0000835324 Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc. false --12-31 FY 2019 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 2017 2018 2019 30 105 0 0 10 5 3 1 641,000 0 196,000 156,000 2 350,000 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reflects the fair value adjustment for the core deposit intangible asset recorded as a result of the acquisition. Reflects the fair value adjustment based on Bancorp's evaluation of the acquired loan portfolio and to eliminate KSB's recorded allowance. Reflects the fair value adjustment based on Bancorp's evaluation of the premises and equipment acquired. Ratio is computed in relation to average assets. Outside of the scope of ASC 606 Reflects the fair value adjustment based on Bancorp's evaluation of the acquired investment portfolio. Consists of land acquired for development by the borrower, but for which no development has yet taken place. Reflects the write-off of a miscellaneous other asset. Bancorp's acquisition of KSB closed on May 1, 2019. The fair value adjustments reported are preliminary estimates based on information obtained subsequent to May 1, 2019 and through December 31, 2019. Management is continuing to evaluate each of its estimates and may provide additional recast adjustments in future periods based on this continuing evaluation. To the extent that additional recast adjustments are posted in future periods, the resultant fair values and the amount of goodwill recorded by Bancorp will change. Reflects the fair value adjustment based on the Bancorp's evaluation of the assumed time deposits. Under the 2015 Omnibus Equity Compensation Plan, shares of stock are authorized for issuance as incentive and non-qualified stock options, SARs, RSAs, and RSUs. Reflects the fair value adjustment based upon Bancorp's evaluation of the foreclosed real estate acquired. Intrinsic value for SARs is defined as the amount by which the current market price of the underlying stock exceeds the exercise or grant price. Includes $30 million in brokered deposits as of December 31, 2019 and 2018. Outside of the scope of ASC 606, with the exception of safe deposit fees which were nominal for all periods. Reflects the fair value adjustment based upon Bancorp's evaluation of the assumed FHLB advances. Total loans are presented inclusive of premiums, discounts, and net loan origination fees and costs. Ratio is computed in relation to risk-weighted assets. 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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES  

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 

Washington, D.C. 20549 

 


 

FORM 10-K

  

 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934  

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 

 

or

 

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to          

  

Commission File Number: 1-13661 

  

 

STOCK YARDS BANCORP, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Kentucky

 

61-1137529

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

1040 East Main Street, Louisville, Kentucky

 

40206

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

  

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (502) 582-2571

  

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, no par value

SYBT

The NASDAQ Stock Market

  

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

  

None 

(Title of class)

  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  ☐ Yes  ☒ No

  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  ☐ Yes  ☒ No

  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes  ☐ No

  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  ☒ Yes  ☐ No

  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☒ 

 

Accelerated filer ☐

 

Non-accelerated filer ☐

 

Smaller reporting company  

Emerging growth company 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  ☒ No

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2019 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $756,982,663.

 

The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, no par value, outstanding as of February 21, 2020, was 22,637,670.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 23, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 
 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I:    
     
Item 1. Business. 4
     
Item 1A.   Risk Factors. 8
     
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments. 13
     
Item 2. Properties. 13
     
Item 3. Legal Proceedings. 13
     
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures. 13
     
PART II:    
     
Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities. 14
     
Item 6.  Selected Financial Data. 16
     
Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. 18
     
Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk. 54
     
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. 54
     
Item 9.   Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure. 126
     
Item 9A.   Controls and Procedures. 126
     
Item 9B.  Other Information. 128
     
PART III:    
     
Item 10.   Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance. 128
     
Item 11.  Executive Compensation. 129
     
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters. 130
     
Item 13.   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence. 130
     
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services. 130
     
PART IV:    
     
Item 15.      Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules. 130
     
Item 16.  Form 10-K Summary. 133
     
Signatures    134

 

2

 

 

GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

 

The acronyms and abbreviations identified in alphabetical order below are used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

 

 

Acronym

or Term

 

Definition

 

Acronym

or Term

 

Definition

 

Acronym

or Term

 

Definition

ACH

 

Automated Clearing House

 

EVP

 

Executive Vice President

 

NASDAQ

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market

AFS

 

Available for Sale

 

FASB

 

Financial Accounting Standards Board

 

NA

 

Not Applicable

APIC

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

FDIC

 

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

 

NIM

 

Net Interest Margin

Allowance

 

Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

 

FFP

 

Federal Funds Purchased

  NM  

Not Meaningful

AOCI

 

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

 

FFS

 

Federal Funds Sold

 

OAEM

 

Other Assets Especially Mentioned

ASC

 

Accounting Standards Codification

 

FFTR

 

Federal Funds Target Rate

 

OCI

 

Other Comprehensive Income

ASU

 

Accounting Standards Update

 

FHA

 

Federal Housing Authority

 

OREO

 

Other Real Estate Owned

ATM

 

Automated Teller Machine

 

FHC

 

Financial Holding Company

 

OTTI

 

Other than Temporary Impairment

AUM

 

Assets Under Management

 

FHLB

 

Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati

 

PCAOB

 

Public Company Accounting Oversight Board

Bancorp / the Company

 

Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc.

 

FHLMC

 

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

 

PCI

 

Purchased Credit Impaired

Bank / SYB&T

 

Stock Yards Bank & Trust Company

 

FICA

 

Federal Insurance Contributions Act

 

Prime

 

The Wall Street Journal Prime Interest Rate

BOLI

 

Bank Owned Life Insurance

 

FNMA

 

Federal National Mortgage Association

 

Provision

 

Provision for Loan and Lease Losses

BP

 

Basis Point - 1/100th of one percent

 

FRB

 

Federal Reserve Bank

 

PSU

 

Performance Stock Unit

C&D

 

Construction and Development

 

FTE

 

Fully Tax Equivalent

 

ROA

 

Return on Average Assets

C&I

 

Commercial and Industrial

 

GAAP

 

United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

 

ROE

 

Return on Average Equity

CD

 

Certificate of Deposit

 

GLB Act

 

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

 

RSA

 

Restricted Stock Award

CDI

 

Core Deposit Intangible

 

GNMA

 

Government National Mortgage Association

 

RSU

 

Restricted Stock Unit

CECL

 

Current Expected Credit Loss

 

HB

 

House Bill

 

SAR

 

Stock Appreciation Right

CEO

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

HELOC

 

Home Equity Line of Credit

 

SEC

 

Securities and Exchange Commission

CFO

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

IRS

 

Internal Revenue Service

 

SSUAR

 

Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase

COSO

 

Committee of Sponsoring Organizations

 

ITM

 

Interactive Teller Machine

 

SVP

 

Senior Vice President

CRA

 

Community Reinvestment Act

 

KBST

 

King Bancorp Statutory Trust I

 

TBOC

 

THE Bank Oldham County

CRE

 

Commercial Real Estate

 

KSB

 

King Bancorp, Inc. and King Southern Bank

 

TCE

 

Tangible Common Equity

Dodd-Frank Act

 

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

 

LIBOR

 

London Interbank Offered Rate

 

TCJA

 

2017 Tax Cut and Jobs Act

DTA

 

Deferred Tax Asset

 

Loans

 

Loans and Leases

 

TDR

 

Troubled Debt Restructuring

DTL

 

Deferred Tax Liability

 

MBS

 

Mortgage Backed Securities

 

TPS

 

Trust Preferred Securities

EPS

 

Earnings Per Share

 

MSA

 

Metropolitan Statistical Area

 

VA

 

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

ETR

 

Effective Tax Rate

 

MSRs

 

Mortgage Servicing Rights

 

WM&T

 

Wealth Management and Trust

 

3

 
 

 

PART I

 

Item 1.

Business.

 

Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc., headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, is the holding company for SYB&T, its sole subsidiary. Bancorp, which was incorporated in 1988 in Kentucky, is registered with, and subject to supervision, regulation and examination by, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. As Bancorp has no significant operations of its own, its business and that of the Bank are essentially the same. The operations of the Bank are fully reflected in the consolidated financial statements of Bancorp. Accordingly, references to “Bancorp” in this document may encompass both the holding company and the Bank.

 

The Bank, chartered in 1904, is a state-chartered non-member financial institution that provides services in the Louisville, Kentucky, Indianapolis, Indiana and Cincinnati, Ohio MSAs through 42 full service banking center locations.

 

Website Access to Reports

 

Bancorp files reports with the SEC including the Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current event reports on Form 8-K, and proxy statements, as well as any amendments to those reports. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. Bancorp’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are also accessible at no cost on Bancorp’s web site at http://www.syb.com after they are electronically filed with the SEC.

 

General Business Overview

 

Bancorp is divided into two reportable segments: Commercial Banking and WM&T:

 

Commercial Banking provides a full range of loan and deposit products to individual consumers and businesses in all its markets through retail lending, mortgage banking, deposit services, online banking, mobile banking, private banking, commercial lending, treasury management services, merchant services, international banking, correspondent banking and other banking services. The Bank also offers securities brokerage services via its banking center network through an arrangement with a third party broker-dealer in the Commercial Banking segment. 

 

WM&T provides custom-tailored financial planning, investment management, retirement planning, trust and estate services in all markets in which Bancorp operates. The magnitude of WM&T revenue distinguishes Bancorp from other community banks of similar asset size.

 

Employees

 

At December 31, 2019, the Bank had 615 full-time equivalent employees. None of Bancorp’s employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement and Bancorp has never experienced a work stoppage. Employees of the Bank are entitled to participate in a variety of employee benefit programs including a combined employee profit sharing and stock ownership plan. Management of Bancorp strives to be an employer of choice and considers the relationship with employees to be good.

 

Executive Officers

 

See Part III, Item 10. “Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance” for information regarding Bancorp’s executive officers.

 

4

 

Competition

 

The Bank encounters intense competition in its markets in originating loans, attracting deposits, and selling other banking related financial services. The deregulation of the banking industry, the ability to create financial services holding companies to engage in a wide range of financial services other than banking and the widespread enactment of state laws that permit multi-bank holding companies, as well as the availability of nationwide interstate banking, has created a highly competitive environment for financial institutions. In one or more aspects of the Bank’s business, the Bank competes with local and regional retail and commercial banks, other savings banks, credit unions, finance companies and mortgage companies operating in Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. Some of the Bank’s competitors are not subject to the same degree of regulatory review and restrictions that apply to Bancorp and the Bank. Many of the Bank’s primary competitors, some of which are affiliated with large bank holding companies or other larger financial based institutions, have substantially greater resources, larger established client bases, higher lending limits, more extensive banking center networks, numerous ATMs or ITMs, and greater advertising and marketing budgets. They may also offer services that the Bank does not currently provide. These competitors attempt to gain market share through their financial product mix, pricing strategies and banking center locations. Legislative developments related to interstate branching and banking in general, by providing large banking institutions easier access to a broader marketplace, can act to create more pressure on smaller financial institutions to consolidate. It is anticipated that competition from both bank and non-bank entities will continue to remain strong in the foreseeable future.

 

The Bank believes that an emphasis on highly personalized service tailored to individual client needs, together with the local character of the Bank’s business and its “community bank” management philosophy will continue to enhance the Bank’s ability to compete successfully in its markets.

 

Supervision and Regulation

 

Bank holding companies and commercial banks are extensively regulated under both federal and state laws. Changes in applicable laws or regulations may have a material effect on the business and prospects of Bancorp.

 

Bancorp, as a registered bank holding company, is subject to the supervision of and regulation by the Federal Reserve Board under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. In addition, Bancorp is subject to the provisions of Kentucky’s banking laws regulating bank acquisitions and certain activities of controlling bank shareholders.

 

Kentucky and federal banking statutes delineate permissible activities for Kentucky state-chartered banks. Kentucky’s statutes, however, contain a super parity provision for Kentucky chartered banks having one of the top two ratings in its most recent regulatory examination. This provision allows these state banks to engage in any banking activity in which a national bank, a state bank operating in any other state, or a federally chartered thrift could engage. The bank must first obtain a legal opinion specifying the statutory or regulatory provisions that permit the activity.

 

The Bank is subject to the supervision of the Kentucky Department of Financial Institutions and the FDIC. The FDIC insures the deposits of the Bank to the current maximum of $250,000 per depositor.

 

The GLB Act allows for affiliations among banks, securities firms and insurance companies by means of FHC. The GLB Act requires that, at the time of establishment of an FHC, all depository institutions within that corporate group must be “well managed” and “well capitalized” and must have received a rating of “satisfactory” or better under its most recent CRA examination. Further, non-banking financial firms (for example an insurance company or securities firm) may establish a FHC and acquire a depository institution. While the distinction between banks and non-banking financial firms has been blurring over recent years, the GLB Act makes it less cumbersome for banks to offer services “financial in nature” but beyond traditional commercial banking activities. Likewise, non-banking financial firms may find it easier to offer services that had, heretofore, been provided primarily by depository institutions. In 2012, management of Bancorp elected to become and became a FHC.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in 2010 and generally was effective the day after it was signed into law, but different effective dates apply to specific sections of the law. The extensive and complex legislation contained many provisions affecting the banking industry, including but not limited to:

 

 

Creation of a Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection overseeing banks with assets totaling $10 billion or greater while writing and maintaining several regulations that apply to all banks,

 

Determination of debit card interchange rates by the Federal Reserve Board,

 

5

 

 

New regulation over derivative instruments,

 

Phase outs of certain forms of trust preferred debt and hybrids previously included as bank capital, and

 

Increases to FDIC deposit coverage, revised calculations for assessing bank premiums, and numerous other provisions affecting financial institution regulation, oversight of certain non-banking organizations, investor protection.

 

The CRA requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practice. Under the CRA, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit to low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. Depository institutions are periodically examined for compliance with the CRA, and banking regulators take into account CRA ratings when considering approval of certain applications. An unsatisfactory CRA rating could, among other things, result in the denial or delay of corporate applications filed by Bancorp or the Bank for proposed activities such as branch openings or relocations and applications to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or holding company.

 

The federal banking regulators have adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to unaffiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to an unaffiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is conveyed to outside vendors. The Bank is also subject to regulatory guidelines establishing standards for safeguarding customer information. These guidelines describe the federal banking agencies’ expectations for the creation, implementation and maintenance of an information security program, which would include administrative, technical and physical safeguards appropriate to the size and complexity of the institution and the nature and scope of its activities.

 

The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and the USA Patriot Act. These statutes and related rules and regulations impose requirements and limitations on specified financial transactions and accounts and other relationships intended to guard against money laundering and terrorism financing. Financial institutions must take certain steps to assist government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering and report certain types of suspicious transactions. Regulatory authorities routinely examine financial institutions for compliance with these obligations, and failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.

 

Bancorp and the Bank are subject to capital regulations in accordance with Basel III, as administered by banking regulators. The FRB and FDIC have substantially similar risk-based and leverage ratio guidelines for banking organizations, which are intended to ensure that banking organizations have adequate capital related to the risk levels of assets and off-balance sheet instruments. Under the risk-based guidelines, specific categories of assets are assigned different risk weights based generally on the perceived credit risk of the asset. These risk weights are multiplied by corresponding asset balances to determine a risk-weighted asset base. In addition to the risk-based capital guidelines, the FRB used a leverage ratio as a tool to evaluate the capital adequacy of bank holding companies. The leverage ratio is a company’s Tier 1 Capital divided by its average total consolidated assets (less goodwill and certain other intangible assets).

 

The federal banking agencies’ risk-based and leverage ratios represent minimum supervisory ratios generally applicable to banking organizations that meet certain specified criteria, assuming that they have the highest regulatory capital rating. Banking organizations not meeting these criteria are required to operate with capital positions above the minimum ratios. FRB guidelines also provide that banking organizations experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions may be expected to maintain strong capital positions above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets. The FDIC may establish higher minimum capital adequacy requirements if, for example, a bank proposes to make an acquisition requiring regulatory approval, has previously warranted special regulatory attention, rapid growth presents supervisory concerns, or, among other factors, has a high susceptibility to interest rate and other types of risk. The Bank is not subject to any such individual minimum regulatory capital requirement.

 

6

 

Banking regulators have categorized the Bank as well-capitalized. For purposes of prompt corrective action, “well capitalized” banks must have a minimum 6.5% Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio, 8.0% Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio, 10.0% Total Risk-Based Capital ratio and 5.0% Tier 1 Leverage ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid limitations on capital distributions, including dividend payments and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers, the Company and Bank must hold a capital conservation buffer composed of Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital above their minimum risk-based capital requirements. The capital conservation buffer phased in from 2016 through 2019 on the following schedule: a capital conservation buffer of 0.625% effective January 1, 2016; 1.25% effective January 1, 2017; 1.875% effective January 1, 2018; and a fully phased in capital conservation buffer of 2.5% on January 1, 2019.

 

As of December 31, 2019, Bancorp met the requirements to be considered well-capitalized and is not subject to limitations due to the capital conservation buffer.

 

Statistical Disclosures 

 

The statistical disclosures required by Part I Item 1 “Business” are located under Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

7

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors.

 

FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS

 

An investment in Bancorp’s common stock is subject to risks inherent in its business. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included in this filing. In addition to the risks and uncertainties described below, other risks and uncertainties not currently known to Bancorp or that Bancorp currently deems to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations in the future. The value or market price of Bancorp’s common stock could decline due to any of these identified or other risks, and an investor could lose all or part of their investment.

 

There are factors, many beyond Bancorp’s control, which may significantly change the results or expectations of Bancorp. Some of these factors are described below, however, many are described in the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Bancorps credit metrics are currently at historically strong levels and this trend could normalize over time.

 

Over the past several years, Bancorp’s asset quality metrics have trended within a narrow range, exceeding benchmarks and reaching historically strong levels. Bancorp realizes that present asset quality metrics are positive and, recognizing the cyclical nature of the lending business, Bancorp anticipates this trend will likely normalize over time.

 

Financial condition and profitability depend significantly on local and national economic conditions.

 

The Company’s success depends on general economic conditions both locally and nationally. A portion of Bancorp’s customer’s ability to repay their obligations is directly tied to local, national or global business dealings. Deterioration in the quality of the credit portfolio could have a material adverse effect on financial condition, results of operations, and ultimately capital.

 

Financial condition and profitability depend on real estate values in Bancorps market area.

 

Bancorp offers a variety of secured loans, including C&I lines of credit, C&I term loans, real estate, C&D, HELOCs, consumer and other loans. Many of Bancorp’s loans are often secured by real estate primarily in Bancorp’s market areas. In instances where borrowers are unable to repay their loans and there has been deterioration in the value of loan collateral, Bancorp could experience higher loan losses which could have a material adverse effect on financial condition, and results of operations.

 

If actual loan losses are greater than Bancorps assumption for loan losses, earnings could decrease.

 

Bancorp’s loan customers may not repay their loans according to the terms of these loans, collateral securing payment of these loans may be insufficient to ensure repayment and the wealth of guarantors providing guarantees to support these loans may be insufficient to aid in the repayment of these loans. Accordingly, Bancorp might experience significant credit losses which could have a material adverse effect on operating results. Bancorp makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of the loan portfolio, including creditworthiness of borrowers and value of collateral for repayment. In determining the adequacy of the allowance, Bancorp considers, among other factors, an evaluation of economic conditions and Bancorp’s loan loss experience. If Bancorp’s assumptions prove to be incorrect or economic problems are worse than projected, the current allowance may be insufficient to cover loan losses and adjustments may be necessary to allow for different economic conditions or adverse developments in the loan portfolio. Such additions to the allowance, if necessary, could have a material adverse impact on financial results.

 

Federal and state regulators annually review Bancorp’s allowance and may require an increase in the allowance. If regulatory agencies require any increase in the allowance for which Bancorp had not allocated, it would have a negative effect on financial results.

 

8

 

Fluctuations in interest rates could reduce profitability.

 

Bancorp’s primary source of income is from net interest spread, the difference between interest earned on loans and investments and interest paid on deposits and borrowings. Bancorp expects to periodically experience gaps in interest rate sensitivities of Bancorp’s assets and liabilities, meaning that either interest-bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than interest-earning assets, or vice versa. In either event, if market interest rates should move contrary to Bancorp’s position, this gap will work against Bancorp and earnings will be negatively affected.

 

Many factors affect fluctuation of market interest rates, including, but not limited to the following:

 

 

inflation or deflation

 

recession

 

a rise in unemployment

 

tightening money supply

 

international disorder and instability in foreign financial markets

 

the FRB’s actions to control interest rates

 

The FRB increased the FFTR three times in 2017 and four times in 2018 which led to Prime increasing from 3.75% to 5.50%. In 2019, the FFTR was reduced three times with Prime ending the year at 4.75%. Bancorp’s balance sheet is slightly asset sensitive and thus benefits from rising interest rate environments, as the majority of Bancorp’s variable rate loans are tied to Prime with a lesser amount tied to LIBOR. While variable rate loans have re-priced at lower rates Bancorp has responded by decreasing deposit rates on most interest bearing deposit accounts to try and offset the fall in loan pricing.

 

Market expectations are for the FRB to possibly lower rates one or two additional times in 2020. A continued flat yield curve is widely anticipated, with the possibility of short term rates exceeding longer term rates, resulting in an inverted yield curve. Deposit rates tend to be tied to the short end of the rate curve, while fixed-rate loans are largely priced based upon longer term rates, specifically five-year offerings. A flattening or inverted yield curve may increase Bancorp’s funding costs while limiting rates that can be earned on loans and investments, thereby decreasing net interest income and earnings. Migration of deposits out of Bancorp, as customers pursue higher rates, could impact liquidity and earnings as Bancorp competes for deposits. Changes in the mix of deposits could result in increased average rates paid on deposits, and lower earnings to Bancorp. Bancorp’s asset-liability management strategy, which is designed to mitigate risk from changes in market interest rates, may not be able to prevent changes in interest rates from having a material adverse effect on Bancorp’s results of operations and financial condition.

 

Bancorp is subject to funding risk.

 

Funding risk represents dependence Bancorp has on large commercial deposit relationships. Approximately 44% of Bancorp’s total deposits are centralized in accounts with balances $500,000 or greater. Bancorp considers these deposits core funds, as they represent long-standing, full-service relationships and are a testament to Bancorp’s commitment to partner with business clients by providing exemplary service and competitive products. A sudden shift in customer behavior within these deposits resulting in balances being reduced or exiting the Bank altogether could impact Bancorp’s ability to capitalize on growth opportunities and meet current obligations. Bancorp has secondary funding sources to draw upon as needed but the cost of those funds would be higher than typical deposit accounts which would negatively impact the financial condition and results of operations.

 

Significant stock market volatility could negatively affect Bancorps financial results.

 

Income from WM&T constitutes approximately 46% of non-interest income. Trust AUM are expressed in terms of market value, and a significant portion of fee income is based upon those values. A large majority of WM&T fees are based on market values which generally fluctuate with overall capital markets.

 

Capital and credit markets experience volatility and disruption from time to time. These conditions place downward pressure on credit availability, credit worthiness and customers’ inclinations to borrow. Prolonged volatility or a significant disruption could negatively impact customers’ ability to seek new loans or to repay existing loans. Personal wealth of many borrowers and guarantors has historically added a source of financial strength to certain loans and would be negatively impacted by severe market declines. Sustained reliance on personal assets to make loan payments would result in deterioration of their liquidity, and could result in loan defaults.

 

9

 

Competition with other financial institutions could adversely affect profitability.

 

Bancorp operates in a highly competitive industry that could become even more so as a result of earnings pressure of peer organizations, legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. Bancorp faces vigorous competition in price and structure of financial products from banks and other financial institutions. In recent years, credit unions have expanded their lending mix and now compete heavily with banks in the CRE market. Non-traditional providers high risk tolerance for fixed rate, long-term loans has adversely affected Bancorp’s net loan growth and results of operations. Bancorp also competes with other non-traditional providers of financial services, such as brokerage firms and insurance companies. As internet-based financial services continue to grow in acceptance, Bancorp must remain relevant as a place where consumers and businesses value personal service while other institutions offer these services without human interaction. The variety of sources of competition may reduce or limit margins on banking services, reduce market share and adversely affect results of operations and financial condition.

 

Bancorp is subject to litigation risk pertaining to fiduciary responsibility

 

From time to time, customers make claims and take legal action pertaining to our performance of our fiduciary responsibilities. Whether customer claims and legal action related to our performance of our fiduciary responsibilities are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to us they may result in significant financial liability and/or adversely affect the market perception of us and our products and services as well as impact customer demand for those products and services. Any financial liability or reputational damage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Changes in customer use of banks could adversely affect Bancorps financial condition and results of operations.

 

Rapid evolution of non-bank alternatives for initiation and completion of financial transactions puts Bancorp at risk of losing sources of revenue and funding. The ability of customers to pay bills, transfer funds, and purchase assets without utilizing the banking system could result in loss of fee income, deposits, and loans. If Bancorp is unable to continue timely development of competitive new products and services, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

Bancorp operates in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes to or lack of compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations.

 

Bancorp is subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by federal and state banking authorities. Any change in applicable regulations or federal or state legislation could have a substantial impact on Bancorp and its operations. Additional legislation and regulations may be enacted or adopted in the future that could significantly affect Bancorp’s powers, authority and operations, which could have a material adverse effect on Bancorp’s financial condition and results of operations. If Bancorp’s policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, Bancorp would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on the ability to pay dividends and the requirement to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of Bancorp’s business plan, including branching and acquisition plans.

 

An extended disruption of vital infrastructure could negatively impact Bancorps business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Bancorp’s operations depend upon, among other things, infrastructure, including equipment and facilities. Extended disruption of vital infrastructure by fire, power loss, natural disaster, telecommunications failure, information systems breaches, terrorist activity or the domestic and foreign response to such activity, or other events outside of Bancorp’s control could have a material adverse impact on the financial services industry, the economy as a whole and on Bancorp’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Bancorp’s business continuity plan may not work as intended or may not prevent significant interruption of operations. Occurrence of any failures or interruptions of information systems could damage Bancorp’s reputation, result in loss of customer business, subject Bancorp to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose Bancorp to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have an adverse effect on Bancorp’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

10

 

Security breaches or incidences of fraud could negatively impact Bancorps business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Bancorp’s assets which are at risk for cyber-attacks include financial assets and non-public information belonging to customers. Cyber security risks include cyber espionage, blackmail, ransom, theft, and corporate account takeovers. Bancorp employs many preventive and detective controls to protect its assets, and provides mandatory recurring information security training for all employees. Bancorp has invested in multiple preventative tools in an attempt to protect customers from cyber threats and corporate account takeover. Bancorp regularly provides educational information regarding cyber threats to customers. Bancorp utilizes multiple third-party vendors who have access to Bancorp’s assets via electronic media. While Bancorp requires third parties, many of whom are small companies, to have similar or superior controls in place, there is no guarantee that a breach of information could not occur. Activities of the Bank that subject Bancorp to risk of fraud by customers, employees, vendors, or members of the general public include ACH transactions, wire transactions, ATM transactions, checking transactions, credit card transactions and loan originations. Repeated incidences of fraud or a single large occurrence would adversely impact Bancorp’s reputation and results of operations.

 

Bancorps ability to stay current on technological changes in order to compete and meet customer demands is constantly being challenged.

 

The financial services industry is constantly undergoing rapid technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. Future success of Bancorp will depend, in part, upon its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience, as well as to create additional operational efficiencies and greater privacy and security protection for customers and their personal information. Many of Bancorp’s competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. Bancorp may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services as quickly as competitors or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers. Bancorp relies on third party providers for many of its technology-driven banking products and services. Some of these companies may be slow to respond with upgrades or enhancements to their products to keep pace with improvements in technology or the introduction of competing products. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could impair Bancorp’s ability to effectively compete to retain or acquire new business and could have an adverse impact on its business, financial position, results of operations and liquidity.

 

Bancorp is dependent upon outside third parties for processing and handling of the Company’s records and data.

 

Bancorp relies on software developed by third-party vendors to process various transactions. In some cases, Bancorp has contracted with third parties to run their proprietary software on Bancorp’s behalf. While Bancorp performs a review of controls instituted by applicable vendors over these programs in accordance with industry standards and performs testing of user controls, the Company relies on continued maintenance of controls by these third-party vendors, including safeguards over security of client data. Bancorp may incur a temporary disruption in the Company’s ability to conduct business or process transactions, or incur reputational damage, if a third-party vendor fails to adequately maintain internal controls or institute necessary changes to systems. Such a disruption or breach of security could have a material adverse effect on Bancorp’s business. Further, if these third-party service providers experience difficulties, or should terminate their services, and the Company is unable to replace them on a timely basis, Bancorp’s business operations could be interrupted. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, or if Bancorp incurred excessive costs involved with replacing third-party service provider, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

Bancorps accounting policies and methods are critical to how Bancorp reports its financial condition and results of operations. They require management to make estimates about matters that are uncertain.

 

Accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how Bancorp records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. Bancorp must exercise judgment in selecting and applying these accounting policies and methods so they comply with GAAP.

 

Bancorp has identified certain accounting policies as being critical because they require management’s judgment to ascertain the valuations of assets, liabilities, commitments and contingencies. A variety of factors could affect the ultimate value that is obtained either when earning income, recognizing an expense, recovering an asset, or reducing a liability. Bancorp has established detailed policies and control procedures intended to ensure these critical accounting estimates and judgments are well controlled and applied consistently.

 

11

 

Policies and procedures are intended to ensure that the process for changing methodologies occurs in an appropriate manner. Because of the uncertainty surrounding Bancorp’s judgments and estimates pertaining to these matters, there can be no assurances that actual results will not differ from those estimates. See the section titled “Critical Accounting Policies” in “Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information.

 

The CECL accounting standard will result in a significant change in how Bancorp recognizes credit losses and may have a material impact on Bancorp’s financial condition or results of operations.

 

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which replaces the current “incurred loss” model for recognizing credit losses with an “expected loss” model. Whereas the incurred loss model delays recognition of loss on financial instruments until it is probable a loss has occurred, the expected loss model will recognize a loss at the time the loan is first added to the balance sheet. As result of this differing methodology, Bancorp expects adoption of the CECL model will materially affect the determination of the allowance and could require a significant increase to the allowance. Any material increase to the required level of loan loss allowance could adversely affect Bancorp’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

The CECL standard will become effective for Bancorp for fiscal years beginning January 1, 2020. See the section titled “Accounting Standards Updates Issued” for discussion regarding the anticipated one-time cumulative-effect adjustment to the allowance and stockholders’ equity. Interagency guidance issued in December 2018 allows for a three year phase-in of the cumulative-effect adjustment for regulatory capital reporting.

 

Bancorp may not be able to attract and retain skilled people.

 

Bancorp’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for the best people in the industry and markets in which Bancorp engages can be intense, and Bancorp may not be able to retain or hire the people wanted or needed. To attract and retain qualified employees, Bancorp must compensate them at market levels. If Bancorp is unable to continue to attract and retain qualified employees, or do so at rates necessary to maintain the Company’s competitive position, Bancorp’s performance, including the Company’s competitive position, could suffer, and, in turn, adversely affect Bancorp’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

Bancorp invests in partnerships that generate federal income tax savings and these may not continue.

 

Bancorp invests in certain partnerships that yield federal income tax credits resulting in higher net income for Bancorp. These transactions may also include lending to developers, further enhancing profitability of the transaction. These transactions typically involve a very limited number of counterparties. Availability and suitability of these transactions are not particularly predictable and may not continue to be favorable to Bancorp. Recently enacted income tax reform could result in fewer transactions and the extent to which federal income tax credits favorably affect Bancorp’s net income. Therefore, the positive effect on Bancorp’s net income may not continue at levels previously experienced.

 

The planned phasing out of the LIBOR as a financial benchmark presents risks to the financial instruments originated or held by the Corporation.

 

The LIBOR is the reference rate used for many of our transactions, including our lending and borrowing, as well as the derivatives that we use to manage risk related to such transactions. LIBOR will cease to exist as a published rate after 2021. The expected discontinuation of LIBOR could have a significant impact on the financial markets and market participants such as Bancorp. As of December 31, 2019, Bancorp had approximately $404 million in variable rate loans with interest rates tied to LIBOR, of which approximately $259 million have maturity dates beyond December 31, 2021. Bancorp’s derivative activities based upon LIBOR include interest rate swap transactions with maturities beyond 2021 with notional amounts totaling approximately $99 million.

 

The FRB, through the Alternative Reference Rate Committee, has recommended a replacement benchmark rate, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate. All loan and swap contracts extending beyond 2021 will need to be managed effectively to ensure appropriate benchmark rate replacements are provided for and adopted.

 

12

 

Failure to identify a replacement benchmark rate and/or update data processing systems could result in future interest rate changes not being correctly captured, which could result in interest rate risk not being mitigated as intended, or interest earned being miscalculated, which could adversely impact Bancorp’s business, financial condition, and results of operations. Uncertainty regarding LIBOR and the taking of discretionary actions or negotiations of fall-back provisions could result in pricing volatility, adverse tax or accounting impacts, or additional compliance, legal and operational costs.

 

Acquisitions could adversely affect Bancorp’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

An institution that Bancorp acquires may have asset quality issues or contingent liabilities that Bancorp did not discover or fully recognize in the due diligence process, thereby resulting in unanticipated losses. Acquisitions of other institutions also typically require integration of different corporate cultures, loan and deposit products, pricing strategies, data processing systems and other technologies, accounting, internal audit and financial reporting systems, operating systems and internal controls, marketing programs and personnel of the acquired institution. The integration process is complicated and time consuming and could divert Bancorp’s attention from other business concerns and may be disruptive to its clients and clients of the acquired institution. Bancorp’s failure to successfully integrate an acquired institution could result in loss of key clients and employees, and prevent the Company from achieving expected synergies and cost savings. The Company may finance acquisitions with borrowed funds, thereby increasing the Bancorp’s leverage and reducing liquidity, or with potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities.

 

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

None.

 

Item 2.

Properties.

 

The principal offices of Bancorp are located at 1040 East Main Street, Louisville, Kentucky. Bancorp’s operations center is at a separate location in Louisville. At December 31, 2019, in addition to the main office complex and the operations center, Bancorp owned 24 branch properties, two of which are located on leased land. At that date, Bancorp also leased 18 branch facilities including its WM&T facility. Of the 42 banking locations, 32 are located in the Louisville MSA, five are located in the Indianapolis MSA and five are located in the Cincinnati MSA.

 

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings.

 

In the ordinary course of operations, Bancorp and the Bank are defendants in various legal proceedings. There is no proceeding pending or, to the knowledge of management, threatened in which an adverse decision could result in a material adverse change in the business or consolidated financial position of Bancorp or the Bank.

 

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

NA

 

13

 

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

 

Bancorp’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ under the ticker symbol SYBT. On December 31, 2019, Bancorp had approximately 1,600 shareholders of record, and approximately 6,100 beneficial owners holding shares in nominee or “street” name.

 

The following table shows information relating to the repurchase of shares of common stock by Bancorp during the three months ended December 31, 2019.

 

   

Total number

of shares

purchased(1)

   

Average

price paid

per share

   

Total number of shares

purchased as part of

publicly announced

plans or programs

   

Average

price paid

per share

   

Maximum number of

shares that may yet be

purchased under the

plans or programs

 
                                         

October 1 - October 31

    206     $ 39.99           $          

November 1 - November 30

    3,432       40.61                      

December 1 - December 31

    111       41.14                      

Total

    3,749     $ 40.59           $       741,196  

 

(1)

Activity includes 3,749 shares of stock withheld to pay taxes due upon exercise of SARs and vesting of RSUs and PSUs.

 

Effective May 22, 2019, Bancorp’s Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing the repurchase of 1 million shares, or approximately 4% of Bancorp’s total common shares outstanding at that time. Stock repurchases are expected to be made from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, subject to applicable securities law. The plan, which will expire in two years unless otherwise extended or completed at an earlier date, does not obligate Bancorp to repurchase any specific dollar amount or number of shares prior to the plan’s expiration. As of December 31, 2019, Bancorp had 741,196 shares that could be repurchased under its current share repurchase program.

 

There were no equity securities of the registrant sold without registration during the quarter covered by this report.

 

The following performance graphs and data shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, nor shall it be deemed soliciting material or subject to Regulation 14A of the Exchange Act or incorporated by reference in any filing under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act of 1933, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

 

The first graph below compares performance of Bancorp’s Common Stock to the Russell 2000 Index, the SNL Midwest Bank Index, and the SNL Bank NASDAQ Index for the last five fiscal years. The graph assumes the value of the investment in Bancorp’s Common Stock and in each index was $100 at December 31, 2014 and that all dividends were reinvested.

 

In addition to the five-year period required by the SEC, the ten-year period is presented because it provides additional perspective, and Bancorp management believes that longer-term performance is of interest. The ten-year graph assumes the value of the investment in Bancorp’s Common Stock and in each index was $100 at December 31, 2009 and that all dividends were reinvested.

 

14

 

 

   

Period Ending   

 

Index

 

12/31/14

   

12/31/15

   

12/31/16

   

12/31/17

   

12/31/18

   

12/31/19

 

Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc.

  $ 100.00     $ 116.39     $ 221.89     $ 182.02     $ 162.74     $ 209.44  

Russell 2000 Index

    100.00       95.59       115.95       132.94       118.30       148.49  

SNL Midwest Bank Index

    100.00       101.52       135.64       145.76       124.47       161.94  

SNL Bank NASDAQ Index

    100.00       107.95       149.68       157.58       132.82       166.75  

 

 

   

Period Ending

 

Index

 

12/31/09

   

12/31/10

   

12/31/11

   

12/31/12

   

12/31/13

   

12/31/14

   

12/31/15

   

12/31/16

   

12/31/17

   

12/31/18

   

12/31/19

 

Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc.

  $ 100.00     $ 118.35     $ 102.29     $ 115.58     $ 169.75     $ 182.48     $ 212.39     $ 404.91     $ 332.15     $ 296.97     $ 382.17  

Russell 2000 Index

    100.00       126.86       121.56       141.43       196.34       205.95       196.86       238.81       273.78       243.63       305.82  

SNL Midwest Bank Index

    100.00       124.18       117.30       141.18       193.28       210.12       213.32       285.02       306.28       261.54       340.27  

SNL Bank NASDAQ Index

    100.00       117.98       104.68       124.77       179.33       185.73       200.50       278.00       292.68       246.69       309.72  

 

15

 

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data.

 

   

As of and for the Years Ended December 31

 

(in thousands except per share data)

 

2019

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

   

2015

 
                                         

Income Statement Data:

                                       

Interest income

  $ 147,765     $ 129,773     $ 110,899     $ 102,207     $ 93,235  

Interest expense

    22,544       15,357       7,246       4,918       4,852  

Net interest income

    125,221       114,416       103,653       97,289       88,383  

Provision for loan and lease losses

    1,000       2,705       2,550       3,000       750  

Non-interest income

    49,790       45,346       44,499       42,920       39,315  

Non-interest expenses

    98,351       89,509       90,420       80,938       72,828  

Income before income tax expense

    75,660       67,548       55,182       56,271       54,120  

Income tax expense

    9,593       12,031       17,139       15,244       16,933  

Net income

  $ 66,067     $ 55,517     $ 38,043     $ 41,027     $ 37,187  

Per Share Data:

                                       

Weighted average shares - Diluted

    22,865       22,944       22,983       22,792       22,459  

Net income per share - Basic

  $ 2.92     $ 2.45     $ 1.69     $ 1.84     $ 1.68  

Net income per share - Diluted

    2.89       2.42       1.66       1.80       1.65  

Cash dividends declared per share

    1.04       0.96       0.80       0.72       0.64  

Book value

    17.97       16.11       14.71       13.88       12.80  

Market value

    41.06       32.80       37.70       46.95       25.19  

Balance Sheet Data:

                                       

Securities available for sale

  $ 470,738     $ 436,995     $ 574,524     $ 570,074     $ 565,876  

Loans and leases

    2,845,016       2,548,171       2,409,570       2,305,375       2,033,007  

Allowance for loan and lease losses

    26,791       25,534       24,885       24,007       22,441  

Total assets

    3,724,197       3,302,924       3,239,646       3,039,481       2,816,801  

Deposits

    3,133,938       2,794,356       2,578,295       2,520,548       2,371,702  

Federal funds purchased

    10,887       10,247       161,352       47,374       22,477  

Federal Home Loan Bank advances

    79,953       48,177       49,458       51,075       43,468  

Stockholders' equity

    406,297       366,500       333,644       313,872       286,519  

Average Balances:

                                       

Total assets

  $ 3,480,998     $ 3,159,726     $ 3,037,581     $ 2,886,396     $ 2,573,901  

Stockholders’ equity

    386,563       347,041       327,798       304,151       274,451  

Selected Ratios:

                                       

Return on average assets

    1.90 %     1.76 %     1.25 %     1.42 %     1.44 %

Return on average stockholders’ equity

    17.09       16.00       11.61       13.49       13.55  

Average stockholders’ equity to average assets

    11.10       10.98       10.79       10.54       10.66  

Net interest rate spread

    3.50       3.60       3.52       3.51       3.59  

Net interest rate margin, fully tax-equivalent

    3.81       3.83       3.64       3.59       3.67  

Efficiency ratio (FTE)

    56.13       55.92       60.61       57.39       56.62  

Non-performing loans to total loans and leases

    0.42       0.13       0.31       0.29       0.44  

Non-performing assets to total assets

    0.34       0.13       0.31       0.39       0.48  

Net charge offs/(recoveries) to average loans

    (0.01 )     0.08       0.07       0.07       0.17  

Allowance for loan losses to total loans and leases

    0.94       1.00       1.03       1.04       1.10  

 

Share and per share information has been adjusted to reflect the 3 for 2 stock-split in April 2016 effected in the form of a 50% stock dividend.

 

16

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures 

 

The following table provides a reconciliation of total stockholders’ equity in accordance with GAAP to tangible stockholders’ equity, a non-GAAP disclosure. Bancorp provides the TCE per share, a non-GAAP measure, in addition to those defined by banking regulators, because of its widespread use by investors as a means to evaluate capital adequacy:

 

December 31, (in thousands, except per share data)

 

2019

   

2018

 
                 

Total stockholders' equity - GAAP (a)

  $ 406,297     $ 366,500  

Less: Goodwill

    (12,513 )     (682 )

Less: Core deposit intangible

    (2,285 )     (1,057 )

Tangible common equity - Non-GAAP (c)

  $ 391,499     $ 364,761  
                 

Total assets - GAAP (b)

  $ 3,724,197     $ 3,302,924  

Less: Goodwill

    (12,513 )     (682 )

Less: Core deposit intangible

    (2,285 )     (1,057 )

Tangible assets - Non-GAAP (d)

  $ 3,709,399     $ 3,301,185  
                 

Total stockholders' equity to total assets - GAAP (a/b)

    10.91 %     11.10 %

Tangible common equity to tangible assets - Non-GAAP (c/d)

    10.55 %     11.05 %
                 

Total shares outstanding (e)

    22,604       22,749  
                 

Book value per share - GAAP (a/e)

  $ 17.97     $ 16.11  

Tangible common equity per share - Non-GAAP (c/e)

    17.32       16.03  

 

 

The efficiency ratio, a non-GAAP measure, equals total non-interest expenses divided by the sum of net interest income (FTE) and non-interest income. The ratio excludes net gains (losses) on sales, calls, and impairment of investment securities, if applicable. In addition to the efficiency ratio normally presented, Bancorp considers an adjusted efficiency ratio. Bancorp believes this ratio is important because it provides a comparable ratio after eliminating the fluctuation in non-interest expenses related to amortization of investments in tax credit partnerships. The following table reconciles the efficiency ratio calculation to the adjusted efficiency ratio calculation.

 

 

Years Ended December 31, (dollars in thousands)

 

2019

   

2018

   

2017

 
                         

Total non-interest expenses (a)

  $ 98,351     $ 89,509     $ 90,420  

Less: Amortization of investments in tax credit partnerships

    (1,078 )     (1,237 )     (7,124 )

Total adjusted non-interest expenses (c)

  $ 97,273     $ 88,272     $ 83,296  
                         

Total net interest income, fully tax equivalent

  $ 125,445     $ 114,723     $ 104,446  

Total non-interest income

    49,790       45,346       44,499  

Less: Gain/loss on sale of securities

    -       -       (232 )

Total revenue (b)

  $ 175,235     $ 160,069     $ 149,177  
                         

Efficiency ratio, FTE (a) / (b)

    56.13 %     55.92 %     60.61 %

Adjusted efficiency ratio, FTE (c) / (b)

    55.51 %     55.15 %     55.84 %

 

17

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc. its wholly-owned subsidiary, Stock Yards Bank & Trust Company, collectively referred to as “Bancorp” or the “Company.” All significant inter-company transactions and accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Stock Yards Bancorp, Inc. is a FHC headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. SYB&T, chartered in 1904, is a state-chartered non-member financial institution that provides services in the Louisville, Kentucky, Indianapolis, Indiana and Cincinnati, Ohio MSAs through 42 full service banking center locations.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying Footnotes presented in Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

This report contains forward-looking statements under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act that involve risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as “expect”, “anticipate”, “plan”, “foresee”, “believe” or other words with similar meaning. Although Bancorp believes assumptions underlying forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, any of these assumptions could be inaccurate. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from results discussed in forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: economic conditions both generally and more specifically in markets in which Bancorp and its subsidiary operate; competition for Bancorp’s customers from other providers of financial services; government legislation and regulation which change from time to time and over which Bancorp has no control; changes in interest rates; material unforeseen changes in liquidity, deterioration in the real estate market, results of operations or financial condition of Bancorp’s customers; or other risks detailed in Bancorp’s filings with the SEC and Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors,” all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond the control of Bancorp.

 

Acquisition of King Bancorp, Inc. and its subsidiary King Southern Bank (“KSB”)

 

On May 1, 2019, Bancorp completed its acquisition of KSB for $28 million in cash. The acquisition expands Bancorp’s market area into nearby Nelson County, Kentucky, while expanding the customer base in Louisville, Kentucky. At May 1, 2019, KSB reported approximately $192 million in total assets, approximately $164 million in loans, and approximately $126 million in deposits. As a result of the acquisition, goodwill totaling $12 million was recorded during the second quarter of 2019, with nominal recast adjustments posted during the third and fourth quarters.

 

As a result of the completion of the acquisition, Bancorp incurred pre-tax transaction charges totaling $1.3 million during the second quarter of 2019. Net income from the KSB acquisition was accretive to Bancorp’s overall operating results for the third and fourth quarters of 2019.

 

In connection with the acquisition, Bancorp became the 100% successor owner of King Bancorp Statutory Trust I (“KBST”), an unconsolidated finance subsidiary. As permitted under the terms of KBST’s governing documents, Bancorp redeemed the TPS at the par amount of approximately $4 million on June 17, 2019.

 

Issued but Not Yet Effective Accounting Standards Updates

 

For disclosure regarding the impact to Bancorp’s financial statements of issued-but-not-yet-effective ASUs, see the Footnote titled “Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

18

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Bancorp’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reported periods.

 

Management continually evaluates its accounting policies and estimates that it uses to prepare the consolidated financial statements. In general, management’s estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience, accounting and regulatory guidance, and information obtained from independent third-party professionals. Actual results may differ from those estimates made by management.

 

Critical accounting policies are those that management believes are the most important to the portrayal of Bancorp’s financial condition and operating results and require management to make estimates that are difficult, subjective and complex. Most accounting policies are not considered by management to be critical accounting policies. Several factors are considered in determining whether or not a policy is critical in the preparation of the financial statements. These factors include, among other things, whether the estimates have a significant impact on the financial statements, the nature of the estimates, the ability to readily validate the estimates with other information including independent third parties or available pricing, sensitivity of the estimates to changes in economic conditions and whether alternative methods of accounting may be utilized under GAAP. Management has discussed each critical accounting policy and the methodology for the identification and determination of critical accounting policies with Bancorp’s Audit Committee.

 

Allowance and Provision – An allowance has been established to provide for probable losses on loans that may not be fully repaid. The allowance is increased by provisions charged to expense and decreased by charge-offs, net of recoveries. Loans are typically charged off when management deems them uncollectible and after underlying collateral has been liquidated; however, collection efforts may continue and future recoveries could occur. Periodically, loans are partially charged off to the net realizable value based upon the evaluation of related underlying collateral, including Bancorp’s expectation of resolution.

 

The provision reflects an allowance methodology driven by risk ratings, historical losses, specific loss allocations, and qualitative factors. Assumptions include many factors, such as changes in borrowers’ financial condition, which can change quickly, or historical loss ratios related to certain loan portfolios, which may or may not be indicative of future losses. In the first quarter of 2019, Bancorp extended the historical period used to capture Bancorp’s historical loss ratios from 32 quarters to 36 quarters. This extension of the historical period was applied to all classes and segments of the loan portfolio. The expansion of the look-back period for the quantitative historical loss rate caused Bancorp to review the overall methodology for the qualitative factors to ensure Bancorp was appropriately capturing the risk not addressed in the quantitative historical loss rate. Management believes the extension of the look-back period is appropriate to capture the impact of a full economic cycle and more accurately represents the current level of risk inherent in the loan portfolio. To the extent that management’s assumptions prove incorrect, results from operations could be materially affected by a higher or lower provision. The accounting policy related to the allowance is applicable to the Commercial Banking segment of Bancorp.

 

Bancorp’s allowance calculation includes allocations to loan portfolio segments at December 31, 2019 for qualitative factors including, among other factors, local economic and business conditions in each of our primary markets, quality and experience of lending staff and management, exceptions to lending policies, levels of and trends in past due loans and loan classifications, concentrations of credit such as collateral type, trends in portfolio growth, trends in value of underlying collateral for collateral-dependent loans, effect of other external factors such as national economic and business trends, the quality and depth of the loan review function, and management’s judgement of current trends and potential risks. Bancorp utilizes the sum of all allowance amounts derived as described above as the appropriate level of allowance. Changes in criteria used in this evaluation or availability of new information could cause the allowance to be increased or decreased in future periods. In addition, bank regulatory agencies, as part of their examination process, may require adjustments to the allowance based on their judgments and estimates.

 

19

 

Business Segment Overview

 

Bancorp is divided into two reportable segments: Commercial Banking and WM&T:

 

Commercial Banking provides a full range of loan and deposit products to individual consumers and businesses in all its markets through retail lending, mortgage banking, deposit services, online banking, mobile banking, private banking, commercial lending, treasury management services, merchant services, international banking, correspondent banking and other banking services. The Bank also offers securities brokerage services via its banking center network through an arrangement with a third party broker-dealer in the Commercial Banking segment. 

 

WM&T provides custom-tailored financial planning, investment management, retirement planning, trust and estate services in all markets in which Bancorp operates. The magnitude of WM&T revenue distinguishes Bancorp from other community banks of similar asset size.

 

Overview – Operating Results

 

The following table presents an overview Bancorp’s financial performance for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017:

 

Years Ended December 31,

                         

Variance

 

(dollars in thousands, except per share data)

 

2019

   

2018

   

2017

   

2019 / 2018

   

2018 / 2017

 
                                         

Income before income tax expense

  $ 75,660     $ 67,548     $ 55,182       12

%

    22

%

Net income

    66,067       55,517       38,043       19       46  

Diluted earnings per share

    2.89       2.42       1.66       19       46  

ROA

    1.90 %     1.76 %     1.25 %     8       41  

ROE

    17.09 %     16.00 %     11.61 %     7       38  

 

Additional discussion follows under the section titled “Results of Operations.”

 

General highlights for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to December 31, 2018:

 

In 2019, Bancorp set the following financial records:

 

o

Total revenue, comprising FTE net interest income and non-interest income, of $175.2 million, surpassing the previous record of $160.1 million in 2018

 

o

Net income of $66.1 million surpassing $55.5 million in 2018

 

o

The combination of record loan production and the KSB acquisition boosted the loan portfolio by $297 million, or 12%. Approximately $133 million, or 6%, of the growth related to the acquisition.

 

o

Total deposit growth $340 million

 

o

WM&T AUM of $3.3 billion

 

o

WM&T services income of $22.6 million boosted by record new business generation and strong market performance

 

o

ROA of 1.90%

 

o

ROE of 17.09%

Bancorp completed the acquisition of KSB on May 1st, adding approximately $164 million in loans and $126 million in deposits. Upon closing, goodwill totaling $12 million was recorded and net income from the acquisition was accretive to overall operating results for the third and fourth quarters of 2019.

The FRB lowered the FFTR by 25 bps on three (3) separate occasions in 2019 with Prime falling to 4.75%.

Consistent with changes in Prime, Bancorp lowered the stated rate of most interest-bearing deposit account types during 2019.

NIM declined 2 bps to 3.81% for 2019 compared to the prior year.

Net interest income increased $10.8 million, or 9%, for 2019.

Average loans increased $198 million, or 8%, from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2019. Bancorp benefited from the KSB acquisition in addition to strong organic loan production and net loan growth in 2019.

Average interest-bearing deposits increased $237 million, or 12%, from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2019.

Sustained sound credit metrics, including net loan loss recoveries for 2019, led to a reduced provision of $1.0 million compared with $2.7 million for 2018.

 

20

 

Bancorp’s allowance was 0.94% of total loans at December 31, 2019, compared with 1.00% at December 31, 2018.

Non-interest income increased $4.4 million, or 10%, during 2019 based on the following:

 

o

Strong market returns, new business generation, and growth in corporate retirement plans led to record WM&T income.

 

o

Debit and credit card revenue continued to benefit from increasing transaction volumes, an expanding customer base and incentives paid by card processors.

 

o

Treasury management fees continued to grow consistent with growth in the commercial deposit base.

 

o

Lower long-term interest rates boosted mortgage banking income in 2019.

 

o

Other non-interest income benefited from significant non-recurring swap fees collected, gain on sale of Visa Class B common stock and proceeds received from a life insurance policy.

Non-interest expenses increased $8.8 million, or 10%, during 2019 based on the following:

 

o

KSB related deal costs, in addition to ongoing operational expenses tied to banking center expansion, incurred in 2019.

 

o

Growth in full time equivalent employees in addition to higher production and performance based compensation attributable to record 2019 operating results drove the increase in compensation expense.

 

o

Card processing expenses trended upward consistent with revenue growth.

 

o

Employee benefit expense was elevated in 2019 consistent with higher 401(k) match and increased FICA expense.

 

o

Additional community support expense was recorded, as the Company increased its contribution to the Bank’s foundation, established to support various community initiatives, due to outstanding 2019 results.

 

o

In contrast to the above increases, no FDIC insurance expense was recorded for the third and fourth quarters of 2019, as the national FDIC Reserve Ratio reached 1.38%, or the FDIC’s targeted level, triggering the FDIC to release credits to small institutions.

Bancorp's efficiency ratio, calculated on a FTE basis, for 2019 was 56.13% compared with 55.92% for the same period in 2018.

The ETR decreased from 17.81% for 2018 to 12.68% for 2019 primarily due to two Kentucky state tax law changes that occurred during the first half of 2019.

 

 

Total stockholder’s equity to total assets was 10.91% as of December 31, 2019 compared to 11.10% at December 31, 2018 and 10.30% at December 31, 2017. Total equity increased $40 million in 2019, as record net income of $66.1 million was offset by dividends declared of $24 million, stock repurchases totaling $9 million, changes in AOCI and various stock based compensation.

 

 

TCE is a measure of a company's capital which is useful in evaluating the quality and adequacy of capital. Bancorp’s ratio of TCE to total tangible assets was 10.55% as of December 31, 2019, compared with 11.05% at December 31, 2018, and 10.25% at December 31, 2017, with the decline attributable to the second quarter 2019 KSB acquisition. See the section titled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for reconcilement of non-GAAP to GAAP measures.

 

General highlights for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to December 31, 2017:

 

Record total revenue (FTE) of $160.1 million exceeded 2017 by $11 million, or 8%.

The FRB raised the FFTR by 25 bps on four (4) separate occasions in 2018 with Prime ending at 5.50%.

NIM improved 19 bps to 3.83% at December 31, 2018 despite a highly competitive lending environment and increasing rates paid on deposits.

Net interest income increased $10.8 million, or 10%, for 2018.

Record loan production boosted the loan portfolio by $139 million, or 6%.

Average loans increased $214 million, or 9%, from December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2018. Interest income on loans increased by $18.5 million, or 19% equally due to strong organic loan production and the increase in interest rates.

Average deposits increased $86 million, or 3%, from December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2018.

Higher funding costs on deposits and borrowings and deposit growth during 2018 resulted in increased interest expense of $8.1 million.

Credit quality metrics improved further over historically solid levels.

For the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Bancorp recorded provision of $2.7 million and $2.6 million.

Bancorp’s allowance to total loans at December 31, 2018 and 2017 was 1.00% and 1.03%.

Non-interest income increased $847,000, or 2%, during 2018 based on the following:

 

21

 

 

o

WM&T income increased $1.0 million, or 5%, consistent with a rising stock market for most of 2018 and growth in client base.

 

o

Debit and credit card revenue continued to benefit from increasing transaction volume.

 

o

Offsetting the above increases, mortgage banking income declined 20% consistent with the increase in long-term interest rates in 2018.

 

o

Other non-interest income declined $432,000 consistent with the decline in swap fee income.

Non-interest expenses declined $911,000, or 1%, during 2018 based on the following:

 

o

The $5.9 million, or 83%, decline in amortization of investments in tax credit partnerships drove the overall net decline in non-interest expenses for 2018, as Bancorp experienced reduced investment opportunities related to these investments during the year

 

o

Compensation expense increased year over year based on the increase in full time equivalent employees, higher salaries and increased production and performance based compensation.

 

o

Higher technology and communications expenses related to computer operation additions and improvements.

 

o

Legal and professional fees were elevated in 2018 due to costs associated with the then pending KSB acquisition.

Bancorp's efficiency ratio, calculated on a FTE basis, for 2018 was 55.92% compared with 60.61% for the same period in 2017.

Tax expense declined $5.1 million, or 30%, in 2018, as the ETR decreased to 17.81% from 31.06% for 2017 primarily due to TCJA enacted on December 22, 2017 which reduced the marginal federal tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. The tax reform resulted in higher taxes in 2017 from a one-time $5.9 million charge recorded to re-measure Bancorp’s net DTA. Also, the 2017 ETR included significantly more tax savings from stock-based compensation deductions and federal income tax credits.

 

Challenges for 2020:

 

Bancorp has identified the following challenges for fiscal year 2020:

 

Goals for fiscal year 2020 include net loan growth at a pace similar to that experienced in 2019, excluding the KSB acquisition. This will be impacted by competition, prevailing interest rates, economic conditions, line of credit utilization and loan prepayments. Bancorp believes there is continued opportunity for loan growth in all three of its markets and Bancorp’s ability to deliver attractive loan growth over the long-term is linked to Bancorp’s overall success.

NIM compression in 2020 is a concern, as the FRB lowered the FFTR by 25 bps on three separate occasions in 2019, with Prime ending at 4.75%. Unlike the first two rate cuts in 2019, the decline in loan yields could not be fully offset by reductions in deposit rates for the third cut effective October 31st. Continued FFTR cuts could put pressure on NIM. Additionally, continued yield curve flattening is widely anticipated, with the possibility of short term rates exceeding longer term rates, resulting in an inverted yield curve.

A flattening or inverted yield curve may increase Bancorp’s funding costs while limiting rates that can be earned on loans and investments, thereby decreasing net interest income and earnings.

Migration of deposits out of Bancorp, as customers pursue higher rates, could impact liquidity and earnings as Bancorp competes for deposits. Changes in the mix of deposits could result in increased average rates paid on deposits, and lower earnings to Bancorp.

Bancorp derives significant non-interest income from WM&T services. Most of these fees are based upon the market value of AUM at respective period ends. To continue growth of this income source, Bancorp must attract new customers and retain existing customers. Bancorp believes there is opportunity for growth in its three markets. Growth in market values of AUM and fees is dependent upon positive returns in the overall capital markets. Bancorp has no control over market volatility.

Technological advances are consistently providing opportunities for Bancorp to consider potential new products and delivery channels. Bancorp’s customers’ demand for innovative and relevant products and services is expected to trend along with changing technology. Bancorp will need to continue to make prudent investments in technology while managing associated risks so as to remain competitive with other financial service providers.

Over the past several years, Bancorp’s asset quality metrics have trended within a narrow range, exceeding benchmarks and reaching historically strong levels. Bancorp realizes that present asset quality metrics are positive and, recognizing the cyclical nature of the lending business, Bancorp anticipates this trend will likely normalize over time.

 

22

 

The CECL accounting standard will result in a significant change in how Bancorp recognizes credit losses. Whereas the incurred loss model delayed recognition of loss on financial instruments until it is probable a loss had occurred, the CECL model will recognize a loss at the time the loan is first added to the balance sheet. As result of this differing methodology, Bancorp expects adoption of the CECL model will materially affect the determination of the allowance.

Operating results for 2019 included several one-time non-recurring positive items such as: significant state tax benefits, life insurance death benefit proceeds, elevated loan prepayment and swap fees and a gain on sale of Visa Class B stock.

 

Results of Operations

 

Net Interest Income

 

As is the case with most banks, Bancorp’s primary revenue sources are net interest income and fee income from various financial services provided to customers. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on loans, investment securities and other interest earning assets less interest expense on deposit accounts and other interest bearing liabilities. Loan volume and interest rates earned on those loans are critical to overall profitability. Similarly, deposit volume is crucial to funding loans and rates paid on deposits directly impact profitability. New business volume is influenced by economic factors including market interest rates, business spending, consumer confidence and competitive conditions within the marketplace. The discussion that follows is based on tax-equivalent interest data.

Comparative information regarding net interest income follows:

 

As of and for the Years Ended December 31,

                         

Variance

 

(dollars in thousands)

 

2019

   

2018

   

2017

   

2019 / 2018

   

2018 / 2017

 
                                         

Net interest income, FTE

  $ 125,445     $ 114,723     $ 104,446       9.3

%

    9.8

%

Net interest spread

    3.50 %     3.60 %     3.52 %     (10 )bps     8 bps 

Net interest margin

    3.81 %     3.83 %     3.64 %     (2 )bps     19 bps 

Average earning assets

  $ 3,290,345     $ 2,998,526     $ 2,872,717       9.7

%

    4.4

%

Five year Treasury note rate at year end

    1.69 %     2.51 %     2.20 %     -82 bps