485APOS 1 e497011_485apos.htm 485APOS

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 25, 2018

Registration Nos.: 033-23166

811-05624

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

  UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 x
  Pre-Effective Amendment No. ¨
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 210 x
     
  and/or  
     
  REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY  
  ACT OF 1940 x
  Amendment No. 211 x

 

 

 

Morgan Stanley

Institutional Fund, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

522 Fifth Avenue

New York, New York 10036

(Address of Principal Executive Office)

 

Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (800) 548-7786

 

Mary E. Mullin, Esq.
522 Fifth Avenue

New York, New York 10036

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copy to:

 

  Carl Frischling, Esq.   Stuart M. Strauss, Esq.
  Perkins Coie LLP   Dechert LLP
  30 Rockefeller Plaza   1095 Avenue of the Americas
  New York, New York 10112   New York, New York 10036

 

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:

 

As soon as practicable after this Post-Effective Amendment becomes effective.

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box): 

  ¨ Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
  ¨ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)
  ¨ 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  ¨ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  x 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
  ¨ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485.

 

Amending the Prospectus and Updating Financial Statements

 

If appropriate, check the following box:

  ¨  This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this Preliminary Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Preliminary Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. 

Subject to Completion Dated June 25, 2018 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc.

Global Permanence Portfolio

Prospectus  |  [ ], 2018

Share Class

Ticker Symbol 

Class I 

[ ] 

Class A 

[ ] 

Class C 

[ ] 

Class IS 

[ ] 

The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


 


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Fund Summary

Global Permanence Portfolio

Investment Objective 

The Global Permanence Portfolio (the “Fund”) seeks long-term capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses 

The table below describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. For purchases of Class A shares, you may qualify for a sales charge discount if the cumulative net asset value per share (“NAV”) of Class A shares of the Fund being purchased in a single transaction, together with the NAV of any Class A and Class C shares of the Fund already held in Related Accounts (as defined in the section of the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information—Sales Charges Applicable to Purchases of Class A Shares”) as of the date of the transaction as well as Class A, Class B, Class L and Class C shares of any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund (as defined in the section of the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information—Exchange Privilege”) and including shares of Morgan Stanley Money Market Funds (as defined in the section of the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information—Exchange Privilege”) that you acquired in an exchange from Class A shares of the Fund or Class A shares of another Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund already held in Related Accounts as of the date of the transaction, amounts to $25,000 or more. More information about this combined purchase discount and other discounts is available from your authorized financial intermediary, on page [ ] of the Prospectus in the section entitled “Shareholder Information—Sales Charges Applicable to Purchases of Class A Shares” and in Appendix A attached to the Prospectus.

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment) 

 

Class I

Class A

Class C

Class IS

 

Maximum sales charge (load) imposed on purchases (as a percentage of offering price) 

None 

5.25% 

None 

None 

 

Maximum deferred sales charge (load) (as a percentage based on the lesser of the offering price or NAV at redemption) 

None

None1

1.00%2

None 

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 

Class I

Class A

Class C

Class IS

 

Advisory Fee 

0.80% 

0.80% 

0.80% 

0.80% 

 

Distribution and/or Shareholder Service (12b-1) Fee 

None 

0.25% 

1.00% 

None 

 

Other Expenses3

1.39% 

1.44% 

1.46% 

1.34% 

 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses4

2.19% 

2.49% 

3.26% 

2.14% 

 

Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement4

1.19% 

1.17% 

1.17% 

1.19% 

 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement4

1.00% 

1.32% 

2.09% 

0.95% 

 

Example 

The example below is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. 

The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund, your investment has a 5% return each year and the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same (except that the example incorporates the fee waiver and/or expense reimbursement arrangement for only the first year). Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be: 

If You SOLD Your Shares 

 

 

 

 

1 Year

3 Years

 

Class I 

$102 

$570 

 

Class A 

$652 

$1,154 

 

Class C 

$312 

$895 

 

Class IS 

$97 

$555 

 

If You HELD Your Shares 

 

 

 

 

1 Year

3 Years

 

Class I 

$102 

$570 

 

Class A 

$652 

$1,154 

 

Class C 

$212 

$895 

 

Class IS 

$97 

$555 

 

1 Investments in Class A shares that are not subject to any sales charges at the time of purchase are subject to a contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) of 1.00% that will be imposed if you sell your shares within 18 months after the last day of the month of purchase, except for certain specific circumstances. See “Shareholder Information—How to Redeem Fund Shares” for further information about the CDSC waiver categories.
2 The Class C CDSC is only applicable if you sell your shares within one year after purchase. See “Shareholder Information—How to Redeem Fund Shares” for a complete discussion of the CDSC.
3 Other Expenses have been estimated for the current fiscal year.
4 The Fund’s “Adviser,” Morgan Stanley Investment Management Inc., has agreed to reduce its advisory fee and/or reimburse the Fund so that Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses, excluding certain investment related expenses, taxes, interest and other extraordinary expenses (including litigation), will not exceed 1.00% for Class I, 1.35% for Class A, 2.10% for Class C and 0.95% for Class IS. The fee waivers and/or expense reimbursements will continue for at least one year or until such time as the Board of Directors of Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. (the “Company”) acts to discontinue all or a portion of such waivers and/or reimbursements when it deems such action is appropriate.

Portfolio Turnover 

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect Fund performance. Because the Fund had not commenced operations as of the most recent fiscal year end, no portfolio turnover rate is available for the Fund.

1


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Fund Summary

Global Permanence Portfolio (Con’t)

Principal Investment Strategies 

Under normal market conditions, the Adviser seeks to achieve the Fund’s investment objective by investing primarily in established and emerging companies located throughout the world, with capitalizations within the range of companies included in the MSCI All Country World Index. 

The Adviser emphasizes a bottom-up stock selection process, seeking attractive investments on an individual company basis. In selecting securities for investment, the Adviser seeks to invest in companies with sustainable competitive advantages. The Adviser typically favors companies with rising returns on invested capital, above-average business visibility, strong free cash flow generation and an attractive risk/reward. The Adviser generally considers selling a portfolio holding when it determines that the holding no longer satisfies its investment criteria. 

The Fund will make long-term investments in companies globally that the Adviser believes have the most durable long-term competitive advantages. The Fund may also invest in more moderate growth companies, companies with lower earnings volatility and/or companies with some cyclicality in their end markets. 

The Fund may invest in foreign securities, which may include emerging market securities. Under normal market conditions, the Fund typically invests at least 40% of its total assets in the securities of issuers located outside of the United States. 

The Fund may invest in equity securities.

Principal Risks 

There is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective, and you can lose money investing in this Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund include: 

 

Equity Securities. In general, prices of equity securities are more volatile than those of fixed income securities. The prices of equity securities fluctuate, and sometimes widely fluctuate, in response to activities specific to the issuer of the security as well as factors unrelated to the fundamental condition of the issuer, including general market, economic and political conditions.

 

Foreign and Emerging Market  Securities. Investments in foreign markets entail special risks such as currency, political, economic and market risks. There also may be greater market volatility, less reliable financial information, higher transaction and custody costs, decreased market liquidity and less government and exchange regulation associated with investments in foreign markets. In addition, investments in certain foreign markets that have historically been considered stable may become more volatile and subject to increased risk due to ongoing developments and changing conditions in such markets. Moreover, the growing interconnectivity of global economies and financial markets has increased the probability that adverse developments and conditions in one country or region will affect the stability of economies and financial markets in other countries or regions.  The risks of investing in emerging market countries are greater than the
 

 

risks associated with investments in foreign developed countries.  In addition, the Fund’s investments in foreign issuers may be denominated in foreign currencies and therefore, to the extent unhedged, the value of those investments will fluctuate with U.S. dollar exchange rates. 

 

Small and Medium Capitalization Companies. Investments in small and medium capitalization companies may involve greater risks than investments in larger, more established companies. The securities issued by small and medium capitalization companies may be less liquid and such companies may have more limited markets, financial resources and product lines, and may lack the depth of management of larger companies.

 

Liquidity. The Fund’s investments in illiquid securities may entail greater risk than investments in other types of securities. These securities may be more difficult to sell, particularly in times of market turmoil. Additionally, the market for certain investments deemed liquid at the time of purchase may become illiquid under adverse market or economic conditions. Illiquid securities may be more difficult to value. If the Fund is forced to sell an illiquid security to fund redemptions or for other cash needs, it may be forced to sell the security at a loss or for less than its fair value.
 

Shares of the Fund are not bank deposits and are not guaranteed or insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. 

Performance Information 

As of the date hereof, the Fund has not yet completed a full calendar year of investment operations. Upon the completion of a full calendar year of investment operations by the Fund, this section will include charts that provide some indication of the risks of an investment in the Fund, by showing the difference in annual total returns, highest and lowest quarterly returns and average annual total returns (before and after taxes) compared to a benchmark index selected for the Fund. Performance information for the Fund will be available online at www.morganstanley.com/im or by calling toll-free (800) 548-7786.

Fund Management 

Adviser. Morgan Stanley Investment Management Inc. 

Portfolio Managers. The Fund is managed by members of the Growth team. Information about the member primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund is shown below:

Name

Title with Adviser

Date Began Managing Fund

[] 

[] 

Since inception 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares 

The minimum initial investment generally is $5,000,000 for Class I shares and $1,000 for each of Class A and Class C shares of the Fund. To purchase Class IS shares, an investor must meet a minimum initial investment of $10,000,000 or be a defined

2


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Fund Summary

Global Permanence Portfolio (Con’t)

contribution, defined benefit or other employer sponsored employee benefit plan, in each case provided that the plan trades on an omnibus level, whether or not qualified under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and in each case subject to the discretion of the Adviser. The minimum initial investment may be waived for certain investments. For more information, please refer to the section of the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information—Minimum Investment Amounts.” 

Shares of the Fund may be purchased or sold on any day the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open for business directly from the Fund by mail (c/o DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc., P.O. Box 219804, Kansas City, MO 64121-9804), by telephone (1-800-548-7786) or by contacting an authorized third-party, such as a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary that has entered into a selling agreement with the Fund’s “Distributor,” Morgan Stanley Distribution, Inc. (each a “Financial Intermediary”). In addition, you can sell Fund shares at any time by enrolling in a systematic withdrawal plan. If you sell Class A shares or Class C shares, your net sale proceeds are reduced by the amount of any applicable CDSC. For more information, please refer to the sections of the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information—How To Purchase Fund Shares” and “—How To Redeem Fund Shares.”

Tax Information 

The Fund intends to make distributions that may be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries 

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a Financial Intermediary (such as a bank), the Adviser and/or the Distributor may pay the Financial Intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments, which may be significant in amount, may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Financial Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your Financial Intermediary’s web site for more information.

3


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Details of the Fund

Global Permanence Portfolio

Investment Objective

The Global Permanence Portfolio seeks long-term capital appreciation.

The Fund’s investment objective may be changed by the Company’s Board of Directors without shareholder approval, but no change is anticipated. If the Fund’s investment objective changes, the Fund will notify shareholders and shareholders should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of the change.

Approach

Under normal market conditions, the Adviser seeks to achieve the Fund’s investment objective by investing primarily in established and emerging companies located throughout the world, with capitalizations within the range of companies included in the MSCI All Country World Index.

Process

The Adviser emphasizes a bottom-up stock selection process, seeking attractive investments on an individual company basis. In selecting securities for investment, the Adviser seeks to invest in companies with sustainable competitive advantages. The Adviser typically favors companies with rising returns on invested capital, above-average business visibility, strong free cash flow generation and an attractive risk/reward.

Fundamental research drives the investment process. The Adviser studies on an ongoing basis company developments, including business strategy and financial results. The Adviser generally considers selling a portfolio holding when it determines that the holding no longer satisfies its investment criteria.

The Fund will make long-term investments in companies globally that the Adviser believes have the most durable long-term competitive advantages. The Fund may also invest in more moderate growth companies, companies with lower earnings volatility and/or companies with some cyclicality in their end markets.

The Fund may invest in foreign securities, which may include emerging market securities.

The Fund may invest in equity securities.

Risks

The Fund’s principal investment strategies are subject to the following principal risks:

Investing in the Fund may be appropriate for you if you are willing to accept the risks and uncertainties of investing in a portfolio of equity securities of issuers located throughout the world, including emerging market or developing countries. In general, prices of equity securities are more volatile than those of fixed income securities. The prices of equity securities fluctuate, and sometimes widely fluctuate, in response to activities specific to the issuer of the security as well as factors unrelated to the fundamental condition of the issuer, including general market, economic and political conditions. Investments in growth-oriented equity securities may have above-average volatility of price movement.

Investing in the securities of foreign issuers, particularly those located in emerging market or developing countries, entails the risk that news and events unique to a country or region will affect those markets and their issuers. The value of the Fund’s shares may vary widely in response to political and economic factors affecting companies in foreign countries. In addition, investments in certain foreign markets that have historically been considered stable may become more volatile and subject to increased risk due to ongoing developments and changing conditions in such markets. Although these events will not necessarily have an effect on the U.S. economy or similar issues located in the United States, the growing interconnectivity of global economies and financial markets has increased the probability that adverse developments and conditions in one country or region will affect the stability of economies and financial markets in other countries or regions.

The Fund’s investments in foreign issuers may be denominated in foreign currencies and therefore, to the extent unhedged, the value of those investments will fluctuate with U.S. dollar exchange rates.

In addition, at times, small and medium capitalization equity securities may underperform relative to the overall market. Investments in small and medium capitalization companies may involve greater risk than investments in larger, more established companies. The securities issued by small and medium capitalization companies may be less liquid and their prices subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements. In addition, small and medium capitalization companies may have more limited markets, financial resources and product lines, and may lack the depth of management of larger companies. The Adviser’s perception that a stock is under- or over-valued may not be accurate or may not be realized.

The Fund’s investments in illiquid securities may entail greater risk than investments in other types of securities. These securities may be more difficult to sell, particularly in times of market turmoil. Additionally, the market for certain investments deemed liquid at the time of purchase may become illiquid under adverse market or economic conditions. Illiquid securities may be more difficult to

4


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Details of the Fund

Global Permanence Portfolio (Con’t)

value. If the Fund is forced to sell an illiquid security to fund redemptions or for other cash needs, it may be forced to sell the security at a loss or for less than its fair value.

Please see “Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks” for further information about these and other risks of investing in the Fund.

5


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks

Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks

This section discusses additional information relating to the Fund’s investment strategies, other types of investments that the Fund may make and related risk factors. The Fund’s investment practices and limitations are described in more detail in the Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), which is incorporated by reference and legally is a part of this Prospectus. For details on how to obtain a copy of the SAI and other reports and information, see the back cover of this Prospectus.

Equity Securities

Equity securities may include common and preferred stocks, convertible securities and equity-linked securities, rights and warrants to purchase common stocks, depositary receipts, limited partnership interests and other specialty securities having equity features. The Fund may invest in equity securities that are publicly-traded on securities exchanges or over-the-counter (“OTC”) or in equity securities that are not publicly traded. Securities that are not publicly traded may be more difficult to sell and their value may fluctuate more dramatically than other securities. The prices of convertible securities are affected by changes similar to those of equity and fixed income securities.

A depositary receipt is generally issued by a bank or financial institution and represents the common stock or other equity securities of a foreign company. Depositary receipts involve many of the same risks as those associated with direct investment in foreign securities. In addition, the underlying issuers of certain depositary receipts, particularly unsponsored or unregistered depositary receipts, are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities.

A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, right, warrant or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock or other security of the same or a different issuer or into cash within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt securities or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities generally have characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. The value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates rise and, because of the conversion feature, tends to vary with fluctuations in the market value of the underlying securities. Convertible securities ordinarily provide a stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stock of the same or similar issuers. Convertible securities generally rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to other comparable nonconvertible fixed income securities in such capital structure. Convertible securities generally do not participate directly in any dividend increases or decreases of the underlying securities although the market prices of convertible securities may be affected by any dividend changes or other changes in the underlying securities.

Price Volatility

The value of your investment in the Fund is based on the market prices of the securities the Fund holds. These prices change daily due to economic and other events that affect markets generally, as well as those that affect particular regions, countries, industries, companies or governments. These price movements, sometimes called volatility, may be greater or less depending on the types of securities the Fund owns and the markets in which the securities trade. Over time, equity securities have generally shown gains superior to fixed income securities, although they have tended to be more volatile in the short term. Fixed income securities, regardless of credit quality, also experience price volatility, especially in response to interest rate changes. As a result of price volatility, there is a risk that you may lose money by investing in the Fund.

Foreign Investing

To the extent that the Fund invests in foreign issuers, there is the risk that news and events unique to a country or region will affect those markets and their issuers. These same events will not necessarily have an effect on the U.S. economy or similar issuers located in the United States. In addition, some of the Fund’s securities, including underlying securities represented by depositary receipts, generally will be denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, changes in the value of a country’s currency compared to the U.S. dollar may affect the value of the Fund’s investments. These changes may happen separately from, and in response to, events that do not otherwise affect the value of the security in the issuer’s home country. These risks may be intensified for the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers located in emerging market or developing countries.

Foreign Securities

Foreign issuers generally are subject to different accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards than U.S. issuers. There may be less information available to the public about foreign issuers. Securities of foreign issuers can be less liquid and experience greater price movements. In addition, the prices of such securities may be susceptible to influence by large traders, due to the limited size of many foreign securities markets. Moreover, investments in certain foreign markets that have historically been considered stable may become more volatile and subject to increased risk due to ongoing developments and changing conditions in such markets. Also, the growing interconnectivity of global economies and financial markets has increased the probability that adverse developments and conditions in one country or region will affect the stability of economies and financial markets in other countries or regions. In some foreign countries, there is also the risk of government expropriation, excessive taxation, political or social instability, the imposition of

6


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks

Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks (Con’t)

currency controls or diplomatic developments that could affect the Fund’s investment. There also can be difficulty obtaining and enforcing judgments against issuers in foreign countries. Foreign stock exchanges, broker-dealers and listed issuers may be subject to less government regulation and oversight. The cost of investing in foreign securities, including brokerage commissions and custodial expenses, can be higher than the cost of investing in domestic securities.

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Economic sanctions could, among other things, effectively restrict or eliminate the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell securities or groups of securities for a substantial period of time, and may make the Fund’s investments in such securities harder to value. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures. Investments in foreign markets may also be adversely affected by governmental actions such as the imposition of capital controls, nationalization of companies or industries, expropriation of assets or the imposition of punitive taxes. Governmental actions can have a significant effect on the economic conditions in foreign countries, which also may adversely affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments. For example, the governments of certain countries may prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on foreign investing in their capital markets or in certain sectors or industries. In addition, a foreign government may limit or cause delay in the convertibility or repatriation of its currency which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value and/or liquidity of investments denominated in that currency. Any of these actions could severely affect security prices, impair the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign securities or transfer the Fund’s assets back into the United States, or otherwise adversely affect the Fund’s operations. Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Certain foreign investments may become illiquid when, for instance, there are few, if any, interested buyers and sellers or when dealers are unwilling to make a market for certain securities. When the Fund holds illiquid investments, its portfolio may be harder to value.

Emerging Market Securities

The Fund may invest in emerging market or developing countries, which are countries that major international financial institutions generally consider to be less economically mature than developed nations (such as the United States or most nations in Western Europe). Emerging market or developing countries may be more likely to experience political turmoil or rapid changes in economic conditions than more developed countries, and the financial condition of issuers in emerging market or developing countries may be more precarious than in other countries. In addition, emerging market securities generally are less liquid and subject to wider price and currency fluctuations than securities issued in more developed countries. These characteristics result in greater risk of price volatility in emerging market or developing countries, which may be heightened by currency fluctuations relative to the U.S. dollar.

Foreign Currency

The Fund’s investments in foreign securities may be denominated in foreign currencies. The value of foreign currencies may fluctuate relative to the value of the U.S. dollar. Since the Fund may invest in such non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities, and therefore may convert the value of such securities into U.S. dollars, changes in currency exchange rates can increase or decrease the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s assets. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates and the overall economic health of the issuer. Devaluation of a currency by a country’s government or banking authority also will have a significant impact on the value of any investments denominated in that currency. The Adviser may use derivatives to reduce this risk. The Adviser may in its discretion choose not to hedge against currency risk. In addition, certain market conditions may make it impossible or uneconomical to hedge against currency risk.

Foreign Currency Forward Exchange Contracts

In connection with its investments in foreign securities, the Fund also may enter into contracts with banks, brokers or dealers to purchase or sell securities or foreign currencies at a future date. A foreign currency forward exchange contract is a negotiated agreement between the contracting parties to exchange a specified amount of currency at a specified future time at a specified rate. The rate can be higher or lower than the spot rate between the currencies that are the subject of the contract. Foreign currency forward exchange contracts may be used to protect against uncertainty in the level of future foreign currency exchange rates or to gain or modify exposure to a particular currency. In addition, the Fund may use cross currency hedging or proxy hedging with respect to currencies in which the Fund has or expects to have portfolio or currency exposure. Cross currency and proxy hedges involve the sale of one currency against the positive exposure to a different currency and may be used for hedging purposes or to establish an active exposure to the exchange rate between any two currencies.

Investments in foreign currency forward exchange contracts may substantially change the Fund’s exposure to currency exchange rates and could result in losses to the Fund if currencies do not perform as the Adviser expects. The Adviser’s success in these transactions will depend principally on its ability to predict accurately the future exchange rates between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar. Foreign currency forward exchange contracts may be used for non-hedging purposes in seeking to meet the Fund’s investment objective, such as when the Adviser anticipates that particular non-U.S. currencies will appreciate or depreciate in value, even though securities denominated in those currencies are not then held in the Fund’s investment portfolio. Investing in foreign currency forward exchange contracts for purposes of gaining from projected changes in exchange rates, as opposed to hedging currency risks

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc Prospectus | Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks

Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks (Con’t)

applicable to the Fund’s holdings, further increases the Fund’s exposure to foreign securities losses. There is no assurance that the Adviser’s use of currency derivatives will benefit the Fund or that they will be, or can be, used at appropriate times.

Derivatives

The Fund may, but is not required to, use derivative instruments for a variety of purposes, including hedging, risk management, portfolio management or to earn income. Derivative instruments used by the Fund will be counted toward the Fund’s exposure in the types of securities listed above to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to such securities. A derivative is a financial instrument whose value is based, in part, on the value of an underlying asset, interest rate, index or financial instrument. Prevailing interest rates and volatility levels, among other things, also affect the value of derivative instruments. A derivative instrument often has risks similar to its underlying asset and may have additional risks, including imperfect correlation between the value of the derivative and the underlying asset, risks of default by the counterparty to certain transactions, magnification of losses incurred due to changes in the market value of the securities, instruments, indices or interest rates to which the derivative instrument relates, risks that the transactions may not be liquid and risks arising from margin requirements. The use of derivatives involves risks that are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with other portfolio investments. Derivatives may involve the use of highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with other portfolio investments.

Certain derivative transactions may give rise to a form of leverage. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. Leverage associated with derivative transactions may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations or to meet earmarking or segregation requirements, pursuant to applicable SEC rules and regulations, or may cause the Fund to be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged. Although the Adviser seeks to use derivatives to further the Fund’s investment objective, there is no assurance that the use of derivatives will achieve this result.

The derivative instruments and techniques that the Fund may use include:

Futures. A futures contract is a standardized, exchange-traded agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying asset, reference rate or index at a specific price at a specific future time. The value of a futures contract tends to increase or decrease in tandem with the value of the underlying instrument. Depending on the terms of the particular contract, futures contracts are settled through either physical delivery of the underlying instrument on the settlement date or by payment of a cash settlement amount on the settlement date. A decision as to whether, when and how to use futures contracts involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived futures transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. In addition to the derivatives risks discussed above, the prices of futures contracts can be highly volatile, using futures contracts can lower total return, and the potential loss from futures contracts can exceed the Fund’s initial investment in such contracts. No assurance can be given that a liquid market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. There is also the risk of loss by the Fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with which the Fund has open positions in the futures contract.

Options. If the Fund buys an option, it buys a legal contract giving it the right to buy or sell a specific amount of the underlying instrument or foreign currency, or futures contract on the underlying instrument or foreign currency, at an agreed-upon price during a period of time or on a specified date typically in exchange for a premium paid by the Fund. If the Fund sells an option, it sells to another person the right to buy from or sell to the Fund a specific amount of the underlying instrument or foreign currency, or futures contract on the underlying instrument or foreign currency, at an agreed-upon price during a period of time or on a specified date typically in exchange for a premium received by the Fund. When options are purchased OTC, the Fund bears the risk that the counterparty that wrote the option will be unable or unwilling to perform its obligations under the option contract. Options may also be illiquid and the Fund may have difficulty closing out its position. A decision as to whether, when and how to use options involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived option transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. The prices of options can be highly volatile and the use of options can lower total returns.

Investments in foreign currency options may substantially change the Fund’s exposure to currency exchange rates and could result in losses to the Fund if currencies do not perform as the Adviser expects. There is a risk that such transactions could reduce or preclude the opportunity for gain if the value of the currency moves in the direction opposite to the position taken. The value of a foreign currency option is dependent upon the value of the underlying foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar. The price of the option may vary with changes in the value of either or both currencies and has no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security. Options on foreign currencies are affected by all of those factors that influence foreign exchange rates and foreign investment generally. Unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in losses to the Fund and poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not entered into such contracts. Options on foreign currencies are traded primarily in the OTC market, but may also be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges.

Foreign currency options contracts may be used for hedging purposes or non-hedging purposes in pursuing the Fund’s investment objective, such as when the Adviser anticipates that particular non-U.S. currencies will appreciate or depreciate in value, even though securities denominated in those currencies are not then held in the Fund’s investment portfolio. Investing in foreign currencies for purposes of gaining from projected changes in exchange rates, as opposed to only hedging currency risks applicable to the Fund’s

8


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks

Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks (Con’t)

holdings, further increases the Fund’s exposure to foreign securities losses. There is no assurance that the Adviser’s use of currency derivatives will benefit the Fund or that they will be, or can be, used at appropriate times.

Swaps. The Fund may enter into OTC swap contracts or cleared swap transactions. An OTC swap contract is an agreement between two parties pursuant to which the parties exchange payments at specified dates on the basis of a specified notional amount, with the payments calculated by reference to specified securities, indices, reference rates, currencies or other instruments. Typically swap agreements provide that when the period payment dates for both parties are the same, the payments are made on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with only the net amount paid by one party to the other). The Fund’s obligations or rights under a swap contract entered into on a net basis will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement, based on the relative values of the positions held by each party. Cleared swap transactions may help reduce counterparty credit risk. In a cleared swap, the Fund’s ultimate counterparty is a clearinghouse rather than a swap dealer, bank or financial institution. OTC swap agreements are not entered into or traded on exchanges and often there is no central clearing or guaranty function for swaps. These OTC swaps are often subject to credit risk or the risk of default or non-performance by the counterparty. Both OTC and cleared swaps could result in losses if interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates or other factors are not correctly anticipated by the Fund or if the reference index, security or investments do not perform as expected. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and related regulatory developments require the clearing and exchange-trading of certain standardized swap transactions. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing is occurring on a phased-in basis.

Contracts for Difference. A contract for difference (“CFD”) is a privately-negotiated contract between two parties, buyer and seller, stipulating that the seller will pay to or receive from the buyer the difference between the nominal value of the underlying instrument at the opening of the contract and that instrument’s value at the end of the contract. The underlying instrument may be a single security, stock basket or index. A CFD can be set up to take either a short or long position on the underlying instrument. The buyer and seller are typically both required to post margin, which is adjusted daily. The buyer will also pay to the seller a financing rate on the notional amount of the capital employed by the seller less the margin deposit. In addition to the general risks of derivatives, CFDs may be subject to liquidity risk and counterparty risk.

Structured Investments. The Fund also may invest a portion of its assets in structured investments. A structured investment is a derivative security designed to offer a return linked to a particular underlying security, currency, commodity or market. Structured investments may come in various forms including notes (such as exchange-traded notes), warrants and options to purchase securities. The Fund will typically use structured investments to gain exposure to a permitted underlying security, currency, commodity or market when direct access to a market is limited or inefficient from a tax or cost standpoint. There can be no assurance that structured investments will trade at the same price or have the same value as the underlying security, currency, commodity or market. Investments in structured investments involve risks including issuer risk, counterparty risk and market risk. Holders of structured investments bear risks of the underlying investment and are subject to issuer or counterparty risk because the Fund is relying on the creditworthiness of such issuer or counterparty and has no rights with respect to the underlying investment. Certain structured investments may be thinly traded or have a limited trading market and may have the effect of increasing the Fund’s illiquidity to the extent that the Fund, at a particular point in time, may be unable to find qualified buyers for these securities.

Exchange-Traded Funds

The Fund may invest in exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”). ETFs seek to track the performance of various portions or segments of the equity and fixed income markets. Shares of ETFs have many of the same risks as direct investments in common stocks or bonds. In addition, the market value of ETF shares may differ from their NAV because the supply and demand in the market for ETF shares at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the underlying securities. Also, ETFs that track particular indices typically will be unable to match the performance of the index exactly due to, among other things, the ETF’s operating expenses and transaction costs. ETFs typically incur fees that are separate from those fees incurred directly by the Fund. Therefore, as a shareholder in an ETF, the Fund would bear its ratable share of that entity’s expenses. At the same time, the Fund would continue to pay its own investment management fees and other expenses. As a result, the Fund and its shareholders, in effect, will be absorbing duplicate levels of fees with respect to investments in ETFs. Further, certain ETFs in which the Fund may invest are leveraged. While leveraged ETFs may offer the potential for greater return, the potential for loss and the speed at which losses can be realized also are greater. Leveraged ETFs can deviate substantially from the performance of their underlying benchmark over longer periods of time, particularly in volatile periods. Lack of liquidity in an ETF could result in it being more volatile than the underlying portfolio of securities. Furthermore, disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on the Fund’s investment in ETFs.

Initial Public Offerings

The Fund may purchase shares issued as part of, or a short period after, a company’s initial public offering (“IPO”), and may at times dispose of those shares shortly after their acquisition. The Fund’s purchase of shares issued in IPOs exposes it to the risks associated with companies that have little operating history as public companies, including unseasoned trading, small number of shares available for trading and limited information about the issuer, as well as to the risks inherent in those sectors of the market where these new issuers operate. The market for IPO issuers may be volatile, and share prices of newly-public companies have fluctuated significantly

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc Prospectus | Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks

Additional Information About the Fund’s Investment Strategies and Related Risks (Con’t)

over short periods of time. IPOs may produce high, double-digit returns. Such returns are highly unusual and may not be sustainable.

Private Placements and Restricted Securities

The Fund’s investments may include privately placed securities, which are subject to resale restrictions. These securities could have the effect of increasing the level of Fund illiquidity to the extent the Fund may be unable to sell or transfer these securities due to restrictions on transfers or on the ability to find buyers interested in purchasing the securities. Additionally, the market for certain investments deemed liquid at the time of purchase may become illiquid under adverse market or economic conditions. The illiquidity of the market, as well as the lack of publicly available information regarding these securities, may also adversely affect the ability to arrive at a fair value for certain securities at certain times and could make it difficult for the Fund to sell certain securities. If the Fund is forced to sell an illiquid security to fund redemptions or for other cash needs, it may be forced to sell the security at a loss or for less than its fair value.

Sector Risk

The Fund may, from time to time, invest more heavily in companies in a particular economic sector or sectors. Economic or regulatory changes adversely affecting such sectors may have more of an impact on the Fund’s performance than if the Fund held a broader range of investments.

Investment Discretion

In pursuing the Fund’s investment objective, the Adviser has considerable leeway in deciding which investments it buys, holds or sells on a day-to-day basis, and which trading strategies it uses. For example, the Adviser, in its discretion, may determine to use some permitted trading strategies while not using others. The success or failure of such decisions will affect the Fund’s performance.

Temporary Defensive Investments

When the Adviser believes that changes in market, economic, political or other conditions warrant, the Fund may invest without limit in cash, cash equivalents or other fixed income securities for temporary defensive purposes that may be inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies. If the Adviser incorrectly predicts the effects of these changes, such defensive investments may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Fund Management

Fund Management

Adviser

Morgan Stanley Investment Management Inc., with principal offices at 522 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10036, conducts a worldwide portfolio management business and provides a broad range of portfolio management services to customers in the United States and abroad. Morgan Stanley (NYSE: “MS”) is the parent of the Adviser, which is the parent of the Distributor. Morgan Stanley is a preeminent global financial services firm engaged in securities trading and brokerage activities, as well as providing investment banking, research and analysis, financing and financial advisory services. As of [  ], 2018, the Adviser, together with its affiliated asset management companies, had approximately $[ ] billion in assets under management or supervision.

[A discussion regarding the Board of Directors’ approval of the Investment Advisory Agreement will be available in the Fund’s Annual Report to Shareholders for the period ended [ ], 2018.]

Advisory Fees

The Adviser receives a fee for advisory services equal to 0.80% of the portion of the daily net assets not exceeding $1 billion and 0.75% of the portion of the daily net assets exceeding $1 billion. 

The Adviser has agreed to reduce its advisory fee and/or reimburse the Fund, if necessary, if such fees would cause the total annual operating expenses of the Fund to exceed 1.00% for Class I, 1.35% for Class A, 2.10% for Class C and 0.95% for Class IS. In determining the actual amount of fee waiver and/or expense reimbursement for the Fund, if any, the Adviser excludes from total annual operating expenses certain investment related expenses, taxes, interest and other extraordinary expenses (including litigation). The fee waivers and/or expense reimbursements for the Fund will continue for at least one year or until such time as the Company’s Board of Directors acts to discontinue all or a portion of such waivers and/or reimbursements when it deems such action is appropriate.

Portfolio Management

The Fund is managed by members of the Growth team. The team consists of portfolio managers and analysts. The current member of the team primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund is [ ].

Members of the team collaborate to manage the assets of the Fund.

The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the portfolio manager’s compensation structure, other accounts managed by the portfolio manager and the portfolio manager’s ownership of securities in the Fund.

The composition of the team may change from time to time.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information

Share Class Arrangements

The Company currently offers investors Class I, Class A, Class C and Class IS shares of the Fund. Class I and Class IS shares are not subject to a sales charge and are not subject to a distribution and/or shareholder service (12b-1) fee. In addition, no sub-accounting or other similar fees, or any finder’s fee payments are charged or paid on Class IS shares. Class C shares are sold at NAV with no initial sales charge, but are subject to a CDSC of 1.00% on sales made within one year after the last day of the month of purchase. Class I and Class IS shares generally require investments in minimum amounts that are substantially higher than Class A and Class C shares.

Minimum Investment Amounts

The minimum initial investment generally is $5,000,000 for Class I shares and $1,000 for each of Class A and Class C shares of the Fund. The minimum initial investment amount may be waived by the Adviser for the following categories: (1) sales through banks, broker-dealers and other financial institutions (including registered investment advisers and financial planners) purchasing shares on behalf of their clients in (i) discretionary and non-discretionary advisory programs, (ii) asset allocation programs, (iii) other programs in which the client pays an asset-based fee for advice or for executing transactions in Fund shares or for otherwise participating in the program or (iv) certain other investment programs that do not charge an asset-based fee, as outlined in an agreement between the Distributor and such financial institution; (2) sales through a Financial Intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer Fund shares to self-directed investment brokerage accounts, which may or may not charge a transaction fee; (3) qualified state tuition plans described in Section 529 of the Code (subject to all applicable terms and conditions); (4) defined contribution, defined benefit and other employer-sponsored employee benefit plans, whether or not qualified under the Code, where such plans purchase Class A, Class C and/or Class I shares through a plan-level or omnibus account sponsored or serviced by a Financial Intermediary that has entered into an agreement with the Fund, the Distributor and/or the Adviser pursuant to which such Class A, Class C and/or Class I shares are available to such plans; (5) certain retirement and deferred compensation programs established by Morgan Stanley Investment Management or its affiliates for their employees or the Company’s Directors; (6) current or retired directors, officers and employees of Morgan Stanley and any of its subsidiaries, such persons’ spouses, and children under the age of 21, and trust accounts for which any of such persons is a beneficiary; (7) current or retired Directors or Trustees of the Morgan Stanley Funds (as defined below), such persons’ spouses, and children under the age of 21, and trust accounts for which any of such persons is a beneficiary; (8) certain other registered open-end investment companies whose shares are distributed by the Distributor; (9) investments made in connection with certain mergers and/or reorganizations as approved by the Adviser; (10) the reinvestment of dividends from Class A, Class C or Class I shares of the Fund in additional shares of the same class of such Fund; or (11) certain other institutional investors based on assets under management or other considerations at the discretion of the Adviser.

Certain waivers may not be available depending on the policies at certain Financial Intermediaries. Please consult your Financial Intermediary for more information.

Class IS shares are offered only to eligible investors meeting certain minimum investment requirements. To purchase Class IS shares, an investor must meet a minimum initial investment of $10,000,000 or be a defined contribution, defined benefit or other employer sponsored employee benefit plan, in each case provided that the plan trades on an omnibus level, whether or not qualified under the Code and in each case subject to the discretion of the Adviser. Initial omnibus trades of $10,000,000 or more shall be accepted from certain platforms, including (i) banks and trust companies; (ii) insurance companies; and (iii) registered investment advisory firms. The $10,000,000 minimum initial investment amount may be waived for Fund shares purchased by or through: (1) certain registered open-end investment companies whose shares are distributed by the Distributor; or (2) investments made in connection with certain mergers and/or reorganizations as approved by the Adviser.

If the value of your account falls below the applicable minimum initial investment amount for a Class of shares of the Fund as a result of share redemptions or you no longer meet one of the waiver criteria set forth above, your account may be subject to involuntary conversion or involuntary redemption, as applicable. You will be notified prior to any such conversions or redemptions. No CDSC will be imposed on any involuntary conversion or involuntary redemption.

The Adviser, in its sole discretion, may waive a minimum initial investment amount in certain cases.

Distribution of Fund Shares

Morgan Stanley Distribution, Inc. is the exclusive Distributor of the shares of the Fund. The Distributor receives no compensation from the Company for distributing Class I and Class IS shares of the Fund. The Company has adopted a Shareholder Services Plan with respect to the Class A shares of the Fund and separate Distribution and Shareholder Services Plans with respect to the Class C shares of the Fund (the “Plans”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). Under the Plans, the Fund pays the Distributor (i) a shareholder services fee of up to 0.25% of the average daily net assets of each of the Class A shares and Class C shares on an annualized basis, and (ii) a distribution fee of up to 0.75% of the average daily net assets of the Class C shares on an annualized basis. The Distributor may compensate other parties for providing distribution-related and/or shareholder support services to investors who purchase Class A and Class C shares. Such fees relate solely to the Class A Class C shares and will reduce the net investment income and total return of the Class A and Class C shares, respectively. Because the fees are

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

paid out of the Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges.

The Adviser and/or Distributor may pay compensation to Financial Intermediaries in connection with the sale, distribution, marketing and retention of the Fund’s shares and/or shareholder servicing. Such compensation may be significant in amount and the prospect of receiving any such additional compensation may provide affiliated or unaffiliated Financial Intermediaries with an incentive to favor sales of shares of the Fund over other investment options. Any such payments will not change the NAV of the Fund. For more information, please see the Fund’s SAI.

About Net Asset Value

The NAV of a Class of shares of the Fund is determined by dividing the total of the value of the Fund’s investments and other assets attributable to the Class, less any liabilities attributable to the Class, by the total number of outstanding shares of that Class of the Fund. In making this calculation, the Fund generally values securities at market price. If market prices are unavailable or may be unreliable, including circumstances under which the Adviser determines that a security’s market price is not accurate, fair value prices may be determined in good faith using methods approved by the Board of Directors.

In addition, with respect to securities that primarily are listed on foreign exchanges, when an event occurs after the close of such exchanges that is likely to have changed the value of the securities (e.g., a percentage change in value of one or more U.S. securities indices in excess of specified thresholds), such securities will be valued at their fair value, as determined under procedures established by the Company’s Board of Directors. Securities also may be fair valued in the event of a significant development affecting a country or region or an issuer-specific development that is likely to have changed the value of the security. In these cases, the Fund’s NAV will reflect certain portfolio securities’ fair value rather than their market price. To the extent the Fund invests in open-end management companies (other than ETFs) that are registered under the 1940 Act, the Fund’s NAV is calculated based in relevant part upon the NAV of such funds. The prospectuses for such funds explain the circumstances under which they will use fair value pricing and its effects.

Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security is materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security.

Pricing of Fund Shares

You may buy or sell (redeem) shares of the Fund at the NAV next determined for the Class after receipt of your order in good order, plus any applicable sales charge. The Company determines the NAV for the Fund as of the close of the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) on each day that the NYSE is open for business (the “Pricing Time”). Shares generally will not be priced on days that the NYSE is closed. If the NYSE is closed due to inclement weather, technology problems or any other reason on a day it would normally be open for business, or the NYSE has an unscheduled early closing on a day it has opened for business, the Company reserves the right to treat such day as a business day and accept purchase and redemption orders until, and calculate its NAV as of, the normally scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE for that day, so long as the Adviser believes there generally remains an adequate market to obtain reliable and accurate market quotations. The Fund may elect to remain open and price its shares on days when the NYSE is closed but the primary securities markets on which the Fund’s securities trade remain open. Trading of securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges may take place on weekends and other days when the Fund does not price its shares. Therefore, to the extent, if any, that the Fund invests in securities primarily listed on foreign exchanges, the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your shares.

Portfolio Holdings

A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities is available in the Fund’s SAI.

How to Purchase Fund Shares

You may purchase shares of the Fund on each day that the Fund is open for business by contacting your Financial Intermediary or directly from the Fund.

Purchasing Shares Through a Financial Intermediary
 You may open a new account and purchase shares of the Fund through a Financial Intermediary. The Financial Intermediary will assist you with the procedures to invest in shares of the Fund. Investors purchasing or selling shares of the Fund through a Financial Intermediary, including Morgan Stanley Wealth Management, may be charged transaction-based or other fees by the Financial Intermediary for its services. If you are purchasing shares of the Fund through a Financial Intermediary, please consult your Financial Intermediary for more information regarding any such fees and for purchase instructions.

Financial Intermediaries may impose a limit on the dollar value of a Class C share purchase order that they will accept. You should discuss with your Financial Intermediary which share class is most appropriate for you based on the size of your investment, your expected time horizon for holding the shares and other factors, bearing in mind the availability of reduced sales loads on Class A

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

share purchases that qualify for such reduction under the combined purchase privilege or right of accumulation privilege available on Class A share purchases.

The availability of sales charge waivers and discounts may depend on whether you purchase Fund shares directly from the Fund (or the Distributor) or a Financial Intermediary. More information regarding sales charge discounts and waivers is summarized below. The Fund’s sales charge waivers (and discounts) disclosed in this Prospectus are available for qualifying purchases made directly from the Fund (or the Distributor) and are generally available through Financial Intermediaries. The sales charge waivers (and discounts) available through certain other Financial Intermediaries are set forth in Appendix A to this Prospectus (Intermediary-Specific Sales Charge Waivers and Discounts), which may differ from those available for purchases made directly from the Fund (or the Distributor). Please contact your Financial Intermediary regarding applicable sales charge waivers (and discounts) and for information regarding the Intermediary’s related policies and procedures.

Purchasing Shares Directly From the Fund
 

Initial Purchase by Mail
 
You may open a new account, subject to acceptance by the Fund, and purchase shares of the Fund by completing and signing a New Account Application provided by DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. (“DST”), the Company’s transfer agent, which you can obtain by calling DST at 1-800-548-7786 and mailing it to Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc., c/o DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc., P.O. Box 219804, Kansas City, MO 64121-9804 together with a check payable to Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc.

Please note that payments to investors who redeem shares of the Fund purchased by check will not be made until payment of the purchase has been collected, which may take up to 15 calendar days after purchase. You can avoid this delay by purchasing shares of the Fund by wire.

Initial Purchase by Wire
 
You may purchase shares of the Fund by wiring Federal Funds (monies credited by a Federal Reserve Bank) to State Street Bank and Trust Company (the “Custodian”). You must forward a completed New Account Application to DST in advance of the wire by following the instructions under “Initial Purchase by Mail.” You should instruct your bank to send a Federal Funds wire in a specified amount to the Custodian using the following wire instructions:

State Street Bank and Trust Company
 One Lincoln Street
 Boston, MA 02111-2101
 ABA #011000028
 DDA #00575373
 Attn: Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc.
 Subscription Account
 Ref: (Fund Name, Account Number, Account Name)

Additional Investments
 You may purchase additional shares of the Fund for your account at any time by contacting your Financial Intermediary or by contacting the Fund directly. For additional purchases directly from the Fund, you should write a “letter of instruction” that includes your account name, account number, the Fund name and the Class selected, signed by the account owner(s), to assure proper crediting to your account. The letter must be mailed along with a check in accordance with the instructions under “Initial Purchase by Mail.” You may also purchase additional shares of the Fund by wire by following the instructions under “Initial Purchase by Wire.”

Sales Charges Applicable to Purchases of Class A Shares

Class A shares are subject to a sales charge equal to a maximum of 5.25% calculated as a percentage of the offering price on a single transaction as shown in the table below. As shown below, the sales charge is reduced for purchases of $25,000 and over.

 

Front End Sales Charge 

 

Amount of Single Transaction

Percentage of Public Offering Price

Approximate Percentage of Net Amount Invested

Dealer Commission as a Percentage of Offering Price 

Less than $25,000 

5.25% 

5.54% 

5.00% 

$25,000 but less than $50,000 

4.75% 

4.99% 

4.50% 

$50,000 but less than $100,000 

4.00% 

4.17% 

3.75% 

$100,000 but less than $250,000 

3.00% 

3.09% 

2.75% 

$250,000 but less than $500,000 

2.50% 

2.56% 

2.25% 

$500,000 but less than $1 million 

2.00% 

2.04% 

1.80% 

$1 million and over*

0.00% 

0.00% 

0.00% 

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

* The Distributor may pay a commission of up to 1.00% to a Financial Intermediary for purchase amounts of $1 million or more.

You may benefit from a reduced sales charge schedule (i.e., breakpoint discount) for purchases of Class A shares of the Fund, by combining, in a single transaction, your purchase with purchases of Class A shares of the Fund by the following related accounts (“Related Accounts”):

 

A single account (including an individual, a joint account, a trust or fiduciary account).

 

A family member account (limited to spouse, and children under the age of 21, but including trust accounts established solely for the benefit of a spouse, or children under the age of 21).

 

An UGMA/UTMA (Uniform Gifts to Minors Act/Uniform Transfers to Minors Act) account.

 

An individual retirement account (“IRA”).
 

Investments made through employer-sponsored retirement plan accounts will not be aggregated with individual accounts.

Investments of $1 million or more are not subject to an initial sales charge, but are generally subject to a CDSC of 1.00% on sales made within 18 months after the last day of the month of purchase. See “—How to Redeem Fund Shares” below for more information about how the CDSC is assessed.

In addition to investments of $1 million or more, purchases of Class A shares are not subject to a front-end sales charge if your account qualifies under one of the following categories:

 

Sales through banks, broker-dealers and other financial institutions (including registered investment advisers and financial planners) purchasing shares on behalf of their clients in (i) discretionary and non-discretionary advisory programs, (ii) asset allocation programs, (iii) other programs in which the client pays an asset-based fee for advice or for executing transactions in Fund shares or for otherwise participating in the program or (iv) certain other investment programs that do not charge an asset-based fee, as outlined in an agreement between the Distributor and such financial institution.

 

Sales through Financial Intermediaries who have entered into an agreement with the Distributor to offer Fund shares to self-directed investment brokerage accounts, which may or may not charge a transaction fee.

 

Qualified state tuition plans described in Section 529 of the Code (subject to all applicable terms and conditions).

 

Defined contribution, defined benefit and other employer-sponsored employee benefit plans, whether or not qualified under the Code, where such plans purchase Class A shares through a plan-level or omnibus account sponsored or serviced by a Financial Intermediary that has an agreement with the Fund, the Distributor and/or the Adviser pursuant to which Class A shares are available to such plans without an initial sales charge.

 

Certain retirement and deferred compensation programs established by Morgan Stanley Investment Management or its affiliates for their employees or the Company’s Directors.

 

Current or retired Directors or Trustees of the Morgan Stanley Funds (as defined below), such persons’ spouses, and children under the age of 21, and trust accounts for which any of such persons is a beneficiary.

 

Current or retired directors, officers and employees of Morgan Stanley and any of its subsidiaries, such persons’ spouses, and children under the age of 21, and trust accounts for which any of such persons is a beneficiary.

 

Certain other registered open-end investment companies whose shares are distributed by the Distributor.

 

Investments made in connection with certain mergers and/or reorganizations as approved by the Adviser.

 

The reinvestment of dividends from Class A shares of the Fund in additional Class A shares of the same Fund.
 

Certain waivers may not be available depending on the policies at certain Financial Intermediaries. Please consult your Financial Intermediary for more information. For specific information with respect to sales charge waivers and discounts available through a specific Financial Intermediary, please refer to Appendix A attached to this Prospectus.

Combined Purchase Privilege
 You will have the benefit of a reduced sales charge by combining your purchase of Class A shares of the Fund in a single transaction with your purchase of Class A shares of any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund (as defined herein) for any Related Account except for purchases of shares of Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund Trust Short Duration Income or Ultra-Short Income Portfolios.

Right of Accumulation
 Your sales charge may be reduced if you invest $25,000 or more in a single transaction, as calculated below:

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

(a) the NAV of Class A shares of the Fund being purchased plus the total of the NAV of any Class A and Class C shares of the Fund held in Related Accounts as of the transaction date,

(b) plus the total of the NAV of Class A, Class B, Class L and Class C shares of any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund (including shares of Morgan Stanley Money Market Funds (as defined herein) that you acquired in a prior exchange of Class A shares of the Fund or Class A shares of another Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund, excluding the Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund Trust Short Duration Income or Ultra-Short Income Portfolios, held in Related Accounts as of the transaction date.

Notification
 You must notify your Financial Intermediary (or the Transfer Agent, if you purchase shares of the Fund directly through the Company) at the time a purchase order is placed, that the purchase qualifies for a reduced sales charge under any of the privileges discussed above. The reduced sales charge will not be granted if: (i) notification is not furnished at the time of the order; or (ii) a review of the records of your Financial Intermediary or the Company’s transfer agent, DST, does not confirm your represented holdings. Certain waivers may not be available depending on the policies at certain Financial Intermediaries. Please consult your Financial Intermediary for more information.

In order to obtain a reduced sales charge for Class A shares of the Fund under any of the privileges discussed above, it may be necessary at the time of purchase for you to inform your Financial Intermediary (or the Transfer Agent, if you purchase shares of the Fund directly through the Company) of the existence of any Related Accounts in which there are holdings eligible to be aggregated to meet the sales load breakpoint and/or right of accumulation threshold. In order to verify your eligibility, you may be required to provide account statements and/or confirmations regarding your purchases and/or holdings of any Class A shares of the Fund or any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund (including shares of Morgan Stanley Money Market Funds which you acquired in an exchange from Class A shares of the Fund or any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund except Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund Trust Short Duration Income and Ultra-Short Income Portfolios) held in all Related Accounts at your Financial Intermediary, in order to determine whether you have met the sales load breakpoint and/or right of accumulation threshold.

Letter of Intent
 The above schedule of reduced sales charges for larger purchases also will be available to you if you enter into a written “Letter of Intent.” A Letter of Intent provides for the purchase of Class A shares of the Fund and Class A shares of other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Funds, except Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund Trust Short Duration Income and Ultra-Short Income Portfolios, within a 13-month period. The initial purchase of Class A shares of the Fund under a Letter of Intent must be at least 5% of the stated investment goal. The Letter of Intent does not preclude the Fund (or any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund) from discontinuing sales of its shares. To determine the applicable sales charge reduction, you may also include (1) the cost of Class A shares of the Fund or any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund which were previously purchased at a price including a front-end sales charge during the 90-day period prior to the Distributor receiving the Letter of Intent and (2) the historical cost of shares of any Morgan Stanley Money Market Fund which you acquired in an exchange from Class A shares of the Fund or any other Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund purchased during that period at a price including a front-end sales charge. You may also combine purchases and exchanges by any Related Accounts during such 90-day period. You should retain any records necessary to substantiate historical costs because the Fund, DST and your Financial Intermediary may not maintain this information. You can obtain a Letter of Intent by contacting your Financial Intermediary. If you do not achieve the stated investment goal within the 13-month period, you are required to pay the difference between the sales charges otherwise applicable and sales charges actually paid, which may be deducted from your investment. Shares acquired through reinvestment of distributions are not aggregated to achieve the stated investment goal.

Conversion Features

A shareholder currently holding Class A shares of the Fund in a fee-based advisory program (“Advisory Program”) account, or currently holding Class A shares in a brokerage account but wishing to transfer into an Advisory Program account, may convert such shares to Class I shares of the Fund within the Advisory Program at any time. In addition, a shareholder holding Class C shares of the Fund through a brokerage account may convert such shares to either Class A or Class I shares of the Fund within an Advisory Program at any time. Such conversions will be on the basis of the relative NAVs, without requiring any investment minimum to be met and without the imposition of any redemption fee or other charge. If a CDSC is applicable to such Class A or Class C shares, then the conversion may not occur until after the shareholder has held the shares for an 18-month or 12-month period, respectively, except that, effective May 1, 2017, a CDSC applicable to Class A and Class C shares converted to Class I shares through Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, Rollover IRAs, Inherited IRAs, SEP IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, BASIC Plans, Educational Savings Accounts and Medical Savings Accounts on the Merrill Lynch platform will be waived. With respect to Class A shares, Merrill Lynch will remit to the Distributor the full amount of the CDSC otherwise payable upon sale of such shares. With respect to Class C shares, Merrill Lynch will remit the portion of the payment to be made to the Distributor in an amount equal to the CDSC multiplied by the number of months remaining on the CDSC period divided by the maximum number of months of the CDSC period.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

Furthermore, the Adviser may in its sole discretion permit a conversion of one share Class to another share Class of the same Fund in certain other circumstances, provided that the Fund’s eligibility requirements are met, and subject to the shareholder’s consent. Such conversions will be on the basis of the relative NAVs and without the imposition of any redemption fee or other charge.

A conversion of shares of one Class directly for shares of another Class of the same Fund normally should not be taxable for federal income tax purposes.

Please ask your financial advisor if you are eligible for converting a Class of shares pursuant to these conversion features. You should talk to your tax advisor before making a conversion.

General

Shares of the Fund may, in the Fund’s discretion, be purchased with investment securities (in lieu of or, in conjunction with, cash) acceptable to the Fund. The securities would be accepted by the Fund at their market value in return for Fund shares of equal value, taking into account any applicable sales charge.

To help the U.S. Government fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering activities, federal law requires all financial institutions to obtain, verify and record information that identifies each person who opens an account. What this means to you: when you open an account, we will ask your name, address, date of birth and other information that will allow us to identify you. If we are unable to verify your identity, we reserve the right to restrict additional transactions and/or liquidate your account at the next calculated NAV after your account is closed (less any applicable sales/account charges and/or tax penalties) or take any other action required by law. In accordance with federal law requirements, the Fund has implemented an anti-money laundering compliance program, which includes the designation of an anti-money laundering compliance officer.

When you buy Fund shares, the shares (plus any applicable sales charge) will be purchased at the next share price calculated after we receive your purchase order in good order. Purchase orders not received in good order prior to Pricing Time will be executed at the NAV next determined after the purchase order is received in good order. Certain institutional investors and financial institutions have entered into arrangements with the Fund, the Adviser and/or the Distributor pursuant to which they may place orders prior to the Pricing Time, but make payment in Federal Funds for those shares up to three days after the purchase order is placed, depending on the arrangement. We reserve the right to reject any order for the purchase of Fund shares for any reason.

The Company may suspend the offering of shares, or any Class of shares, of the Fund or reject any purchase orders when we think it is in the best interest of the Fund.

Certain patterns of past exchanges and/or purchase or sale transactions involving the Fund may result in the Fund rejecting, limiting or prohibiting, at its sole discretion, and without prior notice, additional purchases and/or exchanges and may result in a shareholder’s account being closed. Determinations in this regard may be made based on the frequency or dollar amount of previous exchanges or purchase or sale transactions. See “Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares.”

How To Redeem Fund Shares

You may process a redemption request by contacting your Financial Intermediary. Otherwise, you may redeem shares of the Fund by mail or, if authorized, by telephone, at no charge other than as described below. The value of shares redeemed may be more or less than the purchase price, depending on the NAV at the time of redemption. Shares of the Fund will be redeemed at the NAV next determined after we receive your redemption request in good order and will be reduced by the amount of any applicable CDSC.

With respect to Class A and Class C shares, the CDSC is assessed on an amount equal to the lesser of the then market value of the shares or the historical cost of the shares (which is the amount actually paid for the shares at the time of original purchase) being redeemed. Accordingly, no sales charge is imposed on increases in NAV above the initial purchase price. In determining whether a CDSC applies to a redemption, it is assumed that the shares being redeemed first are any shares in the shareholder’s account that are not subject to a CDSC, followed by shares held the longest in the shareholder’s account. A CDSC may be waived under certain circumstances. See the Class A and Class C CDSC waiver categories below.

Redemptions by Letter
 Requests should be addressed to Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc., c/o DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc., P.O. Box 219804, Kansas City, MO 64121-9804.

To be in good order, redemption requests must include the following documentation:

(a)  A letter of instruction, if required, or a stock assignment specifying the account name, the account number, the name of the Fund and the number of shares or dollar amount to be redeemed, signed by all registered owners of the shares in the exact names in which the shares are registered, and whether you wish to receive the redemption proceeds by check or by wire to the bank account we have on file for you;

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

(b)  Any required signature guarantees if you are requesting payment to anyone other than the registered owner(s) or that payment be sent to any address other than the address of the registered owner(s) or pre-designated bank account; and

(c)  Other supporting legal documents, if required, in the case of estates, trusts, guardianships, custodianship, corporations, pension and profit sharing plans and other organizations.

Redemptions by Telephone
 You automatically have telephone redemption and exchange privileges unless you indicate otherwise by checking the applicable box on the New Account Application or calling DST to opt out of such privileges. You may request a redemption of shares of the Fund by calling the Fund at 1-800-548-7786 and requesting that the redemption proceeds be mailed or wired to you. You cannot redeem shares of the Fund by telephone if you hold share certificates for those shares. For your protection when calling the Fund, we will employ reasonable procedures to confirm that instructions communicated over the telephone are genuine. These procedures may include requiring various forms of personal identification (such as name, mailing address, social security number or other tax identification number), tape-recording telephone communications and providing written confirmation of instructions communicated by telephone. If reasonable procedures are employed, none of Morgan Stanley, DST or the Fund will be liable for following telephone instructions which it reasonably believes to be genuine. Telephone redemptions and exchanges may not be available if you cannot reach DST by telephone, whether because all telephone lines are busy or for any other reason; in such case, a shareholder would have to use the Fund’s other redemption and exchange procedures described in this section. Telephone instructions will be accepted if received by DST between 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. Eastern time on any day the NYSE is open for business. During periods of drastic economic or market changes, it is possible that the telephone privileges may be difficult to implement, although this has not been the case with the Fund in the past. To opt out of telephone privileges, please contact DST at 1-800-548-7786.

Systematic Withdrawal Plan
 If your investment in all of the Morgan Stanley Funds (as defined below) has a total market value of at least $10,000, you may elect to withdraw amounts of $25 or more, or in any whole percentage of a fund’s balance (provided the amount is at least $25), on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual basis, from any fund with a balance of at least $1,000. Each time you add a fund to the plan, you must meet the plan requirements.

Amounts withdrawn are subject to any applicable CDSC. A CDSC may be waived under certain circumstances. See the Class A and Class C CDSC waiver categories listed below.

To sign up for the systematic withdrawal plan, contact your Morgan Stanley Financial Advisor or call toll-free (800) 548-7786. You may terminate or suspend your plan at any time. Please remember that withdrawals from the plan are sales of shares, not Fund “distributions,” and ultimately may exhaust your account balance. The Fund may terminate or revise the plan at any time.

CDSC Waivers on Class A and Class C Shares
 The CDSC on Class A and Class C shares will be waived in connection with sales of Class A and Class C shares for which no commission or transaction fee was paid by the Distributor or Financial Intermediary at the time of purchase of such shares. In addition, a CDSC, if otherwise applicable, will be waived in the case of:

 

Sales of shares held at the time you die or become disabled (within the definition in Section 72(m)(7) of the Code, which relates to the ability to engage in gainful employment), if the shares are: (i) registered either in your individual name or in the names of you and your spouse as joint tenants with right of survivorship; (ii) registered in the name of a trust of which (a) you are the settlor and that is revocable by you (i.e., a “living trust”) or (b) you and your spouse are the settlors and that is revocable by you or your spouse (i.e., a “joint living trust”); or (iii) held in a qualified corporate or self-employed retirement plan, IRA or 403(b) Custodial Account; provided in either case that the sale is requested within one year after your death or initial determination of disability.

 

Sales in connection with the following retirement plan “distributions”: (i) lump-sum or other distributions from a qualified corporate or self-employed retirement plan following retirement (or, in the case of a “key employee” of a “top heavy” plan, following attainment of age 59 1/2); (ii) required minimum distributions and certain other distributions (such as those following attainment of age 59 1/2) from an IRA or 403(b) Custodial Account; or (iii) a tax-free return of an excess IRA contribution (a distribution does not include a direct transfer of IRA, 403(b) Custodial Account or retirement plan assets to a successor custodian or trustee).

 

Sales of shares in connection with the systematic withdrawal plan of up to 12% annually of the value of each fund from which plan sales are made. The percentage is determined on the date you establish the systematic withdrawal plan and based on the next calculated share price. You may have this CDSC waiver applied in amounts up to 1% per month, 3% per quarter, 6% semi-annually or 12% annually. Shares with no CDSC will be sold first, followed by those with the lowest CDSC. As such, the waiver benefit will be reduced by the amount of your shares that are not subject to a CDSC. If you suspend your participation in the plan, you may later resume plan payments without requiring a new determination of the account value for the 12% CDSC waiver.
 

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

The Distributor may require confirmation of your entitlement before granting a CDSC waiver. If you believe you are eligible for a CDSC waiver, please contact your Financial Intermediary or call toll-free 1-800-548-7786.

Redemption Proceeds
 The Fund typically expects to pay redemption proceeds to you within three business days following receipt of your redemption request for those payments made to your brokerage account held with a financial intermediary. For redemption proceeds that are paid directly to you by the Fund, the Fund typically expects to pay redemption proceeds by check or by wire to you within one business day, following receipt of your redemption request; however, in all cases, it may take up to seven calendar days to pay redemption proceeds. However, if you purchased shares of the Fund by check, the Fund will not distribute redemption proceeds until it has collected your purchase payment, which may take up to 15 calendar days.

The Fund typically expects to meet redemption requests by using a combination of sales of securities held by the Fund and/or holdings of cash and cash equivalents. On a less regular basis, the Fund also reserves the right to use borrowings to meet redemption requests, and the Fund may use these methods during both normal and stressed market conditions.

If we determine that it is in the best interest of the Company or Fund not to pay redemption proceeds in cash, we may distribute to you securities held by the Fund. If requested, we will pay a portion of your redemption(s) in cash (during any 90 day period) up to the lesser of $250,000 or 1% of the net assets of the Fund at the beginning of such period. If the Fund redeems your shares in-kind, you will bear any market risks associated with the securities paid as redemption proceeds. Such in-kind securities may be illiquid and difficult or impossible for a shareholder to sell at a time and at a price that a shareholder would like. Redemptions paid in such securities generally will give rise to income, gain or loss for income tax purposes in the same manner as redemptions paid in cash. In addition, you may incur brokerage costs and a further gain or loss for income tax purposes when you ultimately sell the securities.

Exchange Privilege

You may exchange shares of any Class of the Fund for the same Class of shares of any mutual fund (excluding money market funds) sponsored and advised by the Adviser (each, a “Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund”), if available, without the imposition of an exchange fee. Front-end sales charges (loads) are not imposed on exchanges of Class A shares. In addition, you may exchange shares of any Class of the Fund for shares of Morgan Stanley California Tax-Free Daily Income Trust, Morgan Stanley New York Municipal Money Market Trust, Morgan Stanley Tax-Free Daily Income Trust and Morgan Stanley U.S. Government Money Market Trust (each, a “Morgan Stanley Money Market Fund” and, together with the Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Funds, the “Morgan Stanley Funds”), if available, without the imposition of an exchange fee. Because purchases of Class A shares of Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund Trust Short Duration Income and Ultra-Short Income Portfolios are not subject to a sales charge, you will be subject to the payment of a sales charge, at time of exchange into Class A shares of a Morgan Stanley Fund, based on the amount that you would have owed if you directly purchased Class A shares of that Morgan Stanley Fund (less any sales charge previously paid in connection with shares exchanged for such shares of Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund Trust Short Duration Income or Ultra-Short Income Portfolios, as applicable). Exchanges are effected based on the respective NAVs of the applicable Morgan Stanley Fund (subject to any applicable redemption fee) and in accordance with the eligibility requirements of such Fund. To obtain a prospectus for another Morgan Stanley Fund, contact your Financial Intermediary or call the Fund at 1-800-548-7786. If you purchased Fund shares through a Financial Intermediary, certain Morgan Stanley Funds may be unavailable for exchange. Contact your Financial Intermediary to determine which Morgan Stanley Funds are available for exchange.

The current prospectus for each Morgan Stanley Fund describes its investment objective(s), policies and investment minimums, and should be read before investment. Since exchanges are available only into continuously offered Morgan Stanley Funds, exchanges are not available into Morgan Stanley Funds or classes of Morgan Stanley Funds that are not currently being offered for purchase.

You can process your exchange by contacting your Financial Intermediary. You may also send exchange requests to the Company’s transfer agent, DST, by mail to Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc., c/o DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc., P.O. Box 219804, Kansas City, MO 64121-9804 or by calling 1-800-548-7786.

There are special considerations when you exchange Class A and Class C shares of the Fund that are subject to a CDSC. When determining the length of time you held the Class A or Class C shares, any period (starting at the end of the month) during which you held such shares will be counted. In addition, any period (starting at the end of the month) during which you held (i) Class A or Class C shares of other funds of the Company; (ii) Class A or Class C shares of a Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund; or (iii) shares of a Morgan Stanley Money Market Fund, any of which you acquired in an exchange from such Class A or Class C shares of the Fund, will also be counted; however, if you sell shares of (a) such other funds of the Company; (b) the Morgan Stanley Multi-Class Fund; or (c) the Morgan Stanley Money Market Fund, before the expiration of the CDSC “holding period,” you will be charged the CDSC applicable to such shares.

When you exchange for shares of another Morgan Stanley Fund, your transaction will be treated the same as an initial purchase. You will be subject to the same minimum initial investment and account size as an initial purchase. Your exchange price will be the price calculated at the next Pricing Time after the Morgan Stanley Fund receives your exchange order. The Morgan Stanley Fund, in its

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

sole discretion, may waive the minimum initial investment amount in certain cases. For direct accounts, the check writing privilege is not available for Morgan Stanley Money Market Fund shares you acquire in an exchange from a non-money market fund. If you are investing through a financial advisor, check with your advisor regarding the availability of check writing privileges. The Fund may terminate or revise the exchange privilege upon required notice or in certain cases without notice. The Fund reserves the right to reject an exchange order for any reason.

If you exchange shares of the Fund for shares of another Morgan Stanley Fund, there are important tax considerations. For tax purposes, the exchange out of the Fund is considered a sale of Fund shares and the exchange into the other fund is considered a purchase. As a result, you may realize a capital gain or loss. You should review the “Taxes” section and consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an exchange.

Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares

Frequent purchases and redemptions of shares by Fund shareholders are referred to as “market-timing” or “short-term trading” and may present risks for other shareholders of the Fund, which may include, among other things, diluting the value of the Fund’s shares held by long-term shareholders, interfering with the efficient management of the Fund, increasing brokerage and administrative costs, incurring unwanted taxable gains and forcing the Fund to hold excess levels of cash.

In addition, the Fund is subject to the risk that market-timers and/or short-term traders may take advantage of time zone differences between the foreign markets on which the Fund’s securities trade and the time the Fund’s NAV is calculated (“time-zone arbitrage”). For example, a market-timer may purchase shares of the Fund based on events occurring after foreign market closing prices are established, but before the Fund’s NAV calculation, that are likely to result in higher prices in foreign markets the following day. The market-timer would redeem the Fund’s shares the next day when the Fund’s share price would reflect the increased prices in foreign markets for a quick profit at the expense of long-term Fund shareholders.

Investments in other types of securities also may be susceptible to short-term trading strategies. These investments include securities that are, among other things, thinly traded, traded infrequently or relatively illiquid, which have the risk that the current market price for the securities may not accurately reflect current market values. A shareholder may seek to engage in short-term trading to take advantage of these pricing differences (referred to as “price arbitrage”). Investments in certain fixed income securities may be adversely affected by price arbitrage trading strategies.

The Company discourages and does not accommodate frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by Fund shareholders and the Company’s Board of Directors has adopted policies and procedures with respect to such frequent purchases and redemptions.

The Company’s policies with respect to purchases, redemptions and exchanges of Fund shares are described in the “Shareholder Information—How To Purchase Fund Shares,” “Shareholder Information—Sales Charges Applicable to Purchases of Class A Shares,” “Shareholder Information—General,” “Shareholder Information—How To Redeem Fund Shares” and “Shareholder Information—Exchange Privilege” sections of this Prospectus. Except as described in each of these sections, and with respect to trades that occur through omnibus accounts at Financial Intermediaries, as described below, the Company’s policies regarding frequent trading of Fund shares are applied uniformly to all shareholders. With respect to trades that occur through omnibus accounts at Financial Intermediaries, such as investment advisers, broker-dealers, transfer agents and third-party administrators, the Fund (i) has requested assurance that such Financial Intermediaries currently selling Fund shares have in place internal policies and procedures reasonably designed to address market-timing concerns and has instructed such Financial Intermediaries to notify the Fund immediately if they are unable to comply with such policies and procedures and (ii) requires all prospective Financial Intermediaries to agree to cooperate in enforcing the Company’s policies (or, upon prior written approval only, a Financial Intermediary’s own policies) with respect to frequent purchases, redemptions and exchanges of Fund shares.

With respect to trades that occur through omnibus accounts at Financial Intermediaries, to some extent, the Fund relies on the Financial Intermediary to monitor frequent short-term trading within the Fund by the Financial Intermediary’s customers. However, the Fund has entered into agreements with Financial Intermediaries whereby Financial Intermediaries are required to provide certain customer identification and transaction information upon the Fund’s request. The Fund may use this information to help identify and prevent market-timing activity in the Fund. There can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to identify or prevent all market-timing activities.

Dividends and Distributions

The Fund’s policy is to distribute to shareholders substantially all of its net investment income, if any, in the form of an annual dividend and to distribute net realized capital gains, if any, at least annually.

The Fund automatically reinvests all dividends and distributions in additional shares. However, you may elect to receive distributions in cash by giving written notice to the Fund or your Financial Intermediary or by checking the appropriate box in the Distribution Option section on the New Account Application.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

Taxes

The dividends and distributions you receive from the Fund may be subject to federal, state and local taxation, depending on your tax situation. The tax treatment of dividends and distributions is the same whether or not you reinvest them. Dividends paid by the Fund that are attributable to “qualified dividends” received by the Fund may be taxed at reduced rates to individual shareholders (either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts), if certain requirements are met by the Fund and the shareholders. “Qualified dividends” include dividends distributed by certain foreign corporations (generally, corporations incorporated in a possession of the United States, some corporations eligible for treaty benefits under a treaty with the United States and corporations whose stock with respect to which such dividend is paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States, but not including passive foreign investment companies). Dividends paid by the Fund not attributable to “qualified dividends” received by the Fund, including distributions of short-term capital gains, will generally be taxed at normal tax rates applicable to ordinary income. The maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains (including capital gain dividends received from the Fund) is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. The Fund may be able to pass through to you a credit for foreign income taxes it pays. The Fund will tell you annually how to treat dividends and distributions.

If you redeem shares of the Fund, you may be subject to tax on any gains you earn based on your holding period for the shares and your marginal tax rate. An exchange of shares of the Fund for shares of another portfolio is treated for tax purposes as a sale of the original shares in the Fund, followed by the purchase of shares in the other portfolio. Conversions of shares between classes will not result in taxation.

If you buy shares of the Fund before a distribution, you will be subject to tax on the entire amount of the taxable distribution you receive. Distributions are taxable to you even if they are paid from income or gain earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the price you paid for your Fund shares).

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

Shareholders who are not citizens or residents of the United States and certain foreign entities will generally be subject to withholding of U.S. tax of 30% on distributions made by the Fund of investment income and short-term capital gains.

The Fund is required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of taxable dividends and (effective January 1, 2019) redemption proceeds and certain capital gain dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to the Fund to enable the Fund to determine whether withholding is required.

The Fund (or its administrative agent) is required to report to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and furnish to Fund shareholders the cost basis information for sale transactions of shares purchased on or after January 1, 2012. Shareholders may elect to have one of several cost basis methods applied to their account when calculating the cost basis of shares sold, including average cost, FIFO (“first-in, first-out”) or some other specific identification method. Unless you instruct otherwise, the Fund will use average cost as its default cost basis method, and will treat sales as first coming from shares purchased prior to January 1, 2012. If average cost is used for the first sale of Fund shares covered by these new rules, the shareholder may only use an alternative cost basis method for shares purchased prospectively. Fund shareholders should consult with their tax advisors to determine the best cost basis method for their tax situation.

The Fund may be required to withhold U.S. federal income tax (currently, at a rate of 24%) (“backup withholding”) from all taxable distributions payable to (1) any shareholder who fails to furnish the Fund with its correct taxpayer identification number or a certificate that the shareholder is exempt from backup withholding, and (2) any shareholder with respect to whom the IRS notifies the Fund that the shareholder has failed to properly report certain interest and dividend income to the IRS and to respond to notices to that effect. An individual’s taxpayer identification number is his or her social security number. The 24% backup withholding tax is not an additional tax and may be credited against a taxpayer’s regular federal income tax liability.

Because each investor’s tax circumstances are unique and the tax laws may change, you should consult your tax advisor about your investment.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Shareholder Information

Shareholder Information (Con’t)

The Company currently consists of the following Funds:

U.S. Equity
 Advantage Portfolio
 Fundamental Multi-Cap Core Portfolio*
 Growth Portfolio
 Insight Portfolio
 Small Company Growth Portfolio
 US Core Portfolio*

Global and International Equity
 Active International Allocation Portfolio
 Asia Opportunity Portfolio*
 Emerging Markets Breakout Nations Portfolio*
 Emerging Markets Leaders Portfolio*
 Emerging Markets Portfolio
 Emerging Markets Small Cap Portfolio*
 Frontier Markets Portfolio
 Global Advantage Portfolio
 Global Concentrated Portfolio*
 Global Core Portfolio*
 Global Counterpoint Portfolio*
 Global Discovery Portfolio
 Global Franchise Portfolio
 Global Insight Portfolio
 Global Opportunity Portfolio
 Global Permanence Portfolio*
 Global Sustain Portfolio
 International Advantage Portfolio
 International Equity Portfolio
 International Opportunity Portfolio

Fixed Income
 Emerging Markets Fixed Income Opportunities Portfolio

Asset Allocation
 Multi-Asset Portfolio

Listed Real Asset
 Global Concentrated Real Estate Portfolio*
 Global Infrastructure Portfolio
 Global Real Estate Portfolio
 International Real Estate Portfolio
 Real Assets Portfolio*
 U.S. Real Estate Portfolio

The Company has suspended offering Class L shares of each Fund to all investors.

* The Asia Opportunity, Emerging Markets Breakout Nations, Emerging Markets Leaders, Emerging Markets Small Cap, Fundamental Multi-Cap Core, Global Concentrated, Global Concentrated Real Estate, Global Core, Global Counterpoint, Global Permanence, Real Assets and US Core Portfolios do not offer Class L shares. The Fundamental Multi-Cap Core Portfolio is not yet in operation; accordingly, it is not currently offered to investors.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Financial Highlights

Financial Highlights

No financial information is provided for the Fund because it had not commenced operations as of the date of this Prospectus. Financial information will be provided in the first report to shareholders after commencement of operations.

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Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus  |  Appendix

Appendix A

Intermediary-Specific Sales Charge Waivers and Discounts

The availability of certain sales charge waivers and discounts will depend on whether you purchase your shares directly from the Fund or through a Financial Intermediary. Financial Intermediaries may have different policies and procedures regarding the availability of front-end sales charge waivers or CDSC waivers, which are discussed below. In all instances, it is the purchaser’s responsibility to notify the Fund or the purchaser’s Financial Intermediary at the time of purchase of any relationship or other facts qualifying the purchaser for sales charge waivers or discounts. For waivers and discounts not available through a particular Financial Intermediary, shareholders will have to purchase Fund shares directly from the Fund (or the Distributor) or through another Financial Intermediary to receive these waivers or discounts. A Financial Intermediary’s administration and implementation of its particular policies with respect to any variations, waivers and/or discounts is neither supervised nor verified by the Fund, the Adviser or the Distributor. The Fund and the Distributor do not provide investment advice or recommendations or any form of tax or legal advice to existing or potential shareholders with respect to investment transactions involving the Fund.

*****

Effective May 1, 2017, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Merrill Lynch platform or account are eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and CDSC waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s Prospectus or SAI and are subject to change.

Front-end Sales Load Waivers on Class A Shares available at Merrill Lynch

 

Employer-sponsored retirement, deferred compensation and employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) and trusts used to fund those plans, provided that the shares are not held in a commission-based brokerage account and shares are held for the benefit of the plan

 

Shares purchased by or through a 529 Plan

 

Shares purchased through a Merrill Lynch affiliated investment advisory program

 

Shares purchased by third party investment advisors on behalf of their advisory clients through Merrill Lynch’s platform

 

Shares of funds purchased through the Merrill Edge Self-Directed platform

 

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment when purchasing shares of the same fund (but not any other fund within the fund family)

 

Shares exchanged from Class C (i.e. level-load) shares of the same fund in the month of or following the 10-year anniversary of the purchase date. To the extent that this prospectus elsewhere provides for a conversion with respect to such shares (or any other Class of shares) to load waived shares following a shorter holding period, that conversion right will apply following such shorter period

 

Employees and registered representatives of Merrill Lynch or its affiliates and their family members

 

(i) Current and retired Directors or Trustees of the Morgan Stanley Funds, such persons’ spouses, and children under the age of 21, and trust accounts for which any of such persons is a beneficiary; (ii) current or retired directors, officers and employees of Morgan Stanley and any of its subsidiaries, such persons’ spouses, and children under the age of 21, and trust accounts for which any of such persons is a beneficiary; and (iii) certain retirement and deferred compensation programs established by Morgan Stanley Investment Management or its affiliates for their employees or the Company’s Directors, as described in this Prospectus

 

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (known as Rights of Reinstatement)
 

CDSC Waivers on A, B and C Shares available at Merrill Lynch

 

Death or disability of the shareholder

 

Shares sold as part of a systematic withdrawal plan as described in the Fund’s Prospectus

 

Return of excess contributions from an IRA Account

 

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and retirement accounts due to the shareholder reaching age 70½

 

Shares sold to pay Merrill Lynch fees but only if the transaction is initiated by Merrill Lynch

 

Shares acquired through a right of reinstatement

 

Shares held in retirement brokerage accounts, that are exchanged for a lower cost share class due to transfer to certain fee based accounts or platforms (applicable to A and C shares only)
 

24


 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. Prospectus | Appendix

Appendix A (Con’t)

Front-end Load Discounts Available at Merrill Lynch: Breakpoints, Rights of Accumulation & Letters of Intent

 

Breakpoints as described in this Prospectus

 

Rights of Accumulation (ROA) which entitle shareholders to breakpoint discounts will be automatically calculated based on the aggregated holding of fund family assets held by accounts within the purchaser’s household at Merrill Lynch. Eligible fund family assets not held at Merrill Lynch may be included in the ROA calculation only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets

 

Letters of Intent (LOI) which allow for breakpoint discounts based on anticipated purchases within a fund family, through Merrill Lynch, over a 13-month period of time
 

25


 

Where to Find Additional Information

In addition to this Prospectus, the Fund has a Statement of Additional Information, dated [ ], 2018 (as may be supplemented from time to time), which contains additional, more detailed information about the Company and the Fund. The Statement of Additional Information is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus and, therefore, legally forms a part of this Prospectus.

Shareholder Reports

The Company publishes Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to Shareholders (“Shareholder Reports”) that contain additional information about the Fund’s investments. In the Fund’s Annual Report to Shareholders you will find a discussion of the market conditions and the investment strategies that significantly affected such Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year. For additional Company information, including information regarding the investments comprising the Fund, please call the toll-free number below.

You may obtain the Statement of Additional Information and Shareholder Reports without charge by contacting the Company at the toll-free number below or on our internet site at: www.morganstanley.com/im. If you purchased shares through a Financial Intermediary, you may also obtain these documents, without charge, by contacting your Financial Intermediary.

Information about the Company (including the Statement of Additional Information and Shareholder Reports) can be reviewed and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (202) 551-8090. Shareholder Reports and other information about the Fund are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov, and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing to the SEC’s Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520.

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc.
 c/o DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc.
 P.O. Box 219804
 Kansas City, MO 64121-9804

For Shareholder Inquiries,
 call toll-free 1-800-548-7786.

Prices and Investment Results are available at www.morganstanley.com/im.

The Company’s 1940 Act registration number is 811-05624.

© 2018 Morgan Stanley.

[EMPTY]

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this Preliminary Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Preliminary Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. 

Subject to Completion Dated June 25, 2018

MORGAN STANLEY INSTITUTIONAL FUND, INC.

 Statement of Additional Information

[ ], 2018

Morgan Stanley Institutional Fund, Inc. (the “Company”) is an open-end management investment company consisting of 34 Funds offering a variety of investment alternatives. This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) sets forth information applicable to the Class I, Class A, Class C and Class IS shares of the Global Permanence Portfolio (the “Fund”).

 

Share Class and Ticker Symbol

 

I 

A 

C 

IS 

GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL EQUITY FUND:

 

 

 

 

Global Permanence Portfolio 

[ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] 

This SAI is not a prospectus, but should be read in conjunction with the Fund’s prospectus, dated [ ], 2018, as may be supplemented from time to time. To obtain the Fund’s prospectus, please call the Fund toll-free at 1-800-548-7786. 

The Fund is “diversified” and, as such, the Fund’s investments are required to meet certain diversification requirements under federal securities laws.


 


 

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND STRATEGIES 

This SAI provides additional information about the investment policies and operations of the Company and the Fund. Morgan Stanley Investment Management Inc. (the “Adviser”) acts as investment adviser to the Fund.  

The following table summarizes the permissible strategies and investments for the Fund. This table should be used in conjunction with the investment summaries for the Fund contained in the Prospectus in order to provide a more complete description of the Fund’s investment policies. More details about each investment and related risks are provided in the discussion following the table.

 

Global Permanence 

Equity Securities:

 

Common Stocks 

X 

Depositary Receipts 

X 

Preferred Stocks 

X 

Rights 

X 

Warrants 

X 

IPOs 

X 

Convertible Securities 

X 

Limited Partnership and Limited Liability Company Interests 

X 

Investment Company Securities 

X 

Exchange-Traded Funds 

X 

Real Estate Investing 

X 

—REITs 

X 

—Foreign Real Estate Companies 

X 

—Specialized Ownership Vehicles 

X 

Fixed Income Securities:

 

Investment Grade Securities 

X 

High Yield Securities 

 

U.S. Government Securities 

X 

Agencies 

X 

Corporates 

X 

Money Market Instruments 

X 

Cash Equivalents 

X 

Mortgage-Related Securities 

X 

Repurchase Agreements 

X 

Municipals 

 

Asset-Backed Securities 

 

Loan Participations and Assignments 

 

Temporary Investments 

X 

Zero Coupons, Pay-In-Kind Securities or Deferred Payment Securities 

X 

Floaters 

 

Inverse Floaters 

 

Eurodollar and Yankee Dollar Obligations 

X 

Foreign Investment:

 

Foreign Equity Securities 

X 

Foreign Government Fixed Income Securities 

X 

Foreign Corporate Fixed Income Securities 

X 

Emerging Market Securities 

X 

Foreign Currency Transactions 

X 

Brady Bonds 

X 

Investment Funds 

X 

Exchange-Listed Equities via Stock Connect Program 

X 

Other Securities and Investment Strategies:

 

Loans of Portfolio Securities 

X 

Non-Publicly Traded Securities, Private Placements and Restricted Securities 

X 

When-Issued and Delayed Delivery Securities 

X 

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Global Permanence 

Borrowing for Investment Purposes 

 

Temporary Borrowing 

X 

Reverse Repurchase Agreements 

 

Short Sales 

 

Derivatives:

 

Forwards 

X 

Futures Contracts 

X 

Options 

X 

Swaps 

X 

Contracts for Difference 

X 

Structured Investments 

X 

Combined Transactions 

X 

Commodity-Linked Investments 

 

2


 

EQUITY SECURITIES 

Equity securities generally represent an ownership interest in an issuer, or may be convertible into or represent a right to acquire an ownership interest in an issuer. While there are many types of equity securities, prices of all equity securities will fluctuate. Economic, political and other events may affect the prices of broad equity markets. For example, changes in inflation or consumer demand may affect the prices of equity securities generally in the United States. Similar events also may affect the prices of particular equity securities. For example, news about the success or failure of a new product may affect the price of a particular issuer’s equity securities. 

Common Stocks. Common stocks are equity securities representing an ownership interest in a corporation, entitling the stockholder to voting rights and receipt of dividends paid based on proportionate ownership. 

Depositary Receipts. Depositary Receipts represent an ownership interest in securities of foreign companies (an “underlying issuer”) that are deposited with a depositary. Depositary Receipts are not necessarily denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities. Depositary Receipts include American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and other types of depositary receipts (which, together with ADRs and GDRs, are hereinafter collectively referred to as “Depositary Receipts”). ADRs are dollar-denominated Depositary Receipts typically issued by a U.S. financial institution which evidence an ownership interest in a security or pool of securities issued by a foreign issuer. ADRs are listed and traded in the United States. ADRs also include American depositary shares. GDRs and other types of Depositary Receipts are typically issued by foreign banks or trust companies, although they also may be issued by U.S. financial institutions, and evidence ownership interests in a security or pool of securities issued by either a foreign or a U.S. corporation. Generally, depositary receipts in registered form are designed for use in the U.S. securities market and depositary receipts in bearer form are designed for use in securities markets outside the United States. 

Depositary Receipts may be “sponsored” or “unsponsored.” Sponsored Depositary Receipts are established jointly by a depositary and the underlying issuer, whereas unsponsored Depositary Receipts may be established by a depositary without participation by the underlying issuer. Holders of unsponsored Depositary Receipts generally bear all the costs associated with establishing unsponsored Depositary Receipts. In addition, the issuers of the securities underlying unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States and, therefore, there may be less information available regarding such issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the market value of the Depositary Receipts. For purposes of the Fund’s investment policies, the Fund’s investments in Depositary Receipts will be deemed to be an investment in the underlying securities, except that ADRs may be deemed to be issued by a U.S. issuer.

Preferred Stocks. Preferred stocks are securities that evidence ownership in a corporation which pay a fixed or variable stream of dividends. Preferred stocks have a preference over common stocks in the event of the liquidation of an issuer and usually do not carry voting rights. Preferred stocks have many of the characteristics of both equity securities and fixed income securities. 

Rights. Rights represent the right, but not the obligation, for a fixed period of time to purchase additional shares of an issuer’s common stock at the time of a new issuance, usually at a price below the initial offering price of the common stock and before the common stock is offered to the general public. Rights are usually freely transferable. The risk of investing in a right is that the right may expire prior to the market value of the common stock exceeding the price fixed by the right. 

Sector Risk. The Fund may, from time to time, invest more heavily in companies in a particular economic sector or sectors. Economic or regulatory changes adversely affecting such sectors may have more of an impact on the Fund’s performance than if the Fund held a broader range of investments.

Warrants. Warrants give holders the right, but not the obligation, to buy common stock of an issuer at a given price, usually higher than the market price at the time of issuance, during a specified period. Warrants are usually freely transferable. The risk of investing in a warrant is that the warrant may expire prior to the market value of the common stock exceeding the price fixed by the warrant. 

IPOs. The Fund may purchase equity securities issued as part of, or a short period after, a company’s initial public offering (“IPOs”), and may at times dispose of those securities shortly after their acquisition. The Fund’s purchase of securities issued in IPOs exposes it to the risks associated with companies that have little operating history as public companies, as well as to the risks inherent in those sectors of the market where these issuers operate. The market for IPO issuers has been volatile, and share prices of newly-public companies have fluctuated significantly over short periods of time.

Convertible Securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, right, warrant or other security that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock or other security of the same or a different issuer or into cash within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt securities or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities generally have characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. The value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates rise and, because of the conversion feature, tends to vary with fluctuations in the market value of the underlying securities. Convertible securities ordinarily provide a stream of income with generally higher yields than those of common stock of the same or similar issuers. Convertible securities generally rank senior to

3


 

common stock in a corporation’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to other comparable nonconvertible fixed income securities in such capital structure. Convertible securities generally do not participate directly in any dividend increases or decreases of the underlying securities although the market prices of convertible securities may be affected by any dividend changes or other changes in the underlying securities. Certain of the convertible securities in which the Fund may invest are rated below investment grade or are unrated. The prices of such securities are likely to be more sensitive to adverse economic changes than higher-rated securities, resulting in increased volatility of market prices of these securities during periods of economic uncertainty, or adverse individual corporate developments. In addition, during an economic downturn or substantial period of rising interest rates, lower rated issuers may experience financial stress.

Limited Partnership and Limited Liability Company Interests. A limited partnership interest entitles the Fund to participate in the investment return of the partnership’s assets as defined by the agreement among the partners. As a limited partner, the Fund generally is not permitted to participate in the management of the partnership. However, unlike a general partner whose liability is not limited, a limited partner’s liability generally is limited to the amount of its commitment to the partnership. The Fund may invest in limited liability company interests to the same extent it invests in limited partnership interests. Limited liability company interests have similar characteristics as limited partnership interests. 

The Fund may invest in master limited partnerships (“MLPs”), which are generally organized under state law as limited partnerships or limited liability companies and generally treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The securities issued by many MLPs are listed and traded on a securities exchange. If publicly traded, to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the entity must receive at least 90% of its income from qualifying sources as set forth in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). These qualifying sources include interest, dividends, real estate rents, gain from the sale or disposition of real property, income and gain from mineral or natural resources activities, income and gain from the transportation or storage of certain fuels, gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for the production of income described in the foregoing, and, in certain circumstances, income and gain from commodities or futures, forwards and options with respect to commodities.

Investment Company Securities. Investment company securities are equity securities and include securities of other open-end, closed-end and unregistered investment companies, including foreign investment companies, hedge funds and exchange-traded funds. The Fund may, to the extent noted in the Fund’s non-fundamental limitations, invest in investment company securities as may be permitted by (i) the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended from time to time (the “1940 Act”); (ii) the rules and regulations promulgated by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the 1940 Act, as amended from time to time; or (iii) an exemption or other relief applicable to the Fund from provisions of the 1940 Act, as amended from time to time. The 1940 Act generally prohibits an investment company from acquiring more than 3% of the outstanding voting shares of an investment company and limits such investments to no more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in any one investment company, and no more than 10% in any combination of investment companies. The 1940 Act also prohibits the Fund from acquiring in the aggregate more than 10% of the outstanding voting shares of any registered closed-end investment company. The Fund may invest in investment company securities of investment companies managed by the Adviser or its affiliates to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act or as otherwise authorized by the SEC. To the extent the Fund invests a portion of its assets in investment company securities, those assets will be subject to the risks of the purchased investment company’s portfolio securities, and a shareholder in the Fund will bear not only his proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund, but also, indirectly the expenses of the purchased investment company. 

To the extent permitted by applicable law, the Fund may invest all or some of its short term cash investments in any money market fund advised or managed by the Adviser or its affiliates. In connection with any such investments, the Fund, to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, will pay its share of all expenses (other than advisory and administrative fees) of a money market fund in which it invests that may result in the Fund bearing some additional expenses. The SEC has adopted changes to the rules that govern money market funds. These changes: (1) permit (and, under certain circumstances, require) money market funds to impose a “liquidity fee” (up to 2%), or a “redemption gate” that temporarily restricts redemptions from a money market fund, if weekly liquidity levels fall below the required regulatory threshold, and (2) require “institutional money market funds” to operate with a floating net asset value per share (“NAV”) rounded to a minimum of the fourth decimal place in the case of a fund with a $1.0000 share price or an equivalent or more precise level of accuracy for money market funds with a different share price (e.g., $10.000 per share, or $100.00 per share). “Government money market funds,” as defined under Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act, are exempt from these requirements, though such funds may choose to opt-in to the implementation of liquidity fees and redemption gates. These changes may affect the investment strategies, performance and operating expenses of money market funds.

Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETFs”). The Fund may invest in ETFs. Investments in ETFs are subject to a variety of risks, including risks of a direct investment in the underlying securities that the ETF holds. For example, the general level of stock prices may decline, thereby adversely affecting the value of the underlying investments of the ETF and, consequently, the value of the ETF. In addition, the market value of the ETF shares may differ from their NAV because the supply and demand in the market for ETF shares at any point is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the underlying securities. Also, ETFs that track particular

4


 

indices typically will be unable to match the performance of the index exactly due to, among other things, the ETF’s operating expenses and transaction costs. ETFs typically incur fees that are separate from those fees incurred directly by the Fund. Therefore, as a shareholder in an ETF, the Fund would bear its ratable share of that entity’s expenses. At the same time, the Fund would continue to pay its own investment management fees and other expenses. As a result, the Fund and its shareholders, in effect, will be absorbing duplicate levels of fees with respect to investments in ETFs. Further, certain of the ETFs in which the Fund may invest are leveraged. The more the Fund invests in such leveraged ETFs, the more this leverage will magnify any losses on those investments.

Real Estate Investing. Investments in securities of issuers engaged in the real estate industry entail special risks and considerations. In particular, securities of such issuers may be subject to risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate. These risks include the cyclical nature of real estate values, risks related to general and local economic conditions, overbuilding and increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, demographic trends and variations in rental income, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, environmental risks, regulatory limitations on rents, changes in neighborhood values, changes in the appeal of properties to tenants, increases in interest rates and other real estate capital market influences. Generally, increases in interest rates will increase the costs of obtaining financing, which could directly and indirectly decrease the value of the Fund’s investments. 

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”) and Foreign Real Estate Companies. The Fund may invest in REITs and/or foreign real estate companies, which are similar to entities organized and operated as REITs in the United States. REITs and foreign real estate companies pool investors’ funds for investment primarily in real estate properties or real estate-related loans. REITs and foreign real estate companies generally derive their income from rents on the underlying properties or interest on the underlying loans, and their value is impacted by changes in the value of the underlying property or changes in interest rates affecting the underlying loans owned by the REITs and/or foreign real estate companies. REITs and foreign real estate companies are more susceptible to risks associated with the ownership of real estate and the real estate industry in general. These risks can include fluctuations in the value of underlying properties; defaults by borrowers or tenants; market saturation; changes in general and local economic conditions; decreases in market rates for rents; increases in competition, property taxes, capital expenditures or operating expenses; and other economic, political or regulatory occurrences affecting the real estate industry. In addition, REITs and foreign real estate companies depend upon specialized management skills, might not be diversified (which may increase the volatility of a REIT’s and/or foreign real estate company’s value), may have less trading volume and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than the overall securities market. Foreign real estate companies may be subject to laws, rules and regulations governing those entities and their failure to comply with those laws, rules and regulations could negatively impact the performance of those entities. Operating REITs and foreign real estate companies requires specialized management skills and the Fund indirectly bears REIT and foreign real estate company management expenses along with the direct expenses of the Fund. REITs are generally not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with several requirements of the Code. REITs are subject to the risk of failing to qualify for tax-free pass-through income under the Code. 

Specialized Ownership Vehicles. Specialized ownership vehicles pool investors’ funds for investment primarily in income-producing real estate or real estate-related loans or interests. Such specialized ownership vehicles in which the Fund may invest include property unit trusts, foreign real estate companies, REITs and other similar specialized investment vehicles. Investments in such specialized ownership vehicles may have favorable or unfavorable legal, regulatory or tax implications for the Fund and, to the extent such vehicles are structured similarly to investment funds, a shareholder in the Fund will bear not only his proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund, but also, indirectly the expenses of the specialized ownership vehicle.

FIXED INCOME SECURITIES 

Fixed income securities generally represent an issuer’s obligation to repay to the investor (or lender) the amount borrowed plus interest over a specified time period. A typical fixed income security specifies a fixed date when the amount borrowed (principal) is due in full, known as the maturity date, and specifies dates when periodic interest (coupon) payments will be made over the life of the security. 

Fixed income securities come in many varieties and may differ in the way that interest is calculated, the amount and frequency of payments, the type of collateral, if any, and the presence of special features (e.g., conversion rights). Prices of fixed income securities fluctuate and, in particular, are subject to several key risks including, but not limited to, interest rate risk, credit risk, prepayment risk and spread risk. 

Interest rate risk arises due to general changes in the level of market rates after the purchase of a fixed income security. Generally, the values of fixed income securities vary inversely with changes in interest rates. During periods of falling interest rates, the values of most outstanding fixed income securities generally rise and during periods of rising interest rates, the values of most fixed income securities generally decline. The historically low interest rate environment increases the risk associated with rising interest rates. The Fund may face a heightened level of risk, especially since the Federal Reserve Board has ended its quantitative easing program and has begun to raise rates. Furthermore, in June 2017, the Federal Reserve Board signaled intentions to cut its balance sheet by allowing at least some securities to retire upon maturity, thereby reducing the money supply and increasing interest rate risk. While fixed income securities with longer final maturities often have higher yields than those with shorter maturities, they usually possess greater price

5


 

sensitivity to changes in interest rates and other factors. Traditionally, the remaining term to maturity has been used as a barometer of a fixed income security’s sensitivity to interest rate changes. This measure, however, considers only the time until the final principal payment and takes no account of the pattern or amount of principal or interest payments prior to maturity. Duration combines consideration of yield, coupon, interest and principal payments, final maturity and call (prepayment) features. Duration measures the likely percentage change in a fixed income security’s price for a small parallel shift in the general level of interest rates; it is also an estimate of the weighted average life of the remaining cash flows of a fixed income security. In almost all cases, the duration of a fixed income security is shorter than its term to maturity. 

Credit risk represents the possibility that an issuer may be unable to meet scheduled interest and principal payment obligations. It is most often associated with corporate bonds, although it can be present in other fixed income securities as well (note that the market generally assumes that obligations of the U.S. Treasury are free from credit risk). Credit ratings and quantitative models attempt to measure the degree of credit risk in fixed income securities, and provide insight as to whether prevailing yield spreads afford sufficient compensation for such risk. Other things being equal, fixed income securities with high degrees of credit risk should trade in the market at lower prices (and higher yields) than fixed income securities with low degrees of credit risk. 

Prepayment risk, also known as call risk, arises due to the issuer’s ability to prepay all or most of the fixed income security prior to the stated final maturity date. Prepayments generally rise in response to a decline in interest rates as debtors take advantage of the opportunity to refinance their obligations. This risk is often associated with mortgage securities where the underlying mortgage loans can be refinanced, although it can also be present in corporate or other types of bonds with call provisions. When a prepayment occurs, the Fund may be forced to reinvest in lower yielding fixed income securities. Quantitative models are designed to help assess the degree of prepayment risk, and provide insight as to whether prevailing yield spreads afford sufficient compensation for such risk. 

Spread risk is the potential for the value of the Fund’s assets to fall due to the widening of spreads. Fixed income securities generally compensate for greater credit risk by paying interest at a higher rate. The difference (or “spread”) between the yield of a security and the yield of a benchmark, such as a U.S. Treasury security with a comparable maturity, measures the additional interest paid for credit risk. As the spread on a security widens (or increases), the price (or value) of the security falls. Spread widening may occur, among other reasons, as a result of market concerns over the stability of the market, excess supply, general credit concerns in other markets, security- or market-specific credit concerns or general reductions in risk tolerance. 

While assets in fixed income markets have grown rapidly in recent years, the capacity for traditional dealer counterparties to engage in fixed income trading has not kept pace and in some cases has decreased. For example, primary dealer inventories of corporate bonds, which provide a core indication of the ability of financial intermediaries to “make markets,” are at or near historic lows in relation to market size. This reduction in market-making capacity may be a persistent change, to the extent it is resulting from broader structural changes, such as fewer proprietary trading desks at broker-dealers and increased regulatory capital requirements. Because market makers provide stability to a market through their intermediary services, the significant reduction in dealer inventories could potentially lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income markets. Such issues may be exacerbated during periods of economic uncertainty. 

Economic, political and other events also may affect the prices of broad fixed income markets, although the risks associated with such events are transmitted to the market via changes in the prevailing levels of interest rates, credit risk, prepayment risk or spread risk.

Investment Grade Securities. Investment grade securities are fixed income securities rated by one or more of the rating agencies in one of the four highest rating categories at the time of purchase (e.g., AAA, AA, A or BBB by S&P Global Ratings Group, a division of S&P Global Inc. (“S&P”), or Fitch Ratings (“Fitch”), or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”)) or determined to be of equivalent quality by the Adviser. Securities rated BBB or Baa represent the lowest of four levels of investment grade securities and are regarded as borderline between sound obligations and those in which speculative elements predominate. Ratings assigned to fixed income securities represent only the opinion of the rating agency assigning the rating and are not dispositive of the credit risk associated with the purchase of a particular fixed income security. Moreover, market risk also will affect the prices of even the highest rated fixed income securities so that their prices may rise or fall even if the issuer’s capacity to repay its obligations remains unchanged.

U.S. Government Securities. U.S. government securities refer to a variety of fixed income securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government and its various instrumentalities and agencies. The U.S. government securities that the Fund may purchase include U.S. Treasury bills, notes and bonds, all of which are direct obligations of the U.S. Government. In addition, the Fund may purchase securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government which are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Among the agencies and instrumentalities issuing these obligations are the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) and the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”). The Fund may also purchase securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities which are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, but whose issuing agency or instrumentality has the right to borrow, to meet its obligations, from the U.S. Treasury. Among these agencies and instrumentalities are the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal

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Home Loan Banks. Further, the Fund may purchase securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities which are backed solely by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality. Among these agencies and instrumentalities is the Federal Farm Credit System.

Agencies. Agencies refer to fixed income securities issued or guaranteed by federal agencies and U.S. government sponsored instrumentalities. They may or may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. If they are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, the investor must look principally to the agency or instrumentality issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment, and may not be able to assert a claim against the United States itself in the event the agency or instrumentality does not meet its commitment. Agencies which are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States include the Export-Import Bank, Farmers Home Administration, Federal Financing Bank and others. Certain debt issued by Resolution Funding Corporation has both its principal and interest backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury in that its principal is backed by U.S. Treasury zero coupon issues, while the U.S. Treasury is explicitly required to advance funds sufficient to pay interest on it, if needed. Certain agencies and instrumentalities, such as Ginnie Mae, are, in effect, backed by the full faith and credit of the United States through provisions in their charters that they may make “indefinite and unlimited” drawings on the Treasury, if needed to service its debt. Debt from certain other agencies and instrumentalities, including the Federal Home Loan Banks, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are not guaranteed by the United States, but those institutions are protected by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Treasury to purchase certain amounts of their securities to assist them in meeting their debt obligations. Finally, other agencies and instrumentalities, such as the Farm Credit System, are federally chartered institutions under U.S. Government supervision, but their debt securities are backed only by the credit worthiness of those institutions, not the U.S. Government. Some of the U.S. government agencies that issue or guarantee securities include the Export- Import Bank of the United States, Farmers Home Administration, FHA, Maritime Administration, Small Business Administration and The Tennessee Valley Authority (“TVA”). 

In September 2008, the U.S. Treasury Department announced that the U.S. Government would be taking over Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and placing the companies into a conservatorship. In addition, the U.S. Treasury announced additional steps that it intended to take with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in order to support the conservatorship. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its respective obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its MBS. No assurance can be given that these initiatives will be successful. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. 

An instrumentality of the U.S. Government is a government agency organized under federal charter with government supervision. Instrumentalities issuing or guaranteeing securities include, among others, Federal Home Loan Banks, the Federal Land Banks, Central Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks and Fannie Mae.

Corporates. Corporates are fixed income securities issued by private businesses. Holders, as creditors, have a prior legal claim over holders of equity securities of the issuer as to both income and assets for the principal and interest due the holder. 

Money Market Instruments. Money market instruments are high quality short-term fixed income securities. Money market instruments may include obligations of governments, government agencies, banks, corporations and special purpose entities and repurchase agreements relating to these obligations. Certain money market instruments may be denominated in a foreign currency. 

Cash Equivalents. Cash equivalents are short-term fixed income securities comprising:

 

Time deposits, certificates of deposit (including marketable variable rate certificates of deposit) and bankers’ acceptances issued by a commercial bank or savings and loan association. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in a banking institution for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable short-term obligations issued by commercial banks or savings and loan associations against funds deposited in the issuing institution. Variable rate certificates of deposit are certificates of deposit on which the interest rate is periodically adjusted prior to their stated maturity based upon a specified market rate. A bankers’ acceptance is a time draft drawn on a commercial bank by a borrower, usually in connection with an international commercial transaction (to finance the import, export, transfer or storage of goods).

 

Obligations of U.S. banks, foreign branches of U.S. banks (Eurodollars) and U.S. branches of foreign banks (Yankee dollars). Eurodollar and Yankee dollar investments will involve some of the same risks of investing in international securities that are discussed in various foreign investing sections of this SAI.

 

Any security issued by a commercial bank if (i) the bank has total assets of at least $1 billion, or the equivalent in other currencies or, in the case of domestic banks which do not have total assets of at least $1 billion, the aggregate investment made in any one such bank is limited to $250,000 principal amount per certificate and the principal amount of such investment is insured in full by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), (ii) in the case of U.S. banks, it is a member of the FDIC and (iii) in the case of foreign branches of U.S. banks, the security is deemed by the Adviser to be of an investment quality comparable with other debt securities which the Fund may purchase;

 

Commercial paper (see below) rated at time of purchase by one or more nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) in one of their two highest categories (e.g., A-l or A-2 by S&P, Prime 1 or Prime 2 by Moody’s or F1 or F2 by Fitch) or, if not rated, issued by a corporation having an outstanding unsecured debt issue rated high-grade by an NRSRO (e.g., A or better by Moody’s, S&P or Fitch);
 

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Short-term corporate obligations rated high-grade at the time of purchase by an NRSRO (e.g., A or better by Moody’s, S&P or Fitch);

 

U.S. government obligations, including bills, notes, bonds and other debt securities issued by the U.S. Treasury. These are direct obligations of the U.S. Government and differ mainly in interest rates, maturities and dates of issue;

 

Government agency securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. government sponsored instrumentalities and Federal agencies. These include securities issued by the Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Land Bank, Farmers Home Administration, Farm Credit Banks, Federal Intermediate Credit Bank, Fannie Mae, Federal Financing Bank, TVA and others; and

 

Repurchase agreements collateralized by the securities listed above.
 

Commercial Paper. Commercial paper refers to short-term fixed income securities with maturities ranging from 1 to 270 days. They are primarily issued by corporations needing to finance large amounts of receivables, but may be issued by banks and other borrowers. Commercial paper is issued either directly or through broker-dealers, and may be discounted or interest bearing. Commercial paper is unsecured, but is almost always backed by bank lines of credit. Virtually all commercial paper is rated by Moody’s, Fitch or S&P. 

Commercial paper rated A-1 by S&P has the following characteristics: (1) liquidity ratios are adequate to meet cash requirements; (2) long-term senior debt is rated “A” or better; (3) the issuer has access to at least two additional channels of borrowing; (4) basic earnings and cash flow have an upward trend with allowance made for unusual circumstances; (5) typically, the issuer’s industry is well established and the issuer has a strong position within the industry; and (6) the reliability and quality of management are unquestioned. Relative strength or weakness of the above factors determines whether the issuer’s commercial paper is A-1, A-2 or A-3. 

The rating Prime-1 is the highest commercial paper rating assigned by Moody’s. Among the factors considered by Moody’s in assigning ratings are the following: (1) evaluation of the management of the issuer; (2) economic evaluation of the issuer’s industry or industries and the appraisal of speculative-type risks which may be inherent in certain areas; (3) evaluation of the issuer’s products in relation to competition and customer acceptance; (4) liquidity; (5) amount and quality of long-term debt; (6) trend of earnings over a period of ten years; (7) financial strength of a parent company and the relationships that exist with the issuer; and (8) recognition by the management of obligations which may be present or may arise as a result of public interest questions and preparations to meet such obligations. 

With respect to Fitch, a short-term issuer or obligation rating is based in all cases on the short-term vulnerability to default of the rated entity and relates to the capacity to meet financial obligations in accordance with the documentation governing the relevant obligation. Short-term deposit ratings may be adjusted for loss severity. Short-term ratings are assigned to obligations whose initial maturity is viewed as “short term” based on market convention. Typically, this means up to 13 months for corporate, sovereign, and structured obligations and up to 36 months for obligations in U.S. public finance markets. A F1 rating indicates the strongest intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments whereas a F2 rating indicates good intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments.

Mortgage-Related Securities. Mortgage-related securities are securities that, directly or indirectly, represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property. Mortgage-related securities include collateralized mortgage obligations and MBS issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private sector entities. 

Mortgage-Backed Securities. With MBS, many mortgagees’ obligations to make monthly payments to their lending institution are pooled together and the risk of the mortgagees’ payment obligations is passed through to investors. The pools are assembled by various governmental, government-related and private organizations. The Fund may invest in securities issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae, private issuers and other government agencies. MBS issued by non-agency issuers, whether or not such securities are subject to guarantees, may entail greater risk, since private issuers may not be able to meet their obligations under the policies. If there is no guarantee provided by the issuer, the Fund will purchase only MBS that, at the time of purchase, are rated investment grade by one or more NRSROs or, if unrated, are deemed by the Adviser to be of comparable quality. 

MBS are issued or guaranteed by private sector originators of or investors in mortgage loans and structured similarly to governmental pass-through securities. Because private pass-throughs typically lack a guarantee by an entity having the credit status of a governmental agency or instrumentality, however, they are generally structured with one or more of the types of credit enhancement described below. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac obligations are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government as Ginnie Mae certificates are. Freddie Mac securities are supported by Freddie Mac’s right to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. Each of Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac guarantees timely distributions of interest to certificate holders. Each of Ginnie Mae and Fannie Mae also guarantees timely distributions of scheduled principal. Although Freddie Mac has in the past guaranteed only the ultimate collection of principal of the underlying mortgage loan, Freddie Mac now issues MBS (Freddie Mac Gold PCS) that also guarantee timely payment of monthly principal reductions. Resolution Funding Corporation obligations are backed, as to principal payments, by zero coupon U.S. Treasury bonds and, as to interest payments, ultimately by the U.S. Treasury. 

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There are two methods of trading MBS. A specified pool transaction is a trade in which the pool number of the security to be delivered on the settlement date is known at the time the trade is made. This is in contrast with the typical MBS transaction, called a TBA (“To Be Announced”) transaction, in which the type of MBS to be delivered is specified at the time of trade but the actual pool numbers of the securities that will be delivered are not known at the time of the trade. The pool numbers of the pools to be delivered at settlement are announced shortly before settlement takes place. The terms of the TBA trade may be made more specific if desired. Generally, agency pass-through MBS are traded on a TBA basis. Investments in TBAs may give rise to a form of leverage and may cause the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate to appear higher. Leverage may cause the Fund to be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged. 

Like fixed income securities in general, MBS will generally decline in price when interest rates rise. Rising interest rates also tend to discourage refinancings of home mortgages, with the result that the average life of MBS held by the Fund may be lengthened. As average life extends, price volatility generally increases. This extension of average life causes the market price of the MBS to decrease further when interest rates rise than if their average lives were fixed. However, when interest rates fall, mortgages may not enjoy as large a gain in market value due to prepayment risk because additional mortgage prepayments must be reinvested at lower interest rates. Faster prepayment will shorten the average life and slower prepayments will lengthen it. However, it is possible to determine what the range of the average life movement could be and to calculate the effect that it will have on the price of the MBS. In selecting MBS, the Adviser looks for those that offer a higher yield to compensate for any variation in average maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities, even if the security is in one of the highest rating categories. The Fund may invest, without limit, in MBS issued by private issuers when the Adviser deems that the quality of the investment, the quality of the issuer, and market conditions warrant such investments. The Fund will purchase securities issued by private issuers that are rated investment grade at the time of purchase by Moody’s, Fitch or S&P or are deemed by the Adviser to be of comparable investment quality.

Fannie Mae Certificates. Fannie Mae is a federally chartered and privately owned corporation organized and existing under the Federal National Mortgage Association Charter Act of 1938. Each Fannie Mae certificate represents a pro rata interest in one or more pools of mortgage loans insured by the FHA under the National Housing Act of 1934, as amended (the “Housing Act”), or Title V of the Housing Act of 1949 (“FHA Loans”), or guaranteed by the Department of Veteran Affairs under the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended (“VA Loans”) or conventional mortgage loans (i.e., mortgage loans that are not insured or guaranteed by any governmental agency) of the following types: (i) fixed rate level payment mortgage loans; (ii) fixed rate growing equity mortgage loans; (iii) fixed rate graduated payment mortgage loans; (iv) variable rate California mortgage loans; (v) other adjustable rate mortgage loans; and (vi) fixed rate and adjustable mortgage loans secured by multi-family projects.

Freddie Mac Certificates. Freddie Mac is a corporate instrumentality of the United States created pursuant to the Emergency Home Finance Act of 1970, as amended (the “FHLMC Act”). Freddie Mac certificates represent a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans (a “Freddie Mac Certificate group”) purchased by Freddie Mac. The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac Certificates consist of fixed rate or adjustable rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of between ten and thirty years, substantially all of which are secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the FHLMC Act. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans and undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group. 

In September 2008, the U.S. Treasury Department announced that the government would be taking over Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and placing the companies into a conservatorship. In addition, the U.S. Treasury announced additional steps that it intended to take with respect to the debt and MBS issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in order to support the conservatorship. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its respective obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its MBS. No assurance can be given that these initiatives will be successful. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Ginnie Mae Certificates. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporate instrumentality of the United States within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Housing Act authorizes Ginnie Mae to guarantee the timely payment of the principal and interest on certificates that are based on and backed by a pool of FHA Loans, VA Loans or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. The Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the United States is pledged to the payment of all amounts that may be required to be paid under any guaranty. In order to meet its obligations under such guaranty, Ginnie Mae is authorized to borrow from the U.S. Treasury with no limitations as to amount. 

Each Ginnie Mae certificate represents a pro rata interest in one or more of the following types of mortgage loans: (i) fixed rate level payment mortgage loans; (ii) fixed rate graduated payment mortgage loans; (iii) fixed rate growing equity mortgage loans; (iv) fixed rate mortgage loans secured by manufactured (mobile) homes; (v) mortgage loans on multi-family residential properties under construction; (vi) mortgage loans on completed multi-family projects; (vii) fixed rate mortgage loans as to which escrowed funds are used to reduce the borrower’s monthly payments during the early years of the mortgage loans (“buydown” mortgage loans); (viii)

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mortgage loans that provide for adjustments in payments based on periodic changes in interest rates or in other payment terms of the mortgage loans; and (ix) mortgage-backed serial notes. All of these mortgage loans will be FHA Loans or VA loans and, except as otherwise specified above, will be fully-amortizing loans secured by first liens on one to four-family housing units.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. The Fund may invest in collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), which are MBS that are collateralized by mortgage loans or mortgage pass-through securities, and multi-class pass-through securities, which are equity interests in a trust composed of mortgage loans or other MBS. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the discussion of CMOs below also applies to multi-class pass through securities. 

CMOs may be issued by governmental or government-related entities or by private entities, such as banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market traders. CMOs are issued in multiple classes, often referred to as “tranches,” with each tranche having a specific fixed or floating coupon rate and stated maturity or final distribution date. Under the traditional CMO structure, the cash flows generated by the mortgages or mortgage pass-through securities in the collateral pool are used to first pay interest and then pay principal to the holders of the CMOs. Subject to the various provisions of individual CMO issues, the cash flow generated by the underlying collateral (to the extent it exceeds the amount required to pay the stated interest) is used to retire the bonds. 

The principal and interest on the underlying collateral may be allocated among the several tranches of a CMO in innumerable ways including “interest only” and “inverse interest only” tranches. In a common CMO structure, the tranches are retired sequentially in the order of their respective stated maturities or final distribution dates (as opposed to the pro-rata return of principal found in traditional pass-through obligations). The fastest-pay tranches would initially receive all principal payments. When those tranches are retired, the next tranches in the sequence receive all of the principal payments until they are retired. The sequential retirement of bond groups continues until the last tranche is retired. Accordingly, the CMO structure allows the issuer to use cash flows of long maturity, monthly-pay collateral to formulate securities with short, intermediate, and long final maturities and expected average lives and risk characteristics. 

The primary risk of CMOs is the uncertainty of the timing of cash flows that results from the rate of prepayments on the underlying mortgages serving as collateral and from the structure of the particular CMO transaction (that is, the priority of the individual tranches). An increase or decrease in prepayment rates (resulting from a decrease or increase in mortgage interest rates) may cause the CMOs to be retired substantially earlier than their stated maturities or final distribution dates and will affect the yield and price of CMOs. In addition, if the collateral securing CMOs or any third-party guarantees are insufficient to make payments, the Fund could sustain a loss. The prices of certain CMOs, depending on their structure and the rate of prepayments, can be volatile. Some CMOs may also not be as liquid as other types of mortgage securities. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible to sell the securities at an advantageous time or price. 

Privately issued CMOs are arrangements in which the underlying mortgages are held by the issuer, which then issues debt collateralized by the underlying mortgage assets. Such securities may be backed by mortgage insurance, letters of credit, or other credit enhancing features. Although payment of the principal of, and interest on, the underlying collateral securing privately issued CMOs may be guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies and instrumentalities, these CMOs represent obligations solely of the private issuer and are not insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities or any other person or entity. Privately issued CMOs are subject to prepayment risk due to the possibility that prepayments on the underlying assets will alter the cash flow. Yields on privately issued CMOs have been historically higher than the yields on CMOs backed by mortgages guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities. The risk of loss due to default on privately issued CMOs, however, is historically higher since the U.S. Government has not guaranteed them. 

New types of CMO tranches have evolved. These include floating rate CMOs, planned amortization classes, accrual bonds and CMO residuals. These newer structures affect the amount and timing of principal and interest received by each tranche from the underlying collateral. For example, an inverse interest-only class CMO entitles holders to receive no payments of principal and to receive interest at a rate that will vary inversely with a specified index or a multiple thereof. Under certain of these newer structures, given classes of CMOs have priority over others with respect to the receipt of prepayments on the mortgages. Therefore, depending on the type of CMOs in which the Fund invests, the investment may be subject to a greater or lesser risk of prepayment than other types of MBS. 

CMOs may include real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”). REMICs, which were authorized under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, are private entities formed for the purpose of holding a fixed pool of mortgages secured by an interest in real property. A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the Code and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property. 

The Fund may invest in, among others, parallel pay CMOs and Planned Amortization Class CMOs (“PAC Bonds”). Parallel pay CMOs are structured to provide payments of principal on each payment date to more than one tranche. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the stated maturity date or final distribution date of each tranche which, as with other CMO structures, must be retired by its stated maturity date or final distribution date but may be retired earlier. PAC Bonds are a

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form of parallel pay CMO, with the required principal payment on such securities having the highest priority after interest has been paid to all classes. PAC Bonds generally require payments of a specified amount of principal on each payment date.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Fund may invest in stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”). A SMBS is a derivative multi-class mortgage security. SMBS usually are structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distribution on a pool of mortgage assets. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on such security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities. Conversely, if the underlying mortgage assets experience less than anticipated prepayments of principal, the yield of POs could be materially adversely affected. The market values of IOs and POs are subject to greater risk of fluctuation in response to changes in market rates of interest than many other types of mortgage-backed securities. To the extent the Fund invests in IOs and POs, it may increase the risk of fluctuations in the NAV of the Fund.

Credit Enhancement. Mortgage-related securities are often backed by a pool of assets representing the obligations of a number of parties. To lessen the effect of failure by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, these securities may have various types of credit support. Credit support falls into two primary categories: (i) liquidity protection, and (ii) protection against losses resulting from ultimate default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection generally refers to the provision of advances, typically by the entity administering the pool of assets, to ensure that the pass-through of payments due on the underlying pool occurs in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from ultimate default enhances the likelihood of ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such protection may be provided through guarantees, insurance policies or letters of credit obtained by the issuer or sponsor from third-parties (referred to herein as “third-party credit support”), through various means of structuring the transaction or through a combination of such approaches. 

The ratings of mortgage-related securities for which third-party credit enhancement provides liquidity protection or protection against losses from default are generally dependent upon the continued creditworthiness of the provider of the credit enhancement. The ratings of such securities could decline in the event of deterioration in the creditworthiness of the credit enhancement provider even in cases where the delinquency and loss experience on the underlying pool of assets is better than expected. 

Examples of credit support arising out of the structure of the transaction include “senior-subordinated securities” (multiple class securities with one or more classes subordinate to other classes as to the payment of principal and interest thereon, with defaults on the underlying assets being borne first by the holders of the most subordinated class), creation of “reserve funds” (where cash or investments, sometimes funded from a portion of the payments on the underlying assets, are held in reserve against future losses) and “over-collateralization” (where the scheduled payments on, or the principal amount of, the underlying assets exceed those required to make payment of the securities and pay any servicing or other fees). The degree of credit support provided for each security is generally based on historical information with respect to the level of credit risk associated with the underlying assets. Delinquency or loss in excess of that which is anticipated could adversely affect the return on an investment in such a security. 

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMBS”). CMBS are generally multi-class or pass-through securities issued by special purpose entities that represent an undivided interest in a portfolio of mortgage loans backed by commercial properties, including, but not limited to, industrial and warehouse properties, office buildings, retail space and shopping malls, hotels, healthcare facilities, multifamily properties and cooperative apartments. Private lenders, such as banks or insurance companies, originate these loans and then sell the loans directly into a CMBS trust or other entity. The commercial mortgage loans that underlie CMBS are generally not amortizing or not fully amortizing. That is, at their maturity date, repayment of the remaining principal balance or “balloon” is due and is repaid through the attainment of an additional loan or sale of this property. An extension of the final payment on commercial mortgages will increase the average life of the CMBS, generally resulting in a lower yield for discount bonds and a higher yield for premium bonds. 

CMBS are subject to credit risk and prepayment risk. Although prepayment risk is present, it is of a lesser degree in the CMBS than in the residential mortgage market; commercial real estate property loans often contain provisions which substantially reduce the likelihood that such securities will be prepaid (e.g., significant prepayment penalties on loans and, in some cases, prohibition on principal payments for several years following origination). 

Repurchase Agreements. Repurchase agreements are transactions in which the Fund purchases a security or basket of securities and simultaneously commits to resell that security or basket to the seller (a bank, broker or dealer) at a mutually agreed-upon date and price. The resale price reflects the purchase price plus an agreed-upon market rate of interest which is unrelated to the coupon rate or date of maturity of the purchased security. The term of these agreements usually ranges from overnight to one week, and never exceeds one year. Repurchase agreements with a term of over seven days are considered illiquid. 

In these transactions, the Fund receives securities that have a market value at least equal to the purchase price (including accrued interest) of the repurchase agreement, and this value is maintained during the term of the agreement. These securities are held by the

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Company’s custodian or an approved third-party for the benefit of the Fund until repurchased. Repurchase agreements permit the Fund to remain fully invested while retaining overnight flexibility to pursue investments of a longer-term nature. If the seller defaults and the value of the repurchased securities declines, the Fund might incur a loss. If bankruptcy proceedings are commenced with respect to the seller, the Fund’s realization upon the collateral may be delayed. 

While repurchase agreements involve certain risks not associated with direct investments in debt securities, the Fund follows procedures approved by the Directors that are designed to minimize such risks. These procedures include effecting repurchase transactions only with large, well-capitalized and well-established financial institutions whose financial condition will be continually monitored by the Adviser. In addition, as described above, the value of the collateral underlying the repurchase agreement will be at least equal to the repurchase price, including any accrued interest earned on the repurchase agreement. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution, the Fund will seek to liquidate such collateral. However, the exercising of the Fund’s right to liquidate such collateral could involve certain costs or delays and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale upon a default of the obligation to repurchase were less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss. 

Pursuant to an order issued by the SEC, the Fund may pool its daily uninvested cash balances in order to invest in repurchase agreements on a joint basis with other investment companies advised by the Adviser. By entering into repurchase agreements on a joint basis, the Fund expects to incur lower transaction costs and potentially obtain higher rates of interest on such repurchase agreements. The Fund’s participation in the income from jointly purchased repurchase agreements will be based on that Fund’s percentage share in the total repurchase agreement.

Temporary Investments. When the Adviser believes that changes in market, economic, political or other conditions make it advisable, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in cash, cash equivalents and other fixed income securities for temporary defensive purposes. These temporary investments may consist of obligations of the U.S. or foreign governments, their agencies and instrumentalities; money market instruments; and instruments issued by international development agencies.

Zero Coupons, Pay-In-Kind Securities or Deferred Payment Securities. Zero coupon, pay-in-kind and deferred payment securities are all types of fixed income securities on which the holder does not receive periodic cash payments of interest or principal. Generally, these securities are subject to greater price volatility and lesser liquidity in the event of adverse market conditions than comparably rated securities paying cash interest at regular intervals. Although the Fund will not receive cash periodic coupon payments on these securities, the Fund may be deemed to have received interest income, or “phantom income” during the life of the obligation. The Fund may have to distribute such phantom income to avoid taxes at the Fund level, although it has not received any cash payment. 

Zero Coupons. Zero coupons are fixed income securities that do not make regular interest payments. Instead, zero coupons are sold at a discount from their face value. The difference between a zero coupon’s issue or purchase price and its face value represents the imputed interest an investor will earn if the obligation is held until maturity. For tax purposes, a portion of this imputed interest is deemed as income received by zero coupon bondholders each year. The Fund intends to pass along such interest as a component of the Fund’s distributions of net investment income. 

Zero coupons may offer investors the opportunity to earn a higher yield than that available on ordinary interest-paying obligations of similar credit quality and maturity. However, zero coupon prices may also exhibit greater price volatility than ordinary fixed income securities because of the manner in which their principal and interest are returned to the investor. 

Pay-In-Kind Securities. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by delivery of additional securities. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the aggregate par value of the securities. 

Deferred Payment Securities. Deferred payment securities are securities that remain zero coupons until a predetermined date, at which time the stated coupon rate becomes effective and interest becomes payable at regular intervals.

Eurodollar and Yankee Dollar Obligations. Eurodollar and Yankee dollar obligations are fixed income securities that include time deposits, which are non-negotiable deposits maintained in a bank for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate. The Eurodollar obligations may include bonds issued and denominated in euros. Eurodollar obligations may be issued by government and corporate issuers in Europe. Yankee dollar obligations, which include time deposits and certificates of deposit, are U.S. dollar-denominated obligations issued in the U.S. capital markets by foreign banks. Eurodollar bank obligations, which include time deposits and certificates of deposit, are U.S. dollar-denominated obligations issued outside the U.S. capital markets by foreign branches of U.S. banks and by foreign banks. The Fund may consider Yankee dollar obligations to be domestic securities for purposes of their investment policies. 

Eurodollar and Yankee dollar obligations are subject to the same risks as domestic issues, notably credit risk, market risk and liquidity risk. However, Eurodollar (and to a limited extent, Yankee dollar) obligations are also subject to certain sovereign risks. One such risk is the possibility that a sovereign country might prevent capital from flowing across its borders. Other risks include adverse political and economic developments; the extent and quality of government regulations of financial markets and institutions; the imposition of foreign withholding taxes; and the expropriation or nationalization of foreign issuers.

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FOREIGN INVESTMENT 

Investing in foreign securities involves certain special considerations which are not typically associated with investments in the securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and may have policies that are not comparable to those of domestic issuers. As a result, there may be less information available about foreign issuers than about domestic issuers. Securities of some foreign issuers may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers and listed issuers than in the United States. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political and social instability, or diplomatic developments which could affect U.S. investments in those countries. The costs of investing in foreign countries frequently are higher than the costs of investing in the United States. Although the Adviser endeavors to achieve the most favorable execution costs in portfolio transactions, fixed commissions on many foreign stock exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges. In addition, investments in certain foreign markets which have historically been considered stable may become more volatile and subject to increased risk due to ongoing developments and changing conditions in such markets. Moreover, the growing interconnectivity of global economies and financial markets has increased the probability that adverse developments and conditions in one country or region will affect the stability of economies and financial markets in other countries or regions. For instance, if one or more countries leave the European Union (“EU”) or the EU dissolves, the world’s securities markets likely will be significantly disrupted. 

Investments in securities of foreign issuers may be denominated in foreign currencies. Accordingly, the value of the Fund’s assets, as measured in U.S. dollars, may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency exchange rates and in exchange control regulations. The Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. 

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Economic sanctions could, among other things, effectively restrict or eliminate the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell securities or groups of securities for a substantial period of time, and may make the Fund’s investments in such securities harder to value. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures. Investments in foreign markets may also be adversely affected by governmental actions such as the imposition of capital controls, nationalization of companies or industries, expropriation of assets, or the imposition of punitive taxes. Governmental actions can have a significant effect on the economic conditions in foreign countries, which also may adversely affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments. For example, the governments of certain countries may prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on foreign investing in their capital markets or in certain sectors or industries. In addition, a foreign government may limit or cause delay in the convertibility or repatriation of its currency which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value and/or liquidity of investments denominated in that currency. Any of these actions could severely affect security prices, impair the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell foreign securities or transfer the Fund’s assets back into the U.S., or otherwise adversely affect the Fund’s operations. Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Certain foreign investments may become illiquid when, for instance, there are few, if any, interested buyers and sellers or when dealers are unwilling to make a market for certain securities. When the Fund holds illiquid investments, its portfolio may be harder to value. 

Certain foreign governments may levy withholding or other taxes on dividend and interest income. Although in some countries a portion of these taxes may be recoverable, the non-recovered portion of foreign withholding taxes will reduce the income received from investments in such countries. The Fund may be able to pass through to its shareholders a credit for U.S. tax purposes with respect to any such foreign taxes. 

The Adviser may consider an issuer to be from a particular country (including the United States) or geographic region if: (i) its principal securities trading market is in that country or geographic region; (ii) alone or on a consolidated basis it derives 50% or more of its annual revenue or profits from goods produced, sales made or services performed in that country or geographic region or has at least 50% of its assets in that country or geographic region; or (iii) it is organized under the laws of, or has a principal office in, that country or geographic region. By applying these tests, it is possible that a particular issuer could be deemed to be from more than one country or geographic region. 

Referendum on the UK’s EU Membership. On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (“UK”) voted by referendum to leave the EU, an event widely referred to as “Brexit”. The UK is the first member to vote to leave the EU and its departure is expected to take several years to effect. At present, the nature of the relationship of the UK with the remaining EU members is uncertain. In addition, spurred by the UK referendum vote, other EU members may propose similar measures, thereby raising the possibility of additional departures from the EU. Accordingly, there is a heightened or increased risk of market instability and legal and regulatory change following the UK referendum vote. 

The Fund may make investments in the UK (before and after its departure from the EU), other EU members and in non-EU countries that are directly or indirectly affected by the exit of the UK from the EU. Adverse legal, regulatory or economic conditions

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affecting the economies of the countries in which the Fund conducts its business (including making investments) and any corresponding deterioration in global macro-economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s investment returns. Potential consequences to which the Fund may be exposed, directly or indirectly, as a result of the UK referendum vote include, but are not limited to, market dislocations, economic and financial instability in the UK and in other EU members, increased volatility and reduced liquidity in financial markets, reduced availability of capital, an adverse effect on investor and market sentiment, Sterling and Euro destabilization, reduced deal flow in the Fund’s target markets, increased counterparty risk and regulatory, legal and compliance uncertainties. Any of the foregoing or similar risks could have a material adverse effect on the operations, financial condition or investment returns of the Fund and/or the Adviser in general. The effects on the UK, European and global economies of the exit of the UK (and/or other EU members during the term of the Fund) from the EU, or the exit of other EU members from the European monetary area and/or the redenomination of financial instruments from the Euro to a different currency, are difficult to predict and to protect fully against. Prospective investors should note that many of the foregoing risks are totally, or in part, outside of the control of the Fund and the Adviser. 

Foreign Equity Securities. Foreign equity securities are equity securities of a non-U.S. issuer. 

Foreign Government Fixed Income Securities. Foreign government fixed income securities are fixed income securities issued by a government other than the U.S. Government or government-related issuer in a country other than the United States. 

Foreign Corporate Fixed Income Securities. Foreign corporate fixed income securities are fixed income securities issued by a private issuer in a country other than the United States.

Emerging Market Securities. The Fund may invest in emerging market securities. An emerging market security is a security issued by an emerging market foreign government or private issuer. An emerging market foreign government or private issuer has one or more of the following characteristics: (i) its principal securities trading market is in an emerging market or developing country; (ii) alone or on a consolidated basis it derives 50% or more of its annual revenue or profits from goods produced, sales made or services performed in an emerging market or developing country or has at least 50% of its assets in an emerging market or developing country or (iii) it is organized under the laws of, or has a principal office in, an emerging market or developing country. Based on these criteria it is possible for a security to be considered issued by an issuer in more than one country. Therefore, it is possible for the securities of any issuer that has one or more of these characteristics in connection with any emerging market or developing country to be considered an emerging market security when held in one Fund, but not considered an emerging market security when held in another Fund if it has one or more of these characteristics in connection with a developed country. 

Emerging market describes any country which is generally considered to be an emerging or developing country by major organizations in the international financial community or by the Fund’s benchmark index. 

The economies of individual emerging market or developing countries may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation or deflation, currency depreciation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Further, the economies of developing countries generally are heavily dependent upon international trade and, accordingly, have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures. These economies also have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by economic conditions in the countries with which they trade. 

Prior governmental approval for foreign investments may be required under certain circumstances in some emerging market or developing countries, and the extent of foreign investment in certain fixed income securities and domestic companies may be subject to limitation in other emerging market or developing countries. Foreign ownership limitations also may be imposed by the charters of individual companies in emerging market or developing countries to prevent, among other concerns, violation of foreign investment limitations. Repatriation of investment income, capital and the proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in some emerging countries. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental registration or approval for such repatriation. Any investment subject to such repatriation controls will be considered illiquid if it appears reasonably likely that this process will take more than seven days. 

Investment in emerging market or developing countries may entail purchasing securities issued by or on behalf of entities that are insolvent, bankrupt, in default or otherwise engaged in an attempt to reorganize or reschedule their obligations and in entities that have little or no proven credit rating or credit history. In any such case, the issuer’s poor or deteriorating financial condition may increase the likelihood that the Fund will experience losses or diminution in available gains due to bankruptcy, insolvency or fraud. Emerging market or developing countries also pose the risk of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political changes, government regulation, social instability or diplomatic developments (including war) that could adversely affect the economies of such countries or the value of the Fund’s investments in those countries. In addition, it may be difficult to obtain and enforce a judgment in a court outside the United States. 

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The Fund may also be exposed to an extra degree of custodial and/or market risk, especially where the securities purchased are not traded on an official exchange or where ownership records regarding the securities are maintained by an unregulated entity (or even the issuer itself).

Foreign Currency Transactions. The U.S. dollar value of the assets of the Fund, to the extent they invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies, may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and the Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates and the overall economic health of the issuer. Devaluation of a currency by a country’s government or banking authority also will have a significant impact on the value of any investments denominated in that currency. The Fund may conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the then-prevailing spot rate in the foreign currency exchange market. The Fund also may manage its foreign currency transactions by entering into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies or by using other instruments and techniques described under “Derivatives” below. 

Under normal circumstances, consideration of the prospect for changes in the values of currency will be incorporated into the long-term investment decisions made with regard to overall diversification strategies. However, the Adviser believes that it is important to have the flexibility to use such derivative products when it determines that it is in the best interests of the Fund. It may not be practicable to hedge foreign currency risk in all markets, particularly emerging markets.

Foreign Currency Warrants. The Fund may invest in foreign currency warrants, which entitle the holder to receive from the issuer an amount of cash (generally, for warrants issued in the United States, in U.S. dollars) which is calculated pursuant to a predetermined formula and based on the exchange rate between a specified foreign currency and the U.S. dollar as of the exercise date of the warrant. Foreign currency warrants generally are exercisable upon their issuance and expire as of a specified date and time. 

Foreign currency warrants have been issued in connection with U.S. dollar-denominated debt offerings by major corporate issuers in an attempt to reduce the foreign currency exchange risk which, from the point of view of prospective purchasers of the securities, is inherent in the international fixed income marketplace. Foreign currency warrants may attempt to reduce the foreign exchange risk assumed by purchasers of a security by, for example, providing for a supplemental payment in the event that the U.S. dollar depreciates against the value of a major foreign currency such as the Japanese Yen. The formula used to determine the amount payable upon exercise of a foreign currency warrant may make the warrant worthless unless the applicable foreign currency exchange rate moves in a particular direction (e.g., unless the U.S. dollar appreciates or depreciates against the particular foreign currency to which the warrant is linked or indexed). Foreign currency warrants are severable from the debt obligations with which they may be offered, and may be listed on exchanges. 

Foreign currency warrants may be exercisable only in certain minimum amounts, and an investor wishing to exercise warrants who possesses less than the minimum number required for exercise may be required either to sell the warrants or to purchase additional warrants, thereby incurring additional transaction costs. In the case of any exercise of warrants, there may be a delay between the time a holder of warrants gives instructions to exercise and the time the exchange rate relating to exercise is determined, during which time the exchange rate could change significantly, thereby affecting both the market and cash settlement values of the warrants being exercised. The expiration date of the warrants may be accelerated if the warrants should be delisted from an exchange or if their trading should be suspended permanently, which would result in the loss of any remaining “time value” of the warrants (i.e., the difference between the current market value and the exercise value of the warrants), and, in the case where the warrants were “out-of-the-money,” in a total loss of the purchase price of the warrants. 

Foreign currency warrants are generally unsecured obligations of their issuers and are not standardized foreign currency options issued by the Options Clearing Corporation (“OCC”). Unlike foreign currency options issued by the OCC, the terms of foreign exchange warrants generally will not be amended in the event of governmental or regulatory actions affecting exchange rates or in the event of the imposition of other regulatory controls affecting the international currency markets. The initial public offering price of foreign currency warrants is generally considerably in excess of the price that a commercial user of foreign currencies might pay in the interbank market for a comparable option involving significantly larger amounts of foreign currencies. Foreign currency warrants are subject to complex political or economic factors.

Principal Exchange Rate Linked Securities. Principal exchange rate linked securities are debt obligations the principal on which is payable at maturity in an amount that may vary based on the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and a particular foreign currency at or about that time. The return on “standard” principal exchange rate linked securities is enhanced if the foreign currency to which the security is linked appreciates against the U.S. dollar, and is adversely affected by increases in the foreign exchange value of the U.S. dollar; “reverse” principal exchange rate linked securities are like the “standard” securities, except that their return is enhanced by increases in the value of the U.S. dollar and adversely impacted by increases in the value of foreign currency. Interest payments on the securities are generally made in U.S. dollars at rates that reflect the degree of foreign currency risk assumed or given up by the purchaser of the notes (i.e., at relatively higher interest rates if the purchaser has assumed some foreign currency risk). 

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Brady Bonds. Brady Bonds are fixed income securities that are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign entities for new obligations in connection with debt restructuring under a plan introduced by Nicholas F. Brady when he was the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. They may be collateralized or uncollateralized and issued in various currencies (although most are U.S. dollar-denominated) and they are actively traded in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) secondary market. The Fund will invest in Brady Bonds only if they are consistent with the Fund’s quality specifications. Dollar-denominated, collateralized Brady Bonds may be fixed rate par bonds or floating rate discount bonds. Interest payments on Brady Bonds generally are collateralized by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is equal to at least one year of rolling interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is equal to at least one year’s rolling interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at that time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter. Certain Brady Bonds are entitled to “value recovery payments” in certain circumstances, which in effect constitute supplemental interest payments but generally are not collateralized. 

Brady Bonds are often viewed as having three or four valuation components: (i) the collateralized repayment of principal at final maturity; (ii) the collateralized interest payments; (iii) the uncollateralized interest payments; and (iv) any uncollateralized repayment of principal at maturity (these uncollateralized amounts constitute the “residual risk”). In the event of a default with respect to collateralized Brady Bonds as a result of which the payment obligations of the issuer are accelerated, the U.S. Treasury zero coupon obligations held as collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course. However, Brady Bonds should be viewed as speculative in light of the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds.

Investment Funds. Some emerging market countries have laws and regulations that currently preclude direct investment or make it undesirable to invest directly in the securities of their companies. However, indirect investment in the securities of companies listed and traded on the stock exchanges in these countries is permitted by certain emerging market countries through investment funds that have been specifically authorized. The Fund may invest in these investment funds subject to the provisions of the 1940 Act, as applicable, and other applicable laws. The Fund will invest in such investment funds only where appropriate given that the Fund’s shareholders will bear indirectly the layer of expenses of the underlying investment funds in addition to their proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund.

Exchange-Listed Equities via Stock Connect Program. The Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program and the recently launched Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (“Stock Connect”) allow non-Chinese investors (such as the Fund) to purchase certain listed equities via brokers in Hong Kong. Although Stock Connect allows non-Chinese investors to trade Chinese equities without a license, purchases of securities through Stock Connect are subject to daily market-wide quota limitations, which may prevent the Fund from purchasing Stock Connect securities when it is otherwise advantageous to do so. An investor cannot purchase and sell the same security on the same trading day, which may restrict the Fund’s ability to invest in China A-shares through Stock Connect and to enter into or exit trades where it is advantageous to do so on the same trading day. Because Stock Connect trades are routed through Hong Kong brokers and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Stock Connect is affected by trading holidays in either China or Hong Kong, and there are trading days in China when Stock Connect investors will not be able to trade. As a result, prices of securities purchased through Stock Connect may fluctuate at times when the Fund is unable to add to or exit its position. Only certain China A-shares are eligible to be accessed through Stock Connect. Such securities may lose their eligibility at any time, in which case they could be sold but could no longer be purchased through Stock Connect. Because Stock Connect is relatively new, its effects on the market for trading China A-shares are uncertain. In addition, the trading, settlement and IT systems required to operate Stock Connect are relatively new and continuing to evolve. In the event that the relevant systems do not function properly, trading through Stock Connect could be disrupted. 

Stock Connect is subject to regulation by both Hong Kong and China. There can be no assurance that further regulations will not affect the availability of securities in the program, the frequency of redemptions or other limitations. Stock Connect transactions are not covered by investor protection programs of either the Hong Kong or Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges, although any default by a Hong Kong broker should be subject to established Hong Kong law. In China, Stock Connect securities are held on behalf of ultimate investors (such as the Fund) by the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (“HKSCC”) as nominee. While Chinese regulators have affirmed that the ultimate investors hold a beneficial interest in Stock Connect securities, the law surrounding such rights is in its early stages and the mechanisms that beneficial owners may use to enforce their rights are untested and therefore pose uncertain risks. Further, courts in China have limited experience in applying the concept of beneficial ownership and the law surrounding beneficial ownership will continue to evolve as they do so. There is accordingly a risk that as the law is tested and developed, the Fund’s ability to enforce its ownership rights may be negatively impacted. The Fund may not be able to participate in corporate actions affecting Stock Connect securities due to time constraints or for other operational reasons. Similarly, the Fund will not be able to vote in shareholders’ meetings except through HKSCC and will not be able to attend shareholders’ meetings. Stock Connect trades are settled in Renminbi (RMB), the Chinese currency, and investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of RMB in Hong Kong, which cannot be guaranteed. 

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Stock Connect trades are either subject to certain pre-trade requirements or must be placed in special segregated accounts that allow brokers to comply with these pre-trade requirements by confirming that the selling shareholder has sufficient Stock Connect securities to complete the sale. If the Fund does not utilize a special segregated account, the Fund will not be able to sell the shares on any trading day where it fails to comply with the pre-trade checks. In addition, these pre-trade requirements may, as a practical matter, limit the number of brokers that the Fund may use to execute trades. While the Fund may use special segregated accounts in lieu of the pre-trade check, some market participants have yet to fully implement IT systems necessary to complete trades involving securities in such accounts in a timely manner. Market practice with respect to special segregated accounts is continuing to evolve. Investments via Stock Connect are subject to regulation by Chinese authorities. Chinese law may require aggregation of the Fund’s holdings of Stock Connect securities with securities of other clients of the Adviser for purposes of disclosing positions held in the market, acquiescing to trading halts that may be imposed until regulatory filings are completed or complying with China’s short-term trading rules.

OTHER SECURITIES AND INVESTMENT STRATEGIES 

Loans of Portfolio Securities. The Fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers, banks and other institutional investors. By lending its portfolio securities, the Fund attempts to increase its net investment income through the receipt of interest on the cash collateral with respect to the loan or fees received from the borrower in connection with the loan. Any gain or loss in the market price of the securities loaned that might occur during the term of the loan would be for the account of the Fund. The Fund employs an agent to implement the securities lending program and the agent receives a fee from the Fund for its services. The Fund will not lend more than 33⅓% of the value of its total assets. 

The Fund may lend its portfolio securities so long as the terms, structure and the aggregate amount of such loans are not inconsistent with the 1940 Act or the rules and regulations or interpretations of the SEC thereunder, which currently require that (i) the borrower pledge and maintain with the Fund collateral consisting of liquid, unencumbered assets having a value not less than 100% of the value of the securities loaned; (ii) the borrower add to such collateral whenever the price of the securities loaned rises (i.e., the borrower “marks-to-market” on a daily basis); (iii) the loan be made subject to termination by the Fund at any time; and (iv) the Fund receives a reasonable return on the loan (which may include the Fund investing any cash collateral in interest bearing short-term investments), any distributions on the loaned securities and any increase in their market value. In addition, voting rights may pass with the loaned securities, but the Fund will retain the right to call any security in anticipation of a vote that the Adviser deems material to the security on loan. 

Loans of securities involve a risk that the borrower may fail to return the securities or may fail to maintain the proper amount of collateral, which may result in a loss of money by the Fund. There may be risks of delay and costs involved in recovery of securities or even loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower of the securities fail financially. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. However, loans will be made only to borrowers deemed by the Adviser to be creditworthy and when, in the judgment of the Adviser, the income which can be earned from such securities loans justifies the attendant risk. All relevant facts and circumstances, including the creditworthiness of the broker, dealer, bank or institution, will be considered in making decisions with respect to the lending of securities, subject to review by the Company’s Board of Directors. The Fund loaning securities also bears the risk that the reinvestment of collateral will result in a principal loss. Finally, there is the risk that the price of the securities will increase while they are on loan and the collateral will not be adequate to cover their value.

Non-Publicly Traded Securities, Private Placements and Restricted Securities. The Fund may invest in securities that are neither listed on a stock exchange nor traded OTC, including privately placed and restricted securities. Such unlisted securities may involve a higher degree of business and financial risk that can result in substantial losses. As a result of the absence of a public trading market for these securities, they may be less liquid than publicly traded securities. Although these securities may be resold in privately negotiated transactions, the prices realized from these sales could be less than those originally paid by the Fund or less than what may be considered the fair value of such securities. Furthermore, companies whose securities are not publicly traded may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements which might be applicable if their securities were publicly traded. The illiquidity of the market, as well as the lack of publicly available information regarding these securities, may also adversely affect the ability of the Fund to arrive at a fair value for certain securities at certain times and could make it difficult for the Fund to sell certain securities. If such securities are required to be registered under the securities laws of one or more jurisdictions before being sold, the Fund may be required to bear the expenses of registration. 

As a general matter, the Fund may not invest more than 15% of its net assets, determined at the time of investment, in illiquid securities, such as securities for which there is not a readily available secondary market or securities that are restricted from sale to the public without registration, including commercial paper issued in reliance on the so-called “private placement” exemption afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”). However, certain Restricted Securities can be offered and sold to qualified institutional buyers under Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (“Rule 144A Securities”), and may be deemed to be liquid under guidelines adopted by the Company’s Board of Directors. The Fund may invest without limit in liquid Rule 144A Securities. Rule 144A Securities may become illiquid if qualified institutional buyers are not interested in acquiring the securities. 

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The Fund may purchase equity securities in a private placement that are issued by issuers who have outstanding, publicly-traded equity securities of the same class (“private investments in public equity” or “PIPES”). Shares in PIPES generally are not registered with the SEC until after a certain time period from the date the private sale is completed. This restricted period can last many months. Until the public registration process is completed, PIPES are restricted as to resale and the Fund cannot freely trade the securities. Generally, such restrictions cause the PIPES to be illiquid during this time. PIPES may contain provisions that the issuer will pay specified financial penalties to the holder if the issuer does not publicly register the restricted equity securities within a specified period of time, but there is no assurance that the restricted equity securities will be publicly registered, or that the registration will remain in effect.

When-Issued and Delayed Delivery Securities. From time to time, the Fund may purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis or may purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis. When these transactions are negotiated, the price is fixed at the time of the commitment, but delivery and payment can take place a month or more after the date of commitment. The Fund may sell the securities before the settlement date, if it is deemed advisable. The securities so purchased or sold are subject to market fluctuation and no interest or dividends accrue to the purchaser prior to the settlement date. 

At the time the Fund makes the commitment to purchase or sell securities on a when-issued, delayed delivery or forward commitment basis, it will record the transaction and thereafter reflect the value, each day, of such security purchased, or if a sale, the proceeds to be received, in determining its NAV. At the time of delivery of the securities, their value may be more or less than the purchase or sale price. An increase in the percentage of the Fund’s assets committed to the purchase of securities on a when-issued, delayed delivery or forward commitment basis may increase the volatility of its NAV. The Fund will also earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets or establish a segregated account on the Fund’s books in which it will continually maintain cash or cash equivalents or other liquid portfolio securities equal in value to commitments to purchase securities on a when-issued, delayed delivery or forward commitment basis.

Temporary Borrowing. The Fund is permitted to borrow from banks in an amount up to 10% of its total assets for extraordinary or emergency purposes. For example, the Fund may borrow for temporary defensive purposes or to meet shareholder redemptions when the Adviser believes that it would not be in the best interests of the Fund to liquidate portfolio holdings. The Fund will not purchase additional securities while temporary borrowings exceed 5% of its total assets. 

The Board of Directors of the Company has approved procedures whereby the Fund together with other investment companies advised by the Adviser or its affiliates may enter into a joint line of credit arrangement with a bank. The Fund would be liable only for its own temporary borrowings under the joint line of credit arrangements.

DERIVATIVES 

The Fund may, but is not required to, use various derivatives and related investment strategies as described below. Derivatives may be used for a variety of purposes including hedging, risk management, portfolio management or to earn income. Any or all of the investment techniques described herein may be used at any time and there is no particular strategy that dictates the use of one technique rather than another, as the use of any derivative by the Fund is a function of numerous variables, including market conditions. The Fund complies with applicable regulatory requirements when using derivatives, including the earmarking or segregating of cash or of liquid assets when mandated by the SEC rules or SEC staff positions. Although the Adviser seeks to use derivatives to further the Fund’s investment objective, no assurance can be given that the use of derivatives will achieve this result.

General Risks of Derivatives. Derivatives utilized by the Fund may involve the purchase and sale of derivative instruments. A derivative is a financial instrument the value of which depends upon (or derives from) the value of another asset, security, interest rate or index. Derivatives may relate to a wide variety of underlying instruments, including equity and debt securities, indices, interest rates, currencies and other assets. Certain derivative instruments that the Fund may use and the risks of those instruments are described in further detail below. The Fund may in the future also utilize derivatives techniques, instruments and strategies that may be newly developed or permitted as a result of regulatory changes, consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Such newly developed techniques, instruments and strategies may involve risks different than or in addition to those described herein. No assurance can be given that any derivatives strategy employed by the Fund will be successful. 

The risks associated with the use of derivatives are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the instruments underlying such derivatives. Derivatives are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from other portfolio investments. The use of derivative instruments requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the derivative itself. Certain risk factors generally applicable to derivative transactions are described below.

 

Derivatives are subject to the risk that the market value of the derivative itself or the market value of underlying instruments will change in a way adverse to the Fund’s interests. The Fund bears the risk that the Adviser may incorrectly forecast future market trends and other financial or economic factors or the value of the underlying security, index, interest rate or currency when establishing a derivatives position for the Fund.

 

Derivatives may be subject to pricing risk, which exists when a derivative becomes extraordinarily expensive (or inexpensive)
 

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relative to historical prices or corresponding instruments. Under such market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price.

 

Many derivatives are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to the Fund.

 

Using derivatives as a hedge against a portfolio investment subjects the Fund to the risk that the derivative will have imperfect correlation with the portfolio investment, which could result in the Fund incurring substantial losses. This correlation risk may be greater in the case of derivatives based on an index or other basket of securities, as the portfolio securities being hedged may not duplicate the components of the underlying index or the basket may not be of exactly the same type of obligation as those underlying the derivative. The use of derivatives for “cross hedging” purposes (using a derivative based on one instrument as a hedge on a different instrument) may also involve greater correlation risks.

 

While using derivatives for hedging purposes can reduce the Fund’s risk of loss, it may also limit the Fund’s opportunity for gains or result in losses by offsetting or limiting the Fund’s ability to participate in favorable price movements in portfolio investments.

 

Derivatives transactions for non-hedging purposes involve greater risks and may result in losses which would not be offset by increases in the value of portfolio securities or declines in the cost of securities to be acquired. In the event that the Fund enters into a derivatives transaction as an alternative to purchasing or selling the underlying instrument or in order to obtain desired exposure to an index or market, the Fund will be exposed to the same risks as are incurred in purchasing or selling the underlying instruments directly as well as the additional risks associated with derivatives transactions.

 

The use of certain derivatives transactions, including OTC derivatives, involves the risk of loss resulting from the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty to the contract or the failure by the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the contract. In the event of default by a counterparty, the Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction.

 

Liquidity risk exists when a particular derivative is difficult to purchase or sell. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, the Fund may be unable to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price.

 

While some derivatives are cleared through a regulated, central clearinghouse, many derivatives transactions are not entered into or traded on exchanges or in markets regulated by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) or the SEC. Instead, in some cases, certain types of bilateral OTC derivatives are entered into directly by the Fund and a counterparty and may be traded only through financial institutions acting as market makers. OTC derivatives transactions can only be entered into with a willing counterparty that is approved by the Adviser in accordance with guidelines established by the Board. Where no such counterparty is available, the Fund will be unable to enter into a desired OTC transaction. There also may be greater risk that no liquid secondary market in the trading of OTC derivatives will exist, in which case the Fund may be required to hold such instruments until exercise, expiration or maturity. Many of the protections afforded to participants in the cleared derivatives markets are not available to participants in bilateral OTC derivatives transactions. Bilateral OTC derivatives transactions are not subject to the guarantee of a clearinghouse and, as a result, the Fund would bear greater risk of default by the counterparties to such transactions.

 

The Fund may be required to make physical delivery of portfolio securities underlying a derivative in order to close out a derivatives position or to sell portfolio securities at a time or price at which it may be disadvantageous to do so in order to obtain cash to close out or to maintain a derivatives position.

 

As a result of the structure of certain derivatives, adverse changes in, among other things, interest rates, volatility or the value of the underlying instrument can result in losses substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment.

 

Certain derivatives may be considered illiquid and therefore subject to the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities.

 

Derivatives transactions conducted outside the United States may not be conducted in the same manner as those entered into on U.S. exchanges, and may be subject to different margin, exercise, settlement or expiration procedures. Brokerage commissions, clearing costs and other transaction costs may be higher on foreign exchanges. Many of the risks of OTC derivatives transactions are also applicable to derivatives transactions conducted outside the United States. Derivatives transactions conducted outside the United States are subject to the risk of governmental action affecting the trading in, or the prices of, foreign securities, currencies and other instruments. The value of such positions could be adversely affected by foreign political and economic factors; lesser availability of data on which to make trading decisions; delays on the Fund’s ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets; and less liquidity than U.S. markets.

 

Currency derivatives are subject to additional risks. Currency derivatives transactions may be negatively affected by government exchange controls, blockages and manipulation. Currency exchange rates may be influenced by factors extrinsic to a country’s economy. There is no systematic reporting of last sale information with respect to foreign currencies. As a result, the available information on which trading in currency derivatives will be based may not be as complete as comparable data for other transactions. Events could occur in the foreign currency market which will not be reflected in currency derivatives until the following day, making it more difficult for the Fund to respond to such events in a timely manner.
 

Regulatory Matters. As described herein, the Fund may be required to cover its potential economic exposure to certain derivatives transactions by holding an offsetting financial position and/or earmarking or segregating cash or liquid assets equal in value to the Fund’s potential economic exposure under the transaction. The Fund will cover such transactions as described herein or in such other

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manner in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Assets used to cover derivatives transactions cannot be sold while the derivatives position is open, unless they are replaced by other appropriate assets. Earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets and assets held in margin accounts are not otherwise available to the Fund for investment purposes. If a large portion of the Fund’s assets are used to cover derivatives transactions or are otherwise earmarked or segregated, it could affect portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations. With respect to derivatives which are cash-settled (i.e., have no physical delivery requirement), the Fund is permitted to earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the derivative, if any, rather than the derivative’s full notional amount or the market value of the instrument underlying the derivative, as applicable. By segregating assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled derivatives, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to segregate assets equal to the full notional amount of the derivative or the market value of the underlying instrument, as applicable. 

Regulatory developments affecting the exchange-traded and OTC derivatives markets may impair the Fund’s ability to manage or hedge its investment portfolio through the use of derivatives. In particular, proposed regulatory changes by the SEC relating to a mutual fund’s use of derivatives could potentially limit or impact the Fund’s ability to invest in derivatives and adversely affect the value or performance of the Fund or its derivative investments. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and the rules promulgated thereunder may limit the ability of the Fund to enter into one or more exchange-traded or OTC derivatives transactions. 

The Fund’s use of derivatives may also be limited by the requirements of the Code for qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes. 

The Company, on behalf of the Fund, has filed a notice of eligibility with the National Futures Association (“NFA”) claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) pursuant to CFTC Regulation 4.5, as promulgated under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (“CEA”), with respect to the Fund’s operations. Therefore, neither the Fund nor the Adviser (with respect to the Fund), is subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool or CPO under the CEA. If the Fund becomes subject to these requirements, as well as related NFA rules, the Fund may incur additional compliance and other expenses. 

With respect to investments in swap transactions, commodity futures, commodity options or certain other commodity interests used for purposes other than bona fide hedging purposes, an investment company must meet one of the following tests under the amended regulations in order for its investment adviser to claim an exemption from being considered a CPO. First, the aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish an investment company’s positions in such investments may not exceed five percent (5%) of the liquidation value of the investment company’s portfolio (after accounting for unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such investments). Alternatively, the aggregate net notional value of such instruments, determined at the time of the most recent position established, may not exceed one hundred percent (100%) of the liquidation value of the investment company’s portfolio (after accounting for unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions). In addition to meeting one of the foregoing trading limitations, the investment company may not market itself as a commodity pool or otherwise as a vehicle for trading in the commodity futures, commodity options or swaps and derivatives markets.

Forwards. A foreign currency forward exchange contract is a negotiated agreement between two parties to exchange specified amounts of two or more currencies at a specified future time at a specified rate. The rate specified by the foreign currency forward exchange contract can be higher or lower than the spot rate between the currencies that are the subject of the contract. The Fund may also invest in non-deliverable foreign currency forward exchange contracts (“NDFs”). NDFs are similar to other foreign currency forward exchange contracts, but do not require or permit physical delivery of currency upon settlement. Instead, settlement is made in cash based on the difference between the contracted exchange rate and the spot foreign exchange rate at settlement. Currency futures are similar to foreign currency forward exchange contracts, except that they are traded on an exchange and standardized as to contract size and delivery date. Most currency futures call for payment or delivery in U.S. dollars. Unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in losses to the Fund and poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not entered into foreign currency forward exchange contracts. The Fund may enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts under various circumstances. The typical use of a foreign currency forward exchange contract is to “lock in” the price of a security in U.S. dollars or some other foreign currency, which the Fund is holding in its portfolio. By entering into a foreign currency forward exchange contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars or other currency, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying security transactions, the Fund may be able to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar or other currency which is being used for the security purchase and the foreign currency in which the security is denominated during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received. The Adviser also may from time to time utilize foreign currency forward exchange contracts for other purposes. For example, they may be used to hedge a foreign security held in the portfolio against a decline in value of the applicable foreign currency. They also may be used to lock in the current exchange rate of the currency in which those securities anticipated to be

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purchased are denominated. At times, the Fund may enter into “cross-currency” hedging transactions involving currencies other than those in which securities are held or proposed to be purchased are denominated. 

The Fund will not enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts or maintain a net exposure to these contracts where the consummation of the contracts would obligate the Fund to deliver an amount of foreign currency in excess of the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. 

When required by law, the Fund will earmark or segregate cash or U.S. government securities or other appropriate liquid portfolio securities in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to the consummation of foreign currency forward exchange contracts entered into under the circumstances set forth above. If the value of the securities so earmarked declines, additional cash or securities will be segregated or earmarked on a daily basis so that the value of such securities will equal the amount of the Fund’s commitments with respect to such contracts. 

The Fund may be limited in its ability to enter into hedging transactions involving foreign currency forward exchange contracts by the Code requirements relating to qualification as a regulated investment company. 

Foreign currency forward exchange contracts may limit gains on portfolio securities that could otherwise be realized had they not been utilized and could result in losses. The contracts also may increase the Fund’s volatility and may involve a significant amount of risk relative to the investment of cash.

Futures Contracts. A futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying asset, reference rate or index at a specific price at a specific future time (the “settlement date”). Futures contracts may be based on, among other things, a specified equity security (securities futures), a specified debt security or reference rate (interest rate futures), the value of a specified securities index (index futures) or the value of a foreign currency (currency futures). The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of the underlying instrument. The buyer of a futures contract agrees to purchase the underlying instrument on the settlement date and is said to be “long” the contract. The seller of a futures contract agrees to sell the underlying instrument on the settlement date and is said to be “short” the contract. Futures contracts call for settlement only on the expiration date and cannot be “exercised” at any other time during their term. 

Depending on the terms of the particular contract, futures contracts are settled through either physical delivery of the underlying instrument on the settlement date (such as in the case of securities futures based on a specified debt security) or by payment of a cash settlement amount on the settlement date (such as in the case of futures contracts relating to broad-based securities indices). In the case of cash settled futures contracts, the settlement amount is equal to the difference between the reference instrument’s price on the last trading day of the contract and the reference instrument’s price at the time the contract was entered into. Most futures contracts, particularly futures contracts requiring physical delivery, are not held until the settlement date, but instead are offset before the settlement date through the establishment of an opposite and equal futures position (buying a contract that had been sold, or selling a contract that had been purchased). All futures transactions are effected through a clearinghouse associated with the exchange on which the futures are traded. 

The buyer and seller of a futures contract are not required to deliver or pay for the underlying commodity unless the contract is held until the settlement date. However, both the buyer and seller are required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures commission merchant when the futures contract is entered into. Initial margin deposits are typically calculated as a percentage of the contract’s market value. If the value of either party’s position declines, the party will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to settle the change in value on a daily basis. The process is known as “marking-to-market.” Upon the closing of a futures position through the establishment of an offsetting position, a final determination of variation margin will be made and additional cash will be paid by or released to the Fund. 

In addition, the Fund may be required to earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets or maintain earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets in order to cover futures transactions. The Fund will earmark or segregate cash or liquid assets in an amount equal to the difference between the market value of a futures contract entered into by the Fund and the aggregate value of the initial and variation margin payments made by the Fund with respect to such contract or as otherwise permitted by SEC rules or SEC staff positions. See “Regulatory Matters” above.

Additional Risks of Futures Transactions. The risks associated with futures contract transactions are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying instruments. Futures are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with other portfolio investments. The use of futures requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the futures contract itself. Futures may be subject to the risk factors generally applicable to derivatives transactions described herein, and may also be subject to certain additional risk factors, including:

 

The risk of loss in buying and selling futures contracts can be substantial. Small price movements in the commodity underlying a futures position may result in immediate and substantial loss (or gain) to the Fund.

 

Buying and selling futures contracts may result in losses in excess of the amount invested in the position in the form of initial
 

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margin. In the event of adverse price movements in the underlying commodity, security, index, currency or instrument, the Fund would be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. The Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities, or make or take delivery of the underlying securities in order to meet daily margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The Fund could lose margin payments deposited with a futures commission merchant if the futures commission merchant breaches its agreement with the Fund, becomes insolvent or declares bankruptcy.

 

Most exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during any single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular futures contract, no trades may be made on that day at prices beyond that limit. If futures contract prices were to move to the daily limit for several trading days with little or no trading, the Fund could be prevented from prompt liquidation of a futures position and subject to substantial losses. The daily limit governs only price movements during a single trading day and therefore does not limit the Fund’s potential losses.

 

Index futures based upon a narrower index of securities may present greater risks than futures based on broad market indices, as narrower indices are more susceptible to rapid and extreme fluctuations as a result of changes in value of a small number of securities.
 

Options. An option is a contract that gives the holder of the option the right, but not the obligation, to buy from (in the case of a call option) or sell to (in the case of a put option) the buyer or seller, as applicable, of the option (the “option writer”) the underlying security at a specified fixed price (the “exercise price”) on or prior to a specified date for American options or only at expiration for European options (the “expiration date”). The buyer of the option pays to the option writer the option premium, which is the purchase price of the option. 

Exchange-traded options are issued by a regulated intermediary such as the OCC, which guarantees the performance of the obligations of the parties to such options. OTC options are purchased from or sold to counterparties through direct bilateral agreement between the Fund and its counterparties. Certain options, such as options on individual securities, are settled through physical delivery of the underlying security, whereas other options, such as index options, may be settled in cash in an amount based on the difference between the value of the underlying instrument and the strike price, which is then multiplied by a specified multiplier.

Writing Options. The Fund may write call and put options. As the writer of a call option, the Fund receives the premium from the purchaser of the option and has the obligation, upon exercise of the option, to deliver the underlying security upon payment of the exercise price. If the option expires without being exercised the Fund is not required to deliver the underlying security and retains the premium received. 

The  Fund may only write call options that are “covered.” A call option on a security is covered if (a) the Fund owns the security underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that security without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, such amount is maintained by the Fund in earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets) upon conversion or exchange of other securities held by the Fund; or (b) the Fund has purchased a call on the underlying security, the exercise price of which is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the call written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the call written, provided the difference is maintained by the Fund in earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets. 

Selling call options involves the risk that the Fund may be required to sell the underlying security at a disadvantageous price, below the market price of such security, at the time the option is exercised. As the writer of a covered call option, the Fund forgoes, during the option’s life, the opportunity to profit from increases in the market value of the underlying security covering the option above the sum of the premium and the exercise price but retains the risk of loss should the price of the underlying security decline. 

The Fund may write put options. As the writer of a put option, the Fund receives the premium from the purchaser of the option and has the obligation, upon exercise of the option, to pay the exercise price and receive delivery of the underlying security. If the option expires without being exercised, the Fund is not required to receive the underlying security in exchange for the exercise price and retains the option premium. 

The Fund may only write put options that are “covered.” A put option on a security is covered if (a) the Fund earmarks or segregates cash or liquid assets equal to the exercise price; or (b) the Fund has purchased a put on the same security as the put written, the exercise price of which is (i) equal to or greater than the exercise price of the put written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the put written, provided the difference is maintained by the Fund in earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets. 

Selling put options involves the risk that the Fund may be required to buy the underlying security at a disadvantageous price, above the market price of such security, at the time the option is exercised. While the Fund’s potential gain in writing a covered put option is limited to the premium received plus the interest earned on the liquid assets covering the put option, the Fund’s risk of loss is equal to the entire value of the underlying security, offset only by the amount of the premium received. 

The Fund may close out an options position which it has written through a closing purchase transaction. The Fund could execute a closing purchase transaction with respect to a written call option by purchasing a call option on the same underlying security which has the same exercise price and expiration date as the call option written by the Fund. The Fund could execute a closing purchase transaction with respect to a put option written by purchasing a put option on the same underlying security and having the same

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exercise price and expiration date as the put option written by the Fund. A closing purchase transaction may or may not result in a profit to the Fund. The Fund can close out its position as an option writer only if a liquid market exists for options on the same underlying security which have the same exercise price and expiration date as the option written by the Fund. There is no assurance that such a market will exist with respect to any particular option. 

The writer of an American option generally has no control over the time when the option is exercised and the option writer is required to deliver or acquire the underlying security. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect a closing purchase transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option. Thus, the use of options may require the Fund to buy or sell portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices other than the current market values of such securities, which may limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on an investment, or may cause the Fund to hold a security that it might otherwise sell.

Purchasing Options. The Fund may purchase call and put options. As the buyer of a call option, the Fund pays the premium to the option writer and has the right to purchase the underlying security from the option writer at the exercise price. If the market price of the underlying security rises above the exercise price, the Fund could exercise the option and acquire the underlying security at a below market price, which could result in a gain to the Fund, minus the premium paid. As the buyer of a put option, the Fund pays the premium to the option writer and has the right to sell the underlying security to the option writer at the exercise price. If the market price of the underlying security declines below the exercise price, the Fund could exercise the option and sell the underlying security at an above market price, which could result in a gain to the Fund, minus the premium paid. The Fund may buy call and put options whether or not it holds the underlying securities. 

As a buyer of a call or put option, the Fund may sell put or call options that it has purchased at any time prior to such option’s expiration date through a closing sale transaction. The principal factors affecting the market value of a put or a call option include supply and demand, interest rates, the current market price of the underlying security in relation to the exercise price of the option, the volatility of the underlying security, the underlying security’s dividend policy, and the time remaining until the expiration date. A closing sale transaction may or may not result in a profit to the Fund. The Fund’s ability to initiate a closing sale transaction is dependent upon the liquidity of the options market and there is no assurance that such a market will exist with respect to any particular option. If the Fund does not exercise or sell an option prior to its expiration date, the option expires and becomes worthless.

OTC Options. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size and strike price, the terms of OTC options generally are established through negotiation between the parties to the options contract. This type of arrangement allows the purchaser and writer greater flexibility to tailor the option to their needs. OTC options are available for a greater variety of securities or baskets of securities, and in a wider range of expiration dates and exercise prices, than exchange-traded options. However, unlike exchange-traded options, which are issued and guaranteed by a regulated intermediary, such as the OCC, OTC options are entered into directly with the counterparty. Unless the counterparties provide for it, there is no central clearing or guaranty function for an OTC option. Therefore, OTC options are subject to the risk of default or non-performance by the counterparty. Accordingly, the Adviser must assess the creditworthiness of the counterparty to determine the likelihood that the terms of the option will be satisfied. There can be no assurance that a continuous liquid secondary market will exist for any particular OTC option at any specific time. As a result, the Fund may be unable to enter into closing sale transactions with respect to OTC options.

Index Options. Call and put options on indices operate similarly to options on securities. Rather than the right to buy or sell a single security at a specified price, options on an index give the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash determined by reference to the difference between the value of the underlying index and the strike price. The underlying index may be a broad-based index or a narrower market index. Unlike many options on securities, all settlements are in cash. The settlement amount, which the writer of an index option must pay to the holder of the option upon exercise, is generally equal to the difference between the strike price of the option and the value of the underlying index, multiplied by a specified multiplier. The multiplier determines the size of the investment position the option represents. Gain or loss to the Fund on index options transactions will depend, in part, on price movements of the underlying index generally or in a particular segment of the index rather than price movements of individual components of the index. As with other options, the Fund may close out its position in index options through closing purchase transactions and closing sale transactions provided that a liquid secondary market exists for such options. 

Index options written by the Fund will generally be covered in a manner similar to the covering of other types of options, by holding an offsetting financial position and/or segregating or earmarking cash or liquid assets. The Fund may cover call options written on an index by owning securities or other assets whose price changes, in the opinion of the Adviser, are expected to correlate to those of the underlying index.

Foreign Currency Options. Options on foreign currencies operate similarly to options on securities. Rather than the right to buy or sell a single security at a specified price, options on foreign currencies give the holder the right to buy or sell foreign currency for a fixed amount in U.S. dollars or other base currencies. Options on foreign currencies are traded primarily in the OTC market, but may also be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges. The value of a foreign currency option is dependent upon the value of the underlying

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foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar or other base currency. The price of the option may vary with changes, among other things, in the value of either or both currencies and has no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security. Options on foreign currencies are affected by all of those factors which influence foreign exchange rates and foreign investment generally. As with other options, the Fund may close out its position in foreign currency options through closing purchase transactions and closing sale transactions provided that a liquid market exists for such options. 

Foreign currency options written by the Fund will generally be covered in a manner similar to the covering of other types of options, by holding an offsetting financial position and/or segregating or earmarking cash or liquid assets.

Options on Futures Contracts. Options on futures contracts are similar to options on securities except that options on futures contracts give the purchasers the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a futures contract (a long position in the case of a call option and a short position in the case of a put option) at a specified exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the parties will be subject to all of the risks associated with futures transactions and subject to margin requirements. As the writer of options on futures contracts, the Fund would also be subject to initial and variation margin requirements on the option position. 

Options on futures contracts written by the Fund will generally be covered in a manner similar to the covering of other types of options, by holding an offsetting financial position and/or earmarking or segregating cash or liquid assets. The Fund may cover an option on a futures contract by purchasing or selling the underlying futures contract. In such instances the exercise of the option will serve to close out the Fund’s futures position.

Additional Risks of Options Transactions. The risks associated with options transactions are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying instruments. Options are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with other portfolio investments. The use of options requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the option itself. Options may be subject to the risk factors generally applicable to derivatives transactions described herein, and may also be subject to certain additional risk factors, including:

 

The exercise of options written or purchased by the Fund could cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities, thus increasing the Fund’s portfolio turnover.

 

The Fund pays brokerage commissions each time it writes or purchases an option or buys or sells an underlying security in connection with the exercise of an option. Such brokerage commissions could be higher relative to the commissions for direct purchases of sales of the underlying securities.

 

The Fund’s options transactions may be subject to limitations on options positions established by the SEC, the CFTC or the exchanges on which such options are traded.