10-K 1 mbcn20151231_10k.htm FORM 10-K mbcn20151231_10k.htm

 



 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of
1934 for the fiscal year ended: December 31, 201
5

 

Commission File Number: 001-36613

 

Middlefield Banc Corp.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Ohio

 

34-1585111

     

( State or other

 

( IRS

jurisdiction   Employer

of incorporation or

organization)

Identification

No.)

 

 

15985 East High Street, Middlefield, Ohio 44062-0035
(440) 632-1666
( Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices
)

 

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act : common stock, without par value

 

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act : none

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes ☐   No ☑

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ☐   No ☑

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☑ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer” and“ smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer ☐   Accelerated filer ☐       Non-accelerated filer ☐    Smaller reporting company ☑

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).      Yes ☐ No ☑

 

The aggregate market value on June 30, 2015 of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $67.5 million. As of March 9, 2016, there were 1,877,379 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference     Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statements for the 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report. Portions of the Annual Report to Shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2015 are incorporated by reference into Part I and Part II of this report.

 

 
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MIDDLEFIELD BANC CORP.

YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015

INDEX TO FORM 10-K

 

 

  Page

Part I

     

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

19

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

23

Item 2.

Properties

24

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

25

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

25

     

Part II

     

Item 5. 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

25

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

25

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

25

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

25

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

25

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

25

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

26

Item 9B.

Other Information

26

     

Part III

     

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers of the Registrant, and Corporate Governance

26

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

26

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

  26

Item 13.

Certain Relationships, Related Transactions, and Director Independence

26

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

26

     

Part IV

     

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

27

     

SIGNATURES

 

 
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Item 1 — Business

 

Middlefield Banc Corp. Incorporated in 1988 under the Ohio General Corporation Law, Middlefield Banc Corp. (“Company”) is a bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. The Company’s subsidiaries are:

 

 

1.

The Middlefield Banking Company (“MBC”), an Ohio-chartered commercial bank that began operations in 1901. MBC engages in a general commercial banking business in northeastern and central Ohio. The principal executive office is located at 15985 East High Street, Middlefield, Ohio 44062-0035, and its telephone number is (440) 632-1666.

     
  2. EMORECO Inc., an Ohio asset resolution corporation headquartered in Middlefield, Ohio. EMORECO engages in the resolution and disposition of troubled assets in central Ohio. The principal executive office is located at 15985 East High Street, Middlefield, Ohio 44062-0035, and its telephone number is (440) 632-1666.

 

The Middlefield Banking Company MBC was chartered under Ohio law in 1901. MBC offers customers a broad range of banking services including checking, savings, negotiable order of withdrawal (“NOW”) accounts, money market accounts, time certificates of deposit, commercial loans, real estate loans, a variety of consumer loans, safe deposit facilities, and travelers’ checks. MBC offers online banking and bill payment services to individuals and online cash management services to business customers through its website at www.middlefieldbank.com.

 

Engaged in general commercial banking in northeastern and central Ohio, MBC offers these services principally to small and medium-sized businesses, professionals, small business owners, and retail customers. MBC has developed a marketing program to attract and retain consumer accounts and to match banking services and facilities with the needs of customers.

 

MBC’s loan products include operational and working capital loans, loans to finance capital purchases, term business loans, residential construction loans, selected guaranteed or subsidized loan programs for small businesses, professional loans, residential and mortgage loans, and consumer installment loans to purchase automobiles, boats, make home improvements, and other personal expenditures. Although the bank makes agricultural loans, it currently has no significant agricultural loans.

 

EMORECO Organized in 2009 as an Ohio corporation under the name EMORECO, Inc. and wholly owned by the Company, the purpose of the asset resolution subsidiary is to maintain, manage, and dispose of nonperforming loans and other real estate owned (“OREO”) acquired by the subsidiary bank as the result of borrower default on real estate-secured loans. At December 31, 2015, EMORECO’s assets consist of one nonperforming loan and five OREO properties. According to Federal law governing bank holding companies, the real estate must be disposed of within two years of acquisition, although limited extensions may be granted by the Federal Reserve Bank. Per federal law, a holding company subsidiary has limited real estate investment powers. EMORECO may only manage and maintain property and may not improve or develop property without advance approval of the Federal Reserve Bank.

        

Market Area MBC’s market area in northeastern Ohio consists principally of Geauga, Portage, Lake, Trumbull, and Ashtabula Counties. Benefitting from the area’s proximity to Cleveland and Warren, population and income levels have maintained steady growth over the years. MBC’s two central Ohio branches are located in Dublin and Westerville in Franklin County, north of Columbus. 

 

Forward-looking Statements This document contains forward-looking statements (as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995) about the Company and subsidiaries. Information incorporated in this document by reference, future filings by the Company on Form 10-Q and Form 8-K, and future oral and written statements by the Company and its management may also contain forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include statements about anticipated operating and financial performance, such as loan originations, operating efficiencies, loan sales, charge-offs and loan loss provisions, growth opportunities, interest rates, and deposit growth. Words such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “project,” “plan,” and similar expressions are intended to identify these forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements are necessarily subject to many risks and uncertainties. A number of things could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements. These include the factors we discuss immediately below, those addressed under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” other factors discussed elsewhere in this document or identified in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and those presented elsewhere by our management from time to time. Many of the risks and uncertainties are beyond our control. The following factors could cause our operating and financial performance to differ materially from the plans, objectives, assumptions, expectations, estimates, and intentions expressed in forward-looking statements:

 

 the strength of the United States economy in general and the strength of the local economies in which we conduct our operations; general economic conditions, either nationally or regionally, may be less favorable than we expect, resulting in a deterioration in the credit quality of our loan assets, among other things

 

the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies and laws, including interest-rate policies of the Federal Reserve Board

 

inflation, interest rate, market, and monetary fluctuations

 

 the development and acceptance of new products and services of the Company and subsidiaries and the perceived overall value of these products and services by users, including the features, pricing, and quality compared to competitors’ products and services

 

 
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the willingness of users to substitute our products and services for those of competitors

 

the impact of changes in financial services laws and regulations (including laws concerning taxes, banking, securities, and insurance)

 

changes in consumer spending and saving habits

 

Forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, assumptions, expectations, estimates, and intentions as of the date the statements are made. Investors should exercise caution because the Company cannot give any assurance that its beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, assumptions, expectations, estimates, and intentions will be realized. The Company disclaims any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements based on the occurrence of future events, the receipt of new information, or otherwise.

 

LendingLoan Portfolio Composition and Activity. The Bank makes residential and commercial mortgage, home equity, secured and unsecured consumer installment, commercial and industrial, and real estate construction loans for owner-occupied and rental properties. The Bank’s Credit Policy aspires to a loan composition mix consisting of approximately 40% to 50% consumer purpose transactions including residential real estate loans, home equity loans and other consumer loans. The Policy is also designed to provide for 35% to 40% of total loans as business purpose commercial loans and business and consumer credit card accounts of up to 5% of total loans.

 

Although Ohio law imposes no material restrictions on the types of loans the Bank may make, real estate-based lending has historically been the primary focus. For prudential reasons, we avoid lending on the security of real estate located outside our market area. Ohio law does restrict the amount of loans an Ohio-chartered bank may make, generally limiting credit to any single borrower to less than 15% of capital. An additional margin of 10% of capital is allowed for loans fully secured by readily marketable collateral. This 15% legal lending limit has not been a material restriction on lending. We can accommodate loan volumes exceeding the legal lending limit by selling loan participations to other banks. As of December 31, 2015, MBC’s 15%-of-capital limit on loans to a single borrower was approximately $10.9 million.

 

The Bank offers specialized loans for business and commercial customers, including equipment and inventory financing, real estate construction loans and Small Business Administration loans for qualified businesses. A substantial portion of the Bank’s commercial loans are designated as real estate loans for regulatory reporting purposes because they are secured by mortgages on real property. Loans of that type may be made for purposes of financing commercial activities, such as accounts receivable, equipment purchases and leasing, but they are secured by real estate to provide the Bank with an extra measure of security. Although these loans might be secured in whole or in part by real estate, they are treated in the discussions to follow as commercial and industrial loans. The Bank’s consumer installment loans include secured and unsecured loans to individual borrowers for a variety of purposes, including personal, home improvements, revolving credit lines, autos, boats, and recreational vehicles.     

 

The following table shows on a consolidated basis the composition of the loan portfolio in dollar amounts and in percentages along with a reconciliation to loans receivable, net.

 

   

Loan Portfolio Composition at December 31,

 
                                                                                 
   

2015

   

2014

   

2013

   

2012

   

2011

 
                                                                                 
(Dollars in thousands)   

Amount

   

Percent

   

Amount

   

Percent

   

Amount

   

Percent

   

Amount

   

Percent

   

Amount

   

Percent

 
                                                                                 

Type of loan:

                                                                               

Commercial and industrial

  $ 42,536       7.97

%

  $ 34,928       7.42

%

  $ 54,498       12.51

%

  $ 62,188       15.23

%

  $ 59,185       14.73

%

Real estate construction

    22,137       4.15       30,296       6.44       25,601       5.88       22,522       5.51       21,545       5.36  

Mortgage:

                                                                               

Residential

    232,478       43.56       210,096       44.65       210,310       48.27       203,872       49.92       208,139       51.79  

Commercial

    231,701       43.41       190,685       40.52       141,171       32.40       115,734       28.34       108,502       27.00  

Consumer installment

    4,858       0.91       4,579       0.97       4,145       0.94       4,117       1.00       4,509       1.12  
                                                                                 

Total loans

    533,710       100.00

%

    470,584       100.00

%

    435,725       100.00

%

    408,433       100.00

%

    401,880       100.00

%

Less:

                                                                               

Allowance for loan and lease losses

    6,385               6,846               7,046               7,779               6,819          
                                                                                 

Net loans

  $ 527,325             $ 463,738             $ 428,679             $ 400,654             $ 395,061          

 

 
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The following table presents consolidated maturity information for the loan portfolio. The table does not include prepayments or scheduled principal repayments. All loans are shown as maturing based on contractual maturities.

 

   

Loan Portfolio Maturity at December 31, 2015

 
   

Commercial

and

   

Real Estate

   

Mortgage

   

Consumer

         
(Dollars in thousands)    

Industrial

   

Construction

   

Residential

   

Commercial

   

Installment

   

Total

 

Amount due:

                                               

In one year or less

  $ 13,026     $ 2,467     $ 3,731     $ 6,545     $ 589     $ 26,358  

After one year through five years

    22,590       1,242       14,798       6,413       3,051       48,094  

After five years

    6,920       18,428       213,949       218,743       1,218       459,258  
                                                 

Total amount due

  $ 42,536     $ 22,137     $ 232,478     $ 231,701     $ 4,858     $ 533,710  

 

 

Loans due on demand and overdrafts are included in the amount due in one year or less. The Company has no loans without a stated schedule of repayment or a stated maturity.

 

The following table shows on a consolidated basis the dollar amount of all loans due after December 31, 2015 that have pre-determined interest rates and the dollar amount of all loans due after December 31, 2015 that have floating or adjustable rates.

 

 

   

Fixed

Rate

   

Adjustable

Rate

   

Total

 

(Dollars in thousands)

                       

Commercial and industrial

  $ 34,170     $ 8,366     $ 42,536  

Real estate construction

    3,910       18,227       22,137  

Mortgage:

                       

Residential

    11,933       220,545       232,478  

Commercial

    38,777       192,924       231,701  

Consumer installment

    3,843       1,015       4,858  
                         
    $ 92,633     $ 441,077     $ 533,710  

 

 

 

Residential Mortgage Loans A significant portion of the Bank’s lending consists of origination of conventional loans secured by 1-4 family real estate located in Franklin, Geauga, Portage, Trumbull, and Ashtabula Counties. Residential mortgage loans approximated $232.5 million or 43.6% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio at December 31, 2015.

 

The Bank makes loans of up to 80% of the value of the real estate and improvements securing a loan (“LTV” ratio) on 1-4 family real estate. The Bank generally does not lend in excess of the lower of 80% of the appraised value or sales price of the property. The Bank offers residential real estate loans with terms of up to 30 years.     

 

Approximately 94.9% of the portfolio of conventional mortgage loans secured by 1-4 family real estate at December 31, 2015 is adjustable rate. Generally, the Bank originates fixed-rate, single-family mortgage loans in conformity with Freddie Mac guidelines, so as to permit their being sold to Freddie Mac. These loans are sold with servicing rights retained, and are sold in furtherance of the Bank’s goal of better matching the maturities and interest rate sensitivity of its assets and liabilities. The Bank generally retains responsibility for collecting and remitting loan payments, inspecting the properties, making certain insurance and tax payments on behalf of borrowers and otherwise servicing the loans it sells and receives a fee for performing these services. Sales of loans also provide funds for additional lending and other purposes.

 

The Bank’s home equity Credit Policy generally allows for a loan of up to 85% of a property’s appraised value, less the principal balance of the outstanding first mortgage loan. The Bank’s home equity loans generally have terms of 20 years.

 

At December 31, 2015, residential mortgage loans of approximately $4.1 million were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing on that date, representing 1.8% of the residential mortgage loan portfolio. At December 31, 2014, residential mortgage loans of approximately $5.3 million were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing on that date, representing 2.3% of the residential mortgage loan portfolio.

 

 
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Commercial and Industrial Loans and Commercial Real Estate Loans 

 

The Bank’s commercial loan services include:

 

accounts receivable, inventory and

short-term notes

 

working capital loans

selected guaranteed or subsidized loan programs

renewable operating lines of credit

 

for small businesses

loans to finance capital equipment

loans to professionals

term business loans

commercial real estate loans

 

Commercial real estate loans include commercial properties occupied by the proprietor of the business conducted on the premises, and income-producing or farm properties. Although the Bank makes agricultural loans, it currently does not have a significant amount of agricultural loans. The primary risks of commercial real estate loans are loss of income of the owner or occupier of the property and the inability of the market to sustain rent levels. Although commercial and commercial real estate loans generally bear more risk than single-family residential mortgage loans, they tend to be higher yielding, have shorter terms and provide for interest-rate adjustments. Accordingly, commercial and commercial real estate loans enhance a lender’s interest rate risk management and, in management’s opinion, promote more rapid asset and income growth than a loan portfolio composed strictly of residential real estate mortgage loans.

 

Although a risk of nonpayment exists for all loans, certain specific risks are associated with various kinds of loans. One of the primary risks associated with commercial loans is the possibility that the commercial borrower will not generate income sufficient to repay the loan. The Bank’s Credit Policy provides that commercial loan applications must be supported by documentation indicating cash flow sufficient for the borrower to service the proposed loan. Financial statements or tax returns for at least three years must be submitted, and annual reviews are required for business purpose relationships of $1,000,000 or more. Ongoing financial information is generally required for any commercial credit where the exposure is $250,000 or more.

 

The fair value of collateral for collateralized commercial loans must exceed the Bank’s exposure. For this purpose fair value is determined by independent appraisal or by the loan officer’s estimate employing guidelines established by the Credit Policy. Loans not secured by real estate generally have terms of five years or fewer, unless guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration or other governmental agency, and term loans secured by collateral having a useful life exceeding five years may have longer terms. The Bank’s Credit Policy allows for terms of up to 15 years for loans secured by commercial real estate, and one year for business lines of credit. The maximum LTV ratio for commercial real estate loans is 80% of the appraised value or cost, whichever is less.

 

Real estate is commonly a material component of collateral for the Bank’s loans, including commercial loans. Although the expected source of repayment is generally the operations of the borrower’s business or personal income, real estate collateral provides an additional measure of security. Risks associated with loans secured by real estate include fluctuating land values, changing local economic conditions, changes in tax policies, and a concentration of loans within a limited geographic area.

 

At December 31, 2015 commercial and commercial real estate loans totaled $274.2 million, or 51.4% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio. At December 31, 2015, commercial and commercial real estate loans of approximately $3.3 million were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing on that date, and represented 1.2% of the commercial and commercial real estate loan portfolios. At December 31, 2014, commercial and commercial real estate loans totaled $225.6 million, or 47.9% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio. At December 31, 2014, commercial and commercial real estate loans of approximately $1.4 million were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing on that date, and represented 0.6% of the commercial and commercial real estate loan portfolios.

 

Real Estate Construction 

 

The Bank originates several different types of loans that it categorizes as construction loans, including:

 

  residential construction loans to borrowers who will occupy the premises upon completion of construction,
  residential construction loans to builders,
  commercial construction loans, and
  real estate acquisition and development loans.

 

Because of the complex nature of construction lending, these loans are generally recognized as having a higher degree of risk than other forms of real estate lending. The Bank’s fixed-rate and adjustable-rate construction loans do not provide for the same interest rate terms on the construction loan and on the permanent mortgage loan that follows completion of the construction phase of the loan. It is the norm for the Bank to make residential construction loans without an existing written commitment for permanent financing. The Bank’s Credit Policy provides that the Bank may make construction loans with terms of up to one year, with a maximum LTV ratio for residential construction of 80%. The Bank also offers residential construction-to-permanent loans that have a twelve-month construction period followed by 30 years of permanent financing.

 

At December 31, 2015, real estate construction loans totaled $22.1 million, or 4.1% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio. Real estate construction loans of approximately $0.1 million were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing on that date, representing 0.6% of the real estate construction loan portfolio. At December 31, 2014, real estate construction loans totaled $30.3 million, or 6.4% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio. Real estate construction loans of approximately $0.6 million were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing on that date, representing 1.9% of the real estate construction loan portfolio.

 

 
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Consumer Installment Loans The Bank’s consumer installment loans include secured and unsecured loans to individual borrowers for a variety of purposes, including personal, home improvement, revolving credit lines, autos, boats, and recreational vehicles. The Bank does not currently do any indirect lending. Unsecured consumer loans carry significantly higher interest rates than secured loans. The Bank maintains a higher loan loss allowance for consumer loans, while maintaining strict credit guidelines when considering consumer loan applications.

 

According to the Bank’s Credit Policy, consumer loans secured by collateral other than real estate generally may have terms of up to five years, and unsecured consumer loans may have terms up to three years. Real estate security generally is required for consumer loans having terms exceeding five years.

 

At December 31, 2015, the Bank had approximately $4.9 million in its consumer installment loan portfolio, representing 0.9% of total loans. At December 31, 2014, the Bank had approximately $4.6 million in its consumer installment loan portfolio, representing 1.0% of total loans. At December 31, 2014, 0.1% of consumer installment loans were over 90 days delinquent or nonaccruing.

 

Loan Solicitation and Processing Loan originations are developed from a number of sources, including continuing business with depositors, other borrowers and real estate builders, solicitations by Bank personnel and walk-in customers.

 

When a loan request is made, the Bank reviews the application, credit bureau reports, property appraisals or evaluations, financial information, verifications of income, and other documentation concerning the creditworthiness of the borrower, as applicable to each loan type. The Bank’s underwriting guidelines are set by senior management and approved by the Board of Directors. The Credit Policy specifies each individual officer’s loan approval authority. Loans exceeding an individual officer’s approval authority are submitted to an Officer’s Loan Committee, which has authority to approve loans up to $2,000,000. The Board of Directors’ Loan Committee acts as an approval authority for exposures over $2,000,000 and up to $5,000,000. Loans exceeding $5,000,000 require approval from the full Board of Directors.

 

Income from Lending Activities The Bank earns interest and fee income from its lending activities. Net of origination costs, loan origination fees are amortized over the life of a loan. The Bank also receives loan fees related to existing loans, including late charges. Income from loan origination and commitment fees and discounts varies with the volume and type of loans and commitments made and with competitive and economic conditions. Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included herein contains a discussion of the manner in which loan fees and income are recognized for financial reporting purposes.

 

Mortgage Banking Activity The Bank originates conventional loans secured by first lien mortgages on one-to-four family residential properties located within its market area for either portfolio or sale into the secondary market. During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Bank recorded gains of $0.3 million on the sale of $17.6 million in loans receivable originated for sale. During the year ended December 31, 2014, the Bank recorded gains of $0.2 million on the sale of $6.0 million in loans receivable originated for sale. The sold loans were sold on a servicing retained basis to Freddie Mac.

 

In addition to interest earned on loans and income recognized on the sale of loans, the Bank receives fees for servicing loans that it has sold. Because the Bank has data processing capacity that will allow it to expand its portfolio of serviced loans without incurring significant incremental expenses, the Bank intends in the future to augment its portfolio of loans serviced by continuing to originate and sell such fixed-rate single-family residential mortgage loans with Freddie Mac while retaining servicing.

 

Income from these activities will vary from period to period with the volume and type of loans originated and sold, which in turn is dependent on prevailing mortgage interest rates and their effect on the demand for loans in the Bank’s market area.

 

Nonperforming Loans Late charges on residential mortgages and consumer loans are assessed if a payment is not received by the due date plus a grace period. When an advanced stage of delinquency appears on a single-family loan and if repayment cannot be expected within a reasonable time or a repayment agreement is not entered into, a required notice of foreclosure or repossession proceedings may be prepared by the Bank’s attorney and delivered to the borrower so that foreclosure proceedings may be initiated promptly, if necessary. The Bank also collects late charges on commercial loans.

 

When the Bank acquires real estate through foreclosure, voluntary deed, or similar means, it is classified as OREO until it is sold. When property is acquired in this manner, it is recorded at the lower of cost (the unpaid principal balance at the date of acquisition) or fair value, less anticipated cost to sell. Any subsequent write-down is charged to expense. All costs incurred from the date of acquisition to maintain the property are expensed. OREO is appraised during the foreclosure process, before acquisition when possible. Losses are recognized for the amount by which the book value of the related mortgage loan exceeds the estimated net realizable value of the property.

 

The Bank undertakes regular review of the loan portfolio to assess its risks, particularly the risks associated with the commercial loan portfolio.

 

Classified Assets FDIC regulations governing classification of assets require nonmember commercial banks — including the Bank — to classify their own assets and to establish appropriate general and specific allowances for losses, subject to FDIC review. The regulations are designed to encourage management to evaluate assets on a case-by-case basis, discouraging automatic classifications. Under this classification system, problem assets of insured institutions are classified as “substandard,” “doubtful,” or “loss.” An asset is considered “substandard” if it is inadequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the obligor or of the collateral pledged, if any. Substandard assets include those characterized by the distinct possibility that the insured institution will sustain some loss if the deficiencies are not corrected. Assets classified as “doubtful” have all the weaknesses inherent in those classified substandard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection of principal in full — on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values — highly questionable and improbable. Assets classified as “loss” are those considered uncollectible and of such little value that their continuance as assets without the establishment of a specific loss reserve is not warranted. Assets that do not expose the Bank to risk sufficient to warrant classification in one of the above categories, but that possess some weakness, are required to be designated “special mention” by management.

 

 
7

 

 

When an insured institution classifies assets as either “substandard” or “doubtful,” it may establish allowances for loan losses in an amount deemed prudent by management. When an insured institution classifies assets as “loss,” it is required either to establish an allowance for losses equal to 100% of that portion of the assets so classified or to charge off that amount. An Ohio nonmember bank’s determination about classification of its assets and the amount of its allowances is subject to review by the FDIC, which may order the establishment of additional loss allowances. Management also employs an independent third party to semi-annually review and validate the internal loan review process and loan classifications.

 

The Bank has experienced a decrease in substandard loans. Loans secured by residential real estate and commercial real estate account for $5.8 million and $8.0 million of the substandard loans, respectively. These amounts represent 88.8% of the Bank’s substandard loans.

 

As of December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, and 2011 consolidated classified loans were as follows:

 

   

Classified Loans at December 31,

 
   

 

2015

   

 

2014

   

 

2013

   

 

2012

   

 

2011

 
(Dollars in thousands)    

Amount

   

Percent

of total

loans

   

Amount

   

Percent

of total

loans

   

Amount

   

Percent

of total

loans

   

Amount

   

Percent

of total

loans

   

Amount

   

Percent

of total

loans

 
                                                                                 

Classified loans:

                                                                               

Special mention

  $ 5,297       0.99 %   $ 4,987       1.06 %   $ 4,685       1.08 %   $ 3,364       0.82 %   $ 2,653       0.66 %

Substandard

    15,586       2.92 %     16,211       3.44 %     19,328       4.44 %     26,459       6.48 %     27,061       6.73 %

Doubtful

    130       0.02 %     627       0.13 %     43       0.01 %     59       0.01 %     73       0.02 %
                                                                                 

Total amount due

  $ 21,013       3.93 %   $ 21,825       4.63 %   $ 24,056       5.53 %   $ 29,882       7.31 %   $ 29,787       7.41 %

 

 

 

Other than those disclosed above, the Bank does not believe there are any loans classified for regulatory purposes as loss, doubtful, substandard, special mention or otherwise, which will result in losses or have a material impact on future operations, liquidity or capital reserves. We are not aware of any other information that causes us to have serious doubts as to the ability of borrowers in general to comply with repayment terms.

 

Investments Investment securities provide a return on residual funds after lending activities. Investments may be in federal funds sold, corporate securities, U.S. Government and agency obligations, state and local government obligations and government-guaranteed mortgage-backed securities. The Bank generally does not invest in securities that are rated less than investment grade by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. Ohio law prescribes the kinds of investments an Ohio-chartered bank may make. Permitted investments include local, state, and federal government securities, mortgage-backed securities, and securities of federal government agencies. An Ohio-chartered bank also may invest up to 10% of its assets in corporate debt and equity securities, or a higher percentage in certain circumstances. Ohio law also limits to 15% of capital the amount an Ohio-chartered bank may invest in the securities of any one issuer, other than local, state, and federal government and federal government agency issuers and mortgage-backed securities issuers. These provisions have not been a material constraint upon the Bank’s investment activities.

 

All securities-related activity is reported to the Bank’s board of directors. General changes in investment strategy are required to be reviewed and approved by the board. Senior management can purchase and sell securities in accordance with the Bank’s stated investment policy.

 

Management determines the appropriate classification of securities at the time of purchase. At this time the Bank has no securities that are classified as held to maturity. Securities to be held for indefinite periods and not intended to be held to maturity or on a long-term basis are classified as available for sale. Available-for-sale securities are reflected on the balance sheet at their fair value.

 

 
8

 

 

The following table exhibits the consolidated amortized cost and fair value of the Bank’s investment portfolio:

 

   

Investment Portfolio Amortized Cost and Fair Value at December 31,

 
   

2015

   

2014

   

2013

 

(Dollars in thousands) 

 

Amortized cost

   

Fair value

   

 

 

Amortized

cost

   

Fair value

   

Amortized

cost

   

Fair value

 
                                                 

Available for Sale:

                                               

U.S. Government agency securities

  $ 21,655     $ 21,629     $ 23,035     $ 22,896     $ 27,289     $ 25,763  

Obligations of states and political subdivisions:

                                               

Taxable

    1,989       2,123       2,953       3,179       3,787       3,795  

Tax-exempt

    91,940       95,167       91,916       95,166       86,524       84,819  

Mortgage-backed securities in government-sponsored entities

    24,480       24,524       29,150       29,391       38,816       38,323  

Private-label mortgage-backed securities

    2,079       2,263       2,672       2,919       3,366       3,693  

Equity securities in financial institutions

    750       814       750       783       750       750  
                                                 

Total Investment Securities

  $ 142,893     $ 146,520     $ 150,476     $ 154,334     $ 160,532     $ 157,143  

 

 

 The contractual maturity of investment debt securities is as follows:

 

                                    December 31, 2015                                          
   

One year or less

   

More than one to five years

   

More than five to ten years

   

More than ten years

   

Total investment securities

 
                                                                                         
   

Amortized

cost

   

Average yield

   

Amortized

cost

   

Average

yield

   

Amortized

cost

   

Average

yield

   

Amortized

cost

   

Average yield

   

Amortized cost

   

Average yield

   

Fair value

 

(Dollars in thousands)

                                                                                       

U.S. Government agency securities

    -       -     $ 6,000       1.44 %   $ 2,875       2.37 %   $ 12,780       3.09 %   $ 21,655       2.54 %   $ 21,629  

Obligations of states and political subdivisions:

                                                                                       

Taxable

    -       -       -       -       1,989       5.51 %     -       -       1,989       5.51 %     2,123  

Tax-exempt **

    1,139       4.17 %     4,658       3.85 %     14,019       3.89 %     72,124       3.24 %     91,940       3.38 %     95,167  

Mortgage-backed securities in government-sponsored entities

    -       -       -       -       289       3.02 %     24,191       2.53 %     24,480       2.54 %     24,524  

Private-label mortgage-backed securities

    -       -       132       5.53 %     -       -       1,947       4.22 %     2,079       4.30 %     2,263  
                                                                                         

Total

  $ 1,139       4.17 %   $ 10,790       2.53 %   $ 19,172       3.81 %   $ 111,042       3.09 %   $ 142,143       3.15 %   $ 145,706  

** Tax equivalent yield

  

 

Expected maturities of investment securities could differ from contractual maturities because the borrower, or issuer, could have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties. The average yields in the above table are not calculated on a tax-equivalent basis.

 

As of December 31, 2015, the Bank also held 18,872 shares of $100 par value Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati stock, which is a restricted security. FHLB stock represents an equity interest in the FHLB, but it does not have a readily determinable market value. The stock can be sold at its par value only, and only to the FHLB or to another member institution. Member institutions are required to maintain a minimum stock investment in the FHLB, based on total assets, total mortgages, and total mortgage-backed securities. The Bank’s minimum investment in FHLB stock at December 31, 2015 was $1.9 million.

 

Sources of FundsDeposit Accounts Deposit accounts are a major source of funds for the Bank. The Bank offers a number of deposit products to attract both commercial and regular consumer checking and savings customers, including regular and money market savings accounts, NOW accounts, and a variety of fixed-maturity, fixed-rate certificates with maturities ranging from 3 to 60 months. These accounts earn interest at rates established by management based on competitive market factors and management’s desire to increase certain types or maturities of deposit liabilities. The Bank also provides travelers’ checks, official checks, money orders, ATM services, and IRA accounts.

 

 
9

 
 

 

The following table shows on a consolidated basis the amount of time deposits of $100,000 or more as of December 31, 2015, including certificates of deposit, by time remaining until maturity.

 

(Dollar amounts in thousands) 

 

Amount

   

Percent of Total

 
                 

Within three months

  $ 22,858       20.77 %

Beyond three but within six months

    14,368       13.06 %

Beyond six but within twelve months

    21,914       19.91 %

Beyond one year

    50,907       46.26 %
                 

Total

  $ 110,047       100.00 %

 

Borrowings Deposits and repayment of loan principal are the Bank’s primary sources of funds for lending activities and other general business purposes. However, when the supply of funds cannot satisfy the demand for loans or general business purposes, the Bank’s subsidiary bank can obtain funds from the FHLB of Cincinnati. Interest and principal are payable monthly, and the line of credit is secured by a pledge collateral agreement. At December 31, 2015, MBC had $26.7 million of FHLB borrowings outstanding. The Company’s subsidiary bank also has access to credit through the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and other funding sources.

 

The outstanding balances and related information about short-term borrowings as of December 31, which includes securities sold under agreements to repurchase, lines of credit with other banks and Federal Funds purchased are summarized on a consolidated basis as follows:

 

(Dollar amounts in thousands) 

 

2015

   

2014

 
                 

Balance at year-end

  $ 35,825     $ 14,808  

Average balance outstanding

    11,768       8,379  

Maximum month-end balance

    35,825       19,970  

Weighted-average rate at year-end

    1.37 %     0.98 %

Weighted-average rate during the year

    1.65 %     1.77 %

 

 

Personnel 

 

As of December 31, 2015 the Bank had 143 full-time equivalent employees. None of the employees are represented by a collective bargaining group. Management considers its relations with employees to be excellent.

 

Supervision and Regulation

 

The following discussion of bank supervision and regulation is qualified in its entirety by reference to the statutory and regulatory provisions discussed. Changes in applicable law or in the policies of various regulatory authorities could materially affect the business and prospects of the Company.

 

The Company is a bank holding company within the meaning of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. As such, the Company is subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, acting primarily through the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. The Company is required to file annual reports and other information with the Federal Reserve. The bank subsidiary is an Ohio-chartered commercial bank. As a state-chartered, nonmember bank, the bank is primarily regulated by the FDIC and by the Ohio Division of Financial Institutions.

 

The Company and The Middlefield Banking Company are subject to federal banking laws, and the Company is also subject to Ohio bank law. These federal and state laws are intended to protect depositors, not stockholders. Federal and state laws applicable to holding companies and their financial institution subsidiaries regulate the range of permissible business activities, investments, reserves against deposits, capital levels, lending activities and practices, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, establishment of branches, mergers, dividends, and a variety of other important matters. The Bank is subject to detailed, complex, and sometimes overlapping federal and state statutes and regulations affecting routine banking operations. These statutes and regulations include but are not limited to state usury and consumer credit laws, the Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Savings Act, and the Community Reinvestment Act. The Bank must comply with Federal Reserve Board regulations requiring depository institutions to maintain reserves against their transaction accounts (principally NOW and regular checking accounts). Because required reserves are commonly maintained in the form of vault cash or in a noninterest-bearing account (or pass-through account) at a Federal Reserve Bank, the effect of the reserve requirement is to reduce an institution’s earning assets.

 

The Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC have extensive authority to prevent and to remedy unsafe and unsound practices and violations of applicable laws and regulations by institutions and holding companies. The agencies may assess civil money penalties, issue cease-and-desist or removal orders, seek injunctions, and publicly disclose those actions. In addition, the Ohio Division of Financial Institutions possesses enforcement powers to address violations of Ohio banking law by Ohio-chartered banks.

 

 
10

 

 

Regulation of Bank Holding CompaniesBank and Bank Holding Company Acquisitions The Bank Holding Company Act requires every bank holding company to obtain approval of the Federal Reserve before —

 

 

directly or indirectly acquiring ownership or control of any voting shares of another bank or bank holding company, if after the acquisition the acquiring company would own or control more than 5% of the shares of the other bank or bank holding company (unless the acquiring company already owns or controls a majority of the shares),
  acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of another bank, or
  merging or consolidating with another bank holding company.

 

The Federal Reserve will not approve an acquisition, merger, or consolidation that would have a substantially anticompetitive result, unless the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed by a greater public interest in satisfying the convenience and needs of the community to be served. The Federal Reserve also considers capital adequacy and other financial and managerial factors in its review of acquisitions and mergers.

 

Additionally, the Bank Holding Company Act, the Change in Bank Control Act and the Federal Reserve Board’s Regulation Y require advance approval of the Federal Reserve to acquire “control” of a bank holding company. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if an individual or company acquires 25% or more of a class of voting securities of the bank holding company. If the holding company has securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as the Company does, or if no other person owns a greater percentage of the class of voting securities, control is presumed to exist if a person acquires 10% or more, but less than 25%, of any class of voting securities. Approval of the Ohio Division of Financial Institutions is also necessary to acquire control of an Ohio-chartered bank.

 

Nonbanking Activities With some exceptions, the Bank Holding Company Act generally prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring or retaining direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company that is not a bank or bank holding company, or from engaging directly or indirectly in activities other than those of banking, managing or controlling banks, or providing services for its subsidiaries. The principal exceptions to these prohibitions involve nonbank activities that, by statute or by Federal Reserve Board regulation or order, are held to be closely related to the business of banking or of managing or controlling banks. In making its determination that a particular activity is closely related to the business of banking, the Federal Reserve considers whether the performance of the activities by a bank holding company can be expected to produce benefits to the public — such as greater convenience, increased competition, or gains in efficiency in resources — that will outweigh the risks of possible adverse effects such as decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest, or unsound banking practices. Some of the activities determined by Federal Reserve Board regulation to be closely related to the business of banking are: making or servicing loans or leases; engaging in insurance and discount brokerage activities; owning thrift institutions; performing data processing services; acting as a fiduciary or investment or financial advisor; and making investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

 

Financial Holding Companies On November 12, 1999 the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act became law, repealing much of the 1933 Glass-Steagall Act’s separation of the commercial and investment banking industries. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act expands the range of nonbanking activities a bank holding company may engage in, while preserving existing authority for bank holding companies to engage in activities that are closely related to banking. The new legislation creates a new category of holding company called a “financial holding company.” Financial holding companies may engage in any activity that is —

 

 

financial in nature or incidental to that financial activity, or

 

complementary to a financial activity and that does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally.

 

Activities that are financial in nature include —

 

 

acting as principal, agent, or broker for insurance,

 

underwriting, dealing in, or making a market in securities, and

 

providing financial and investment advice.

 

The Federal Reserve Board and the Secretary of the Treasury have authority to decide that other activities are also financial in nature or incidental to financial activity, taking into account changes in technology, changes in the banking marketplace, competition for banking services, and so on. The Company is engaged solely in activities that were permissible for a bank holding company before enactment of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Federal Reserve Board rules require that all of the depository institution subsidiaries of a financial holding company be and remain well capitalized and well managed. If all depository institution subsidiaries of a financial holding company do not remain well capitalized and well managed, the financial holding company must enter into an agreement acceptable to the Federal Reserve Board, undertaking to comply with all capital and management requirements within 180 days. In the meantime the financial holding company may not use its expanded authority to engage in nonbanking activities without Federal Reserve Board approval and the Federal Reserve may impose other limitations on the holding company’s or affiliates’ activities. If a financial holding company fails to restore the well-capitalized and well-managed status of a depository institution subsidiary, the Federal Reserve may order divestiture of the subsidiary.

 

 
11

 

 

Holding Company Capital and Source of Strength The Federal Reserve considers the adequacy of a bank holding company’s capital on essentially the same risk-adjusted basis as capital adequacy is determined by the FDIC at the bank subsidiary level. It is also Federal Reserve Board policy that bank holding companies serve as a source of strength for their subsidiary banking institutions.

 

Under Bank Holding Company Act section 5(e), the Federal Reserve Board may require a bank holding company to terminate any activity or relinquish control of a nonbank subsidiary if the Federal Reserve Board determines that the activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of a subsidiary bank. And with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991’s addition of the prompt corrective action provisions to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, section 38(f)(2)(I) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act now provides that a federal bank regulatory authority may require a bank holding company to divest itself of an undercapitalized bank subsidiary if the agency determines that divestiture will improve the bank’s financial condition and prospects.

 

 

CapitalRisk-Based Capital Requirements The Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC employ similar risk-based capital guidelines in their examination and regulation of bank holding companies and financial institutions. If capital falls below the minimum levels established by the guidelines, the bank holding company or bank may be denied approval to acquire or establish additional banks or nonbank businesses or to open new facilities. Failure to satisfy capital guidelines could subject a banking institution to a variety of restrictions or enforcement actions by federal bank regulatory authorities, including the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC and a prohibition on the acceptance of brokered deposits.

 

A bank’s capital hedges its risk exposure, absorbing losses that can be predicted as well as losses that cannot be predicted. According to the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council’s explanation of the capital component of the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System, commonly known as the “CAMELS” rating system, a rating system employed by the Federal bank regulatory agencies, a financial institution must “maintain capital commensurate with the nature and extent of risks to the institution and the ability of management to identify, measure, monitor, and control these risks. The effect of credit, market, and other risks on the institution’s financial condition should be considered when evaluating the adequacy of capital.” Under Basel III, the Bank is required to maintain a minimum common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6%, a total capital ratio of 8%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4%. Basel III also established a “capital conservation buffer” of 2.5% above the new regulatory minimum capital requirements, which must consist entirely of common equity Tier 1 capital and will be phased in beginning in January 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and increase by that amount each year until fully implemented in January 2019. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions with a common equity Tier 1 ratio to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall. These ratios are absolute minimums. In practice, banks are expected to operate with more than the absolute minimum capital. The FDIC may establish greater minimum capital requirements for specific institutions.

 

The FDIC also employs a market risk component in its calculation of capital requirements for nonmember banks. The market risk component could require additional capital for general or specific market risk of trading portfolios of debt and equity securities and other investments or assets. The FDIC’s evaluation of an institution’s capital adequacy takes account of a variety of other factors as well, including interest rate risks to which the institution is subject, the level and quality of an institution’s earnings, loan and investment portfolio characteristics and risks, risks arising from the conduct of nontraditional activities, and a variety of other factors.

 

Accordingly, the FDIC’s final supervisory judgment concerning an institution’s capital adequacy could differ significantly from the conclusions that might be derived from the absolute level of an institution’s risk-based capital ratios. Therefore, institutions generally are expected to maintain risk-based capital ratios that exceed the minimum ratios discussed above. This is particularly true for institutions contemplating significant expansion plans and institutions that are subject to high or inordinate levels of risk. Moreover, although the FDIC does not impose explicit capital requirements on holding companies of institutions regulated by the FDIC, the FDIC can take account of the degree of leverage and risks at the holding company level. If the FDIC determines that the holding company (or another affiliate of the institution regulated by the FDIC) has an excessive degree of leverage or is subject to inordinate risks, the FDIC may require the subsidiary institution(s) to maintain additional capital or the FDIC may impose limitations on the subsidiary institution’s ability to support its weaker affiliates or holding company.

 

The banking agencies have also established a minimum leverage ratio of 3%, which represents Tier 1 capital as a percentage of total assets, less intangibles. However, for bank holding companies and financial institutions seeking to expand and for all but the most highly rated banks and bank holding companies, the banking agencies expect an additional cushion of at least 100 to 200 basis points. At December 31, 2015, the Company was in compliance with all regulatory capital requirements.

 

 
12

 

 

Prompt Corrective Action. To resolve the problems of undercapitalized institutions and to prevent a recurrence of the banking crisis of the 1980s and early 1990s, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 established a system known as “prompt corrective action.” Under the prompt corrective action provisions and implementing regulations, every institution is classified into one of five categories, depending on its total risk-based capital ratio, its Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, its leverage ratio, and subjective factors. The categories are “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” To be considered well capitalized for purposes of the prompt corrective action rules, a bank must maintain total risk-based capital of 10.0% or greater, Tier 1 risk-based capital of 8.0% or greater, common equity Tier 1 capital of 6.5%, and leverage capital of 5.0% or greater. An institution with a capital level that might qualify for well capitalized or adequately capitalized status may nevertheless be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if its primary federal banking supervisory authority determines that an unsafe or unsound condition or practice warrants that treatment.

 

A financial institution’s operations can be significantly affected by its capital classification under the prompt corrective action rules. For example, an institution that is not well capitalized generally is prohibited from accepting brokered deposits and offering interest rates on deposits higher than the prevailing rate in its market without advance regulatory approval, which can have an adverse effect on the bank’s liquidity. At each successively lower capital category, an insured depository institution is subject to additional restrictions. Undercapitalized institutions are required to take specified actions to increase their capital or otherwise decrease the risks to the federal deposit insurance funds. A bank holding company must guarantee that a subsidiary bank that adopts a capital restoration plan will satisfy its plan obligations. Any capital loans made by a bank holding company to a subsidiary bank are subordinated to the claims of depositors in the bank and to certain other indebtedness of the subsidiary bank. If bankruptcy of a bank holding company occurs, any commitment by the bank holding company to a Federal banking regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and would be entitled to priority of payment. Bank regulatory agencies generally are required to appoint a receiver or conservator shortly after an institution becomes critically undercapitalized.

 

The following table illustrates the capital and prompt corrective action guidelines applicable to the Company and its subsidiary.

 

   

As of December 31, 2015

 
   

Leverage

   

Tier 1 Risk

Based

   

Common

Equity Tier 1

   

Total Risk

Based

 

The Middlefield Banking Company

    9.23 %     12.52 %     12.52 %     13.73 %

Middlefield Banc Corp.

    8.69 %     12.00 %     12.00 %     13.20 %

Adequately capitalized ratio

    4.00 %     6.00 %     4.50 %     8.00 %
Adequately capitalized ratio plus capital conservation buffer     4.00 %     8.50 %     7.00 %     10.50 %

Well-capitalized ratio (Bank only)

    5.00 %     8.00 %     6.50 %     10.00 %

 

 

New Capital Rules On July 9, 2013, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued a final rule that will revise their risk-based capital requirements and the method for calculating risk-weighted assets to make them consistent with agreements that were reached by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. The final rule applies to all depository institutions, top-tier bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $500 million or more and top-tier savings and loan holding companies.

 

The rule establishes a new common equity Tier 1 minimum capital requirement (4.5% of risk-weighted assets), increases the minimum Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets requirement (from 4.0% to 6.0% of risk-weighted assets) and assigns a higher risk weight (150%) to exposures that are more than 90 days past due or are on nonaccrual status and to certain commercial real estate facilities that finance the acquisition, development or construction of real property.

 

The rule also includes changes in what constitutes regulatory capital, some of which are subject to a two-year transition period. These changes include the phasing-out of certain instruments as qualifying capital. In addition, Tier 2 capital is no longer limited to the amount of Tier 1 capital included in total capital. Mortgage servicing rights, certain deferred tax assets and investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries over designated percentages of common stock will be required to be deducted from capital, subject to a two-year transition period. Finally, Tier 1 capital will include accumulated other comprehensive income (which includes all unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale debt and equity securities), subject to a two-year transition period. In the first quarter of 2015 the Company permanently opted out of the inclusion of accumulated other comprehensive income in its capital calculation in an effort to reduce the impact of market volatility on its regulatory capital levels.

 

The new capital requirements also include changes in the risk-weights of assets to better reflect credit risk and other risk exposures. These include a 150% risk weight (up from 100%) for certain high volatility commercial real estate acquisition, development and construction loans and nonresidential mortgage loans that are 90 day past due or otherwise on nonaccrual status; a 20% (up from 0%) credit conversion factor for the unused portion of a commitment with an original maturity of one year or less that is not unconditionally cancellable; a 250% risk weight (up from 100%) for mortgage servicing and deferred tax assets that are not deducted from capital; and increased risk-weights (from 0% to up to 600%) for equity exposures.

 

Finally, the rule limits capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments if the banking organization does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets in addition to the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements.

 

The final rule became effective for the bank on January 1, 2015. The capital conservation buffer requirement will be phased in beginning January 1, 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets increasing each year until fully implemented at 2.5% on January 1, 2019.      

 

 
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Limits on Dividends and Other Payments The Company’s ability to obtain funds for the payment of dividends and for other cash requirements depends on the amount of dividends that may be paid to it by the bank. Ohio bank law and FDIC policy are consistent, providing that banks generally may rely solely on current earnings for the payment of dividends. Under Ohio Revised Code section 1107.15(B) a dividend may be declared from surplus, meaning additional paid-in capital, with the approval of (x) the Ohio Superintendent of Financial Institutions and (y) the holders of two thirds of the bank’s outstanding shares. Superintendent approval is also necessary for payment of a dividend if the total of all cash dividends in a year exceeds the sum of (x) net income for the year and (y) retained net income for the two preceding years. Relying on 12 U.S.C. 1818(b), the FDIC may restrict a bank’s ability to pay a dividend if the FDIC has reasonable cause to believe that the dividend would constitute an unsafe and unsound practice. A bank’s ability to pay dividends may be affected also by the FDIC’s capital maintenance requirements and prompt corrective action rules. A bank may not pay a dividend if the bank is undercapitalized or if payment would cause the bank to become undercapitalized.

 

A 1985 policy statement of the Federal Reserve Board declares that a bank holding company should not pay cash dividends on common stock unless the organization’s net income for the past year is sufficient to fully fund the dividends and the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition. Until the third anniversary of the January 20, 2014 merger of Emerald Bank into The Middlefield Banking Company, The Middlefield Banking Company cannot pay a dividend to Middlefield Banc Corp. without advance approval of the Ohio Division of Financial Institutions.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“DFA”) became law on July 21, 2010. The DFA includes corporate governance and executive compensation reforms, new registration requirements for hedge fund and private equity fund advisers, increased regulation of over-the-counter derivatives and asset-backed securities, and new rules for credit rating agencies. The DFA includes these provisions –

 

  Title X establishes an independent Federal regulatory body within the Federal Reserve System. Dedicated exclusively to consumer protection and known as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, this regulatory body has responsibility for most consumer protection laws, with rulemaking, supervisory, examination, and enforcement authority.
     
  section 171 restricts the amount of trust preferred securities that may be considered Tier 1 capital. For depository institution holding companies with total assets of less than $15 billion, trust preferred securities issued before May 19, 2010 may continue to be included in Tier 1 capital, but future issuances of trust preferred securities will no longer be eligible for treatment as Tier 1 capital.
     
  under section 334 the FDIC’s minimum reserve ratio is to be increased from 1.15% to 1.35%, with the goal of attaining that 1.35% level by September 30, 2020; however, financial institutions with assets of less than $10 billion are exempt from the cost of the increase. The DFA also removes the upper limit on the designated reserve ratio, which was formerly capped at 1.5%, removing the upper limit on the size of the insurance fund as a consequence. The DFA gives the FDIC much greater discretion to manage its insurance fund reserves, including where to set the insurance fund’s designated reserve ratio.
     
  the deposit insurance cover limit is increased to $250,000 by section 335.
     
  section 627 repeals the longstanding prohibition against financial institutions paying interest on checking accounts.
     
  section 331 changes the way deposit insurance premiums are calculated by the FDIC as well. That is, deposit insurance premiums are calculated based upon an institution’s so-called assessment base. Until the DFA became law, the assessment base consisted of an institution’s deposit liabilities. Section 331, however, makes clear that the assessment base shall now be the difference between total assets and tangible equity. In other words, the assessment base will take account of all liabilities, not merely deposit liabilities. This change is likely to have a greater impact on large banks, which tend to rely on a variety of funding sources, than on community banks, which tend to rely primarily on deposit funding.
     
  the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s ability to preempt state consumer protection laws is constrained by section 1044, and because of section 1042 state attorneys general have greater authority to enforce state consumer protection laws against national banks and their operating subsidiaries.
     
  section 604 requires the Federal bank regulatory agencies to take into account the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system associated with approval of an application for acquisition of a bank, for acquisition of a nonbank company, or for a bank merger transaction.
     
  section 619 implements the so-called “Volcker rule,” prohibiting a banking entity from engaging in proprietary trading or from sponsoring or investing in a hedge fund or private equity fund.
     
  imposing a 5% risk retention requirement on securitizers of asset-backed securities, section 941 could have an impact on financial institutions that originate mortgages for sale into the secondary market.

 

 
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The DFA could affect the profitability of community banking, require changes in the business practices of community banking organizations, lead to more stringent capital and liquidity requirements, and otherwise adversely affect the community banking business.

 

The DFA creates a new, independent federal agency called the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), which has rulemaking, supervisory, and enforcement powers under specific federal consumer financial protection laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth in Lending Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Act, and Consumer Financial Privacy provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. In addition to giving the CFPB responsibility for these specific statutes, the DFA grants to the CFPB broad authority to prohibit the offering by banks of consumer financial products or engaging in acts or practices that the CFPB considers to be unfair, deceptive, or abusive. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority over depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, not smaller institutions. However, smaller institutions are subject to CFPB rules. In addition, the standards established by the CFPB for large institutions are likely to be applied in practice to smaller institutions as well. The DFA does not prevent states from adopting consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations.

 

Implementing section 1411 of the DFA, in 2013 the CFPB amended Regulation Z under the Truth in Lending Act, adding a rule that mortgage lenders must make a reasonable and good faith determination that a consumer being granted mortgage credit has the ability to repay the loan according to its terms. Under this new rule, referred to as the “ability-to-repay” rule, mortgage lenders may determine the consumer’s ability to repay in one of two ways. The first alternative involves assessment of eight underwriting factors, including the loan applicant’s current or reasonably expected income or assets, current employment status, monthly payment for the credit applied for, monthly payment on any simultaneous loan being made to the applicant, monthly payment for mortgage-related obligations, current debt obligations, alimony, and child support, monthly debt-to-income ratio or residual income, and credit history. The second alternative involves origination of a so-called “qualified mortgage,” meaning a mortgage with terms that are consistent with minimum standards established by the CFPB, which currently include a maximum 43% debt-to-income ratio for the borrower (although the 43% minimum debt-to-income ratio does not apply if the loan is eligible to be purchased, insured, or guaranteed by FNMA, FHLMC, HUD, or the VA). In general terms, a qualified mortgage is one with a term of 30 years or less, with substantially equal regular periodic payments (although adjustable-rate mortgages can be qualified mortgages), with total points and fees of 3% of the loan amount or less, and without negative amortization or interest-only payments or balloon payments.

 

A lender originating a qualified mortgage is protected against a legal claim that the lender failed to comply with the ability-to-repay rule. A mortgage with an interest rate exceeding the prime rate by 1.5 percentage points or more (3.5 percentage points for subordinate-lien loans such as home equity loans) is referred to in the CFPB rule as a higher-priced mortgage loan, but is more commonly known as a subprime loan. A subprime loan can be a qualified mortgage, but the lender making a subprime qualified mortgage has less protection under the ability-to-repay rule than a lender making a prime qualified mortgage. A lender originating a mortgage that is not a qualified mortgage is exposed to a potential claim that the lender did not comply with the ability-to-repay rules, which could require the lender to pay damages to the borrower, including but not necessarily limited to the sum of all finance charges and fees paid by the borrower (a lender originating a subprime qualified mortgage bears this risk to a degree as well). The borrower’s claim also could impair the lender’s ability to enforce the loan terms or foreclose on the real estate collateral. Because of these potential risks, a qualified mortgage might have more value in the secondary mortgage market and might be easier for a lender to sell into the secondary mortgage market than a mortgage that is not a qualified mortgage.

 

Although we believe the majority of our mortgage originations will be prime qualified mortgages, the ability-to-repay rule creates a new basis for challenge by regulators and by consumers. In addition, the CFPB’s mission is consumer protection, not lender safety and soundness, and for that reason the CFPB wrote the ability-to-repay rule with the goal of preventing consumers from being steered by lenders into expensive and unsustainable borrowing, rather than with the goal of assuring actual loan repayment. Accordingly, typical credit-quality features such as LTV standards are not part of the ability-to-repay rule, and it will not necessarily be the case that qualified mortgages have a higher probability or history of repayment than other mortgages. Compliance with the ability-to-repay rules has increased community banks’ compliance costs, including our own, and will potentially adversely affect the profitability of routine residential mortgage lending. In addition, for the mortgage lending industry the ability-to-repay rule creates a bias in favor of qualified mortgages, which because of factors such as a minimum 43% debt-to-income ratio could have unintended adverse effects, such as reducing community bank lending to low- and moderate-income borrowers and communities.

 

In addition to ability to repay, the DFA imposes a risk-retention requirement on mortgage lenders selling loans into the secondary mortgage market. With some exceptions a mortgage lender selling a loan into the secondary mortgage market must retain ownership of at least 5% of the loan, the assumption being that if mortgage lenders remain exposed to credit risk they will not knowingly make loans that fail to satisfy ordinary and reasonable standards of creditworthiness. A qualified mortgage for purposes of the ability-to-repay rule is also exempt from the risk-retention requirement, allowing a mortgage lender to sell 100% of a qualified mortgage rather than only 95%. The exemption of qualified mortgages from the risk-retention requirement is likely to contribute to the regulatory bias in favor of qualified mortgages and against other forms of mortgage lending.

 

 
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 The goals of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act enacted in 2002 are to increase corporate responsibility, to provide for enhanced penalties for accounting and auditing improprieties at publicly traded companies, and to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures made under the securities laws. The changes are intended to allow shareholders to monitor the performance of companies and directors more easily and efficiently.

 

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act generally applies to all companies that file periodic reports with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The Act has an impact on a wide variety of corporate governance and disclosure issues, including the composition of audit committees, certification of financial statements by the chief executive officer and the chief financial officer, forfeiture of bonuses and profits made by directors and senior officers in the 12-month period covered by restated financial statements, a prohibition on insider trading during pension plan black-out periods, disclosure of off-balance sheet transactions, a prohibition on personal loans to directors and officers (excluding Federally insured financial institutions), expedited filing requirements for stock transaction reports by officers and directors, the formation of a public accounting oversight board, auditor independence, and various increased criminal penalties for violations of securities laws.

 

Deposit Insurance The premium that banks pay for deposit insurance is based upon a risk classification system established by the FDIC. Banks with higher levels of capital and a low degree of supervisory concern are assessed lower premiums than banks with lower levels of capital or a higher degree of supervisory concern.

 

Interstate Banking and Branching Section 613 of the DFA amends the interstate branching provisions of the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994. The expanded de novo branching authority of the DFA authorizes a state or national bank to open a de novo branch in another state if the law of the state where the branch is to be located would permit a state bank chartered by that state to open the branch. Section 607 of the DFA also increases the approval threshold for interstate bank acquisitions, providing that a bank holding company must be well capitalized and well managed as a condition to approval of an interstate bank acquisition, rather than being merely adequately capitalized and adequately managed, and that an acquiring bank must be and remain well capitalized and well managed as a condition to approval of an interstate bank merger.

 

Transactions with Affiliates Although The Middlefield Banking Company is not a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, it is required by the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to comply with section 23A and section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act — pertaining to transactions with affiliates — as if it were a member bank. These statutes are intended to protect banks from abuse in financial transactions with affiliates, preventing federally insured deposits from being diverted to support the activities of unregulated entities engaged in nonbanking businesses. An affiliate of a bank includes any company or entity that controls or is under common control with the bank. Generally, section 23A and section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act —

 

 

limit the extent to which a bank or its subsidiaries may lend to or engage in various other kinds of transactions with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of the institution’s capital and surplus, limiting the aggregate of covered transactions with all affiliates to 20% of capital and surplus,

  impose restrictions on investments by a subsidiary bank in the stock or securities of its holding company,
  require that affiliate transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the institution or subsidiary, as those provided to a non-affiliate, and
  Impose strict collateral requirements on loans or extensions of credit by a bank to an affiliate

 

The Bank’s authority to extend credit to insiders — meaning executive officers, directors and greater than 10% stockholders — or to entities those persons control, is subject to section 22(g) and section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation O of the Federal Reserve Board. Among other things, these laws require insider loans to be made on terms substantially similar to those offered to unaffiliated individuals, place limits on the amount of loans a bank may make to insiders based in part on the Bank’s capital position, and require that specified approval procedures be followed. Loans to an individual insider may not exceed the legal limit on loans to any one borrower, which in general terms is 15% of capital but can be higher in some circumstances. And the aggregate of all loans to all insiders may not exceed the Bank’s unimpaired capital and surplus. Insider loans exceeding the greater of 5% of capital or $25,000 must be approved in advance by a majority of the board, with any “interested” director not participating in the voting. Lastly, loans to executive officers are subject to special limitations. Executive officers may borrow in unlimited amounts to finance their children’s education or to finance the purchase or improvement of their residence, and they may borrow no more than $100,000 for most other purposes. Loans to executive officers exceeding $100,000 may be allowed if the loan is fully secured by government securities or a segregated deposit account. A violation of these restrictions could result in the assessment of substantial civil monetary penalties, the imposition of a cease-and-desist order or other regulatory sanctions.

 

 
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Banking agency guidance for commercial real estate lending In December 2006 the FDIC and other Federal banking agencies issued final guidance on sound risk management practices for concentrations in commercial real estate lending, including acquisition and development lending, construction lending, and other land loans, which recent experience has shown can be particularly high-risk lending.

 

The commercial real estate risk management guidance does not impose rigid limits on commercial real estate lending but does create a much sharper supervisory focus on the risk management practices of banks with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. According to the guidance, an institution that has experienced rapid growth in commercial real estate lending, has notable exposure to a specific type of commercial real estate, or is approaching or exceeds the following supervisory criteria may be identified for further supervisory analysis of the level and nature of its commercial real estate concentration risk –

 

  - total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land represent 100% or more of the institution’s total capital, or
  - total commercial real estate loans represent 300% or more of the institution’s total capital and the outstanding balance of the institution’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased by 50% or more during the prior 36 months.

 

These measures are intended merely to enable the banking agencies to quickly identify institutions that could have an excessive commercial real estate lending concentration, potentially requiring close supervision to ensure that the institutions have sound risk management practices in place. Conversely, these measures do not imply that banks are authorized by the December 2006 guidance to accumulate a commercial real estate lending concentration up to the 100% and 300% thresholds.

 

Corporate Governance and Compensation The Federal banking agencies jointly published their final Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies in June of 2010. The goal of the guidance is to enable financial organizations to manage the safety and soundness risks of incentive compensation arrangements and to assist banks and bank holding companies with identification of improperly-structured compensation arrangements. To ensure that incentive compensation arrangements do not encourage employees to take excessive risks that undermine safety and soundness, the incentive compensation guidance sets forth these key principles –

 

 

incentive compensation arrangements should provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and financial results in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose the organization to imprudent risk,

  these arrangements should be compatible with effective controls and risk management, and
  these arrangements should be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the board of directors.

 

To implement the interagency guidance, a financial organization must regularly review incentive compensation arrangements for all executive and non-executive employees who, either individually or as part of a group, have the ability to expose the organization to material amounts of risk, also reviewing the risk-management, control, and corporate governance processes related to these arrangements. The organization must immediately correct any identified deficiencies in compensation arrangements or processes that are inconsistent with safety and soundness.

 

In addition to numerous provisions that affect the business of banks and bank holding companies, the DFA includes in Title IX a number of provisions affecting corporate governance and executive compensation, for example the requirements that stockholders be given the opportunity to consider and vote upon executive compensation disclosed in a company’s annual meeting proxy statement, that a company’s compensation committee be comprised entirely of independent directors and that the committee have stated minimum authorities, that company policy provide for recovery of excess incentive compensation after an accounting restatement, and that stockholders have the ability to designate director nominees for inclusion in a company’s annual meeting proxy statement. Section 956 also provides for adoption of incentive compensation guidelines jointly by the Federal banking agencies and the SEC, the National Credit Union Administration, and the Federal Housing Finance Agency.

 

Community Reinvestment Act Under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 and implementing regulations of the banking agencies, a financial institution has a continuing and affirmative obligation — consistent with safe and sound operation — to address the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions, nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services it believes are best suited to its particular community. The CRA requires that bank regulatory agencies conduct regular CRA examinations and provide written evaluations of institutions’ CRA performance. The CRA also requires that an institution’s CRA performance rating be made public. CRA performance evaluations are based on a four-tiered rating system: Outstanding, Satisfactory, Needs to Improve and Substantial Noncompliance.

 

Although CRA examinations occur on a regular basis, CRA performance evaluations have been used principally in the evaluation of regulatory applications submitted by an institution. CRA performance evaluations are considered in evaluating applications for such things as mergers, acquisitions, and applications to open branches.

 

MBC’s CRA performance evaluation dated December 2, 2013 states that MBC’s CRA rating is “Satisfactory.”

 

 
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Federal Home Loan Bank The Federal Home Loan Bank serves as a credit source for their members. As a member of the FHLB of Cincinnati, MBC is required to maintain an investment in the capital stock of the FHLB of Cincinnati in an amount calculated by reference to the FHLB member bank’s amount of loans, and or “advances,” from the FHLB.

 

Each FHLB is required to establish standards of community investment or service that its members must maintain for continued access to long-term advances from the FHLB. The standards take into account a member’s performance under the Community Reinvestment Act and its record of lending to first-time home buyers.

 

Anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism legislation The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 requires financial institutions to maintain records and report transactions to prevent the financial institutions from being used to hide money derived from criminal activity and tax evasion. The Bank Secrecy Act establishes (a) record keeping requirements to assist government enforcement agencies with tracing financial transactions and flow of funds, (b) reporting requirements for Suspicious Activity Reports and Currency Transaction Reports to assist government enforcement agencies with detecting patterns of criminal activity, (c) enforcement provisions authorizing criminal and civil penalties for illegal activities and violations of the Bank Secrecy Act and its implementing regulations, and (d) safe harbor provisions that protect financial institutions from civil liability for their cooperative efforts.

 

The Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries, entities, and individuals based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals. As a result, financial institutions must scrutinize transactions to ensure that they do not represent obligations of or ownership interests in entities owned or controlled by sanctioned targets.

 

Signed into law on October 26, 2001, the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 is omnibus legislation enhancing the powers of domestic law enforcement organizations to resist the international terrorist threat to United States security. Title III of the legislation, the International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001, most directly affects the financial services industry, enhancing the Federal government’s ability to fight money laundering through monitoring of currency transactions and suspicious financial activities. The Act has significant implications for depository institutions and other businesses involved in the transfer of money –

 

 

-

a financial institution must establish due diligence policies, procedures, and controls reasonably designed to detect and report money laundering through correspondent accounts and private banking accounts,

 

 

-

no bank may establish, maintain, administer, or manage a correspondent account in the United States for a foreign shell bank,

 

 

-

financial institutions must abide by Treasury Department regulations encouraging financial institutions, their regulatory authorities, and law enforcement authorities to share information about individuals, entities, and organizations engaged in or suspected of engaging in terrorist acts or money laundering activities,

 

 

-

financial institutions must follow Treasury Department regulations setting forth minimum standards regarding customer identification. These regulations require financial institutions to implement reasonable procedures for verifying the identity of any person seeking to open an account, maintain records of the information used to verify the person’s identity, and consult lists of known or suspected terrorists and terrorist organizations provided to the financial institution by government agencies,

 

 

-

every financial institution must establish anti-money laundering programs, including the development of internal policies and procedures, designation of a compliance officer, employee training, and an independent audit function.

 

Consumer protection laws and regulations. The Middlefield Banking Company is subject to regular examination by the FDIC to ensure compliance with statutes and regulations applicable to the bank’s business, including consumer protection statutes and implementing regulations, some of which are discussed below. Violations of any of these laws may result in fines, reimbursements, and other related penalties.

 

Equal Credit Opportunity Act. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act generally prohibits discrimination in any credit transaction, whether for consumer or business purposes, on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age (except in limited circumstances), receipt of income from public assistance programs, or good faith exercise of any rights under the Consumer Credit Protection Act.

 

Truth in Lending Act. The Truth in Lending Act is designed to ensure that credit terms are disclosed in a meaningful way so that consumers may compare credit terms more readily and knowledgeably. As a result of the Truth in Lending Act, all creditors must use the same credit terminology to express rates and payments, including the annual percentage rate, the finance charge, the amount financed, the total of payments and the payment schedule, among other things.

 

Fair Housing Act. The Fair Housing Act makes it unlawful for a lender to discriminate against any person because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, handicap, or familial status. A number of lending practices have been held by the courts to be illegal under the Fair Housing Act, including some practices that are not specifically mentioned in the Fair Housing Act.

 

 
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Home Mortgage Disclosure Act. The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act arose out of public concern over credit shortages in certain urban neighborhoods. The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act requires financial institutions to collect data that enable regulatory agencies to determine whether the financial institutions are serving the housing credit needs of the neighborhoods and communities in which they are located. The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act also requires the collection and disclosure of data about applicant and borrower characteristics as a way to identify possible discriminatory lending patterns. The vast amount of information that financial institutions collect and disclose concerning applicants and borrowers receives attention not only from state and Federal banking supervisory authorities but also from community-oriented organizations and the general public.

 

Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act requires that lenders provide borrowers with disclosures regarding the nature and cost of real estate settlements. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act also prohibits abusive practices that increase borrowers’ costs, such as kickbacks and fee-splitting without providing settlement services.

 

Privacy. Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, all financial institutions are required to establish policies and procedures to restrict the sharing of non-public customer data with non-affiliated parties and to protect customer data from unauthorized access. In addition, the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1971 includes many provisions concerning national credit reporting standards and permits consumers to opt out of information-sharing for marketing purposes among affiliated companies.

 

State Banking Regulation As an Ohio-chartered bank, The Middlefield Banking Company is subject to regular examination by the Ohio Division of Financial Institutions. State banking regulation affects the internal organization of the bank as well as its savings, lending, investment, and other activities. State banking regulation may contain limitations on an institution’s activities that are in addition to limitations imposed under federal banking law. The Ohio Division of Financial Institutions may initiate supervisory measures or formal enforcement actions, and if the grounds provided by law exist it may take possession and control of an Ohio-chartered bank.

 

Monetary Policy The earnings of financial institutions are affected by the policies of regulatory authorities, including monetary policy of the Federal Reserve Board. An important function of the Federal Reserve System is regulation of aggregate national credit and money supply. The Federal Reserve Board accomplishes these goals with measures such as open market transactions in securities, establishment of the discount rate on bank borrowings, and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. These methods are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of financial institutions’ loans, investments and deposits, and they also affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. Monetary policy is influenced by many factors, including inflation, unemployment, short-term and long-term changes in the international trade balance, and fiscal policies of the United States government. Federal Reserve Board monetary policy has had a significant effect on the operating results of financial institutions in the past, and it can be expected to influence operating results in the future.

 

 

Item 1.A — Risk Factors

 

Risks Related to the Company’s Business

 

We are exposed to interest-rate risk. With the record low interest rates that have prevailed for many years, the interest-rate risk that exists for most or all financial institutions arises out of interest rates that increase more than anticipated or that increase more quickly than expected. If interest rates change more abruptly than we have simulated or if the increase is greater than we have simulated, this could have an adverse effect on our net interest income and equity value. 

 

New mortgage lending rules may constrain our residential mortgage lending business. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has issued several rules on mortgage lending, notably a rule requiring all home mortgage lenders to determine a borrower’s ability to repay the loan. Loans with certain terms and conditions and that otherwise meet the definition of a “qualified mortgage” may be protected from liability. In either case, the Company may find it necessary to tighten its mortgage loan underwriting standards, which may constrain our ability to make loans consistent with our business strategies.

 

The Truth in Lending Act-RESPA Integrated Disclosure (“TRID”) rule became effective for loans originated on or after October 3, 2015. The TRID rule required extensive modifications to the process of closing a federally regulated residential mortgage loan and the systems supporting that process among lenders, real estate agents, title insurance agents and attorneys that close residential mortgage loans, and others.  Enforcement and interpretation of the TRID rule among mortgage industry participants such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and federal banking regulators like the FDIC is not yet apparent. Management’s assessment and management of TRID compliance risk will evolve as the residential mortgage lending industry gains experience with loan closings, loan purchases and examinations.  The TRID rule, including the cost of compliance and the ultimate impact on the mortgage industry, could adversely impact the Company’s profitability.

 

 
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The Company operates in a highly competitive industry and market area. The Company faces significant competition both in making loans and in attracting deposits. Competition is based on interest rates and other credit and service charges, the quality of services rendered, the convenience of banking facilities, the range and type of products offered and, in the case of loans to larger commercial borrowers, lending limits, among other factors. Competition for loans comes principally from commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, insurance companies, and other financial service companies. The Company’s most direct competition for deposits has historically come from commercial banks, savings banks, and savings and loan associations. Technology has also lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. Larger competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, offer a broader range of products and services. The Company’s ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including, among other things:

 

  

the ability to develop, maintain, and build long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards, and safe, sound assets;

     

 

the ability to expand the Company’s market position;

     

 

the scope, relevance, and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands;

     

 

the rate at which the Company introduces new products and services relative to its competitors;

     

 

customer satisfaction with the Company’s level of service; and

     

 

industry and general economic trends.

 

Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken the Company’s competitive position, which could adversely affect growth and profitability.

 

The Company may not be able to attract and retain skilled people. The Company’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for the best people can be intense and the Company may not be able to hire people or to retain them. The unexpected loss of the services of key personnel of the Company could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business because of their skills, knowledge of the Company’s market, years of industry experience, and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. The Company has non-competition agreements with senior officers and key personnel.

 

The Company does not have the financial and other resources that larger competitors have; this could affect its ability to compete for large commercial loan originations and its ability to offer products and services competitors provide to customers. The northeastern Ohio and central Ohio markets in which the Company operates have high concentrations of financial institutions. Many of the financial institutions operating in our markets are branches of significantly larger institutions headquartered in Cleveland or in other major metropolitan areas, with significantly greater financial resources and higher lending limits. In addition, many of these institutions offer services that the Company does not or cannot provide. For example, the larger competitors’ greater resources offer advantages such as the ability to price services at lower, more attractive levels, and the ability to provide larger credit facilities. Because the Company is currently smaller than many commercial lenders in its market, it is on occasion prevented from making commercial loans in amounts competitors can offer. The Company accommodates loan volumes in excess of its lending limits from time to time through the sale of loan participations to other banks.

 

The business of banking is changing rapidly with changes in technology, which poses financial and technological challenges to small and mid-sized institutions. With frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, the banking industry is undergoing rapid technological changes. In addition to enhancing customer service, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Financial institutions’ success is increasingly dependent upon use of technology to provide products and services that satisfy customer demands and to create additional operating efficiencies. Many of the Company’s competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements, which could enable them to perform various banking functions at lower costs than the Company, or to provide products and services that the Company is not able to economically provide. The Company cannot assure you that we will be able to develop and implement new technology-driven products or services or that the Company will be successful in marketing these products or services to customers. Because of the demand for technology-driven products, banks increasingly rely on unaffiliated vendors to provide data processing services and other core banking functions. The use of technology-related products, services, delivery channels, and processes exposes banks to various risks, particularly transaction, strategic, reputation, and compliance risk. The Company cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully manage the risks associated with our dependence on technology.

 

The banking industry is heavily regulated; the compliance burden to the industry is considerable; the principal beneficiary of federal and state regulation is the public at large and depositors, not stockholders. The Company and its subsidiaries are and will remain subject to extensive state and federal government supervision and regulation. This supervision and regulation affects many aspects of the banking business, including permissible activities, lending, investments, payment of dividends, the geographic locations in which our services can be offered, and numerous other matters. State and federal supervision and regulation are intended principally to protect depositors, the public, and the deposit insurance fund administered by the FDIC. Protection of stockholders is not a goal of banking regulation.

 

 
20 

 

 

The burdens of federal and state banking regulation place banks in general at a competitive disadvantage compared to less regulated competitors. Applicable statutes, regulations, agency and court interpretations, and agency enforcement policies have undergone significant changes, and could change significantly again. Federal and state banking agencies also require banks and bank holding companies to maintain adequate capital. Failure to maintain adequate capital or to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and supervisory agreements could subject a bank or bank holding company to federal or state enforcement actions, including termination of deposit insurance, imposition of fines and civil penalties, and, in the most severe cases, appointment of a conservator or receiver for a depositary institution. Changes in applicable laws and regulatory policies could adversely affect the banking industry generally or the Company in particular. The Company gives you no assurance that we will be able to adapt successfully to industry changes caused by governmental actions.

 

Success in the banking industry requires disciplined management of lending risks. There are many risks in the business of lending, including risks associated with the duration over which loans may be repaid, risks resulting from changes in economic conditions, risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, and risks resulting from changes in the value of loan collateral. We attempt to mitigate this risk by a thorough review of the creditworthiness of loan customers. Nevertheless, there is risk that our credit evaluations will prove to be inaccurate due to changed circumstances or otherwise.

 

A critical resource for maintaining the safety and soundness of banks so that they can fulfill their basic function of financial intermediation, the allowance for possible loan losses is a reserve established through a provision for possible loan losses charged to expense that represents management’s best estimate of probable losses that have been incurred within the existing portfolio of loans. Current accounting standards for loan loss provisioning are based on the so-called “incurred loss” model. Under this model, a bank can reserve against a loan loss through a provision to the loan loss reserve only if that loss has been “incurred,” which means a loss that is probable and can be reasonably estimated. To meet that standard, banks have to document why a loss is probable and reasonably estimable, and the easiest way to do that is to refer to historical loss rates and the bank’s own prior loss experience with the type of asset in question. Banks are not limited to using historical experience in deciding the appropriate level of the loan loss reserve. In making these determinations, management can use judgment that takes into account other, forward-leaning factors, such as changes in underwriting standards and changes in the economic environment that would have an impact on loan losses.

 

The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of industry concentrations; specific credit risks; loan loss experience; current loan portfolio quality; present economic, political, and regulatory conditions; and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for possible loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires management to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Continuing deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of the Company’s control, may require an increase in the allowance for possible loan losses. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review the allowance for loan and lease losses and may require an increase in the provision for possible loan losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for possible loan losses, the Company will need additional provisions to increase the allowance for possible loan losses. Any increases in the allowance for possible loan losses will result in a decrease in net income and, possibly, capital, and may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

Material breaches in security of bank systems may have a significant effect on the Company business. We collect, process and store sensitive consumer data by utilizing computer systems and telecommunications networks operated by both banks and third party service providers. We have security, backup and recovery systems in place, as well as a business continuity plan to ensure systems will not be inoperable. We also have security to prevent unauthorized access to the system. In addition, we require third party service providers to maintain similar controls. However, we cannot be certain that these measures will be successful. A security breach in the system and loss of confidential information could result in losing customers’ confidence and thus the loss of their business as well as additional significant costs for privacy monitoring activities.

 

Our necessary dependence upon automated systems to record and process transaction volumes poses the risk that technical system flaws or employee errors, tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses and may be difficult to detect. We may also be subject to disruptions of the operating systems arising from events that are beyond our control (for example, computer viruses or electrical or telecommunications outages). We are further exposed to the risk that the third party service providers may be unable to fulfill their contractual obligations (or will be subject to the same risk of fraud or operational errors). These disruptions may interfere with service to customers and result in a financial loss or liability.

 

 
21

 

 

Changing interest rates have a direct and immediate impact on financial institutions. The risk of nonpayment of loans — or credit risk — is not the only lending risk. Lenders are subject also to interest rate risk. Fluctuating rates of interest prevailing in the market affect a bank’s net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned from loans and investments, on one hand, and interest paid on deposits and borrowings, on the other. Changes in the general level of interest rates can affect our net interest income by affecting the difference between the weighted-average yield earned on our interest-earning assets and the weighted-average rate paid on our interest-bearing liabilities, or interest rate spread, and the average life of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Changes in interest rates also can affect (i) our ability to originate loans, (ii) the value of our interest-earning assets, and our ability to realize gains from the sale of such assets, (iii) our ability to obtain and retain deposits in competition with other available investment alternatives, and (iv) the ability of our borrowers to repay adjustable or variable rate loans. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies, domestic and international economic and political conditions, and other factors beyond our control. Although the Company believes that the estimated maturities of our interest-earning assets currently are well balanced in relation to the estimated maturities of our interest-bearing liabilities (which involves various estimates as to how changes in the general level of interest rates will impact these assets and liabilities), there can be no assurance that our profitability would not be adversely affected during any period of changes in interest rates.

 

A prolonged economic downturn in our market area would adversely affect our loan portfolio and our growth prospects. Our lending market area is concentrated in northeastern and central Ohio, particularly Franklin, Geauga, Portage, Trumbull, and Ashtabula Counties. A very significant percentage of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate collateral, primarily residential mortgage loans. Commercial and industrial loans to small and medium-sized businesses also represent a significant percentage of our loan portfolio. The asset quality of our loan portfolio is largely dependent upon the area’s economy and real estate markets. A prolonged economic downturn would likely lead to deterioration of the credit quality of our loan portfolio and reduce our level of customer deposits, which in turn would hurt our business. Borrowers may be less likely to repay their loans as scheduled or at all. Moreover, the value of real estate or other collateral that may secure our loans could be adversely affected. Unlike many larger institutions, we are not able to spread the risks of unfavorable local economic conditions across a large number of diversified economies and geographic locations. A prolonged economic downturn could, therefore, result in losses that could materially and adversely affect our business.

 

Changes in accounting standards could materially impact our consolidated financial statements. Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how the Company records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. The accounting standard setters, including the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the SEC, and other regulatory bodies, from time to time may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, the Company could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in changes to previously-reported financial results, or a cumulative charge to retained earnings. Management may be required to make difficult, subjective, or complex judgments about matters that are uncertain. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions.

 

There are risks with respect to future expansion and acquisitions or mergers. The Company may seek in the future to acquire other financial institutions or parts of those institutions. The Company may also expand into new markets or lines of business or offer new products or services. These activities would involve a number of risks, including—

 

 

the time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisitions and merger partners;

     

    

using inaccurate estimates and judgments to evaluate credit, operations, management, and market risks with respect to the target institution or assets;

     

  

diluting our existing shareholders in an acquisition;

     

  

the time and expense associated with evaluating new markets for expansion, hiring experienced local management, and opening new offices;

     

  

taking a significant amount of time negotiating a transaction or working on expansion plans, resulting in management’s attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business; and

     

  

the time and expense associated with integrating the operations and personnel of the combined businesses, creating an adverse short-term effect on our results of operations.

 

There is also a risk that any expansion effort will not be successful.

 

 
22

 

 

Government regulation could restrict our ability to pay cash dividends. Dividends from the bank are the only significant source of cash for the Company. Statutory and regulatory limits could prevent the bank from paying dividends or transferring funds to the Company. As of December 31, 2015, MBC could have declared dividends of approximately $8.5 million in the aggregate to the Company, assuming the ODFI did not object. The Company cannot assure you that subsidiary bank profitability will continue to allow dividends to the Company, and the Company therefore cannot assure you that the Company will be able to continue paying regular, quarterly cash dividends. Until January 20, 2017, MBC cannot pay dividends to the Company unless MBC first obtains approval of the ODFI.

 

Risks Associated with the Company’s Common Stock

 

The Company’s common stock is thinly traded, and it is therefore susceptible to wide price swings. Trading under the symbol MBCN, our stock became listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market in September of 2014. While our stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Capital Market, it trades infrequently. As a result, you may be unable to sell or purchase our common shares at the volume, price and time you desire. The limited trading market for our common shares may cause fluctuations in the market value of our common shares to be exaggerated, leading to price volatility in excess of that which would occur in a more active trading market.

 

 

Item 1B — Unresolved Staff Comments

 

     Not applicable

 

 
23

 

 

Item 2 — Properties

 

     The Bank’s offices are:

 

Location

 

County

 

Owned/Leased

 

Other Information

Main Office:

           

15985 East High Street

 

Geauga

 

Owned

   

Middlefield, Ohio

           
             

Branches :

           

West Branch

 

Geauga

 

Owned

   

15545 West High Street

           

Middlefield, Ohio

           
             

Garrettsville Branch

 

Portage

 

Owned

   

8058 State Street

           

Garrettsville, Ohio

           
             

Mantua Branch

 

Portage

 

Leased

 

three-year lease renewed in November 2013, with option to

10519 South Main Street

          renew for five additional consecutive three-year terms 

Mantua, Ohio

           
             

Chardon Branch

 

Geauga

 

Owned

   

348 Center Street

           

Chardon, Ohio

           
             

Orwell Branch

 

Ashtabula

 

Owned

   

30 South Maple Avenue

           

Orwell, Ohio

           
             

Newbury Branch

 

Geauga

 

Leased

 

ten-year lease dated December 2006, with option to renew

11110 Kinsman Road

          for four additional consecutive five-year terms 

Newbury, Ohio

           
             

Cortland Branch

 

Trumbull

 

Owned

   

3450 Niles Cortland Road

           

Cortland, Ohio

           
             

Dublin Branch

 

Franklin

 

Leased

 

twenty-year lease dated February 2004, with the option

6215 Perimeter Drive

          to purchase after the tenth year 

Dublin, OH

           
             

Westerville Branch

 

Franklin

 

Owned

   

17 North State Street

           

Westerville, OH

           
             

Administrative Offices:

 

Geauga

 

Owned

   

15200 Madison Road Suite 108

           

Middlefield, Ohio 44062

           
             

Mentor Loan Production Office

 

Lake

 

Leased

 

one-year lease dated September 2015, with the option to

8353 Mentor Avenue

          renew for two additional one-year terms 

Mentor, OH 44060

           

 

     At December 31, 2015 the net book value of the Bank’s investment in premises and equipment totaled $9.8 million.

 

 
24

 

 

Item 3 — Legal Proceedings

 

From time to time the Company and the subsidiary bank are involved in various legal proceedings that are incidental to its business. In the opinion of management, no current legal proceedings are material to the financial condition of Company or the subsidiary bank, either individually or in the aggregate.

 

Item 4 — Mine Safety Disclosures

 

 Not applicable

 

 

Part II

 

Item 5 — Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Information relating to the market for Middlefield’s common equity and related shareholder matters appears under “Market Price of and Dividends on the Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters” in the Company’s 2015 Annual Report to Shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference. Information relating to dividend restrictions for Registrant’s common stock appears under “Supervision and Regulation.”

 

Equity Compensation Plan information

 

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2015 with respect to shares of common stock that may be issued under the Company’s existing equity plans.

 

Plan Category

 

Number of

Securities

to be Issued Upon

Exercise of

Outstanding

Options or Rights

   

Weighted-Average

Exercise Price of

Outstanding

Options or Rights

   

Number of Securities

Remaining Available

for Future Issuance

Under Equity

Compensation Plans

(Excluding Securities

Reflected in First Column)

 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders:

                       
                         

1999 Stock Option Plan

    2,625     $ 40.24       -  

2007 Omnibus Equity Plan

    29,324       23.67       427,729  

Total

    31,949     $ 25.03       427,729  

 

 

 

Item 6 — Selected Financial Data

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

The above-captioned information appears under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the Company’s 2015 Annual Report to Shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 7A — Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

The above-captioned information appears under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the section “Interest Rate Sensitivity Simulation Analysis” in the Company’s 2015 Annual Report to Shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

The Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, together with the report thereon by S.R. Snodgrass, P.C. appear in the Company’s 2015 Annual Report to Shareholders and are incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 9 — Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

None

 

 
25

 

 

Item 9A – Controls and Procedures

 

(a)

Disclosure Controls and Procedures

   
  The Company’s management, including the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s “disclosure controls and procedures,” as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”).  Based upon their evaluation, the principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this report, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective for the purpose of ensuring that the information required to be disclosed in the reports that the Company files or submits under the Exchange Act with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) (1) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and (2) is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
   
(b) Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting
   
  Management’s annual report on internal control over financial reporting is incorporated herein by reference to Item 8 - the Company’s audited Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
   
(c) Changes to Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
   
  There were no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting during the period ended December 31, 2015 that have materially affected, or are reasonable likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

Item 9B — Other Information

None

 

 

 

Part III

 

Item 10 — Directors, Executive Officers of the Registrant, and Corporate Governance

 

Incorporated by reference to the definitive proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2015.

 

Item 11 — Executive Compensation

 

Incorporated by reference to the definitive proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2015.

 

Item 12 — Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

Incorporated by reference to the definitive proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2015. The information required by this item concerning Equity Compensation Plan information is presented under the caption “EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION” contained in Part II, Item 5. “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities”.

 

Item 13 — Certain Relationships, Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

Incorporated by reference to the definitive proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2015.

 

Item 14 — Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

Incorporated by reference to the definitive proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2015.

 

 
26

 

 

Part IV

 

Item 15 — Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

(a)(1) Financial Statements

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements :

Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2015:

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting firm

Consolidated Balance Sheets

Consolidated Statements of Income

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

(a)(2) Financial Statement Schedules

 

Financial Statement Schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown elsewhere in the document in the Financial Statements or Notes thereto, or in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

(a)(3) Exhibits

 

See the list of exhibits below

 

(b) Exhibits Required by Item 601 of Regulation S-K

 

 
27

 

 

 

 

exhibit

number

 

 

 

 

description

 

 

 

 

location

3.1

 

Second Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of Middlefield Banc Corp., as amended

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2005, filed on March 29, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

 

Regulations of Middlefield Banc Corp.

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s registration statement on Form 10 filed on April 17, 2001

 

 

 

 

 

4.0

 

Specimen stock certificate

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s registration statement on Form 10 filed on April 17, 2001

 

 

 

 

 

4.1

 

Amended and Restated Trust Agreement, dated as of December 21, 2006, between Middlefield Banc Corp., as Depositor, Wilmington Trust Company, as Property trustee, Wilmington Trust Company, as Delaware Trustee, and Administrative Trustees

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on December 27, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

4.2

 

Junior Subordinated Indenture, dated as of December 21, 2006, between Middlefield Banc Corp. and Wilmington Trust Company

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on December 27, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

Guarantee Agreement, dated as of December 21, 2006, between Middlefield Banc Corp. and Wilmington Trust Company

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on December 27, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

10.1.0*

 

1999 Stock Option Plan of Middlefield Banc Corp.

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s registration statement on Form 10 filed on April 17, 2001

 

 

 

 

 

10.1.1*

 

2007 Omnibus Equity Plan

 

Incorporated by reference to Middlefield Banc Corp.’s definitive proxy statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, Appendix A, filed on April 7, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.2*

 

Severance Agreement between Middlefield Banc Corp. and Thomas G. Caldwell, dated January 7, 2008

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.3*

 

Severance Agreement between Middlefield Banc Corp. and James R. Heslop, II, dated January 7, 2008

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.4.1*

 

Severance Agreement between Middlefield Banc Corp. and Teresa M. Hetrick, dated January 7, 2008

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4.1 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.4.2

 

[reserved]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.4.3*

 

Severance Agreement between Middlefield Banc Corp. and Donald L. Stacy, dated January 7, 2008

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4.3 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

         
10.4.4*   Severance Agreement between Middlefield Banc Corp. and Alfred F. Thompson Jr., dated January 7, 2008   Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4.4 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

  

 
28

 

 

10.5

 

Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati Agreement for Advances and Security Agreement dated September 14, 2000

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s registration statement on Form 10 filed on April 17, 2001

 

 

 

 

 

10.6*

 

Amended Director Retirement Agreement with Richard T. Coyne

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.7*

 

Amended Director Retirement Agreement with Frances H. Frank

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.7 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.8*

 

Amended Director Retirement Agreement with Thomas C. Halstead

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.8 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.9*

 

Director Retirement Agreement with George F. Hasman

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.9 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2001, filed on March 28, 2002

 

 

 

 

 

10.10*

 

Director Retirement Agreement with Donald D. Hunter

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.10 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2001, filed on March 28, 2002

 

 

 

 

 

10.11*

 

Director Retirement Agreement with Martin S. Paul

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.11 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2001, filed on March 28, 2002

 

 

 

 

 

10.12*

 

Amended Director Retirement Agreement with Donald E. Villers

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.12 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on January 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.13*

 

Executive Survivor Income Agreement (aka DBO agreement [death benefit only]) with Donald L. Stacy

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.14 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2003, filed on March 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

10.14*

 

DBO Agreement with Jay P. Giles

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.15 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2003, filed on March 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

10.15*

 

DBO Agreement with Alfred F. Thompson Jr.

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.16 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2003, filed on March 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

10.16

 

[reserved]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.17*

 

DBO Agreement with Teresa M. Hetrick

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.18 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2003, filed on March 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

10.18 *

 

Executive Deferred Compensation Agreement with Jay P. Giles

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.18 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2011, filed on March 20, 2012

 

 
29

 

 

10.19*

 

DBO Agreement with James R. Heslop, II

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.20 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2003, filed on March 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

10.20*

 

DBO Agreement with Thomas G. Caldwell

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.21 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2003, filed on March 30, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

10.21*

 

Form of Indemnification Agreement with directors of Middlefield Banc Corp. and with executive officers of Middlefield Banc Corp. and The Middlefield Banking Company

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s registration statement on Form 10, Amendment No. 1, filed on June 14, 2001

 

 

 

 

 

10.22*

 

Annual Incentive Plan

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.22 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on June 12, 2012

 

 

 

 

 

10.22.1*

 

Annual Incentive Plan 2014 Award Summary

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.22.1 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on April 17, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

10.23*

 

Amended Executive Deferred Compensation Agreement with Thomas G. Caldwell

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.23 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on May 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.24*

 

Amended Executive Deferred Compensation Agreement with James R. Heslop, II

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.24 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on May 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.25*

 

Amended Executive Deferred Compensation Agreement with Donald L. Stacy

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.25 of Middlefield Banc Corp.’s Form 8-K Current Report filed on May 9, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

10.26*

 

[reserved]

   

 

 

 

 

 

10.27

 

[reserved]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.28

 

[reserved]

   

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

Portions of Annual Report to Shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2015 incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K

 

filed herewith

         

21

 

Subsidiaries of Middlefield Banc Corp.

 

filed herewith

         

23

 

Consent of S.R. Snodgrass, P.C., independent auditors of Middlefield Banc Corp.

 

filed herewith

   

 

 

 

31.1

 

Rule 13a-14(a) certification of Chief Executive Officer

 

filed herewith

 

 

 

 

 

31.2

 

Rule 13a-14(a) certification of Chief Financial Officer

 

filed herewith

 

 

 

 

 

32

 

Rule 13a-14(b) certification

 

filed herewith

 

 

 

 

 

101.INS**

 

XBRL Instance

 

furnished herewith

 

 
30

 

 

101.SCH**

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema

 

furnished herewith

 

 

 

 

 

101.CAL**

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation

 

furnished herewith

 

 

 

 

 

101.DEF**

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition

 

furnished herewith

 

 

 

 

 

101.LAB**

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Labels

 

furnished herewith

 

 

 

 

 

101.PRE**

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation

 

furnished herewith

   

* management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement

 

** XBRL information is furnished and not filed or a part of a registration statement or prospectus for purposes of sections 11 or 12 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, is deemed not filed for purposes of section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and otherwise is not subject to liability under these sections.

 

 
31

 

 

Signatures

 

     Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

Middlefield Banc Corp.

 

     

 

By:  

/s/ Thomas G. Caldwell  

 

 

 

Thomas G. Caldwell 

 

 

 

President and Chief Executive Officer 

 

 

 

Date: March 9, 2016

 

 

 
32

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

 

 

/s/ Thomas G. Caldwell

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Thomas G. Caldwell

       
 

President, Chief Executive Officer, and Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ Donald L. Stacy

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Donald L. Stacy, Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer

       
 

(Principal accounting and financial officer)

       
           
           
 

/s/ Carolyn J. Turk

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Carolyn J. Turk, Chairman of the Board

       
           
           
 

/s/ Eric W. Hummel

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Eric W. Hummel, Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ James R. Heslop, II

      March 9, 2016

 

 

James R. Heslop, II, Executive Vice President,

       
 

Chief Operating Officer, and Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ Kenneth E. Jones

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Kenneth E. Jones, Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ James J. McCaskey

      March 9, 2016

 

 

James J. McCaskey, Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ Joseph J. Thomas

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Joseph J. Thomas, Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ William J. Skidmore

      March 9, 2016

 

 

William J. Skidmore, Director

       
           
           
 

/s/ Robert W. Toth

      March 9, 2016

 

 

Robert W. Toth, Director

       

 

 

29