      Senior Advisor at New Mountain Capital; and as a  
      trustee of The Conference Board.  

 

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      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held with Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Amy Gutmann Trustee June 2006 Dr. Gutmann has served as the President of the 180
(1949)     University of Pennsylvania since 2004. She is the  
      Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of  
      Political Science in the School of Arts and Sciences  
      with secondary appointments at the Annenberg  
      School for Communication and the Graduate School  
      of Education at the University of Pennsylvania.  
      Dr. Gutmann also serves on the National Commission  
      on the Humanities and Social Sciences, and as a  
      trustee of Carnegie Corporation of New York and of the  
      National Constitution Center. Dr. Gutmann is Chair of  
      the Presidential Commission for the Study of  
      Bioethical Issues.  
 
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen Trustee July 1998 Ms. Heisen is the former Corporate Vice President 180
(1950)     and Chief Global Diversity Officer (retired 2008)  
      and a former Member of the Executive Committee  
      (1997–2008) of Johnson & Johnson (pharmaceuticals/  
      medical devices/consumer products). Ms. Heisen  
      served as Vice President and Chief Information Officer  
      of Johnson & Johnson from 1997 to 2005. Ms. Heisen  
      serves as a director of Skytop Lodge Corporation  
      (hotels), the University Medical Center at Princeton,  
      the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Center  
      for Talent Innovation; and as a member of the advisory  
      board of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public  
      Affairs at Syracuse University.  
 
F. Joseph Loughrey Trustee October 2009 Mr. Loughrey is the former President and Chief 180
(1949)     Operating Officer (retired 2009) and Vice Chairman of  
      the Board (2008–2009) of Cummins Inc. (industrial  
      machinery). Mr. Loughrey serves as a director of  
      SKF AB (industrial machinery), Hillenbrand, Inc.  
      (specialized consumer services), the Lumina  
      Foundation for Education, and Oxfam America; and as  
      Chairman of the Advisory Council for the College of  
      Arts and Letters and Member of the Advisory Board to  
      the Kellogg Institute for International Studies at the  
      University of Notre Dame. Mr. Loughrey served as a  
      director of Sauer-Danfoss Inc. (machinery) from 2000  
      to 2010, of Cummins Inc. from 2005 to 2009, and of  
      Tower Automotive Inc. (manufacturer of automobile  
      components) from 1994 to 2007.  
 
Mark Loughridge Trustee March 2012 Mr. Loughridge has served as Senior Vice President 180
(1953)     and Chief Financial Officer at IBM (information  
      technology services) since 2004. Mr. Loughridge also  
      serves as a fiduciary member of IBM’s Retirement Plan  
      Committee. Previous positions held by Mr. Loughridge  
      since joining IBM in 1977 include Senior Vice President  
      and General Manager of Global Financing (2002–2004),  
      Vice President and Controller (1998–2002), and a  
      variety of management roles.  

 

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      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held with Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Scott C. Malpass Trustee March 2012 Mr. Malpass has served as Chief Investment Officer 180
(1962)     since 1989 and Vice President since 1996 at the  
      University of Notre Dame. Mr. Malpass serves as an  
      Assistant Professor of Finance at the Mendoza College  
      of Business at the University of Notre Dame and is a  
      member of the Notre Dame 403(b) Investment  
      Committee. Mr. Malpass also serves on the board of  
      TIFF Advisory Services, Inc. (investment advisor), and  
      as a member of the investment advisory committees  
      of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)  
      and of Major League Baseball.  
 
André F. Perold Trustee December 2004 Dr. Perold is the former George Gund Professor of 180
(1952)     Finance and Banking at the Harvard Business School  
      (retired 2011). Dr. Perold serves as Chief Investment  
      Officer and Managing Partner of HighVista Strategies  
      LLC (private investment firm). Dr. Perold also serves as  
      a director of Rand Merchant Bank and as an overseer  
      of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston. From 2003 to  
      2009, Dr. Perold served as chairman of the board of  
      UNX, Inc. (equities trading firm).  
 
Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Lead January 1993 Mr. Rankin serves as Chairman, President, and Chief 180
(1941) Independent   Executive Officer of NACCO Industries, Inc. (forklift  
  Trustee   trucks/housewares/lignite). Mr. Rankin also serves as a  
      director of Goodrich Corporation (industrial products/  
      aircraft systems and services) and the National  
      Association of Manufacturers; Chairman of the Board of  
      the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and of University  
      Hospitals of Cleveland; and Advisory Chairman of the  
      Board of The Cleveland Museum of Art.  
 
Peter F. Volanakis Trustee July 2009 Mr. Volanakis is the retired President and Chief 180
(1955)     Operating Officer (retired 2010) of Corning  
      Incorporated (communications equipment).  
      Mr. Volanakis served as a director of Corning  
      Incorporated (2000–2010) and of Dow Corning (2001–  
      2010). Mr. Volanakis serves as a director of SPX  
      Corporation (multi-industry manufacturing), as an  
      Overseer of the Amos Tuck School of Business  
      Administration at Dartmouth College, and as an  
      Advisor to the Norris Cotton Cancer Center.  
 
Executive Officers        
Glenn Booraem Controller July 2010 Mr. Booraem, a Principal of Vanguard, has served as 180
(1967)     Controller of each of the investment companies served  
      by Vanguard, since 2010. Mr. Booraem served as  
      Assistant Controller of each of the investment  
      companies served by Vanguard, from 2001 to 2010.  
 
Thomas J. Higgins Chief Financial September 2008 Mr. Higgins, a Principal of Vanguard, has served as Chief 180
(1957) Officer   Financial Officer of each of the investment companies  
      served by Vanguard, since 2008. Mr. Higgins served as  
      Treasurer of each of the investment companies served  
      by Vanguard, from 1998 to 2008.  

 

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      Principal Occupation(s) Number of
    Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
  Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth Held with Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Kathryn J. Hyatt Treasurer November 2008 Ms. Hyatt, a Principal of Vanguard, has served as 180
(1955)     Treasurer of each of the investment companies served  
      by Vanguard, since 2008. Ms. Hyatt served as  
      Assistant Treasurer of each of the investment  
      companies served by Vanguard, from 1988 to 2008.  
 
Heidi Stam Secretary July 2005 Ms. Stam has served as a Managing Director of 180
(1956)     Vanguard since 2006; General Counsel of Vanguard  
      since 2005; Secretary of Vanguard and of each of the  
      investment companies served by Vanguard, since  
      2005; and Director and Senior Vice President of  
      Vanguard Marketing Corporation since 2005. Ms. Stam  
      served as a Principal of Vanguard from 1997 to 2006.  

 

All but one of the trustees are independent. The independent trustees designate a lead independent trustee. The lead independent trustee is a spokesperson and principal point of contact for the independent trustees and is responsible for coordinating the activities of the independent trustees, including calling regular executive sessions of the independent trustees; developing the agenda of each meeting together with the chairman; and chairing the meetings of the independent trustees, including the meetings of the audit, compensation, and nominating committees.

The independent trustees appoint the chairman of the board. The roles of chairman of the board and chief executive officer currently are held by the same person; as a result, the chairman of the board is an “interested” trustee. The independent trustees generally believe that the Vanguard funds’ chief executive officer is best qualified to serve as chairman and that fund shareholders benefit from this leadership structure through accountability and strong day-to-day leadership.

Board Committees: the Trust‘s board has the following committees:

  • Audit Committee: This committee oversees the accounting and financial reporting policies, the systems of internal controls, and the independent audits of each fund. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee. The committee held three meetings during the Funds‘ last fiscal year.

  • Compensation Committee: This committee oversees the compensation programs established by each fund for the benefit of its trustees. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee. The committee held three meetings during the Funds‘ last fiscal year.

  • Nominating Committee: This committee nominates candidates for election to the board of trustees of each fund. The committee also has the authority to recommend the removal of any trustee. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee. The committee held five meetings during the Funds‘ last fiscal year.

The Nominating Committee will consider shareholder recommendations for trustee nominees. Shareholders may send recommendations to Mr. Rankin, Chairman of the Committee.

Trustee Compensation

The same individuals serve as trustees of all Vanguard funds and each fund pays a proportionate share of the trustees’ compensation. The funds also employ their officers on a shared basis; however, officers are compensated by Vanguard, not the funds.

Independent Trustees. The funds compensate their independent trustees (i.e., the ones who are not also officers of the funds) in three ways:

  • The independent trustees receive an annual fee for their service to the funds, which is subject to reduction based on absences from scheduled board meetings.

  • The independent trustees are reimbursed for the travel and other expenses that they incur in attending board meetings.

  • Upon retirement (after attaining age 65 and completing five years of service), the independent trustees who began their service prior to January 1, 2001, receive a retirement benefit under a separate account arrangement. As of January 1, 2001, the opening balance of each eligible trustee’s separate account was generally equal to the net

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present value of the benefits he or she had accrued under the trustees’ former retirement plan. Each eligible trustee’s separate account will be credited annually with interest at a rate of 7.5% until the trustee receives his or her final distribution. Those independent trustees who began their service on or after January 1, 2001, are not eligible to participate in the plan.

“Interested” Trustee. Mr. McNabb serves as trustee, but is not paid in this capacity. He is, however, paid in his role as an officer of Vanguard.

Compensation Table. The following table provides compensation details for each of the trustees. We list the amounts paid as compensation and accrued retirement benefits by the Funds for each trustee. In addition, the table shows the total amount of benefits that we expect each trustee to receive from all Vanguard funds upon retirement, and the total amount of compensation paid to each trustee by all Vanguard funds.The Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund did not commence operations until October 20, 2012. The TIPS Transition Fund did not commence operations until April 30, 2013.

VANGUARD MALVERN FUNDS
TRUSTEES’ COMPENSATION TABLE
 
    Pension or Retirement Accrued Annual Total Compensation
  Aggregate Benefits Accrued Retirement from All Vanguard
  Compensation as Part of the Benefit at Funds Paid
Trustee from the Funds1 Funds’ Expenses1 January 1, 20132 to Trustees3
F. William McNabb III
Emerson U. Fullwood $714 $215,000
Rajiv L. Gupta 714 215,000
Amy Gutmann 714 208,900
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen 714 $13 $ 5,623 215,000
F. Joseph Loughrey 698 215,000
Mark Loughridge4 347 174,133
Scott C. Malpass4 347 180,233
André F. Perold 714 215,000
Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. 815 25 11,020 245,000
Peter F. Volanakis 714 215,000
1 The amounts shown in this column are based on the Trust‘s fiscal year ended September 30, 2012. Each Fund within the Trust is
responsible for a proportionate share of these amounts.      
2 Each trustee is eligible to receive retirement benefits only after completing at least 5 years (60 consecutive months) of service as a trustee
for the Vanguard funds. The annual retirement benefit will be paid in monthly installments, beginning with the month following the trustee’s
retirement from service, and will cease after 10 years of payments (120 monthly installments). Trustees who began their service on or after
January 1, 2001, are not eligible to participate in the retirement benefit plan.    
3 The amounts reported in this column reflect the total compensation paid to each trustee for his or her service as trustee of 180 Vanguard
funds for the 2012 calendar year.        
4 Mr. Loughridge and Mr. Malpass became trustees effective March 22, 2012.    

 

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Ownership of Fund Shares

All trustees allocate their investments among the various Vanguard funds based on their own investment needs. The following table shows each trustee’s ownership of shares of each Fund and of all Vanguard funds served by the trustee as of December 31, 2012. The TIPS Transition Fund did not commence operations until April 30, 2013.

    Dollar Range Aggregate Dollar Range of
    of Fund Shares Vanguard Fund Shares
Vanguard Fund Trustee Owned by Trustee Owned by Trustee
Capital Value Fund Emerson U. Fullwood Over $100,000
  Rajiv L. Gupta Over $100,000
  Amy Gutmann Over $100,000
  JoAnn Heffernan Heisen Over $100,000
  F. Joseph Loughrey Over $100,000
  Mark Loughridge Over $100,000
  Scott C. Malpass Over $100,000
  F. William McNabb III Over $100,000
  André F. Perold Over $100,000
  Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Over $100,000
  Peter F. Volanakis $10,001-$50,000 Over $100,000
 
U.S. Value Fund Emerson U. Fullwood Over $100,000
  Rajiv L. Gupta Over $100,000
  Amy Gutmann Over $100,000
  JoAnn Heffernan Heisen Over $100,000
  F. Joseph Loughrey Over $100,000
  Mark Loughridge Over $100,000
  Scott C. Malpass Over $100,000
  F. William McNabb III Over $100,000
  André F. Perold Over $100,000
  Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Over $100,000
  Peter F. Volanakis Over $100,000
 
Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities      
Index Fund Emerson U. Fullwood Over $100,000
  Rajiv L. Gupta Over $100,000
  Amy Gutmann Over $100,000
  JoAnn Heffernan Heisen Over $100,000
  F. Joseph Loughrey Over $100,000
  Mark Loughridge Over $100,000
  Scott C. Malpass Over $100,000
  F. William McNabb III Over $100,000
  André F. Perold Over $100,000
  Alfred M. Rankin, Jr. Over $100,000
  Peter F. Volanakis Over $100,000

 

As of March 31, 2013, the trustees and officers of the funds owned, in the aggregate, less than 1% of each class of each fund’s outstanding shares.

As of March 31, 2013, the following owned of record 5% or more of the outstanding shares of each class:

XX.

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures

Introduction

Vanguard and the Boards of Trustees of the Vanguard funds (Boards) have adopted Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures (Policies and Procedures) to govern the disclosure of the portfolio holdings of each Vanguard fund.

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Vanguard and the Boards considered each of the circumstances under which Vanguard fund portfolio holdings may be disclosed to different categories of persons under the Policies and Procedures. Vanguard and the Boards also considered actual and potential material conflicts that could arise in such circumstances between the interests of Vanguard fund shareholders, on the one hand, and those of the fund’s investment advisor, distributor, or any affiliated person of the fund, its investment advisor, or its distributor, on the other. After giving due consideration to such matters and after the exercise of their fiduciary duties and reasonable business judgment, Vanguard and the Boards determined that the Vanguard funds have a legitimate business purpose for disclosing portfolio holdings to the persons described in each of the circumstances set forth in the Policies and Procedures and that the Policies and Procedures are reasonably designed to ensure that disclosure of portfolio holdings and information about portfolio holdings is in the best interests of fund shareholders and appropriately addresses the potential for material conflicts of interest.

The Boards exercise continuing oversight of the disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings by (1) overseeing the implementation and enforcement of the Policies and Procedures, the Code of Ethics, and the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information (collectively, the portfolio holdings governing policies) by the Chief Compliance Officer of Vanguard and the Vanguard funds; (2) considering reports and recommendations by the Chief Compliance Officer concerning any material compliance matters (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 206(4)-7 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940) that may arise in connection with any portfolio holdings governing policies; and (3) considering whether to approve or ratify any amendment to any portfolio holdings governing policies. Vanguard and the Boards reserve the right to amend the Policies and Procedures at any time and from time to time without prior notice at their sole discretion. For purposes of the Policies and Procedures, the term “portfolio holdings” means the equity and debt securities (e.g., stocks and bonds) held by a Vanguard fund and does not mean the cash investments, derivatives, and other investment positions (collectively, other investment positions) held by the fund.

Online Disclosure of Ten Largest Stock Holdings

Each of the Vanguard equity funds and Vanguard balanced funds generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the percentages that each of these ten largest stock portfolio holdings represents of the fund’s total assets as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter (quarter-end ten largest stock holdings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. In addition, those funds generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent month (month-end ten largest stock holdings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 10 business days after the end of the month. Together, the quarter-end and month-end ten largest stock holdings are referred to as the ten largest stock holdings. Online disclosure of the ten largest stock holdings is made to all categories of persons, including individual investors, institutional investors, intermediaries, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, affiliated persons of a Vanguard fund, and all other persons.

Online Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings

Each of the Vanguard funds, excluding Vanguard money market funds and Vanguard Market Neutral Fund, generally will seek to disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 30 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. In accordance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, each of the Vanguard money market funds will disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the last business day of the prior month online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, no later than the fifth business day of the current month. The complete portfolio holdings information for money market funds will remain available online for at least six months after the initial posting. Vanguard Market Neutral Fund generally will seek to disclose the Fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the Fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 60 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. Online disclosure of complete portfolio holdings is made to all categories of persons, including individual investors, institutional investors, intermediaries, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, affiliated persons of a Vanguard fund, and all other persons. Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department will review complete portfolio holdings before online disclosure is made and, except with respect to the complete portfolio holdings of the Vanguard money market funds, may withhold any portion of the fund’s complete portfolio holdings from online disclosure when deemed to be in the best interests of the fund after consultation with a Vanguard fund’s investment advisor.

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Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings to Service Providers Subject to Confidentiality and Trading Restrictions

Vanguard, for legitimate business purposes, may disclose Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings at times it deems necessary and appropriate to rating and ranking organizations; financial printers; proxy voting service providers; pricing information vendors; third parties that deliver analytical, statistical, or consulting services; and other third parties that provide services (collectively, Service Providers) to Vanguard, Vanguard subsidiaries, and/or the Vanguard funds. Disclosure of complete portfolio holdings to a Service Provider is conditioned on the Service Provider being subject to a written agreement imposing a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information.

The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed to a Service Provider, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the Service Provider, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to a Service Provider varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings by Vanguard to a Service Provider must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Portfolio Review or Legal Department. Any disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to a Service Provider as previously described may also include a list of the other investment positions that make up the fund, such as cash investments and derivatives.

Currently, Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings are disclosed to the following Service Providers as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Abel/Noser Corporation; Advisor Software, Inc.; Alcom Printing Group Inc.; Apple Press, L.C.; Bloomberg L.P.; Brilliant Graphics, Inc.; Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc.; Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.; FactSet Research Systems Inc.; Innovation Printing & Communications; Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc.; Intelligencer Printing Company; Investment Technology Group, Inc.; Lipper, Inc.; Markit WSO Corporation; McMunn Associates Inc.; Oce’ Business Services, Inc.; Reuters America Inc.; R.R. Donnelley, Inc.; State Street Bank and Trust Company; Triune Color Corporation; and Tursack Printing Inc.

Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings to Vanguard Affiliates and Certain Fiduciaries Subject to Confidentiality and Trading Restrictions

Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed between and among the following persons (collectively, Affiliates and Fiduciaries) for legitimate business purposes within the scope of their official duties and responsibilities, subject to such persons’ continuing legal duty of confidentiality and legal duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information, as such duties are imposed under the Code of Ethics, the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information, by agreement, or under applicable laws, rules, and regulations: (1) persons who are subject to the Code of Ethics or the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information; (2) an investment advisor, distributor, administrator, transfer agent, or custodian to a Vanguard fund; (3) an accounting firm, an auditing firm, or outside legal counsel retained by Vanguard, a Vanguard subsidiary, or a Vanguard fund; (4) an investment advisor to whom complete portfolio holdings are disclosed for due diligence purposes when the advisor is in merger or acquisition talks with a Vanguard fund’s current advisor; and (5) a newly hired investment advisor or sub-advisor to whom complete portfolio holdings are disclosed prior to the time it commences its duties.

The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed between and among Affiliates and Fiduciaries, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed between and among the Affiliates and Fiduciaries, is determined by such Affiliates and Fiduciaries based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure between and among Affiliates and Fiduciaries varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Any disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to any Affiliates and Fiduciaries as previously described may also include a list of the other investment positions that make up the fund, such as cash investments and derivatives. Disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund to Affiliates and Fiduciaries must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Currently, Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings are disclosed to the following Affiliates and Fiduciaries as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Vanguard and each investment advisor, custodian, and independent registered public accounting firm identified in each fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

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Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings to Broker-Dealers in the Normal Course of Managing a Fund’s Assets

An investment advisor, administrator, or custodian for a Vanguard fund may, for legitimate business purposes within the scope of its official duties and responsibilities, disclose portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions that make up the fund to one or more broker-dealers during the course of, or in connection with, normal day-to-day securities and derivatives transactions with or through such broker-dealers subject to the broker-dealer’s legal obligation not to use or disclose material nonpublic information concerning the fund’s portfolio holdings, other investment positions, securities transactions, or derivatives transactions without the consent of the fund or its agents. The Vanguard funds have not given their consent to any such use or disclosure and no person or agent of Vanguard is authorized to give such consent except as approved in writing by the Boards of the Vanguard funds. Disclosure of portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard to broker-dealers must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Disclosure of Nonmaterial Information

The Policies and Procedures permit Vanguard fund officers, Vanguard fund portfolio managers, and other Vanguard representatives (collectively, Approved Vanguard Representatives) to disclose any views, opinions, judgments, advice, or commentary, or any analytical, statistical, performance, or other information, in connection with or relating to a Vanguard fund or its portfolio holdings and/or other investment positions (collectively, commentary and analysis) or any changes in the portfolio holdings of a Vanguard fund that occurred after the end of the most recent calendar quarter (recent portfolio changes) to any person if (1) such disclosure serves a legitimate business purpose, (2) such disclosure does not effectively result in the disclosure of the complete portfolio holdings of any Vanguard fund (which can be disclosed only in accordance with the Policies and Procedures), and (3) such information does not constitute material nonpublic information. Disclosure of commentary and analysis or recent portfolio changes by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

An Approved Vanguard Representative must make a good faith determination whether the information constitutes material nonpublic information, which involves an assessment of the particular facts and circumstances. Vanguard believes that in most cases recent portfolio changes that involve a few or even several securities in a diversified portfolio or commentary and analysis would be immaterial and would not convey any advantage to a recipient in making an investment decision concerning a Vanguard fund. Nonexclusive examples of commentary and analysis about a Vanguard fund include (1) the allocation of the fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions among various asset classes, sectors, industries, and countries; (2) the characteristics of the stock and bond components of the fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions; (3) the attribution of fund returns by asset class, sector, industry, and country; and (4) the volatility characteristics of the fund. Approved Vanguard Representatives may, at their sole discretion, deny any request for information made by any person, and may do so for any reason or for no reason. Approved Vanguard Representatives include, for purposes of the Policies and Procedures, persons employed by or associated with Vanguard or a subsidiary of Vanguard who have been authorized by Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department to disclose recent portfolio changes and/or commentary and analysis in accordance with the Policies and Procedures.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings in Accordance with SEC Exemptive Orders

Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may disclose to the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), Authorized Participants, and other market makers the daily portfolio composition files (PCFs) that identify a basket of specified securities that may overlap with the actual or expected portfolio holdings of the Vanguard funds that offer a class of shares known as Vanguard ETF Shares (ETF Funds), in accordance with the terms and conditions of related exemptive orders (Vanguard ETF Exemptive Orders) issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission, as described in this section.

Unlike the conventional classes of shares issued by ETF Funds, the ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Each ETF Fund issues and redeems ETF Shares in large blocks, known as “Creation Units.” To purchase or redeem a Creation Unit, an investor must be an “Authorized Participant” or the investor must purchase or redeem through a broker-dealer that is an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant is a participant in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) that has executed a “Participant Agreement” with Vanguard Marketing Corporation. Each ETF Fund issues Creation Units in exchange for a “portfolio deposit” consisting of a basket of specified securities (Deposit Securities) and a cash payment (Balancing Amount). Each ETF Fund also redeems Creation Units in kind; an

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investor who tenders a Creation Unit will receive, as redemption proceeds, a basket of specified securities together with a Balancing Amount.

In connection with the creation and redemption process, and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Vanguard ETF Exemptive Orders, Vanguard makes available to the NSCC (a clearing agency registered with the SEC and affiliated with the DTC), for dissemination to NSCC participants on each business day prior to the opening of trading on the listing exchange, a PCF containing a list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security for each ETF Fund. In addition, the listing exchange disseminates (1) continuously throughout the trading day, through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, the market value of an ETF Share; and (2) every 15 seconds throughout the trading day, a calculation of the estimated NAV of an ETF Share (expected to be accurate to within a few basis points). Comparing these two figures allows an investor to determine whether, and to what extent, ETF Shares are selling at a premium or at a discount to NAV. ETF Shares are listed on the exchange and traded on the secondary market in the same manner as other equity securities. The price of ETF Shares trading on the secondary market is based on a current bid/offer market.

In addition to making PCFs available to the NSCC, as previously described, Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may disclose the PCF for any ETF Fund to any person, or online at vanguard.com to all categories of persons, if (1) such disclosure serves a legitimate business purpose and (2) such disclosure does not constitute material nonpublic information. Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit must make a good faith determination whether the PCF for any ETF Fund constitutes material nonpublic information, which involves an assessment of the particular facts and circumstances. Vanguard believes that in most cases the PCF for any ETF Fund would be immaterial and would not convey any advantage to the recipient in making an investment decision concerning the ETF Fund, if sufficient time has passed between the date of the PCF and the date on which the PCF is disclosed. Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may, at its sole discretion, determine whether to deny any request for the PCF for any ETF Fund made by any person, and may do so for any reason or for no reason. Disclosure of a PCF must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings Related Information to the Issuer of a Security for Legitimate Business Purposes

Vanguard, at its sole discretion, may disclose portfolio holdings information concerning a security held by one or more Vanguard funds to the issuer of such security if the issuer presents, to the satisfaction of Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit, convincing evidence that the issuer has a legitimate business purpose for such information. Disclosure of this information to an issuer is conditioned on the issuer being subject to a written agreement imposing a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information. The frequency with which portfolio holdings information concerning a security may be disclosed to the issuer of such security, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the issuer, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to an issuer cannot be determined in advance of a specific request and will vary based upon the particular facts and circumstances and the legitimate business purposes, but in unusual situations could be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Disclosure of portfolio holdings information concerning a security held by one or more Vanguard funds to the issuer of such security must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Portfolio Review or Legal Department.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings as Required by Applicable Law

Vanguard fund portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions that make up a fund shall be disclosed to any person as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations. Examples of such required disclosure include, but are not limited to, disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings (1) in a filing or submission with the SEC or another regulatory body, (2) in connection with seeking recovery on defaulted bonds in a federal bankruptcy case, (3) in connection with a lawsuit, or (4) as required by court order. Disclosure of portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

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Prohibitions on Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

No person is authorized to disclose Vanguard fund portfolio holdings or other investment positions (whether online at vanguard.com, in writing, by fax, by e-mail, orally, or by other means) except in accordance with the Policies and Procedures. In addition, no person is authorized to make disclosure pursuant to the Policies and Procedures if such disclosure is otherwise unlawful under the antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act). Furthermore, Vanguard’s management, at its sole discretion, may determine not to disclose portfolio holdings or other investment positions that make up a Vanguard fund to any person who would otherwise be eligible to receive such information under the Policies and Procedures, or may determine to make such disclosures publicly as provided by the Policies and Procedures.

Prohibitions on Receipt of Compensation or Other Consideration

The Policies and Procedures prohibit a Vanguard fund, its investment advisor, and any other person or entity from paying or receiving any compensation or other consideration of any type for the purpose of obtaining disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings or other investment positions. “Consideration” includes any agreement to maintain assets in the fund or in other investment companies or accounts managed by the investment advisor or by any affiliated person of the investment advisor.

INVESTMENT ADVISORY SERVICES

The Trust currently uses two investment advisors:

  • Wellington Management Company, LLP, provides investment advisory services to Vanguard Capital Value Fund.

  • Vanguard provides investment advisory services to Vanguard U.S. Value Fund, Vanguard Short-Term Inflation- Protected Securities Index Fund, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund.

The Trust previously employed one other investment advisor:

  • AXA Rosenberg Investment Management LLC provided investment advisory services for a portion of Vanguard U.S. Value Fund from 2007 to August 2010.

For funds that are advised by independent third-party advisory firms unaffiliated with Vanguard, the board of trustees of each fund hires investment advisory firms, not individual portfolio managers, to provide investment advisory services to such funds. Vanguard negotiates each advisory agreement, which contains advisory fee arrangements, on an arm’s length basis with the advisory firm. Each advisory agreement is reviewed annually by each fund’s board of trustees, taking into account numerous factors, which include, without limitation, the nature, extent, and quality of the services provided; investment performance; and the fair market value of the services provided. Each advisory agreement is between the Trust and the advisory firm, not between the Trust and the portfolio manager. The structure of the advisory fee paid to the unaffiliated investment advisory firm is described in the following sections. In addition, the firm has established policies and procedures designed to address the potential for conflicts of interest. The firm’s compensation structure and management of potential conflicts of interest are summarized by the advisory firm in the following sections for the period ended September 30, 2012.

A fund is a party to an investment advisory agreement with each of its independent third-party advisors whereby the advisor manages the investment and reinvestment of the portion of the fund’s assets that the fund’s board of trustees determines to assign to the advisor. In this capacity, each advisor continuously reviews, supervises, and administers the investment program for its portion of the fund’s assets. Each advisor discharges its responsibilities subject to the supervision and oversight of Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Group and the officers and trustees of the fund. Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Group is responsible for recommending changes in a fund’s advisory arrangements to the fund’s board of trustees, including changes in the amount of assets allocated to each advisor, and whether to hire, terminate, or replace an advisor.

I. Vanguard U.S. Value Fund, Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund

Vanguard, through its Equity Investment Group, provides investment advisory services on an at-cost basis to Vanguard U.S.

Value Fund. Vanguard, through its Fixed Income Group, provides investment advisory services on an at-cost basis to

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Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund. The compensation and other expenses of Vanguard’s advisory staff are allocated among the funds utilizing these services.

During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2010, Vanguard U.S. Value Fund incurred aggregate investment advisory fees and expenses of approximately $841,000 (before a performance-based increase of $194,000). The performance-based adjustment for the fiscal year shown applied only to the former advisor.

During the fiscal years ended September 30, 2011, and September 30, 2012, Vanguard U.S. Value Fund incurred investment advisory expenses of approximately $476,000 and $404,000, respectively.

1. Other Accounts Managed

James P. Stetler, James D. Troyer, and Michael R. Roach co-manage Vanguard U.S. Value Fund; as of September 30, 2012, the Fund held assets of $602 million. As of September 30, 2012, Mr. Stetler, Mr. Troyer, and Mr. Roach also co-managed all or a portion of 13 other registered investment companies with total assets of $88 billion and five other pooled investment vehicles with total assets of $79 million (none of which had advisory fees based on account performance).

Joshua C. Barrickman co-manages Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, which commenced operations on October 10, 2012, and co-manages Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, which commenced operations on April 30, 2013. As of September 30, 2012, Mr. Barrickman also managed five other registered investment companies with total assets of $87 billion (none of which had advisory fees based on account performance).

Gemma Wright-Casparius co-manages Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, which commenced operations on October 10, 2012, and co-manages Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, which commenced operations on April 30, 2013. As of September 30, 2012, Ms. Wright-Casparius also managed one other registered investment company with total assets of $44 billion (advisory fee not based on account performance).

2. Material Conflicts of Interest

At Vanguard, individual portfolio managers may manage multiple accounts for multiple clients. In addition to mutual funds, these accounts may include separate accounts, collective trusts, and offshore funds. Managing multiple funds or accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest including, for example, conflicts among investment strategies and conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities. Vanguard manages potential conflicts between funds or accounts through allocation policies and procedures, internal review processes, and oversight by trustees and independent third parties. Vanguard has developed trade allocation procedures and controls to ensure that no one client, regardless of type, is intentionally favored at the expense of another. Allocation policies are designed to address potential conflicts in situations where two or more funds or accounts participate in investment decisions involving the same securities.

3. Description of Compensation

All Vanguard portfolio managers are Vanguard employees. This section describes the compensation of the Vanguard employees who manage Vanguard mutual funds. As of September 30, 2012, a Vanguard portfolio manager’s compensation generally consists of base salary, bonus, and payments under Vanguard’s long-term incentive compensation program. In addition, portfolio managers are eligible for the standard retirement benefits and health and welfare benefits available to all Vanguard employees. Also, certain portfolio managers may be eligible for additional retirement benefits under several supplemental retirement plans that Vanguard adopted in the 1980s to restore dollar-for-dollar the benefits of management employees that had been cut back solely as a result of tax law changes. These plans are structured to provide the same retirement benefits as the standard retirement plans.

In the case of portfolio managers responsible for managing multiple Vanguard funds or accounts, the method used to determine their compensation is the same for all funds and investment accounts. A portfolio manager’s base salary is determined by the manager’s experience and performance in the role, taking into account the ongoing compensation benchmark analyses performed by Vanguard’s Human Resources Department. A portfolio manager’s base salary is generally a fixed amount that may change as a result of an annual review, upon assumption of new duties, or when a market adjustment of the position’s compensation occurs.

A portfolio manager’s bonus is determined by a number of factors. One factor is gross, pre-tax performance of a fund relative to expectations for how the fund should have performed, given the fund’s investment objective, policies,

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strategies, and limitations, and the market environment during the measurement period. This performance factor is not based on the value of assets held in the fund’s portfolio. For the U.S. Value Fund the performance factor depends on how closely the portfolio manager tracks these expectations and maintains the risk parameters of the Fund over a three-year period. For the Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, the performance factor depends on how closely the portfolio manager tracks the Fund’s benchmark index over a one-year period. Additional factors include the portfolio manager’s contributions to the investment management functions within the sub-asset class, contributions to the development of other investment professionals and supporting staff, and overall contributions to strategic planning and decisions for the investment group. The target bonus is expressed as a percentage of base salary. The actual bonus paid may be more or less than the target bonus, based on how well the manager satisfies the objectives previously described. The bonus is paid on an annual basis.

Under the long-term incentive compensation program, all full-time employees receive a payment from Vanguard’s long-term incentive compensation plan based on their years of service, job level, and, if applicable, management responsibilities. Each year, Vanguard’s independent directors determine the amount of the long-term incentive compensation award for that year based on the investment performance of the Vanguard funds relative to competitors and Vanguard’s operating efficiencies in providing services to the Vanguard funds.

4. Ownership of Securities

Vanguard employees, including portfolio managers, allocate their investments among the various Vanguard funds based on their own individual investment needs and goals. Vanguard employees, as a group, invest a sizeable portion of their personal assets in Vanguard funds. As of September 30, 2012, Vanguard employees collectively invested more than $3.3 billion in Vanguard funds. F. William McNabb III, Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, and President of Vanguard and the Vanguard funds invests substantially all of his personal financial assets in Vanguard funds.

As of September 30, 2012, the named portfolio managers did not own any shares of Vanguard U.S. Value Fund. Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund did not commence operations until October 10, 2012, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund did not commence operations until April 30, 2013.

II. Vanguard Capital Value Fund

Wellington Management Company, LLP (Wellington Management), is a Massachusetts limited liability partnership with principal offices at 280 Congress Street, Boston, MA 02210. As of July 1, 2012, the firm is owned by 125 partners, all fully active in the firm. Wellington Management is a professional investment counseling firm that provides investment services to investment companies, employee benefit plans, endowments, foundations, and other institutions. Wellington Management and its predecessor organizations have provided investment advisory services for over 70 years.

The Fund pays the advisor a base fee plus or minus a performance adjustment. The base fee, which is paid quarterly, is a percentage of average daily net assets under management during the most recent fiscal quarter. The base fee has breakpoints, which means that the percentage declines as assets go up. The performance adjustment, also paid quarterly, is based on the cumulative total return of the Fund relative to that of the Dow Jones U.S. Total Stock Market Float Adjusted Index over the preceding 36-month period.

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2010, 2011, and 2012, the Fund incurred investment advisory fees of approximately $1,745,000 (before a performance-based decrease of $171,000), $1,950,000 (before a performance-based increase of $976,000), and $1,527,000 (before a performance-based increase of $38,000), respectively.

1. Other Accounts Managed

Peter I. Higgins co-manages Vanguard Capital Value Fund; as of September 30, 2012, the Fund held assets of $659 million. As of September 30, 2012, Mr. Higgins also managed five other registered investment companies with total assets of $675 million (advisory fees not based on account performance), ten other pooled investment vehicles with total assets of $352 million (advisory fees based on account performance for two of these accounts with total assets of $119 million), and two other accounts with total assets of $192 million (advisory fees not based on account performance).

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David W. Palmer co-manages Vanguard Capital Value Fund; as of September 30, 2012, the Fund held assets of $659 million. As of September 30, 2012, Mr. Palmer also managed four other registered investment companies with total assets of $1.5 billion and one other pooled investment vehicle with total assets of $47 million (none of which had advisory fees based on account performance).

2. Material Conflicts of Interest

Individual investment professionals at Wellington Management manage multiple accounts for multiple clients. These accounts may include mutual funds, separate accounts (assets managed on behalf of institutions, such as pension funds, insurance companies, foundations, or separately managed account programs sponsored by financial intermediaries), bank common trust accounts, and hedge funds. The Fund’s managers listed in the prospectus, who are primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund (Portfolio Managers), generally manage accounts in several different investment styles. These accounts may have investment objectives, strategies, time horizons, tax considerations and risk profiles that differ from those of the Fund. The Portfolio Managers make investment decisions for each account, including the Fund, based on the investment objectives, policies, practices, benchmarks, cash flows, tax, and other relevant investment considerations applicable to that account. Consequently, the Portfolio Managers may purchase or sell securities, including IPOs, for one account and not another account, and the performance of securities purchased for one account may vary from the performance of securities purchased for other accounts. Alternatively, these accounts may be managed in a similar fashion to the Fund and thus the accounts may have similar, and in some cases nearly identical, objectives, strategies and/or holdings to that of the Fund.

A Portfolio Manager or other investment professionals at Wellington Management may place transactions on behalf of other accounts that are directly or indirectly contrary to investment decisions made on behalf of the Fund, or make investment decisions that are similar to those made for the Fund, both of which have the potential to adversely impact the Fund depending on market conditions. For example, an investment professional may purchase a security in one account while appropriately selling that same security in another account. Similarly, a Portfolio Manager may purchase the same security for the Fund and one or more other accounts at or about the same time. In those instances, the other accounts will have access to their respective holdings prior to the public disclosure of the Fund’s holdings. In addition, some of these accounts have fee structures, including performance fees, which are or have the potential to be higher, in some cases significantly higher, than the fees Wellington Management receives for managing the Fund. Mr. Higgins also manages hedge funds, which pay performance allocations to Wellington Management or its affiliates. Because incentive payments paid by Wellington Management to the Portfolio Managers are tied to revenues earned by Wellington Management and, where noted, to the performance achieved by the manager in each account, the incentives associated with any given account may be significantly higher or lower than those associated with other accounts managed by a given Portfolio Manager. Finally, the Portfolio Managers may hold shares or investments in the pooled investment vehicles and/or other accounts previously identified.

Wellington Management’s goal is to meet its fiduciary obligation to treat all clients fairly and provide high quality investment services to all of its clients. Wellington Management has adopted and implemented policies and procedures, including brokerage and trade allocation policies and procedures, that it believes address the conflicts associated with managing multiple accounts for multiple clients. In addition, Wellington Management monitors a variety of areas, including compliance with primary account guidelines, the allocation of IPOs, and compliance with the firm’s Code of Ethics, and places additional investment restrictions on investment professionals who manage hedge funds and certain other accounts. Furthermore, senior investment and business personnel at Wellington Management periodically review the performance of Wellington Management’s investment professionals. Although Wellington Management does not track the time an investment professional spends on a single account, Wellington Management does periodically assess whether an investment professional has adequate time and resources to effectively manage the investment professional’s various client mandates.

3. Description of Compensation

Wellington Management receives a fee based on the assets under management in the Fund as set forth in the Investment Advisory Agreement between Wellington Management and the Trust on behalf of the Fund. Wellington Management pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues, including the advisory fee earned with respect to the Fund.

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Wellington Management’s compensation structure is designed to attract and retain high-caliber investment professionals necessary to deliver high quality investment management services to its clients. Wellington Management’s compensation of the named Portfolio Managers includes a base salary and incentive components. The base salary for each Portfolio Manager who is a partner of Wellington Management is generally a fixed amount that is determined by the Managing Partners of the firm. Each Portfolio Manager is eligible to receive an incentive payment based on the revenues earned by Wellington Management from the Fund and generally each other account managed by such Portfolio Manager. Each Portfolio Manager’s incentive payment relating to the Fund is linked to the net pre-tax performance of the portion of the Fund managed by the Portfolio Manager compared to the Dow Jones US Total Stock Market Index Full Cap over one- and three-year periods, with an emphasis on three year results. In 2012, Wellington Management began placing increased emphasis on long-term performance and is phasing in five-year performance comparison periods. Wellington Management applies similar incentive compensation structures (although the benchmarks or peer groups, time periods and rates may differ) to other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, including accounts with performance fees.

Portfolio-based incentives across all accounts managed by an investment professional can, and typically do, represent a significant portion of an investment professional’s overall compensation; incentive compensation varies significantly by individual and can vary significantly from year to year. The Portfolio Managers may also be eligible for bonus payments based on their overall contribution to Wellington Management’s business operations. Senior management at Wellington Management may reward individuals as it deems appropriate based on other factors. Each partner of Wellington Management is eligible to participate in a partner-funded tax qualified retirement plan, the contributions to which are made pursuant to an actuarial formula. Mr. Higgins and Mr. Palmer are partners of the firm.

4. Ownership of Securities

As of September 30, 2012, Mr. Higgins owned shares of Vanguard Capital Value Fund within the $50,001–$100,000 range and Mr. Palmer owned shares of Vanguard Capital Value Fund within the $100,001–$500,000 range.

Duration and Termination of Investment Advisory Agreements

The current investment advisory agreement with Wellington Management is renewable for successive one-year periods, only if (1) the renewal is specifically approved by a vote of the Fund’s board of trustees, including the affirmative votes of a majority of the trustees who are not parties to the contract or “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such party, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of considering such approval, or (2) the renewal is specifically approved by a vote of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. An agreement is automatically terminated if assigned, and may be terminated without penalty at any time either (1) by vote of the board of trustees of the Fund upon thirty (30) days’ written notice to the advisor, (2) by a vote of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities upon 30 days’ written notice to the advisor, or (3) by the advisor upon ninety (90) days’ written notice to the Fund.

Vanguard provides at-cost investment advisory services to Vanguard U.S. Value Fund and Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund pursuant to the terms of the Fifth Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement. This agreement will continue in full force and effect until terminated or amended by mutual agreement of the Vanguard funds and Vanguard.

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

The advisor decides which securities to buy and sell on behalf of a Fund and then selects the brokers or dealers that will execute the trades on an agency basis or the dealers with whom the trades will be effected on a principal basis. For each trade, the advisor must select a broker-dealer that it believes will provide “best execution.” Best execution does not necessarily mean paying the lowest spread or commission rate available. In seeking best execution, the SEC has said that an advisor should consider the full range of a broker-dealer’s services. The factors considered by the advisor in seeking best execution include, but are not limited to, the broker-dealer’s execution capability; clearance and settlement services; commission rate; trading expertise; willingness and ability to commit capital; ability to provide anonymity; financial responsibility; reputation and integrity; responsiveness; access to underwritten offerings and secondary markets; and access to company management, as well as the value of any research provided by the broker-dealer. In

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assessing which broker-dealer can provide best execution for a particular trade, the advisor also may consider the timing and size of the order and available liquidity and current market conditions. Subject to applicable legal requirements, the advisor may select a broker based partly on brokerage or research services provided to the advisor and its clients, including the Funds. The advisor may cause a Fund to pay a higher commission than other brokers would charge if the advisor determines in good faith that the amount of the commission is reasonable in relation to the value of services provided. The advisor also may receive brokerage or research services from broker-dealers that are provided at no charge in recognition of the volume of trades directed to the broker. To the extent research services or products may be a factor in selecting brokers, services and products may include written research reports analyzing performance or securities; discussions with research analysts; meetings with corporate executives to obtain oral reports on company performance; market data; and other products and services that will assist the advisor in its investment decision-making process. The research services provided by brokers through which a Fund effects securities transactions may be used by the advisor in servicing all of its accounts, and some of the services may not be used by the advisor in connection with the Fund.

The types of securities in which Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund invest are generally purchased and sold through principal transactions, meaning that the Fund normally purchases bonds directly from the issuer, or a primary market-maker acting as principal for the bonds, on a net basis. Explicit brokerage commissions are not paid on these transactions, although purchases of new issues from underwriters of bonds typically include a commission or concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter, and purchases from dealers serving as market-makers typically include a dealer’s mark-up (i.e., a spread between the bid and the asked prices). Brokerage commissions are paid, however, in connection with opening and closing futures positions.

As previously explained, the types of securities that Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund purchases do not normally involve the payment of explicit brokerage commissions. If any such brokerage commissions are paid, however, the advisor will evaluate their reasonableness by considering (1) historical commission rates; (2) rates that other institutional investors are paying, based upon publicly available information; (3) rates quoted by brokers and dealers; (4) the size of a particular transaction, in terms of the number of shares, dollar amount, and number of clients involved; (5) the complexity of a particular transaction in terms of both execution and settlement; (6) the level and type of business done with a particular firm over a period of time; and (7) the extent to which the broker or dealer has capital at risk in the transaction.

During the fiscal years ended September 30, 2010, 2011, and 2012, the Funds (other than Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, which commenced operations on October 10, 2012, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, which commenced operations on April 30, 2013) paid the following approximate amounts in brokerage commissions:

Vanguard Fund 2010 2011 2012
Capital Value Fund $1,946,000 $1,816,000 $1,256,000
U.S. Value Fund1 394,000 120,000 165,000
1 In August 2010, the Fund transitioned to an advisory structure that has a lower turnover approach, which resulted in a decrease in brokerage commissions for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2011.

 

Some securities that are considered for investment by a Fund may also be appropriate for other Vanguard funds or for other clients served by the advisors. If such securities are compatible with the investment policies of a Fund and one or more of an advisor’s other clients, and are considered for purchase or sale at or about the same time, then transactions in such securities may be aggregated by the advisor and the purchased securities or sale proceeds may be allocated among the participating Vanguard funds and the other participating clients of the advisor in a manner deemed equitable by the advisor. Although there may be no specified formula for allocating such transactions, the allocation methods used, and the results of such allocations, will be subject to periodic review by the Funds‘ board of trustees.

The ability of Vanguard and external advisors to purchase or dispose of investments in regulated industries, the derivatives markets, and certain international markets, or to exercise rights or undertake business transactions on behalf of a Fund, may be restricted or impaired due to limitations on the aggregate level of investment unless regulatory or corporate consents are obtained. As a result, Vanguard and external advisors on behalf of a Fund may be required to limit purchases, sell existing investments, or otherwise restrict or limit the exercise of shareholder rights by the Fund, including voting rights.

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As of September 30, 2012, the Capital Value Fund and U.S. Value Fund each held securities of its “regular brokers or dealers,” as that term is defined in Rule 10b-1 of the 1940 Act, as follows:

Vanguard Fund Regular Broker or Dealer (or Parent) Aggregate Holdings
Capital Value Fund Barclays Inc. $ 1,362,000
  Citigroup Global Markets Inc. 7,300,000
  Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. 3,100,000
  Goldman, Sachs & Co. 7,094,000
  JPMorgan Securities Inc. 15,321,000
 
U.S. Value Fund Goldman, Sachs & Co. 4,481,000

 

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

The Board of Trustees (the Board) of each Vanguard fund that invests in stocks has adopted proxy voting procedures and guidelines to govern proxy voting by the fund. The Board has delegated oversight of proxy voting to the Proxy Oversight Committee (the Committee), made up of senior officers of Vanguard and subject to the operating procedures and guidelines described below. The Committee reports directly to the Board. Vanguard is subject to these procedures and guidelines to the extent that they call for Vanguard to administer the voting process and implement the resulting voting decisions, and for these purposes the guidelines have been approved by the Board of Directors of Vanguard.

The overarching objective in voting is simple: to support proposals and director nominees that maximize the value of a fund’s investments—and those of fund shareholders—over the long term. Although the goal is simple, the proposals the funds receive are varied and frequently complex. As such, the guidelines adopted by the Board provide a rigorous framework for assessing each proposal. Under the guidelines, each proposal must be evaluated on its merits, based on the particular facts and circumstances as presented.

For ease of reference, the procedures and guidelines often refer to all funds. However, our processes and practices seek to ensure that proxy voting decisions are suitable for individual funds. For most proxy proposals, particularly those involving corporate governance, the evaluation will result in the same position being taken across all of the funds and the funds voting as a block. In some cases, however, a fund may vote differently, depending upon the nature and objective of the fund, the composition of its portfolio, and other factors.

The guidelines do not permit the Board to delegate voting responsibility to a third party that does not serve as a fiduciary for the funds. Because many factors bear on each decision, the guidelines incorporate factors the Committee should consider in each voting decision. A fund may refrain from voting some or all of its shares if doing so would be in the fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests. These circumstances may arise, for example, if the expected cost of voting exceeds the expected benefits of voting, if exercising the vote would result in the imposition of trading or other restrictions, or if a fund (or all Vanguard-advised funds in the aggregate) were to own more than a maximum percentage of a company’s stock (as determined by the company’s governing documents).

In evaluating proxy proposals, we consider information from many sources, including, but not limited to, the investment advisor for the fund, the management or shareholders of a company presenting a proposal, and independent proxy research services. We will give substantial weight to the recommendations of the company’s board, absent guidelines or other specific facts that would support a vote against management. In all cases, however, the ultimate decision rests with the members of the Committee, who are accountable to the fund’s Board.

While serving as a framework, the following guidelines cannot contemplate all possible proposals with which a fund may be presented. In the absence of a specific guideline for a particular proposal (e.g., in the case of a transactional issue or contested proxy), the Committee will evaluate the issue and cast the fund’s vote in a manner that, in the Committee’s view, will maximize the value of the fund’s investment, subject to the individual circumstances of the fund.

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I. The Board of Directors

A. Election of directors

Good governance starts with a majority-independent board, whose key committees are made up entirely of independent directors. As such, companies should attest to the independence of directors who serve on the Compensation, Nominating, and Audit committees. In any instance in which a director is not categorically independent, the basis for the independence determination should be clearly explained in the proxy statement.

Although the funds will generally support the board’s nominees, the following factors will be taken into account in determining each fund’s vote:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Nominated slate results in board made up of a majority of Nominated slate results in board made up of a majority of
independent directors. non-independent directors.
All members of Audit, Nominating, and Compensation Audit, Nominating, and/or Compensation committees include
committees are independent of management. non-independent members.
  Incumbent board member failed to attend at least 75% of meetings
  in the previous year.
  Actions of committee(s) on which nominee serves are inconsistent with
  other guidelines (e.g., excessive equity grants, substantial non-audit fees,
  lack of board independence).
 
 
B. Contested director elections  

 

In the case of contested board elections, we will evaluate the nominees’ qualifications, the performance of the incumbent board, and the rationale behind the dissidents’ campaign, to determine the outcome that we believe will maximize shareholder value.

C. Classified boards

The funds will generally support proposals to declassify existing boards (whether proposed by management or shareholders), and will block efforts by companies to adopt classified board structures in which only part of the board is elected each year.

II. Approval of Independent Auditors

The relationship between the company and its auditors should be limited primarily to the audit, although it may include certain closely related activities that do not, in the aggregate, raise any appearance of impaired independence. The funds will generally support management’s recommendation for the ratification of the auditor, except in instances in which audit and audit-related fees make up less than 50% of the total fees paid by the company to the audit firm. We will evaluate on a case-by-case basis instances in which the audit firm has a substantial non-audit relationship with the company (regardless of its size relative to the audit fee) to determine whether independence has been compromised.

III. Compensation Issues

A. Stock-based compensation plans

Appropriately designed stock-based compensation plans, administered by an independent committee of the board and approved by shareholders, can be an effective way to align the interests of long-term shareholders with the interests of management, employees, and directors. The funds oppose plans that substantially dilute their ownership interest in the company, provide participants with excessive awards, or have inherently objectionable structural features.

An independent compensation committee should have significant latitude to deliver varied compensation to motivate the company’s employees. However, we will evaluate compensation proposals in the context of several factors (a company’s industry, market capitalization, competitors for talent, etc.) to determine whether a particular plan or proposal balances the perspectives of employees and the company’s other shareholders. We will evaluate each proposal on a case-by-case basis, taking all material facts and circumstances into account.

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The following factors will be among those considered in evaluating these proposals:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Company requires senior executives to hold a minimum amount Total potential dilution (including all stock-based plans) exceeds 15% of
of company stock (frequently expressed as a multiple of salary). shares outstanding.
Company requires stock acquired through equity awards to be Annual equity grants have exceeded 2% of shares outstanding.
held for a certain period of time.  
Compensation program includes performance-vesting awards, Plan permits repricing or replacement of options without
indexed options, or other performance-linked grants. shareholder approval.
Concentration of equity grants to senior executives is limited Plan provides for the issuance of reload options.
(indicating that the plan is very broad-based).  
Stock-based compensation is clearly used as a substitute for Plan contains automatic share replenishment (evergreen) feature.
cash in delivering market-competitive total pay.  

 

B. Bonus plans

Bonus plans, which must be periodically submitted for shareholder approval to qualify for deductibility under Section 162(m) of the IRC, should have clearly defined performance criteria and maximum awards expressed in dollars. Bonus plans with awards that are excessive, in both absolute terms and relative to a comparative group, generally will not be supported.

C. Employee stock purchase plans

The funds will generally support the use of employee stock purchase plans to increase company stock ownership by employees, provided that shares purchased under the plan are acquired for no less than 85% of their market value and that shares reserved under the plan amount to less than 5% of the outstanding shares.

D. Advisory votes on executive compensation (Say on Pay)

In addition to proposals on specific equity or bonus plans, the funds are required to cast advisory votes approving many companies’ overall executive compensation plans (so-called Say on Pay votes). In evaluating these proposals, we consider a number of factors, including the amount of compensation that is at risk, the amount of equity-based compensation that is linked to the company’s performance, and the level of compensation as compared to industry peers. The funds will generally support pay programs that demonstrate effective linkage between pay and performance over time and that provide compensation opportunities that are competitive relative to industry peers. On the other hand, pay programs in which significant compensation is guaranteed or insufficiently linked to performance will be less likely to earn our support.

E. Executive severance agreements (golden parachutes)

Although executives’ incentives for continued employment should be more significant than severance benefits, there are instances—particularly in the event of a change in control—in which severance arrangements may be appropriate. Severance benefits payable upon a change of control AND an executive’s termination (so-called “double trigger” plans) are generally acceptable to the extent that benefits paid do not exceed three times salary and bonus. Arrangements in which the benefits exceed three times salary and bonus should be justified and submitted for shareholder approval. We do not generally support guaranteed severance absent a change in control or arrangements that do not require the termination of the executive (so-called “single trigger” plans).

IV. Corporate Structure and Shareholder Rights

The exercise of shareholder rights, in proportion to economic ownership, is a fundamental privilege of stock ownership that should not be unnecessarily limited. Such limits may be placed on shareholders’ ability to act by corporate charter or by-law provisions, or by the adoption of certain takeover provisions. In general, the market for corporate control should be allowed to function without undue interference from these artificial barriers.

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The funds’ positions on a number of the most commonly presented issues in this area are as follows:

A. Shareholder rights plans (poison pills)

A company’s adoption of a so-called poison pill effectively limits a potential acquirer’s ability to buy a controlling interest

without the approval of the target’s board of directors. Such a plan, in conjunction with other takeover defenses, may serve to entrench incumbent management and directors. However, in other cases, a poison pill may force a suitor to negotiate with the board and result in the payment of a higher acquisition premium.

In general, shareholders should be afforded the opportunity to approve shareholder rights plans within a year of their adoption. This provides the board with the ability to put a poison pill in place for legitimate defensive purposes, subject to subsequent approval by shareholders. In evaluating the approval of proposed shareholder rights plans, we will consider the following factors:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Plan is relatively short-term (3-5 years). Plan is long term (>5 years).
Plan requires shareholder approval for renewal. Renewal of plan is automatic or does not require shareholder approval.
Plan incorporates review by a committee of independent Board with limited independence.
directors at least every three years (so-called TIDE provisions).  
Ownership trigger is reasonable (15-20%). Ownership trigger is less than 15%.
Highly independent, non-classified board. Classified board.
Plan includes permitted-bid/qualified-offer feature (chewable  
pill) that mandates a shareholder vote in certain situations.  

 

B. Cumulative voting

The funds are generally opposed to cumulative voting under the premise that it allows shareholders a voice in director elections that is disproportionate to their economic investment in the corporation.

C. Supermajority vote requirements

The funds support shareholders’ ability to approve or reject matters presented for a vote based on a simple majority. Accordingly, the funds will support proposals to remove supermajority requirements and oppose proposals to impose them.

D. Right to call meetings and act by written consent

The funds support shareholders’ right to call special meetings of the board (for good cause and with ample representation) and to act by written consent. The funds will generally vote for proposals to grant these rights to shareholders and against proposals to abridge them.

E. Confidential voting

The integrity of the voting process is enhanced substantially when shareholders (both institutions and individuals) can vote without fear of coercion or retribution based on their votes. As such, the funds support proposals to provide confidential voting.

F. Dual classes of stock

We are opposed to dual class capitalization structures that provide disparate voting rights to different groups of shareholders with similar economic investments. We will oppose the creation of separate classes with different voting rights and will support the dissolution of such classes.

V. Corporate and Social Policy Issues

Proposals in this category, initiated primarily by shareholders, typically request that the company disclose or amend certain business practices. The Board generally believes that these are “ordinary business matters” that are primarily the responsibility of management and should be evaluated and approved solely by the corporation’s board of directors. Often, proposals may address concerns with which the Board philosophically agrees, but absent a compelling economic

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impact on shareholder value (e.g., proposals to require expensing of stock options), the funds will typically abstain from voting on these proposals. This reflects the belief that regardless of our philosophical perspective on the issue, these decisions should be the province of company management unless they have a significant, tangible impact on the value of a fund’s investment and management is not responsive to the matter.

VI. Voting in Foreign Markets

Corporate governance standards, disclosure requirements, and voting mechanics vary greatly among the markets outside the United States in which the funds may invest. Each fund’s votes will be used, where applicable, to advocate for improvements in governance and disclosure by each fund’s portfolio companies. We will evaluate issues presented to shareholders for each fund’s foreign holdings in the context with the guidelines described above, as well as local market standards and best practices. The funds will cast their votes in a manner believed to be philosophically consistent with these guidelines, while taking into account differing practices by market. In addition, there may be instances in which the funds elect not to vote, as described below.

Many foreign markets require that securities be “blocked” or reregistered to vote at a company’s meeting. Absent an issue of compelling economic importance, we will generally not subject the fund to the loss of liquidity imposed by these requirements.

The costs of voting (e.g., custodian fees, vote agency fees) in foreign markets may be substantially higher than for U.S. holdings. As such, the fund may limit its voting on foreign holdings in instances in which the issues presented are unlikely to have a material impact on shareholder value.

VII. Voting Shares of a Company that has an Ownership Limitation

Certain companies have provisions in their governing documents that restrict stock ownership in excess of a specified limit. The ownership limit may be applied at the individual fund level or across all Vanguard-advised funds. Typically, these ownership restrictions are included in the governing documents of real estate investment trusts, but may be included in other companies’ governing documents.

A company’s governing documents normally allow the company to grant a waiver of these ownership limits, which would allow a fund (or all Vanguard-advised funds) to exceed the stated ownership limit. Sometimes a company will grant a waiver without restriction. From time to time, a company may grant a waiver only if a fund (or funds) agrees to not vote the company’s shares in excess of the normal specified limit. In such a circumstance, a fund may refrain from voting shares if owning the shares beyond the company’s specified limit is in the best interests of the fund and its shareholders.

VIII. Voting on a Fund’s Holdings of Other Vanguard Funds

Certain Vanguard funds (owner funds) may, from time to time, own shares of other Vanguard funds (underlying funds). If an underlying fund submits a matter to a vote of its shareholders, votes for and against such matters on behalf of the owner funds will be cast in the same proportion as the votes of the other shareholders in the underlying fund.

IX. The Proxy Voting Group

The Board has delegated the day-to-day operations of the funds’ proxy voting process to the Proxy Voting Group, which the Committee oversees. Although most votes will be determined, subject to the individual circumstances of each fund, by reference to the guidelines as separately adopted by each of the funds, there may be circumstances when the Proxy Voting Group will refer proxy issues to the Committee for consideration. In addition, at any time, the Board has the authority to vote proxies, when, at the Board’s or the Committee’s discretion, such action is warranted.

The Proxy Voting Group performs the following functions: (1) managing proxy voting vendors; (2) reconciling share positions; (3) analyzing proxy proposals using factors described in the guidelines; (4) determining and addressing potential or actual conflicts of interest that may be presented by a particular proxy; and (5) voting proxies. The Proxy Voting Group also prepares periodic and special reports to the Board, and any proposed amendments to the procedures and guidelines.

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X. The Proxy Oversight Committee

The Board, including a majority of the independent trustees, appoints the members of the Committee who are senior officers of Vanguard.

The Committee does not include anyone whose primary duties include external client relationship management or sales. This clear separation between the proxy voting and client relationship functions is intended to eliminate any potential conflict of interest in the proxy voting process. In the unlikely event that a member of the Committee believes he or she might have a conflict of interest regarding a proxy vote, that member must recuse himself or herself from the committee meeting at which the matter is addressed, and not participate in the voting decision.

The Committee works with the Proxy Voting Group to provide reports and other guidance to the Board regarding proxy voting by the funds. The Committee has an obligation to conduct its meetings and exercise its decision-making authority subject to the fiduciary standards of good faith, fairness, and Vanguard’s Code of Ethics. The Committee shall authorize proxy votes that the Committee determines, at its sole discretion, to be in the best interests of each fund’s shareholders. In determining how to apply the guidelines to a particular factual situation, the Committee may not take into account any interest that would conflict with the interest of fund shareholders in maximizing the value of their investments.

The Board may review these procedures and guidelines and modify them from time to time. The procedures and guidelines are available on Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com.

You may obtain a free copy of a report that details how the funds voted the proxies relating to the portfolio securities held by the funds for the prior 12-month period ended June 30 by logging on to Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com or the SEC’s website at sec.gov.

INFORMATION ABOUT THE ETF SHARE CLASS

Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund (the ETF Fund) offers and issues an exchange-traded class of shares called ETF Shares. The ETF Fund issues and redeems ETF Shares in large blocks, known as “Creation Units.” For the Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is 50,000.

To purchase or redeem a Creation Unit, you must be an Authorized Participant or you must transact through a broker that is an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant is a participant in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) that has executed a Participant Agreement with Vanguard Marketing Corporation, the Fund’s Distributor (the Distributor). For a current list of Authorized Participants, contact the Distributor.

Investors that are not Authorized Participants must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. As with any stock traded on an exchange through a broker, purchases and sales of ETF Shares will be subject to usual and customary brokerage commissions.

The ETF Fund issues Creation Units in kind in exchange for a basket of securities that are part of—or soon to be part of—its target index (Deposit Securities). The ETF Fund also redeems Creation Units in kind; an investor who tenders a Creation Unit will receive, as redemption proceeds, a basket of securities that are part of the Fund’s portfolio holdings (Redemption Securities). As part of any creation or redemption transaction, the investor will either pay or receive some cash in addition to the securities, as described more fully on the following pages. The ETF Fund reserves the right to issue Creation Units for cash, rather than in kind.

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

The ETF Shares have been approved for listing on a national securities exchange and will trade on the exchange at market prices that may differ from net asset value (NAV). There can be no assurance that, in the future, ETF Shares will continue to meet all of the exchange’s listing requirements. The exchange may, but is not required to, delist the Fund’s ETF Shares if (1) following the initial 12-month period beginning upon the commencement of trading, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the ETF Shares for 30 or more consecutive trading days; (2) the value of the target index tracked by the ETF Fund is no longer calculated or available; or (3) such other event shall occur or condition exist that, in the opinion of the exchange, makes further dealings on the exchange inadvisable. The exchange will also delist the Fund’s ETF Shares upon termination of the ETF Share class.

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The exchange disseminates, through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, an updated “indicative optimized portfolio value” (IOPV) for the Fund as calculated by an information provider. The ETF Fund is not involved with or responsible for the calculation or dissemination of the IOPVs, and it makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the IOPVs. An IOPV for the Fund’s ETF Shares is disseminated every 15 seconds during regular exchange trading hours. An IOPV has a securities value component and a cash component. The securities values included in an IOPV are based on the real-time market prices of the Deposit Securities for the Fund’s ETF Shares. The IOPV is designed as an estimate of the Fund’s NAV at a particular point in time, but it is only an estimate and it should not be viewed as the actual NAV, which is calculated once each day.

BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM

ETF Shares issued by the Fund are registered in the name of the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and are deposited with, or on behalf of, the DTC. The DTC is a limited-purpose trust company that was created to hold securities of its participants (DTC Participants) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions among them through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. The DTC is a subsidiary of the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC), which is owned by certain participants of the DTCC’s subsidiaries, including the DTC. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (Indirect Participants).

Beneficial ownership of ETF Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in ETF Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as Beneficial Owners) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by the DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from, or through, the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of ETF Shares. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities. Such laws may impair the ability of certain investors to acquire beneficial interests in ETF Shares.

The ETF Fund recognizes the DTC or its nominee as the record owner of all ETF Shares for all purposes. Beneficial Owners of ETF Shares are not entitled to have ETF Shares registered in their names and will not receive or be entitled to physical delivery of share certificates. Each Beneficial Owner must rely on the procedures of the DTC and any DTC Participant and/or Indirect Participant through which such Beneficial Owner holds its interests to exercise any rights of a holder of ETF Shares.

Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. The DTC will make available to the ETF Fund, upon request and for a fee, a listing of the ETF Shares of the Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Fund shall obtain from each DTC Participant the number of Beneficial Owners holding ETF Shares, directly or indirectly, through the DTC Participant. The Fund shall provide each DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in form, number, and at such place as the DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that these communications may be transmitted by the DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to the Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Fund shall pay to each DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

Share distributions shall be made to the DTC or its nominee as the registered holder of all ETF Shares. The DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit the DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in ETF Shares of the Fund as shown on the records of the DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of ETF Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

The ETF Fund has no responsibility or liability for any aspects of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners; or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such ETF Shares; or for maintaining, supervising, or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests; or for any other aspect of the relationship between

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the DTC and DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

The DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to ETF Shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Fund and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Fund shall take action either to find a replacement for the DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of ETF Shares, unless the Fund makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the exchange.

PURCHASE AND ISSUANCE OF ETF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS

The ETF Fund issues and sells ETF Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at its NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day, of an order in proper form. The ETF Fund does not issue fractional Creation Units.

A Business Day is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day; Presidents’ Day (Washington’s Birthday); Good Friday; Memorial Day (observed); Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; and Christmas Day.

Fund Deposit

The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit from the ETF Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (Deposit Securities) and an amount of cash (Cash Component) consisting of a Purchase Balancing Amount and a Transaction Fee (both described in the following paragraphs). Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the Fund Deposit.

The Purchase Balancing Amount is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of a Creation Unit and the market value of the Deposit Securities (Deposit Amount). It ensures that the NAV of the Fund Deposit (not including the Transaction Fee) is identical to the NAV of the Creation Unit it is used to purchase. If the Purchase Balancing Amount is a positive number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the market value of the Deposit Securities), then that amount will be paid by the purchaser to the ETF Fund in cash. If the Purchase Balancing Amount is a negative number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the market value of the Deposit Securities), then that amount will be paid by the ETF Fund to the purchaser in cash (except as offset by the Transaction Fee).

Vanguard, through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), makes available after the close of each Business Day a list of the names and the number of shares of each Deposit Security to be included in the next Business Day’s Fund Deposit for the ETF Fund (subject to possible amendment or correction). The ETF Fund reserves the right to accept a nonconforming Fund Deposit.

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities required for a Fund Deposit may change from one day to another to reflect rebalancing adjustments, corporate actions, and interest payments on underlying bonds, or in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities of the relevant target index.

In addition, the ETF Fund reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash—referred to as “cash in lieu”—to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. This might occur, for example, if a Deposit Security is not available in sufficient quantity for delivery, is not eligible for transfer through the applicable clearance and settlement system, or is not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor for which an Authorized Participant is acting. Trading costs incurred by the Fund in connection with the purchase of Deposit Securities with cash-in-lieu amounts will be an expense of the Fund. However, Vanguard may adjust the Transaction Fee to protect existing shareholders from this expense.

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility, and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the ETF Fund, and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

Procedures For Purchasing Creation Units

To initiate a purchase order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an order in proper form to the Distributor and such order must be received by the Distributor prior to the closing time of regular trading of the NYSE

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(Closing Time) (ordinarily 4 p.m., Eastern time) to receive that day’s NAV. Authorized Participants must transmit orders using a transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

Neither the Trust, the ETF Fund, the Distributor, nor any affiliated party will be liable to an investor who is unable to submit a purchase order by Closing Time, even if the problem is the responsibility of one of those parties (e.g., the Distributor‘s phone or e-mail systems were not operating properly).

If you are not an Authorized Participant, you must place your purchase order in an acceptable form with an Authorized Participant. The Authorized Participant may request that you make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order, e.g., to provide for payments of cash when required.

Placement of Purchase Orders

An Authorized Participant must deliver the cash and government securities portion of a Fund Deposit through the Federal Reserve’s Fedwire System and the corporate securities portion of a Fund Deposit through the DTC. If a Fund Deposit is incomplete on the third Business Day after the trade date (the trade date is the date on which a trade actually takes place, or “T”; three Business Days after the trade date is known as “T+3”) because of the failed delivery of one or more of the Deposit Securities, the Fund shall be entitled to cancel the purchase order.

The ETF Fund may issue Creation Units in reliance on the Authorized Participant’s undertaking to deliver the missing Deposit Securities at a later date. Such undertaking shall be secured by the delivery and maintenance of cash collateral in an amount determined by the Fund in accordance with the terms of the Participant Agreement.

Rejection of Purchase Orders

The ETF Fund reserves the absolute right to reject a purchase order transmitted to it by the Distributor. By way of example, and not limitation, the ETF Fund will reject a purchase order if:

  • the order is not in proper form;

  • the investor(s), upon obtaining the ETF Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the total combined voting power and number of shares of all classes of stock issued by the Fund;

  • the Deposit Securities delivered are not the same (in name or amount) as the published basket;

  • acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the ETF Fund;

  • acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful;

  • acceptance of the Fund Deposit would otherwise, at the discretion of the ETF Fund or Vanguard, have an adverse effect on the Fund or any of its shareholders; or

  • circumstances outside the control of the ETF Fund, the Trust, the transfer agent, the custodian, the Distributor, and Vanguard make it for all practical purposes impossible to process the order. Examples of such circumstances include natural disasters, public service disruptions, or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions, and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy, and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the aforementioned parties as well as the DTC, the NSCC, the Federal Reserve, or any other participant in the purchase process; and similar extraordinary events.

If a purchase order is rejected, the Distributor shall notify the Authorized Participant that submitted the order. The ETF Fund, the Trust, the transfer agent, the custodian, the Distributor, and Vanguard are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of a Fund Deposit, nor shall any of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

Transaction Fee on Purchases of Creation Units

The ETF Fund imposes a Transaction Fee (payable to the Fund) to compensate the Fund for costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. For Creation Units purchased with a prescribed basket, the Transaction Fee is a flat fee of $50, regardless of how many Creation Units are purchased. When the ETF Fund permits (or requires) a purchaser to substitute cash in lieu of depositing one or more Deposit Securities, the purchaser may be assessed an additional charge on the cash-in-lieu portion of its investment. The amount of this charge will be disclosed to investors before they place their orders. The amount will be determined by the Fund at its sole discretion, but will not be more than the Fund’s good faith estimate of the costs it will incur investing the cash in lieu, which may include, if applicable, market-impact costs. In

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no event will the total Transaction Fee exceed 2% of the cash-in-lieu amount. The Transaction Fee is subject to revision from time to time.

REDEMPTION OF ETF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS

To be eligible to place a redemption order, you must be an Authorized Participant. Investors that are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant in order to redeem a Creation Unit.

ETF Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units. Investors should expect to incur transaction costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of ETF Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Redemption requests received on a Business Day in good order will receive the NAV next determined after the request is made.

Unless cash redemptions are available or specified for the ETF Fund, an investor tendering a Creation Unit generally will receive redemption proceeds consisting of (1) a basket of Redemption Securities; plus (2) a Redemption Balancing Amount in cash equal to the difference between (x) the NAV of the Creation Unit being redeemed, as next determined after receipt of a request in proper form, and (y) the value of the Redemption Securities; less (3) a Transaction Fee. If the Redemption Securities have a value greater than the NAV of a Creation Unit, the redeeming investor would pay the Redemption Balancing Amount in cash to the ETF Fund rather than receiving such amount from the Fund.

Vanguard, through the NSCC, makes available after the close of each Business Day a list of the names and the number of shares of each Redemption Security to be included in the next Business Day’s redemption basket (subject to possible amendment or correction). The basket of Redemption Securities provided to an investor redeeming a Creation Unit may not be identical to the basket of Deposit Securities required of an investor purchasing a Creation Unit. If the ETF Fund and a redeeming investor mutually agree, the Fund may provide the investor with a basket of Redemption Securities that differs from the composition of the redemption basket published through the NSCC.

The ETF Fund reserves the right to deliver cash in lieu of any Redemption Security for the same reason it might accept cash in lieu of a Deposit Security, as previously discussed, or if the Fund could not lawfully deliver the security or could not do so without first registering such security under federal or state law.

Neither the Trust, the ETF Fund, the Distributor, nor any affiliated party will be liable to an investor who is unable to submit a redemption order by Closing Time, even if the problem is the responsibility of one of those parties (e.g., the Distributor’s phone or e-mail systems were not operating properly).

Transaction Fee on Redemptions of Creation Units

The ETF Fund imposes a Transaction Fee (payable to the Fund) to compensate the Fund for costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units. The Transaction Fee on Creation Unit redemptions is a flat fee of $50, regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed. For Creation Unit redemptions, unlike purchases, the ETF Fund does not impose an additional charge on investors who receive cash in lieu of one or more Redemption Securities. The Transaction Fee is subject to revision from time to time.

Placement of Redemption Orders

To initiate a redemption order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit such order in proper form to the Distributor no later than Closing Time in order to receive that day’s NAV. Authorized Participants must transmit orders using a transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

If on the settlement date (typically T+3) an Authorized Participant has failed to deliver all of the Vanguard ETF Shares it is seeking to redeem, the Fund shall be entitled to cancel the redemption order. Alternatively, the Fund may deliver to the Authorized Participant the full complement of Redemption Securities and cash in reliance on the Authorized Participant’s undertaking to deliver the missing ETF Shares at a later date. Such undertaking shall be secured by the Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of cash collateral in accordance with collateral procedures that are part of the Participant Agreement. In all cases the ETF Fund shall be entitled to charge the Authorized Participant for any costs (including investment losses, attorney’s fees, and interest) incurred by the Fund as a result of the late delivery or failure to deliver.

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If an Authorized Participant, or a redeeming investor acting through an Authorized Participant, is subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the basket of Redemption Securities, such investor may be paid an equivalent amount of cash in lieu of the security. In addition, the ETF Fund reserves the right to redeem Creation Units partially for cash to the extent that the Fund could not lawfully deliver one or more Redemption Securities or could not do so without first registering such securities under federal or state law.

Suspension of Redemption Rights

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the ETF Fund (1) for any period during which the NYSE or listing exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings), (2) for any period during which trading on the NYSE or listing exchange is suspended or restricted, (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable, or (4) in such other circumstances as the SEC permits.

Precautionary Notes

A precautionary note to retail investors: The DTC or its nominee will be the registered owner of all outstanding ETF Shares. Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the DTC and the DTC Participant broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for distributing income and capital gains distributions and for ensuring that you receive shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

A precautionary note to purchasers of Creation Units: You should be aware of certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the issuing fund.

Because new ETF Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of ETF Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that you perform as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in your being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render you a statutory underwriter and subject you to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act of 1933. For example, you could be deemed a statutory underwriter if you purchase Creation Units from the issuing fund, break them down into the constituent ETF Shares, and sell those shares directly to customers, or if you choose to couple the creation of a supply of new ETF Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for ETF Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.

Dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with ETF Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act.

A precautionary note to shareholders redeeming Creation Units: An Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer” as defined in Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 will not be able to receive, as part of the redemption basket, restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

A precautionary note to investment companies: For purposes of the Investment Company Act of 1940, Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of that Act, except as permitted by an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

With the exception of Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund, which commenced operations on October 10, 2012, and Vanguard TIPS Transition Fund, which commenced operations on April 30, 2013, each Fund’s Financial

B-57


 

Statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012, appearing in the Funds‘ 2012 Annual Reports to Shareholders, and the reports thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, also appearing therein, are incorporated by reference into this Statement of Additional Information. For a more complete discussion of each Fund’s performance, please see the Funds‘ Annual and Semiannual Reports to Shareholders, which may be obtained without charge.

DESCRIPTION OF BOND RATINGS

The following are excerpts from Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.’s description of its four highest bond ratings:

Aaa—Judged to be of the best quality. They carry the smallest degree of investment risk.

Aa—Judged to be of high quality by all standards. Together with the Aaa group they make up what are generally known as high-grade bonds.

A—Possess many favorable investment attributes and are to be considered as “upper-medium-grade obligations.”

Baa—Considered as medium-grade obligations (i.e., they are neither highly protected nor poorly secured). Interest payments and principal security appear adequate for the present but certain protective elements may be lacking or may be characteristically unreliable over any great length of time. Such bonds lack outstanding investment characteristics and, in fact, have speculative characteristics as well.

Moody’s also supplies numerical indicators (1, 2, and 3) to rating categories. The modifier 1 indicates that the security is in the higher end of its rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking toward the lower end of the category.

The following are excerpts from Standard & Poor’s description of its four highest bond ratings:

AAA—Highest grade obligations. The capacity to pay interest and repay principal is extremely strong.

AA—Also qualify as high-grade obligations. They have a strong capacity to pay interest and repay principal, and they differ from AAA issues only in small degree.

A—Regarded as upper-medium-grade. They have a strong capacity to pay interest and repay principal although they are somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than debt in higher rated categories.

BBB—Regarded as having an adequate capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Whereas they normally exhibit adequate protection parameters, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to pay interest and repay principal for debt in this category than in higher rated categories. This group is the lowest that qualifies for commercial bank investment.

Standard & Poor’s applies indicators “+,” or “–,” or no character, to its rating categories. The indicators show relative standing within the major rating categories.

The Vanguard funds are not in any way sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”) the London Stock Exchange Group companies (“LSEG”) (together the “Licensor Parties”) and none of the Licensor Parties make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to (i) the results to be obtained from the use of a FTSE Index (the “Index”) (upon which a Vanguard fund is based), (ii) the figure at which the Index is said to stand at any particular time on any particular day or otherwise, or (iii) the suitability of the Index for the purpose to which it is being put in connection with the Vanguard fund. None of the Licensor Parties have provided or will provide any financial or investment advice or recommendation in relation to the Index to Vanguard or to its clients. The Index is calculated by FTSE or its agent. None of the Licensor Parties shall be (a) liable (whether in negligence or otherwise) to any person for any error in the Index or (b) under any obligation to advise any person of any error therein. All rights in the Index vest in FTSE. “FTSE®” is a trademark of LSEG and is used by FTSE under licence. The Russell Indexes and Russell® are registered trademarks of Russell Investments and have been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. The products are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Russell Investments and Russell Investments makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the products. Standard & Poor’s®, S&P ®, S&P 500 ®, Standard & Poor’s 500, 500 ®, S&P MidCap 400 ®, and S&P SmallCap 600 ®are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (“S&P”) and have been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. The Vanguard mutual funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by S&P or its Affiliates, and S&P and its Affiliates make no representation, warranty, or condition regarding the advisability of buying, selling, or holding units/shares in the funds. Vanguard ETFs are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by Barclays. Barclays makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Vanguard ETFs or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in Vanguard ETFs particularly or the ability of the Barclays Index to track general bond market performance. Barclays hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Barclays Index and any data included therein. Barclays’ only relationship to Vanguard and Vanguard ETFs is the licensing of the Barclays Index which is determined, composed, and calculated by Barclays without regard to Vanguard or the Vanguard ETFs. Barclays is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of Vanguard ETFs to be issued. CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst ® are trademarks owned by CFA Institute.

SAI 078 042013

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PART C

VANGUARD MALVERN FUNDS

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 28. Exhibits

(a) Articles of Incorporation, Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust, filed on
  October 10, 2012, Post-Effective Amendment No. 52, is hereby incorporated by reference.
(b) By-Laws, filed on October 14, 2010, Post-Effective Amendment No. 41, is hereby incorporated
  by reference.
(c) Instruments Defining Rights of Security Holders, reference is made to Articles III and V of the
  Registrant’s Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust, refer to Exhibit (a)
  above.
(d) Investment Advisory Contracts, for Wellington Management Company, LLP, filed on January 28,
  2013, Post-Effective Amendment No. 54, is hereby incorporated by reference. The Vanguard
  Group, Inc., provides investment advisory services to the Funds at cost pursuant to the Fifth
  Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement, refer to Exhibit (h) below.
(e) Underwriting Contracts, not applicable.
(f) Bonus or Profit Sharing Contracts, reference is made to the section entitled “Management of
  the Funds” in Part B of this Registration Statement.
(g) Custodian Agreements, for Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., filed on October 14, 2010, Post-
  Effective Amendment No. 41, is hereby incorporated by reference; and JP Morgan Chase
  Bank, filed on October 10, 2012, Post-Effective Amendment No. 52, is hereby incorporated by
  reference.
(h) Other Material Contracts, Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement, filed on
  November 29, 2011, Post-Effective Amendment No. 47, is hereby incorporated by reference.
(i) Legal Opinion, not applicable.
(j) Other Opinions, Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, to be filed by
  amendment.
(k) Omitted Financial Statements, not applicable.
(l) Initial Capital Agreements, not applicable.
(m) Rule 12b-1 Plan, not applicable.
(n) Rule 18f-3 Plan, filed on January 28, 2013, Post-Effective Amendment No. 54, is hereby
  incorporated by reference.
(o) Reserved.
(p) Codes of Ethics, for The Vanguard Group, Inc., filed on January 25, 2010, Post-Effective
  Amendment No. 39, is hereby incorporated by reference. For Wellington Management
  Company, LLP, filed on January 27, 2011, Post-Effective Amendment No. 42, is hereby
  incorporated by reference.

 

Item 29. Persons Controlled by or under Common Control with Registrant

Registrant is not controlled by or under common control with any person.

C-1


 

Item 30. Indemnification

The Registrant’s organizational documents contain provisions indemnifying Trustees and officers against liability incurred in their official capacity. Article VII, Section 2 of the Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust provide that the Registrant may indemnify and hold harmless each and every Trustee and officer from and against any and all claims, demands, costs, losses, expenses, and damages whatsoever arising out of or related to the performance of his or her duties as a Trustee or officer. However, this provision does not cover any liability to which a Trustee or officer would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office. Article VI of the By-Laws generally provides that the Registrant shall indemnify its Trustees and officers from any liability arising out of their past or present service in that capacity. Among other things, this provision excludes any liability arising by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or the reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the Trustee’s or officer’s office with the Registrant.

Item 31. Business and Other Connections of Investment Adviser

Wellington Management is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the Advisers Act). The list required by this Item 31 of officers and partners of Wellington Management, together with any information as to any business, profession, vocation, or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by such officers and partners during the past two years, is incorporated herein by reference from Form ADV filed by Wellington Management pursuant to the Advisers Act (SEC File No. 801-15908).

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard) is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. The list required by this Item 31 of officers and directors of Vanguard, together with any information as to any business, profession, vocation, or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by such officers and directors during the past two years, is incorporated herein by reference from Form ADV filed by Vanguard pursuant to the Advisers Act (SEC File No. 801-11953).

C-2


 

Item 32. Principal Underwriters

(a) Vanguard Marketing Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Vanguard Group, Inc., is the principal underwriter of each fund within the Vanguard group of investment companies, a family of 180 mutual funds.

(b) The principal business address of each named director and officer of Vanguard Marketing Corporation is 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, PA 19355.

Name Positions and Office with Underwriter Positions and Office with Funds
F. William McNabb III Director Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Michael S. Miller Director and Managing Director None
Glenn W. Reed Director None
Mortimer J. Buckley Director and Senior Vice President None
Martha G. King Director and Senior Vice President None
Chris D. McIsaac Director and Senior Vice President None
Heidi Stam Director and Senior Vice President Secretary
Paul A. Heller Senior Vice President None
Pauline C. Scalvino Chief Compliance Officer Chief Compliance Officer
Jack Brod Principal None
David L. Cermak Principal None
Brian Gallary Principal None
Crystal Hardie Principal None
John C. Heywood Principal None
Timothy P. Holmes Principal None
Colin M. Kelton Principal None
Mike Lucci Principal None
Brian McCarthy Principal None
Jane K. Myer Principal None
Salvatore L. Pantalone Financial and Operations Principal and None
  Assistant Treasurer  
Joseph Colaizzo Financial and Operations Principal None
Joseph F. Miele Registered Municipal Securities Principal None
Richard D. Carpenter Treasurer None
Paul Atkins Assistant Treasurer None
Jennifer M. Halliday Assistant Treasurer None
Jack T. Wagner Assistant Treasurer None
Michael L. Kimmel Secretary None
Caroline Cosby Assistant Secretary None

 

(c) Not Applicable

C-3


 

Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records

The books, accounts, and other documents required to be maintained by Section 31 (a) of the Investment Company Act and the rules promulgated thereunder will be maintained at the offices of the Registrant, 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355; the Registrant’s Transfer Agent, The Vanguard Group, Inc., 100 Vanguard Boulevard, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355; and the Registrant’s Custodian, Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 40 Water Street, Boston, MA 02109 and JP Morgan Chase Bank, 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017-2070.

Item 34. Management Services

Other than as set forth in the section entitled “Management of the Funds” in Part B of this Registration Statement, the Registrant is not a party to any management-related service contract.

Item 35. Undertakings

Not Applicable

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the Town of Valley Forge and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on the 6th day of February, 2013.

VANGUARD MALVERN FUNDS
BY:_______ _/s/ F. William McNabb III*
F. William McNabb III
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

     Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Post-Effective Amendment to the Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated:

Signature Title Date
 
/s/ F. William McNabb III* Chairman and Chief Executive February 6, 2013
  Officer  
F. William McNabb    
/s/ Emerson U. Fullwood* Trustee February 6, 2013
Emerson U. Fullwood    
/s/ Rajiv L. Gupta* Trustee February 6, 2013
Rajiv L. Gupta    
/s/ Amy Gutmann* Trustee February 6, 2013
Amy Gutmann    
/s/ JoAnn Heffernan Heisen* Trustee February 6, 2013
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen    
/s/ F. Joseph Loughrey* Trustee February 6, 2013
F. Joseph Loughrey    
/s/ Mark Loughridge* Trustee February 6, 2013
Mark Loughridge    
/s/ Scott C. Malpass* Trustee February 6, 2013
Scott C. Malpass    
 
/s/ André F. Perold* Trustee February 6, 2013
André F. Perold    
/s/ Alfred M. Rankin, Jr.* Trustee February 6, 2013
Alfred M. Rankin, Jr.    
/s/ Peter F. Volanakis* Trustee February 6, 2013
Peter F. Volanakis    
/s/ Thomas J. Higgins* Chief Financial Officer February 6, 2013
Thomas J. Higgins    

 

*By: /s/ Heidi Stam

Heidi Stam, pursuant to a Power of Attorney filed on March 27, 2012, see File Number 2-11444, Incorporated by Reference.