497 1 a22-32087_16497.htm 497

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

SEI INSTITUTIONAL INTERNATIONAL TRUST

Class F Shares

International Equity Fund (SEITX)
Emerging Markets Equity Fund (SIEMX)
International Fixed Income Fund (SEFIX)
Emerging Markets Debt Fund (SITEX)

Class I Shares

International Equity Fund (SEEIX)

Class Y Shares

International Equity Fund (SEFCX)
Emerging Markets Equity Fund (SEQFX)
International Fixed Income Fund (SIFIX)
Emerging Markets Debt Fund (SIEDX)

Investment Adviser:

SEI Investments Management Corporation

Administrator:

SEI Investments Global Funds Services

Distributor:

SEI Investments Distribution Co.

Sub-Advisers:

Acadian Asset Management LLC
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Causeway Capital Management LLC
Colchester Global Investors Ltd
Delaware Investments Fund Advisers, a series of
  Macquarie Investment Management
  Business Trust
JOHCM (USA) Inc.
KBI Global Investors (North America) Ltd
Lazard Asset Management LLC
Marathon Asset Management, L.P.
Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC
Ninety One UK Ltd.
Pzena Investment Management, LLC
Qtron Investments LLC
Robeco Institutional Asset Management US Inc.
Stone Harbor Investment Partners, a division of
  Virtus Fixed Income Advisers, LLC
WCM Investment Management, LLC
Wellington Management Company LLP

This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus. It is intended to provide additional information regarding the activities and operations of SEI Institutional International Trust (the "Trust"), and should be read in conjunction with the Trust's Class F, Class I and Class Y Shares prospectuses (the "Prospectuses"), each dated January 31, 2023. The Prospectuses may be obtained upon request and without charge by writing the Trust's distributor, SEI Investments Distribution Co., One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456, or by calling 1-800-342-5734.

The Trust's financial statements for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, including notes thereto and the report of the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm thereon, are herein incorporated by reference from the Trust's 2022 Annual Report. Shareholder reports are available online or by calling 1-800-DIAL-SEI. Unless you have elected to receive paper copies of the shareholder reports, you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted on the Funds' website and provided with a link to access the report online.

January 31, 2023

SEI-F-046 (1/23)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

 

S-1

 

THE TRUST

 

S-3

 

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

 

S-3

 

DESCRIPTION OF PERMITTED INVESTMENTS AND RISK FACTORS

 

S-8

 

American Depositary Receipts

 

S-8

 

Asset-Backed Securities

 

S-8

 

Bank Loans

 

S-10

 

Brady Bonds

 

S-11

 

Commercial Paper

 

S-12

 

Construction Loans

 

S-12

 

Credit-Linked Notes

 

S-12

 

Demand Instruments

 

S-13

 

Derivatives

 

S-13

 

Dollar Rolls

 

S-14

 

Economic Risks of Global Health Events

 

S-15

 

Equity-Linked Warrants

 

S-15

 

Equity Securities

 

S-15

 

Eurobonds

 

S-17

 

Exchange-Traded Products

 

S-17

 

Fixed Income Securities

 

S-18

 

Foreign Securities and Emerging and Frontier Markets

 

S-20

 

Forward Foreign Currency Contracts

 

S-28

 

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

 

S-31

 

High Yield Foreign Sovereign Debt Securities

 

S-32

 

Illiquid Securities

 

S-32

 

Insurance Funding Agreements

 

S-32

 

Interfund Lending and Borrowing Arrangements

 

S-32

 

Investment Companies

 

S-33

 

LIBOR Replacement

 

S-34

 

Loan Participations and Assignments

 

S-35

 

MiFID II

 

S-35

 

Money Market Securities

 

S-36

 

Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

S-36

 

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

 

S-39

 

Municipal Securities

 

S-39

 

Non-Diversification

 

S-40

 

Obligations of Domestic Banks, Foreign Banks and Foreign Branches of U.S. Banks

 

S-40

 

Obligations of Supranational Entities

 

S-41

 

Options

 

S-41

 

Participation Notes

 

S-42

 

Pay-In-Kind Bonds

 

S-43

 

Privatizations

 

S-43

 

Put Transactions

 

S-43

 

Quantitative Investing

 

S-43

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts

 

S-44

 

Receipts

 

S-44

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

S-44

 

Restricted Securities

 

S-45

 

Reverse Repurchase Agreements and Sale-Buybacks

 

S-45

 

Risks of Cyber Attacks

 

S-46

 

Securities Lending

 

S-46

 

Short Sales

 

S-47

 

Sovereign Debt

 

S-47

 

Structured Securities

 

S-48

 

Swaps, Caps, Floors, Collars and Swaptions

 

S-48

 

U.S. Government Securities

 

S-50

 

Variable and Floating Rate Instruments

 

S-51

 

When-Issued and Delayed Delivery Securities

 

S-52

 

Yankee Obligations

 

S-52

 

Zero Coupon Securities

 

S-52

 

INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS

 

S-53

 

THE ADMINISTRATOR AND TRANSFER AGENT

 

S-56

 

THE ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISERS

 

S-58

 

DISTRIBUTION, SHAREHOLDER SERVICING AND ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICING

 

S-97

 

SECURITIES LENDING ACTIVITY

 

S-98

 

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS OF THE TRUST

 

S-99

 

PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

 

S-107

 

PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

 

S-109

 

TAXES

 

S-109

 

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

 

S-118

 

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION

 

S-120

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

 

S-121

 

LIMITATION OF TRUSTEES' LIABILITY

 

S-122

 

CODES OF ETHICS

 

S-122

 

VOTING

 

S-122

 

SHAREHOLDER LIABILITY

 

S-122

 

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

 

S-123

 

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

S-126

 

CUSTODIAN

 

S-126

 

LEGAL COUNSEL

 

S-126

 

APPENDIX A—DESCRIPTION OF CORPORATE BOND RATINGS

 

A-1

 

January 31, 2023


GLOSSARY OF TERMS

The following terms are used throughout this SAI, and have the meanings set forth below. Because the following is a combined glossary of terms used for all the SEI Funds, certain terms below may not apply to your fund. Any terms used but not defined herein have the meaning ascribed to them in the applicable Fund's prospectus or as otherwise defined in this SAI.

Term

 

Definition

 
1933 Act  

Securities Act of 1933, as amended

 
1940 Act  

Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended

 

ADRs

 

American Depositary Receipts

 

ARMS

 

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Securities

 

BHCA

 

Bank-Holding Company Act

 
Bank Loan
Rate
  The rate of interest that would be charged by a
bank for short-term borrowings
 

Board

 

The Trust's Board of Trustees

 

CATS

 

Certificates of Accrual on Treasury Securities

 

CDOs

 

Collateralized Debt Obligations

 

CDRs

 

Continental Depositary Receipts

 
CFTC  

Commodities Futures Trading Commission

 

CLCs

 

Construction Loan Certificates

 

CLOs

 

Collateralized Loan Obligations

 

CMBS

 

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

CMOs

 

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations

 

Code

 

Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended

 
Confidential
Information
 

Material, non-public information

 
Dodd-Frank
Act
  Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer
Protections Act
 

EDRs

 

European Depositary Receipts

 

ETFs

 

Exchange-Traded Funds

 

ETNs

 

Exchange-Traded Notes

 

ETPs

 

Exchange-Traded Products

 

EU

 

European Union

 

Fannie Mae

 

Federal National Mortgage Association

 

FHA

 

Federal Housing Administration

 

Freddie Mac

 

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

 

GDRs

 

Global Depositary Receipts

 

GNMA

 

Government National Mortgage Association

 

IFA

 

Insurance Funding Agreement

 

IO

 

Interest-Only Security

 

IRS

 

Internal Revenue Service

 

LIBOR

 

London Interbank Offered Rate

 

Liquidity Fund

 

SEI Liquidity Fund, LP

 

LYONs

 

Liquid Yield Option Notes

 

MiFID II

  Directive 2014/61/EU on markets in financial
instruments and Regulation 600/2014/EU on
markets in financial instruments
 

MLPs

 

Master Limited Partnerships

 

Moody's

 

Moody's Investors Service, Inc.

 

NAV

 

Net Asset Value

 

NDFs

 

Non-Deliverable Forwards

 


S-1


Term

 

Definition

 

NRSRO

  Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating
Organization
 

OTC

 

Over-the-Counter

 

PAC Bonds

 

Planned Amortization Class CMOs

 

PIPEs

 

Private Investments in Public Equity

 

PLC

 

Permanent Loan Certificate

 

P-Notes

 

Participation Notes

 

PO

 

Principal-Only Security

 

Program

 

SEI Funds' interfund lending program

 

QFII

 

Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor

 

QPTPs

 

Qualified Publicly Traded Partnerships

 

REITs

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts

 

REMIC Certificates

 

REMIC pass-through certificates

 

REMICs

 

Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits

 

REOCs

 

Real Estate Operating Companies

 

Repo Rate

  rate of interest for an investment in overnight
repurchase agreements
 

RIC

 

Regulated Investment Company

 

S&P

 

Standard & Poor's Rating Group

 

SEC

 

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

 

SEI Funds

  The existing or future investment companies
registered under the 1940 Act that are advised
by SIMC
 

STRIPS

  Separately Traded Registered Interest and
Principal Securities
 

Subsidiary

  A wholly-owned subsidiary organized under
the laws of the Cayman Islands
 

TIGRs

 

Treasury Investment Growth Receipts

 

TRs

 

Treasury Receipts

 

UK

 

United Kingdom

 

World Bank

  International Bank of Reconstruction and
Development
 

Yankees

 

Yankee Obligations

 


S-2


THE TRUST

SEI Institutional International Trust (the "Trust") is an open-end management investment company that offers shares of diversified and non-diversified portfolios (only International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds are non-diversified). The Trust was established as a Massachusetts business trust pursuant to an Agreement and Declaration of Trust dated June 28, 1988. The Amended and Restated Agreement and Declaration of Trust permits the Trust to offer separate series ("portfolios") of units of beneficial interest ("shares") and separate classes of shares of such portfolios. Shareholders may purchase shares in certain portfolios through separate classes. Class F, Class I and Class Y Shares may be offered, which provide for variations in transfer agent fees, shareholder servicing fees, administrative servicing fees, distribution fees, dividends and certain voting rights. Except for differences among the classes pertaining to shareholder servicing, administrative servicing, distribution, voting rights, dividends and transfer agent expenses, each share of each portfolio represents an equal proportionate interest in that portfolio with each other share of that portfolio.

This Statement of Additional Information ("SAI") relates to the following portfolios: International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds (each, a "Fund" and together, the "Funds"), including all classes of the Funds.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

INTERNATIONAL EQUITY FUND—The International Equity Fund seeks to provide long-term capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets in equity securities. For purposes of this policy, net assets mean net assets plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes. Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks, participation notes, warrants and depositary receipts. The Fund will invest primarily in equity securities of issuers of all capitalization ranges that are located in at least three countries other than the U.S. It is expected that at least 40% of the Fund's assets will be invested outside the U.S. The Fund will invest primarily in companies located in developed countries, but may also invest in companies located in emerging market countries. Generally, the Fund will invest less than 20% of its assets in emerging markets. Emerging market countries are those countries that: (i) are characterized as developing or emerging by any of the World Bank, the United Nations, the International Finance Corporation, or the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; (ii) are included in an emerging markets index by a recognized index provider; or (iii) have similar developing or emerging characteristics as countries classified as emerging market countries pursuant to sub-paragraph (i) and (ii) above, in each case determined at the time of purchase.

The Fund uses a multi-manager approach, relying upon a number of sub-advisers (each, a "Sub-Adviser" and together, the "Sub-Advisers") with differing investment philosophies to manage portions of the Fund's portfolio under the general supervision of SEI Investments Management Corporation ("SIMC" or the "Adviser"). One or more Sub-Advisers may apply a quantitative investment style, which generally involves a systematic or rules-based approach to selecting investments based on specific measurable factors.

The Sub-Adviser(s) may implement a long/short equity investment strategy by investing in securities believed to offer capital appreciation opportunities while also attempting to take advantage of an anticipated decline in the price of a company. A long/short equity investment strategy takes (i) long positions with respect to investments that are believed to be undervalued relative to their potential and likely to increase in price, and (ii) short positions with respect to investments that are believed to have significant risk of decreasing in price. The Sub-Adviser(s) seek returns from strong security selection on both the long and short sides. These long and short positions may be completely unrelated.

Securities of non-U.S. issuers purchased by the Fund will typically be listed on recognized foreign exchanges, but may also be purchased in over-the-counter markets, on U.S. registered exchanges or in the form of sponsored or unsponsored ADRs traded on registered exchanges or NASDAQ, or sponsored or unsponsored EDRs, CDRs or GDRs.


S-3


The Fund may invest up to 20% of its net assets in: (i) foreign corporate government fixed income securities of different types and maturities, including mortgage-backed or other asset-backed securities; (ii) fixed income securities rated below investment grade ("junk bonds"); (iii) repurchase or reverse repurchase agreements; (iv) U.S. or non-U.S. cash reserves; (v) money market instruments; (vi) swaps; (vii) options on securities and non-U.S. indexes; (viii) futures contracts, including stock index futures contracts; (ix) options on futures contracts; and (x) equity-linked warrants, in each case to the extent not covered by the Fund's 80% policy. The Fund is permitted to acquire floating and variable rate securities, purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis and invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments. The Fund may also lend its securities to qualified borrowers and invest in shares of other investment companies, including securities issued by passive foreign investment companies. The Fund may invest in futures contracts, forward contracts and options for hedging purposes, including seeking to manage the Fund's currency exposure to foreign securities and mitigate the Fund's overall risk.

There is no restriction on the maturity of any single instrument held by the Fund. Maturities may vary widely depending on SIMC's or a Sub-Adviser's assessment of interest rate trends and other economic and market factors. There is no bottom limit on the ratings of high-yield securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund.

For temporary defensive purposes, when SIMC or a Sub-Adviser determines that market conditions warrant, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in U.S. dollar-denominated fixed income securities or debt obligations and the following domestic and foreign money market instruments: (i) government obligations; (ii) certificates of deposit; (iii) bankers' acceptances; (iv) time deposits; (v) commercial paper; (vi) short-term corporate debt issues and repurchase agreements; and (vii) may hold a portion of its assets in cash. In addition, the Fund may invest in the foregoing instruments and hold cash for liquidity purposes.

Due to its investment strategy, the Fund may buy and sell securities frequently. This may result in higher transaction costs and taxes subject to ordinary income tax rates as opposed to more favorable capital gain rates.

Subject to Section 12 of the 1940 Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, the Fund may purchase futures contracts or shares of ETFs to gain exposure to a particular portion of the market while awaiting an opportunity to purchase securities or other instruments directly. The particular ETF complexes in which the Fund may invest and additional information about the limitations of such investments are further described under the heading "Exchange-Traded Funds" in the sub-section "Investment Companies" of the "Description of Permitted Investments and Risk Factors" section below.

EMERGING MARKETS EQUITY FUND—The Emerging Markets Equity Fund seeks to provide capital appreciation. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets in equity securities of emerging market issuers. For purposes of this policy, net assets mean net assets plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes. Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stock, warrants, participation notes and depositary receipts of all capitalization ranges. The Fund will invest primarily in equity securities of foreign companies located in emerging market countries. The Fund normally maintains investments in at least six emerging market countries, however, it may invest a substantial amount of its assets in issuers located in a single country or a limited number of countries. Due to the size of its economy relative to other emerging market countries, it is expected that China will generally constitute a significant exposure in the Fund. Emerging market countries are those countries that: (i) are characterized as developing or emerging by any of the World Bank, the United Nations, the International Finance Corporation, or the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; (ii) are included in an emerging markets index by a recognized index provider; or (iii) have similar developing or emerging characteristics as countries classified as emerging market countries pursuant to sub-paragraph (i) and (ii) above, in each case determined at the time of purchase. SIMC and the Sub-Advisers consider emerging market issuers to include: (i) companies the securities of which are principally traded in the capital markets of emerging market countries; (ii) companies that derive at least 50% of their total revenue from either goods produced or services rendered in emerging market countries, regardless of where the securities of such companies are principally traded; or (iii) companies that are organized under the laws of, and have a principal office in, an emerging market country.


S-4


The Fund uses a multi-manager approach, relying upon a number of Sub-Advisers with differing investment philosophies to manage portions of the Fund's portfolio under the general supervision of SIMC. One or more Sub-Advisers may apply a quantitative investment style, which generally involves a systematic or rules-based approach to selecting investments based on specific measurable factors.

The Fund may invest in swaps based on a single security or an index of securities, futures contracts, forward contracts and options to synthetically obtain exposure to securities or baskets of securities or for hedging purposes, including seeking to manage the Fund's currency exposure to foreign securities and mitigate the Fund's overall risk. Swaps may be used to obtain exposure to different foreign equity markets.

There is no restriction on the maturity of any single instrument held by the Fund. Maturities may vary widely depending on SIMC's or a Sub-Adviser's assessment of interest rate trends and other economic and market factors. There is no bottom limit on the ratings of high-yield securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund.

Due to its investment strategy, the Fund may buy and sell securities frequently. This may result in higher transaction costs and taxes subject to ordinary income tax rates as opposed to more favorable capital gain rates.

For temporary defensive purposes, when SIMC or a Sub-Adviser determines that market conditions warrant, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in U.S. dollar-denominated fixed income securities or debt obligations and the following domestic and foreign money market instruments: (i) government obligations; (ii) certificates of deposit; (iii) bankers' acceptances; (iv) time deposits; (v) commercial paper; (vi) short-term corporate debt issues and repurchase agreements; and (vii) may hold a portion of its assets in cash. In addition, the Fund may invest in the foregoing instruments and hold cash for liquidity purposes.

Subject to Section 12 of the 1940 Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, the Fund may purchase futures contracts or shares of ETFs to gain exposure to a particular portion of the market while awaiting an opportunity to purchase securities or other instruments directly. The particular ETF complexes in which the Fund may invest and additional information about the limitations of such investments are further described under the heading "Exchange-Traded Funds" in the sub-section "Investment Companies" of the "Description of Permitted Investments and Risk Factors" section below. The Fund may also invest a portion of its assets in securities of companies located in developed foreign countries.

INTERNATIONAL FIXED INCOME FUND—The International Fixed Income Fund seeks to provide capital appreciation and current income. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets in fixed income securities. For purposes of this policy, net assets mean net assets plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes. The Fund will invest primarily in investment grade foreign government and corporate fixed income securities, as well as foreign mortgage-backed and/or asset-backed fixed income securities, of issuers located in at least three countries other than the U.S. (including, to a lesser extent, emerging market countries). It is expected that at least 40% of the Fund's assets will be invested in non-U.S. securities.

The Fund will invest primarily in: (i) fixed income securities issued or guaranteed by a foreign government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or political subdivisions; (ii) fixed income securities issued or guaranteed by supranational entities; (iii) fixed income securities issued by foreign or multinational corporations; (iv) convertible securities issued by foreign or multinational corporations; (v) fixed income securities issued by foreign banks or bank holding companies; (vi) asset-backed securities; and (vii) mortgage-backed securities. All such investments will be in investment-grade securities denominated in various currencies, including the euro.

The Fund uses a multi-manager approach, relying upon a number of Sub-Advisers with differing investment philosophies to manage portions of the Fund's portfolio under the general supervision of SIMC. In selecting investments for the Fund, the Sub-Advisers choose securities issued by corporations and governments located in various countries, looking for opportunities to achieve capital appreciation and gain, as well as current income.

The Fund expects to be fully invested in the primary investments described above, but may invest in: (i) obligations issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government, its agencies or


S-5


instrumentalities ("U.S. Government securities"); (ii) shares of other investment companies; (iii) swaps; (iv) options; (v) futures; (vi) forward foreign currency contracts; and (vii) equity-linked warrants. The Fund may also purchase and write options to buy or sell futures contracts, purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, engage in short selling and currency transactions and lend its securities to qualified borrowers. The Sub-Advisers may seek to enhance the Fund's return by actively managing the Fund's foreign currency exposure. In managing the Fund's currency exposure, the Sub-Advisers buy and sell currencies (i.e., take long or short positions) using derivatives, principally futures, foreign currency forward contracts and currency swaps. The Fund may take long and short positions in foreign currencies in excess of the value of the Fund's assets denominated in a particular currency or when the Fund does not own assets denominated in that currency. The Fund may also engage in currency transactions in an attempt to take advantage of certain inefficiencies in the currency exchange market, to increase its exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one currency to another.

In managing the Fund's currency exposure from foreign securities, the Sub-Advisers may buy and sell currencies for hedging or for speculative purposes. The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments. Furthermore, although the Fund will concentrate its investments in relatively developed countries, the Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in investment-grade fixed income securities of issuers in, or denominated in the currencies of, developing countries or are determined by SIMC or a Sub-Adviser to be of comparable quality to such securities at the time of purchase. The Fund may also invest in securities rated below investment grade, bank loans and loan participation notes.

The Fund may also invest in futures contracts, forward contracts and swaps for speculative or hedging purposes. Futures, forwards and swaps are used to synthetically obtain exposure to the securities identified above or baskets of such securities and to manage the Fund's interest rate duration and yield curve exposure.

These derivatives are also used to mitigate the Fund's overall level of risk and/or the Fund's risk to particular types of securities, currencies or market segments. Interest rate swaps are further used to manage the Fund's yield spread sensitivity. When the Fund seeks to take an active long or short position with respect to the likelihood of an event of default of a security or basket of securities, the Fund may use credit default swaps. The Fund may buy credit default swaps in an attempt to manage credit risk where the Fund has credit exposure to an issuer and the Fund may sell credit default swaps to more efficiently gain credit exposure to such security or basket of securities.

There are no restrictions on the Fund's average portfolio maturity or on the maturity of any specific security. Maturities may vary widely depending on SIMC's or a Sub-Adviser's assessment of interest rate trends and other economic and market factors. There may be no bottom limit on the ratings of high-yield securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund.

Due to its investment strategy, the Fund may buy or sell securities frequently. This may result in higher transaction costs and taxes subject to ordinary income tax rates as opposed to more favorable capital gain rates.

The Fund is non-diversified, which means that it may invest in the securities of relatively few issuers. As a result, the Fund may be more susceptible to a single adverse economic or political occurrence affecting one or more of these issuers, and may experience increased volatility due to its investments in those securities.

For temporary defensive purposes, when SIMC or a Sub-Adviser determines that market conditions warrant, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in: (i) U.S. dollar-denominated fixed income securities or debt obligations; (ii) certificates of deposit; (iii) bankers' acceptances; (iv) time deposits; (v) commercial paper; (vi) short-term corporate debt issues and repurchase agreements; and (vii) may hold a portion of its assets in cash. In addition, the Fund may invest in the foregoing instruments and hold cash for liquidity purposes.

Subject to Section 12 of the 1940 Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, the Fund may purchase shares of ETFs to gain exposure to a particular portion of the market while awaiting an opportunity to purchase securities or other instruments directly. The particular ETF complexes in which the Fund may invest and additional information about the limitations of such investments are further described under the heading "Exchange-Traded Funds" in the sub-section "Investment Companies" of the "Description of Permitted Investments and Risk Factors" section below.


S-6


EMERGING MARKETS DEBT FUND—The investment objective of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund is to maximize total return. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Under normal circumstances, the Emerging Markets Debt Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes) in fixed income securities of emerging market issuers. The Fund will invest in debt securities of government, government-related, supranational entities, and corporate issuers in emerging market countries, as well as debt securities of entities organized to restructure the outstanding debt of any such issuers. The Fund may obtain its exposures by investing directly (e.g., in fixed income securities and other instruments) or indirectly/synthetically (e.g., through the use of derivative instruments, principally futures contracts, forward contracts and swaps and structured securities, such as credit-linked and inflation-linked notes). The Fund may invest in swaps based on a single security or an index of securities, including interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, currency swaps and fully-funded total return swaps. Emerging market countries are those countries that: (i) are characterized as developing or emerging by any of the World Bank, the United Nations, the International Finance Corporation, or the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; (ii) are included in an emerging markets index by a recognized index provider; or (iii) have similar developing or emerging characteristics as countries classified as emerging market countries pursuant to sub-paragraph (i) and (ii) above, in each case determined at the time of purchase.

The Fund uses a multi-manager approach, relying upon a number of Sub-Advisers with differing investment philosophies to manage portions of the Fund's portfolio under the general supervision of SIMC. The Sub-Advisers will spread the Fund's holdings across a number of countries and industries to limit its exposure to any single emerging market economy and may not invest more than 25% of its assets in any single country. There are no restrictions on the Fund's average portfolio maturity or on the maturity of any specific security. There is no minimum rating standard for the Fund's securities, and the Fund's securities will generally be in the lower or lowest rating categories (including those below the fourth highest rating category by a NRSRO, commonly referred to as junk bonds).

The Sub-Advisers may seek to enhance the Fund's return by actively managing the Fund's foreign currency exposure. In managing the Fund's currency exposure, the Sub-Advisers buy and sell currencies (i.e., take long or short positions) using derivatives, principally futures, foreign currency forward contracts, options on foreign currencies and currency swaps. The Fund may take long and short positions in foreign currencies in excess of the value of the Fund's assets denominated in a particular currency or when the Fund does not own assets denominated in that currency. The Fund may also engage in currency transactions in an attempt to take advantage of certain inefficiencies in the currency exchange market, to increase its exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one currency to another. In managing the Fund's currency exposure from foreign securities, the Sub-Advisers may buy and sell currencies for hedging or for speculative purposes.

The Fund may also invest in futures contracts, forward contracts and swaps for speculative or hedging purposes. Futures contracts, forward contracts and swaps are used to synthetically obtain exposure to the securities identified above or baskets of such securities and to manage the Fund's interest rate duration and yield curve exposure. These derivatives are also used to mitigate the Fund's overall level of risk and/or the Fund's risk to particular types of securities, currencies or market segments. Interest rate swaps are further used to manage the Fund's yield spread sensitivity. When the Fund seeks to take an active long or short position with respect to the likelihood of an event of default of a security or basket of securities, the Fund may use credit default swaps. The Fund may buy credit default swaps in an attempt to manage credit risk where the Fund has credit exposure to an issuer and the Fund may sell credit default swaps to more efficiently gain credit exposure to such security or basket of securities.

Subject to Section 12 of the 1940 Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder, the Fund may purchase shares of ETFs to gain exposure to a particular portion of the market while awaiting an opportunity to purchase securities or other instruments directly. The particular ETF complexes in which the Fund may invest and additional information about the limitations of such investments are further described under the heading "Exchange-Traded Funds" in the sub-section "Investment Companies" of the "Description of Permitted Investments and Risk Factors" section below.


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DESCRIPTION OF PERMITTED INVESTMENTS AND RISK FACTORS

The following are descriptions of the permitted investments and investment practices of the Funds, including those discussed in the applicable Prospectuses and the Funds' "Investment Objectives and Policies" section of this SAI and the associated risk factors. A Fund may purchase any of these instruments and/or engage in any of these investment practices if, in the opinion of SIMC or the Sub-Advisers, such investments or investment practices will be advantageous to the Fund. A Fund is free to reduce or eliminate its activity in any of these areas. SIMC or a Sub-Adviser, as applicable, may invest in any of the following instruments or engage in any of the following investment practices unless such investment or activity is inconsistent with or not permitted by a Fund's stated investment policies. There is no assurance that any of these strategies or any other strategies and methods of investment available to a Fund will result in the achievement of the Fund's investment objectives.

AMERICAN DEPOSITARY RECEIPTS—ADRs, as well as other "hybrid" forms of ADRs, including EDRs, CDRs and GDRs, are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer. Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored. These certificates are issued by depositary banks and generally trade on an established market in the United States or elsewhere. The underlying shares are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer's home country. The depositary bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. ADRs are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their national markets and currencies. However, ADRs continue to be subject to many of the risks associated with investing directly in foreign securities.

Investments in the securities of foreign issuers may subject a Fund to investment risks that differ in some respects from those related to investments in securities of U.S. issuers. Such risks include future adverse political and economic developments, possible imposition of withholding taxes on income, possible seizure, nationalization or expropriation of foreign deposits, possible establishment of exchange controls or taxation at the source or greater fluctuation in value due to changes in exchange rates. Foreign issuers of securities often engage in business practices different from those of domestic issuers of similar securities, and there may be less information publicly available about foreign issuers. In addition, foreign issuers are, generally, subject to less government supervision and regulation and different accounting treatment than are those in the United States.

Although the two types of depositary receipt facilities (unsponsored and sponsored) are similar, there are differences regarding a holder's rights and obligations and the practices of market participants. A depositary may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by (or acquiescence of) the underlying issuer. Typically, however, the depositary requests a letter of non-objection from the underlying issuer prior to establishing the facility. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the facility. The depositary usually charges fees upon the deposit and withdrawal of the underlying securities, the conversion of dividends into U.S. dollars or other currency, the disposition of non-cash distributions and the performance of other services. The depositary of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to depositary receipt holders with respect to the underlying securities.

Sponsored depositary receipt facilities are created in generally the same manner as unsponsored facilities, except that sponsored depositary receipts are established jointly by a depositary and the underlying issuer through a deposit agreement. The deposit agreement sets out the rights and responsibilities of the underlying issuer, the depositary and the depositary receipt holders. With sponsored facilities, the underlying issuer typically bears some of the costs of the depositary receipts (such as dividend payment fees of the depositary), although most sponsored depositary receipt holders may bear costs such as deposit and withdrawal fees. Depositaries of most sponsored depositary receipts agree to distribute notices of shareholder meetings, voting instructions and other shareholder communications and information to the depositary receipt holders at the underlying issuer's request.

ASSET-BACKED SECURITIES—Asset-backed securities are securities that are backed primarily by the cash flows of a discrete pool of fixed or revolving receivables or other financial assets that by their terms convert


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into cash within a finite time period. Asset-backed securities include mortgage-backed securities, but the term is more commonly used to refer to securities supported by non-mortgage assets such as auto loans, motor vehicle leases, student loans, credit card receivables, floorplan receivables, equipment leases and peer-to-peer loans. The assets are removed from any potential bankruptcy estate of an operating company through the true sale of the assets to an issuer that is a special purpose entity, and the issuer obtains a perfected security interest in the assets. Payments of principal of and interest on asset-backed securities rely entirely on the performance of the underlying assets. Asset-backed securities are generally not insured or guaranteed by the related sponsor or any other entity and therefore, if the assets or sources of funds available to the issuer are insufficient to pay those securities, the Funds will incur losses. In addition, asset-backed securities entail prepayment risk that may vary depending on the type of asset, but is generally less than the prepayment risk associated with mortgage-backed securities. Additional risks related to collateralized risk obligations, CLOs and mortgage-backed securities are described below.

Losses may be greater for asset-backed securities that are issued as "pass-through certificates" rather than as debt securities, because those types of certificates only represent a beneficial ownership interest in the related assets and their payment is based primarily on collections actually received. For asset-backed securities as a whole, if a securitization issuer defaults on its payment obligations due to losses or shortfalls on the assets held by the issuer, a sale or liquidation of the assets may not be sufficient to support payments on the securities and the Funds, as securityholders, may suffer a loss.

Recent changes in legislation, together with uncertainty about the nature and timing of regulations that will be promulgated to implement such legislation, has created uncertainty in the credit and other financial markets and other unknown risks. The Dodd-Frank Act, for example, imposes a new regulatory framework on the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and similar measures to re-regulate the credit markets and, in particular, the structured finance markets, the manner in which asset-backed securities are issued and structured has been altered and the reporting obligations of the issuers of such securities may be significantly increased or may become costlier. The value or liquidity of any asset-backed securities held or acquired by the Funds may be adversely affected as a result of these changes.

In particular, the implementation of Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act (and related regulations) prohibiting certain banking entities from engaging in proprietary trading (the so-called Volcker Rule) and of Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act (and related regulations) requiring the "sponsor" of a securitization to retain no less than 5% of the credit risk of the assets collateralizing the asset-backed securities, could have a negative effect on the marketability and liquidity of asset-backed securities (including mortgage-backed securities and CDOs and CLOs), whether in the primary issuance or in secondary trading. It is possible that the risk retention rules may reduce the number of new issuances of private-label mortgage backed securities or the number of collateral managers active in the CDO and CLO markets, which also may result in fewer new issue securities. A contraction or reduced liquidity in the asset-backed, CDO or CLO markets could reduce opportunities for the Funds to sell their securities and might adversely affect the management flexibility of the Funds in relation to the respective portfolios.

In addition to the changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC adopted rules in August 2014 that substantially revise "Regulation AB" (the SEC's principal source of rules for asset-backed securities) and other rules governing the offering process, disclosure and reporting for asset-backed securities issued in registered transactions. Among other things, those rules require enhanced disclosure of asset-level information at the time of the securitization and on an ongoing basis. Certain elements of proposed Regulation AB remain outstanding, including the proposal that issuers of structured finance products offered privately provide the same initial and ongoing information as would be required if the offering were public. It is not clear when or whether any of the proposed revisions to Regulation AB that remain outstanding will be adopted, how those standards will be implemented, or what effect those standards will have on securitization transactions. The rules may, for example, have the effect of impeding new issuances and reducing the availability of investments for the Funds, or adversely affecting the market value of legacy securities that do not conform with the new rules.


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There is a limited secondary market for asset-backed securities. Consequently, it may be difficult for the Funds to sell or realize profits on those securities at favorable times or for favorable prices.

CDO and CLO securities are non-recourse obligations of their issuer payable solely from the related underlying collateral or its proceeds. Therefore, as a holder of CDOs and CLOs, the Funds must rely only on distributions on the underlying collateral or related proceeds for payment. If distributions on the underlying collateral are insufficient to make payments on the CDO or CLO securities, no other assets will be available for payment of the deficiency. As a result, the amount and timing of interest and principal payments in respect of CDO and CLO securities will depend on the performance and characteristics of the related underlying collateral.

Recent legislation, such as the Dodd-Frank Act, together with uncertainty about the nature and timing of regulations that will be promulgated to implement such legislation, may continue to create uncertainty in the credit and other financial markets. Given that all applicable final implementing rules and regulations have not yet been published or are not yet in effect, the potential impact of these actions on CDOs and CLOs owned by the Funds is unknown. If existing transactions are not exempted from the new rules or regulations, compliance with those rules and regulations could impose significant costs on the issuers of CDOs and CLOs and ultimately adversely impact the holders (including the Funds) of those types of securities.

BANK LOANS—Bank loans typically are arranged through private negotiations between a borrower and several financial institutions or a group of lenders which are represented by one or more lenders acting as agent. The agent is often a commercial bank that originates the loan and invites other parties to join the lending syndicate. The agent will be primarily responsible for negotiating the loan agreement and will have responsibility for the documentation and ongoing administration of the loan on behalf of the lenders after completion of the loan transaction. A Fund can invest in a bank loan either as a direct lender or through an assignment or participation.

When a Fund acts as a direct lender, it will have a direct contractual relationship with the borrower and may participate in structuring the loan, may enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement and may have voting, consent and set-off rights under the loan agreement.

Loan assignments are investments in all or a portion of certain bank loans purchased from the lenders or from other third parties. The purchaser of an assignment typically will acquire direct rights against the borrower under the loan. While the purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations of the assigning lender under the loan agreement, because assignments are arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and assignors, or other third parties whose interests are being assigned, the rights and obligations acquired by a Fund may differ from and be more limited than those held by the assigning lender.

A holder of a loan participation typically has only a contractual right with the seller of the participation and not with the borrower or any other entities interpositioned between the seller of the participation and the borrower. As such, the purchaser of a loan participation assumes the credit risk of the seller of the participation, and any intermediary entities between the seller and the borrower, in addition to the credit risk of the borrower. When a Fund holds a loan participation, it will have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and fees to which it may be entitled only from the seller of the participation and only upon receipt of the seller of such payments from the borrower or from any intermediary parties between the seller and the borrower. Additionally, a Fund will generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement, will have no voting, consent or set-off rights under the loan agreement and may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the loan although lenders that sell participations generally are required to distribute liquidation proceeds received by them pro rata among the holders of such participations. In the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the borrower, a loan participation may be subject to certain defenses that can be asserted by the borrower as a result of improper conduct by the seller or intermediary. If the borrower fails to pay principal and interest when due, a Fund may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of such borrower.

Direct loans, assignments and loan participations may be considered liquid, as determined by SIMC or a Sub-Adviser based on criteria approved by the Board.


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SIMC or a Sub-Adviser may from time to time have the opportunity to receive Confidential Information about the borrower, including financial information and related documentation regarding the borrower that is not publicly available. Pursuant to applicable policies and procedures, SIMC or a Sub-Adviser may (but is not required to) seek to avoid receipt of Confidential Information from the borrower so as to avoid possible restrictions on its ability to purchase and sell investments on behalf of a Fund and other clients to which such Confidential Information relates (e.g., publicly traded securities issued by the borrower). In such circumstances, a Fund (and other clients of SIMC or a Sub-Adviser) may be disadvantaged in comparison to other investors, including with respect to the price the Fund pays or receives when it buys or sells a bank loan. Further, SIMC or a Sub-Adviser's abilities to assess the desirability of proposed consents, waivers or amendments with respect to certain bank loans may be compromised if it is not privy to available Confidential Information. SIMC or a Sub-Adviser may also determine to receive such Confidential Information in certain circumstances under its applicable policies and procedures. If SIMC or a Sub-Adviser intentionally or unintentionally comes into possession of Confidential Information, it may be unable, potentially for a substantial period of time, to purchase or sell publicly traded securities to which such Confidential Information relates.

BRADY BONDS—Certain debt obligations, customarily referred to as "Brady Bonds," are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign entities for new obligations in connection with a debt restructuring. Brady Bonds have only been issued since 1989 and, accordingly, do not have a long payment history. In addition, they are issued by governments that may have previously defaulted on the loans being restructured by the Brady Bonds and are thus subject to the risk of default by the issuer. Brady Bonds may be fully or partially collateralized or uncollateralized and issued in various currencies (although most are U.S. dollar-denominated), and they are actively traded in the OTC secondary market.

U.S. dollar-denominated, collateralized Brady Bonds, which may be fixed rate par bonds or floating rate discount bonds, are generally collateralized in-full as to principal due at maturity by U.S. Treasury zero coupon obligations, which have the same maturity as the Brady Bonds. Certain interest payments on these Brady Bonds may be collateralized by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is typically equal to between 12 and 18 months of rolling interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is typically equal to between 12 and 18 months rolling interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at that time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter with the balance of interest accruals in each case being uncollateralized. Payment of interest and (except in the case of principal collateralized Brady Bonds) principal on Brady Bonds with no or limited collateral depends on the willingness and ability of the foreign government to make payment. In the event of a default on collateralized Brady Bonds for which obligations are accelerated, the collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments that would have then been due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course.

Based upon current market conditions, a Fund would not intend to purchase Brady Bonds that, at the time of investment, are in default as to payment. However, in light of the residual risk of Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of default with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds, investments in Brady Bonds are to be viewed as speculative. A substantial portion of the Brady Bonds and other sovereign debt securities in which a Fund invests may be acquired at a discount, which involves certain additional considerations.

Sovereign obligors in developing and emerging market countries are among the world's largest debtors to commercial banks, other governments, international financial organizations and other financial institutions. These obligors have in the past experienced substantial difficulties in servicing their external debt obligations, which led to defaults on certain obligations and the restructuring of certain indebtedness. Restructuring arrangements have included, among other things, reducing and rescheduling interest and principal payments by negotiating new or amended credit agreements or converting outstanding principal and unpaid interest to Brady Bonds and obtaining new credit to finance interest payments. Holders of certain foreign sovereign debt securities may be requested to participate in the restructuring of such obligations and to extend further loans to their issuers. There can be no assurance that the Brady Bonds and other foreign sovereign debt securities in


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which a Fund may invest will not be subject to similar restructuring arrangements or to requests for new credit, which may adversely affect the Fund's holdings. Furthermore, certain participants in the secondary market for such debt may be directly involved in negotiating the terms of these arrangements and may therefore have access to information not available to other market participants.

COMMERCIAL PAPER—Commercial paper is the term used to designate unsecured short-term promissory notes issued by corporations and other entities to finance short-term credit needs. Commercial paper is usually sold on a discount basis and has a maturity at the time of issuance generally not exceeding 270 days. The value of commercial paper may be affected by changes in the credit rating or financial condition of the issuing entities. The value of commercial paper will tend to fall when interest rates rise and rise when interest rates fall.

CONSTRUCTION LOANS—In general, construction loans are mortgages on multifamily homes that are insured by the FHA under various federal programs of the National Housing Act of 1934 and its amendments. Several FHA programs have evolved to insure the construction financing and permanent mortgage financing on multifamily residences, nursing homes, elderly residential facilities and health care units. Project loans typically trade in two forms: either as FHA-insured or GNMA insured pass-through securities. In this case, a qualified issuer issues the pass-through securities while holding the underlying mortgage loans as collateral. Regardless of form, all projects are government-guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development through the FHA insurance fund. The credit backing of all FHA and GNMA projects derives from the FHA insurance fund, so projects issued in either form enjoy the full faith and credit backing of the U.S. Government.

Most project pools consist of one large mortgage loan rather than numerous smaller mortgages, as is typically the case with agency single-family mortgage securities. As such, prepayments on projects are driven by the incentives most mortgagors have to refinance and are very project-specific in nature. However, to qualify for certain government programs, many project securities contain specific prepayment restrictions and penalties.

Under multifamily insurance programs, the government insures the construction financing of projects as well as the permanent mortgage financing on the completed structures. This is unlike the single-family mortgage market, in which the government only insures mortgages on completed homes. Investors purchase new projects by committing to fund construction costs on a monthly basis until the project is built. Upon project completion, an investor's construction loan commitments are converted into a proportionate share of the final permanent project mortgage loan. The construction financing portion of a project trades in the secondary market as an insured CLC. When the project is completed, the investor exchanges all the monthly CLCs for an insured PLC. The PLC is an insured pass-through security backed by the final mortgage on the completed property. As such, PLCs typically have a thirty-five to forty year maturity, depending on the type of final project. There are vastly more PLCs than CLCs in the market, owing to the long economic lives of the project structures. While neither CLCs nor PLCs are as liquid as agency single-family mortgage securities, both are traded on the secondary market and would generally not be considered illiquid. The benefit to owning these securities is a relatively high yield combined with significant prepayment protection, which generally makes these types of securities more attractive when prepayments are expected to be high in the mortgage market. CLCs typically offer a higher yield due to the fact that they are somewhat more administratively burdensome.

CREDIT-LINKED NOTES—Credit-linked notes and similarly structured products typically are issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle that, in turn, enters into a credit protection agreement or invests in a derivative instrument or basket of derivative instruments, such as credit default swaps or interest rate swaps, to obtain exposure to certain fixed-income markets or to remain fully invested when more traditional income producing securities are not available. Additional information about derivatives and the risks associated with them is provided under "Swaps, Caps, Floors, Collars and Swaptions." Like an investment in a bond, an investment in credit-linked notes represents the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the security. However, these payments are conditioned on the issuer's receipt of payments from, and the issuer's potential obligations to, the counterparties to certain credit protection agreements or derivative instruments entered into by the issuer of the credit-linked note. For example, the issuer may sell one or more credit default swaps entitling the issuer to receive a stream of payments over the term of the swap agreements provided that no event of default has occurred with respect to the


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referenced debt obligation upon which the swap is based. If a default occurs, the stream of payments may stop and the issuer would be obligated to pay the counterparty the par (or other agreed upon value) of the referenced debt obligation. An investor holding a credit-linked note generally receives a fixed or floating coupon and the note's par value upon maturity, unless the referenced creditor defaults or declares bankruptcy, in which case the investor receives the amount recovered. In effect, investors holding credit-linked notes receive a higher yield in exchange for assuming the risk of a specified credit event.

DEMAND INSTRUMENTS—Certain instruments may entail a demand feature that permits the holder to demand payment of the principal amount of the instrument. Demand instruments may include variable amount master demand notes. Demand instruments with demand notice periods exceeding seven days are considered to be illiquid securities. Additional information about illiquid securities is provided under "Illiquid Securities" below.

DERIVATIVES—In an attempt to reduce systemic and counterparty risks associated with OTC derivatives transactions, the Dodd-Frank Act requires that a substantial portion of OTC derivatives be executed in regulated markets and submitted for clearing to regulated clearinghouses. The CFTC also requires a substantial portion of derivative transactions that have historically been executed on a bilateral basis in the OTC markets to be executed through a regulated swap execution facility or designated contract market. The SEC is expected to eventually impose a similar requirement with respect to security-based swaps. Such requirements could limit the ability of the Funds to invest or remain invested in derivatives and may make it more difficult and costly for investment funds, including the Funds, to enter into highly tailored or customized transactions. They may also render certain strategies in which a Fund might otherwise engage impossible or so costly that they will no longer be economical to implement.

OTC trades submitted for clearing will be subject to minimum initial and variation margin requirements set by the relevant clearinghouse, as may be adjusted to a higher amount by the Fund's Futures Commission Merchant, as well as possible SEC- or CFTC-mandated margin requirements. With respect to uncleared swaps, swap dealers are required to collect variation margin from a Fund and may be required to collect initial margin from a Fund pursuant to the CFTC's or the Prudential Regulators' uncleared swap margin rules. Both initial and variation margin must be in the form of eligible collateral, and may be composed of cash and/or securities, subject to applicable regulatory haircuts. These rules also mandate that collateral in the form of initial margin be posted to cover potential future exposure attributable to uncleared swap transactions for certain entities, which may include the Funds. In the event a Fund is required to post collateral in the form of initial margin in respect of its uncleared swap transactions, all such collateral will be posted with a third-party custodian pursuant to a triparty custody agreement between the Fund, its dealer counterparty and an unaffiliated custodian.

Although the Dodd-Frank Act requires many OTC derivative transactions previously entered into on a principal-to-principal basis to be submitted for clearing by a regulated clearinghouse, certain of the derivatives that may be traded by a Fund may remain principal-to-principal or OTC contracts between the Fund and third parties. The risk of counterparty non-performance can be significant in the case of these OTC instruments, and "bid-ask" spreads may be unusually wide in these markets. To the extent not mitigated by implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act, if at all, the risks posed by such instruments and techniques, which can be complex, may include: (1) credit risks (the exposure to the possibility of loss resulting from a counterparty's failure to meet its financial obligations), as further discussed below; (2) market risk (adverse movements in the price of a financial asset or commodity); (3) legal risks (the characterization of a transaction or a party's legal capacity to enter into it could render the transaction unenforceable, and the insolvency or bankruptcy of a counterparty could pre-empt otherwise enforceable contract rights); (4) operational risk (inadequate controls, deficient procedures, human error, system failure or fraud); (5) documentation risk (exposure to losses resulting from inadequate documentation); (6) liquidity risk (exposure to losses created by inability to prematurely terminate derivative transactions); (7) systemic risk (the risk that financial difficulties in one institution or a major market disruption will cause uncontrollable financial harm to the financial system); (8) concentration risk (exposure to losses from the concentration of closely related risks such as exposure to a particular industry or exposure linked to a particular entity); and (9) settlement risk (the risk faced when one party to a transaction has performed its obligations under a contract but has not yet received value from its counterparty).


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Swap dealers and major swap participants that are registered with the CFTC and with whom a Fund may trade are subject to minimum capital and margin requirements. These requirements may apply irrespective of whether the OTC derivatives in question are traded bilaterally or cleared. OTC derivatives dealers are subject to business conduct standards, disclosure requirements, reporting and recordkeeping requirements, transparency requirements, position limits, limitations on conflicts of interest, and other regulatory burdens. These requirements may increase the overall costs for OTC derivative dealers, which are likely to be passed along, at least partially, to market participants in the form of higher fees or less advantageous dealer marks. The full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on the Funds remains uncertain, and it is unclear how the OTC derivatives markets will ultimately adapt to this new regulatory regime.

Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act governs a Fund's use of derivative instruments and certain other transactions that create future payment and/or delivery obligations by the Fund. Rule 18f-4 permits a Fund to enter into Derivative Transactions (as defined below) and certain other transactions notwithstanding the restrictions on the issuance of "senior securities" under Section 18 of the 1940 Act. Section 18 of the 1940 Act, among other things, prohibits open-end funds, including a Fund, from issuing or selling any "senior security," other than borrowing from a bank (subject to a requirement to maintain 300% "asset coverage"). In connection with the adoption of Rule 18f-4, the SEC eliminated the asset segregation framework arising from prior SEC guidance for covering Derivatives Transactions and certain financial instruments.

Under Rule 18f-4, "Derivative Transactions" include the following: (1) any swap, security-based swap (including a contract for differences), futures contract, forward contract, option (excluding purchased options), any combination of the foregoing, or any similar instrument, under which a Fund is or may be required to make any payment or delivery of cash or other assets during the life of the instrument or at maturity or early termination, whether as margin or settlement payment or otherwise; (2) any short sale borrowing; (3) reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions, if a Fund elects to treat these transactions as Derivatives Transactions under Rule 18f-4; and (4) when-issued or forward-settling securities (e.g., firm and standby commitments, including to-be-announced ("TBA") commitments, and dollar rolls) and non-standard settlement cycle securities, unless the Fund intends to physically settle the transactions and the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date.

Rule 18f-4 requires that a Fund that invests in Derivative Transactions above a specified amount adopt and implement a derivatives risk management program administered by a derivatives risk manager that is appointed by and overseen by the Funds' Board, and comply with an outer limit on Fund leverage risk based on value at risk. A Fund that uses Derivative Transactions in a limited amount are considered "limited derivatives users," as defined in Rule 18f-4, will not be subject to the full requirements of Rule 18f-4, but will have to adopt and implement policies and procedures reasonably designed to manage the Funds' derivatives risk. A Fund will be subject to reporting and recordkeeping requirements regarding its use of Derivative Transactions.

The requirements of Rule 18f-4 may limit a Fund's ability to engage in Derivative Transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements may also increase the cost of a Fund's investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect the value of the Fund's investments and/or the performance of the Fund. The rule also may not be effective to limit a Fund's risk of loss. In particular, measurements of VaR rely on historical data and may not accurately measure the degree of risk reflected in a Fund's derivatives or other investments. There may be additional regulation of the use of Derivative Transactions by registered investment companies, which could significantly affect their use. The ultimate impact of the regulations remains unclear. Additional regulation of Derivative Transactions may make them more costly, limit their availability or utility, otherwise adversely affect their performance or disrupt markets.

More information about particular types of derivatives instruments is included below in the sections titled "Forward Foreign Currency Contracts," "Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts," "Options" and "Swaps, Caps, Floors, Collars and Swaptions."

DOLLAR ROLLS—Dollar rolls are transactions in which securities (usually mortgage-backed securities) are sold for delivery in the current month and the seller simultaneously contracts to repurchase substantially similar securities on a specified future date. The difference between the sale price and the purchase price (plus


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any interest earned on the cash proceeds of the sale) is netted against the interest income foregone on the securities sold to arrive at an implied borrowing rate. Alternatively, the sale and purchase transactions can be executed at the same price, with a Fund being paid a fee as consideration for entering into the commitment to purchase. Dollar rolls may be renewed prior to cash settlement and may initially involve only a firm commitment agreement by a Fund to buy a security. If the broker-dealer to whom a Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund's right to repurchase the security may be restricted. Other risks involved in entering into dollar rolls include the risk that the value of the security may change adversely over the term of the dollar roll and that the security a Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than the security that the Fund originally held.

A Fund must comply with Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act with respect to its dollar roll transactions, which are considered Derivative Transactions under the Rule. See "Derivatives" above.

ECONOMIC RISKS OF GLOBAL HEALTH EVENTS—An outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus designated as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and subsequently spread internationally. The transmission of COVID-19 and efforts to contain its spread have resulted in international, national and local border closings and other significant travel restrictions and disruptions, significant disruptions to business operations, supply chains and customer activity, event cancellations and restrictions, service cancellations, reductions and other changes, significant challenges in healthcare service preparation and delivery, and quarantines, as well as general concern and uncertainty that has negatively affected the economic environment. These impacts also have caused significant volatility and declines in global financial markets, which have caused losses for investors. The impact of this COVID-19 pandemic may be short term or may last for an extended period of time, and in either case could result in a substantial economic downturn or recession. Health crises caused by viral or bacterial outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social, economic, market and financial risks. The impact of this outbreak, and other epidemics and pandemics that may arise in the future, could negatively affect the global economy, as well as the economies of individual countries, the financial performance of individual companies and sectors, and the markets in general in significant and unforeseen ways. Any such impact could adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the securities and other instruments in which the Funds invest, which in turn could negatively impact the Funds' performance and cause losses on your investment in the Funds.

EQUITY-LINKED WARRANTS—Equity-linked warrants provide a way for investors to access markets where entry is difficult and time consuming due to regulation. Typically, a broker issues warrants to an investor and then purchases shares in the local market and issues a call warrant hedged on the underlying holding. If the investor exercises his call and closes his position, the shares are sold and the warrant is redeemed with the proceeds.

Each warrant represents one share of the underlying stock. Therefore, the price, performance and liquidity of the warrant are all directly linked to the underlying stock. The warrant can be redeemed for 100% of the value of the underlying stock (less transaction costs). As American-style warrants, they can be exercised at any time. The warrants are U.S. dollar-denominated and priced daily on several international stock exchanges.

There are risks associated with equity-linked warrants. The investor will bear the full counterparty risk to the issuing broker; however, SIMC or a Sub-Adviser may select to mitigate this risk by only purchasing from issuers with high credit ratings. Equity-linked warrants also have a longer settlement period because they go through the same registration process as the underlying shares (about three weeks) and during this time the shares cannot be sold. There is currently no active trading market for equity-linked warrants. Certain issuers of such warrants may be deemed to be "investment companies" as defined in the 1940 Act. As a result, a Fund's investment in such warrants may be limited by certain investment restrictions contained in the 1940 Act.

EQUITY SECURITIES—Equity securities represent ownership interests in a company and include common stocks, preferred stocks, warrants to acquire common stock and securities convertible into common stock.

In general, investments in equity securities are subject to market risks, which may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Fluctuations in the value of equity securities in which a Fund invests will cause the NAV of the Fund to fluctuate. The Funds purchase and sell equity securities in various ways, including through recognized


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foreign exchanges, registered exchanges in the United States or the OTC market. Equity securities are described in more detail below:

Common Stock. Common stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock. A Fund may purchase preferred stock of all ratings as well as unrated stock.

Warrants. Warrants are instruments that entitle the holder to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted or exchanged by the holder or by the issuer into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio. A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption or conversion, the Fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock or sell it to a third party.

Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields that are higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at a price above their "conversion value," which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates. When the underlying common stocks decline in value, convertible securities will tend not to decline to the same extent because of the interest or dividend payments and the repayment of principal at maturity for certain types of convertible securities. However, securities that are convertible other than at the option of the holder generally do not limit the potential for loss to the same extent as securities convertible at the option of the holder. When the underlying common stocks rise in value, the value of convertible securities may also be expected to increase. At the same time, however, the difference between the market value of convertible securities and their conversion value will narrow, which means that the value of convertible securities will generally not increase to the same extent as the value of the underlying common stocks. Because convertible securities may also be interest rate sensitive, their value may increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Convertible securities are also subject to credit risk and are often lower-quality securities. The Funds that invest in convertible securities may purchase convertible securities of all ratings, as well as unrated securities.

Small and Medium Capitalization Issuers. Investing in equity securities of small and medium capitalization companies often involves greater risk than is customarily associated with investments in larger capitalization companies. This increased risk may be due to the greater business risks of smaller size, limited markets and financial resources, narrow product lines and the frequent lack of depth of management associated with small and medium capitalization companies. The securities of small and medium capitalization companies typically have lower trading volumes than large capitalization companies and consequently are often less liquid. Such securities may also have less market stability and may be subject to more severe, abrupt or erratic market movements than securities of larger, more established companies or the market averages in general.


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Initial Public Offerings. Certain Funds may purchase securities of companies that are offered pursuant to an IPO. An IPO is a company's first offering of stock to the public in the primary market, typically to raise additional capital. Like all equity securities, IPO securities are subject to market risk and liquidity risk, but those risks may be heightened for IPO securities. The market value of IPO securities may fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market for the security, unseasoned trading of the security, the small number of shares available for trading, limited information about the issuer, and aberrational trading activity and market interest surrounding the IPO. There is also the possibility of losses resulting from the difference between the issue price and potential diminished value of the security once it is traded in the secondary market. In addition, the purchase of IPO securities may involve high transaction costs. Investments in foreign IPOs may be subject to additional risks due to, among other things, political, social and economic developments abroad, currency movements and different legal, regulatory, tax, accounting and audit environment. The Funds' investment in IPO securities may have a significant positive or negative impact on the Funds' performance and may result in significant capital gains.

EUROBONDS—A Eurobond is a fixed income security denominated in U.S. dollars or another currency and sold to investors outside of the country whose currency is used. Eurobonds may be issued by government or corporate issuers and are typically underwritten by banks and brokerage firms from numerous countries. Although Eurobonds typically pay principal and interest in Eurodollars or U.S. dollars held in banks outside of the United States, they may pay principal and interest in other currencies.

EXCHANGE-TRADED PRODUCTS—Certain Funds may directly purchase shares of or interests in ETPs (including ETFs, ETNs and exchange-traded commodity pools). A Fund will only invest in ETPs to the extent consistent with its investment objectives, policies, strategies and limitations.

The risks of owning interests of ETPs generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying securities or other instruments that the ETP is designed to track. The shares of certain ETPs may trade at a premium or discount to their intrinsic value (i.e., the market value may differ from the NAV of an ETP's shares). For example, supply and demand for shares of an ETF or market disruptions may cause the market price of the ETF to deviate from the value of the ETF's investments, which may be emphasized in less liquid markets. The value of an ETN may also differ from the valuation of its reference market or instrument due to changes in the issuer's credit rating. By investing in an ETP, a Fund indirectly bears the proportionate share of any fees and expenses of the ETP in addition to the fees and expenses that the Fund and its shareholders directly bear in connection with the Fund's operations. Because certain ETPs may have a significant portion of their assets exposed directly or indirectly to commodities or commodity-linked instruments, developments affecting commodities may have a disproportionate impact on such ETPs and may subject the ETPs to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.

ETFs. ETFs are investment companies that are registered under the 1940 Act as open-end funds or unit investment trusts. ETFs are actively traded on national securities exchanges and are generally based on specific domestic and foreign market indexes. An "index-based ETF" seeks to track the performance of an index by holding in its portfolio either the contents of the index or a representative sample of the securities in the index. Because ETFs are based on an underlying basket of stocks or an index, they are subject to the same market fluctuations as these types of securities in volatile market swings.

ETNs. ETNs are generally senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities issued by a sponsor. ETNs are designed to provide investors with a different way to gain exposure to the returns of market benchmarks, particularly those in the natural resource and commodity markets. An ETN's returns are based on the performance of a market index minus fees and expenses. ETNs are not equity investments or investment companies, but they do share some characteristics with those investment vehicles. As with equities, ETNs can be shorted, and as with ETFs and index funds, ETNs are designed to track the total return performance of a benchmark index. Like ETFs, ETNs are traded on an exchange and can be bought and sold on the listed exchange. However, unlike an ETF, an ETN can be held until the ETN's maturity, at which time the issuer will pay a return linked to the performance of the market index to which the ETN is linked minus certain fees. Unlike regular bonds, ETNs do not make periodic interest payments, and principal is not protected. The market value of an


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ETN is determined by supply and demand, the current performance of the market index to which the ETN is linked and the credit rating of the ETN issuer.

The market value of ETN shares may differ from their NAV. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETN shares at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities/commodities/instruments underlying the index that the ETN seeks to track. The value of an ETN may also change due to a change in the issuer's credit rating. As a result, there may be times when an ETN share trades at a premium or discount to its NAV.

Certain ETNs may not produce qualifying income for purposes of the Qualifying Income Test (as defined below in the section titled "Taxes"), which must be met in order for a Fund to maintain its status as a RIC under the Code. The Funds intend to monitor such investments to ensure that any non-qualifying income does not exceed permissible limits, but the Funds may not be able to accurately predict the non-qualifying income from these investments (see more information in the "Taxes" section of this SAI).

Exchange-Traded Commodity Pools. Exchange-traded commodity pools are similar to ETFs in some ways, but are not structured as registered investment companies. Shares of exchange-traded commodity pools trade on an exchange and are registered under the 1933 Act. Unlike mutual funds, exchange-traded commodity pools generally will not distribute dividends to shareholders. There is a risk that the changes in the price of an exchange-traded commodity pool's shares on the exchange will not closely track the changes in the price of the underlying commodity or index that the pool is designed to track. This could happen if the price of shares does not correlate closely with the pool's NAV, the changes in the pool's NAV do not correlate closely with the changes in the price of the pool's benchmark, or the changes in the benchmark do not correlate closely with the changes in the cash or spot price of the commodity that the benchmark is designed to track. Exchange-traded commodity pools are often used as a means of investing indirectly in a particular commodity or group of commodities, and there are risks involved in such investments. Commodity prices are inherently volatile, and the market value of a commodity may be influenced by many unpredictable factors which interrelate in complex ways, such that the effect of one factor may offset or enhance the effect of another. Supply and demand for certain commodities tends to be particularly concentrated. Commodity markets are subject to temporary distortions or other disruptions due to various factors, including periodic illiquidity in the markets for certain positions, the participation of speculators, and government regulation and intervention. In addition, U.S. futures exchanges and some foreign exchanges have regulations that limit the amount of fluctuation in some futures contract prices that may occur during a single business day. These and other risks and hazards that are inherent in a commodity or group of commodities may cause the price of that commodity or group of commodities to fluctuate widely, which will, in turn, affect the price of the exchange-traded commodity pool that invests in that commodity or group of commodities. The regulation of commodity interest transactions in the United States is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to ongoing modification by governmental and judicial action. Considerable regulatory attention has been focused on non-traditional investment pools that are publicly distributed in the United States. There is a possibility of future regulatory changes within the United States altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in exchange-traded commodity pools or the ability of an exchange-traded commodity pool to continue to implement its investment strategy. In addition, various national governments outside of the United States have expressed concern regarding the disruptive effects of speculative trading in the commodities markets and the need to regulate the derivatives markets in general. The effect of any future regulatory change on exchange-traded commodity pools is impossible to predict, but could be substantial and adverse.

Exchange-traded commodity pools generally do not produce qualifying income for purposes of the Qualifying Income Test (as defined below in the section titled "Taxes"), which must be met in order for a Fund to maintain its status as a RIC under the Code. The Funds intend to monitor such investments to ensure that any non-qualifying income does not exceed permissible limits, but the Funds may not be able to accurately predict the non-qualifying income from these investments (see more information in the "Taxes" section of this SAI).

FIXED INCOME SECURITIES—Fixed income securities consist primarily of debt obligations issued by governments, corporations, municipalities and other borrowers, but may also include structured securities that provide for participation interests in debt obligations. The market value of the fixed income securities in which


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a Fund invests will change in response to interest rate changes and other factors. During periods of falling interest rates, the value of outstanding fixed income securities generally rises. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of such securities generally declines. Moreover, while securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields, the prices of longer maturity securities are also subject to greater market fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. Changes by recognized agencies in the rating of any fixed income security and in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal also affect the value of these investments. Changes in the value of these securities will not necessarily affect cash income derived from these securities, but will affect a Fund's NAV.

Securities held by a Fund that are guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities guarantee only the payment of principal and interest and do not guarantee the yield or value of the securities or the yield or value of the Fund's shares.

There is a risk that the current interest rate on floating and variable rate instruments may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates.

Additional information regarding fixed income securities is described below:

Duration. Duration is a measure of the expected life of a fixed income security that is used to determine the sensitivity of a security's price to changes in interest rates. For example, if a fixed income security has a five-year duration, it will decrease in value by approximately 5% if interest rates rise 1% and increase in value by approximately 5% if interest rates fall 1%. Fixed income instruments with longer duration typically have higher risk and higher volatility. Longer-term fixed income securities in which a portfolio may invest are more volatile than shorter-term fixed income securities. A portfolio with a longer average portfolio duration is typically more sensitive to changes in interest rates than a portfolio with a shorter average portfolio duration.

Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities. Fixed income securities are considered investment grade if they are rated in one of the four highest rating categories by a NRSRO, or, if not rated, are determined to be of comparable quality by SIMC or a Sub-Adviser, as applicable. See "Appendix A—Description of Ratings" for a description of the bond rating categories of several NRSROs. Ratings of each NRSRO represent its opinion of the safety of principal and interest payments, not the market risk, of bonds and other fixed income securities it undertakes to rate at the time of issuance. Ratings are not absolute standards of quality and may not reflect changes in an issuer's creditworthiness. Securities rated Baa3 or higher by Moody's or BBB- or higher by S&P are considered by those rating agencies to be "investment grade" securities, although securities rated Baa3 or BBB- lack outstanding investment characteristics and have speculative characteristics. Although issuers of bonds rated BBB by S&P are considered to have adequate capacity to meet their financial commitments, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to pay interest and principal for debt in this category than debt in higher-rated categories. In the event a security owned by a Fund is downgraded below investment grade, SIMC or a Sub-Adviser, as applicable, will review the situation and take appropriate action with regard to the security.

Lower-Rated Securities. Lower-rated bonds or non-investment grade bonds are commonly referred to as "junk bonds" or high yield/high-risk securities. Lower-rated securities are defined as securities rated below the fourth highest rating category by an NRSRO. Such obligations are speculative and may be in default.

Fixed income securities are subject to the risk of an issuer's ability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligation (known as "credit risk") and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as interest rate sensitivity, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity (known as "market risk"). Lower-rated or unrated (i.e., high yield) securities are more likely to react to developments affecting market and credit risk than are more highly rated securities, which primarily react to movements in the general level of interest rates. Yields and market values of high yield securities will fluctuate over time, reflecting not only changing interest rates but also the market's perception of credit quality and the outlook for economic growth. When economic conditions appear to be deteriorating, medium- to lower-rated securities may decline in value due to heightened concern over credit quality, regardless of prevailing interest rates.


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Investors should carefully consider the relative risks of investing in high yield securities and understand that such securities are not generally meant for short-term investing.

Adverse economic developments can disrupt the market for high yield securities and severely affect the ability of issuers, especially highly leveraged issuers, to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity, which may lead to a higher incidence of default on such securities. In addition, the secondary market for high yield securities may not be as liquid as the secondary market for more highly rated securities. As a result, it may be more difficult for a Fund to sell these securities, or a Fund may only be able to sell the securities at prices lower than if such securities were highly liquid. Furthermore, a Fund may experience difficulty in valuing certain high yield securities at certain times. Under these circumstances, prices realized upon the sale of such lower-rated or unrated securities may be less than the prices used in calculating the Fund's NAV. Prices for high yield securities may also be affected by legislative and regulatory developments.

Lower-rated or unrated fixed income obligations also present risks based on payment expectations. If an issuer calls the obligations for redemption, a Fund may have to replace the security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. If a Fund experiences unexpected net redemptions, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of the Fund's investment portfolio and increasing the Fund's exposure to the risks of high yield securities.

A Fund may invest in securities rated as low as "C" by Moody's or "D" by S&P and may invest in unrated securities that are of comparable quality as "junk bonds."

Sensitivity to Interest Rate and Economic Changes. Lower-rated bonds are very sensitive to adverse economic changes and corporate developments. During an economic downturn, highly leveraged issuers may experience financial stress that would adversely affect their ability to service their principal and interest payment obligations, to meet projected business goals and to obtain additional financing. If the issuer of a bond defaulted on its obligations to pay interest or principal or entered into bankruptcy proceedings, a Fund may incur losses or expenses in seeking recovery of amounts owed to it. In addition, periods of economic uncertainty and change can be expected to result in increased volatility of market prices of high-yield, high-risk bonds and a Fund's NAV.

Payment Expectations. High-yield, high-risk bonds may contain redemption or call provisions. If an issuer exercised these provisions in a declining interest rate market, a Fund would have to replace the security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. Conversely, a high-yield, high-risk bond's value may decrease in a rising interest rate market, as will the value of a Fund's assets. If a Fund experiences significant unexpected net redemptions, it may be forced to sell high-yield, high-risk bonds without regard to their investment merits, thereby decreasing the asset base upon which expenses can be spread and possibly reducing the Fund's rate of return.

Liquidity and Valuation. There may be little trading in the secondary market for particular bonds, which may adversely affect a Fund's ability to value accurately or dispose of such bonds. Adverse publicity and investor perception, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and liquidity of high-yield, high-risk bonds, especially in a thin market.

Taxes. A Fund may purchase debt securities (such as zero coupon or pay-in-kind securities) that contain original issue discount. Original issue discount that accretes in a taxable year is treated as earned by a Fund and is therefore subject to the distribution requirements applicable to RICs under Subchapter M of the Code. Because the original issue discount earned by a Fund in a taxable year may not be represented by cash income, the Fund may have to dispose of other securities and use the proceeds to make distributions to shareholders.

FOREIGN SECURITIES AND EMERGING AND FRONTIER MARKETS—Foreign securities are securities issued by non-U.S. issuers. Investments in foreign securities may subject a Fund to investment risks that differ in some respects from those related to investments in securities of U.S. issuers. Such risks include future adverse political and economic developments, possible imposition of withholding taxes on income, possible seizure, nationalization or expropriation of foreign deposits, possible establishment of exchange controls or taxation at the source or greater fluctuations in value due to changes in exchange rates. Foreign issuers of securities often


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engage in business practices that differ from those of domestic issuers of similar securities, and there may be less information publicly available about foreign issuers. In addition, foreign issuers are, generally, subject to less government supervision and regulation and different accounting treatment than those in the United States. Foreign branches of U.S. banks and foreign banks may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements than those applicable to domestic branches of U.S. banks.

The value of a Fund's investments denominated in foreign currencies will depend on the relative strengths of those currencies and the U.S. dollar, and a Fund may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in the exchange rates or exchange or currency control regulations between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates may also affect the value of dividends and interest earned, gains and losses realized on the sale of securities and net investment income and gains, if any, to be distributed to shareholders by a Fund. Such investments may also entail higher custodial fees and sales commissions than domestic investments.

A Fund's investments in emerging and frontier markets can be considered speculative and therefore may offer higher potential for gains and losses than investments in developed markets. With respect to an emerging market country, there may be a greater potential for nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political changes, government regulation, social instability or diplomatic developments (including war), which could adversely affect the economies of such countries or investments in such countries. "Frontier market countries" are a subset of emerging market countries with even smaller national economies, so these risks may be magnified further. The economies of emerging and frontier countries are generally heavily dependent upon international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be adversely affected by trade barriers, exchange or currency controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.

The economies of frontier market countries tend to be less correlated to global economic cycles than the economies of more developed countries and their markets have lower trading volumes and may exhibit greater price volatility and illiquidity. A small number of large investments in these markets may affect these markets to a greater degree than more developed markets. Frontier market countries may also be affected by government activities to a greater degree than more developed countries. For example, the governments of frontier market countries may exercise substantial influence within the private sector or subject investments to government approval, and governments of other countries may impose or negotiate trade barriers, exchange controls, adjustments to relative currency values and other measures that adversely affect a frontier market country. Governments of other countries may also impose sanctions or embargoes on frontier market countries. Although all of these risks are generally heightened with respect to frontier market countries, they also apply to emerging market countries.

In addition to the risks of investing in debt securities of emerging and frontier markets, a Fund's investment in government or government-related securities of emerging and frontier market countries and restructured debt instruments in emerging and frontier markets are subject to special risks, including the inability or unwillingness to repay principal and interest, requests to reschedule or restructure outstanding debt and requests to extend additional loan amounts. A Fund may have limited recourse in the event of default on such debt instruments.

Growing tensions, including trade disputes, between the United States and other nations, or among foreign powers, and possible diplomatic, trade or other sanctions could adversely impact the global economy, financial markets and the Funds. The strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies may, among other things, adversely affect the Funds' investments denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies. It is difficult to predict when similar events affecting the U.S. or global financial markets may occur, the effects that such events may have, and the duration of those effects.

Investments in the United Kingdom. The UK formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU by invoking article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty in March 2017. On January 31, 2020, the UK officially withdrew from the EU (commonly known as "Brexit") and entered into a transition phase that expired on December 31, 2020. On January 1, 2021, the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement, a bilateral trade and


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cooperation deal governing the future relationship between the UK and the EU, provisionally went into effect. The UK Parliament ratified the agreement in December 2020 and the EU Parliament ratified the agreement in April 2021. The agreement was then approved by EU member states and became effective in May 2021. However, many aspects of the UK-EU trade relationship remain subject to further negotiation.

Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and could have negative long-term impacts on financial markets in the UK and throughout Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about the potential consequences of Brexit, the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement, how future negotiations of trade relations will proceed, and how the financial markets will react to all of the preceding. As this process unfolds, markets may be further disrupted. Brexit may also cause additional member states to contemplate departing from the EU, which would likely perpetuate political and economic instability in the region and cause additional market disruption in global financial markets.

Investments in China. China is an emerging market, and as a result, investments in securities of companies organized and listed in China may be subject to liquidity constraints and significantly higher volatility, from time to time, than investments in securities of more developed markets. China may be subject to considerable government intervention and varying degrees of economic, political and social instability. These factors may result in, among other things, a greater risk of stock market, interest rate, and currency fluctuations, as well as inflation. Accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards in China are different from U.S. standards and, therefore, disclosure of certain material information may not be made, may be less available, or may be less reliable. It may also be difficult or impossible for a Fund to obtain or enforce a judgment in a Chinese court. In addition, periodically there may be restrictions on investments in Chinese companies. For example, Executive Orders have been issued prohibiting U.S. persons from purchasing or investing in publicly-traded securities of certain companies identified by the U.S. government because of their ties to the Chinese military or China's surveillance technology sector. These restrictions have also applied to instruments that are derivative of, or are designed to provide investment exposure to, those companies. The universe of affected securities can change from time to time. As a result of an increase in the number of investors looking to sell such securities, or because of an inability to participate in an investment that the Adviser or a Sub-Adviser otherwise believes is attractive, a Fund may incur losses. Certain investments that are or become designated as prohibited may have less liquidity as a result of such designation and the market price of such prohibited investments may decline, potentially causing losses to a Fund. In addition, the market for securities and other investments of other Chinese-based issuers may also be negatively impacted, resulting in reduced liquidity and price declines.

Investments in the China A-Shares. A Fund may invest in People's Republic of China ("PRC") A-Shares through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program or Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program (collectively, the "Stock Connect") subject to any applicable laws, rules and regulations. The Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing linked program developed by Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited ("HKEx"), the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited ("HKSCC"), Shanghai Stock Exchange ("SSE"), Shenzhen Stock Exchange ("SZSE") and China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited ("ChinaClear") with the aim of achieving mutual stock market access between PRC and Hong Kong. This program allows foreign investors to trade certain SSE-listed or SZSE-listed PRC A-Shares through their Hong Kong based brokers. All Hong Kong and overseas investors in the Stock Connect will trade and settle SSE or SZSE securities in the offshore Renminbi ("CNH") only. A Fund will be exposed to any fluctuation in the exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar and CNH in respect of such investments.

By seeking to invest in the domestic securities markets of the PRC via the Stock Connect a Fund is subject to the following additional risks:

General Risks. The relevant regulations are relatively untested and subject to change which may have potential retrospective effect. There is no certainty as to how they will be applied, which could adversely affect a Fund. The program requires the use of new information technology systems which may be subject to operational risk due to the program's cross-border nature. If the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading in both Hong Kong and PRC markets through the program could be disrupted.


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Stock Connect will only operate on days when both the PRC and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and when banks in both markets are open on the corresponding settlement days. There may be occasions when it is a normal trading day for the PRC market but the Stock Connect is not trading. As a result, a Fund may be subject to the risk of price fluctuations in PRC A-Shares when the Fund cannot carry out any PRC A-Shares trading.

Each of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange ("SEHK"), SSE and SZSE reserves the right to suspend trading if necessary for ensuring an orderly and fair market and that risks are managed prudently. In case of a suspension, the Fund's ability to access the PRC market will be adversely affected.

PRC regulations impose restrictions on selling and buying certain Stock Connect securities from time to time. In the event that a Stock Connect security is recalled from the scope of eligible securities for trading via Stock Connect, the ability of the Fund to invest in Stock Connect securities will be adversely affected.

Clearing and Settlement Risk. HKSCC and ChinaClear have established the clearing links and each will become a participant of each other to facilitate clearing and settlement of cross-boundary trades. For cross-boundary trades initiated in a market, the clearing house of that market will on one hand clear and settle with its own clearing participants and on the other hand undertake to fulfill the clearing and settlement obligations of its clearing participants with the counterparty clearing house.

In the event ChinaClear defaults, HKSCC's liabilities under its market contracts with clearing participants may be limited to assisting clearing participants with claims. It is anticipated that HKSCC will act in good faith to seek recovery of the outstanding stocks and monies from ChinaClear through available legal channels or the liquidation of ChinaClear. As ChinaClear does not contribute to the HKSCC guarantee fund, HKSCC will not use the HKSCC guarantee fund to cover any residual loss as a result of closing out any of ChinaClear's positions. HKSCC will in turn distribute the Stock Connect Securities and/or monies recovered to clearing participants on a pro-rata basis. The relevant broker through whom a Fund trades shall in turn distribute Stock Connect securities and/or monies to the extent recovered directly or indirectly from HKSCC. As such, a Fund may not fully recover their losses or their Stock Connect Securities and/or the process of recovery could be delayed.

Legal/Beneficial Ownership. The Stock Connect securities purchased by a Fund will be held by the relevant sub-custodian in accounts in the Hong Kong Central Clearing and Settlement System ("CCASS") maintained by the HKSCC, as central securities depositary in Hong Kong. The HKSCC will be the "nominee holder" of the Funds' Stock Connect Securities traded through Stock Connect. The Stock Connect regulations as promulgated by the China Securities Regulatory Commission ("CSRC") expressly provide that HKSCC acts as nominee holder and that the Hong Kong and overseas investors (such as the Funds) enjoy the rights and interests with respect to the Stock Connect Securities acquired through Stock Connect in accordance with applicable laws. While the distinct concepts of nominee holder and beneficial owner are referred to under such regulations, as well as other laws and regulations in PRC, the application of such rules is untested, and there is no assurance that PRC courts will recognise such concepts, for instance in the liquidation proceedings of PRC companies. Therefore, although the Funds' ownership may be ultimately recognised, it may suffer difficulties or delays in enforcing its rights over its Stock Connect securities.

To the extent that HKSCC is deemed to be performing safekeeping functions with respect to assets held through it, it should be noted that a Fund and its custodian will have no legal relationship with HKSCC and no direct legal recourse against HKSCC in the event that the Fund suffers losses resulting from the performance or insolvency of HKSCC. In the event that the Fund suffers losses due to the negligence, or willful default, or insolvency of HKSCC, the Fund may not be able to institute legal proceedings, file any proof of claim in any insolvency proceeding or take any similar action. In the event of the insolvency of HKSCC, the Fund may not have any proprietary interest in the PRC A-Shares traded through the Stock Connect program and may be an unsecured general creditor in respect of any claim the Fund may have in respect of them. Consequently, the value of the Fund's investment in PRC A-Shares and the amount of its income and gains could be adversely affected.


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Participation in corporate actions and shareholder meetings. Hong Kong and overseas investors (including the Fund) are holding Stock Connect securities traded via the Stock Connect through their brokers or custodians, and they need to comply with the arrangement and deadline specified by their respective brokers or custodians (i.e. CCASS participants). The time for them to take actions for some types of corporate actions of Stock Connect Securities may be as short as one business day only. Therefore, the Fund may not be able to participate in some corporate actions in a timely manner. According to existing mainland practice, multiple proxies are not available. Therefore, the Fund may not be able to appoint proxies to attend or participate in shareholders' meetings in respect of the Stock Connect securities.

Operational Risk. The HKSCC provides clearing, settlement, nominee functions and other related services in respect of trades executed by Hong Kong market participants. PRC regulations which include certain restrictions on selling and buying will apply to all market participants. In the case of a sale, pre-delivery of shares to the broker is required, increasing counterparty risk. As a result, a Fund may not be able to purchase and/or dispose of holdings of PRC A-Shares in a timely manner.

Quota Limitations. The Stock Connect program is subject to daily quota limitations which may restrict a Fund's ability to invest in PRC A-Shares through the program on a timely basis.

Investor Compensation. A Fund will not benefit from the China Securities Investor Protection Fund in mainland China. The China Securities Investor Protection Fund is established to pay compensation to investors in the event that a securities company in mainland China is subject to compulsory regulatory measures (such as dissolution, closure, bankruptcy, and administrative takeover by the China Securities Regulatory Commission). Because the Fund is carrying out trading of PRC A-Shares through securities brokers in Hong Kong, but not mainland China brokers, it is not protected by the China Securities Investor Protection Fund.

That said, if the Fund suffers losses due to default matters of its securities brokers in Hong Kong in relation to the investment of PRC A-Shares through the Stock Connect program, it would be compensated by Hong Kong's Investor Compensation Fund.

Investments in the China Interbank Bond Market—A Fund may invest in the China Interbank Bond Market (the "CIBM") through the Bond Connect program (the "Bond Connect") subject to any applicable regulatory limits. Bond Connect is a bond trading and settlement linked program developed by the People's Bank of China ("PBOC"), the Hong Kong Monetary Authority ("HKMA"), China Foreign Exchange Trade System & National Interbank Funding Centre ("CFETS"), China Central Depository & Clearing Co., Ltd. ("CCDC"), Shanghai Clearing House ("SHCH"), HKEx and Central Moneymarkets Unit ("CMU"), with the aim of achieving mutual bond market access between the PRC and Hong Kong. For the time being, this program allows eligible Hong Kong and overseas investors to invest in the bonds traded in the CIBM through the northbound trading of Bond Connect (the "Northbound Trade Link") only.

Starting July 3, 2017, eligible Hong Kong and overseas investors may use their own sources of Renminbi in the PRC offshore market CNH or convert foreign currencies into the Renminbi to invest in CIBM bonds under Bond Connect. A Fund will be exposed to any fluctuation in the exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar and Renminbi in respect of such investments. Currently, there is no investment quota for the Northbound Trade Link.

By seeking to invest in the CIBM via Bond Connect, a Fund is subject to the following additional risks:

General Risk. Although there is no quota limitation regarding investment via the Bond Connect, a Fund is required to make further filings with the PBOC if it wishes to increase its anticipated investment size or if there is any material change to the filed information. There is no guarantee the PBOC will accept such further filings. In the event any further filings for an increase in the anticipated investment size are not accepted by the PBOC, a Fund's ability to invest in the CIBM will be limited and the performance of the Fund may be unfavourably affected as a result. The PBOC will exercise on-going supervision of the onshore settlement agent and the Fund's trading under the CIBM rules. The PBOC may take relevant administrative actions such as suspension of trading and mandatory exit against the Fund in the event of non- compliance with the CIBM Rules.


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Market Risk. A Fund investing in the CIBM is subject to liquidity and volatility risks. Market volatility and potential lack of liquidity due to possible low trading volume of certain bonds in the CIBM may result in prices of certain bonds traded in the CIBM fluctuating significantly. The bid and offer spreads of the prices of such bonds may be large, and the Fund may therefore incur significant trading and realization costs and may even suffer losses when selling such investments.

To the extent that a Fund transacts in the CIBM, the Fund may also be exposed to risks associated with settlement procedures and default of counterparties. The counterparty which has entered into a transaction with the Fund may default in its obligation to settle the transaction by failing to deliver relevant securities or to make payment.

Third Party Agent Risk. Under the Northbound Trading Link, CFETS or other institutions recognized by PBOC (as the registration agents) shall apply for registration with PBOC for the eligible Hong Kong and overseas investors. In addition, CMU (as the offshore custody agent recognized by the HKMA) shall open a nominee account with CCDC/SHCH (as the onshore custody agent) as nominee holder of the CIBM bonds purchased by Hong Kong and overseas investors through Bond Connect.

As the relevant filings, registration with PBOC, and account opening have to be carried out by an onshore settlement agent, offshore custody agent, registration agent or other third parties (as the case may be), a Fund is subject to the risks of default or errors on the part of such third parties.

Operational Risk. Bond Connect provides a relatively new channel for investors from Hong Kong and overseas to access the CIBM directly. It is premised on the functioning of the operational systems of the relevant market participants. Market participants are able to participate in this program subject to meeting certain information technology capability, risk management and other requirements as may be specified by the relevant authorities.

The "connectivity" in Bond Connect requires routing of orders across the border. This requires the development of new information technology systems. There is no assurance that the systems of market participants will function properly or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in both markets. In the event that the relevant systems fail to function properly, trading in the CIBM through Bond Connect could be disrupted. A Fund's ability to access the CIBM (and hence to pursue its investment strategy) will be adversely affected.

Regulatory Risk. The PBOC Bond Connect rules are departmental regulations having legal effect in the PRC. However, the application of such rules is untested, and there is no assurance that PRC courts will recognize such rules.

Bond Connect is novel in nature and is subject to regulations promulgated by regulatory authorities and implementation rules made by the relevant authorities in the PRC and Hong Kong. Further, new regulations may be promulgated from time to time by the regulators in connection with operations and cross-border legal enforcement in connection with cross-border trades under Bond Connect.

The regulations are untested so far and there is no certainty as to how they will be applied. Moreover, the current regulations are subject to change which may have potential retrospective effect. In the event that the relevant PRC authorities suspend account opening or trading under the Bond Connect, the ability of the Fund to invest in the CIBM and the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective will be adversely affected. In addition, there can be no assurance that Bond Connect will not be abolished. A Fund which may invest in the CIBM through Bond Connect may be adversely affected as a result of such changes.

Legal/Beneficial Ownership Risk. CIBM bonds will be held by CMU as a nominee holder of the bonds purchased by foreign investors through Bond Connect. The PBOC has made it clear that the ultimate investors are the beneficial owners of the relevant bonds and shall exercise their rights against the bond issuer through CMU as the nominee holder. The PBOC also made various references to Stock Connect and indicated the position is essentially the same. Please refer to the Investments in the China A-Shares section for more information. While the distinct concepts of nominee holder and beneficial owner are referred to under PBOC rules or regulations, as well as other laws and regulations in the PRC, the application of such rules is untested, and there is no


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assurance that PRC courts will recognize such concepts. Therefore, although the Funds' ownership may be ultimately recognized, it may suffer difficulties or delays in enforcing its rights over CIMB bonds.

Tax within the PRC. Uncertainties in the PRC tax rules governing taxation of income and gains from investments in PRC securities could result in unexpected tax liabilities for a Fund. A Fund's investments in securities, including A-Shares and CIBM bonds, issued by PRC companies may cause the Fund to become subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by the PRC.

If a Fund were considered to be a tax resident enterprise of the PRC, it would be subject to PRC corporate income tax at the rate of 25% on its worldwide taxable income. If a Fund were considered to be a non-tax resident enterprise with a "permanent establishment" in the PRC, it would be subject to PRC corporate income tax on the profits attributable to the permanent establishment. SIMC and the Funds' Sub-Advisers intend to operate the Funds in a manner that will prevent them from being treated as tax resident enterprises of the PRC and from having a permanent establishment in the PRC. It is possible, however, that the PRC could disagree with that conclusion, or that changes in PRC tax law could affect the PRC corporate income tax status of a Fund.

Unless reduced or exempted by the applicable tax treaties, the PRC generally imposes withholding income tax at the rate of 10% on dividends, premiums, interest and capital gains originating in the PRC and paid to a company that is not a resident of the PRC for tax purposes and that has no permanent establishment in China.

SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers or a Fund may also potentially be subject to PRC value added tax at the rate of 6% on capital gains derived from trading of A-Shares, CIBM bonds and interest income (if any). Existing guidance provides a temporary value added tax exemption for Hong Kong and overseas investors in respect of their gains derived from the trading of Chinese securities through Stock Connect and Bond Connect. In addition, urban maintenance and construction tax (currently at rates ranging from 1% to 7%), educational surcharge (currently at the rate of 3%) and local educational surcharge (currently at the rate of 2%) (collectively, the "surtaxes") are imposed based on value added tax liabilities, so if SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers or a Fund were liable for value added tax it would also be required to pay the applicable surtaxes.

Taxation of A-Shares. The Ministry of Finance of the PRC, the State Administration of Taxation of the PRC and the CSRC (collectively, the "PRC Authorities") issued the "Notice on the Pilot Program of Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect" Caishui [2014] No.81 ("Notice 81"), on October 31, 2014, which states that the capital gain from disposal of A-Shares by foreign investors enterprises via the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program will be temporarily exempt from withholding income tax. Notice 81 also states that the dividends derived from A-Shares by foreign investors enterprises are subject to 10% withholding income tax.

The PRC Authorities issued the "Notice on the Pilot Program of Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect" Caishui [2016] No.127 ("Notice 127") on November 5, 2016, which states that the capital gain from disposal of A-Shares by foreign investors enterprises via the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program will be temporarily exempt from withholding income tax. In addition, Caishu [2016] 127, which took effect on December 5, 2016, clarifies the corporate income tax policy of China with respect to investments through the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect. Notice 127 also states that the dividends derived from A-Shares by foreign investors enterprises are subject to 10% withholding income tax.

Because there is no indication how long the temporary exemption will remain in effect, the Funds may be subject to such withholding tax in future. If in the future China begins applying tax rules regarding the taxation of income from A-Shares investment through the Stock Connect, and/or begins collecting capital gains taxes on such investments, a Fund could be subject to withholding tax liability if the Fund determines that such liability cannot be reduced or eliminated by applicable tax treaties. The negative impact of any such tax liability on a Fund's return could be substantial.

SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers or a Fund may also potentially be subject to PRC value added tax at the rate of 6% on capital gains derived from trading of A-Shares and interest income (if any). Existing guidance provides a temporary value added tax exemption for Hong Kong and overseas investors in respect of their gains derived from the trading of Chinese securities through Stock Connect. Because there is no indication how long the temporary exemption will remain in effect, the Funds may be subject to such value added tax in the future.


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In addition, surtaxes are imposed based on value added tax liabilities, so if SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers or a Fund were liable for value added tax it would also be required to pay the applicable surtaxes.

The PRC rules for taxation of Stock Connect are evolving, and the tax regulations to be issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation and/or PRC Ministry of Finance to clarify the subject matter may apply retrospectively, even if such rules are adverse to a Fund and its shareholders.

Taxation of CIBM Bonds. The Ministry of Finance of the PRC and the State Administration of Taxation of the PRC issued Caishui No. 108 on November 7, 2018 ("Notice 108"), which states that foreign institutional investors will be temporarily exempt from the withholding income tax and value added tax on their gains derived from CIBM bond interest. The temporary exemption of withholding tax and value added tax remained in effect until November 6, 2021. According to the Announcement on Continuation of Corporate Income Tax and Value-added Tax Policies for Overseas Institutions Investing in the Domestic Bond Market (Announcement [2021] No. 34), which was jointly made by the Ministry of Finance of the PRC and the State Taxation Administration of the PRC on November 22, 2021, the temporary exemption under Notice 108 will continue during the period from November 7, 2021 to December 31, 2025.

If, in the future, China begins to apply tax rules regarding the taxation of bond interest income derived by foreign investment in CIBM, and/or begins to collect withholding tax and other taxes on such investment, SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers or a Fund could be subject to such withholding tax and value added tax. In addition, surtaxes are imposed based on value added tax liabilities, so if SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers or a Fund were liable for value added tax it would also be required to pay the applicable surtaxes.

The above information is only a general summary of the potential Chinese tax consequences that may be imposed on the Funds and their shareholders either directly or indirectly and should not be taken as a definitive, authoritative or comprehensive statement of the relevant matter. Shareholders should seek their own tax advice on their tax position with regard to their investment in the Funds.

The Chinese government has implemented a number of tax reform policies in recent years. The current tax laws and regulations may be revised or amended in the future. Any revision or amendment in tax laws and regulations may affect the after-taxation profit of Chinese companies and foreign investors in such companies, such as the Funds.

Investments in Variable Interest Entities ("VIEs"). In seeking exposure to Chinese companies, a Fund may invest in VIE structures. VIE structures can vary, but generally consist of a U.S.-listed company with contractual arrangements, through one or more wholly-owned special purpose vehicles, with a Chinese company that ultimately provides the U.S.-listed company with contractual rights to exercise control over and obtain economic benefits from the Chinese company. Although the U.S.-listed company in a VIE structure has no equity ownership in the underlying Chinese company, the VIE contractual arrangements permit the VIE structure to consolidate its financial statements with those of the underlying Chinese company. The VIE structure enables foreign investors, such as a Fund, to obtain investment exposure similar to that of an equity owner in a Chinese company in situations in which the Chinese government has restricted the non-Chinese ownership of such company. As a result, an investment in a VIE structure subjects a Fund to the risks associated with the underlying Chinese company. In its efforts to monitor, regulate and/or control foreign investment and participation in the ownership and operation of Chinese companies, including in particular those within the technology, telecommunications and education industries, the Chinese government may intervene or seek to control the operations, structure, or ownership of Chinese companies, including VIEs, to the disadvantage of foreign investors, such as a Fund. Intervention by the Chinese government with respect to a VIE could significantly and adversely affect the Chinese company's performance or the enforceability of the company's contractual arrangements with the VIE and thus, the value of a Fund's investment in the VIE. In addition to the risk of government intervention, a Fund's investment in a VIE structure is subject to the risk that the underlying Chinese company (or its officers, directors, or Chinese equity owners) may breach the contractual arrangements with the other entities in the VIE structure, or that Chinese law changes in a way that affects the enforceability of these arrangements, or those contracts are otherwise not enforceable under Chinese law, in which case a Fund may suffer significant losses on its VIE investments with little or no recourse available.


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Investments in Russia—Russia launched a large-scale invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, significantly amplifying already existing geopolitical tensions. Russia's actions and the resulting responses by the United States and other countries could increase volatility and uncertainty in the financial markets and adversely affect regional and global economies. The United States and other countries have imposed broad-ranging economic sanctions on Russia, certain Russian individuals, banking entities and corporations, and Belarus as a response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine and may impose sanctions on other countries that provide military or economic support to Russia. The extent and duration of Russia's military actions or future escalation of such hostilities, and the extent and impact of the resulting sanctions (including any retaliatory actions or countermeasures that may be taken by those subject to sanctions, including cyber-attacks) are impossible to predict, but could result in significant market disruptions, including in certain industries or sectors, such as the oil and natural gas markets, and may negatively affect global supply chains, inflation and global growth. These and any related events could have a significant impact on a Fund's performance and the value of the Fund's investments, even though the Fund does not have direct exposure to Russian issuers or issuers in other countries affected by the invasion.

FORWARD FOREIGN CURRENCY CONTRACTS—A forward foreign currency contract involves a negotiated obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date or range of future dates (with or without delivery required), which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are generally traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large, commercial banks) and their customers. A forward foreign currency contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades.

Forward contracts generally may not be liquidated prior to the stated maturity date, although the parties to a contract may agree to enter into a second offsetting transaction with the same maturity, thereby fixing each party's profit or loss on the two transactions. Nevertheless, each position must still be maintained to maturity unless the parties separately agree on an earlier settlement date. As a result, a party to a forward contract must be prepared to perform its obligations under each such contract in full. Parties to a forward contract may also separately agree to extend the contract by "rolling" it over prior to the originally scheduled settlement date. A Fund may use forward contracts for cash equitization purposes, which allows a Fund to invest consistent with its investment strategy while managing daily cash flows, including significant client inflows and outflows.

The Funds may use currency instruments as part of a hedging strategy, as described below.

Transaction Hedging. Transaction hedging is entering into a currency transaction with respect to specific assets or liabilities of a Fund, which will generally arise in connection with the purchase or sale of its portfolio securities or the receipt of income therefrom. A Fund may enter into transaction hedging out of a desire to preserve the U.S. dollar price of a security when it enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated in a foreign currency. A Fund may be able to protect itself against possible losses resulting from changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies during the period between the date the security is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received by entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, of the amount of the foreign currency involved in the underlying security transactions.

Position Hedging. A Fund may sell a non-U.S. currency and purchase U.S. currency to reduce exposure to the non-U.S. currency (called "position hedging"). A Fund may use position hedging when SIMC or a Sub-Adviser reasonably believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar. A Fund may enter into a forward foreign currency contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities denominated in such foreign currency. The forward foreign currency contract amount and the value of the portfolio securities involved may not have a perfect correlation because the future value of the securities hedged will change as a consequence of the market between the date the forward contract is entered into and the date it matures.


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Cross Hedges. A Fund may also cross-hedge currencies by entering into transactions to purchase or sell one or more currencies that are expected to decline in value relative to other currencies to which the Fund has, or in which the Fund expects to have, portfolio exposure.

Proxy Hedges. Proxy hedging is often used when the currency to which a Fund's portfolio is exposed is difficult to hedge or to hedge against the U.S. dollar. Proxy hedging entails entering into a forward contract to sell a currency whose changes in value are generally considered to be linked to a currency or currencies in which some or all of a Fund's portfolio securities are, or are expected to be denominated, and to buy U.S. dollars. The amount of the contract would not exceed the value of the Fund's securities denominated in linked currencies.

In addition to the hedging transactions described above, the Funds may also engage in currency transactions in an attempt to take advantage of certain inefficiencies in the currency exchange market, to increase their exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one currency to another.

Unless consistent with and permitted by its stated investment policies, a Fund will not enter into a transaction to hedge currency exposure to an extent greater, after netting all transactions intended wholly or partially to offset other transactions, than the aggregate market value (at the time of entering into the transaction) of the securities held in its portfolio that are denominated or generally quoted in or currently convertible into such currency, other than with respect to proxy hedging, described above. If consistent with and permitted by its stated investment policies, a Fund may take long and short positions in foreign currencies in excess of the value of the Fund's assets denominated in a particular currency or when the Fund does not own assets denominated in that currency. Certain Funds may engage in currency transactions for hedging purposes as well as to enhance the Fund's returns.

A non-deliverable forward transaction is a transaction that represents an agreement between a Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed-upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. The non-deliverable forward transaction position is closed using a fixing rate, as defined by the central bank in the country of the currency being traded, that is generally publicly stated within one or two days prior to the settlement date. Unlike other currency transactions, there is no physical delivery of the currency on the settlement of a non-deliverable forward transaction. Rather, a Fund and the counterparty agree to net the settlement by making a payment in U.S. dollars or another fully convertible currency that represents any differential between the foreign exchange rate agreed upon at the inception of the non-deliverable forward agreement and the actual exchange rate on the agreed-upon future date. Thus, the actual gain or loss of a given non-deliverable forward transaction is calculated by multiplying the transaction's notional amount by the difference between the agreed-upon forward exchange rate and the actual exchange rate when the transaction is completed. Although forward foreign currency transactions are exempt from the definition of "swap" under the Commodity Exchange Act, non-deliverable forward transactions are not, and, thus, are subject to the CFTC's regulatory framework applicable to swaps.

The ability to establish and close out positions on currency futures contracts is subject to the maintenance of a liquid market, which may not always be available. An option on a currency provides the purchaser, or "holder," with the right, but not the obligation, to purchase, in the case of a "call" option, or sell, in the case of a "put" option, a stated quantity of the underlying currency at a fixed exchange rate up to a stated expiration date (or, in the case of certain options, on such date). The holder generally pays a nonrefundable fee for the option, referred to as the "premium," but cannot lose more than this amount, plus related transaction costs. Thus, where a Fund is a holder of options contracts, such losses will be limited in absolute amount. In contrast to a forward contract, an option imposes a binding obligation only on the seller, or "writer." If the holder exercises the option, the writer is obligated to complete the transaction in the underlying currency. An option generally becomes worthless to the holder when it expires. In addition, in the context of an exchange-traded option, the writer is often required to deposit initial margin and may be required to increase the margin on deposit if the market moves against the writer's position. Options on currencies may be purchased in the OTC market between commercial entities dealing directly with each other as principals. In purchasing an OTC currency option, the holder is subject to the risk of default by the writer and, for this reason, purchasers of options on currencies may require writers to post collateral or other forms of performance assurance.


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Buyers and sellers of currency futures contracts are subject to the same risks that apply to the use of futures contracts generally, which are described elsewhere in this SAI. Further, settlement of a currency futures contract for the purchase of most currencies must occur at a bank based in the issuing nation, which may subject a Fund to additional risk.

Risks. Currency transactions are subject to risks that are different from those of other portfolio transactions. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate based on factors extrinsic to that country's economy. Although forward foreign currency contracts and currency futures tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, at the same time they may limit any potential gain which might result should the value of such currency increase. Because currency control is of great importance to the issuing governments and influences economic planning and policy, purchase and sales of currency and related instruments can be negatively affected by government exchange controls, blockages, and manipulations or exchange restrictions imposed by governments. These can result in losses to a Fund if it is unable to deliver or receive currency or funds in the settlement of obligations and could also cause hedges it has entered into to be rendered useless, resulting in full currency exposure as well as incurring transaction costs. Buyers and sellers of currency futures are subject to the same risks that apply to the use of futures generally. Further, settlement of a currency futures contract for the purchase of most currencies must occur at a bank based in the issuing nation. The ability to establish and close out positions on currency futures contracts is subject to the maintenance of a liquid market, which may not always be available.

The Funds may take active positions in currencies, which involve different techniques and risk analyses than the Funds' purchase of securities. Active investment in currencies may subject the Funds to additional risks, and the value of the Funds' investments may fluctuate in response to broader macroeconomic risks than if the Funds invested only in fixed income securities. The Funds may take long and short positions in foreign currencies in excess of the value of the Funds' assets denominated in a particular currency or when the Funds do not own assets denominated in that currency. If a Fund enters into currency transactions when it does not own assets denominated in that currency, the Fund's volatility may increase and losses on such transactions will not be offset by increases in the value of the Fund's assets.

Currency hedging involves some of the same risks and considerations as other transactions with similar instruments. Currency transactions can result in losses to a Fund if the currency being hedged fluctuates in value to a degree in a direction that is not anticipated. Furthermore, there is a risk that the perceived linkage between various currencies may not be present or may not be present during the particular time that a Fund is engaging in proxy hedging. Suitable hedging transactions may not be available in all circumstances. Hedging transactions may also eliminate any chance for a Fund to benefit from favorable fluctuations in relevant foreign currencies.

Risks associated with entering into forward foreign currency contracts include the possibility that the market for forward foreign currency contracts may be limited with respect to certain currencies and, upon a contract's maturity, the inability of a Fund to negotiate with the dealer to enter into an offsetting transaction. As mentioned above, forward foreign currency contracts may be closed out only by the parties entering into an offsetting contract. This creates settlement risk in forward foreign currency contracts, which is the risk of loss when one party to the forward foreign currency contract delivers the currency it sold but does not receive the corresponding amount of the currency it bought. Settlement risk arises in deliverable forward foreign currency contracts where the parties have not arranged to use a mechanism for payment-versus-payment settlement, such as an escrow arrangement. In addition, the correlation between movements in the prices of those contracts and movements in the price of the currency hedged or used for cover will not be perfect. There is no assurance an active forward foreign currency contract market will always exist. These factors will restrict a Fund's ability to hedge against the risk of devaluation of currencies in which the Fund holds a substantial quantity of securities and are unrelated to the qualitative rating that may be assigned to any particular security. In addition, if a currency devaluation is generally anticipated, the Fund may not be able to contract to sell currency at a price above the devaluation level it anticipates. The successful use of forward foreign currency contracts as a hedging technique draws upon special skills and experience with respect to these instruments and usually depends on the ability of SIMC or a Sub-Adviser to forecast interest rate and currency exchange rate movements correctly.


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Should interest or exchange rates move in an unexpected manner, the Fund may not achieve the anticipated benefits of forward foreign currency contracts or may realize losses and thus be in a worse position than if those strategies had not been used. Many forward foreign currency contracts are subject to no daily price fluctuation limits so adverse market movements could continue with respect to those contracts to an unlimited extent over a period of time.

FUTURES CONTRACTS AND OPTIONS ON FUTURES CONTRACTS—Futures contracts (also called "futures") provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific security at a specified future time and at a specified price. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in exchange for a premium, to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price during the term of the option. An index futures contract is a bilateral agreement pursuant to which two parties agree to take or make delivery of an amount of cash equal to a specified dollar amount times the difference between the index value at the close of trading of the contract and the price at which the futures contract is originally struck. No physical delivery of the securities comprising the index is made, and generally contracts are closed out prior to the expiration date of the contract.

A Fund may also invest in Treasury futures, interest rate futures, interest rate swaps, and interest rate swap futures. A Treasury futures contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell Treasury securities at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract. The sale of a Treasury futures contract creates an obligation by the Fund to deliver the amount of certain types of Treasury securities called for in the contract at a specified future time for a specified price. A purchase of a Treasury futures contract creates an obligation by the Fund to take delivery of an amount of securities at a specified future time at a specific price. Interest rate futures can be sold as an offset against the effect of expected interest rate increases and purchased as an offset against the effect of expected interest rate declines. Interest rate swaps are an agreement between two parties where one stream of future interest rate payments is exchanged for another based on a specified principal amount. Interest rate swaps often exchange a fixed payment for a floating payment that is linked to a particular interest rate. Interest rate swap futures are instruments that provide a way to gain swap exposure and the structure features of a futures contract in a single instrument. Swap futures are futures contracts on interest rate swaps that enable purchasers to cash settle at a future date at the price determined by the benchmark rate at the end of a fixed period.

A Fund will reduce the risk that it will be unable to close out a futures contract by only entering into futures contracts that are traded on national futures exchanges regulated by the CFTC (generally, futures must be traded on such exchanges). Subject to their permitted investment strategies, certain Funds may use futures contracts and related options for either hedging purposes or risk management purposes, or to gain exposure to currencies, as well as to enhance the Fund's returns. Instances in which a Fund may use futures contracts and related options for risk management purposes include: (i) attempting to offset changes in the value of securities held or expected to be acquired or be disposed of; (ii) attempting to minimize fluctuations in foreign currencies; (iii) attempting to gain exposure to a particular market, index or instrument; or (iv) other risk management purposes. A Fund may use futures contracts for cash equitization purposes, which allows a Fund to invest consistent with its investment strategy while managing daily cash flows, including significant client inflows and outflows.

There are significant risks associated with a Fund's use of futures contracts and options on futures contracts, including: (i) the success of a hedging strategy may depend on SIMC or a Sub-Adviser's ability to predict movements in the prices of individual securities, fluctuations in markets and movements in interest rates; (ii) there may be an imperfect or no correlation between the changes in market value of the securities held by a Fund and the prices of futures and options on futures; (iii) there may not be a liquid secondary market for a futures contract or option; (iv) trading restrictions or limitations may be imposed by an exchange; and (v) government regulations or exchange requirements may restrict trading in futures contracts and options on futures contracts. In addition, some strategies reduce a Fund's exposure to price fluctuations, while others tend to increase its market exposure.


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HIGH YIELD FOREIGN SOVEREIGN DEBT SECURITIES—Investing in fixed and floating rate high yield foreign sovereign debt securities will expose a Fund to the direct or indirect consequences of political, social or economic changes in the countries that issue the securities. The ability of a foreign sovereign obligor to make timely payments on its external debt obligations will also be strongly influenced by the obligor's balance of payments, including export performance, its access to international credits and investments, fluctuations in interest rates and the extent of its foreign reserves. Countries such as those in which a Fund may invest have historically experienced, and may continue to experience, high rates of inflation, high interest rates, exchange rate or trade difficulties and extreme poverty and unemployment. Many of these countries are also characterized by political uncertainty or instability. Additional factors that may influence the ability or willingness to service debt include, but are not limited to, a country's cash flow situation, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of its debt service burden to the economy as a whole and its government's policy towards the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other international agencies. A country whose exports are concentrated in a few commodities or whose economy depends on certain strategic imports could be vulnerable to fluctuations in international prices of these commodities or imports. To the extent that a country receives payment for its exports in currencies other than U.S. dollars, its ability to make debt payments denominated in U.S. dollars could be adversely affected. If a foreign sovereign obligor cannot generate sufficient earnings from foreign trade to service its external debt, it may need to depend on continuing loans and aid from foreign governments, commercial banks and multilateral organizations and inflows of foreign investment. The commitment on the part of these foreign governments, multilateral organizations and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on the government's implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of its obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties' commitments to lend funds, which may further impair the obligor's ability or willingness to timely service its debts.

ILLIQUID SECURITIES—Illiquid securities are investments that cannot be sold or disposed of in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. If, subsequent to purchase, a security held by a Fund becomes illiquid, the Fund may continue to hold the security. Because of their illiquid nature, illiquid securities must be priced at fair value as determined in good faith pursuant to procedures approved by the Board. Despite such good faith efforts to determine fair value prices, a Fund's illiquid securities are subject to the risk that the security's fair value price may differ from the actual price that the Fund may ultimately realize upon its sale or disposition. Difficulty in selling illiquid securities may result in a loss or may be costly to a Fund. Under the supervision of the Board, SIMC or the Sub-Adviser, as applicable, determines the liquidity of a Fund's investments. In determining the liquidity of a Fund's investments, SIMC or the Sub-Adviser, as applicable, may consider various factors, including: (i) the frequency and volume of trades and quotations; (ii) the number of dealers and prospective purchasers in the marketplace; (iii) dealer undertakings to make a market; and (iv) the nature of the security and the market in which it trades (including any demand, put or tender features, the mechanics and other requirements for transfer, any letters of credit or other credit enhancement features, any ratings, the number of holders, the method of soliciting offers, the time required to dispose of the security, and the ability to assign or offset the rights and obligations of the security).

INSURANCE FUNDING AGREEMENTS—An IFA is normally a general obligation of the issuing insurance company and not a separate account. The purchase price paid for an IFA becomes part of the general assets of the insurance company, and the obligation is repaid from the company's general assets. Generally, IFAs are not assignable or transferable without the permission of the issuing insurance company, and an active secondary market in IFAs may not exist. Therefore, IFAs will be subject to the Fund's limitation on investment in illiquid securities when the Fund may not demand payment of the principal amount within seven days and a reliable trading market is absent. Additional information about illiquid securities is provided under "Illiquid Securities."

INTERFUND LENDING AND BORROWING ARRANGEMENTS—The SEC has granted an exemption that permits the Funds to participate in the Program with the SEI Funds. The Program allows the SEI Funds to lend money to and borrow money from each other for temporary or emergency purposes. Participation in the Program is voluntary for both borrowing and lending funds. Interfund loans may be made only when the rate of interest to be charged is more favorable to the lending fund than the Repo Rate and more favorable to the borrowing


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fund than the Bank Loan Rate. The Bank Loan Rate will be determined using a formula approved by the SEI Funds' Board of Trustees. The interest rate imposed on interfund loans is the average of the Repo Rate and the Bank Loan Rate.

All interfund loans and borrowings must comply with the conditions set forth in the exemption, which are designed to ensure fair and equitable treatment of all participating funds. Each Fund's participation in the Program must be consistent with its investment policies and limitations and is subject to certain percentage limitations. SIMC administers the Program according to procedures approved by the SEI Funds' Board of Trustees. In addition, the Program is subject to oversight and periodic review by the SEI Funds' Board of Trustees.

INVESTMENT COMPANIES—Securities of other investment companies, including shares of closed-end investment companies, unit investment trusts, open-end investment companies and REITs, represent interests in professionally managed portfolios that may invest in various types of instruments. Investing in other investment companies involves substantially the same risks as investing directly in the underlying instruments, but may involve additional expenses at the investment company-level, such as portfolio management fees and operating expenses. When a Fund invests in an affiliated or unaffiliated investment company, it will bear a pro rata portion of the investment company's expenses in addition to directly bearing the expenses associated with its own operations. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or a discount to their NAV. Others are continuously offered at NAV, but may also be traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount to their NAV.

Because of restrictions on direct investment by U.S. entities in certain countries, investment in other investment companies may be the most practical or the only manner in which an international and global fund can invest in the securities markets of those countries. A Fund also may be subject to adverse tax consequences to the extent it invests in the stock of a foreign issuer that constitutes a "passive foreign investment company."

Generally, federal securities laws limit the extent to which investment companies can invest in securities of other investment companies, subject to certain statutory, regulatory and other exceptions. For example an investment company is generally prohibited under Section 12(d)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act from acquiring the securities of another investment company if, as a result of such acquisition: (i) the acquiring investment company would own more than 3% of the total voting stock of the other company; (ii) securities issued by any one investment company represent more than 5% of the acquiring investment company's total assets; or (iii) securities (other than treasury stock) issued by all investment companies represent more than 10% of the total assets of the acquiring investment company, subject to certain statutory, regulatory or other exceptions. Pursuant to Rule 12d1-1 under the 1940 Act and the conditions set forth therein, a Fund may invest in one or more affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies that operate in compliance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, in excess of the limits of Section 12(d)(1)(A). A Fund may invest in investment companies managed by SIMC or the Fund's Sub-Adviser to the extent permitted by any rule or regulation of the SEC or any order or interpretation thereunder. A Fund may invest in such Rule 2a-7 compliant investment companies for cash management purposes, including as discussed in the "Securities Lending" section below, and to serve as collateral for derivatives positions.

In addition, Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act permits an investment company to invest in other investment companies beyond the statutory limits of Section 12(d)(1)(A), subject to certain conditions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an investment company that is an acquired fund of a registered investment company in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, generally will not be permitted to invest in shares of other investment companies beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1)(A), other than in the limited circumstances set forth in Rule 12d1-4.

Exchange-Traded Funds. ETFs are investment companies that are registered under the 1940 Act as open-end funds or unit investment trusts. ETFs are actively traded on national securities exchanges and are generally based on specific domestic and foreign market indexes. An index-based ETF seeks to track the performance of an index by holding in its portfolio either the contents of the index or a representative sample of the securities in the index. Because ETFs are based on an underlying basket of stocks or an index, they are subject to the same market fluctuations as these types of securities in volatile market swings.


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Leveraged ETFs contain all of the risks that non-leveraged ETFs present. Additionally, to the extent a Fund invests in ETFs that achieve leveraged exposure to their underlying indexes through the use of derivative instruments, the Fund will indirectly be subject to leverage risk and other risks associated with derivatives and will be subject to Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act. The more these ETFs invest in derivative instruments that give rise to leverage, the more this leverage will magnify any losses on those investments. Because leverage tends to exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of an ETF's portfolio securities or other investments, leverage will cause the value of an ETF's shares to be more volatile than if the ETF did not use leverage. A leveraged ETF will engage in transactions and purchase instruments that give rise to forms of leverage, including, among others, the use of reverse repurchase agreements and other borrowings, the investment of collateral from loans of portfolio securities, the use of when issued, delayed-delivery or forward commitment transactions or short sales. Certain types of leveraging transactions, such as short sales that are not "against the box," could theoretically be subject to unlimited losses in cases where a leveraged ETF, for any reason, is unable to close out the transaction. In addition, to the extent a leveraged ETF borrows money, interest costs on such borrowed money may not be recovered by any appreciation of the securities purchased with the borrowed funds and could exceed the ETF's investment income, resulting in greater losses. Such ETFs often "reset" daily, meaning that they are designed to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Due to the effect of compounding, their performance over longer periods of time can differ significantly from the performance (or inverse of the performance) of their underlying index or benchmark during the same period of time, which may be enhanced during the periods of increased market volatility. Consequently, leveraged ETFs may not be suitable as long-term investments.

Leveraged inverse ETFs contain all of the risks that regular ETFs present. Additionally, to the extent a Fund invests in ETFs that seek to provide investment results that match a negative multiple of the performance of an underlying index, the Fund will indirectly be subject to the risk that the performance of such ETF will fall as the performance of that ETF's benchmark rises-a result that is the opposite from traditional mutual funds. Leveraged inverse ETFs contain all of the risks that regular ETFs present, but also pose all of the risks associated with other leveraged ETFs as well as other inverse ETFs. These investment vehicles may be extremely volatile and can potentially expose an investing Fund to theoretically unlimited losses.

An investment company may now invest in ETFs in excess of the limitations prescribed by Section 12(d)(1)(A), provided that such investment company otherwise complies with certain conditions imposed through Rule 12d1-4. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an investment company that is an acquired fund of a registered investment company in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, generally will not be permitted to invest in shares of other investment companies beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1)(A), other than in the limited circumstances set forth in Rule 12d1-4. Neither the ETFs nor their investment advisers make any representations regarding the advisability of investing in the ETFs.

Certain ETFs that in general do not register as investment companies under the 1940 Act may not produce qualifying income for purposes of the "Qualifying Income Test" or the shares of such ETFs may not be considered "securities" for purposes of the "Asset Test" (as defined below under the heading "Taxes"), which must be met in order for a Fund to maintain its status as a RIC under the Code. If one or more ETFs generate more non-qualifying income for purposes of the Qualifying Income Test or if a Fund is not considered to be holding sufficient amounts of "securities" than SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers expect, it could cause a Fund to inadvertently fail the Qualifying Income Test or Asset Test, thereby causing the Fund to inadvertently fail to qualify as a RIC under the Code, unless certain relief provisions (described in more detail under the heading "Taxes") are available to the Fund.

LIBOR REPLACEMENT—LIBOR is intended to represent the rate at which contributing banks may obtain short-term borrowings from each other in the London interbank market. The regulatory authority that oversees financial services firms and financial markets in the U.K. has announced that, after the end of 2021, it would no longer persuade or compel contributing banks to make rate submissions for purposes of determining the LIBOR rate. The publication of LIBOR on a representative basis ceased for the one-week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings immediately after December 31, 2021, and is expected to cease for the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR settings immediately after June 30, 2023. The U.S. Federal Reserve, based on the recommendations of the New York Federal Reserve's Alternative Reference Rate Committee (comprised of major derivative market


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participants and their regulators), has begun publishing a Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR"), which is intended to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR. Alternative reference rates for other currencies have also been announced or have already begun publication. There is no assurance that the composition or characteristics of any such alternative reference rate will be similar to or produce the same value or economic equivalence as LIBOR or that it will have the same volume or liquidity as did LIBOR prior to its discontinuance or unavailability. This, in turn, may affect the value or liquidity or return on certain Fund investments, result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades and reduce the effectiveness of related fund transactions such as hedges. These risks may also apply with respect to potential changes in connection with other interbank offering rates (e.g., Euribor) and other indexes, rates and values that may be used as "benchmarks" and are the subject of recent regulatory reform. Questions around liquidity impacted by these rates, and how to appropriately adjust these rates at the time of transition, remain a concern for the Funds. The effect of any changes to, or discontinuation of, LIBOR on the Funds will vary depending on, among other things, (1) existing fallback or termination provisions in individual contracts and (2) whether, how, and when industry participants develop and adopt new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new products and instruments. The expected discontinuation of LIBOR could have a significant impact on the financial markets in general and may also present heightened risk to market participants, including public companies, investment advisers, other investment companies, and broker-dealers. The risks associated with this discontinuation and transition will be exacerbated if the work necessary to effect an orderly transition to an alternative reference rate is not completed in a timely manner. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict the full impact of the transition away from LIBOR on the Funds until new reference rates and fallbacks for both legacy and new products, instruments and contracts are commercially accepted.

LOAN PARTICIPATIONS AND ASSIGNMENTS—Loan participations are interests in loans to corporations or governments that are administered by the lending bank or agent for a syndicate of lending banks and sold by the lending bank, financial institution or syndicate member (so-called "intermediary bank"). In a loan participation, the borrower will be deemed to be the issuer of the participation interest, except to the extent that a Fund derives its rights from the intermediary bank. Because the intermediary bank does not guarantee a loan participation in any way, a loan participation is subject to the credit risks generally associated with the underlying borrower. In the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the borrower, a loan participation may be subject to certain defenses that can be asserted by such borrower as a result of improper conduct by the intermediary bank. In addition, in the event the underlying borrower fails to pay principal and interest when due, a Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of such borrower. Under the terms of a loan participation, a Fund may be regarded as a creditor of the intermediary bank (rather than of the underlying borrower), so that the Fund may also be subject to the risk that the intermediary bank may become insolvent.

Loan assignments are investments in assignments of all or a portion of certain loans from third parties. When a Fund purchases assignments from lenders, it will acquire direct rights against the borrower on the loan. Because assignments are arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and assignors, however, the rights and obligations acquired by the Fund may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning lender. Loan participations and assignments may be considered liquid, as determined by SIMC or the Funds' Sub-Advisers based on criteria approved by the Board.

MiFID II—MiFID II took effect in Member States of the EU on January 3, 2018. MiFID II forms the legal framework governing the requirements applicable to EU investment firms and trading venues and third-country firms providing investment services or activities in the EU. The extent to which MiFID II will have an indirect impact on markets and market participants outside the EU is unclear and yet to fully play out in practice. It will likely impact pricing, liquidity and transparency in most asset classes and certainly impact the research market.

MiFID II prohibits an EU authorized investment firm from receiving investment research unless it is paid for directly by the firm out of its own resources or from a separate research payment account regulated under MiFID II and funded either by a specific periodic research charge to the client or by a research charge that is not collected from the client separately but instead alongside a transaction commission. Specifically, MiFID II will have practical ramifications outside the EU in certain areas such as payment for equity research and fixed income, currency and commodities research. For example, US asset managers acting under the delegated


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authority of an EU-based asset manager and US asset managers that are part of a global asset management group with one or more EU affiliates may, in practice, have to restructure the way they procure, value and pay for research under US laws and regulations to more closely align with the requirements under MiFID II. Absent appropriate relief or guidance from US regulators, certain aspects of the research payment regime under MiFID II may be incompatible with US law and regulation. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict the full impact of MiFID II on the Funds and the Adviser and Sub-Advisers, but it could include an increase in the overall costs of entering into investments. Shareholders should be aware that the regulatory changes arising from MiFID II may affect each Fund's ability to adhere to its investment approach and achieve its investment objective.

EU research providers that are MiFID II firms will be obliged to price their research services separately from their execution services. It is uncertain whether these changes will lead to an overall increase in the price of research and/or lead to reduced access to research for the Adviser and Sub-Advisers. While the exact impact of MiFID II and the related Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation on certain Funds and the Adviser and Sub-Advisers remain unclear and will take time to quantify, the impact on them and on the EU financial markets may be material.

MONEY MARKET SECURITIES—Money market securities include: (i) short-term U.S. Government securities; (ii) custodial receipts evidencing separately traded interest and principal components of securities issued by the U.S. Treasury; (iii) commercial paper determined by SIMC or a Sub-Adviser to be of the highest short-term credit quality at the time of purchase; (iv) short-term bank obligations (certificates of deposit, time deposits and bankers' acceptances) of U.S. commercial banks with assets of at least $1 billion as of the end of their most recent fiscal year; and (v) repurchase agreements involving such securities. For a description of ratings, see Appendix A to this SAI.

MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES—Mortgage-backed securities are a class of asset-backed securities representing an interest in a pool or pools of whole mortgage loans (which may be residential mortgage loans or commercial mortgage loans). Mortgage-backed securities held or acquired by the Funds could include (i) obligations guaranteed by federal agencies of the U.S. Government, such as GNMA, which are backed by the "full faith and credit" of the United States, (ii) securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which are not backed by the "full faith and credit" of the United States but are guaranteed by the U.S. Government as to timely payment of principal and interest, (iii) securities (commonly referred to as "private-label RMBS") issued by private issuers that represent an interest in or are collateralized by whole residential mortgage loans without a government guarantee and (iv) CMBS, which are multi-class or pass-through securities backed by a mortgage loan or a pool of mortgage loans secured by commercial property such as industrial and warehouse properties, office buildings, retail space and shopping malls, multifamily properties and cooperative apartments. Because private-label RMBS and CMBS are not issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, those securities generally are structured with one or more types of credit enhancement. There can be no assurance, however, that credit enhancements will support full payment to the Funds of the principal and interest on such obligations. In addition, changes in the credit quality of the entity that provides credit enhancement could cause losses to the Funds and affect their share prices.

A Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities in the form of debt or in the form of "pass-through" certificates. Pass-through certificates, which represent the beneficial ownership interests in the related mortgage loans, differ from debt securities, which generally provide for periodic fixed payments of interest on and principal of the related notes. Mortgage pass-through securities provide for monthly payments that are a "pass-through" of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees and expenses owed to the servicers of the mortgage loans and other transaction parties that receive payment from collections on the mortgage loans.

The performance of mortgage loans and, in turn, the mortgage-backed securities acquired by a Fund, is influenced by a wide variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors, including general economic conditions, the level of prevailing interest rates, the unemployment rate, the availability of alternative financing and homeowner behavior. Beginning in late 2006, delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures on residential and commercial mortgage loans increased significantly, and they may again increase in the future. In addition, beginning in late 2006, numerous originators and servicers of residential mortgage loans experienced serious


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financial difficulties and, in many cases, went out of business or were liquidated in bankruptcy proceedings. Those difficulties resulted, in part, from declining markets for their mortgage loans as well as from claims for repurchases of mortgage loans previously sold under provisions that require repurchase in the event of early payment defaults or for breaches of representations and warranties regarding loan characteristics.

Since mid-2007, the residential mortgage market has been subject to extensive litigation and legislative and regulatory scrutiny. The result has been extensive reform legislation and regulations including with respect to loan underwriting, mortgage loan servicing, foreclosure practices and timing, loan modifications, enhanced disclosure and reporting obligations and risk retention. Numerous laws, regulations and rules related to residential mortgage loans generally, and foreclosure actions particularly, have been proposed or enacted by federal, state and local governmental authorities, which may result in delays in the foreclosure process, reduced payments by borrowers, modification of the original terms of mortgage loans, permanent forgiveness of debt, increased prepayments due to the availability of government-sponsored refinancing initiatives and/or increased reimbursable servicing expenses. Any of these factors could result in delays and reductions in distributions to residential mortgage-backed securities and may reduce the amount of investment proceeds to which a Fund would be entitled.

The conservatorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the current uncertainty regarding the future status of these organizations may also adversely affect the mortgage market and the value of mortgage-related assets. It remains unclear to what extent the ability of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to act as the primary sources of liquidity in the residential mortgage markets, both by purchasing mortgage loans for their own portfolios and by guaranteeing mortgage-backed securities, may be curtailed. Legislators have repeatedly unveiled various plans to reduce and reform the role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the mortgage market and, possibly, wind down both institutions. Although it is unclear whether, and if so how, those plans may be implemented or how long any such wind-down or reform of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, if implemented, would take, a reduction in the ability of mortgage loan originators to access Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to sell their mortgage loans may adversely affect the financial condition of mortgage loan originators. In addition, any decline in the value of agency securities may affect the value of residential mortgage-backed securities as a whole.

Since March 13, 2020, there have been a number of government initiatives applicable to federally backed mortgage loans in response to the economic impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak, including foreclosure and eviction moratoria, mortgage forbearance and loan modifications for borrowers and renters experiencing financial hardship due to COVID-19.

It is difficult to predict how the government initiatives relating to COVID-19 may affect the federally backed mortgage market, the U.S. mortgage market as a whole and the price of securities relating to the mortgage markets. However, high forbearance rates create a real possibility of billions of dollars of loan servicers' obligations to advance payment to investors in securities backed by mortgages in the absence of borrower payments on the underlying loans. Accordingly, the Funds cannot predict with certainty the extent to which these or similar initiatives in the future may adversely impact the value of the Funds' investments in securities issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and in investments in securities in the U.S. mortgage industry as a whole.

The rate and aggregate amount of distributions on mortgage-backed securities, and therefore the average lives of those securities and the yields realized by a Fund, will be sensitive to the rate of prepayments (including liquidations) and modifications of the related mortgage loans, any losses and shortfalls on the related mortgage loans allocable to the tranches held by a Fund and the manner in which principal payments on the related mortgage loans are allocated among the various tranches in the particular securitization transaction. Furthermore, mortgage-backed securities are sensitive to changes in interest rates, but may respond to those changes differently from other fixed income securities due to the possibility of prepayment of the mortgage loans. Among other factors, a significant amount of defaults, rapid prepayments or prepayment interest shortfalls may erode amounts available for distributions to a Fund. The timing of changes in the rate of prepayments of the mortgage loans may significantly affect the Funds' actual yield to maturity, even if the average rate of principal payments is consistent with a Fund's expectations. If prepayments of mortgage loans occur at a rate faster than that anticipated by a Fund, payments of interest on the mortgage-backed securities could be significantly less than anticipated. Similarly, if the number of mortgage loans that are modified is larger than


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that anticipated by a Fund, payments of principal and interest on the mortgage-backed securities could be significantly less than anticipated.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. CMOs are securities collateralized by mortgages, mortgage pass-throughs, mortgage pay-through bonds (bonds representing an interest in a pool of mortgages where the cash flow generated from the mortgage collateral pool is dedicated to bond repayment) and mortgage-backed bonds (general obligations of the issuers payable out of the issuers' general funds and additionally secured by a first lien on a pool of single family detached properties). To the extent a Fund invests in CMOs, the Fund typically will seek to invest in CMOs rated in one of the two highest categories by S&P or Moody's. Many CMOs are issued with a number of classes or series that have different expected maturities. Investors purchasing such CMOs are credited with their portion of the scheduled payments of interest and principal on the underlying mortgages plus all unscheduled prepayments of principal based on a predetermined priority schedule. Accordingly, the CMOs in the longer maturity series are less likely than other mortgage pass-through securities to be prepaid prior to their stated maturity. Although some of the mortgages underlying CMOs may be supported by various types of insurance and some CMOs may be backed by GNMA certificates or other mortgage pass-through securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities, the CMOs themselves are not generally guaranteed.

Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits. REMICs are private entities formed for the purpose of holding a fixed pool of mortgages secured by interests in real property. REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust consisting principally of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or GNMA-guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates. For Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates, Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest. GNMA REMIC Certificates are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.

Parallel Pay Securities; Planned Amortization Class CMOs. Parallel pay CMOs and REMICs are structured to provide payments of principal on each payment date to more than one class. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the stated maturity date or final distribution date of each class, which must be retired by its stated maturity date or final distribution date but may be retired earlier. PAC Bonds generally require payments of a specified amount of principal on each payment date. PAC Bonds are always parallel pay CMOs, with the required principal payment on such securities having the highest priority after interest has been paid to all classes.

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Securities. ARMS are a form of pass-through security representing interests in pools of mortgage loans whose interest rates are adjusted from time to time. The adjustments are usually determined in accordance with a predetermined interest rate index and may be subject to certain limits. Although the value of ARMS, like other debt securities, generally varies inversely with changes in market interest rates (increasing in value during periods of declining interest rates and decreasing in value during periods of increasing interest rates), the value of ARMS should generally be more resistant to price swings than other debt securities because the interest rates of ARMS move with market interest rates. The adjustable rate feature of ARMS will not, however, eliminate fluctuations in the prices of ARMS, particularly during periods of extreme fluctuations in interest rates. Also, because many adjustable rate mortgages only reset on an annual basis, it can be expected that the prices of ARMS will fluctuate to the extent that changes in prevailing interest rates are not immediately reflected in the interest rates payable on the underlying adjustable rate mortgages.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities are securities that are created when a U.S. Government agency or a financial institution separates the interest and principal components of a mortgage-backed security and sells them as individual securities. The holder of the PO receives the principal payments made by the underlying mortgage-backed security, while the holder of the IO receives interest payments from the same underlying security. The prices of stripped mortgage-backed securities may be particularly affected by changes in interest rates. As interest rates fall, prepayment rates tend to increase, which tends to reduce prices of IOs and increase prices of POs. Rising interest rates can have the opposite effect.

Pfandbriefe. A Pfandbriefe is a fixed-term, fixed-rate bond issued by a German mortgage bank or a public-sector bank to finance secured real estate loans or public sector loans. Although Pfandbriefe are collateralized securities, the issuer assumes all of the prepayment risk.


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Estimated Average Life. Due to the possibility of prepayments of the underlying mortgage instruments, mortgage-backed securities generally do not have a known maturity. In the absence of a known maturity, market participants generally refer to an "average life estimate." An average life estimate is a function of an assumption regarding anticipated prepayment patterns and is based upon current interest rates, current conditions in the relevant housing markets and other factors. The assumption is necessarily subjective, and thus different market participants can produce different average life estimates with regard to the same security. There can be no assurance that the estimated average life will be a security's actual average life.

MORTGAGE DOLLAR ROLLS—Mortgage dollar rolls, or "covered rolls," are transactions in which a Fund sells securities (usually mortgage-backed securities) and simultaneously contracts to repurchase, typically in 30 or 60 days, substantially similar, but not identical, securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, a Fund forgoes principal and interest paid on such securities. A Fund is compensated by the difference between the current sales price and the forward price for the future purchase (often referred to as the "drop"), as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale. At the end of the roll commitment period, a Fund may or may not take delivery of the securities it has contracted to purchase. Mortgage dollar rolls may be renewed prior to cash settlement and initially may involve only a firm commitment agreement by the Fund to buy a security. A "covered roll" is a specific type of mortgage dollar roll for which there is an offsetting cash position or cash equivalent securities position that matures on or before the forward settlement date of the mortgage dollar roll transaction. As used herein, the term "mortgage dollar roll" refers to mortgage dollar rolls that are not "covered rolls." If the broker-dealer to whom a Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund's right to repurchase the security may be restricted. Other risks involved in entering into mortgage dollar rolls include the risk that the value of the security may change adversely over the term of the mortgage dollar roll and that the security a Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than the security that the Fund originally held.

MUNICIPAL SECURITIES—Municipal securities consist of: (i) debt obligations issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to be used for various public facilities, refunding outstanding obligations, general operating expenses and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities, and (ii) certain private activity and industrial development bonds issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide for the construction, equipment, repair or improvement of privately operated facilities. Additional information regarding municipal securities is described below:

Municipal Bonds. Municipal bonds are debt obligations issued to obtain funds for various public purposes. Municipal bonds include general obligation bonds, revenue or special obligation bonds, private activity and industrial development bonds, moral obligation bonds and participation interests in municipal bonds. General obligation bonds are backed by the taxing power of the issuing municipality. Revenue bonds are backed by the revenues of a project or facility, such as tolls from a toll bridge. Certificates of participation represent an interest in an underlying obligation or commitment, such as an obligation issued in connection with a leasing arrangement. The payment of principal and interest on private activity and industrial development bonds is generally dependent solely on the ability of the facility's user to meet its financial obligations and the pledge, if any, of real and personal property so financed as security for such payment. A Fund may purchase private activity or industrial development bonds if, in the opinion of counsel for the issuers, the interest paid is exempt from federal income tax. Municipal bonds are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to raise money to finance various privately-owned or operated facilities for business and manufacturing, housing, sports and pollution control. These bonds are also used to finance public facilities such as airports, mass transit systems, ports, parking, sewage or solid waste disposal facilities and certain other facilities. The payment of the principal and interest on such bonds is dependent solely on the ability of the facility's user to meet its financial obligations and the pledge, if any, of real and personal property so financed as security for such payment. Moral obligation bonds are normally issued by special purpose authorities. Moral obligation bonds are not backed by the full faith and credit of the state, but are generally backed by the agreement of the issuing authority to request appropriations from the state legislative body.

Municipal Leases. Municipal leases are instruments, or participations in instruments, issued in connection with lease obligations or installment purchase contract obligations of municipalities (so-called "municipal lease


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obligations"). Although municipal lease obligations do not constitute general obligations of the issuing municipality, a lease obligation may be backed by the municipality's covenant to budget for, appropriate funds for and make the payments due under the lease obligation. However, certain lease obligations contain "non-appropriation" clauses, which provide that the municipality has no obligation to make lease or installment purchase payments in future years unless money is appropriated for such purpose in the relevant years. Municipal lease obligations are a form of financing, and the market for such obligations is still developing. Municipal leases will be treated as liquid only if they satisfy criteria set forth in guidelines established by the Board, and there can be no assurance that a market will exist or continue to exist for any municipal lease obligation. Information regarding illiquid securities is provided under the section "Illiquid Securities" above.

Municipal Notes. Municipal notes consist of general obligation notes, tax anticipation notes (notes sold to finance working capital needs of the issuer in anticipation of receiving taxes on a future date), revenue anticipation notes (notes sold to provide needed cash prior to receipt of expected non-tax revenues from a specific source), bond anticipation notes, tax and revenue anticipation notes, certificates of indebtedness, demand notes and construction loan notes. The maturities of the instruments at the time of issue will generally range from three months to one year.

SIMC and/or the Sub-Adviser, as applicable, may rely on the opinion of the issuer's counsel, which is rendered at the time the security is issued, to determine whether the security is fit, with respect to its validity and tax status, to be purchased by a Fund. SIMC, the Sub-Advisers and the Funds do not guarantee this opinion is correct, and there is no assurance that the IRS will agree with such counsel's opinion.

NON-DIVERSIFICATION—As indicated in the Investment Limitations section, certain Funds are non-diversified investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act, which means that a relatively high percentage of such Fund's assets may be invested in the obligations of a limited number of issuers. The value of shares of each such Fund may be more susceptible to any single economic, political or regulatory occurrence than the shares of a diversified investment company would be. Each of these Funds intends to satisfy the diversification requirements necessary to qualify as a RIC under the Code, as described more fully in the "Taxes" section of this SAI.

OBLIGATIONS OF DOMESTIC BANKS, FOREIGN BANKS AND FOREIGN BRANCHES OF U.S. BANKS—Investments in bank obligations include obligations of domestic branches of foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks. Such investments in domestic branches of foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks may involve risks that are different from investments in securities of domestic branches of U.S. banks. These risks may include future unfavorable political and economic developments, possible withholding taxes on interest income, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, currency controls, interest limitations, or other governmental restrictions that might affect the payment of principal or interest on the securities held by a Fund. Additionally, these institutions may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different accounting, auditing, reporting and recordkeeping requirements than those applicable to domestic branches of U.S. banks. Bank obligations include the following:

Bankers' Acceptances. Bankers' acceptances are bills of exchange or time drafts drawn on and accepted by a commercial bank. Corporations use bankers' acceptances to finance the shipment and storage of goods and to furnish dollar exchange. Maturities are generally six months or less.

Bank Notes. Bank notes are notes used to represent debt obligations issued by banks in large denominations.

Certificates of Deposit. Certificates of deposit are interest-bearing instruments with a specific maturity. They are issued by banks and savings and loan institutions in exchange for the deposit of funds and can normally be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Certificates of deposit with penalties for early withdrawal will be considered illiquid. Additional information about illiquid securities is provided under the section "Illiquid Securities" above.

Time Deposits. Time deposits are non-negotiable receipts issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds. Like a certificate of deposit, a time deposit earns a specified rate of interest over a definite period of


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time; however, it cannot be traded in the secondary market. Time deposits with a withdrawal penalty or that mature in more than seven days are considered to be illiquid. Additional information about illiquid securities is provided under the section "Illiquid Securities" above.

OBLIGATIONS OF SUPRANATIONAL ENTITIES—Supranational entities are entities established through the joint participation of several governments, including the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the European Economic Community, the European Investment Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank. The governmental members, or "stockholders," usually make initial capital contributions to the supranational entity and, in many cases, are committed to make additional capital contributions if the supranational entity is unable to repay its borrowings. There is no guarantee that one or more stockholders of a supranational entity will continue to make any necessary additional capital contributions. If such contributions are not made, the entity may be unable to pay interest or repay principal on its debt securities, and a Fund may lose money on such investments.

OPTIONS—A Fund may purchase and write put and call options on indexes and enter into related closing transactions. A put option on a security gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying security at any time during the option period, or for certain types of options, at the conclusion of the option period or only at certain times during the option period. A call option on a security gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying security at any time during the option period, or for certain types of options, at the conclusion of the option period or only at certain times during the option period. The premium paid to the writer is the consideration for undertaking the obligations under the option contract.

A Fund may purchase and write put and call options on foreign currencies (traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or OTC markets) to manage its exposure to exchange rates.

Put and call options on indexes are similar to options on securities except that options on an index give the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing level of the underlying index is greater than (or less than, in the case of puts) the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option, expressed in dollars multiplied by a specified number. Thus, unlike options on individual securities, all settlements are in cash, and gain or loss depends on price movements in the particular market represented by the index generally rather than the price movements in individual securities. Options on indexes may, depending on circumstances, involve greater risk than options on securities. Because stock index options are settled in cash, when a Fund writes a call on an index it may not be able to provide in advance for its potential settlement obligations by acquiring and holding the underlying securities.

Each Fund may trade put and call options on securities, securities indexes and currencies, as SIMC or a Sub-Adviser determines is appropriate in seeking to achieve the Fund's investment objective, unless otherwise restricted by the Fund's investment limitations.

The initial purchase (sale) of an option contract is an "opening transaction." In order to close out an option position, a Fund may enter into a "closing transaction," which is simply the sale (purchase) of an option contract on the same security with the same exercise price and expiration date as the option contract originally opened. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to an option it has written, it will not be able to sell the underlying security until the option expires or the Fund delivers the security upon exercise.

A Fund may purchase put and call options on securities for any lawful purpose, including to protect against a decline in the market value of the securities in its portfolio or to anticipate an increase in the market value of securities that the Fund may seek to purchase in the future. A Fund purchasing put and call options pays a premium for such options. If price movements in the underlying securities are such that exercise of the options would not be profitable for the Fund, loss of the premium paid may be offset by an increase in the value of the Fund's securities or by a decrease in the cost of the acquisition of securities by the Fund.

A Fund may write (i.e., sell) "covered" call options on securities for any lawful purpose, including as a means of increasing the yield on its assets and as a means of providing limited protection against decreases in its


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market value. Certain Funds may engage in a covered call option writing (selling) program in an attempt to generate additional income or provide a partial hedge to another position of the Fund. A call option is "covered" if the Fund either owns the underlying instrument or has an absolute and immediate right (such as a call with the same or a later expiration date) to acquire that instrument. The underlying instruments of such covered call options may consist of individual equity securities, pools of equity securities, ETFs or indexes.

The writing of covered call options is a more conservative investment technique than writing of naked or uncovered options, but capable of enhancing the Fund's total return. When a Fund writes a covered call option, it profits from the premium paid by the buyer but gives up the opportunity to profit from an increase in the value of the underlying security above the exercise price. At the same time, the Fund retains the risk of loss from a decline in the value of the underlying security during the option period. Although the Fund may terminate its obligation by executing a closing purchase transaction, the cost of effecting such a transaction may be greater than the premium received upon its sale, resulting in a loss to the Fund. If such an option expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a gain equal to the premium received. Such a gain may be offset or exceeded by a decline in the market value of the underlying security during the option period. If an option is exercised, the exercise price, the premium received and the market value of the underlying security determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund.

When a Fund writes an option, if the underlying securities do not increase or decrease, as applicable, to a price level that would make the exercise of the option profitable to the holder thereof, the option will generally expire without being exercised and the Fund will realize as profit the premium received for such option. When a call option of which a Fund is the writer is exercised, the Fund will be required to sell the underlying securities to the option holder at the strike price and will not participate in any increase in the price of such securities above the strike price. When a put option of which a Fund is the writer is exercised, the Fund will be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the market value of such securities.

A Fund may purchase and write options on an exchange or OTC. OTC options differ from exchange-traded options in several respects. They are transacted directly with dealers and not with a clearing corporation or futures commission merchant, and therefore entail the risk of non-performance by the dealer. OTC options are available for a greater variety of securities and for a wider range of expiration dates and exercise prices than are available for exchange-traded options. Because OTC options are not traded on an exchange, pricing is normally done by reference to information from a market maker. It is the SEC's position that OTC options are generally illiquid. The market value of an option generally reflects the market price of an underlying security. Other principal factors affecting market value include supply and demand, interest rates, the pricing volatility of the underlying security and the time remaining until the expiration date.

Risks. Risks associated with options transactions include: (i) the success of a hedging strategy may depend on an ability to predict movements in the prices of individual securities, fluctuations in markets and movements in interest rates; (ii) there may be an imperfect correlation between the movement in prices of options and the securities underlying them; (iii) there may not be a liquid secondary market for options; and (iv) though a Fund will receive a premium when it writes covered call options, it may not participate fully in a rise in the market value of the underlying security.

PARTICIPATION NOTES—P-Notes are participation interest notes that are issued by banks or broker-dealers and are designed to offer a return linked to a particular underlying equity, debt, currency or market. When purchasing a P-Note, the posting of margin is not required because the full cost of the P-Note (plus commission) is paid at the time of purchase. When the P-Note matures, the issuer will pay to, or receive from, the purchaser the difference between the minimal value of the underlying instrument at the time of purchase and that instrument's value at maturity. Investments in P-Notes involve the same risks associated with a direct investment in the underlying foreign companies or foreign securities markets that they seek to replicate.

In addition, there can be no assurance that the trading price of P-Notes will equal the underlying value of the foreign companies or foreign securities markets that they seek to replicate. The holder of a P-Note that is linked to a particular underlying security is entitled to receive any dividends paid in connection with an underlying security or instrument. However, the holder of a P-Note does not receive voting rights as it would if


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it directly owned the underlying security or instrument. P-Notes are generally traded OTC. P-Notes constitute general unsecured contractual obligations of the banks or broker-dealers that issue them and the counterparty. There is also counterparty risk associated with these investments because the Fund is relying on the creditworthiness of such counterparty and has no rights under a P-Note against the issuer of the underlying security. In addition, a Fund will incur transaction costs as a result of investment in P-Notes.

PAY-IN-KIND BONDS—Pay-in-kind bonds are securities that, at the issuer's option, pay interest in either cash or additional securities for a specified period. Pay-in-kind bonds, like zero coupon bonds, are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. Pay-in-kind bonds are expected to reflect the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last payment.

Pay-in-kind bonds are usually less volatile than zero coupon bonds, but more volatile than cash pay securities.

PRIVATIZATIONS—Privatizations are foreign government programs for selling all or part of the interests in government owned or controlled enterprises. The ability of a U.S. entity to participate in privatizations in certain foreign countries may be limited by local law, or the terms on which a Fund may be permitted to participate may be less advantageous than those applicable for local investors. There can be no assurance that foreign governments will continue to sell their interests in companies currently owned or controlled by them or that privatization programs will be successful.

PUT TRANSACTIONS—A Fund may purchase securities at a price that would result in a yield to maturity lower than generally offered by the seller at the time of purchase when the Fund can simultaneously acquire the right to sell the securities back to the seller, the issuer or a third party (the "writer") at an agreed-upon price at any time during a stated period or on a certain date. Such a right is generally denoted as a "standby commitment" or a "put." The purpose of engaging in transactions involving puts is to maintain flexibility and liquidity to permit a Fund to meet redemptions and remain as fully invested as possible in municipal securities. The right to put the securities depends on the writer's ability to pay for the securities at the time the put is exercised. A Fund would limit its put transactions to institutions that SIMC or a Sub-Adviser believes present minimum credit risks, and SIMC or a Sub-Adviser would use its best efforts to initially determine and continue to monitor the financial strength of the sellers of the options by evaluating their financial statements and such other information as is available in the marketplace. It may, however, be difficult to monitor the financial strength of the writers because adequate current financial information may not be available. In the event that any writer is unable to honor a put for financial reasons, a Fund would be a general creditor (i.e., on a parity with all other unsecured creditors) of the writer. Furthermore, particular provisions of the contract between a Fund and the writer may excuse the writer from repurchasing the securities; for example, a change in the published rating of the underlying municipal securities or any similar event that has an adverse effect on the issuer's credit or a provision in the contract that the put will not be exercised except in certain special cases, such as to maintain Fund liquidity. A Fund could, however, at any time sell the underlying portfolio security in the open market or wait until the portfolio security matures, at which time it should realize the full par value of the security.

The securities purchased subject to a put may be sold to third persons at any time, even though the put is outstanding, but the put itself, unless it is an integral part of the security as originally issued, may not be marketable or otherwise assignable. Therefore, the put would have value only to that particular Fund. Sale of the securities to third parties or lapse of time with the put unexercised may terminate the right to put the securities. Prior to the expiration of any put option, a Fund could seek to negotiate terms for the extension of such an option. If such a renewal cannot be negotiated on terms satisfactory to the Fund, the Fund could, of course, sell the portfolio security. The maturity of the underlying security will generally be different from that of the put. For the purpose of determining the "maturity" of securities purchased subject to an option to put, and for the purpose of determining the dollar-weighted average maturity of a Fund including such securities, the Fund will consider "maturity" to be the first date on which it has the right to demand payment from the writer of the put (although the final maturity of the security is later than such date).

QUANTITATIVE INVESTING—A quantitative investment style generally involves the use of computers to implement a systematic or rules-based approach to selecting investments based on specific measurable factors.


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Due to the significant role technology plays in such strategies, they carry the risk of unintended or unrecognized issues or flaws in the design, coding, implementation or maintenance of the computer programs or technology used in the development and implementation of the quantitative strategy. These issues or flaws, which can be difficult to identify, may result in the implementation of a portfolio that is different from that which was intended, and could negatively impact investment returns. Such risks should be viewed as an inherent element of investing in an investment strategy that relies heavily upon quantitative models and computerization.

REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS—REITs are entities that invest primarily in commercial real estate or real estate-related loans. A U.S. REIT is not taxed on income distributed to its shareholders or unitholders if it complies with certain requirements under the Code relating to its organization, ownership, assets and income, as well as with a requirement that it distribute to its shareholders or unitholders at least 90% of its taxable income for each taxable year. Generally, REITs can be classified as Equity REITs, Mortgage REITs and Hybrid REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive their income primarily from rents and capital gains from appreciation realized through property sales. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive their income primarily from interest payments. Hybrid REITs combine the characteristics of both Equity and Mortgage REITs. By investing in REITs indirectly through a Fund, shareholders will bear not only the proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund, but also, indirectly, similar expenses of underlying REITs.

A Fund may be subject to certain risks associated with the direct investments of REITs. REITs may be affected by changes in the value of their underlying properties and by defaults by borrowers or tenants. Mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of the credit extended. Furthermore, REITs are dependent on specialized management skills. Some REITs may have limited diversification and may be subject to risks inherent in financing a limited number of properties. REITs generally depend on their ability to generate cash flow to make distributions to shareholders or unitholders and may be subject to defaults by borrowers and to self-liquidations. In addition, a U.S. REIT may be affected by its failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Code or its failure to maintain exemption from registration under the 1940 Act.

RECEIPTS—Receipts are interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. Government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. Government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. Receipts include TRs, TIGRs, LYONs and CATS. LYONs, TIGRs and CATS are interests in private proprietary accounts, while TRs and STRIPS (see "U.S. Treasury Obligations" below) are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, which means that they are sold at a substantial discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. This discount is accreted over the life of the security, and such accretion will constitute the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. For tax purposes, original issue discount that accretes in a taxable year is treated as earned by a Fund and therefore is subject to the distribution requirements applicable to RICs under Subchapter M of the Code. Because of these features, such securities may be subject to greater interest rate volatility than interest paying fixed income securities.

REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS—A repurchase agreement is an agreement in which one party sells securities to another party in return for cash, with an agreement to repurchase equivalent securities at an agreed-upon price and on an agreed-upon future date. A Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with financial institutions. The Funds follow certain procedures designed to minimize the risks inherent in such agreements. These procedures include effecting repurchase transactions only with large, well-capitalized and well-established financial institutions deemed creditworthy by SIMC or a Sub-Adviser. The repurchase agreements entered into by a Fund will provide that the underlying collateral at all times shall have a value at least equal to 102% of the resale price stated in the agreement at all times. SIMC and the applicable Sub-Advisers monitor compliance with this requirement as well as the ongoing financial condition and creditworthiness of the counterparty.

Under all repurchase agreements entered into by a Fund, the Fund's custodian or its agent must take possession of the underlying collateral. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution,


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a Fund will seek to liquidate such collateral. However, the exercising of a Fund's right to liquidate such collateral could involve certain costs or delays and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale upon a default of the obligation to repurchase are less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss. A Fund may enter into "tri-party" repurchase agreements. In "tri-party" repurchase agreements, an unaffiliated third party custodian maintains accounts to hold collateral for the Fund and its counterparties and, therefore, the Fund may be subject to the credit risk of those custodians. At times, the investments of a Fund in repurchase agreements may be substantial when, in the view of SIMC or the Sub-Adviser(s), liquidity or other considerations so warrant.

RESTRICTED SECURITIES—Restricted securities are securities that may not be sold freely to the public without registration under the 1933 Act or an exemption from registration. Restricted securities, including securities eligible for re-sale under Rule 144A of the 1933 Act, that are determined to be liquid are not subject to a Fund's limitation on investing in illiquid securities. The determination of whether a restricted security is illiquid is to be made by SIMC or a Sub-Adviser pursuant to guidelines adopted by the Board. Under these guidelines, SIMC or a Sub-Adviser will consider the frequency of trades and quotes for the security, the number of dealers in, and potential purchasers for, the security, dealer undertakings to make a market in the security, and the nature of the security and of the marketplace trades. In purchasing such restricted securities, SIMC and each Sub-Adviser intends to purchase securities that are exempt from registration under Rule 144A under the 1933 Act and Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper issued in reliance on an exemption from registration under Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act, including, but not limited to, Rules 506(b) or 506(c) under Regulation D.

Private Investments in Public Equity—A Fund may purchase PIPEs, which are equity securities in a private placement that are issued by issuers that have outstanding publicly-traded equity securities of the same class. Shares in PIPEs generally are not publicly registered until after a certain time period from the date the private sale is completed, which can last many months. Until the public registration process is completed, PIPEs are restricted as to resale and cannot be freely traded. Generally, such restrictions cause PIPEs to be illiquid during this restricted period. PIPEs may contain provisions that the issuer will pay specified financial penalties to the holder if the issuer does not publicly register the restricted equity securities within a specified period of time, but there is no assurance that the restricted equity securities will be publicly registered or that the registration will remain in effect.

REVERSE REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS AND SALE-BUYBACKS—Reverse repurchase agreements are transactions in which a Fund sells portfolio securities to financial institutions, such as banks and broker-dealers, and agrees to repurchase them at a mutually agreed-upon date and price that is higher than the original sale price. Reverse repurchase agreements are similar to a fully collateralized borrowing by a Fund. Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act permits a Fund to enter into reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions, notwithstanding the limitation on the issuance of senior securities in Section 18 of the 1940 Act. The Rule permits a Fund to elect whether to treat a reverse repurchase agreement as a borrowing, subject to the asset coverage requirements of Section 18 of the Act, or as a Derivative Transactions under Rule 18f-4. The Funds have elected to treat all reverse repurchase agreements as Derivatives Transactions. See "Derivatives" above.

Reverse repurchase agreements involve risks. Reverse repurchase agreements are a form of leverage, and the use of reverse repurchase agreements by a Fund may increase the Fund's volatility. Reverse repurchase agreements are also subject to the risk that the other party to the reverse repurchase agreement will be unable or unwilling to complete the transaction as scheduled, which may result in losses to a Fund. Reverse repurchase agreements also involve the risk that the market value of the securities sold by a Fund may decline below the price at which it is obligated to repurchase the securities. In addition, when a Fund invests the proceeds it receives in a reverse repurchase transaction, there is a risk that those investments may decline in value. In this circumstance, the Fund could be required to sell other investments in order to meet its obligations to repurchase the securities.

In a sale-buyback transaction, a Fund sells an underlying security for settlement at a later date. A sale-buyback is similar to a reverse repurchase agreement, except that in a sale-buyback the counterparty who purchases the security is entitled to receive any principal or interest payments made on the underlying security pending settlement of the Fund's repurchase of the underlying security.


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RISKS OF CYBER-ATTACKS—As with any entity that conducts business through electronic means in the modern marketplace, the Funds, and their service providers, may be susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized monitoring, release, misuse, loss, destruction or corruption of confidential information, unauthorized access to relevant systems, compromises to networks or devices that the Funds and their service providers use to service the Funds' operations, ransomware, operational disruption or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support the Funds and their service providers, or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund, SIMC or any of the Sub-Advisers, a Fund's distributor, custodian, transfer agent, or any other of a Fund's intermediaries or service providers may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders, potentially resulting in, among other things, financial losses or the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Fund's ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede trading, subject the Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. The Funds may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes designed to mitigate or prevent the risk of cyber-attacks. Such costs may be ongoing because threats of cyber-attacks are constantly evolving as cyber attackers become more sophisticated and their techniques become more complex. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which a Fund may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause the Fund's investment in such companies to lose value. There can be no assurance that the Funds, the Funds' service providers, or the issuers of the securities in which the Funds invest will not suffer losses relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches in the future. A Fund may also experience losses due to systems failures or inadequate system back-up or procedures at the brokerage firm(s) carrying the Fund's positions.

SECURITIES LENDING—Each Fund may lend portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other financial organizations that meet capital and other credit requirements or other criteria established by the Board. These loans, if and when made, may not exceed 331/3% of the total asset value of the Fund (including the loan collateral). No Fund will lend portfolio securities to SIMC nor its Sub-Advisers or their affiliates unless it has applied for and received specific authority to do so from the SEC. Loans of portfolio securities will be fully collateralized by cash, letters of credit or U.S. Government securities, and the collateral will be maintained in an amount equal to at least 100% of the current market value of the loaned securities by marking to market daily, although the borrower will be required to deliver collateral of 102% and 105% of the market value of borrowed securities for domestic and foreign issuers, respectively. Any gain or loss in the market price of the securities loaned that might occur during the term of the loan would be for the account of the Fund.

A Fund may pay a part of the interest earned from the investment of collateral or other fee to an unaffiliated third party for acting as the Fund's securities lending agent.

By lending its securities, a Fund may increase its income by receiving payments from the borrower that reflect the amount of any interest or any dividends payable on the loaned securities, as well as by either investing cash collateral received from the borrower in short-term instruments or obtaining a fee from the borrower when U.S. Government securities or letters of credit are used as collateral. Each Fund will adhere to the following conditions whenever its portfolio securities are loaned: (i) the Fund must receive at least 100% cash collateral or equivalent securities of the type discussed in the preceding paragraph from the borrower; (ii) the borrower must increase such collateral whenever the market value of the securities rises above the level of such collateral; (iii) the Fund must be able to terminate the loan on demand; (iv) the Fund must receive reasonable interest on the loan, as well as any dividends, interest or other distributions on the loaned securities and any increase in market value; (v) the Fund may pay only reasonable fees in connection with the loan (which may include fees payable to the lending agent, the borrower, the administrator and the custodian); and (vi) voting rights on the loaned securities may pass to the borrower, provided, however, that if a material event adversely affecting the investment occurs, the Fund must terminate the loan and regain the right to vote the securities. The Board has adopted procedures reasonably designed to ensure that the foregoing criteria will be met. Loan agreements involve certain risks in the event of default or insolvency of the borrower, including possible delays or restrictions upon the Fund's ability to recover the loaned securities or dispose of the collateral for the loan, which could


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give rise to loss because of adverse market action, expenses and/or delays in connection with the disposition of the underlying securities.

A Fund may invest the cash received as collateral through loan transactions in other eligible securities, which may include shares of an affiliated or unaffiliated registered money market fund or of an affiliated or unaffiliated unregistered money market fund that complies with the requirements of Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act to the extent required by the 1940 Act (see the "Investment Companies" section above). Money market funds may or may not seek to maintain a stable NAV of $1.00 per share. Investing the cash collateral subjects the Fund to market risk. A Fund remains obligated to return all collateral to the borrower under the terms of its securities lending arrangements even if the value of the investments made with the collateral has declined. Accordingly, if the value of a security in which the cash collateral has been invested declines, the loss would be borne by the Fund, and the Fund may be required to liquidate other investments in order to return collateral to the borrower at the end of a loan.

The cash collateral may be invested in the Liquidity Fund, an affiliated unregistered money market fund managed by SIMC and operated in accordance with Rule 12d1-1 under the 1940 Act. Although the Liquidity Fund is not registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act, it intends to operate as a money market fund in compliance with Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act to the extent required by Rule 12d1-1 under the 1940 Act. The Liquidity Fund does not seek to maintain a stable NAV, and therefore its NAV will fluctuate. The cash collateral invested in the Liquidity Fund may be subject to the risk of loss in the underlying investments of the Liquidity Fund. When a Fund invests in the Liquidity Fund, it will bear a pro rata portion of the Liquidity Fund's expenses, which includes fees paid to SIMC or its affiliates.

SHORT SALES—Short sales may be used by a Fund as part of its overall portfolio management strategies or to offset (hedge) a potential decline in the value of a security. A Fund may engage in short sales that are either "against the box" or "uncovered." A short sale is "against the box" if, at all times during which the short position is open, the Fund owns at least an equal amount of the securities or securities convertible into, or exchangeable without further consideration for, securities of the same issue as the securities that are sold short. A short sale against the box is a taxable transaction to a Fund with respect to the securities that are sold short. Uncovered short sales are transactions under which a Fund sells a security it does not own. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing the security at the market price at the time of the replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay the lender amounts equal to any dividends or interest that accrue during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund may also be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The proceeds of the short sale may be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. Pursuant to its particular investment strategy, a Sub-Adviser may have a net short exposure in the portfolio of assets allocated to the Sub-Adviser.

When a Fund sells securities short, it may use the proceeds from the sales to purchase long positions in additional equity securities that it believes will outperform the market or its peers. This strategy may effectively result in the Fund having a leveraged investment portfolio, which results in greater potential for loss. Leverage can amplify the effects of market volatility on a Fund's share price and make a Fund's returns more volatile. This is because leverage tends to exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of a Fund's portfolio securities. The use of leverage may also cause a Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligations.

A Fund must comply with Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act with respect to its short sale borrowings, which are considered Derivative Transactions under the Rule. See "Derivatives" above.

SOVEREIGN DEBT—The cost of servicing external debt will also generally be adversely affected by rising international interest rates because many external debt obligations bear interest at rates that are adjusted based upon international interest rates. The ability to service external debt will also depend on the level of the relevant government's international currency reserves and its access to a foreign exchange. Currency


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devaluations may affect the ability of a sovereign obligor to obtain sufficient foreign exchange to service its external debt.

As a result of the foregoing or other factors, a governmental obligor may default on its obligations. If such an event occurs, a Fund may have limited legal recourse against the issuer and/or guarantor. Remedies must, in some cases, be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party itself, and the ability of the holder of foreign sovereign debt securities to obtain recourse may be subject to the political climate in the relevant country. In addition, no assurance can be given that the holders of commercial bank debt will not contest payments to the holders of other foreign sovereign debt obligations in the event of default under their commercial bank loan agreements.

STRUCTURED SECURITIES—Certain Funds may invest a portion of their assets in entities organized and operated solely for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of sovereign debt obligations of emerging market issuers. This type of restructuring involves the deposit with, or purchase by, an entity, such as a corporation or trust, of specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans or Brady Bonds) and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities ("Structured Securities") backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued Structured Securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities and interest rate provisions, and the extent of the payments made with respect to Structured Securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. Because Structured Securities of the type in which the Funds anticipate they will invest typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk will generally be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments. A Fund is permitted to invest in a class of Structured Securities that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated Structured Securities typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated Structured Securities. Structured Securities are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for Structured Securities. Certain issuers of such Structured Securities may be deemed to be "investment companies" as defined in the 1940 Act. As a result, a Fund's investment in such securities may be limited by certain investment restrictions contained in the 1940 Act.

SWAPS, CAPS, FLOORS, COLLARS AND SWAPTIONS—Swaps are centrally-cleared or OTC derivative products in which two parties agree to exchange payment streams calculated by reference to an underlying asset, such as a rate, index, instrument or securities (referred to as the "underlying") and a predetermined amount (referred to as the "notional amount"). The underlying for a swap may be an interest rate (fixed or floating), a currency exchange rate, a commodity price index, a security, group of securities or a securities index, a combination of any of these, or various other rates, securities, instruments, assets or indexes. Swap agreements generally do not involve the delivery of the underlying or principal, and a party's obligations are generally equal to only the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the swap agreement.

A great deal of flexibility is possible in the way swaps may be structured. For example, in a simple fixed-to-floating interest rate swap, one party makes payments equivalent to a fixed interest rate, and the other party makes payments calculated with reference to a specified floating interest rate, such as LIBOR or the prime rate. In a currency swap, the parties generally enter into an agreement to pay interest streams in one currency based on a specified rate in exchange for receiving interest streams denominated in another currency. Currency swaps may involve initial and final exchanges of the currency that correspond to the agreed upon notional amount. The use of currency swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves special investment techniques and risks, including settlement risk, non-business day risk, the risk that trading hours may not align, and the risk of market disruptions and restrictions due to government action or other factors.

A Fund may engage in simple or more complex swap transactions involving a wide variety of underlying assets for various reasons. For example, a Fund may enter into a swap (i) to gain exposure to investments (such as an index of securities in a market) or currencies without actually purchasing those stocks or currencies; (ii) to make an investment without owning or taking physical custody of securities or currencies in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable; (iii) to hedge an existing


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position; (iv) to obtain a particular desired return at a lower cost to the Fund than if it had invested directly in an instrument that yielded the desired return; or (v) for various other reasons.

Certain Funds may enter into credit default swaps as a buyer or a seller. The buyer in a credit default contract is obligated to pay the seller a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided no event of default has occurred. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value ("par value") of the underlying in exchange for the underlying. If a Fund is a buyer and no event of default occurs, the Fund will have made a stream of payments to the seller without having benefited from the default protection it purchased. However, if an event of default occurs, the Fund, as a buyer, will receive the full notional value of the underlying that may have little or no value following default. As a seller, a Fund receives a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the contract, provided there is no default. If an event of default occurs, the Fund would be obligated to pay the notional value of the underlying in return for the receipt of the underlying. The value of the underlying received by the Fund, coupled with the periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund. Credit default swaps involve different risks than if a Fund invests in the underlying directly. For example, credit default swaps would increase credit risk by providing the Fund with exposure to both the issuer of the referenced obligation (typically a debt obligation) and the counterparty to the credit default swap. Credit default swaps may in some cases be illiquid. Furthermore, the definition of a "credit event" triggering the seller's payment obligations under a credit default swap may not encompass all of the circumstances in which the buyer may suffer credit-related losses on an obligation of a referenced entity.

The Funds may enter into total return swap agreements. Total return swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments based on the change in market value of underlying assets, which may include a specified security, basket of securities, defined portfolios of bonds, loans and mortgages, or securities indexes during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or market.

Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to a Fund's portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. Total return swaps are a mechanism for the user to accept the economic benefits of asset ownership without utilizing the balance sheet. The other leg of the swap, is spread to reflect the non-balance sheet nature of the product. Total return swaps can be designed with any underlying asset agreed between two parties. Typically, no notional amounts are exchanged with total return swaps. Total return swap agreements entail the risk that a party will default on its payment obligations to the Fund thereunder. Swap agreements also entail the risk that a Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty. Generally, a Fund will enter into total return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). Fully funded total return swaps have economic and risk characteristics similar to credit-linked notes, which are described above.

Caps, floors, collars and swaptions are privately-negotiated option-based derivative products. Like a put or call option, the buyer of a cap or floor pays a premium to the writer. In exchange for that premium, the buyer receives the right to a payment equal to the differential if the specified index or rate rises above (in the case of a cap) or falls below (in the case of a floor) a pre-determined strike level. Like swaps, obligations under caps and floors are calculated based upon an agreed notional amount, and, like most swaps (other than foreign currency swaps), the entire notional amount is not exchanged. A collar is a combination product in which one party buys a cap from and sells a floor to another party. Swaptions give the holder the right to enter into a swap. A Fund may use one or more of these derivative products in addition to or in lieu of a swap involving a similar rate or index.

Under current market practice, swaps, caps, collars and floors between the same two parties are generally documented under a "master agreement." In some cases, options and forward contracts between the parties may also be governed by the same master agreement. In the event of a default, amounts owed under all transactions entered into under, or covered by, the same master agreement would be netted, and only a single payment would be made.


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Generally, a Fund would calculate the obligations of the swap agreements' counterparties on a "net basis." Consequently, a Fund's current obligation (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty to the swap agreement (the "net amount"). A Fund's current obligation under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund).

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents using standardized swap agreements. As a result, the use of swaps has become more prevalent in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments that are also traded in OTC markets.

Swaps and other derivatives involve risks. One significant risk in a swap, cap, floor, collar or swaption is the volatility of the specific interest rate, currency or other underlying that determines the amount of payments due to and from a Fund. This is true whether these derivative products are used to create additional risk exposure for a Fund or to hedge, or manage, existing risk exposure. If under a swap, cap, floor, collar or swaption agreement a Fund is obligated to make a payment to the counterparty, the Fund must be prepared to make the payment when due. A Fund could suffer losses with respect to such an agreement if the Fund is unable to terminate the agreement or reduce its exposure through offsetting transactions. Further, the risks of caps, floors and collars, like put and call options, may be unlimited for the seller if the cap or floor is not hedged or covered, but is limited for the buyer.

Because under swap, cap, floor, collar and swaption agreements a counterparty may be obligated to make payments to a Fund, these derivative products are subject to risks related to the counterparty's creditworthiness, in addition to other risks discussed in this SAI. If a counterparty defaults, a Fund's risk of loss will consist of any payments that the Fund is entitled to receive from the counterparty under the agreement (this may not be true for currency swaps that require the delivery of the entire notional amount of one designated currency in exchange for the other). Upon default by a counterparty, however, a Fund may have contractual remedies under the swap agreement.

A Fund will enter into swaps only with counterparties that SIMC or a Sub-Adviser believes to be creditworthy.

The swap market is a relatively new market for which regulations are still being developed. The Dodd-Frank Act has substantially altered and increased the regulation of swaps. Swaps are broadly defined in the Dodd-Frank Act, CFTC rules and SEC rules, and also include commodity options and NDFs. Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act divided the regulation of swaps between commodity swaps (such as swaps on interest rates, currencies, physical commodities, broad based stock indexes, and broad based credit default swap indexes), regulated by the CFTC, and security based swaps (such as equity swaps and single name credit default swaps), regulated by the SEC. The CFTC will determine which categories of swaps will be required to be traded on regulated exchange-like platforms, such as swap execution facilities, and which will be required to be centrally cleared. Cleared swaps must be cleared through futures commission merchants registered with the CFTC, and such futures commission merchants will be required to collect margin from customers for such cleared swaps. Additionally, all swaps are subject to reporting to a swap data repository. Dealers in swaps are required to register with the CFTC as swap dealers and are required to comply with extensive regulations regarding their external and internal business conduct practices, regulatory capital requirements, and rules regarding the holding of counterparty collateral.

U.S. GOVERNMENT SECURITIES—Examples of types of U.S. Government obligations in which a Fund may invest include U.S. Treasury obligations and the obligations of U.S. Government agencies or U.S. Government sponsored entities such as Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Farm Credit Banks, Federal Land Banks, the FHA, the Farmers Home Administration, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Small Business Administration, Fannie Mae, GNMA, the General Services Administration, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the Central Bank for Cooperatives, Freddie Mac, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Maritime Administration and other similar agencies. Whether backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury or not, U.S. Government securities are not guaranteed against price movements due to fluctuating interest rates.


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If the total public debt of the U.S. Government as a percentage of gross domestic product reaches high levels as a result of combating financial downturn or otherwise, such high levels of debt may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt level may increase market pressures to meet government funding needs, which may increase borrowing costs and cause a government to issue additional debt, thereby increasing the risk of refinancing. A high national debt also raises concerns that a government may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest on its debt when due. Unsustainable debt levels can decline the valuation of currencies, can prevent a government from implementing effective counter-cyclical fiscal policy during economic downturns, and can contribute to market volatility.

An increase in national debt levels may also necessitate the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. Government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. Future downgrades could increase volatility in domestic and foreign financial markets, result in higher interest rates, lower prices of U.S. Treasury securities and increase the costs of different kinds of debt. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected. Although remote, it is at least theoretically possible that under certain scenarios the U.S. Government could default on its debt, including U.S. Treasury securities.

Receipts. Receipts are interests in separately-traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. Government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. Government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. TRs and STRIPS are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, which means that they are sold at a substantial discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal.

U.S. Treasury Obligations. U.S. Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry systems known as STRIPS and TRs.

U.S. Government Zero Coupon Securities. STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities; that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturities and credit qualities.

U.S. Government Agencies. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies of the U.S. Government are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury (e.g., Treasury bills, notes and bonds, and securities guaranteed by GNMA), others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury (e.g., obligations of Federal Home Loan Banks), while still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality (e.g., obligations of Fannie Mae). Guarantees of principal by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government may be a guarantee of payment at the maturity of the obligation so that, in the event of a default prior to maturity, there might not be a market and thus no means of realizing on the obligation prior to maturity. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest neither extend to the value or yield of these securities nor to the value of a Fund's shares.

VARIABLE AND FLOATING RATE INSTRUMENTS—Certain obligations may carry variable or floating rates of interest and may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature. Such instruments bear interest at rates that are not fixed, but that vary with changes in specified market rates or indexes. The interest rates on


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these securities may be reset daily, weekly, quarterly, or some other reset period. There is a risk that the current interest rate on such obligations may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.

WHEN-ISSUED AND DELAYED DELIVERY SECURITIES—When-issued and delayed delivery basis, including "TBA" (to be announced) basis, transactions involve the purchase of an instrument with payment and delivery taking place in the future. Delivery of and payment for these securities may occur a month or more after the date of the purchase commitment. A TBA transaction is a method of trading mortgage-backed securities. In a TBA transaction, the buyer and seller agree upon general trade parameters such as agency, settlement date, par amount and price. The actual pools delivered generally are determined two days prior to the settlement date. The interest rate realized on these securities is fixed as of the purchase date, and no interest accrues to a Fund before settlement. These securities are subject to market fluctuation due to changes in market interest rates, and it is possible that the market value of these securities at the time of settlement could be higher or lower than the purchase price if the general level of interest rates has changed. Although a Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis with the intention of actually acquiring securities for its portfolio, the Fund may dispose of a when-issued security or forward commitment prior to settlement if SIMC or a Sub-Adviser deems it appropriate. Rule 18f-4 under 1940 Act permits a Fund to enter into when-issued or delayed delivery basis securities notwithstanding the limitation on the issuance of senior securities in Section 18 of the 1940 Act, provided that the Fund intends to physically settle the transaction and the transaction will settle within 35 days of its trade date. If a when-issued or delayed delivery basis security does not satisfy those requirements, the Fund would need to comply with Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act with respect to its when issued or delayed delivery transactions, which are considered Derivative Transactions under the Rule. See "Derivatives" above.

YANKEE OBLIGATIONS—Yankees are U.S. dollar-denominated instruments of foreign issuers who either register with the SEC or issue securities under Rule 144A of the 1933 Act. These obligations consist of debt securities (including preferred or preference stock of non-governmental issuers), certificates of deposit, fixed time deposits and bankers' acceptances issued by foreign banks, and debt obligations of foreign governments or their subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities, international agencies and supranational entities. Some securities issued by foreign governments or their subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the foreign government.

The Yankees selected for a Fund will adhere to the same quality standards as those utilized for the selection of domestic debt obligations.

ZERO COUPON SECURITIES—Zero coupon securities are securities that are sold at a discount to par value and securities on which interest payments are not made during the life of the security. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the par value of the security. Although interest payments are not made on such securities, holders of such securities are deemed to have received "phantom income" annually. Because a Fund will distribute its "phantom income" to shareholders, to the extent that shareholders elect to receive dividends in cash rather than reinvesting such dividends in additional shares, a Fund will have fewer assets with which to purchase income producing securities. Pay-in-kind securities pay interest in either cash or additional securities, at the issuer's option, for a specified period. Pay-in-kind bonds, like zero coupon bonds, are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. Pay-in-kind bonds are expected to reflect the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last payment. Pay-in-kind bonds are usually less volatile than zero coupon bonds, but more volatile than cash pay securities. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by delivery of additional securities. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the aggregate par value of the securities. Deferred payment securities are securities that remain zero coupon securities until a predetermined date, at which time the stated coupon rate becomes effective and interest becomes payable at regular intervals.

Zero coupon, pay-in-kind and deferred payment securities may be subject to greater fluctuation in value and lesser liquidity in the event of adverse market conditions than comparably rated securities paying cash interest at regular interest payment periods. STRIPS and receipts (TRs, TIGRs, LYONs and CATS) are sold as


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zero coupon securities; that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturities but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturities and credit qualities.

Corporate zero coupon securities are: (i) notes or debentures that do not pay current interest and are issued at substantial discounts from par value; or (ii) notes or debentures that pay no current interest until a stated date one or more years into the future, after which date the issuer is obligated to pay interest until maturity, usually at a higher rate than if interest were payable from the date of issuance, and may also make interest payments in kind (e.g., with identical zero coupon securities). Such corporate zero coupon securities, in addition to the risks identified above, are subject to the risk of the issuer's failure to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation. A Fund must accrete the discount or interest on high-yield bonds structured as zero coupon securities as income even though it does not receive a corresponding cash interest payment until the security's maturity or payment date. For tax purposes, original issue discount that accretes in a taxable year is treated as earned by a Fund and therefore is subject to the distribution requirements applicable to the RICs under Subchapter M of the Code. A Fund may have to dispose of its securities under disadvantageous circumstances to generate cash or may have to leverage itself by borrowing cash to satisfy distribution requirements. A Fund accrues income with respect to the securities prior to the receipt of cash payments.

INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS

The following are fundamental and non-fundamental policies of the Funds. The following percentage limitations (except for the limitation on borrowing and illiquid investments) will apply at the time of the purchase of a security and shall not be considered violated unless an excess of deficiency occurs immediately after or as a result of a purchase of such security.

Fundamental Policies

The following investment limitations are fundamental policies of each Fund, which cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the consent of the holders of a majority of the Fund's outstanding shares. The term "majority of outstanding shares" means the vote of: (i) 67% or more of the Fund's shares present at a meeting, if more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy; or (ii) more than 50% of the Fund's outstanding shares, whichever is less.

Each of the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds may not:

  1.  Purchase securities of an issuer if it would cause the Fund to fail to satisfy the diversification requirement for a diversified management company under the 1940 Act, the rules or regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time. This investment limitation does not apply to the Emerging Markets Debt or International Fixed Income Funds.

  2.  Concentrate investments in a particular industry or group of industries, as concentration is defined under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.

  3.  Borrow money or issue senior securities (as defined under the 1940 Act), except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.


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  4.  Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.

  5.  Purchase or sell commodities or real estate, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.

  6.  Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder or any exemption therefrom, as such statute, rules or regulations may be amended or interpreted from time to time.

  7.  With respect to the International Fixed Income Fund, acquire more than 10% of the voting securities of any one issuer.

Non-Fundamental Policies

The following investment limitations are non-fundamental policies and may be changed by the Board without a vote of shareholders.

Each of the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity and Emerging Markets Debt Funds may not:

  1.  Pledge, mortgage or hypothecate assets, except to secure permitted borrowings or in relation to the deposit of assets in escrow or in segregated accounts in compliance with applicable law or as otherwise contractually required.

  2.  Purchase securities on margin or effect short sales, except that each Fund may: (i) obtain short-term credits as necessary for the clearance of security transactions; (ii) provide initial and variation margin payments in connection with transactions involving futures contracts and options on such contracts; and (iii) make short sales "against the box" or in compliance with applicable law or as otherwise contractually required.

  3.  Purchase or hold illiquid investments, i.e., any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold in current market conditions in seven calendar days without significantly changing the market value of the investment, if, in the aggregate, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in illiquid securities.

  4.  With respect to 75% of its total assets: (i) purchase securities of any issuer (except securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, more than 5% of its total assets would be invested in the securities of such issuer; or (ii) acquire more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer. This limitation does not apply to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund.

  5.  Purchase any securities that would cause 25% or more of the total assets of the Fund to be invested in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry, provided that this limitation does not apply to investments in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.

  6.  Borrow money in an amount exceeding 331/3% of the value of its total assets, provided that, for purposes of this limitation, investment strategies that either obligate a Fund to purchase securities or require a Fund to segregate assets are not considered to be borrowings. To the extent its borrowings exceed 5% of its assets: (i) all borrowings will be repaid before a Fund makes additional investments and any interest paid on such borrowings will reduce income; and (ii) asset coverage of at least 300% is required in accordance with applicable SEC or SEC staff positions.

  7.  Make loans if, as a result, more than 331/3% of its total assets would be lent to other parties, except that each Fund may: (i) purchase or hold debt instruments in accordance with its investment objective and policies; (ii) enter into repurchase agreements; (iii) lend its securities; and (iv) participate in the SEI Funds inter-fund lending program.


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  8.  Purchase or sell real estate, physical commodities or commodities contracts, except that each Fund may purchase: (i) marketable securities issued by companies that own or invest in real estate (including REITs), commodities or commodities contracts; and (ii) commodities contracts relating to financial instruments, such as financial futures contracts and options on such contracts.

  9.  Issue senior securities (as defined in the 1940 Act), except as permitted by rule, regulation or order of the SEC.

  10.  With respect to the International Equity Fund, invest less than 80% of its net assets, under normal circumstances, in equity securities. This non-fundamental policy may be changed by the Board with at least 60 days' notice to the International Equity Fund's shareholders.

  11.  With respect to the Emerging Markets Equity Fund, invest less than 80% of its net assets, under normal circumstances, in equity securities of emerging market issuers. This non-fundamental policy may be changed by the Board with at least 60 days' notice to the Emerging Markets Equity Fund's shareholders.

  12.  With respect to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund, invest less than 80% of its net assets, under normal circumstances, in fixed income securities of emerging markets issuers. This non-fundamental policy may be changed by the Board with at least 60 days' notice to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund's shareholders.

The International Fixed Income Fund may purchase or sell financial and physical commodities, commodity contracts based on (or relating to) physical commodities or financial commodities and securities and derivative instruments whose values are derived from (in whole or in part) physical commodities or financial commodities.

The International Fixed Income Fund may not:

  1.  Purchase any securities that would cause 25% or more of the total assets of the Fund to be invested in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry, provided that this limitation does not apply to investments in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.

  2.  Borrow money, except for temporary or emergency purposes, and then only in an amount not exceeding 10% of the value of the total assets of the Fund. This borrowing provision is included solely to facilitate the orderly sale of portfolio securities to accommodate substantial redemption requests if they should occur and is not for investment purposes. All borrowings will be repaid before the Fund makes additional investments and any interest paid on such borrowings will reduce the income of the Fund.

  3.  Pledge, mortgage or hypothecate assets, except to secure temporary borrowings as described in its Prospectuses in aggregate amounts not to exceed 10% of the net assets of such Fund taken at current value at the time of the incurrence of such loan.

  4.  Make loans, except that the Fund may: (i) enter into repurchase agreements, provided that repurchase agreements and time deposits maturing in more than seven days, and other illiquid securities, including securities that are not readily marketable or are restricted, are not to exceed, in the aggregate, 15% of the Fund's total assets; (ii) engage in securities lending as described in its Prospectuses and in the SAI; (iii) purchase or hold debt securities in accordance with its investment objectives and policies; and (iv) participate in the SEI Fund inter-fund lending program.

  5.  Make short sales of securities, maintain a short position or purchase securities on margin, except as described in the Prospectuses and except that the Trust may obtain short-term credits as necessary for the clearance of security transactions.

  6.  Issue senior securities (as defined in the 1940 Act), except in connection with permitted borrowing as described in the Prospectuses and this SAI or as permitted by rule, regulation or order of the SEC.

  7.  Purchase illiquid securities (i.e., securities that cannot be disposed of for their approximate carrying value in seven days or less (which term includes repurchase agreements and time deposits maturity in more than seven days)), if, in the aggregate, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in illiquid securities.


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  8.  Invest less than 80% of its net assets, under normal circumstances, in fixed income securities. This non-fundamental policy may be changed by the Board with at least 60 days' notice to the International Fixed Income Fund's shareholders.

The following descriptions of the 1940 Act may assist shareholders in understanding the above policies and restrictions.

Diversification. Under the 1940 Act, a diversified investment management company, as to 75% of its total assets, may not purchase securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agents or instrumentalities or securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, more than 5% of its total assets would be invested in the securities of such issuer, or more than 10% of the issuer's outstanding voting securities would be held by the fund.

Concentration. The SEC has presently defined concentration as investing 25% or more of an investment company's net assets in an industry or group of industries, with certain exceptions.

For purposes of the industry concentration limitations discussed above, these definitions apply to each Fund: (i) utility companies will be divided according to their services, for example, gas, gas transmission, electric and telephone will each be considered a separate industry; (ii) financial service companies will be classified according to end users of their services, for example, automobile finance, bank finance and diversified finance will each be considered a separate industry; (iii) supranational agencies, such as the World Bank or any affiliate thereof or the United Nations, or related entities, will be deemed to be issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry; and (iv) governmental issuers within a particular country will be deemed to be conducting their principal business in the same industry.

Borrowing. The 1940 Act presently allows a fund to borrow from any bank (including pledging, mortgaging or hypothecating assets) in an amount up to 331/3% of its total assets, including the amount borrowed (not including temporary borrowings not in excess of 5% of its total assets).

Senior Securities. Senior securities may include any obligation or instrument issued by a fund evidencing indebtedness. The 1940 Act generally prohibits funds from issuing senior securities, although it does not treat certain transactions as senior securities, such as certain borrowings, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements, firm commitment agreements and standby commitments.

Lending. Under the 1940 Act, a fund may only make loans if expressly permitted by its investment policies. Each Fund's non-fundamental investment policy on lending is set forth above.

Underwriting. Under the 1940 Act, underwriting securities involves a fund purchasing securities directly from an issuer for the purpose of selling (distributing) them or participating in any such activity either directly or indirectly. Under the 1940 Act, a diversified fund may not make any commitment as underwriter, if immediately thereafter the amount of its outstanding underwriting commitments, plus the value of its investments in securities of issuers (other than investment companies) of which it owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities, exceeds 25% of the value of its total assets.

Real Estate. The 1940 Act does not directly restrict a fund's ability to invest in real estate, but does require that every fund have a fundamental investment policy governing such investments. The International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds have adopted a fundamental policy that would permit direct investment in real estate. However, the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds have a non-fundamental investment limitation that prohibits them from investing directly in real estate. This non-fundamental policy may be changed only by vote of each Fund's Board.

THE ADMINISTRATOR AND TRANSFER AGENT

General. SEI Investments Global Funds Services (the "Administrator"), a Delaware statutory trust, has its principal business offices at One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. The Administrator also serves as the transfer agent for the Funds (the "Transfer Agent"). SIMC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI


S-56


Investments Company ("SEI"), is the owner of all beneficial interest in the Administrator and Transfer Agent. SEI and its subsidiaries and affiliates, including the Administrator, are leading providers of fund evaluation services, trust accounting systems, and brokerage and information services to financial institutions, institutional investors, and money managers. The Administrator and its affiliates also serve as administrator or sub-administrator to other mutual funds.

Administration Agreement with the Trust. The Trust and the Administrator have entered into an administration and transfer agency agreement (the "Administration Agreement"). Under the Administration Agreement, the Administrator provides the Trust with administrative and transfer agency services or employs certain other parties, including its affiliates, who provide such services. Such services generally include, but are not limited to:

•  maintaining books and records related to a Fund's cash and position reconciliations, and portfolio transactions;

•  preparation of financial statements and other reports for the Funds;

•  calculating the NAV of the Funds in accordance with the Funds' valuation policies and procedures;

•  tracking income and expense accruals and processing disbursements to vendors and service providers;

•  providing performance, financial and expense information for registration statements and board materials;

•  providing certain tax monitoring and reporting;

•  providing space, equipment, personnel and facilities;

•  maintaining share transfer records;

•  reviewing account opening documents and subscription and redemption requests;

•  calculating and distributing required ordinary income and capital gains distributions; and

•  providing anti-money laundering program services.

The Administration Agreement provides that the Administrator shall not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law or for any loss suffered by the Trust in connection with the matters to which the Administration Agreement relates, except a loss resulting from willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Administrator in the performance of its duties or from the reckless disregard of its duties and obligations thereunder.

The Administration Agreement shall remain effective for the initial term of the Agreement and each renewal term thereof unless earlier terminated: (i) by a vote of a majority of the Trustees of the Trust on not less than 60 days' written notice to the Administrator; or (ii) by the Administrator on not less than 90 days' written notice to the Trust.

Administration Fees. For its administrative services, the Administrator receives a fee, which is calculated based upon the average daily net assets of each Fund and paid monthly by the Trust. The annual rates are as set forth in the chart below:

   

Administration Fee

 

On the first $1.5 billion of Assets;

   

0.450

%

 

on the next $500 million of Assets;

   

0.370

%

 

on the next $500 million of Assets;

   

0.290

%

 

on the next $500 million of Assets;

   

0.210

%

 

on Assets over $3 billion.

   

0.130

%

 


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For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2021 and 2022 the following table shows: (i) the dollar amount of fees paid to the Administrator by each Fund; and (ii) the dollar amount of the Administrator's voluntary fee waivers and/or reimbursements.

    Administration Fees
Paid (000)
  Administration Fees Waived
or Reimbursed (000)
 

Fund

 

2020

 

2021

 

2022

 

2020

 

2021

 

2022

 
International Equity Fund  

$

12,323

   

$

13,103

   

$

12,724

   

$

0

   

$

0

   

$

0

   
Emerging Markets Equity Fund  

$

7,385

   

$

8,465

   

$

7,607

   

$

0

   

$

0

   

$

0

   
International Fixed Income Fund  

$

2,313

   

$

2,382

   

$

2,440

   

$

51

   

$

47

   

$

3

   
Emerging Markets Debt Fund  

$

6,849

   

$

6,884

   

$

6,299

   

$

300

   

$

252

   

$

388

   

THE ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISERS

General. SIMC serves as the investment adviser for the Funds. SIMC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI (NASDAQ: SEIC), a leading global provider of outsourced asset management, investment processing and investment operations solutions. The principal business address of SIMC and SEI is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. SEI was founded in 1968 and is a leading provider of investment solutions to banks, institutional investors, investment advisers and insurance companies. As of September 30, 2022, SIMC had approximately $171.43 billion in assets under management.

Manager of Managers Structure. SIMC is the investment adviser to the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds and operates as a "manager of managers." SIMC and the Trust have obtained an exemptive order from the SEC that permits SIMC, with the approval of the Trustees, to hire, retain or terminate sub-advisers unaffiliated with SIMC for the Funds without submitting the sub-advisory agreements to a vote of the Funds' shareholders. Among other things, the exemptive relief permits the disclosure of only the aggregate amount payable by SIMC under all such sub-advisory agreements. The Funds will notify shareholders in the event of any addition or change in the identity of its Sub-Advisers.

SIMC oversees the investment advisory services provided to the Funds and may manage the cash portion of the Funds' assets. Pursuant to separate sub-advisory agreements with SIMC, and under the supervision of SIMC and the Board, the sub-advisers to the Funds are generally responsible for the day-to-day investment management of all or a discrete portion of the assets of the Funds. Sub-advisers also are responsible for managing their employees who provide services to the Funds.

Subject to Board review, SIMC allocates and, when appropriate, reallocates the Funds' assets to the Sub-Advisers, monitors and evaluates the Sub-Advisers' performance and oversees the Sub-Advisers' compliance with the Funds' investment objectives, policies and restrictions. SIMC has the ultimate responsibility for the investment performance of the Funds due to its responsibility to oversee Sub-Advisers and recommend their hiring, termination and replacement.

Advisory and Sub-Advisory Agreements. The Trust and SIMC have entered into an investment advisory agreement (the "Advisory Agreement"). Pursuant to the Advisory Agreement, SIMC oversees the investment advisory services provided to the Funds and may manage the cash portion of the Funds' assets. Pursuant to separate sub-advisory agreements (the "Sub-Advisory Agreements" and, together with the Advisory Agreement, the "Investment Advisory Agreements") with SIMC, and under the supervision of SIMC and the Board, one or more Sub-Advisers are responsible for the day-to-day investment management of all or a discrete portion of the assets of the Funds. The Sub-Advisers also are responsible for managing their employees who provide services to the Funds.

Each Investment Advisory Agreement sets forth a standard of care, pursuant to which the Adviser or Sub-Adviser, as applicable, is responsible for performing services to the Funds, and also includes liability and indemnification provisions. In addition, certain of the Sub-Advisory Agreements provide that the Sub-Adviser shall not be protected against any liability to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or negligence on its part in the performance of its duties, or from reckless disregard of its obligations or duties thereunder.


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The continuance of each Investment Advisory Agreement after the first two (2) years must be specifically approved at least annually: (i) by the vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of that Fund or by the Trustees; and (ii) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to such Investment Advisory Agreement or "interested persons" of any party thereto, cast in-person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. Each Investment Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment and is terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or, with respect to a Fund, by a majority of the outstanding shares of that Fund, on not less than 30 days' nor more than 60 days' written notice to SIMC or the Fund's Sub-Adviser, as applicable, or by SIMC or the Fund's Sub-Adviser, as applicable, on 90 days' written notice to the Trust.

In accordance with a separate exemptive order that the Trust and SIMC have obtained from the SEC, the Board may approve a new sub-advisory agreement or a material amendment to an existing sub-advisory agreement at a meeting that is not in person, subject to certain conditions, including that the Trustees are able to participate in the meeting using a means of communication that allows them to hear each other simultaneously during the meeting.

Advisory and Sub-Advisory Fees. For these advisory services, SIMC receives a fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at the annual rates set forth in the table below (shown as a percentage of the average daily net assets of each Fund). SIMC then pays the Sub-Advisers out of its contractual advisory fee for sub-advisory services provided to the Funds. The rates paid to each Sub-Adviser vary. The aggregate sub-advisory fees paid by SIMC for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 are set forth below as a percentage of the average daily net assets of each Fund.

Fund Name

  Contractual
Advisory Fee
  Aggregate
Sub-Advisory Fees
Paid
 

International Equity Fund

   

0.51

%

   

0.27

%

 

Emerging Markets Equity Fund*

   

1.05

%

   

0.43

%

 

International Fixed Income Fund

   

0.30

%

   

0.16

%

 

Emerging Markets Debt Fund

   

0.85

%

   

0.37

%

 

*  SIMC has contractually agreed to waive its management fee as necessary to keep the management fee paid by the Emerging Markets Equity Fund during its fiscal year from exceeding 0.95%. This fee waiver agreement shall remain in effect until January 31, 2024 and, unless earlier terminated, shall be automatically renewed for successive one-year periods thereafter. The agreement may be amended or terminated only with the consent of the Board.

SIMC pays each Sub-Adviser a fee out of its advisory fee. Sub-Advisory fees are based on a percentage of the average daily net assets managed by the applicable Sub-Adviser.

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2021 and 2022, the following tables show: (i) the contractual advisory fees that SIMC is entitled to receive from each Fund; (ii) the dollar amount of SIMC's contractual and voluntary fee waivers; (iii) the dollar amount of fees paid to the Sub-Adviser by SIMC; and (iv) the dollar amount of the fees retained by SIMC.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022:

Fund Name

  Contractual
Advisory Fees (000)
  Advisory Fees
Waived (000)
  Sub-Advisory Fees
Paid (000)
  Advisory Fees
Retained
by SIMC (000)
 

International Equity Fund

 

$

21,459

   

$

0

   

$

11,679

   

$

9,780

   

Emerging Markets Equity Fund

 

$

18,190

   

$

1,732

   

$

7,475

   

$

8,983

   

International Fixed Income Fund

 

$

1,627

   

$

240

   

$

849

   

$

538

   

Emerging Markets Debt Fund

 

$

11,911

   

$

3,238

   

$

5,227

   

$

3,446

   


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For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021:

Fund Name

  Contractual
Advisory Fees (000)
  Advisory Fees
Waived (000)
  Sub-Advisory Fees
Paid (000)
  Advisory Fees
Retained
by SIMC (000)
 

International Equity Fund

 

$

22,949

   

$

0

   

$

12,475

   

$

10,474

   

Emerging Markets Equity Fund

 

$

20,683

   

$

1,970

   

$

8,528

   

$

10,185

   

International Fixed Income Fund

 

$

1,588

   

$

234

   

$

760

   

$

594

   

Emerging Markets Debt Fund

 

$

13,065

   

$

3,534

   

$

5,692

   

$

3,839

   

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020:

Fund Name

  Contractual
Advisory Fees (000)
  Advisory Fees
Waived (000)
  Sub-Advisory Fees
Paid (000)
  Advisory Fees
Retained
by SIMC (000)
 

International Equity Fund

 

$

19,891

   

$

0

   

$

11,533

   

$

8,358

   

Emerging Markets Equity Fund

 

$

17,597

   

$

1,676

   

$

7,380

   

$

8,541

   

International Fixed Income Fund

 

$

1,542

   

$

227

   

$

749

   

$

566

   

Emerging Markets Debt Fund

 

$

13,031

   

$

3,524

   

$

5,752

   

$

3,755

   

The Sub-Advisers

ACADIAN ASSET MANAGEMENT LLC—Acadian Asset Management LLC ("Acadian") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity Fund. Acadian was founded in 1986 and is a subsidiary of BrightSphere Affiliate Holdings LLC, which is an indirectly wholly-owned subsidiary of BrightSphere Investment Group Inc ("BSIG"), a publicly listed company on the NYSE.

ALLIANCEBERNSTEIN L.P.—AllianceBernstein L.P. ("AllianceBernstein") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Fixed Income Fund. AllianceBernstein is a Delaware limited partnership, the majority limited partnership units in which are held, directly and indirectly, by its parent company Equitable Holdings, Inc. ("EQH"), a publicly traded holding company for a diverse group of financial services companies. AllianceBernstein Corporation, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of EQH, is the general partner of both AllianceBernstein and AllianceBernstein Holding L.P., a publicly traded partnership. As of September 30, 2022, AllianceBernstein Holding L.P. owned approximately 36.5% of the issued and outstanding AllianceBernstein Units and Equitable Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries had an approximate 62.8% economic interest in AllianceBernstein (including both the general partnership and limited partnership interests in AllianceBernstein Holding L.P. and AllianceBernstein), and unaffiliated holders held approximately 0.7%.

CAUSEWAY CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LLC—Causeway Capital Management LLC ("Causeway") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity Fund. Causeway was founded in 2001 as a Delaware limited liability company, and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Causeway Capital Holdings LLC.

COLCHESTER GLOBAL INVESTORS LTD—Colchester Global Investors, Ltd ("Colchester") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. Colchester is majority employee-owned and is controlled by Ian Sims through his controlling ownership of its voting securities.

DELAWARE INVESTMENTS FUND ADVISERS, A SERIES OF MACQUARIE INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT BUSINESS TRUST—Delaware Investments Fund Advisers ("DIFA"), a series of Macquarie Investment Management Business Trust ("MIMBT"), serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity Fund. MIMBT is a subsidiary of Macquarie Management Holdings, Inc. ("MMHI"). MMHI is a subsidiary and subject to the ultimate control of Macquarie Group Limited ("Macquarie"). Macquarie is a Sydney, Australia-headquartered global provider of banking, financial, advisory, investment and funds management services. Macquarie Investment Management is the marketing name for certain companies comprising the asset management division of Macquarie. DIFA is responsible for day-to-day portfolio management of its portion of the Fund but may delegate certain of its duties to its affiliate, Macquarie Investment Management Global Limited ("MIMGL"). MIMGL is located at 50 Martin Place, Sydney, Australia 2000. DIFA and MIMGL are each U.S. registered investment advisers and are subsidiaries of Macquarie Group Limited. None of the entities noted


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is an authorized deposit-taking institution for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959 (Commonwealth of Australia) and the obligations of these entities do not represent deposits or other liabilities of Macquarie Bank Limited ABN 46 008 583 542 (Macquarie Bank). Macquarie Bank does not guarantee or otherwise provide assurance in respect of the obligations of these entities. In addition, if this document relates to an investment (a) each investor is subject to investment risk including possible delays in repayment and loss of income and principal invested and (b) none of Macquarie Bank or any other Macquarie Group company guarantees any particular rate of return on or the performance of the investment, nor do they guarantee repayment of capital in respect of the investment.

JOHCM (USA) Inc.—JOHCM (USA) Inc. ("JOHCM") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity and Emerging Markets Equity Funds. JOHCM, a Delaware corporation, is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Pendal Group Limited ("Pendal").

KBI GLOBAL INVESTORS (NORTH AMERICA) LTD—KBI Global Investors (North America) Ltd ("KBIGI (North America)") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. KBIGI (North America) is an Irish domiciled and incorporated company registered as an investment adviser with the SEC and regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland. It is a wholly-owned subsidiary of KBI Global Investors Ltd ("KBIGI Ltd"), an institutional asset manager headquartered in Dublin. Combined, KBIGI Ltd and KBIGI (North America) have a global client base with mandates in the UK, Europe, North America and Asia.

Established in 1980 as the Investment Management division of Ulster Bank Ltd, KBI Global Investors ("KBIGI"), the collective term for KBI Global Investors Dublin Ltd, and its wholly owned subsidiary, KBIGI (North America), have been managing assets for institutional clients for over 40 years—public and corporate pension schemes, sub-advisory investors, foundations and endowments, wealth managers, private banks and investment intermediaries included.

KBI Global Investors operated as Kleinwort Benson Investors ('KBI') until 1 September 2016, when it was acquired by Amundi Asset Management—the leading European asset manager. Amundi Asset Management owns a majority stake in KBI Global Investors Ltd., with KBI Global Investors employees taking a minority stake. Amundi Asset Management is, in turn, 100% owned by Amundi, which is listed on the French Stock Exchange and has more than €1trn in assets. KBI Global Investors Ltd. continues to operate autonomously within the Amundi group.

LAZARD ASSET MANAGEMENT LLC—Lazard Asset Management LLC ("Lazard") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity Fund. Lazard is a Delaware limited liability company. It is a subsidiary of Lazard Frères & Co. LLC, a New York limited liability company with one member, Lazard Group LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. Interests of Lazard Group LLC are held by Lazard Ltd., which is a Bermuda corporation with shares that are publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange.

MARATHON ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.—Marathon Asset Management, L.P. ("Marathon") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund. Marathon was formed in 1998 by Bruce Richards, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Louis Hanover, Chief Investment Officer. In 2003, Marathon became a U.S. SEC-registered investment adviser. As of June 2016, Blackstone Strategic Capital Holdings Fund, a vehicle managed by Blackstone Alternative Asset Management, owns a passive, minority interest in Marathon. Marathon maintains autonomy over its business management, operations, and investment processes.

NEUBERGER BERMAN INVESTMENT ADVISERS LLC—Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC ("NBIA") serves as the Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the Emerging Markets Equity and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. NBIA is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Neuberger Berman Group LLC ("NBG"). NBG's voting equity is owned by NBSH Acquisition, LLC ("NBSH"). NBSH is owned by portfolio managers, members of NBG's management team, and certain of NBG's key employees and senior professionals.

NINETY ONE UK LTD.—Ninety One UK Ltd. serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund. Ninety One UK Ltd. is a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Ninety One plc ("Ninety One"). Ninety One is a dual listed company incorporated under the laws of the United Kingdom. Ninety One UK Ltd is registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and


S-61


is authorized by the UK Financial Conduct Authority. Ninety One is an asset manager engaged in the business of managing investment portfolios for clients globally.

PZENA INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT, LLC—Pzena Investment Management, LLC (Pzena) serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity Fund. Based in New York, New York, Pzena was founded in 1996. The firm is 100% owned by its employee members and certain other partners, including former employees.

QTRON INVESTMENTS LLC—Qtron Investments LLC ("Qtron") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. Qtron was founded in 2016 by Mr. Ronald Hua and Dr. Dmitri Kantsyrev and is 100% employee owned. Mr. Hua and Dr. Kantsyrev are the only managing partners and share equal equity ownership.

ROBECO INSTITUTIONAL ASSET MANAGEMENT US INC.—Robeco Institutional Asset Management US Inc. ("Robeco") serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. Robeco has been registered with the SEC as an investment adviser since 1997. Robeco has been registered as a Delaware corporation since 1997.

STONE HARBOR INVESTMENT PARTNERS, A DIVISION OF VIRTUS FIXED INCOME ADVISERS, LLC—Stone Harbor Investment Partners, a division of Virtus Fixed Income Advisers, LLC ("Stone Harbor") serves as a Sub-Adviser to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund. Stone Harbor is a division of Virtus Fixed Income Advisers, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Virtus Investment Partners, Inc., a public company.

WCM INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT, LLC—WCM Investment Management, LLC ("WCM"), located at 281 Brooks Street, Laguna Beach, CA 92651, serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Equity Fund. WCM is an independent asset management firm, and was founded in 1976.

WELLINGTON MANAGEMENT COMPANY LLP—Wellington Management Company LLP ("Wellington Management"), a Delaware limited liability partnership with principal offices at 280 Congress Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, serves as a Sub-Adviser to a portion of the assets of the International Fixed Income Fund. Wellington Management is a professional investment counseling firm which provides investment services to investment companies, employee benefit plans, endowments, foundations, and other institutions. Wellington Management and its predecessor organizations have provided investment advisory services for over 90 years. Wellington Management is owned by the partners of Wellington Management Group LLP, a Massachusetts limited liability partnership.

Portfolio Management

SIMC

Compensation. SIMC compensates each portfolio manager for his or her management of the Funds. Each portfolio manager's compensation consists of a fixed annual salary, plus a discretionary annual bonus determined generally as follows.

Portfolio manager compensation is a combination of both Fund performance and SEI Investments Company ("SEI") performance. A majority of each portfolio manager's compensation is determined by the performance of the Funds for which the portfolio manager is responsible for over both a short-term and long-term time horizon. A final factor is a discretionary component, which is based upon a qualitative review of the portfolio managers and their team.

With respect to the bonus, twenty percent of each portfolio manager's compensation is tied to the corporate performance of SEI (SIMC's ultimate parent company), as measured by the earnings per share earned for a particular year. This percentage is set at the discretion of SEI and not SIMC.

The remaining percentage is based upon each Fund's performance (pre-tax) versus its respective benchmark over a one and three year period.


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Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, the portfolio managers beneficially owned shares of the Funds they manage (which may be through their 401(k) plans), as follows:

Portfolio Manager

  Dollar Range of
Fund Shares
 

Rich Carr

 

$

0

   

John Lau

 

$

0

   

James Mashiter, CFA

 

$

0

   

Hardeep Khangura, CFA

 

$

0

   

Anthony Karaminas, CFA

 

$

0

   

Jason Collins

 

$

0

   

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, the portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Rich Carr

   

2

   

$

8,326.72

     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

   

John Lau

   

1

   

$

1,033.60

     

4

   

$

1,057.18

     

0

   

$

0

   

James Mashiter, CFA

   

0

   

$

0

     

6

   

$

3,934.34

     

0

   

$

0

   

Hardeep Khangura, CFA

   

1

   

$

1,883.02

     

7

   

$

2,930.67

     

0

   

$

0

   

Anthony Karaminas, CFA

   

18

   

$

36,742.22

     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

   

Jason Collins

   

12

   

$

23,429.39

     

8

   

$

2,565.86

     

0

   

$

0

   

No account listed above is subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest. The portfolio managers' management of registered investment companies other pooled investment vehicles or other accounts may give rise to actual or potential conflicts of interest in connection with their day-to-day management of the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds' investments. The other accounts might have similar investment objectives as the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds or hold, purchase or sell securities that are eligible to be held, purchased or sold by the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds.

While the portfolio managers' management of the other accounts may give rise to the following potential conflicts of interest, SIMC does not believe that the conflicts, if any, are material or, to the extent any such conflicts are material, SIMC believes that it has designed policies and procedures that are reasonably designed to manage such conflicts in an appropriate way.

Knowledge of the Timing and Size of Fund Trades. A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the portfolio managers' day-to-day oversight of the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. Because of their positions with the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, the portfolio managers know the size, timing and possible market impact of International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Fund trades. It is theoretically possible that the portfolio managers could use this information to the advantage of the other accounts and to the possible detriment of the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. However, SIMC has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to allocate investment opportunities on a fair and equitable basis over time.

Investment Opportunities. A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the portfolio managers' oversight of the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds and other accounts, which, in theory, may allow them to allocate investment opportunities in a way that favors the other accounts over the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed


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Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. This conflict of interest may be exacerbated to the extent that SIMC or the portfolio managers receive, or expect to receive, greater compensation from their management of the other accounts than the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. Notwithstanding this theoretical conflict of interest, it is SIMC's policy to manage each account based on its investment objectives and related restrictions and, as discussed above, SIMC has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to allocate investment opportunities on a fair and equitable basis over time and in a manner consistent with each account's investment objectives and related restrictions. For example, while the portfolio managers may buy for other accounts securities that differ in identity or quantity from securities bought for the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, such an approach might not be suitable for the International Equity, Emerging Markets Equity, International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds given their investment objectives and related restrictions.

Acadian

Compensation. SIMC pays Acadian a fee based on the assets under management of the International Equity Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Acadian and SIMC. Acadian pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the International Equity Fund. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Compensation structure varies among professionals, although the basic package involves a generous base salary, strong bonus potential, profit sharing participation, various benefits and, among the majority of senior investment professionals and certain other key employees, equity ownership in the firm as part of the Acadian Key Employee Limited Partnership.

Compensation is highly incentive-driven, with Acadian often paying in excess of 100% of base pay for performance bonuses. Bonuses are tied directly to the individual's contribution and performance during the year, with members of the investment team evaluated on such factors as their contributions to the investment process, account retention, asset growth, and overall firm performance. Because portfolio management in Acadian's equity strategies is a team approach, investment team members' compensation is not linked to the performance of specific accounts, but rather to the individual's overall contribution to the success of the team and the firm's profitability. This helps to ensure an "even playing field" as investment team members are strongly incentivized to strive for the best possible portfolio performance for all clients rather than only for select accounts.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Acadian's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Equity Fund.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity Fund, Acadian's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Brendan O. Bradley

   

15

   

$

6,589

     

85

   

$

21,611

     

198

   

$

51,978

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

14

*

 

$

1,697

     

22

*

 

$

7,761

   

Ryan D. Taliaferro

   

15

   

$

6,589

     

82

   

$

21,611

     

198

   

$

51,978

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

14

*

 

$

1,697

     

22

*

 

$

7,761

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in the preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

For all core equity products offered by the firm, including the subject strategy, Acadian manages a single process that is custom-tailored to the objectives of its clients. The investment professionals shown above function as part of a core equity team of 23 portfolio managers, all of whom are responsible for working with the dedicated research


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team to develop and apply quantitative techniques to evaluate securities and markets and for final quality-control review of portfolios to ensure mandate compliance. The data shown for these managers reflect firm-level numbers of accounts and assets under management, segregated by investment vehicle type. Not reflected: $822M in model advisory contracts where Acadian does not have trading authority.

Acadian has been appointed as adviser or sub-adviser to numerous public and private funds domiciled in the U.S. and abroad. Acadian is not an investment company and does not directly offer mutual funds. The asset data shown under "Registered Investment Companies" reflects advisory and sub-advisory relationships with U.S. registered investment companies offering funds to retail investors. The asset data shown under "Other Pooled Investment Vehicles" reflects a combination of; 1) Delaware-based private funds where Acadian has been appointed adviser or sub-adviser and 2) Non-U.S.-based funds where Acadian has been appointed adviser or sub-adviser.

Conflicts of Interest. A conflict of interest may arise as a result of a portfolio manager being responsible for multiple accounts, including the International Equity Fund, which may have different investment guidelines and objectives. In addition to the International Equity Fund, these accounts may include other mutual funds managed on an advisory or sub-advisory basis, separate accounts and collective trust accounts. An investment opportunity may be suitable for the International Equity Fund as well as for any of the other managed accounts. However, the investment may not be available in sufficient quantity for all of the accounts to participate fully. In addition, there may be limited opportunity to sell an investment held by the International Equity Fund and the other accounts. The other accounts may have similar investment objectives or strategies as the International Equity Fund, may track the same benchmarks or indexes as the International Equity Fund tracks and may sell securities that are eligible to be held, sold or purchased by the International Equity Fund. A portfolio manager may be responsible for accounts that have different advisory fee schedules, which may create the incentive for the portfolio manager to favor one account over another in terms of access to investment opportunities. A portfolio manager may also manage accounts whose investment objectives and policies differ from those of the International Equity Fund, which may cause the portfolio manager to effect trading in one account that may have an adverse effect on the value of the holdings within another account, including the International Equity Fund.

To address and manage these potential conflicts of interest, Acadian has adopted compliance policies and procedures to allocate investment opportunities and to ensure that each of its clients is treated on a fair and equitable basis. Such policies and procedures include, but are not limited to, trade allocation and trade aggregation policies, portfolio manager assignment practices and oversight by investment management and the Compliance team.

AllianceBernstein

Compensation. SIMC pays AllianceBernstein a fee based on the assets under management of the International Fixed Income Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between AllianceBernstein and SIMC. AllianceBernstein pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the International Fixed Income Fund. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Compensation for AllianceBernstein's investment professionals—portfolio managers, analysts, and traders—is designed to align with AllianceBernstein's mission and values: generating better investment outcomes for its clients while promoting responsibility and stewardship.

Incentive Compensation Significant Component. Portfolio managers, analysts and traders receive base compensation, incentive compensation and retirement contributions. While both overall compensation levels and the splits between base and incentive compensation vary from year-to-year, incentive compensation is a significant part of overall compensation. For example, for portfolio managers, the bonus component averages approximately 60-80% of total compensation each year. Part of each professional's annual incentive compensation is normally paid through an award under the firm's Incentive Compensation Award Plan (ICAP). The ICAP awards vest over a three-year period. AllianceBernstein believes this helps our investment professionals focus appropriately on long-term client objectives and results.


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Determined by Both Quantitative and Qualitative Factors. Total compensation for investment professionals is determined by both quantitative and qualitative factors. For portfolio managers, the most significant quantitative component focuses on measures of absolute and relative investment performance in client portfolios. Relative returns are evaluated using both the Strategy's primary benchmark and peers over one-, three- and five-year periods, with more weight given to longer time periods. AllianceBernstein also assesses the risk pattern of performance, both absolute and relative to peers.

Qualitative Component Includes Responsibility-Related Objectives: The qualitative component of compensation for portfolio managers incorporates the manager's broader contributions to overall investment processes and client success. Because AllianceBernstein deeply believes as a firm that ESG factors present both investment risks and opportunities, every AllianceBernstein portfolio manager has goals that promote the integration of ESG and sustainability in is investment processes. The exact goals will vary depending on the individual's role and responsibilities, but typical goals for portfolio managers include discussion of ESG or sustainability risks and opportunities at research reviews and the integration of these factors in portfolio decision making.

Other aspects of qualitative objectives for portfolio managers include thought leadership, collaboration with other investment professionals at the firm, contributions to risk-adjusted returns in other portfolios, building a strong, diverse, and inclusive talent pool, mentoring newer investment professionals, being a good corporate citizen, and the achievement of personal goals. The qualitative portion is determined by individual goals set at the beginning of the year, with measurement and feedback on how those goals are being achieved provided at regular intervals. Other factors that can play a part in determining portfolio managers' compensation include complexity of investment strategies managed.

Research Analysts:  At AllianceBernstein, research professionals have compensation and career opportunities that reflect a stature equivalent to their portfolio manager peers. Compensation for our research analysts is also heavily incentive-based and aligned with results generated for client portfolios. Criteria used include how well the analyst's research recommendations performed, the breadth and depth of his or her research knowledge, the level of attentiveness to forecasts and market movements, and the analyst's willingness to collaborate and contribute to the overall intellectual capital of the firm.

Responsibility-Related Objectives for our Research Analysts:  Like portfolio managers, fundamental research analysts also have goals related to ESG analysis and integration. For analysts, these typically focus on providing assessments of ESG and sustainability factors in their research and recommendations, engaging with issuers for insight and action on ESG and sustainability topics, and documenting these engagements in our ESIGHT platform.

Traders:  Traders are critically important to generating results in client accounts. As such, compensation for our traders is highly competitive and heavily incentive-based. Portfolio managers and Heads of Trading evaluate traders on their ability to achieve best execution and add value to client portfolios through trading. AllianceBernstein also incentivizes our fixed income traders to continually innovate for clients, encouraging them to continue developing and refining new trading technologies to enable AllianceBernstein to effectively address liquidity conditions in the fixed income markets for our clients.

Assessments of all investment professionals are formalized in a year-end review process that includes 360-degree feedback from other professionals from across the investment teams and firm. AllianceBernstein has designed its compensation program to attract and retain the highest-caliber employees while aligning with the firm's deeply held values of responsibility and stewardship. AllianceBernstein incorporates multiple sources of industry benchmarking data to ensure our compensation is highly competitive and fully reflects each individual's contributions in achieving client objectives.

Assessments of all investment professionals are formalized in a year-end review process that includes 360-degree feedback from other professionals from across the investment teams and firm.


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Contributions under AllianceBernstein's Profit Sharing/401(k) Plan: The contributions are based on AllianceBernstein's overall profitability. The amount and allocation of the contributions are determined at the sole discretion of AllianceBernstein.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, AllianceBernstein's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Fixed Income Fund.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Fixed Income Fund, AllianceBernstein's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 
Scott DiMaggio, CFA    

14

   

$

9,852

     

56

   

$

2,827

     

37

   

$

11,936

   
John Taylor    

11

   

$

7,141

     

65

   

$

4,537

     

39

   

$

10,697

   

Vivek Bommi, CFA

   

0

   

$

0

     

8

   

$

1,360

     

12

   

$

1,580

   
Nicholas Sanders, CFA    

10

   

$

6,680

     

64

   

$

4,187

     

38

   

$

10,626

   

Eamonn Buckley

   

0

   

$

0

     

8

   

$

1,360

     

12

   

$

1,580

   

None of the accounts listed above are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest.  As an investment adviser and fiduciary, AllianceBernstein owes its clients and shareholders an undivided duty of loyalty. AllianceBernstein recognizes that conflicts of interest are inherent in its business and accordingly has developed policies and procedures (including oversight monitoring) reasonably designed to detect, manage and mitigate the effects of actual or potential conflicts of interest in the area of employee personal trading, managing multiple accounts for multiple clients, and allocating investment opportunities. Investment professionals, including portfolio managers and research analysts, are subject to the above-mentioned policies and oversight monitoring to ensure that all clients are treated equitably. AllianceBernstein places the interests of its clients first and expects all of its employees to meet their fiduciary duties.

Conflicts arising from fiduciary activities that AllianceBernstein cannot avoid (or choose not to avoid) are mitigated through written policies that AllianceBernstein believes protects the interests of its clients. In these cases, regulators have generally prescribed detailed rules or principles for investment firms to follow. By complying with these rules and using robust compliance practices, AllianceBernstein believes it addresses these conflicts appropriately.

Some potential conflicts are outside the scope of compliance monitoring. Identifying these conflicts requires careful and continuing consideration of the interaction of different products, business lines, operational processes and incentive structures. Changes in the firm's activities and personnel can lead to new potential conflicts.

Employee Personal Trading. AllianceBernstein has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that is designed to detect and prevent conflicts of interest when investment professionals and other personnel of AllianceBernstein own, buy or sell securities that may be owned by, or bought or sold for clients or recommended for purchase or sale by an employee to a client. Subject to the reporting requirements and other limitations of its Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, AllianceBernstein permits its employees to engage in personal securities transactions, and also allows them to acquire investments in the AllianceBernstein Mutual Funds. AllianceBernstein's Code of Business Conduct and Ethics requires disclosure of all personal accounts and maintenance of brokerage accounts with designated broker-dealers approved by AllianceBernstein. The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics also requires pre-clearance of all securities transactions (except transactions in U.S. Treasuries and open-end mutual funds) and imposes a 60-day holding period for securities purchased by employees to discourage short-term trading.


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Managing Multiple Accounts for Multiple Clients. AllianceBernstein has compliance policies and oversight monitoring in place to address conflicts of interest relating to the management of multiple accounts for multiple clients. Conflicts of interest may arise when an investment professional has responsibilities for the investments of more than one account because the investment professional may be unable to devote equal time and attention to each account. The investment professional or investment professional teams for each client may have responsibilities for managing all or a portion of the investments of multiple accounts with a common investment strategy, including other registered investment companies, unregistered investment vehicles, such as hedge funds, pension plans, separate accounts, collective trusts and charitable foundations. Among other things, AllianceBernstein's policies and procedures provide for the prompt dissemination to investment professionals of initial or changed investment recommendations by analysts so that investment professionals are better able to develop investment strategies for all accounts they manage. In addition, investment decisions by investment professionals are reviewed for the purpose of maintaining uniformity among similar accounts and ensuring that accounts are treated equitably. Investment professional compensation reflects a broad contribution in multiple dimensions to long-term investment success for our clients and is generally not tied specifically to the performance of any particular client's account, nor is it generally tied directly to the level or change in level of assets under management.

Investment strategies and fee arrangements may create potential conflicts of interest for AllianceBernstein. For example, our employees or affiliates may have an economic interest in some of the accounts we manage. We may also recommend to clients securities in which a related person has established an interest independent of AllianceBernstein. Some accounts pay performance fees to AllianceBernstein, and some client accounts can sell securities short that are held long in other client accounts. The beneficial owners of some accounts may have the ability to influence the placement of additional assets with AllianceBernstein. Some investment professionals at AllianceBernstein manage accounts with these potential conflicts on a "side by side" basis with accounts that do not have such characteristics. These investment professionals may have an incentive to favor "conflicted" accounts over other accounts. Variations in performance compensation structures among clients may create an incentive for AllianceBernstein to direct the best investment ideas to, or to allocate or sequence trades in favor of, clients that pay or allocate performance compensation or clients that pay a greater level of performance compensation than other clients.

We are conscious of these potential conflicts. AllianceBernstein's policies address the fair allocation of investment opportunities across client accounts, the best execution of all client transactions, and the voting of proxies, among others.

Allocating Investment Opportunities. The investment professionals at AllianceBernstein routinely are required to select and allocate investment opportunities among accounts. AllianceBernstein has policies and procedures intended to address conflicts of interest relating to the allocation of investment opportunities. These policies and procedures are designed to ensure that information relevant to investment decisions is disseminated promptly within its portfolio management teams and investment opportunities are allocated equitably among different clients. AllianceBernstein's policies and procedures require, among other things, objective allocation for limited investment opportunities (e.g., on a rotational basis) and documentation and review of justifications for any decisions to make investments only for select accounts or in a manner disproportionate to the size of the account. Portfolio holdings, position sizes, and industry and sector exposures tend to be similar across similar accounts which minimizes the potential for conflicts of interest relating to the allocation of investment opportunities. Nevertheless, access to portfolio funds or other investment opportunities may be allocated differently among accounts due to the particular characteristics of an account, such as size of the account, cash position, tax status, risk tolerance and investment restrictions or for other reasons.

Aggregation of Trades. Where possible when trading, AllianceBernstein aggregates ("bundle") contemporaneous orders transacted on behalf of more than one client to facilitate best execution and achieve economies of scale. When possible, securities bought or sold in execution of an aggregated order will be allocated on a pro-rata basis among the participating client accounts in proportion to the size of the orders placed for each account.


S-68


Having said this, AllianceBernstein also notes that if a trade in a single security is executed with more than one dealer at different prices, it is not always possible to ensure that all accounts who are trading in that security receive the same execution price. In such cases, our trading desk is responsible for ensuring that the order of allocation to clients is fair and equitable over time.

Policy on Non-Pro Rata Allocations: In certain situations, other methods of trade allocation are permissible provided that the approach is based on objective criteria, all accounts receive fair and equitable treatment over time, and the reason for the different allocation is explained and approved in writing by a Head of Investment and the Chief Compliance Officer (or a designee) prior to the completion of the order.

Causeway

Compensation. SIMC pays Causeway a fee based on the assets under management of the International Equity Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Causeway and SIMC. Causeway pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the International Equity Fund. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Sarah H. Ketterer and Harry W. Hartford, the Chief Executive Officer and President of the firm, respectively, receive an annual salary and are entitled, as controlling owners of Causeway's parent holding company through their estate planning vehicles, to distributions from the parent holding company's profits based on their ownership interests. They do not receive incentive compensation. Jonathan P. Eng, Conor Muldoon, CFA, Alessandro Valentini, CFA, Ellen Lee, Steven Nguyen, CFA, and Brian Cho, also portfolio managers of the International Equity Fund, receive salary and may receive incentive compensation (including potential cash, awards of growth units, or awards of equity units) and receive, directly or through estate planning vehicles, distributions of the parent holding company's profits based on their minority ownership interests.

Causeway's Compensation Committee, weighing a variety of objective and subjective factors, determines salary and incentive compensation and, subject to the approval of the Board of Causeway's parent holding company, may award equity units. Portfolios are team-managed and salary and incentive compensation are not based on the specific performance of the portion of the International Equity Fund sub-advised by Causeway or any other single client account managed by Causeway, but take into account the performance of the individual portfolio manager, the relevant team, and Causeway's overall performance and financial results. The performance of stocks selected for client portfolios within a particular industry or sector over a multi-year period relative to appropriate benchmarks will be relevant for portfolio managers assigned to that industry or sector. Causeway takes into account both quantitative and qualitative factors when determining the amount of incentive compensation awarded to Messrs. Eng, Muldoon, Valentini, Nguyen and Cho, and Ms. Lee, including the following factors: individual research contribution, portfolio and team management contribution, group research contribution, client service and recruiting contribution, and other contributions to client satisfaction and firm development. The assessment of these factors takes into account both current and future risks and different factors can be weighted differently.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Causeway's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Equity Fund.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity Fund, Causeway's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in billions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in billions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in billions)
 
Sarah H. Ketterer    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

146

   

$

20.26

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   
Harry W. Hartford    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

96

   

$

17.04

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   


S-69


    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in billions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in billions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in billions)
 
Jonathan P. Eng    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

88

   

$

17.03

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   
Conor Muldoon, CFA    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

96

   

$

17.02

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   
Alessandro Valentini, CFA    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

87

   

$

17.02

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   
Ellen Lee    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

87

   

$

17.02

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   
Steven Nguyen, CFA    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

87

   

$

17.02

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   
Brian Cho    

14

   

$

10.47

     

17

   

$

3.08

     

87

   

$

17.02

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

1.18

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest. The Causeway portfolio managers who sub-advise a portion of the International Equity Fund also manage their own personal accounts and accounts for other clients, including corporations, pension plans, sovereign wealth funds, superannuation funds, public retirement plans, Taft-Hartley pension plans, endowments and foundations, mutual funds and other collective investment vehicles, charities, private trusts and funds, wrap fee programs and other institutions (collectively, "Causeway Other Accounts").

In managing the Causeway Other Accounts, the portfolio managers employ investment strategies similar to those used in sub-advising a portion of the International Equity Fund, subject to certain variations in investment restrictions. The portfolio managers recommend securities to Causeway Other Accounts that they purchase and sell for the International Equity Fund.

The portfolio managers at times give advice or take action with respect to certain accounts that differs from the advice given to Causeway Other Accounts with similar investment strategies. Certain Causeway Other Accounts pay higher management fee rates than the International Equity Fund or pay performance-based fees to Causeway. Causeway is the investment adviser and sponsor of a number of mutual funds: Causeway International Value Fund, Causeway Global Value Fund, Causeway Emerging Markets Fund, Causeway International Opportunities Fund, Causeway International Small Cap Fund, and Causeway Concentrated Equity Fund (together, "Causeway Mutual Funds"). Causeway also sponsors and manages certain other commingled vehicles private funds in its international value strategy that are offered to institutional investors. Most of the portfolio managers have personal investments in one or more of the Causeway Mutual Funds. Ms. Ketterer and Mr. Hartford, through estate planning vehicles, hold controlling voting stakes in Causeway's parent holding company, and Messrs. Eng, Muldoon, Valentini, Nguyen, and Cho, and Ms. Lee own minority interests in Causeway's parent holding company.

Actual or potential conflicts of interest arise from the International Equity Fund's portfolio managers' management responsibilities with respect to Causeway Other Accounts and their own personal accounts. These responsibilities may cause portfolio managers to devote unequal time and attention across client accounts and the differing fees, incentives and relationships with the various accounts provide incentives to favor certain accounts. Causeway has written compliance policies and procedures designed to mitigate or manage these conflicts of interest. These include policies and procedures to seek fair and equitable allocation of investment opportunities (including initial public offerings) and trade allocations among all client accounts and policies and procedures concerning the disclosure and use of portfolio transaction information. Causeway also has a Code of Ethics, which, among other things, limits personal trading by portfolio managers and other employees of Causeway, including prohibiting access persons from purchasing securities that may be held by the


S-70


International Equity Fund. There is no guarantee that any such policies or procedures will cover every situation in which a conflict of interest arises.

Colchester

Compensation. SIMC pays Colchester a fee based on the assets under management of the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Colchester and SIMC. Colchester pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

All senior investment professionals have an ownership interest in Colchester along with competitive base salaries. Bonuses are tied to the overall profitability of the firm, and the majority of income before compensation is distributed to those active in the business. Bonus and total compensation levels are reviewed and set annually based on contribution. No set performance criteria or algorithms are used, but rather an overall assessment of work quality and commitment is made during the remuneration process.

No investment professionals are rewarded on the basis of the specific investment performance of the funds or portfolios that they directly oversee or manage. The singular investment approach employed by Colchester means that all professionals share in the collective success, or otherwise, of all funds managed by the firm. The firm's Articles define the total remuneration pool (i.e. the sum of all salaries, pensions, benefits, discretionary bonuses and related employment taxes payable to all group employees) as 60% of PBRT for each financial year.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Colchester's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Fixed Income or Emerging Markets Debt Funds.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, Colchester's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Ian Sims

   

4

   

$

613

     

27

   

$

6,708

     

72

   

$

22,282

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

9

*

 

$

9,242

   

Keith Lloyd, CFA

   

4

   

$

613

     

27

   

$

6,708

     

72

   

$

22,282

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

9

*

 

$

9,242

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in the preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

  Colchester utilizes a team-based approach to portfolio management, and each of the portfolio managers listed above are jointly responsible for the management of a portion of the accounts listed in each category.

Conflicts of Interest. A conflict of interest may arise as a result of the portfolio manager being responsible for multiple accounts, including the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, which may have different investment guidelines and objectives. In addition to the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, these accounts may include accounts of registered investment companies, private pooled investment vehicles and other accounts. In particular, this conflict of interest may arise as a result of Colchester's management of the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds and other accounts, which, in theory, may allow Colchester to allocate investment opportunities in a way that favors other accounts over the International Fixed Income or Emerging Markets Debt Funds. This conflict of interest may be exacerbated to the extent that Colchester or the portfolio manager receive, or expect to receive, greater compensation from their management of the other accounts (some of which receive both a management and incentive fee) than the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. Colchester (or its members, employees and


S-71


affiliates) may give advice or take action with respect to the other accounts that differs from the advice given with respect to the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. To the extent a particular investment is suitable for both the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds and the other accounts, such investments will be allocated between the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds and the other accounts in a manner that Colchester determines is fair and equitable under the circumstances to all clients, including the International Fixed Income and Emerging Markets Debt Funds.

To address and manage these potential conflicts of interest, Colchester has adopted compliance policies and procedures to allocate investment opportunities and to ensure that each of their clients is treated on a fair and equitable basis.

DIFA

Compensation. SIMC pays DIFA a fee based on the assets under management of the International Equity Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between DIFA and SIMC. DIFA pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the International Equity Fund. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Base Salary—Each portfolio manager receives a fixed base salary. Salaries are determined by a comparison to industry data prepared by third parties to ensure that portfolio manager salaries are in line with salaries paid at peer investment advisory firms.

Bonus—Global Value Equity Portfolio Managers (Hansen, Petersen, Annerstedt, Jensen, Juul). Fixed remuneration is determined by the individual's skills, contribution to Macquarie Group Limited's (MGL) success and competitor analysis to attract and retain the highest caliber staff. Performance based remuneration is in the form of profit share which is discretionary in nature and truly variable. Performance-based profit share is allocated to MGL businesses and, in turn, to individuals based on performance. Performance is primarily assessed based on relative contribution to profits while taking into account capital usage and risk management. This results in businesses and individuals being motivated to increase earnings and to use shareholder funds efficiently, consistent with prudent risk-taking. The Global Value Equity team is a separate profit center within MGL and they receive a portion of the profits generated by the Global Value Equity Business. Performance assessment and profit share split is a function of many aspects; these are listed below in decreasing order of significance: (i) profitability of the funds managed (as revenue is generated from the management fees, profitability is a function of the assets under management; (ii) performance of equity funds excess to benchmark and relative to peers over 1, 3, and 5 years; (iii) research quality and efficiency; (iv) product development initiative; and (v) overall business unit profitability. In addition, other qualitative measures are used in assessing individual performance, such as: how business is done, governance and compliance, long-term sustainability, people leadership, and adherence to MGL's goals and values. Staff are motivated to work co-operatively given that their profit share will reflect MGL's overall performance, the relative performance of their business and their individual contribution. MGL endorses profit share retention whereby a proportion is retained and notionally invested in underlying assets/funds the individual is responsible to align employees' interests with those of the wider business.

Bonus—International Value Equity Portfolio Manager (Gowlland). Fixed remuneration takes into consideration the role of individuals and market conditions. Remuneration is reviewed on a yearly basis in March/April and takes effect from July 1 of that year. Aggregate staff profit share is linked to MGL's profitability and return on ordinary equity, with the allocation of individual profit share being based on factors including contribution to profit, use of capital, funding and risk. MGL operates profit share retention arrangements for employees meeting certain pay thresholds, to ensure an appropriate balance between short and longer-term incentives. It is currently proposed that the retained amounts will be invested in the Macquarie Group Employee Retained Equity Plan ("MEREP") subject to shareholder approval of the plan. The increased use of equity for employee remuneration will enhance the alignment between the interests of staff and shareholders as well as MGL's ability to attract and retain high quality staff. Compensation is not directly based on the pre or post tax performance of the Fund over a certain period. However, performance of the Fund may be one factor taken into account in determining compensation.


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Portfolio managers participate in retention programs, including the Macquarie Asset Management Notional Investment Plan and MEREP, for alignment of interest purposes.

Macquarie Asset Management Notional Investment Plan—A portion of a portfolio manager's retained profit share may be notionally exposed to the return of certain funds within Macquarie Asset Management Funds pursuant to the terms of the Macquarie Asset Management Notional Investment Plan. The retained amount will vest in equal tranches over a period ranging from four to five years after the date of investment (depending on the level of the employee).

Macquarie Group Employee Retained Equity Plan—A portion of a portfolio manager's retained profit share may be invested in the MEREP, which is used to deliver remuneration in the form of MGL equity. The main type of award currently being offered under the MEREP is units comprising a beneficial interest in a MGL share held in a trust for the employee, subject to the vesting and forfeiture provisions of the MEREP. Subject to vesting conditions, vesting and release of the shares occurs in a period ranging from four to five years after the date of investment (depending on the level of the employee).

Other Compensation—Portfolio managers may also participate in benefit plans and programs available generally to all similarly situated employees.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, DIFA's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Equity Fund.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity Fund, DIFA's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 
Jens Hansen    

9

   

$

2,243

     

7

   

$

2,165

     

10

   

$

2,881

   
Klaus Petersen    

9

   

$

2,243

     

7

   

$

2,165

     

10

   

$

2,881

   
Claus Juul    

9

   

$

2,243

     

7

   

$

2,165

     

10

   

$

2,881

   
Asa Annerstedt    

9

   

$

2,243

     

7

   

$

2,165

     

10

   

$

2,881

   
Allen Jensen    

9

   

$

2,243

     

7

   

$

2,165

     

10

   

$

2,881

   
Chris Gowlland    

10

   

$

2,243

     

0

   

$

0

     

1

   

$

71.6

   

None of the accounts listed above are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest. Individual portfolio managers may perform investment management services for other funds or accounts similar to those provided to the International Equity Fund and the investment action for each other fund or account and the International Equity Fund may differ. For example, one account or fund may be selling a security, while another account or fund may be purchasing or holding the same security. As a result, transactions executed for one account and the International Equity Fund may adversely affect the value of securities held by another fund or account. Additionally, the management of multiple other funds or accounts and the International Equity Fund may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, as a portfolio manager must allocate time and effort to multiple funds or accounts and the International Equity Fund. A portfolio manager may discover an investment opportunity that may be suitable for more than one account or fund. The investment opportunity may be limited, however, so that all funds or accounts for which the investment would be suitable may not be able to participate. DIFA has adopted procedures designed to allocate investments fairly across multiple funds or accounts.

A portfolio manager's management of personal accounts also may present certain conflicts of interest. While DIFA's Code of Ethics is designed to address these potential conflicts, there is no guarantee that it will do so.


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JOHCM

Compensation. SIMC pays JOHCM a fee based on the assets under management of the International Equity and Emerging Markets Equity Funds as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between JOHCM and SIMC. JOHCM pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the International Equity and Emerging Markets Equity Funds. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Compensation is based on the value of the assets in the International Equity and Emerging Markets Equity Funds' portfolios. The remuneration structure for investment professionals includes a base salary, a revenue share (proportion of the management fee generated and performance fee) and the opportunity to earn an equity stake. The performance fee element is designed to ensure that financial reward is clearly and measurably linked to performance and that the interests of the portfolio managers are aligned with those of the client. When evaluating the portfolio managers' performance, JOHCM compares the pre-tax performance of the portfolio managers to the applicable index, typically over a 12-month period.

Revenue Share

Arrangements are in place for the fund management team to share, depending on the maturity of a fund, between 10% and 20% of the revenue share generated on the funds that they manage. This is subject, in some cases, to a fund cost hurdle before the revenue share is paid to the team. For longer serving fund managers, part of their revenue share is paid in equity (see below).

Equity

JOHCM is an independently managed investment management boutique that has been an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Pendal Group Limited (Pendal) since 2011. Pendal is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX code: PDL) and is an independent, global investment management firm. All investment professionals and the majority of staff have equity participation in listed Pendal shares.

The Fund Linked Equity scheme is designed for new fund management teams or existing teams launching a new strategy. Under this arrangement, notional shares are valued in line with the growth and performance of the fund managed and after a long-term vesting period these notional shares will convert to Pendal equity, allowing the fund manager to become a shareholder in Pendal. The Pendal shares are subject to further deferral arrangements and leaver conditions, thus providing a reward for the long-term growth of funds under management and enhancing fund manager retention for both clients and shareholders.

Longer serving fund managers increase their equity participation through two equity schemes related to the revenue share generated on their funds. The revenue share is only awarded to the fund manager provided a prescribed cost hurdle has been exceeded. Each scheme has different vesting periods and will award the equity on different dates, but once vested and awarded to the fund manager; this equity is subject to deferral arrangements and leaver conditions to aid retention.

Finally, certain key managers are participants in a third Retention Plan that will pay out equity in two tranches. Tranche one is a fixed award of equity value and this vests over a set period, at the end of which the fund manager is awarded the equity provided they are still in employment at the release date. The second tranche of equity (also of fixed value) is conditional on the retention of fund assets. In the event the fund manager leaves employment on 'Good Leaver' terms, it is paid twelve months following that leave date.

JOHCM has built its business by attracting and retaining experienced fund managers with established track records from large firms. JOHCM provides them with an efficient operating structure and risk management, as well as a direct economic interest in the strategies they manage.

In summary, JOHCM has a results-oriented partnership ethos. The variable elements of a fund manager's remuneration could represent a significant multiple of base salary where asset growth and strong performance is delivered.


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Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, JOHCM's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Equity or Emerging Markets Equity Funds.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity and Emerging Markets Equity Funds, JOHCM's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Emery Brewer

   

3

   

$

382

     

4

   

$

263

     

5

   

$

462

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

2

*

 

$

153

     

3

*

 

$

299

   

Dr. Ivo Kovachev

   

3

   

$

382

     

4

   

$

263

     

5

   

$

462

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

2

*

 

$

153

     

3

*

 

$

299

   

Christopher Lees**

   

4

   

$

7,686

     

6

   

$

2,671

     

7

   

$

2,351

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

2,105

     

2

*

 

$

575

   

Nudgem Richyal**

   

4

   

$

7,686

     

6

   

$

2,671

     

7

   

$

2,351

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

3

*

 

$

2,105

     

2

*

 

$

575

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in the preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

**  Christopher Lees manages the above accounts alongside Nudgem Richyal.

AUM is available on a quarterly basis.

Conflicts of Interest. The following are the types of conflicts of interest that may arise within the JOHCM Group, and the way in which they are managed and monitored in the compliance program:

Ownership and Group Relationships

JOHCM is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pendal Group Limited (Pendal). Pendal is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX code: PDL) and is an independent, global investment management firm, headquartered in Sydney. JOHCM operates as a stand-alone business within the Pendal Group. Within that model, JOHCM retains its full investment and operational independence.

As part of its governance remit, the JOHCM Board may consider it appropriate to promote the success of the Pendal Group as a whole or of any member of the Group, but each director, and the firm in general, must also comply with the rules, regulations and principles of both the SEC and the FCA, which require clients to be treated fairly, their interests to be served, and the effective mitigation and management of the risk of conflict with those interests.

On this basis, no conflicts thus arise from the firm's corporate structure beyond those inherent and commonplace in a shareholder ownership model.

Investment Management related services provided to the Pendal group

JOHCM provides investment management services to a small number of Australian regulated funds for which Pendal acts as the lead manager. These services are provided on normal commercial fee terms. The firm has independent oversight controls to ensure that these connected clients are treated in the same way as all other mandates for the particular strategy and that these inter-affiliate services are handled in line with the firm's systems and controls related to order execution.

Separate teams/timing of investment decisions/executions

JOHCM acts as discretionary investment manager for a number of separate publicly available funds and segregated institutional accounts. The investment mandates for these clients are such that a particular investment will be suitable for inclusion in a number of different portfolios.


S-75


Each strategy is managed by a named senior fund manager, or by a senior fund manager and deputy/ies, or by named co-lead managers. It is a key part of the group's decentralized investment philosophy that these investment teams have the freedom, subject to agreed mandate restrictions, to make their own investment decisions.

Subject to any particular size or other constraints such as risk appetite contained in client mandates the proposed participation in an investment will be in proportion to the relative size of the portfolios managed by that investment team. The timing of decisions made by that investment team will also be influenced by any inflows to or outflows from the portfolios they manage. It is also of note that a different investment team may make different decisions or make similar decisions at different times in respect of the same investment.

All of these factors may result in different investment outcomes among investment strategies, and among mandates managed by the same investment team. JOHCM has policies in place to address the potential for conflicts that this creates, that are designed to ensure the fair allocation of investment opportunities among clients. Compliance with these policies is reviewed ex post by various means, including performance dispersion analysis and monitoring order handling.

Basis of Remuneration—the firm and fund managers

The basis of JOHCM's remuneration, which is recorded in the agreements with individual clients, may be different for different types of client portfolios. The percentage rate for the annual management charge is not the same for all portfolios and in many cases there will also be a performance fee payable, which may be calculated on differing bases for different types of portfolios e.g. OEIC, mutual fund or segregated account. Thus, different portfolios in the same strategy may attract different fee levels.

It is therefore important to ensure that these differing fees for the firm, and in some cases the particular fund manager, do not lead to similar portfolios being treated unfairly, with one being favored or disadvantaged relative to any other. The policies and monitoring program referred to above relating to fair allocation of investment opportunities are also important safeguards in managing this potential for conflict.

The remuneration of the individual fund managers is a combination of some or all of a salary, a share of performance fees earned by the firm from the portfolios they manage, the management fees earned on their particular strategy, and that which derives from their equity interest in the Pendal Group.

The remuneration of individual JOHCM employees is independently overseen by the Remuneration Committee of J O Hambro Capital Management Holdings Limited in accordance with a Remuneration Policy that is designed to promote alignment of individual fund managers' interests with their clients' and to meet the FCA Rules and standards.

Inside Information

The misuse of inside information amounts to a breach of the SEC regulations and FCA Rules and in some cases may be a criminal offense. It creates an inherent conflicts of interest because it gives the holder of the information an unfair advantage over other market participants who do not have that knowledge.

JOHCM's fund managers are encouraged to analyze and meet with those companies in which they invest on behalf of their clients, but most do not actively seek out inside information. Other employees within the firm may also inadvertently learn of facts or circumstances that amount to inside information, whether in the course of their work, or otherwise. The firm has various safeguards in place that are designed to protect clients and other market participants against this potential for conflict, including staff training on the issue and a policy that requires any employee in receipt of inside information to report it immediately to Compliance. This results in an embargo on further orders being placed in the securities of the relevant company by all JOHCM investment teams, whether or not they are themselves in actual receipt of the inside Information.


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Emulation mandates

In negotiating agreements with clients for such mandates we seek to include an appropriate disclosure of this potential for conflict.

Identification and Correction of Errors

The risk of conflicts of interest is inherent in any scenario where an error has potentially been made, but JOHCM confronts this risk firstly by promoting a culture of collaboration, transparency and fairness in the analysis and correction of any error. JOHCM has established procedures to ensure any such incident is effectively escalated, that JOHCM takes appropriate action to correct the accounts of any clients adversely affected by the issue, and also learns from the incident and strengthens controls, including by providing additional training where appropriate, to minimize the risk of recurrence.

JOHCM policy is that clients should be compensated for all direct monetary losses that they may suffer as a result of any error.

Procurement of investment research

JOHCM pays for all investment research out of its own resources.

JOHCM has controls in place designed to ensure that the only research consumed is research that the firm pays for, and that any other information or commentary about securities, markets or investing that the firm receives for free is simply 'generic information' in line with the FCA Rules. These controls aim to mitigate the risk that 'free' research may create an inducement in the context of the firm's relationship with the research provider.

Valuation of suspended/illiquid/unquoted positions

To avoid the conflict of interest inherent in valuing our clients' portfolios, JOHCM never acts as the pricing agent of record. Pricing of all JOHCM funds is undertaken by the funds' independent third-party administrators using quoted market price feeds, and portfolios managed for separate account clients are officially priced by the clients' independently appointed custodians or accounting agents. The pricing that JOHCM carries out is therefore essentially to assist fund managers in managing their clients' portfolios.

JOHCM may however give pricing recommendations to a client and/or its pricing agent where, for example, market quotations are not readily available for a security in the client's portfolio or where the price from the external source does not, in the firm's view, represent its fair value. To manage the risk of conflict of interest in such situations, JOHCM operates a Valuation and Pricing Committee, the members of which are part of the firm's senior management and are independent of investment decision-making.

Relationships with Service Providers

From time to time, JOHCM may engage a service provider on its own behalf that is also a client of the firm, or an investor in or distributor of the firm's products. In such cases, JOHCM aims to ensure that the selection of any such service provider is made on an independent basis through a comparison of the available services from multiple potential service providers and by selecting the most suitable provider based upon the overall needs of the firm.

JOHCM may also from time to time enter into a client or distributor relationship with a party that is also a service provider to the firm, or such a party may become an investor in a JOHCM fund. In any such case, JOHCM must ensure that the terms of the relationship are consistent with its duty to treat clients and investors fairly.


S-77


Outside Business Interests

There is a clear potential for conflicts of interest where employees pursue other business activities outside their main employment. JOHCM's standard employment contract therefore requires the employee to obtain prior written consent for any outside business interests. Such external appointments are rare.

Directors are also subject to particular statutory and policy driven obligations in managing any conflicts of interest which may arise or exist within their role.

Inducements

MiFID II explicitly prohibits firms providing portfolio management or advisory services to clients from receiving any monetary benefits from any third party in connection with those services. It is not part of JOHCM's business model to receive payments of this kind. However, if any such benefit were to be received, arrangements would be made to ensure its transfer to the relevant client(s) as soon as possible.

Compliance with this inducement ban is a condition of any approval by the firm to enter into any new relationship or to change the terms of an existing relationship, which in either case, would entail JOHCM paying a monetary benefit.

MiFID II does allow firms such as JOHCM to receive non-monetary benefits provided they are minor and acceptable under the FCA Rules. JOHCM has policies and procedures in place to assess all such benefits, notably in the context of gifts and entertainment and the receipt of generic information on financial instruments.

Gifts and Entertainment

The giving and receiving of gifts or entertainment are subject to JOHCM's policy, which is designed to ensure that staff do not offer or give, solicit or accept any inducement which is likely to conflict with their duties to clients or would be in breach of any statutory or regulatory restrictions.

Employee Personal Dealing

To manage the obvious risk of conflict of interest arising in this area, all employees are made subject to JOHCM's Employee Dealing Rules which place clear parameters on how and when they may deal in securities for their own account and their immediate families and include regular reporting of personal transactions and holdings

KBIGI (North America)

Compensation. SIMC pays KBIGI (North America) a fee based on the assets under management of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between KBIGI (North America) and SIMC. KBIGI (North America) pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

The portfolio managers and key executives have a number of different components to compensation which offers very strong combination of incentivization and retention. These components strongly align key employees with clients and the firm's majority shareholder. KBIGI (North America) believes they compare very favorably with other firms within the industry. These components are set out below:

Base Salary: Benchmarked to industry.

Annual Bonus: For portfolio managers, the bonus amount paid is based predominantly on relative investment performance for the relevant strategies/funds assessed over 1, 2 and 3 year rolling numbers. This ensures a longer term investment perspective rather than a year by year focus. Key employees are obliged to take a proportion of the annual bonus in parent company equity which is then locked in for three years. If the executives cease employment with the firm, a portion of this equity is forfeited.


S-78


Profit Share: The overall company pool for profit share is determined by the profitability of KBIGI (Dublin). 30% of Profit before Tax is set aside to fund the Annual Bonus and Profit Share. Any funds remaining after annual bonus awards are distributed among selected key employees. Payments under the profit sharing scheme are through a combination of cash, parent company equity and units in KBIGI (North America) funds. Equity and fund holdings are held in trust for a three -year period. If the executives cease employment with the firm, a portion of this equity is forfeited.

Equity Participation: Following completion of the acquisition of the majority shareholding by Amundi employees hold a minority equity stake in the business. There are put and call structures in place to enable employees to sell the holding on a phased basis over a multi-year period.

Retention is supported by the firm's compensation program but is also achieved by giving talented people autonomy to pursue their investment beliefs in a healthy and forward looking commercial environment.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the Emerging Markets Equity Fund, KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts of both KBIGI (North America) and KBIGI, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Gareth Maher

   

1

   

$

226.3

     

17

   

$

1,521.7

     

9

   

$

6,303.1

   

David Hogarty

   

1

   

$

226.3

     

17

   

$

1,521.7

     

9

   

$

6,303.1

   

Ian Madden

   

1

   

$

226.3

     

17

   

$

1,521.7

     

9

   

$

6,303.1

   

James Collery

   

1

   

$

226.3

     

17

   

$

1,521.7

     

9

   

$

6,303.1

   

John Looby

   

1

   

$

226.3

     

17

   

$

1,521.7

     

9

   

$

6,303.1

   
Massimiliano Tondi,
CFA, FRM
   

1

   

$

226.3

     

17

   

$

1,521.7

     

9

   

$

6,303.1

   

  KBIGI (North America) utilizes a team-based approach to portfolio management, and each of the portfolio managers listed above are jointly responsible for the management of a portion of the accounts listed in each category.

None of the accounts listed above are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest. KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers' management of other accounts (collectively, the "KBIGI Other Accounts") may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with their management of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund's investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the KBIGI Other Accounts, on the other. The KBIGI Other Accounts might have similar investment objectives as the Emerging Markets Equity Fund or hold, purchase or sell securities that are eligible to be held, purchased or sold by the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. KBIGI (North America) does not believe that these conflicts, if any, are material or, to the extent any such conflicts are material, KBIGI (North America) believes that it has designed policies and procedures to manage those conflicts in an appropriate way.

A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers' day-to-day management of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. Because of their positions with the Emerging Markets Equity Fund, the portfolio managers know the size, timing and possible market impact of Emerging Markets Equity Fund trades. It is theoretically possible that KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers could use this information to the advantage of the KBIGI Other Accounts they manage and to the possible detriment of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. However, KBIGI (North America) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to allocate investment opportunities on a fair and equitable basis over time.


S-79


A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers' management of the Emerging Markets Equity Fund and KBIGI Other Accounts, which, in theory, may allow them to allocate investment opportunities in a way that favors KBIGI Other Accounts over the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. This conflict of interest may be exacerbated to the extent that KBIGI (North America) or its portfolio managers receive, or expect to receive, greater compensation from their management of the KBIGI Other Accounts (many of which receive a base and incentive fee) than from the Emerging Markets Equity Fund. Notwithstanding this theoretical conflict of interest, it is KBIGI (North America)'s policy to manage each account based on its investment objectives and related restrictions and, as discussed above, KBIGI (North America) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to allocate investment opportunities on a fair and equitable basis over time and in a manner consistent with each account's investment objectives and related restrictions. For example, while KBIGI (North America)'s portfolio managers may buy for KBIGI Other Accounts securities that differ in identity or quantity from securities bought for the Emerging Markets Equity Fund, such securities might not be suitable for the Emerging Markets Equity Fund given its investment objectives and related restrictions.

Lazard

Compensation. SIMC pays Lazard a fee based on the assets under management of the International Equity Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Lazard and SIMC. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Lazard compensates portfolio managers by a competitive salary and bonus structure, which is determined both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Salary and bonus are paid in cash, stock and restricted interests in funds managed by Lazard or its affiliates. Portfolio managers are compensated on the performance of the aggregate group of portfolios managed by the teams of which they are a member rather than for a specific fund or account. Various factors are considered in the determination of a portfolio manager's compensation. All of the portfolios managed by a portfolio manager are comprehensively evaluated to determine his or her positive and consistent performance contribution over time. Further factors include the amount of assets in the portfolios as well as qualitative aspects that reinforce Lazard's investment philosophy.

Total compensation is generally not fixed, but rather is based on the following factors: (i) leadership, teamwork and commitment, (ii) maintenance of current knowledge and opinions on companies owned in the portfolio; (iii) generation and development of new investment ideas, including the quality of security analysis and identification of appreciation catalysts; (iv) ability and willingness to develop and share ideas on a team basis; and (v) the performance results of the portfolios managed by the investment teams of which the portfolio manager is a member. Variable bonus is based on the portfolio manager's quantitative performance as measured by his or her ability to make investment decisions that contribute to the pre-tax absolute and relative returns of the accounts managed by the teams of which the portfolio manager is a member, by comparison of each account to a predetermined benchmark (generally as set forth in the prospectus or other governing document) over the current fiscal year and the longer-term performance of such account, as well as performance of the account relative to peers. In addition, the portfolio manager's bonus can be influenced by subjective measurement of the manager's ability to help others make investment decisions.

A portion of a portfolio manager's variable bonus is awarded under a deferred compensation arrangement pursuant to which the portfolio manager may allocate certain amounts awarded among certain accounts in shares that vest in two to three years. Certain portfolio managers' bonus compensation may be tied to a fixed percentage of revenue or assets generated by the accounts managed by such portfolio management teams.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Lazard's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Equity Fund.


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Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity Fund, Lazard's portfolio managers were responsible for the day to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 
Paul Moghtader, CFA    

11

   

$

703.6

     

28

   

$

2,405.2

     

65

   

$

10,475.5

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

11

*

 

$

7,046.2

   

Susanne Willumsen

   

11

   

$

703.6

     

28

   

$

2,405.2

     

65

   

$

10,475.5

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

11

*

 

$

7,046.2

   

Taras Ivanenko

   

11

   

$

703.6

     

28

   

$

2,405.2

     

65

   

$

10,475.5

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

11

*

 

$

7,046.2

   

Peter Kashanek

   

11

   

$

703.6

     

28

   

$

2,405.2

     

65

   

$

10,475.5

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

11

*

 

$

7,046.2

   

Alex Lai

   

11

   

$

703.6

     

28

   

$

2,405.2

     

65

   

$

10,475.5

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

11

*

 

$

7,046.2

   

Ciprian Marin

   

11

   

$

703.6

     

28

   

$

2,405.2

     

65

   

$

10,475.5

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

11

*

 

$

7,046.2

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in the preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest. Although the potential for conflicts of interest exist when an investment adviser and portfolio managers manage other accounts that invest in securities in which the International Equity Fund may invest or that may pursue a strategy similar to the International Equity Fund's investment strategies implemented by Lazard (collectively, "Similar Accounts"), Lazard has procedures in place that are designed to ensure that all accounts are treated fairly and that the International Equity Fund are not disadvantaged, including procedures regarding trade allocations and "conflicting trades" (e.g., long and short positions in the same or similar securities). In addition, the International Equity Fund are subject to different regulations than certain of the Similar Accounts, and, consequently, may not be permitted to engage in all the investment techniques or transactions, or to engage in such techniques or transactions to the same degree, as the Similar Accounts.

Potential conflicts of interest may arise because of Lazard's management of the International Equity Fund and Similar Accounts, including the following:

  1.  Similar Accounts may have investment objectives, strategies and risks that differ from those of the International Equity Fund. In addition, the International Equity Fund are registered investment companies, subject to different regulations than certain of the Similar Accounts and, consequently, may not be permitted to invest in the same securities, exercise rights to exchange or convert securities or engage in all the investment techniques or transactions, or to invest, exercise or engage to the same degree, as the Similar Accounts. For these or other reasons, the portfolio managers may purchase different securities for the International Equity Fund and the corresponding Similar Accounts, and the performance of securities purchased for the International Equity Fund may vary from the performance of securities purchased for Similar Accounts, perhaps materially.

  2.  Conflicts of interest may arise with both the aggregation and allocation of securities transactions and allocation of limited investment opportunities. Lazard may be perceived as causing accounts it manages to participate in an offering to increase Lazard's overall allocation of securities in that offering, or to increase Lazard's ability to participate in future offerings by the same underwriter or issuer. Allocations of bunched trades, particularly trade orders that were only partially filled due to limited availability, and allocation of investment opportunities generally, could raise a potential conflict of interest, as Lazard may have an incentive to allocate securities that are expected to increase in value to preferred accounts. Initial public offerings, in particular, are frequently of very limited availability. A potential conflict of interest


S-81


may be perceived to arise if transactions in one account closely follow related transactions in a different account, such as when a purchase increases the value of securities previously purchased by the other account, or when a sale in one account lowers the sale price received in a sale by a second account.

  3.  Portfolio managers may be perceived to have a conflict of interest because of the large number of Similar Accounts, in addition to the International Equity Fund, that they are managing on behalf of Lazard. Although Lazard does not track each individual portfolio manager's time dedicated to each account, Lazard periodically reviews each portfolio manager's overall responsibilities to ensure that he or she is able to allocate the necessary time and resources to effectively manage the International Equity Fund. As illustrated in the table above, most of the portfolio managers manage a significant number of Similar Accounts (10 or more) in addition to the International Equity Fund.

  4.  Generally, Lazard and/or its portfolio managers have investments in Similar Accounts. This could be viewed as creating a potential conflict of interest, since certain of the portfolio managers do not invest in the International Equity Fund.

  5.  The portfolio managers noted with an * in the table above manage Similar Accounts with respect to which the advisory fee is based on the performance of the account, which could give the portfolio managers and Lazard an incentive to favor such Similar Accounts over the International Equity Fund.

  6.  Portfolio managers may place transactions on behalf of Similar Accounts that are directly or indirectly contrary to investment decisions made for the International Equity Fund, which could have the potential to adversely impact the International Equity Fund, depending on market conditions. In addition, if the International Equity Fund's' investment in an issuer is at a different level of the issuer's capital structure than an investment in the issuer by Similar Accounts, in the event of credit deterioration of the issuer, there may be a conflict of interest between the International Equity Fund's and such Similar Accounts' investments in the issuer. If Lazard sells securities short, including on behalf of a Similar Account, it may be seen as harmful to the performance of the International Equity Fund to the extent it invests "long" in the same or similar securities whose market values fall as a result of short-selling activities.

  7.  Investment decisions are made independently from those of the Similar Accounts. If, however, such Similar Accounts desire to invest in, or dispose of, the same securities as the International Equity Fund, available investments or opportunities for sales will be allocated equitably to each. In some cases, this procedure may adversely affect the size of the position obtained for or disposed of by the International Equity Fund or the price paid or received by the International Equity Fund.

  8.  Under Lazard's trade allocation procedures applicable to domestic and foreign initial and secondary public offerings and Rule 144A transactions (collectively herein a "Limited Offering"), Lazard will generally allocate Limited Offering shares among client accounts, including the International Equity Fund, pro rata based upon the aggregate asset size (excluding leverage) of the account. Lazard may also allocate Limited Offering shares on a random basis, as selected electronically, or other basis. It is often difficult for the Investment Manager to obtain a sufficient number of Limited Offering shares to provide a full allocation to each account. Lazard's allocation procedures are designed to allocate Limited Offering securities in a fair and equitable manner.

Marathon

Compensation. SIMC pays Marathon a fee based on the assets under management of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Marathon and SIMC. Marathon pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund. Such compensation consists of an annual salary, which includes a base salary and benefits package, as well as a discretionary year-end bonus which is included in the overall compensation package for investment professionals. Bonuses are based in part on Firm, Fund, and personal performance which is evaluated on an annual basis by the Firm's Compensation Committee. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.


S-82


Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Marathon's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Marathon's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 
Lou Hanover    

7

   

$

808.90

     

94

   

$

19,942.10

     

24

   

$

3,159.03

   
     

2

   

$

252.71

     

69

*

 

$

14,641.02

     

11

*

 

$

1,739.27

   
Gaby Szpigiel    

6

   

$

708.32

     

16

   

$

3,831.10

     

17

   

$

2,067.56

   
     

1

   

$

152.13

     

11

*

 

$

1,872.15

     

7

*

 

$

956.62

   
Andrew Szmulewicz    

6

   

$

708.32

     

16

   

$

3,831.10

     

17

   

$

2,067.56

   
     

1

   

$

152.93

     

11

*

 

$

1,872.15

     

7

*

 

$

956.62

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in the preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Please note that the number of accounts and corresponding Total Assets listed in the above table includes each individual entity related to that fund or account. For instance, in the case of a master fund with two related feeders, Marathon has counted three accounts.

Conflicts of Interest. A conflict of interest may arise as a result of the portfolio manager being responsible for multiple accounts, including the Emerging Markets Debt Fund, which may have different investment guidelines and objectives. In addition to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund, these accounts may include accounts of registered investment companies for which Marathon serves as sub-advisor, private pooled investment vehicles and other accounts. Marathon has adopted aggregation and allocation of investment procedures designed to ensure that all of its clients are treated fairly and equitably over time and to prevent this form of conflict from influencing the allocation of investment opportunities among its clients. As a general matter, Marathon will offer clients the right to participate in all investment opportunities that it determines are appropriate for the client in view of relative amounts of capital available for new investments, each client's investment program, and the then current portfolios of its clients at the time an allocation decision is made. As a result, in certain situations priority or weighted allocations can be expected to occur in respect of certain accounts, including but not limited to situations where clients have differing: (A) portfolio concentrations with respect to geography, asset class, issuer, sector or rating, (B) investment restrictions, (C) tax or regulatory limitations, (D) leverage limitations or volatility targets, (E) ramp up or ramp down scenarios or (F) counterparty relationships. Marathon maintains conflicts of interest policies and procedures containing provisions designed to prevent potential conflicts related to personal trading, allocation, and fees among other potential conflicts of interest.

NBIA

Compensation. SIMC pays NBIA a fee based on the assets under management of the Emerging Markets Equity and Emerging Markets Debt Funds as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between NBIA and SIMC. Neuberger Berman pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the Emerging Markets Equity and Emerging Markets Debt Funds. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Portfolio Manager Compensation Structure

NBIA's compensation philosophy is one that focuses on rewarding performance and incentivizing its employees. NBIA is also focused on creating a compensation process that it believes is fair, transparent, and competitive with the market.


S-83


Compensation for Portfolio Managers consists of fixed (salary) and variable (bonus) compensation but is more heavily weighted on the variable portion of total compensation and is paid from a team compensation pool made available to the portfolio management team with which the Portfolio Manager is associated. The size of the team compensation pool is determined based on a formula that takes into consideration a number of factors including the pre-tax revenue that is generated by that particular portfolio management team, less certain adjustments. The bonus portion of the compensation is discretionary and is determined on the basis of a variety of criteria, including investment performance (including the aggregate multi-year track record), utilization of central resources (including research, sales and operations/support), business building to further the longer term sustainable success of the investment team, effective team/people management, and overall contribution to the success of NBIA. Certain Portfolio Managers may manage products other than mutual funds, such as high net worth separate accounts. For the management of these accounts, a Portfolio Manager may generally receive a percentage of pre-tax revenue determined on a monthly basis less certain deductions. The percentage of revenue a Portfolio Manager receives pursuant to this arrangement will vary based on certain revenue thresholds.

The terms of NBIA's long-term retention incentives are as follows:

Employee-Owned Equity. Certain employees (primarily senior leadership and investment professionals) participate in NBIA's equity ownership structure, which was designed to incentivize and retain key personnel. In addition, in prior years certain employees may have elected to have a portion of their compensation delivered in the form of equity. NBIA also offers an equity acquisition program which allows employees a more direct opportunity to invest in NBIA. For confidentiality and privacy reasons, NBIA cannot disclose individual equity holdings or program participation.

Contingent Compensation. Certain employees may participate in the Neuberger Berman Group Contingent Compensation Plan (the "CCP") to serve as a means to further align the interests of its employees with the success of the firm and the interests of its clients, and to reward continued employment. Under the CCP, up to 20% of a participant's annual total compensation in excess of $500,000 is contingent and subject to vesting. The contingent amounts are maintained in a notional account that is tied to the performance of a portfolio of NBIA investment strategies as specified by the firm on an employee-by-employee basis. By having a participant's contingent compensation tied to NBIA investment strategies, each employee is given further incentive to operate as a prudent risk manager and to collaborate with colleagues to maximize performance across all business areas. In the case of members of investment teams, including Portfolio Managers, the CCP is currently structured so that such employees have exposure to the investment strategies of their respective teams as well as the broader NBIA portfolio.

Restrictive Covenants. Most investment professionals, including Portfolio Managers, are subject to notice periods and restrictive covenants which include employee and client non-solicit restrictions as well as restrictions on the use of confidential information. In addition, depending on participation levels, certain senior professionals who have received equity grants have also agreed to additional notice and transition periods and, in some cases, non-compete restrictions. For confidentiality and privacy reasons, NBIA cannot disclose individual restrictive covenant arrangements.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, NBIA's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the Emerging Markets Equity or Emerging Markets Debt Funds.

Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the Emerging Markets Equity and Emerging Markets Debt Funds, NBIA's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 
Rob Drijkoningen    

2

   

$

674

     

32

   

$

13,137

     

32

   

$

7,476

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

5

*

 

$

1,877

   


S-84


    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 
Gorky Urquieta    

2

   

$

674

     

32

   

$

13,137

     

32

   

$

7,476

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

*

 

$

0

     

5

*

 

$

1,877

   
Jennifer Gorgoll, CFA    

2

   

$

643

     

15

   

$

8,405

     

4

   

$

1,285

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

1

*

 

$

257

     

1

*

 

$

20

   
Raoul Luttik    

2

   

$

643

     

12

   

$

3,269

     

7

   

$

2,062

   
Nish Popat    

2

   

$

643

     

14

   

$

7,592

     

8

   

$

2,316

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

3

   

$

1,036

   
Prashant Singh, CFA**    

1

   

$

535

     

4

*

 

$

279

     

0

   

$

0

   
Bart van der Made, CFA    

2

   

$

656

     

20

   

$

10,947

     

20

   

$

3,978

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

0

   

$

0

     

2

*

 

$

822

   
Vera Kartseva**    

2

   

$

643

     

7

   

$

1,283

     

0

   

$

0

   
Conrad A. Saldanha, CFA    

1

   

$

712

     

15

   

$

1,497

     

285

   

$

1,946

   
     

0

   

$

0

     

1

*

 

$

49

     

1

*

 

$

52

   

*  These accounts, which are a subset of the accounts in the preceding row, are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

**  These accounts are not subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

Conflicts of Interest. Actual or apparent conflicts of interest may arise when a Portfolio Manager has day-to-day management responsibilities with respect to more than one fund or other account. The management of multiple funds and accounts (including proprietary accounts) may give rise to actual or potential conflicts of interest if the funds and accounts have different or similar objectives, benchmarks, time horizons, and fees, as the Portfolio Manager must allocate his or her time and investment ideas across multiple funds and accounts. The Portfolio Manager may execute transactions for another fund or account that may adversely impact the value of securities or instruments held by a fund, and which may include transactions that are directly contrary to the positions taken by a fund. For example, a Portfolio Manager may engage in short sales of securities or instruments for another account that are the same type of securities or instruments in which a fund it manages also invests. In such a case, the Portfolio Manager could be seen as harming the performance of the fund for the benefit of the account engaging in short sales if the short sales cause the market value of the securities or instruments to fall.

Additionally, if a Portfolio Manager identifies a limited investment opportunity that may be suitable for more than one fund or other account, a fund may not be able to take full advantage of that opportunity. There may also be regulatory limitations that prevent a fund from participating in a transaction that another account or fund managed by the same Portfolio Manager will invest. For example, the 1940 Act prohibits the funds from participating in certain transactions with certain of its affiliates and from participating in "joint" transactions alongside certain of its affiliates. The prohibition on "joint" transactions may limit the ability of the funds to participate alongside its affiliates in privately negotiated transactions unless the transaction is otherwise permitted under existing regulatory guidance and may reduce the amount of privately negotiated transactions that the funds may participate. Further, the Manager may take an investment position or action for a fund or account that may be different from, inconsistent with, or have different rights than (e.g., voting rights, dividend or repayment priorities or other features that may conflict with one another), an action or position taken for one or more other funds or accounts, including a fund, having similar or different objectives.

A conflict may also be created by investing in different parts of an issuer's capital structure (e.g., equity or debt, or different positions in the debt structure). Those positions and actions may adversely impact, or in some instances benefit, one or more affected accounts, including the funds. Potential conflicts may also arise because portfolio decisions and related actions regarding a position held for a fund or another account may not be in the best interests of a position held by another fund or account having similar or different objectives. If one account were to buy or sell portfolio securities or instruments shortly before another account bought or sold


S-85


the same securities or instruments, it could affect the price paid or received by the second account. Securities selected for funds or accounts other than a Fund may outperform the securities selected for the Fund.

Finally, a conflict of interest may arise if the Manager and a Portfolio Manager have a financial incentive to favor one account over another, such as a performance-based management fee that applies to one account but not all funds or accounts for which the Portfolio Manager is responsible. In the ordinary course of operations, certain businesses within the Neuberger Berman organization (the "Firm") will seek access to material non-public information. For instance, NBIA portfolio managers may obtain and utilize material non-public information in purchasing loans and other debt instruments and certain privately placed or restricted equity instruments. From time to time, NBIA portfolio managers will be offered the opportunity on behalf of applicable clients to participate on a creditors or other similar committee in connection with restructuring or other "work-out" activity, which participation could provide access to material non-public information.

The Firm maintains procedures that address the process by which material non-public information may be acquired intentionally by the Firm. When considering whether to acquire material nonpublic information, the Firm will attempt to balance the interests of all clients, taking into consideration relevant factors, including the extent of the prohibition on trading that would occur, the size of the Firm's existing position in the issuer, if any, and the value of the information as it relates to the investment decision-making process. The acquisition of material non-public information would likely give rise to a conflict of interest since the Firm may be prohibited from rendering investment advice to clients regarding the securities or instruments of such issuer and thereby potentially limiting the universe of securities or instruments that the Firm, including a Fund, may purchase or potentially limiting the ability of the Firm, including a Fund, to sell such securities or instruments. Similarly, where the Firm declines access to (or otherwise does not receive or share within the Firm) material non-public information regarding an issuer, the portfolio managers could potentially base investment decisions with respect to assets of such issuer solely on public information, thereby limiting the amount of information available to the portfolio managers in connection with such investment decisions. In determining whether or not to elect to receive material non-public information, the Firm will endeavor to act fairly to its clients as a whole. The Firm reserves the right to decline access to material non-public information, including declining to join a creditors or similar committee.

NBIA and each fund have adopted certain compliance procedures which are designed to address these types of conflicts. However, there is no guarantee that such procedures will detect each and every situation in which a conflict arises.

Ninety One

Compensation. SIMC pays Ninety One a fee based on the assets under management of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Ninety One and SIMC. Ninety One pays its investment professionals out of its total revenues and other resources, including the sub-advisory fees earned with respect to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund. The following information relates to the period ended September 30, 2022.

Ninety One's remuneration policy is designed to attract, retain and motivate staff and to reinforce the behaviors needed to support our culture and values over the short, medium, and longer term in a risk conscious manner.

The remuneration for all employees of Ninety One includes fixed remuneration, pension contribution (where applicable) and local employee benefits. Remuneration may also include the following elements:

•  annual discretionary variable remuneration which may comprise both cash and deferred elements;

•  staff shares may also be awarded on an exceptional basis (such awards are typically retention-related); and

•  in a small number of instances we make use of alternative remuneration structures such as commission, carried interest, or profit sharing, where this is important to remain competitive in specific locations or for specific roles.


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Fixed pay, pension contributions and employee benefits

Fixed remuneration, including salaries, is reviewed annually and designed to reflect the relative skills and experience of, and contribution made, by each employee.

Employee benefits include:

-  Life and permanent health insurances and medical cover, which vary according to local market norms.

-  Employer pension contributions, which are based on annual salary only and not on other fixed remuneration, bonuses or the value of other benefits. No discretionary pension benefits are paid.

Discretionary annual variable compensation

Ninety One operates an annual discretionary cash bonus scheme and an annual discretionary deferred bonus scheme (see further below). The primary determinant of the variable compensation pool available for distribution is Ninety One's own annual profit. A fixed percentage of profit allocated to the variable remuneration pool has been set in accordance with an agreed and long-standing practice that has served the business successfully through numerous market cycles. As our business aims to meet the long-term objectives of our clients, profit (and therefore variable remuneration pools) have historically been aligned. The pool is divided between the business divisions based on considerations of both financial and non-financial performance.

All employees of Ninety One are currently eligible to be considered for a cash bonus payment under the scheme. Any payments made under the scheme are at the discretion of Ninety One and based on a number of qualitative and quantitative factors including multi-year performance and non-financial metrics such as compliance and risk awareness.

Where Ninety One's financial performance is subdued or negative, total variable remuneration would be contracted in line with weaker financial results, taking into account both current remuneration and potential reductions in payouts of amounts previously earned. Ninety One's total variable remuneration should therefore not limit its ability to strengthen its capital base as it is paid out of profits. This structure has been a key contributor to the long-term success of Ninety One and encourages the staff to behave like owners. Ninety One believes in aligning the long-term interests of clients, shareholders and employees.

Deferred bonus scheme

Participation in the deferred bonus scheme is determined on an annual basis based on the roles of individual employees. The purpose of the scheme is to retain key employees, provide better alignment of their interests with both clients and the business, and to manage potential, currently unknown, future risks.

Deferred bonus awards are made in the form of a combination of investments into:

•  Investment funds managed by Ninety One, with specific allocations (normally 50%) for portfolio managers and analysts into the funds for which they are responsible; and

•  Listed shares in Ninety One (normally allocations of at least 25%).

Ninety One believes this compensation structure is balanced and competitive and positions Ninety One to attract and retain the best industry skills.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Ninety One's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the Emerging Markets Debt Fund.

Other employee ownership: Several senior managers and investment professionals own an equity stake in the business, ultimately through a trust structure with each participant funding their portions through a combination of existing deferred compensation (for which vesting was accelerated), personal debt and personal cash.


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Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Ninety One's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

    Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 

Portfolio Manager

  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Antoon De Klerk

   

0

   

$

0

     

10

   

$

6,449

     

6

   

$

1,862

   

Werner Gey van Pittius

   

0

   

$

0

     

4

   

$

2,878

     

10

   

$

6,481

   

None of the accounts listed above are subject to a performance-based advisory fee.

The value of assets managed by Antoon De Klerk and Werner Gey van Pittius includes the assets managed within the Emerging Markets Debt strategy of which Mr. De Klerk and Mr. Gey van Pittius are co-portfolio managers.

Conflicts of Interest. Real, potential or apparent conflicts of interest may arise when a portfolio manager has day-to-day portfolio management responsibilities with respect to more than one fund or account.

Ninety One is governed by all the rules and regulations of the relevant regulatory bodies in the jurisdictions in which it operates.

Ninety One strongly believes in its fiduciary duty to clients and will always seek to manage any possible conflicts that may occur through its normal business activities so that there is no material risk of damage to clients. Ninety One employs companywide measures to eliminate any potential conflicts of interest which may arise and maintains a Compliance Manual and a Code of Ethics (titled "Do the Right Thing"), which incorporate many of Ninety One requirements on conflicts of interest. These documents are bound into employees' contracts of employment and a breach would therefore provide grounds for disciplinary action or dismissal.

An example of how Ninety One manages/mitigates conflicts of interest is shown by the fact that Ninety One's portfolio managers focus entirely on portfolio management, while Ninety One's dedicated Trading Desk focuses on best execution of client orders; this avoids conflicts of interest between the two roles. The portfolio manager authorizes all orders which are then routed to the Trading Desk. This segregation of duties also removes any conflict of interest between the execution of trades on behalf of different portfolios. Ninety One's investment allocation policy aims to ensure that investment opportunities are allocated fairly among Ninety One's clients. This means Ninety One regularly aggregates client orders. Allocation is carried out strictly on a pro rata basis except where allocation is too small to split. If an allocation is so small that it makes it uneconomic for Ninety One clients to split, then the Trading Desk has the discretion to allocate to a single client on a fair basis.

Pzena

Compensation. SIMC pays Pzena a fee based on the assets under management of the International Equity Fund as set forth in an investment sub-advisory agreement between Pzena and SIMC. Portfolio managers and other investment professionals at Pzena are compensated through a combination of fixed base salary, annual performance bonus and equity ownership, if appropriate due to superior performance. Pzena avoids the compensation model that is driven by individual security performance, as this can lead to short-term thinking which is contrary to the firm's value investment philosophy. The portfolio managers' bonuses are not specifically dependent upon the performance of the portfolios relative to the performance of the portfolios' benchmarks. For investment professionals, we examine such things as effort, efficiency, ability to focus on the correct issues, stock modeling ability, and ability to successfully interact with company management. However, Pzena always looks at the person as a whole and the contributions that they have made and are likely to make in the future. Longer-term success is required for equity ownership consideration. Ultimately, equity ownership is the primary tool used by Pzena for attracting and retaining the best people.

Ownership of Fund Shares. As of September 30, 2022, Pzena's portfolio managers did not beneficially own any shares of the International Equity Fund.


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Other Accounts. As of September 30, 2022, in addition to the International Equity Fund, Pzena's portfolio managers were responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

  Registered Investment
Companies
  Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
 

Other Accounts

 
Portfolio Manager   Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
  Number
of Accounts
  Total Assets
(in millions)
 

Caroline Cai

   

12

   

$

5,633

     

48

   

$

12,169

     

54

   

$

9,086

   
     

2

*

 

$

1,642

     

3

*

 

$

199

     

2

*

 

$

256

   

Allison Fisch

   

12

   

$

4,162

     

24

   

$

1,813

     

31

   

$

5,449

   
     

1

*

 

$