485APOS 1 d838386d485apos.htm GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST Goldman Sachs Trust

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 20, 2020

1933 Act Registration No. 033-17619

1940 Act Registration No. 811-05349

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  
   Pre-Effective Amendment No.       
   Post-Effective Amendment No. 798  

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940  
   Amendment No. 799  

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

 

 

GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (312) 655-4400

CAROLINE L. KRAUS, ESQ.

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

STEPHEN H. BIER, ESQ.

Dechert LLP

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practicable after the effective date of the registration statement

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

 

 

immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

 

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)

 

60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

 

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

 

75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

 

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

 

this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 


Title of Securities Being Registered:

Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class P, Class R and Class R6 Shares of the Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund.


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus dated April 20, 2020

Subject to Completion

 

Prospectus

 

GOLDMAN SACHS DEFENSIVE EQUITY FUND

 

 

[                ], 2020

 

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund

 

   

Class A Shares: [        ]

   

Class C Shares: [        ]

   

Institutional Shares: [        ]

   

Investor Shares: [        ]

   

Class R Shares: [        ]

   

Class R6 Shares: [        ]

 

 

It is our intention that beginning on January 1, 2021, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will not be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. At any time, you may elect to receive reports and certain communications from the Fund electronically by calling the applicable toll-free number below or by contacting your financial intermediary.

You may elect to receive all future shareholder reports in paper free of charge. If you hold shares of the Fund directly with the Fund’s transfer agent, you can inform the transfer agent that you wish to receive paper copies of reports by calling toll-free 800-621-2550 for Institutional and Class R6 shareholders or 800-526-7384 for all other shareholders. If you hold shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary, please contact your financial intermediary to make this election. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all Goldman Sachs Funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary or all Goldman Sachs Funds held with the Fund’s transfer agent if you invest directly with the transfer agent.

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN THE FUND.

 

LOGO


Table of Contents

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund – Summary        1  
Investment Management Approach        5  
Risks of the Fund        9  
Service Providers        14  
Distributions        17  
Shareholder Guide        18  

How To Buy Shares

     18    

How To Sell Shares

     27    
Taxation        34  
Appendix A
Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques
       36  
Appendix B
Financial Highlights
       49  
Appendix C
Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts
       50  

 


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund—Summary

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund (the “Fund”) seeks long-term growth of capital with lower volatility than equity markets.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. The table does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Institutional Shares of the Fund. You may qualify for sales charge discounts on purchases of Class A Shares if you invest at least $50,000 in Goldman Sachs Funds. More information about these and other discounts is available from your financial professional and in “Shareholder Guide—Common Questions Applicable to the Purchase of Class A Shares” beginning on page [    ] and in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts on page [    ] of the Prospectus and “Other Information Regarding Maximum Sales Charge, Purchases, Redemptions, Exchanges and Dividends” beginning on page B-[    ] of the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

     Class A     Class C     Institutional     Investor     Class R     Class R6  

Shareholder Fees

           
(fees paid directly from your investment)            

Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases (as a percentage of offering price)

    5.50%       None       None       None       None       None  

Maximum Deferred Sales Charge (Load) (as a percentage of the lower of original purchase price or sale proceeds)1

    None       1.00%       None       None       None       None  
     Class A     Class C     Institutional     Investor     Class R     Class R6  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

           
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)            

Management Fees

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Other Expenses2

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Service Fees

    [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]% 

All Other Expenses

    [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]%      [     ]% 

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Expense Limitation3

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Expense Limitation

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

 

1 

A contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) of 1% is imposed on Class C Shares redeemed within 12 months of purchase.

2

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred during the first fiscal year.

3

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to [        ] of the Fund’s average daily net assets through at least [                ], and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

This Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class R and/or Class R6 Shares of the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class R and/or Class R6 Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same (except that the Example incorporates the expense limitation arrangement for only the first year). The Example does

 

1


not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Institutional Shares of the Fund. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

      1 Year      3 Years  

Class A Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Class C Shares

     

–  Assuming complete redemption at end of period

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

–  Assuming no redemption

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Institutional Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Investor Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Class R Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Class R6 Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  
     

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in the annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Strategy

The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in a diversified portfolio of equity investments. The Fund will typically invest in equity investments of U.S. issuers with public stock market capitalizations within the range of the market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index at the time of investment and other instruments with similar economic exposures as such issuers. The Fund will also employ an options-based overlay strategy (as described below) whereby the Fund simultaneously purchases near-the-money put options while selling (writing) out-of-the-money call and put options on the S&P 500® Index or other national or regional stock market indices (or exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that seek to track such indices). The Fund seeks to maintain risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the S&P 500® Index, while seeking to provide lower volatility and enhanced downside protection with the options-based overlay strategy.

The Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments. The Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Investment Adviser’s proprietary research.

The Fund constructs the options-based overlay by buying put options on the S&P 500® Index at a higher strike price and writing (or selling) put options on the same index at a relatively lower strike price, resulting in what is known as a put option spread, while simultaneously selling S&P 500® Index call options. The put option spread is designed to provide the Fund with downside protection, but may allow for some participation in equity drawdowns that exceed a simple long put position.

As the seller of call and put options, the Fund will receive cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the call option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. If the purchaser exercises the put option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the exercise price of the option and the price of the index. The premium, the exercise price and the market price of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of call and put options.

During periods in which the U.S. equity markets are falling, a diversified portfolio of equity investments, with an options-based overlay strategy designed to seek to provide downside protection, may outperform the same portfolio without such an options overlay strategy. However, in strong rising markets, a portfolio with an options-based overlay strategy could significantly underperform the same portfolio without these options.

In addition to the use of the options-based overlay strategy described above, the Fund may use futures contracts, primarily futures on indexes, options on futures, and total return swaps to more effectively gain targeted equity exposure, to equitize cash and to hedge the Fund’s portfolio if it is unable to purchase or write the necessary options for its overlay strategy. Derivative positions may be listed or over-the-counter (“OTC”) and may or may not be centrally cleared. The Fund’s investments in derivatives instruments are counted towards the Fund’s 80% investment policy to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the investments included in the policy.

The Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents (including money market funds) and U.S. Treasury Securities.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the S&P 500® Index.

 

2


Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing. The Fund’s principal risks are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure.

Counterparty Risk.  Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearinghouse, might not be available in connection with over-the-counter (“OTC”) transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into uncleared OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses.

Derivatives Risk.  The Fund’s use of options, futures, swaps, and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligation. The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments.

Investment Style Risk.  Different investment styles (e.g., “growth,” “value” or “quantitative”) tend to shift in and out of favor depending upon market and economic conditions and investor sentiment. The Fund employs a “quantitative” style, and may outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment styles.

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk.  The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

Leverage Risk.  Borrowing and the use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet asset segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

Management Risk.  A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results. The Investment Adviser attempts to execute a complex strategy for the Fund using proprietary quantitative models. Investments selected using these models may perform differently than expected as a result of the factors used in the models, the weight placed on each factor, changes from the factors’ historical trends, and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (including, for example, data problems and/or software issues). There is no guarantee that the Investment Adviser’s use of these quantitative models will result in effective investment decisions for the Fund. Additionally, commonality of holdings across quantitative money managers may amplify losses.

Market Risk.  The market value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets. Events such as war, acts of terrorism, social unrest, natural disasters, the spread of infectious illness or other public health threats could also significantly impact the Fund and its investments.

Options Risk.  Writing (selling) call options limits the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of stocks in exchange for up-front cash (the premium) at the time of selling the call options. Writing (selling) put options may obligate the Fund to buy a stock at a price that exceeds its market value. In addition, the Fund risks losing all or part of the cash (the premium) paid for purchasing put options. The Fund’s options-based overlay strategy may not fully protect it against market declines because the Fund will continue to bear the risk of a decline in the value of its portfolio securities. Furthermore, unusual market conditions or the lack of a ready market for any particular option at a particular time may reduce the effectiveness of the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Swaps Risk.  In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on the “notional amount” of predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. Swaps can involve greater risks than direct investment in securities, because swaps may be leveraged and subject to

 

3


counterparty risk (e.g., the risk of a counterparty’s defaulting on the obligation or bankruptcy), credit risk and pricing risk (i.e., swaps may be difficult to value). Swaps may also be considered illiquid. It may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate a swap position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

U.S. Government Securities Risk.  The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by those agencies, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including any legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Performance

Because the Fund had not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at www.gsamfunds.com/performance or by calling the phone number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers:  Federico Gilly, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since 2020, and Matthew Schwab, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since 2020.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The minimum initial investment for Class A and Class C Shares is, generally, $1,000. The minimum initial investment for Institutional Shares is, generally, $1,000,000 for individual or certain institutional investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates. There is no minimum for initial purchases of Investor, Class R or Class R6 Shares, except for certain institutional investors who purchase Class R6 Shares directly with the Fund’s transfer agent for which the minimum initial investment is $5,000,000. Those share classes with a minimum initial investment requirement do not impose it on certain employee benefit plans, and Institutional Shares do not impose it on certain investment advisers investing on behalf of other accounts.

The minimum subsequent investment for Class A and Class C shareholders is $50, except for certain employee benefit plans, for which there is no minimum. There is no minimum subsequent investment for Institutional, Investor, Class R or Class R6 shareholders.

You may purchase and redeem (sell) shares of the Fund on any business day through certain intermediaries that have a relationship with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions (“Intermediaries”).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through an Intermediary, the Fund and/or its related companies may pay the Intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your Intermediary’s website for more information.

 

4


 

 

Investment Management Approach

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE     

The Fund seeks long-term growth of capital with lower volatility than equity markets. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ notice.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES     

The Fund seeks to maintain risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the S&P 500® Index, while seeking to provide lower volatility and enhanced downside protection with an options-based overlay strategy (as described below). The Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments.

Equity Investments

The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments. The Fund’s investments in derivatives instruments are counted towards the Fund’s 80% investment policy to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the investments included in the policy. The Fund will typically invest in U.S. issuers with public stock market capitalizations within the range of the market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index at the time of investment and other instruments with similar economic exposures as such issuers. Shareholders will be provided with sixty days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the SEC before any change in the Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its Net Assets in the particular type of investment suggested by its name.

The Fund’s primary benchmark index is the S&P 500® Index. The S&P 500® Index is the Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Price Index of 500 stocks, an unmanaged index of common stock prices.

Options-Based Overlay Strategy

The Fund will employ an options-based overlay strategy whereby the Fund simultaneously purchases near-the-money put options while selling (writing) out-of-the-money call and put options on the S&P 500® Index or other national or regional stock market indices (or ETFs that seek to track such indices).

Other

The Fund may use futures contracts, primarily futures on indexes, options on futures, and total return swaps to more effectively gain targeted equity exposure, to equitize cash and to hedge the Fund’s portfolio if it is unable to purchase or write the necessary options for its overlay strategy. Derivative positions may be listed or over-the-counter (“OTC”) and may or may not be centrally cleared. The Fund’s investments in derivatives instruments are counted towards the Fund’s 80% investment policy to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the investments included in the policy.

The Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents (including money market funds) and U.S. Treasury Securities.

I.  Stock Selection and Portfolio Construction

The Fund seeks to maintain an equity portfolio that will produce a gross return similar to that of the S&P 500® Index. In addition, the Fund will also employ an options-based overlay strategy. Because of the impact of the options-based overlay strategy, the returns of the Fund are not expected to closely track the S&P 500® Index, even if the returns of the portfolio securities held by the Fund resemble the returns of the S&P 500® Index. In addition, the returns of the Fund may trail the returns of the S&P 500® Index for short or extended periods of time.

II.  Options-Based Overlay Strategy

The Fund constructs the options-based overlay by buying put options on the S&P 500® Index at a higher strike price and writing (or selling) put options on the same index at a relatively lower strike price, resulting in what is known as a put option spread, while simultaneously selling S&P 500® Index call options. The put option spread is designed to provide the Fund with downside protection, but may allow for some participation in equity drawdowns that exceed a simple long put position. Although the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy is designed to provide the Fund with downside protection, the overlay strategy limits some upside potential. The volatility of the Fund’s portfolio is also expected to be reduced by the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy.

As the seller of call and put options, the Fund will receive cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. If the purchaser does not exercise the options, the Fund retains the premium and makes no payments to the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the call

 

5


option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. If the purchaser exercises the put option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the exercise price of the option and the price of the index. The premium, the exercise price and the market price of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of call and put options. The Fund can also repurchase the options prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund.

During periods in which the U.S. equity markets are generally unchanged or falling, a diversified portfolio of equity investments, with an options-based overlay strategy designed to seek to provide downside protection, may outperform the same portfolio without such an options overlay strategy. However, in strong rising markets, a portfolio with an options-based overlay strategy could significantly underperform the same portfolio without these options.

Options writing, however, entails certain risks. For more information, see “Risks of the Fund” and “Appendix A—Other Portfolio Risks—Risks of Writing Index Call Options.”

III.  GSAM’s Quantitative Investment Approach

The Investment Adviser will use proprietary quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, in constructing the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy. As a result of the qualitative overlay, the Fund’s investments may not correspond to those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models. The Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser for a number of reasons including, but not limited to, corporate actions (e.g., reorganizations, mergers and buyouts), industry events and/or trading liquidity. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Investment Adviser’s proprietary research.

References in the Prospectus to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only, and unless otherwise noted are not an indication of how the Fund is managed.

 

  ADDITIONAL FEES AND EXPENSES INFORMATION     

Differences in the “Expense Limitation” ratios across the Fund’s share classes are the result of, among other things, the effect of mathematical rounding on a daily accrual of expense reimbursement, particularly, in respect to share classes with small amounts of assets.

Differences in the “Other Expenses” ratios across the Fund’s share classes are the result of, among other things, contractual differences in transfer agency fees and/or the effect of mathematical rounding on the daily accrual of certain expenses, particularly, in respect to share classes with small amounts of assets.

 

  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

Although the Fund’s principal investment strategies are described in the Fund’s Summary—Principal Strategy section of the Prospectus, the following tables identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Numbers in these tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Fund’s annual/semi-annual reports. For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A.

The Fund intends to publish on its website (http://www.gsamfunds.com) complete portfolio holdings for the Fund as of the end of each fiscal quarter subject to a 60 calendar-day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. The Fund may, however, at its discretion, publish its holdings earlier than 60 calendar days, if deemed necessary by the Fund. In addition, the Fund currently intends to publish on its website quarter-end top ten holdings subject to a fifteen calendar day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. In addition, a description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI.

 

6


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

 

10   Percent of total assets (including securities lending collateral) (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage; limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
                          
    

Defensive
Equity

Fund

Investment Practices  

Borrowings

  3313

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

 

Equity Swaps

 

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts

 

Illiquid Investments*

  15

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs)1

  10

Options on Securities and Securities Indices

 

Options on Futures2

 

Preferred Stock

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

Securities Lending

  3313

Unseasoned Companies

 

Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

 

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

 
 

 

*

Illiquid investments are any investments that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.

1

This percentage limitation does not apply to the Fund’s investments in investment companies (including ETFs) where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.

2

The Fund may sell call and put options and purchase call and put options on securities and other instruments in which the Fund may invest or any index consisting of securities or other instruments in which it may invest.

 

7


10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (including borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage; limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
  Not permitted

 

                          
    

Defensive
Equity

Fund

Investment Securities  

American Depositary Receipts

 

Bank Obligations4

  20

Convertible Securities

 

Corporate Debt Obligations and Trust Preferred Securities4

  20

Equity Investments

  80+

Fixed Income Securities4

  20

Foreign Securities

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)

 

Structured Securities4,5

 

Temporary Investments

 

U.S. Government Securities4

 
 

 

4 

Limited by the amount the Fund invests in fixed income securities and limited to cash equivalents only.

5 

Structured securities are not subject to the same minimum credit quality requirements as the Fund’s investments in fixed income securities.

 

8


 

Risks of the Fund

 

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. The principal risks of the Fund are discussed in the summary section of the Prospectus. The following section provides additional information on the risks that apply to the Fund, which may result in a loss of your investment. The risks applicable to the Fund are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

 

 
  Principal risk
  Additional risk
 

 

                                                   
     Defensive
Equity
Fund

Counterparty

 

Credit/Default

 

Derivatives

 

Foreign

 

Investment Style

 

Large Shareholder Transactions

 

Leverage

 

Liquidity

 

Management

 

Market

 

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap

 

NAV

 

Options

 

Regulatory (Volcker Rule)

 

REIT

 

Stock

 

Swaps

 

U.S. Government Securities

 
 

 

 

Counterparty Risk—Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with certain OTC transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into certain OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses. However, recent regulatory developments require margin on certain uncleared OTC transactions which may reduce, but not eliminate, this risk. Because the Fund may trade with counterparties, prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser.

 

Credit/Default Risk— An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. The credit quality of the Fund’s portfolio securities or instruments may meet the Fund’s credit quality requirements at the time of purchase but then deteriorate thereafter, and such a deterioration can occur rapidly. In certain instances, the downgrading or default of a single holding or guarantor of the Fund’s holding may impair the Fund’s liquidity and have the potential to cause significant deterioration in net asset value (“NAV”). These risks are more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in non-investment grade fixed income securities.

 

Derivatives Risk—The Fund’s use of options, futures, swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations, liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and non-hedging purposes.

The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments, and there is no guarantee that the use of derivatives will achieve

 

9


their intended result. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuation in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables, the use of derivatives could result in losses, which in some cases may be significant. A lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivatives and the value of the Fund assets (if any) being hedged could also result in losses. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class. Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may in-crease the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. For more information about these practices, see Appendix A.

 

Foreign Risk—When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with U.S. issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquid, developed or efficient trading markets, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, foreign taxes, confiscation of assets and property, trade restrictions (including tariffs), expropriation and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. The Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization. The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Investment Style Risk—Different investment styles (e.g., “growth,” “value,” or “quantitative”) tend to shift in and out of favor depending upon market and economic conditions as well as investor sentiment. The Fund may outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment styles.

 

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk—The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders, such as other funds, institutional investors (including those trading by use of non-discretionary mathematical formulas), financial intermediaries (who may make investment decisions on behalf of underlying clients and/or include the Fund in their investment model), individuals, accounts and Goldman Sachs affiliates, purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable in-come to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

 

Leverage Risk—Leverage creates exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. Borrowing and the use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. Relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of a leveraged investment. The Fund will identify liquid assets on its books or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to such risk, to the extent required by applicable law. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet asset segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

 

Liquidity Risk—The Fund may invest to a greater degree in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, the Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price, the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities.

To the extent that the traditional dealer counterparties that engage in fixed income trading do not maintain inventories of bonds (which provide an important indication of their ability to “make markets”) that keep pace with the growth of the bond markets over time, relatively low levels of dealer inventories could lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income

 

10


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

markets. Additionally, market participants other than the Fund may attempt to sell fixed income holdings at the same time as the Fund, which could cause downward pricing pressure and contribute to decreased liquidity.

Funds that invest in small- and mid- capitalization stocks, REITs and/or emerging country issuers may be especially subject to the risk that during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within particular investment categories, may shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.

Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period or without significant dilution to remaining investors’ interests because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. While the Fund reserves the right to meet redemption requests through in-kind distributions, the Fund may instead choose to raise cash to meet redemption requests through sales of portfolio securities or permissible borrowings. If the Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV and dilute remaining investors’ interests. Redemptions by large shareholders may have a negative impact on the Fund’s liquidity.

Certain shareholders, including clients or affiliates of the Investment Adviser and/or other funds managed by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these shareholders of their shares of the Fund may further increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and may impact the Fund’s NAV. These shareholders may include, for example, institutional investors, funds of funds, discretionary advisory clients and other shareholders whose buy-sell decisions are controlled by a single decision-maker.

 

Management Risk—A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results. The Investment Adviser attempts to execute a complex strategy for the Fund using proprietary quantitative models. Investments selected using these models may perform differently than expected as a result of the factors used in the models, the weight placed on each factor, changes from the factors’ historical trends, the speed that market conditions change and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (including, for example, data problems and/or software issues). The use of proprietary quantitative models could be adversely impacted by unforeseeable software or hardware malfunction and other technological failures, power loss, software bugs, malicious code such as “worms,” viruses or system crashes or various other events or circumstances within or beyond the control of the Investment Adviser. Certain of these events or circumstances may be difficult to detect.

Models that have been formulated on the basis of past market data may not be predictive of future price movements. Models may not be reliable if unusual or disruptive events cause market movements, the nature or size of which are inconsistent with the historical performance of individual markets and their relationship to one another or to other macroeconomic events. Models also rely heavily on data that may be licensed from a variety of sources, and the functionality of the models depends, in part, on the accuracy of voluminous data inputs. There is no guarantee that the Investment Adviser’s use of these quantitative models will result in effective investment decisions for the Fund. Additionally, commonality of holdings across quantitative money managers may amplify losses.

 

Market Risk—The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. The Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sec-tors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, local, regional and global events such as war, acts of terrorism, social unrest, natural disasters, the spread of infectious illness or other public health threats could also adversely impact issuers, markets and economies, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. The Fund could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such political or economic conditions or events. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such conditions, events and actions may result in greater market risk.

 

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk—The securities of mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies, involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price. Both mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies often have narrower markets and more limited managerial and financial resources than larger, more established companies. As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of the Fund’s portfolio. Generally, the smaller the company size, the greater these risks become.

 

NAV Risk—The net asset value of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.

 

Options Risk—Writing (selling) call and put options limits the opportunity to profit from an increase (in the case of call options) or decrease (in the case of put options) in the market value of stocks in exchange for up-front cash at the time of selling the call and

 

11


 

put options. When the Fund writes (sell) S&P 500® Index, (or other index call options), it receives cash but limits its opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the applicable index beyond the exercise price (plus the premium received) of the option. In a rising market, the Fund could significantly underperform the market. Although the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy is designed to protect the Fund against declines in the value of the market, it will only protect against declines to the extent of the difference between the strike prices of the put option purchased and the put option sold. Accordingly, you could lose money by investing in the Fund notwithstanding the options-based overlay strategy. Cash received from premiums will enhance return in declining markets, but the Fund will continue to bear the risk of a decline in the value of the securities held in its portfolio. The benefit from writing a call option is limited to the amount of premium received. Furthermore, unusual market conditions or the lack of a ready market for any particular option at a particular time may reduce the effectiveness of the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy.

 

Regulatory Risk (Volcker Rule)—Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the rules issued thereunder (also known as the “Volcker Rule”) prohibit banking entities, such as The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (“Goldman”) and its affiliates, including the Investment Adviser, from engaging in certain trading activities involving their own capital (also known as “proprietary trading”). These prohibitions may include certain restrictions on the extent to which Goldman and/or its affiliates may own shares of the Fund. If Goldman or its affiliates own 25% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund longer than three years from the Fund’s launch date, the Fund may be subject to these proprietary trading restrictions, which include restrictions on the ability to purchase and sell securities on a short term basis. As of the date of the Prospectus, Goldman and/or its affiliates own more than 25% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. Reducing the seed capital in the Fund to address these trading restrictions may prevent the Fund from pursuing its investment objective, may restrict the Fund’s activities and may prevent the Fund from retaining enough capital to engage in certain investment strategies, which could have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. In addition, if Goldman or its affiliates reduce their interest in the Fund, the Fund may be subject to transaction costs, losses and adverse tax consequences and may be forced to liquidate prematurely, among other things.

 

REIT Risk—Risks associated with investments such as REITs in the real estate industry include, among others: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; possible lack of availability of mortgage financing, variations in rental income, neighborhood values or the appeal of property to tenants; interest rates; overbuilding; extended vacancies of properties; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; and changes in zoning laws. Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. REITs whose underlying properties are concentrated in a particular industry or geographic region are also subject to risks affecting such industries and regions. The securities of REITs involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements because of interest rate changes, economic conditions and other factors. REITs may also fail to qualify for tax free pass-through of income or may fail to maintain their exemptions from investment company registration. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price.

 

Stock Risk—Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future. Stock prices may fluctuate from time to time in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Individual companies may report poor results or be negatively affected by industry and/or economic trends and developments, and the stock prices of such

 

Swaps Risk—The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The Fund’s transactions in swaps may be significant. These transactions can result in sizeable realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Fund’s direct investments in securities and short sales.

Transactions in swaps can involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in securities directly since, in addition to general market risks, swaps may be leveraged and subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if the Fund invests in cleared swaps, which are transacted through a FCM and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty. Because uncleared, bilateral swap agreements are two-party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and valued subjectively. Swaps may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

 

 

12


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

U.S. Government Securities Risk—The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issues by those agencies instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including any legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been operating under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Administration (“FHFA”) acting as their conservator, since September 2008. The entities are dependent upon the continued support of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and FHFA in order to continue their business operations. These factors, among others, could affect the future status and role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the value of their securities and the securities which they guarantee. Additionally, the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market values of their securities, which may fluctuate.

 

More information about the Fund’s portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

13


 

 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser   Fund

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM”)

 

Defensive Equity Fund

200 West Street

 

New York, NY 10282

   
 

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. As of December 31, 2019, GSAM, including its investment advisory affiliates, had assets under supervision of approximately $1.69 trillion.

The Investment Adviser provides day-to-day advice regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. The Investment Adviser makes the investment decisions for the Fund and places purchase and sale orders for the Fund’s portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants or other counterparties, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for the management of the Fund, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management with respect to certain portfolio securities. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to the research and certain proprietary technical models developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions), and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among categories of issuers and types of securities.

The Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Fund (to the extent not performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Fund):

   

Supervises all non-advisory operations of the Fund

   

Provides personnel to perform necessary executive, administrative and clerical services to the Fund

   

Arranges for the preparation of all required tax returns, reports to shareholders, prospectuses and statements of additional information and other reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities

   

Maintains the records of the Fund

   

Provides office space and all necessary office equipment and services

An investment in the Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. Although the Fund attempts to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or its affiliates may invest “seed” capital in the Fund. These investments are generally intended to enable the Fund to commence investment operations and achieve sufficient scale. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may hedge the exposure of the seed capital invested in the Fund by, among other things, taking an offsetting position in the benchmark of the Fund.

 

14


  MANAGEMENT FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES     

As compensation for its services and its assumption of certain expenses, the Investment Adviser is entitled to the following fees, computed daily and payable monthly, at the annual rates listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets):

 

                                                                               
Fund  

Contractual

Management Fee

Annual Rate

 

Average Daily

Net Assets

Defensive Equity Fund

  [    ]   First $1 Billion
  [    ]   Next $1 Billion
  [    ]   Next $3 Billion
  [    ]   Next $3 Billion
    [    ]   Over $8 Billion
   

The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fees, including fees earned as the Investment Adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests, from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waivers in the future consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangements that may be in place.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s semi-annual report dated [                ].

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses,” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to [        ] of average daily net assets for the Fund, through at least [                ], and prior to such date the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The expense limitation may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.

 

  FUND MANAGERS     

Quantitative Investment Strategies (“QIS”) Team

The individuals primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are listed below. The Fund’s portfolio managers’ individual responsibilities may include, among other things, security selection, asset allocation, risk budgeting and general oversight of the management of the Fund’s portfolio.

 

Name and Title   Fund Responsibility   Years
Primarily
Responsible
  Five Year Employment History

Federico Gilly

Managing Director

  Portfolio Manager— Defensive Equity Fund   Since

2020

  Mr. Gilly is co-head of research, portfolio management and portfolio construction for the Alternative Investment Strategies team within GSAM’s Quantitative Investment Strategies platform. He joined Goldman Sachs in 2000.

Matthew Schwab

Managing Director

 

Portfolio Manager—

Defensive Equity Fund

  Since

2020

  Mr. Schwab is co-head of research, portfolio management and portfolio construction for the Alternative Investment Strategies team within GSAM’s Quantitative Investment Strategies platform. He joined Goldman Sachs in 2007.
     

For information about the portfolio managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities in the Fund, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR AND TRANSFER AGENT     

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, NY 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor (the “Distributor”) of the Fund’s shares. Goldman Sachs, 71 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, also serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) and, as such, performs various shareholder servicing functions.

[For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.03% of average daily net assets with respect to Class R6 Shares, 0.04% of average daily net assets with respect to the Institutional Shares and 0.17% of average daily net assets with respect to the Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shares.]

 

15


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates may purchase and hold shares of the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates reserve the right to redeem at any time some or all of the shares acquired for their own accounts.

 

  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER
ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS
    

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs will present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund and will, under certain circumstances, limit the Fund’s investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates advise clients in all markets and transactions and purchase, sell, hold and recommend a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for their own accounts or for the accounts of their customers and have other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loans and other markets in which the Fund directly and indirectly invests. Thus, it is expected that the Fund will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates perform or seek to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affiliates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Fund. Although management fees paid by the Fund to the Investment Adviser and certain other fees paid to the Investment Adviser’s affiliates are based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and the Investment Adviser and its affiliates will still receive significant compensation from the Fund even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to that of the Fund and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Fund. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, will likely differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. In addition, the Fund may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or their other clients have an adverse interest. For example, the Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time that Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs-advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs-advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Fund. The Fund’s activities will, under certain circumstances, be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates also provide a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it are expected to create markets or specialize in, have positions in and/or effect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Fund, and will likely also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for one or more of those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates are expected to have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the section entitled “Potential Conflicts of Interest” in the SAI.

Under a securities lending program approved by the Fund’s Board of Trustees, the Fund has retained an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to serve as a securities lending agent for the Fund to the extent that the Fund engages in the securities lending program. For these services, the lending agent would receive a fee from the Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of the cash received as collateral for loaned securities. The Board of Trustees periodically reviews reports on portfolio securities loan transactions for which the affiliated lending agent has acted as lending agent. In addition, the Fund will, from time to time, make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions, in accordance with applicable law.

 

16


 

 

Distributions

 

The Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains. You may choose to have distributions paid in:

   

Cash

   

Additional shares of the same class of the Fund

   

Shares of the same or an equivalent class of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Special restrictions may apply. See the SAI.

You may indicate your election on your account application. Any changes may be submitted in writing or via telephone, in some instances, to the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Intermediary) at any time before the record date for a particular distribution. If you do not indicate any choice, your distributions will be reinvested automatically in the Fund. Distributions from net investment income for the Fund, if any, are normally declared and paid quarterly and distributions from net capital gains, if any, are normally declared and paid annually for the Fund. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a distribution at a time when it is not normally made. If cash distributions are elected with respect to the Fund’s annual distributions from net investment income, then cash distributions must also be elected with respect to the net short-term capital gains component, if any, of the Fund’s distributions.

The election to reinvest distributions in additional shares will not affect the tax treatment of such distributions, which will be treated as received by you and then used to purchase the shares.

From time to time a portion of the Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

When you purchase shares of the Fund, part of the NAV per share may be represented by undistributed income and/or realized gains that have previously been earned by the Fund. Therefore, subsequent distributions on such shares from such income and/or realized gains may be taxable to you even if the NAV of the shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the cost of such shares and the distributions (or portions thereof) represent a return of a portion of the purchase price.

 

17


 

Shareholder Guide

 

The following section will provide you with answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding buying and selling the Fund’s shares.

 

  HOW TO BUY SHARES     

Shares Offering

Shares of the Fund are continuously offered through the Distributor. The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase shares and reserve the right to reject any purchase order in whole or in part.

How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?

You may purchase shares of the Fund through certain intermediaries that have a relationship with Goldman Sachs, including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions (“Intermediaries”). Certain Intermediaries have been authorized by Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) to accept purchase, redemption or exchange orders on behalf of the Fund for their customers (“Authorized Institutions”), and if approved by the Fund, may designate other financial intermediaries to accept such orders. You should contact your Intermediary to learn whether it is authorized to accept orders on behalf of the Fund (i.e., an Authorized Institution). In order to make an initial investment in the Fund you must furnish to your Intermediary the information in the account application.

The decision as to which class to purchase depends on the amount you invest, the intended length of the investment and your personal situation. You should contact your Intermediary to discuss which share class option is right for you.

Note:  Intermediaries may receive different compensation for selling different share classes.

To open an account, contact your Intermediary. Customers of an Intermediary will normally give their order instructions to the Intermediary, and the Intermediary will, in turn, place the order with the Transfer Agent. Intermediaries are responsible for transmitting accepted orders and payments to the Transfer Agent within the time period agreed upon by them and will set times by which orders and payments must be received by them from their customers. The Trust, Transfer Agent, Investment Adviser and their affiliates will not be responsible for any loss in connection with orders that are not transmitted to the Transfer Agent by an Intermediary on a timely basis.

The Fund will be deemed to have received an order for purchase, redemption or exchange of Fund shares when the order is accepted in “proper form” by the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, by an Authorized Institution) on a business day, and the order will be priced at the Fund’s current NAV per share (adjusted for any applicable sales charge) next determined after acceptance by the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, by an Authorized Institution). For shareholders that place trades directly with the Fund’s Transfer Agent, proper form generally means that specific trade details and customer identifying information must be received by the Transfer Agent at the time an order is submitted. Intermediaries of the Fund may have different requirements regarding what constitutes proper form for trade instructions. Please contact your Intermediary for more information.

For purchases by check, the Fund will not accept checks drawn on foreign banks, third party checks, temporary checks, cash or cash equivalents; e.g., cashier’s checks, official bank checks, money orders, traveler’s cheques or credit card checks. In limited situations involving the transfer of retirement assets, the Fund may accept cashier’s checks or official bank checks.

Investor and Class R Shares are not sold directly to the public. Instead, Investor and Class R Shares generally are available only to Section 401(k), 403(b), 457, profit sharing, money purchase pension, tax-sheltered annuity, defined benefit pension, non-qualified deferred compensation plans and non-qualified pension plans or other employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) or SIMPLE plans that are sponsored by one or more employers (including governmental or church employers) or employee organizations (“Employee Benefit Plans”). Investor Shares may also be sold to accounts established under a fee-based program that is sponsored and maintained by an Intermediary that has entered into a contractual relationship with Goldman Sachs to offer such shares through such programs (“Eligible Fee-Based Program”). Investor and Class R Shares are not available to traditional and Roth Individual Retirement Accounts (“IRAs”), SEPs and SARSEPs; except that Investor Shares are available to such accounts or plans to the extent they are purchased through an Eligible Fee-Based Program. Employee Benefit Plans and Eligible Fee-Based Programs must purchase Investor or Class R Shares through an Intermediary using a plan level or omnibus account.

 

18


Employee Benefit Plans generally may open an account and purchase Investor and/or Class R Shares through Intermediaries, financial planners, Employee Benefit Plan administrators and other financial intermediaries. Investor and/or Class R Shares may not be available through certain Intermediaries.

Class R6 Shares are generally available to the following investors who purchase shares of the Fund through certain Intermediaries that have a contractual relationship with Goldman Sachs, including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions, using a plan level or omnibus account, unless otherwise noted below.

   

Investors who purchase Class R6 Shares through an Eligible Fee-Based Program;

   

Employee Benefit Plans;

   

Registered investment companies or bank collective trusts investing directly with the Transfer Agent;

   

Institutional investors, including companies, foundations, endowments, municipalities, trusts and other entities, investing at least $5,000,000 directly with the Transfer Agent; and

   

Other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers.

Class R6 Shares may not be available through certain Intermediaries. For the purposes of Class R6 Shares eligibility, the term “Intermediary” does not include Goldman Sachs or its affiliates and Class R6 Shares will not be available to clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management, The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A., The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware or The Ayco Company, L.P.

What Is My Minimum Investment In The Fund?

For each of your accounts investing in Class A or Class C Shares, the following investment minimums must be met:

 

                                                                                                                                                           
     Initial   Additional*

Regular Accounts

  $1,000   $50

Employee Benefit Plans

  No Minimum   No Minimum

Uniform Gift/Transfer to Minors Accounts (UGMA/UTMA)

  $250   $50

Individual Retirement Accounts and Coverdell ESAs

  $250   $50

Automatic Investment Plan Accounts

  $250   $50
   

 

*

No minimum additional investment requirements are imposed with respect to investors trading through Intermediaries who aggregate shares in omnibus or similar accounts (e.g., employee benefit plan accounts, wrap program accounts or traditional brokerage house accounts). A maximum purchase limitation of $1,000,000 in the aggregate normally applies to purchases of Class C Shares across all Goldman Sachs Funds.

For Institutional Shares, the minimum initial investment is $1,000,000 for individual or Institutional Investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, except that no initial minimum will be imposed on (i) Employee Benefit Plans that hold their Institutional Shares through plan-level or omnibus accounts; or (ii) investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees where the investment adviser or its Intermediary purchases Institutional Shares through an omnibus account. For this purpose, “Institutional Investors” shall include “wrap” account sponsors (provided they have an agreement covering the arrangement with the Distributor); corporations; qualified non-profit organizations, charitable trusts, foundations and endowments; any state, county or city, or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof; and banks, trust companies or other depository institutions investing for their own account or on behalf of their clients.

No minimum amount is required for initial purchases in Investor, Class R and Class R6 (except as provided below) Shares or additional investments in Institutional, Investor, Class R and Class R6 Shares.

For Class R6 Shares, the minimum initial investment is $5,000,000 for institutional investors, including companies, foundations, endowments, municipalities, trusts and other entities who purchase Class R6 Shares directly with the Transfer Agent.

The minimum investment requirement for Class A, Class C and Institutional Shares may be waived for: (i) Goldman Sachs, its affiliates (including the Trust) or their respective Trustees, officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), as well as certain individuals related to such investors, including spouses or domestic partners, minor children including those of their domestic partners, other family members residing in the same household, and/or financial dependents, provided that all of the above are designated as such with an Intermediary or the Fund’s Transfer Agent; (ii) advisory clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management and accounts for which The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. acts in a fiduciary capacity (i.e., as agent or trustee); (iii) certain mutual fund “wrap” programs at the discretion of the Trust’s officers; and (iv) other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers. No minimum amount is required for additional investments in such accounts.

 

19


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

What Should I Know When I Purchase Shares Through An Intermediary?

If shares of the Fund are held in an account maintained and serviced by your Intermediary, all recordkeeping, transaction processing and payments of distributions relating to your account will be performed by your Intermediary, and not by the Fund and its Transfer Agent. Since the Fund will have no record of your transactions, you should contact your Intermediary to purchase, redeem or exchange shares, to make changes in or give instructions concerning your account or to obtain information about your account. The transfer of shares from an account with one Intermediary to an account with another Intermediary involves special procedures and may require you to obtain historical purchase information about the shares in the account from your Intermediary. If your Intermediary’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Intermediary, the Trust reserves the right to redeem your shares. The Trust will not be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption.

Intermediaries that invest in shares on behalf of their customers may charge brokerage commissions or other fees directly to their customer accounts in connection with their investments. You should contact your Intermediary for information regarding such charges as these fees, if any, may affect the return such customers realize with respect to their investments.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments or provide services to Intermediaries to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, except that the Investment Adviser, Distributor and their affiliates do not make such payments on behalf of Class R6 Shares. These payments are made out of the Investment Adviser’s, Distributor’s and/or their affiliates’ own assets, and are not an additional charge to the Fund. The payments are in addition to the distribution and service fees and shareholder administration fees and sales charges described in the Prospectus. Such payments are intended to compensate Intermediaries for, among other things: marketing shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, which may consist of payments relating to the Fund’s inclusion on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs sponsored by the Intermediaries; access to the Intermediaries’ registered representatives or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; marketing support; the provision of analytical or other data to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to sales of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds; the support or purchase of technology platforms/software; and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, including provision of consultative services to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to marketing and/or sale of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. The payments may also, to the extent permitted by applicable regulations, sponsor various trainings and educational programs. The payments by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, which are in addition to the fees paid for these services by the Fund, may also compensate Intermediaries for sub-accounting, sub-transfer agency, administrative and/or shareholder processing services. These additional payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these or similar services. The amount of these additional payments is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through the Intermediaries. In addition, certain Intermediaries may have access to certain services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, including research reports, economic analysis, and portfolio analysis portfolio construction and similar tools and software. In certain cases, the Intermediaries may not pay for these products or services or may only pay for a portion of the total cost of these products or services. Please refer to the “Payments to Others (Including Intermediaries)” section of the SAI for more information about these payments and services.

The payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates and the services provided by an Intermediary may differ for different Intermediaries. The presence of these payments, receipt of these services and the basis on which an Intermediary compensates its registered representatives or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular Intermediary, registered representative or salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend the Fund based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. You should contact your Intermediary for more information about the payments it receives and any potential conflicts of interest.

You may be required to pay a commission directly to a broker or financial intermediary for effecting transactions in Institutional Shares. In addition to Institutional Shares, the Fund also offers other classes of shares to investors. These other share classes are subject to different fees and expenses (which affect performance) and are entitled to different services than Institutional Shares. Information regarding these other share classes is included in the Prospectus for the applicable share class and may also be obtained from your Intermediary or from Goldman Sachs by calling the number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

What Else Should I Know About Share Purchases?

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Refuse to open an account or require an Intermediary to refuse to open an account if you fail to (i) provide a taxpayer identification number, a Social Security Number or other government-issued identification (e.g., for an individual, a driver’s license or passport); or (ii) certify that such number or other information is correct (if required to do so under applicable law).

 

20


   

Reject or restrict any purchase or exchange order by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) for any reason in its discretion. Without limiting the foregoing, the Trust may reject or restrict purchase and exchange orders by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) when a pattern of frequent purchases, sales or exchanges of shares of the Fund is evident, or if purchases, sales or exchanges are, or a subsequent redemption might be, of a size that would disrupt the management of the Fund.

   

Close the Fund to new investors from time to time and reopen the Fund whenever it is deemed appropriate by the Investment Adviser.

   

Provide for, modify or waive the minimum investment requirements.

   

Modify the manner in which shares are offered.

   

Modify the sales charge rate applicable to future purchases of shares.

Shares of the Fund are only registered for sale in the United States and certain of its territories. Generally, shares of the Fund will only be offered or sold to “U.S. persons” and all offerings or other solicitation activities will be conducted within the United States, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”).

The Fund may allow you to purchase shares through an Intermediary with securities instead of cash if consistent with the Fund’s investment policies and operations and approved by the Investment Adviser.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders.

Please be advised that abandoned or unclaimed property laws for certain states (to which your account may be subject) require financial organizations to transfer (escheat) unclaimed property (including shares of the Fund) to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in an account for a period of time specified by state law. For IRA accounts escheated to a state under these abandoned property laws, the escheatment will generally be treated as a taxable distribution to you; federal and any applicable state income tax will be withheld. This may apply to your Roth IRA as well.

Customer Identification Program.  Federal law requires the Fund to obtain, verify and record identifying information for certain investors, which will be reviewed solely for customer identification purposes, which may include the name, residential or business street address, date of birth (for an individual), Social Security Number or taxpayer identification number or other information for each investor who opens an account directly with the Fund. Applications without the required information may not be accepted by the Fund. Throughout the life of your account, the Fund may request updated identifying information in accordance with its Customer Identification Program. After accepting an application, to the extent permitted by applicable law or its Customer Identification Program, the Fund reserves the right to: (i) place limits on transactions in any account until the identity of the investor is verified; (ii) refuse an investment in the Fund; or (iii) involuntarily redeem an investor’s shares and close an account in the event that the Fund is unable to verify an investor’s identity or are unable to obtain all required information. The Fund and its agents will not be responsible for any loss or tax liability in an investor’s account resulting from the investor’s delay in providing all required information or from closing an account and redeeming an investor’s shares pursuant to its Customer Identification Program.

How Are Shares Priced?

The price you pay when you buy shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share (as adjusted for any applicable sales charge) after the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, an Authorized Institution) has received and accepted your order in proper form. The price you receive when you sell shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share (adjusted for any applicable CDSCs) after the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, an Authorized Institution) has received and accepted your order in proper form, with the redemption proceeds reduced by any applicable charges (e.g., CDSCs). Each class generally calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV  =  

(Value of Assets of the Class)

–  (Liabilities of the Class)

  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Class

The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, if the Fund’s fund accounting agent is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Fund’s NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Fund’s investments may be determined in good faith under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. Thus, such pricing may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the

 

21


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

value realized on a sale. Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source or a price is unavailable.

Equity securities listed on an exchange are generally valued at the last available sale price on the exchange on which they are principally traded. To the extent the Fund invests in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices will be provided by an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service in accordance with the fair value procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV.

Fixed income securities are generally valued on the basis of prices (including evaluated prices) and quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. Pricing services may use matrix pricing or valuation models, which utilize certain inputs and assumptions, including, but not limited to, yield or price with respect to comparable fixed income securities, to determine current value. Pricing services generally value fixed income securities assuming orderly transactions of an institutional round lot size, but the Fund may hold or transact in such securities in smaller odd lot sizes. Odd lots may trade at lower prices than institutional round lots.

Investments in other open-end registered investment companies (if any), excluding investments in ETFs, are valued based on the NAV of those open-end registered investment companies (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectuses). Investments in ETFs will generally be valued at the last sale price or official closing price on the exchange on which they are principally traded.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading limits or suspensions.

One effect of using an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service and fair valuation may be to reduce stale pricing arbitrage opportunities presented by the pricing of Fund shares. However, it involves the risk that the values used by the Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

Please note the following with respect to the price at which your transactions are processed:

   

NAV per share of each share class is generally calculated by the Fund’s fund accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ market may officially close. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed.

   

The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

   

The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into the Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange is stopped at a time other than its regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange does not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open the Fund for purchase, redemption and exchange transactions if the Federal Reserve wire payment system is

 

22


open. To learn whether the Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days the Fund is closed. As a result, if the Fund holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or redeem Fund shares.

The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Fund’s fund accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each share class of the Fund is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, cyber attacks and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counterparties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which the Fund directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be utilized to price the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV.

 

 

COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF

CLASS A SHARES

    

What Is The Offering Price Of Class A Shares?

The offering price of Class A Shares of the Fund is the next determined NAV per share plus an initial sales charge paid to Goldman Sachs at the time of purchase of shares. The sales charge varies depending upon the amount you purchase. In some cases, described below, the initial sales charge may be eliminated altogether, and the offering price will be the NAV per share.

The current sales charges and commissions paid to Intermediaries for Class A Shares of the Fund are as follows:

 

Amount of Purchase

(including sales charge, if any)

 

Sales Charge as

Percentage of

Offering Price

    Sales Charge
as Percentage
of Net Amount
Invested
    Maximum Dealer
Allowance as
Percentage of
Offering  Price
*
 

Less than $50,000

    5.50     5.82     5.00

$50,000 up to (but less than) $100,000

    4.75       4.99       4.00  

$100,000 up to (but less than) $250,000

    3.75       3.90       3.00  

$250,000 up to (but less than) $500,000

    2.75       2.83       2.25  

$500,000 up to (but less than) $1 million

    2.00       2.04       1.75  

$1 million or more

    0.00 **      0.00 **      * ** 
     

 

    *

Dealer’s allowance may be changed periodically. During special promotions, the entire sales charge may be reallowed to Intermediaries. Intermediaries to whom substantially the entire sales charge is reallowed may be deemed to be “underwriters” under the Securities Act.

  **

No sales charge is payable at the time of purchase of Class A Shares of $1 million or more, but a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed in the event of certain redemptions within 18 months. For more information about Class A Shares’ CDSCs, please see “What Else Do I Need To Know About Class A Shares’ CDSC?” below.

***

The Distributor may pay a one-time commission to Intermediaries who initiate or are responsible for purchases of $1 million or more of shares of the Fund equal to 1.00% of the amount under $3 million, 0.50% of the next $2 million, and 0.25% thereafter. In instances where this one-time commission is not paid to a particular Intermediary (including Goldman Sachs’ Private Wealth Management Unit and Employee Benefit Plans), the CDSC on Class A Shares, generally, will be waived. The Distributor may also pay, with respect to all or a portion of the amount purchased, a commission in accordance with the foregoing schedule to Intermediaries who initiate or are responsible for purchases of $1 million or more by certain “wrap” accounts. Purchases by such accounts will be made at NAV with no initial sales charge, but if shares are redeemed within 18 months a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed upon the account. In addition, Intermediaries will remit to the Distributor such payments received in connection with “wrap” accounts in the event that shares are redeemed within 18 months.

Different Intermediaries may impose different sales charges. These variations are described in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

You should note that the actual sales charge that appears in your mutual fund transaction confirmation may differ slightly from the rate disclosed above in the Prospectus due to rounding calculations.

As indicated in the preceding chart, and as discussed further below and in the section titled “How Can The Sales Charge On Class A Shares Be Reduced?” and in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts, you may, under certain circumstances, be entitled to pay reduced sales charges on your purchases of Class A Shares or have those charges waived entirely. To take advantage of these discounts, your Intermediary must notify the Fund’s Transfer Agent

 

23


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

at the time of your purchase order that a discount may apply to your current purchases. You may also be required to provide appropriate documentation to receive these discounts, including:

 

  (i)

Information or records regarding shares of the Fund or other Goldman Sachs Funds held in all accounts (e.g., retirement accounts) of the shareholder at all Intermediaries; or

 

  (ii)

Information or records regarding shares of the Fund or other Goldman Sachs Funds held at any Intermediary by related parties of the shareholder, such as members of the same family or household.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Class A Shares’ CDSC?

Purchases of $1 million or more of Class A Shares will be made at NAV with no initial sales charge. However, if you redeem shares within 18 months after the beginning of the month in which the purchase was made, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed. The CDSC may not be imposed if your Intermediary agrees with the Distributor to return all or an applicable prorated portion of its commission to the Distributor. The CDSC is waived on redemptions in certain circumstances. See “In What Situations May The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares Be Waived Or Reduced?” below and, if you hold shares through an Intermediary, see Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

When Are Class A Shares Not Subject To A Sales Load?

Class A Shares of the Fund may be sold at NAV without payment of any sales charge to the following individuals and entities:

   

Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or their respective officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), any partnership of which Goldman Sachs is a general partner, any Trustee or officer of the Trust and designated family members of any of these individuals;

   

Qualified employee benefit plans of Goldman Sachs;

   

Trustees or directors of investment companies for which Goldman Sachs or an affiliate acts as sponsor;

   

Any employee or registered representative of any Intermediary (or such Intermediaries’ affiliates and subsidiaries) or their respective spouses or domestic partners, children and parents;

   

Banks, trust companies or other types of depository institutions;

   

Any state, county or city, or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof, which is prohibited by applicable investment laws from paying a sales charge or commission in connection with the purchase of shares of the Fund;

   

Employee Benefit Plans, other than Employee Benefit Plans that purchase Class A Shares through brokerage relationships in which sales charges are customarily imposed. Under such circumstances, Plans will be assessed sales charges as described further in “Shareholder Guide—Common Questions Applicable To the Purchase of Class A Shares;”

   

Investors who purchase Class A Shares through an omnibus account sponsored by an Intermediary that has an agreement with the Distributor covering such investors to offer Class A Shares without charging an initial sales charge;

   

Insurance company separate accounts that make the Fund available as an underlying investment in certain group annuity contracts;

   

“Wrap” accounts for the benefit of clients of broker-dealers, financial institutions or financial planners, provided they have entered into an agreement with GSAM specifying aggregate minimums and certain operating policies and standards;

   

Investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees;

   

Accounts over which GSAM or its advisory affiliates have investment discretion;

   

Shareholders who roll over distributions from any tax-qualified Employee Benefit Plan or tax-sheltered annuity to an IRA which invests in the Goldman Sachs Funds if the tax-qualified Employee Benefit Plan or tax-sheltered annuity receives administrative services provided by certain third party administrators that have entered into a special service arrangement with Goldman Sachs relating to such plan or annuity;

   

State sponsored 529 college savings plans;

   

Investors that purchase Class A Shares through the GS Retirement Plan Plus and Goldman Sachs 401(k) Programs; or

   

Former shareholders of certain funds who (i) received shares of a Goldman Sachs Fund in connection with a reorganization of an acquired fund into a Goldman Sachs Fund, (ii) had previously qualified for purchases of Class A Shares of the acquired funds without the imposition of a sales load under the guidelines of the applicable acquired fund family, and (iii) as of August 24, 2012 held their Goldman Sachs Fund shares directly with the Goldman Sachs Funds’ Transfer Agent, as long as they continue to hold the shares directly at the Transfer Agent.

You must certify eligibility for any of the above exemptions on your account application and notify your Intermediary and the Fund if you no longer are eligible for the exemption. You may be eligible for different or additional exemptions based on your Intermediary; see Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

 

24


The Fund will grant you an exemption subject to confirmation of your eligibility by your Intermediary. You may be charged a fee by your Intermediary.

How Can The Sales Charge On Class A Shares Be Reduced?

   

Right of Accumulation:  When buying Class A Shares in Goldman Sachs Funds, your current aggregate investment determines the initial sales load you pay. You may qualify for reduced sales charges when the current market value of holdings across Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares, plus new purchases, reaches $50,000 or more. Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares of any of the Goldman Sachs Funds may be combined under the Right of Accumulation. If the Fund’s Transfer Agent is properly notified, the “Amount of Purchase” in the chart in the section “What Is The Offering Price Of Class A Shares?” will be deemed to include all Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares of the Goldman Sachs Funds that were held at the time of purchase by any of the following persons: (i) you, your spouse or domestic partner, your parents and your children; and (ii) any trustee, guardian or other fiduciary of a single trust estate or a single fiduciary account. This includes, for example, any Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares held at an Intermediary other than the one handling your current purchase. For purposes of applying the Right of Accumulation, shares of the Fund and any other Goldman Sachs Funds purchased by an existing client of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management or GS Ayco Holding LLC will be combined with Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares and other assets held by all other Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management accounts or accounts of GS Ayco Holding LLC, respectively. In addition, under some circumstances, Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares of the Fund and Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares of any other Goldman Sachs Fund purchased by partners, directors, officers or employees of certain organizations may be combined for the purpose of determining whether a purchase will qualify for the Right of Accumulation and, if qualifying, the applicable sales charge level. To qualify for a reduced sales load, you or your Intermediary must notify the Fund’s Transfer Agent at the time of investment that a quantity discount is applicable. If you do not notify your Intermediary at the time of your current purchase or a future purchase that you qualify for a quantity discount, you may not receive the benefit of a reduced sales charge that might otherwise apply. Use of this option is subject to a check of appropriate records.

In some circumstances, other Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares may be aggregated with your current purchase under the Right of Accumulation as described in the SAI. For purposes of determining the “Amount of Purchase,” all Class A Shares and/or Class C Shares currently held will be valued at their current market value.

   

Statement of Intention:  You may obtain a reduced sales charge by means of a written Statement of Intention which expresses your non-binding commitment to invest (not counting reinvestments of dividends and distributions) in the aggregate $50,000 or more within a period of 13 months in Class A Shares of one or more of the Goldman Sachs Funds. Any investments you make during the period will receive the discounted sales load based on the full amount of your investment commitment. Purchases made during the previous 90 days may be included; however, capital appreciation does not apply toward these combined purchases. If the investment commitment of the Statement of Intention is not met prior to the expiration of the 13-month period, the entire amount will be subject to the higher applicable sales charge unless the failure to meet the investment commitment is due to the death of the investor. By selecting the Statement of Intention, you authorize the Transfer Agent to escrow and redeem Class A Shares in your account to pay this additional charge if the Statement of Intention is not met. You must, however, inform the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Intermediary) that the Statement of Intention is in effect each time shares are purchased. Each purchase will be made at the public offering price applicable to a single transaction of the dollar amount specified on the Statement of Intention. The SAI has more information about the Statement of Intention, which you should read carefully.

Different Intermediaries may have different policies regarding Rights of Accumulation and Statements of Intention. These variations are described in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

 

  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS C SHARES     

What Is The Offering Price Of Class C Shares?

You may purchase Class C Shares of the Fund at the next determined NAV without paying an initial sales charge. However, if you redeem Class C Shares within 12 months of purchase, a CDSC of 1.00% will normally be deducted from the redemption proceeds. In connection with purchases by Employee Benefit Plans, where Class C Shares are redeemed within 12 months of purchase, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed upon the plan sponsor or third party administrator. Class C Shares acquired in exchange for shares subject to a CDSC will be subject to the CDSC, if any, of the shares originally held. No CDSC is imposed in connection with an exchange of Class C Shares at the time of such exchange. When Class C Shares are exchanged for Class C Shares of another fund, the period of time that such shares will be subject to a

 

25


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

CDSC (if any) will be measured as of the date of the original purchase. With respect to such shares held by Employee Benefit Plans, the CDSC may be imposed on the plan sponsor or third party administrator.

Different Intermediaries may impose different sales charges. These variations are described in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

Proceeds from the CDSC are payable to the Distributor and may be used in whole or in part to defray the Distributor’s expenses related to providing distribution-related services to the Fund in connection with the sale of Class C Shares, including the payment

of compensation to Intermediaries. A commission equal to 1% of the amount invested is normally paid by the Distributor to Intermediaries.

What Should I Know About The Automatic Conversion Of Class C Shares?

Class C Shares of the Fund will automatically convert into Class A Shares (which bear lower distribution and service (12b-1) fees and do not bear additional personal and account maintenance services fees) of the same Fund on or about the fifteenth day of the last month of the quarter that is ten years after the purchase date. No sales charges or other charges will apply in connection with any conversion.

If you acquire Class C Shares of the Fund by exchange from Class C Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund, your Class C Shares will convert into Class A Shares of such Fund based on the date of the initial purchase. If you acquire Class C Shares through reinvestment of distributions, your Class C Shares will convert into Class A Shares based on the date of the initial purchase of the shares on which the distribution was paid.

Shareholders will not recognize a gain or loss for federal income tax purposes upon the conversion of Class C Shares for Class A Shares of the same Fund. The automatic conversion of Class C Shares to Class A Shares will not apply to shares held through group retirement plan recordkeeping platforms of certain Intermediaries who hold such shares in an omnibus account and do not track participant level share lot aging to facilitate such a conversion.

Effective on or about September 17, 2018, new employee benefit plans are not eligible to purchase Class C Shares. Employee benefit plans which have this share class of the Fund available to participants on or before September 18, 2018, may continue to open accounts for new participants in such share class of the Fund and purchase additional shares in existing participant accounts.

If you purchased your shares through an Intermediary, it is the responsibility of your Intermediary to work with the Transfer Agent to effect the conversion and to ensure that Class C Shares are automatically converted after the appropriate period of time. In addition, if your shares are no longer subject to a CDSC, you may be able to exchange your Class C Shares for Class A Shares without the payment of a sales charge prior to the automatic conversion subject to the policies and procedures of the Intermediary through whom you have purchased your shares. Please contact your Intermediary with questions regarding your eligibility to exchange Class C Shares for Class A Shares.

 

  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS A AND C SHARES     

What Else Do I Need To Know About The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares?

   

The CDSC is based on the lesser of the NAV of the shares at the time of redemption or the original offering price (which is the original NAV).

   

No CDSC is charged on shares acquired from reinvested dividends or capital gains distributions.

   

No CDSC is charged on the per share appreciation of your account over the initial purchase price.

   

When counting the number of months since a purchase of Class A or Class C Shares was made, all purchases made during a month will be combined and considered to have been made on the first day of that month.

   

To keep your CDSC as low as possible, each time you place a request to sell shares, the Fund will first sell any shares in your account that do not carry a CDSC and then the shares in your account that have been held the longest.

In What Situations May The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares Be Waived Or Reduced?

The CDSC on Class A and Class C Shares that are subject to a CDSC may be waived or reduced if the redemption relates to:

   

Mandatory retirement distributions or loans to participants or beneficiaries from Employee Benefit Plans;

   

Hardship withdrawals by a participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

The separation from service by a participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

Excess contributions distributed from an Employee Benefit Plan;

 

26


   

Distributions from a qualified Employee Benefit Plan invested in the Goldman Sachs Funds which are being rolled over to an IRA in the same share class of a Goldman Sachs Fund;

   

The death or disability (as defined in Section 72(m)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”)) of a shareholder, participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

Satisfying the minimum distribution requirements of the Code;

   

Establishing “substantially equal periodic payments” as described under Section 72(t)(2) of the Code;

   

Redemption proceeds which are to be reinvested in accounts or non-registered products over which GSAM or its advisory affiliates have investment discretion;

   

A systematic withdrawal plan. The Fund reserves the right to limit such redemptions, on an annual basis, to 12% of the value of your Class C Shares and 10% of the value of your Class A Shares;

   

Redemptions or exchanges of Fund shares held through an Employee Benefit Plan using the Fund as part of a qualified default investment alternative or “QDIA”; or

   

Other redemptions, at the discretion of the Trust’s officers, relating to shares purchased through Employee Benefit Plans.

You may be eligible for different or additional exemptions based on your Intermediary; see Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

 

  HOW TO SELL SHARES     

How Can I Sell Shares Of The Fund?

Generally, Shares may be sold (redeemed) only through Intermediaries. Customers of an Intermediary will normally give their redemption instructions to the Intermediary, and the Intermediary will, in turn, place the order with the Transfer Agent. On any business day the Fund is open, the Fund will generally redeem its Shares upon request at their next-determined NAV per share (subject to any applicable CDSC) after the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, the Authorized Institution) has received and accepted a redemption order in proper form, as described under “How To Buy Shares—How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?” above. Redemptions may be requested by electronic trading platform (through your Intermediary), in writing or by telephone (unless the Intermediary opts out of the telephone redemption privilege on the account application). You should contact your Intermediary to discuss redemptions and redemption proceeds. The Fund may transfer redemption proceeds to an account with your Intermediary. In the alternative, your Intermediary may request that redemption proceeds be sent to you by check or wire (if the wire instructions are designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent).

When Do I Need A Medallion Signature Guarantee To Redeem Shares?

Generally, a redemption request must be in writing and signed by an authorized person with a Medallion signature guarantee if:

   

A request is made in writing to redeem Class A, Class C, Investor or Class R Shares in an amount over $50,000 via check;

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to an address that is not your address of record; or

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to a domestic bank account that is not designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent.

A Medallion signature guarantee must be obtained from a bank, brokerage firm or other financial intermediary that is a member of an approved Medallion Guarantee Program or that is otherwise approved by the Trust. A notary public cannot provide a Medallion signature guarantee. The written request may be confirmed by telephone with both the requesting party and the designated Intermediary to verify instructions. Additional documentation may be required.

What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?

The Trust, the Distributor and the Transfer Agent will not be liable for any loss or tax liability you may incur in the event that the Trust accepts unauthorized telephone redemption requests that the Trust reasonably believes to be genuine. The Trust may accept telephone redemption instructions from any person identifying himself or herself as the owner of an account or the owner’s registered representative where the owner has not declined in writing to use this service. Thus, you risk possible losses if a telephone redemption is not authorized by you.

In an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent redemption and exchange requests by telephone, Goldman Sachs and DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. (“DST”) each employ reasonable procedures specified by the Trust to confirm that such instructions are genuine. The following general policies are currently in effect:

   

Telephone requests are recorded.

   

Proceeds of telephone redemption requests will be sent to your address of record or authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (unless you provide written instructions and a Medallion signature guarantee indicating another address or account).

 

27


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

   

For the 30-day period following a change of address, telephone redemptions will only be filled by a wire transfer to the authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (see immediately preceding bullet point). In order to receive the redemption by check during this time period, the redemption request must be in the form of a written, Medallion signature guaranteed letter.

   

The telephone redemption option does not apply to Shares held in an account maintained and serviced by your Intermediary. If your Shares are held in an account with an Intermediary, you should contact your registered representative of record, who may make telephone redemptions on your behalf.

   

The telephone redemption option may be modified or terminated at any time without prior notice.

   

The Fund may allow redemptions via check up to $50,000 in Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shares requested via telephone.

Note: It may be difficult to make telephone redemptions in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

How Are Redemption Proceeds Paid?

By Wire:  You may arrange for your redemption proceeds to be paid as federal funds to an account with your Intermediary or to a domestic bank account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. In addition, redemption proceeds may be transmitted through an electronic trading platform to an account with your Intermediary. The following general policies govern wiring redemption proceeds:

   

Redemption proceeds will normally be paid in federal funds, between one and two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of your Intermediary) following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request. In certain circumstances, however (such as unusual market conditions or in cases of very large redemptions or excessive trading), it may take up to seven days to pay redemption proceeds.

   

Redemption requests may only be postponed or suspended for longer than seven days as permitted under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”) if (i) the New York Stock Exchange is closed for trading or trading is restricted; (ii) an emergency exists which makes the disposal of securities owned by the Fund or the fair determination of the value of the Fund’s net assets not reasonably practicable; or (iii) the SEC, by order or regulation, permits the suspension of the right of redemption.

   

If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or purchased by Automated Clearing House (“ACH”), the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

   

If the Federal Reserve Bank is closed on the day that the redemption proceeds would ordinarily be wired, wiring the redemption proceeds may be delayed until the Federal Reserve Bank reopens.

   

To change the bank wiring instructions designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent, you must send written instructions signed by an authorized person designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if you are requesting a redemption in conjunction with the change.

   

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs assumes any responsibility for the performance of your bank or Intermediary in the transfer process. If a problem with such performance arises, you should deal directly with your bank or Intermediary.

By Check:  You may elect to receive your redemption proceeds by check. Redemption proceeds paid by check will normally be mailed to the address of record within two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of your Intermediary) following receipt of a properly executed redemption request, except in certain circumstances (such as those set forth above with respect to wire transfer redemption requests). If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or ACH, the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Redemptions?

The following generally applies to redemption requests:

   

Additional documentation may be required when deemed appropriate by the Transfer Agent. A redemption request will not be in proper form until such additional documentation has been received.

   

Intermediaries are responsible for the timely transmittal of redemption requests by their customers to the Transfer Agent. In order to facilitate the timely transmittal of redemption requests, Intermediaries may set times by which they must receive redemption requests. Intermediaries may also require additional documentation from you.

 

28


The Trust reserves the right to:

 

   

Redeem your shares in the event your Intermediary’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Intermediary or in the event that the Fund is no longer an option in your Employee Benefit Plan or no longer available through your Eligible Fee-Based Program.

   

Redeem your shares if your account balance is below the required Fund minimum. The Fund will not redeem your shares on this basis if the value of your account falls below the minimum account balance solely as a result of market conditions. The Fund will give you 60 days prior written notice to allow you to purchase sufficient additional shares of the Fund in order to avoid such redemption. Different rules may apply to investors who have established brokerage accounts with Goldman Sachs in accordance with the terms and conditions of their account agreements.

   

Redeem your shares in the case of actual or suspected threatening conduct or actual or suspected fraudulent, suspicious or illegal activity by you or any other individual associated with your account.

   

Subject to applicable law, redeem your shares in other circumstances determined by the Board of Trustees to be in the best interest of the Trust.

   

Pay redemptions by a distribution in-kind of securities (instead of cash). If you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you should expect to incur transaction costs upon the disposition of those securities. In addition, if you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you will be subject to market gains or losses upon the disposition of those securities.

   

Reinvest any amounts (e.g., dividends, distributions or redemption proceeds) which you have elected to receive by check should your check remain uncashed for more than 180 days. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed checks. Your check will be reinvested in your account at the NAV on the day of the reinvestment. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to the risk of loss like any Fund investment. If you elect to receive distributions in cash and a check remains uncashed for more than 180 days, your cash election may be changed automatically to reinvest and your future dividend and capital gains distributions will be reinvested in the Fund at the NAV as of the date of payment of the distribution. This provision may not apply to certain retirement or qualified accounts, accounts with a non-U.S. address or closed accounts. Your participation in a systematic withdrawal program may be terminated if a check remains uncashed.

   

Charge an additional fee in the event a redemption is made via wire transfer.

The Fund typically expects to meet redemption requests by using holdings of cash or cash equivalents and/or proceeds from the sale of portfolio holdings. In addition, under stressed market conditions, as well as for other temporary or emergency purposes, the Fund may distribute redemption proceeds in-kind (instead of cash), access a line of credit or overdraft facility, or borrow through other sources to meet redemption requests.

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from an involuntary redemption.

Can I Reinvest Redemption Proceeds In The Same Or Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may redeem shares of the Fund and reinvest a portion or all of the redemption proceeds in the same share class of another Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV. To be eligible for this privilege, you must have held the shares you want to redeem for at least 30 days and you must reinvest the share proceeds within 90 days after you redeem. You should obtain and read the applicable prospectus before investing in any other Goldman Sachs Fund.

You may reinvest redemption proceeds as follows:

   

If you pay a CDSC upon redemption of Class A or Class C Shares and then reinvest in Class A or Class C Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund as described above, your account will be credited with the amount of the CDSC you paid. The reinvested shares will, however, continue to be subject to a CDSC. The holding period of the shares acquired through reinvestment will include the holding period of the redeemed shares for purposes of computing the CDSC payable upon a subsequent redemption.

   

The reinvestment privilege may be exercised at any time in connection with transactions in which the proceeds are reinvested at NAV in a tax-sheltered Employee Benefit Plan. In other cases, the reinvestment privilege may be exercised once per year upon receipt of a written request.

   

You may be subject to tax as a result of a redemption. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of a redemption and reinvestment.

Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may exchange shares of a Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC, if applicable, at the time of exchange for certain shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Redemption (including by exchange) of certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses may, however, be subject to a redemption fee for shares that are held for either

 

29


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

30 or 60 days or less, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. The exchange privilege may be materially modified or withdrawn at any time upon 60 days’ written notice. You should contact your Intermediary to arrange for exchanges of shares of the Fund for shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund.

You should keep in mind the following factors when making or considering an exchange:

   

You should obtain and carefully read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund you are acquiring before making an exchange. You should be aware that not all Goldman Sachs Funds may offer all share classes.

   

The exchanged shares of the new Goldman Sachs Fund may later be exchanged for shares of the same class of the original Fund held at the next determined NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC (but subject to any applicable redemption fee). However, if additional shares of the new Goldman Sachs Fund were purchased after the initial exchange, and that Fund’s shares do not impose a sales charge or CDSC, then the applicable sales charge or CDSC of the original Fund’s shares will be imposed upon the exchange of those shares.

   

When you exchange shares subject to a CDSC, no CDSC will be charged at that time. However, for purposes of determining the amount of CDSC applicable to those shares acquired in the exchange, the length of time you have owned the shares will be measured from the date you acquired the original shares subject to a CDSC, and the amount and terms of the CDSC will be those applicable to the original shares acquired and will not be affected by a subsequent exchange.

   

Eligible investors may exchange certain classes of shares for another class of shares of the same Fund. For further information, contact your Intermediary.

   

All exchanges which represent an initial investment in a Goldman Sachs Fund must satisfy the minimum initial investment requirement of that Fund. This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the Trust. Exchanges into a Goldman Sachs Fund need not meet the traditional minimum investment requirement for that Fund if the entire balance of the original Fund account is exchanged.

   

Exchanges are available only in states where exchanges may be legally made.

   

It may be difficult to make telephone exchanges in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

   

Goldman Sachs and DST may use reasonable procedures described above in “How To Sell Shares—What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?” in an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent telephone exchange requests.

   

Normally, a telephone exchange will be made only to an identically registered account.

   

Exchanges into Goldman Sachs Funds or certain share classes of Goldman Sachs Funds that are closed to new investors may be restricted.

   

Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund may be subject to any redemption fee imposed by the other Goldman Sachs Fund.

For federal income tax purposes, an exchange from one Goldman Sachs Fund to another is treated as a redemption of the shares surrendered in the exchange, on which you may be subject to tax, followed by a purchase of shares received in the exchange. Exchanges within Employee Benefit Plan accounts will not result in capital gains or loss for federal or state income tax purposes. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of an exchange.

 

  SHAREHOLDER SERVICES     

Can I Arrange To Have Automatic Investments Made On A Regular Basis?

You may be able to make automatic investments in Class A and Class C Shares through your bank via ACH transfer or via bank draft or through your Intermediary each month. The minimum dollar amount for this service is $250 for the initial investment and $50 per month for additional investments. Forms for this option are available online at www.gsamfunds.com and from your Intermediary, or you may check the appropriate box on the account application.

Can My Distributions From The Fund Be Invested In Other Goldman Sachs Funds?

You may elect to cross-reinvest distributions paid by a Goldman Sachs Fund in shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

   

Shares will be purchased at NAV.

   

You may elect cross-reinvestment into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

   

You cannot make cross-reinvestments into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

   

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which distributions are invested.

 

30


Can I Arrange To Have Automatic Exchanges Made On A Regular Basis?

You may elect to exchange automatically a specified dollar amount of Class A or Class C Shares of the Fund for shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

   

Shares will be purchased at NAV if a sales charge had been imposed on the initial purchase.

   

You may elect to exchange into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

   

Shares subject to a CDSC acquired under this program may be subject to a CDSC at the time of redemption from the Goldman Sachs Fund into which the exchange is made depending upon the date and value of your original purchase.

   

Automatic exchanges are made monthly on the 15th day of each month or the first business day thereafter.

   

Minimum dollar amount: $50 per month.

   

You cannot make automatic exchanges into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

   

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which automatic exchanges are made.

   

An exchange is considered a redemption and a purchase and therefore may be a taxable transaction.

Can I Have Systematic Withdrawals Made On A Regular Basis?

You may redeem from your Class A or Class C Share account systematically via check or ACH transfer or through your Intermediary in any amount of $50 or more.

   

It is normally undesirable to maintain a systematic withdrawal plan at the same time that you are purchasing additional Class A or Class C Shares because of the sales charges that are imposed on certain purchases of Class A Shares and because of the CDSCs that are imposed on certain redemptions of Class A and Class C Shares.

   

Checks are normally mailed within two business days after your selected systematic withdrawal date of either the 15th or 25th of the month. ACH payments may take up to two business days to post to your account after your selected systematic withdrawal date between, and including, the 3rd and 26th of the month.

   

Each systematic withdrawal is a redemption and therefore may be a taxable transaction.

   

The CDSC applicable to Class A or Class C Shares redeemed under the systematic withdrawal plan may be waived. The Fund reserves the right to limit such redemptions, on an annual basis, to 12% each of the value of your Class C Shares and 10% of the value of your Class A Shares.

What Types Of Reports Will I Be Sent Regarding My Investment?

Intermediaries are responsible for providing any communication from the Fund to shareholders, including but not limited to, prospectuses, prospectus supplements, proxy materials and notices regarding the source of dividend payments under Section 19 of the Investment Company Act. They may charge additional fees not described in the Prospectus to their customers for such services.

You will be provided with a printed confirmation of each transaction in your account and a quarterly account statement if you invest in Class A, Class C, Investor or Class R Shares and a monthly account statement if you invest in Institutional or Class R6 Shares. If your account is held through your Intermediary, you will receive this information from your Intermediary.

You will also receive an annual shareholder report containing audited financial statements and a semi-annual shareholder report. If you have consented to the delivery of a single copy of shareholder reports, prospectuses and other information to all shareholders who share the same mailing address with your account, you may revoke your consent at any time by contacting your Intermediary or Goldman Sachs Funds at the appropriate phone number or address found on the back cover of the Prospectus. The Fund will begin sending individual copies to you within 30 days after receipt of your revocation. If your account is held through an Intermediary, please contact the Intermediary to revoke your consent.

 

  DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE FEES     

What Are The Different Distribution And/Or Service Fees Paid By The Fund’s Shares?

The Trust has adopted distribution and service plans (each a “Plan”) under which Class A, Class C and Class R Shares bear distribution and/or service fees paid to Goldman Sachs, some of which Goldman Sachs may pay to Intermediaries. Intermediaries seek distribution and/or servicing fee revenues to, among other things, offset the cost of servicing small and medium sized plan investors and providing information about the Fund. If the fees received by Goldman Sachs pursuant to the Plans exceed its expenses, Goldman Sachs may realize a profit from these arrangements. Goldman Sachs generally receives and pays the distribution and service fees on a quarterly basis.

 

31


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

Under the Plans, Goldman Sachs is entitled to a monthly fee from the Fund for distribution services equal, on an annual basis, to 0.25%, 0.75% and 0.50% of the Fund’s average daily net assets attributed to Class A, Class C and Class R Shares, respectively. Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, over time, these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of such charges.

The distribution fees are subject to the requirements of Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act, and may be used (among other things) for:

   

Compensation paid to and expenses incurred by Intermediaries, Goldman Sachs and their respective officers, employees and sales representatives;

   

Commissions paid to Intermediaries;

   

Allocable overhead;

   

Telephone and travel expenses;

   

Interest and other costs associated with the financing of such compensation and expenses;

   

Printing of prospectuses for prospective shareholders;

   

Preparation and distribution of sales literature or advertising of any type; and

   

All other expenses incurred in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class A, Class C and Class R Shares.

In connection with the sale of Class C Shares, Goldman Sachs normally begins paying the 0.75% distribution fee as an ongoing commission to Intermediaries after the shares have been held for one year. Goldman Sachs normally begins accruing the annual 0.25% and 0.50% distribution fees for the Class A and Class R Shares, respectively, as ongoing commissions to Intermediaries, immediately. Goldman Sachs generally pays the distribution fee on a quarterly basis.

 

  CLASS C PERSONAL AND ACCOUNT MAINTENANCE SERVICES AND FEES     

Under the Class C Plan, Goldman Sachs is also entitled to receive a separate fee equal on an annual basis to 0.25% of the Fund’s average daily net assets attributed to Class C Shares. This fee is for personal and account maintenance services, and may be used to make payments to Goldman Sachs, Intermediaries and their officers, sales representatives and employees for responding to inquiries of, and furnishing assistance to, shareholders regarding ownership of their shares or their accounts or similar services not otherwise provided on behalf of the Fund. If the fees received by Goldman Sachs pursuant to the Plan exceed its expenses, Goldman Sachs may realize a profit from this arrangement.

In connection with the sale of Class C Shares, Goldman Sachs normally begins paying the 0.25% ongoing service fee to Intermediaries after the shares have been held for one year.

 

  RESTRICTIONS ON EXCESSIVE TRADING PRACTICES     

Policies and Procedures on Excessive Trading Practices.  In accordance with the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees, the Trust discourages frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares and does not permit market timing or other excessive trading practices. Purchases and exchanges should be made with a view to longer-term investment purposes only that are consistent with the investment policies and practices of the Fund. Excessive, short-term (market timing) trading practices may disrupt portfolio management strategies, increase brokerage and administrative costs, harm Fund performance and result in dilution in the value of Fund shares held by longer-term shareholders. The Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders. To minimize harm to the Trust and its shareholders (or Goldman Sachs), the Trust (or Goldman Sachs) will exercise this right if, in the Trust’s (or Goldman Sachs’) judgment, an investor has a history of excessive trading or if an investor’s trading, in the judgment of the Trust (or Goldman Sachs), has been or may be disruptive to the Fund. In making this judgment, trades executed in multiple accounts under common ownership or control may be considered together to the extent they can be identified. No waivers of the provisions of the policy established to detect and deter market timing and other excessive trading activity are permitted that would harm the Trust or its shareholders or would subordinate the interests of the Trust or its shareholders to those of Goldman Sachs or any affiliated person or associated person of Goldman Sachs.

To deter excessive shareholder trading, certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses impose a redemption fee on redemptions made within 30 or 60 days of purchase subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. As a further deterrent to excessive trading, many foreign equity securities held by the Goldman Sachs Funds are

 

32


priced by an independent pricing service using fair valuation. For more information on fair valuation, please see “How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Pursuant to the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Trust, Goldman Sachs has developed criteria that it uses to identify trading activity that may be excessive. Excessive trading activity in the Fund is measured by the number of “round trip” transactions in a shareholder’s account. A “round trip” includes a purchase or exchange into the Fund followed or preceded by a redemption or exchange out of the same Fund. If the Fund detects that a shareholder has completed two or more round trip transactions in a single Fund within a rolling 90-day period, the Fund may reject or restrict subsequent purchase or exchange orders by that shareholder permanently. In addition, the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permanently reject or restrict purchase or exchange orders by a shareholder if the Fund detects other trading activity that is deemed to be disruptive to the management of the Fund or otherwise harmful to the Fund. For purposes of these transaction surveillance procedures, the Fund may consider trading activity in multiple accounts under common ownership, control, or influence. A shareholder that has been restricted from participation in the Fund pursuant to this policy will be allowed to apply for re-entry after one year. A shareholder applying for re-entry must provide assurances acceptable to the Fund that the shareholder will not engage in excessive trading activities in the future.

Goldman Sachs may modify its surveillance procedures and criteria from time to time without prior notice regarding the detection of excessive trading or to address specific circumstances. Goldman Sachs will apply the criteria in a manner that, in Goldman Sachs’ judgment, will be uniform.

Fund shares may be held through omnibus arrangements maintained by Intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, investment advisers and insurance companies. In addition, Fund shares may be held in omnibus Employee Benefit Plans, Eligible Fee-Based Programs and other group accounts. Omnibus accounts include multiple investors and such accounts typically provide the Fund with a net purchase or redemption request on any given day where the purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by the investors are netted against one another. The identity of individual investors whose purchase and redemption orders are aggregated are ordinarily not tracked by the Fund on a regular basis. A number of these Intermediaries may not have the capability or may not be willing to apply the Fund’s market timing policies or any applicable redemption fee. While Goldman Sachs may monitor share turnover at the omnibus account level, the Fund’s ability to monitor and detect market timing by shareholders or apply any applicable redemption fee in these omnibus accounts may be limited in certain circumstances, and certain of these Intermediaries may charge the Fund a fee for providing certain shareholder financial information requested as part of the Fund’s surveillance process. The netting effect makes it more difficult to identify, locate and eliminate market timing activities. In addition, those investors who engage in market timing and other excessive trading activities may employ a variety of techniques to avoid detection. There can be no assurance that the Fund and Goldman Sachs will be able to identify all those who trade excessively or employ a market timing strategy, and curtail their trading in every instance. If necessary, the Trust may prohibit additional purchases of Fund shares by an Intermediary or by certain customers of the Intermediary. Intermediaries may also monitor their customers’ trading activities in the Fund. The criteria used by Intermediaries to monitor for excessive trading may differ from the criteria used by the Fund. If an Intermediary fails to cooperate in the implementation or enforcement of the Trust’s excessive trading policies, the Trust may take certain actions including terminating the relationship.

 

33


 

 

Taxation

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Fund will be taxed. The tax information below is provided as general information. More tax information is available in the SAI. You should consult your tax adviser about the federal, state, local or foreign tax consequences of your investment in the Fund. Except as otherwise noted, the tax information provided assumes that you are a U.S. citizen or resident.

Unless your investment is through an Employee Benefit Plan or other tax-advantaged account, you should carefully consider the possible tax consequences of Fund distributions and the sale of your Fund shares.

 

  DISTRIBUTIONS     

The Fund contemplates declaring as dividends each year all or substantially all of its taxable income. Distributions you receive from the Fund are generally subject to federal income tax, and may also be subject to state or local taxes. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash. For federal tax purposes, the Fund’s distributions attributable to net investment income and short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income, while any distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares.

Under current provisions of the Code, the maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. Also, Fund distributions to noncorporate shareholders attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. and certain qualified foreign corporations will generally be taxed at the long-term capital gain rate, as long as certain other requirements are met. For these lower rates to apply, the non-corporate shareholder must own the relevant Fund shares for at least 61 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the Fund’s ex-dividend date. The amount of the Fund’s distributions that would otherwise qualify for this favorable tax treatment will be reduced as a result of the Fund’s securities lending activities or high portfolio turnover rate.

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of your investment to the extent of your basis in the shares, and generally as capital gain thereafter. A return of capital, which for tax purposes is treated as a return of your investment, reduces your basis in shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition of shares. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per share and may be taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gain even though, from an economic standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

The Fund’s transactions in derivatives (such as futures contracts and swaps) will be subject to special tax rules, the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to you. The Fund’s use of derivatives may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gains and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not use derivatives.

Although distributions are generally treated as taxable to you in the year they are paid, distributions declared in October, November or December but paid in January are taxable as if they were paid in December. A percentage of the Fund’s dividends paid to corporate shareholders may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction. This percentage may, however, be reduced as a result of the Fund’s securities lending activities or by a high portfolio turnover rate. Character and tax status of all distributions will be available to shareholders after the close of each calendar year.

The Fund may be subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes on income or gain from certain foreign securities. In general, the Fund may deduct these taxes in computing their taxable income.

If you buy shares of the Fund before it makes a distribution, the distribution will be taxable to you even though it may actually be a return of a portion of your investment. This is known as “buying into a dividend.”

 

34


  SALES AND EXCHANGES     

Your sale of Fund shares is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. For tax purposes, the exchange of your Fund shares for shares of a different Goldman Sachs Fund is the same as a sale. When you sell your shares, you will generally recognize a capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between your adjusted tax basis in the shares and the amount received. Generally, this capital gain or loss is long-term or short-term depending on whether your holding period exceeds one year, except that any loss realized on shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain dividends that were received on the shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale, exchange or redemption of shares of the Fund may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shares disposed of are replaced with other shares of the Fund within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the shares are disposed of, such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in shares of the Fund. If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.

 

  OTHER INFORMATION     

When you open your account, you should provide your Social Security Number or tax identification number on your account application. By law, the Fund must withhold 24% of your taxable distributions and any redemption proceeds if you do not provide your correct taxpayer identification number, or certify that it is correct, or if the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) instructs the Fund to do so.

The Fund is required to report to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also, for shares purchased on or after January 1, 2012, their cost basis. Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different methodology. If you would like to use the average cost method of calculation, no action is required. To elect an alternative method, you should contact Goldman Sachs Funds at the address or phone number on the back cover of the Prospectus. If your account is held with an Intermediary, contact your representative with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Fund and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

Non-U.S. investors are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax and may be subject to estate tax with respect to their Fund Shares. However, withholding is generally not required on properly designated distributions to non-U.S. investors of long-term capital gains. Non-U.S. investors generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on certain distributions of interest income and/or short-term capital gains that are designated by the Fund. It is expected that the Fund will generally make designations of short-term gains, to the extent permitted, but the Fund does not intend to make designations of any distributions attributable to interest income. Therefore, all distributions of interest income will be subject to withholding when paid to non-U.S. investors.

The Fund is required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to enable the Fund to determine whether withholding is required.

 

35


 

Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio

Risks, Securities and Techniques

 

  A.    General Portfolio Risks     

The Fund will be subject to the risks associated with equity investments. “Equity investments” may include common stocks, preferred stocks, interests in REITs, convertible debt obligations, convertible preferred stocks, equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures, limited liability companies and similar enterprises, MLPs, other investment companies (including ETFs), warrants, stock purchase rights and synthetic and derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) that have economic characteristics similar to equity securities. In general, the values of equity investments fluctuate in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Accordingly, the values of the equity investments that the Fund holds may decline over short or extended periods. The stock markets tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when prices generally decline. This volatility means that the value of your investment in the Fund may increase or decrease. In recent years, certain stock markets have experienced substantial price volatility. To the extent the Fund’s net assets decrease or increase in the future due to price volatility or share redemption or purchase activity, the Fund’s expense ratio may correspondingly increase or decrease from the expense ratio disclosed in the Prospectus.

To the extent the Fund invests in pooled investment vehicles (including investment companies and ETFs), partnerships and REITs, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such entities in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

To the extent that the Fund invests in fixed income securities, the Fund will also be subject to the risks associated with its fixed income securities. These risks include interest rate risk, credit/default risk and call/extension risk. In general, interest rate risk involves the risk that when interest rates decline, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase (although many mortgage-related securities will have less potential than other debt securities for capital appreciation during periods of declining rates). Conversely, when interest rates increase, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decline. Credit/default risk involves the risk that an issuer or guarantor could default on its obligations, and the Fund will not recover its investment. Call risk and extension risk are normally present in mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. For example, homeowners have the option to prepay their mortgages. Therefore, the duration of a security backed by home mortgages can either shorten (call risk) or lengthen (extension risk). In general, if interest rates on new mortgage loans fall sufficiently below the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to decrease. In either case, a change in the prepayment rate can result in losses to investors. The same would be true of asset-backed securities such as securities backed by car loans.

A rising interest rate environment could cause the value of the Fund’s fixed income securities to decrease, and fixed income markets to experience increased volatility in addition to heightened levels of liquidity risk. Additionally, decreases in the value of fixed income securities could lead to increased shareholder redemptions, which could impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments.

The Fund may invest in non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), which are rated below investment grade (or determined to be of comparable credit quality, if not rated) at the time of purchase and are therefore considered speculative. Because non-investment grade fixed income securities are issued by issuers with low credit ratings, they pose a greater risk of default than investment grade securities.

The Investment Adviser will not consider the portfolio turnover rate a limiting factor in making investment decisions for the Fund. A high rate of portfolio turnover (100% or more) involves correspondingly greater expenses which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to certain shareholders. The portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of the dollar amount of sales or purchases of portfolio securities by the average monthly value of the Fund’s portfolio securities, excluding securities having a maturity at the date of purchase of one year or less.

The Fund may, from time to time, enter into arrangements with certain brokers or other counterparties that require the segregation of collateral. For operational, cost or other reasons, when setting up arrangements relating to the execution/clearing of trades, the

 

36


Fund may choose to select a segregation model which may not be the most protective option available in the case of a default by a broker or counterparty.

The following sections provide further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks. Additional information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request. Among other things, the SAI describes certain fundamental investment restrictions that cannot be changed without shareholder approval. You should note, however, that all investment objectives and all investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental are non-fundamental, and may be changed without shareholder approval. If there is a change in the Fund’s investment objective, you should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of your then current financial position and needs.

 

  B.    Other Portfolio Risks     

Risks of Writing Index Call Options.  When the Fund writes (sell) S&P 500® Index (or other index or related ETF) call options, it foregoes the opportunity to benefit from an increase in the value of the relevant index above the exercise price (plus the premium received) of the option, but the Fund continues to bear the risk of a decline in the value of the relevant index. As the seller of the index call options, the Fund receives cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of an index call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the index over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the index over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser does not exercise the option, the Fund retains the premium and makes no payments to the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of the index call option. The Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund.

There is no assurance that a liquid market will be available at all times for the Fund to write call options or to enter into closing purchase transactions. In addition, the premiums the Fund receives for writing call options may decrease as a result of a number of factors, including a reduction in interest rates generally, a decline in stock market volumes or a decrease in the price volatility of the underlying securities. For more information see “Portfolio Securities and Techniques—Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.”

Risks of Investing in Mid-Capitalization and Small-Capitalization Companies.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in mid- and small-capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies involve greater risk and portfolio price volatility than investments in larger capitalization stocks. Among the reasons for the greater price volatility of these investments are the less certain growth prospects of smaller firms and the lower degree of liquidity in the markets for such securities. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded and may have to be sold at a discount from current market prices or in small lots over an extended period of time. In addition, these securities are subject to the risk that during certain periods the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities in particular investment categories, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Mid- and small-capitalization companies include “unseasoned” issuers that do not have an established financial history; often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources; may depend on or use a few key personnel for management; and may be susceptible to losses and risks of bankruptcy. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be operating at a loss or have significant variations in operating results; may be engaged in a rapidly changing business with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence; may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition. In addition, these companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities, and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies may be more difficult to price precisely than other types of securities because of their characteristics and lower trading volumes.

Risks of Foreign Investments.  The Fund may make foreign investments. Foreign investments involve special risks that are not typically associated with U.S. dollar denominated or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign investments may be affected by changes in currency rates, changes in foreign or U.S. laws or restrictions applicable to such investments and changes in exchange

 

37


APPENDIX A

 

control regulations (e.g., currency blockage). A decline in the exchange rate of the currency (i.e., weakening of the currency against the U.S. dollar) in which a portfolio security is quoted or denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would reduce the value of the portfolio security. In addition, if the currency in which the Fund receives dividends, interest or other payments declines in value against the U.S. dollar before such income is distributed as dividends to shareholders or converted to U.S. dollars, the Fund may have to sell portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to pay such dividends.

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures.

Brokerage commissions, custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. In addition, clearance and settlement procedures may be different in foreign countries and, in certain markets, such procedures have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, thus making it difficult to conduct such transactions.

Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than about a U.S. issuer. In addition, there is generally less government regulation of foreign markets, companies and securities dealers than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Foreign securities markets may have substantially less volume than U.S. securities markets and securities of many foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Furthermore, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividend or interest payments (or, in some cases, capital gains distributions), limitations on the removal of funds or other assets from such countries, and risks of political or social instability or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect investments in those countries.

Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to social, political or market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Certain foreign investments may become illiquid when, for instance, there are few, if any, interested buyers and sellers or when dealers are unwilling to make a market for certain securities. When the Fund holds illiquid investments, its portfolio may be harder to value, especially in changing markets.

If the Fund focuses its investments in one or a few countries and currencies, the Fund may be subjected to greater risks than if the Fund’s assets were not geographically focused.

Investments in foreign securities may take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund may also invest in European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers. ADRs, GDRs and EDRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or other depository. ADRs and certain GDRs are traded in the United States. GDRs may be traded in either the United States or in foreign markets. EDRs are traded primarily outside the United States. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U.S. dollars. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

Risks of Sovereign Debt.  Investment in sovereign debt obligations by the Fund involves risks not present in debt obligations of corporate issuers. The issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt, and the Fund may have limited recourse to compel payment in the event of a default. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt, and in turn the Fund’s NAV, to a greater extent than the volatility inherent in debt obligations of U.S. issuers.

A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject.

Risks of Emerging Countries.  The Fund may invest in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. The risks of foreign investment are heightened when the issuer is located in an emerging country. Emerging countries are generally located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe, and Central and South America. The Fund’s purchase and sale of portfolio

 

38


securities in certain emerging countries may be constrained by limitations relating to daily changes in the prices of listed securities, periodic trading or settlement volume and/or limitations on aggregate holdings of foreign investors. Such limitations may be computed based on the aggregate trading volume by or holdings of the Fund, the Investment Adviser, its affiliates and their respective clients and other service providers. The Fund may not be able to sell securities in circumstances where price, trading or settlement volume limitations have been reached.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees which may limit investment in such countries or increase the administrative costs of such investments. For example, certain Asian countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. In addition, certain countries may restrict or prohibit investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed important to national interests. Such restrictions may affect the market price, liquidity and rights of securities that may be purchased by the Fund. The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from certain emerging countries is subject to restrictions such as the need for governmental consents, which may make it difficult for the Fund to invest in such emerging countries. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. In situations where a country restricts direct investment in securities (which may occur in certain Asian and other countries), the Fund may invest in such countries through other investment funds in such countries.

Many emerging countries have experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation. Other emerging countries have experienced economic recessions. These circumstances have had a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of such emerging countries. Economies in emerging countries generally are dependent heavily upon commodity prices and international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be affected adversely by the economies of their trading partners, trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.

Many emerging countries are subject to a substantial degree of economic, political and social instability. Governments of some emerging countries are authoritarian in nature or have been installed or removed as a result of military coups, while governments in other emerging countries have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection, among other factors, have also led to social unrest, violence and/or labor unrest in some emerging countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Investing in emerging countries involves greater risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested. As an example, in the past, some Eastern European governments have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and many claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that similar expropriations will not occur in other countries.

The Fund’s investment in emerging countries may also be subject to withholding or other taxes, which may be significant and may reduce the return to the Fund from an investment in issuers in such countries.

Settlement procedures in emerging countries are frequently less developed and reliable than those in the United States and may involve the Fund’s delivery of securities before receipt of payment for their sale. In addition, significant delays may occur in certain markets in registering the transfer of securities. Settlement or registration problems may make it more difficult for the Fund to value its portfolio securities and could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, to have a portion of its assets uninvested or to incur losses due to the failure of a counterparty to pay for securities the Fund has delivered or the Fund’s inability to complete its contractual obligations because of theft or other reasons.

The creditworthiness of the local securities firms used by the Fund in emerging countries may not be as sound as the creditworthiness of firms used in more developed countries. As a result, the Fund may be subject to a greater risk of loss if a securities firm defaults in the performance of its responsibilities.

The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain emerging countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in those countries may make the Fund’s investments in such countries less liquid and more volatile than investments in countries with more developed securities markets (such as the United States, Japan and most Western European countries). The Fund’s investments in emerging countries are subject to the risk that the liquidity of a particular investment, or investments generally, in such countries will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political conditions or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the

 

39


APPENDIX A

 

Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Investments in emerging countries may be more difficult to value precisely because of the characteristics discussed above and lower trading volumes.

The Fund’s use of foreign currency management techniques in emerging countries may be limited. The Investment Adviser anticipates that a significant portion of the Fund’s currency exposure in emerging countries may not be covered by those techniques.

Foreign Custody Risk.  Because the Fund may invest in foreign securities, the Fund may hold such securities and cash with foreign banks, agents and securities depositories appointed by the Fund’s custodian (each a “Foreign Custodian”). Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy. Investments in emerging markets may be subject to even greater custody risks than investments in more developed markets. Custody services in emerging market countries are very often undeveloped and may be considerably less well regulated than in more developed countries, and thus may not afford the same level of investor protection as would apply in developed countries.

Risks of Derivative Investments.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in derivative instruments including without limitation, options, futures, options on futures, swaps, structured securities and forward contracts and other derivatives relating to foreign currency transactions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and non-hedging purposes (that is, to seek to increase total return), although suitable derivative instruments may not always be available to the Investment Adviser for these purposes. Losses from derivative instruments can result from a lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivative instruments and the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged, the potential illiquidity of the markets for derivative instruments, the failure of the counterparty to perform its contractual obligations, or the risks related to leverage factors associated with such transactions. Derivatives are also subject to risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions and the risk of loss by the Fund of margin deposits in the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker or counterparty with whom the Fund has an open derivative position. Losses may also arise if the Fund receives cash collateral under the transactions and some or all of that collateral is invested in the market. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation and the Fund may be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the counterparty’s cash collateral. If cash collateral is not invested, the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss in the event of the insolvency of its custodian holding such collateral. The use of these management techniques also involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables. Derivative instruments may be harder to value, subject to greater volatility and more likely subject to changes in tax treatment than other investments. For these reasons, the Investment Adviser’s attempts to hedge portfolio risks through the use of derivative instruments may not be successful, and the Investment Adviser may choose not to hedge portfolio risks. Using derivatives for non-hedging purposes is considered a speculative practice and presents greater risk of loss than derivatives used for hedging purposes.

Risks of Illiquid Investments.  The Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is an investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that the Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.

Investments purchased by the Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid. If one or more investments in the Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed the 15% limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the Fund to exceed this limit, the Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force the Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

In cases where no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s portfolio instruments is available, the portfolio instruments will be valued at their fair value according to the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. These cases include, among

 

40


others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source, or the secondary markets on which an investment has previously been traded are no longer viable, due to its lack of liquidity. For more information on fair valuation, please see “Shareholder Guide—How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Credit/Default Risks.  Debt securities purchased by the Fund may include U.S. Government Securities (including zero coupon bonds) and securities issued by foreign governments, domestic and foreign corporations, banks and other issuers. Some of these fixed income securities are described in the next section below. Further information is provided in the SAI.

Debt securities rated BBB- or higher by Standard & Poor’s, or Baa3 or higher by Moody’s or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO are considered “investment grade.” Securities rated BBB- or Baa3 are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. For the purpose of determining compliance with any credit rating requirement, the Fund assigns a security, at the time of purchase, the highest rating by an NRSRO if the security is rated by more than one NRSRO. Therefore, a security will be deemed to have met a rating requirement if it receives the minimum required rating from at least one such rating organization even though it has been rated below the minimum rating by one or more other rating organizations, or if unrated by such rating organizations, the security is determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

A security satisfies the Fund’s minimum rating requirement regardless of its relative ranking (for example, plus or minus) within a designated major rating category (for example, BBB or Baa). If a security satisfies the Fund’s minimum rating requirement at the time of purchase and is subsequently downgraded below that rating, the Fund will not be required to dispose of the security. If a downgrade occurs, the Investment Adviser will consider which action, including the sale of the security, is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

The Fund may invest in fixed income securities rated BB+ or Ba1 or below (or comparable unrated securities) which are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Junk bonds are considered speculative and may be questionable as to principal and interest payments.

In some cases, junk bonds may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will present greater speculative risks than those associated with investment in investment grade bonds. Also, to the extent that the rating assigned to a security in the Fund’s portfolio is downgraded by a rating organization, the market price and liquidity of such security may be adversely affected.

Risks of Investing in Mid-Capitalization and Small-Capitalization Companies.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in mid- and small-capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies involve greater risk and portfolio price volatility than investments in larger capitalization stocks. Among the reasons for the greater price volatility of these investments are the less certain growth prospects of smaller firms and the lower degree of liquidity in the markets for such securities. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded and may have to be sold at a discount from current market prices or in small lots over an extended period of time. In addition, these securities are subject to the risk that during certain periods the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities in particular investment categories, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Mid- and small-capitalization companies include “unseasoned” issuers that do not have an established financial history; often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources; may depend on or use a few key personnel for management; and may be susceptible to losses and risks of bankruptcy. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be operating at a loss or have significant variations in operating results; may be engaged in a rapidly changing business with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence; may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition. In addition, these companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities, and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies may be more difficult to price precisely than other types of securities because of their characteristics and lower trading volumes.

Risks of Large Shareholder Redemptions.  Certain funds, accounts, individuals or Goldman Sachs affiliates may from time to time own (beneficially or of record) or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these funds, accounts or individuals of their holdings in the Fund may impact the Fund’s liquidity and NAV. These redemptions may also force the Fund to sell securities, which may negatively impact the Fund’s brokerage and tax costs.

 

41


APPENDIX A

 

Temporary Investment Risks.  The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest a certain percentage of its total assets in:

   

U.S. Government Securities

   

Commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s; P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality)

   

Certificates of deposit

   

Bankers’ acceptances

   

Repurchase agreements

   

Non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year

   

ETFs

   

Other investment companies

   

Cash items

When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

 

  C.    Portfolio Securities and Techniques     

This section provides further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks.

The Fund may purchase other types of securities or instruments similar to those described in this section if otherwise consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Further information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request.

Convertible Securities.  The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are preferred stock or debt obligations that are convertible into common stock. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than nonconvertible securities of similar quality. Convertible securities have both equity and fixed income risk characteristics. Like all fixed income securities, the value of convertible securities is susceptible to the risk of market losses attributable to changes in interest rates. Generally, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. However, when the market price of the common stock underlying a convertible security exceeds the conversion price of the convertible security, the convertible security tends to reflect the market price of the underlying common stock. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the convertible security, like a fixed income security, tends to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and thus may not decline in price to the same extent as the underlying common stock.

Foreign Currency Transactions.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase or sell foreign currencies on a cash basis or through forward contracts. A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract. The Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark.

The Fund may also engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in a currency different from that in which the hedged security is denominated or quoted. The Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments in foreign securities when, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. dollars at a later date (e.g., the Investment Adviser may anticipate the foreign currency to appreciate against the U.S. dollar).

The Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between the Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time, causing, along with other factors, the Fund’s NAV to fluctuate (when the Fund’s NAV fluctuates, the value of your shares may go up or down). Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

 

42


Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. The market in such forward foreign currency exchange contracts, currency swaps and other privately negotiated currency instruments offers less protection against defaults by the other party to such instruments than is available for currency instruments traded on an exchange. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or could force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price.

The Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, the Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with certain transactions). Where the Fund’s counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

Structured Securities.  The Fund may invest in structured securities. Structured securities are securities whose value is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, securities, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relative change in two or more References. Investments in structured securities may provide exposure to certain securities or markets in situations where regulatory or other restrictions prevent direct investments in such issuers or markets.

The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rates or the value of the security at maturity may be a multiple of changes in the value of the Reference, effectively leveraging the Fund’s investments so that small changes in the value of the Reference may result in disproportionate gains or losses to the Fund. Consequently, structured securities may present a greater degree of market risk than many types of securities and may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities. Structured securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer of the structured securities may fail to perform its contractual obligations. Certain issuers of structured products may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investments in structured securities may be subject to the limits applicable to investments in other investment companies.

Structured securities are considered hybrid instruments because they are derivative instruments the value of which depends on, or is derived from or linked to, the value of an underlying asset, interest rate index or commodity. Commodity-linked notes are hybrid instruments because the principal and/or interest payments on those notes is linked to the value of the individual commodities, futures contracts or the performance of one or more commodity indices.

Structured securities include, but are not limited to, equity linked notes. An equity linked note is a note whose performance is tied to a single stock, a stock index or a basket of stocks. Equity linked notes combine the principal protection normally associated with fixed income investments with the potential for capital appreciation normally associated with equity investments. Upon the maturity of the note, the holder generally receives a return of principal based on the capital appreciation of the linked securities. Depending on the terms of the note, equity linked notes may also have a “cap” or “floor” on the maximum principal amount to be repaid to holders, irrespective of the performance of the underlying linked securities. For example, a note may guarantee the repayment of the original principal amount invested (even if the underlying linked securities have negative performance during the note’s term), but may cap the maximum payment at maturity at a certain percentage of the issuance price or the return of the underlying linked securities. Alternatively, the note may not guarantee a full return on the original principal, but may offer a greater participation in any capital appreciation of the underlying linked securities. The terms of an equity linked note may also provide for periodic interest payments to holders at either a fixed or floating rate. The secondary market for equity linked notes may be limited, and the lack of liquidity in the secondary market may make these securities difficult to dispose of and to value. Equity linked notes will be considered equity securities for purposes of the Fund’s investment objective and policies.

REITs.  The Fund may invest in REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles that invest primarily in either real estate or real estate related loans. The value of a REIT is affected by changes in the value of the properties owned by the REIT or securing mortgage loans held by the REIT. REITs are dependent upon the ability of the REITs’ managers, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers and the qualification of the REITs under applicable regulatory requirements for favorable income tax treatment. REITs are also subject to risks generally associated with investments in real estate including possible declines in the value of real estate, general and local economic conditions, environmental problems and changes in interest rates. To the extent that assets underlying a REIT are concentrated geographically, by property type or in certain other respects, these

 

43


APPENDIX A

 

risks may be heightened. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses, including management fees, paid by a REIT in which it invests.

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.  A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying instrument during the option period. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying instrument during the option period. The Fund may write (sell) call and put options and purchase call and put options, on any securities and other instruments in which it may invest or any index consisting of securities or other instruments in which it may invest. The Fund may also, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and write (sell) put and call options on foreign currencies.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves special investment risks. Options may be used for either hedging or cross-hedging purposes, or to seek to increase total return (which presents additional risk). The successful use of options depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to anticipate future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in market prices or determination of the correlation between the instruments or indices on which options are written and purchased and the instruments in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The use of options can also increase the Fund’s transaction costs. Options written or purchased by the Fund may be traded on either U.S. or foreign exchanges or over the counter. Foreign and over-the-counter options will present greater possibility of loss because of their greater illiquidity and credit risks.

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts.  Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of a specified financial instrument or currency at a future time at a specified price. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. A swap on a futures contract provides an investor with the ability to gain economic exposure to a particular futures market. A futures contract may be based on particular securities, foreign currencies, securities indices and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund may engage in futures transactions on both U.S. and foreign exchanges.

The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and sell futures contracts, and purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts and enter into swaps on futures contracts, in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selections and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts and related options and swaps present the following risks:

   

While the Fund may benefit from the use of futures and options and swaps on futures, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in poorer overall performance than if the Fund had not entered into any futures contracts, options transactions or swaps.

   

Because perfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position that is intended to be protected is impossible to achieve, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss.

   

The loss incurred by the Fund in entering into futures contracts and in writing call options and entering into swaps on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received.

   

Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

   

As a result of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund.

   

Futures contracts and options and swaps on futures may be illiquid, and exchanges may limit fluctuations in futures contract prices during a single day.

   

Foreign exchanges may not provide the same protection as U.S. exchanges.

Equity Swaps.  The Fund may invest in equity swaps. Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.

The value of swaps can be very volatile. To the extent that the Investment Adviser does not accurately analyze and predict the potential relative fluctuation of the components swapped with another party, or the creditworthiness of the counterparty, the Fund

 

44


may suffer a loss, which may be substantial. The value of some components of a swap (such as the dividends on a common stock) may also be sensitive to changes in interest rates. Furthermore, swaps may be illiquid, and the Fund may be unable to terminate its obligations when desired.

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing. Although central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely.

Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Index Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars.  The Fund may enter into swap transactions and option agreements, including interest rate caps, floors and collars. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, such as an exchange of fixed-rate payments for floating rate payments. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Credit swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security or pool of securities. Credit swaps give one party to a transaction (the buyer of the credit swap) the right to dispose of or acquire an asset (or group of assets or exposure to the performance of an index), or the right to receive a payment from the other party, upon the occurrence of specified credit events. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Total return swaps give a party the right to receive the appreciation in the value of a specified security, index or other instrument in return for a fee paid to the counterparty, which will typically be based on an agreed upon interest rate. If the underlying asset in a total return swap declines in value over the term of the swap, the party may also be required to pay the dollar value of that decline to the counterparty. Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.

The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than the Fund incurs in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

The Fund may enter into the transactions described above for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. As an example, when the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (commonly known as buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit default swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

When the Fund writes (sells) credit swaps on individual securities or instruments, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps while the positions are open.

The use of interest rate, mortgage, credit, currency, index, total return and equity swaps, options on swaps, and interest rate caps, floors and collars is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates and currency exchange rates, or in its evaluation of the creditworthiness of swap counterparties and the issuers of the underlying assets, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used.

 

45


APPENDIX A

 

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange trading. Although central clearing and exchange trading is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing and exchange trading does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. Depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral, uncleared swap. However, certain applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps which may result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher amounts for uncleared swaps.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments.  The Fund may purchase when-issued securities and make contracts to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time. When-issued securities are securities that have been authorized, but not yet issued. When-issued securities are purchased in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price and yield to the Fund at the time of entering into the transaction. A forward commitment involves the entering into a contract to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond the customary settlement period.

The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines before the settlement date. Conversely, the sale of securities on a forward commitment basis involves the risk that the value of the securities sold may increase before the settlement date. Although the Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis with the intention of acquiring the securities for its portfolio, the Fund may dispose of when-issued securities or forward commitments prior to settlement if the Investment Adviser deems it appropriate. When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis or entering into a forward commitment, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligations.

Repurchase Agreements.  Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of securities subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligation. The collateral may consist of any type of security (government or corporate) of any or no credit rating. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities may be subject to additional risks.

If the other party or “seller” defaults, the Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund are less than the repurchase price and the Fund’s costs associated with delay and enforcement of the repurchase agreement. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of the seller, the Fund could suffer additional losses if a court determines that the Fund’s interest in the collateral is not enforceable.

Lending of Portfolio Securities.  The Fund may engage in securities lending. Securities lending involves the lending of securities owned by the Fund to financial institutions such as certain broker-dealers including, as permitted by the SEC, Goldman Sachs. The borrowers are required to secure their loans continuously with cash, cash equivalents, U.S. Government Securities or letters of credit in an amount at least equal to the market value of the securities loaned. Cash collateral may be invested by the Fund in short-term investments, including registered and unregistered investment pools managed by the Investment Adviser, its affiliates or the Fund’s custodian and from which the Investment Adviser or its affiliates may receive fees. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund will be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the borrowers’ collateral. If the Investment Adviser determines to make securities loans, the value of the securities loaned may not exceed 3313% of the value of the total assets of the Fund (including the loan collateral). Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations described elsewhere in the Prospectus regarding investments in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

The Fund may lend its securities to increase its income. The Fund may, however, experience delay in the recovery of its securities or incur a loss if the institution with which it has engaged in a portfolio loan transaction breaches its agreement with the Fund or its agent, or becomes insolvent.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights.  The Fund may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (or “rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default or other non-compliance by the issuer of the preferred stock.

 

46


Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant or right. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Other Investment Companies.  The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Investment Company Act, or exemptive relief thereunder. These statutory limitations include in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds to invest in the ETFs’ shares beyond these statutory limitations, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to a contractual arrangement between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders to invest in unaffiliated ETFs.

The use of ETFs is intended to help the Fund match the total return of the particular market segments or indices represented by those ETFs, although that may not be the result. Most ETFs are passively-managed investment companies whose shares are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. In addition, an ETF may fail to accurately track the market segment or index that underlies its investment objective. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. Moreover, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or a discount to their NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of an ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged.

Subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in certain other investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, beyond the statutory limits described above or otherwise. Some of those investment companies may be funds for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator or distributor.

The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by such other investment companies, in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

Unseasoned Companies.  The Fund may invest in companies which (together with their predecessors) have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Corporate Debt Obligations.  Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures, commercial paper and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. The Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations issued by U.S. and certain non-U.S. issuers which issue securities denominated in the U.S. dollar (including Yankee and Euro obligations). In addition to obligations of corporations, corporate debt obligations include securities issued by banks and other financial institutions and supranational entities (i.e., the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, etc.).

Bank Obligations.  The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulations. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

U.S. Government Securities.  The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. U.S. Government Securities include U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may be supported by (i) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; (ii) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (iii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the

 

47


APPENDIX A

 

issuer; or (iv) only the credit of the issuer. U.S. Government Securities also include Treasury receipts, zero coupon bonds and other stripped U.S. Government Securities, where the interest and principal components are traded independently. U.S. Government Securities may also include Treasury inflation-protected securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation.

U.S. Government Securities are deemed to include (i) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, its agencies, authorities or instrumentalities; and (ii) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed. Certain of these participations may be regarded as illiquid.

U.S. Treasury Securities, which are securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury where the payment of principal and interest is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, have historically involved little risk of loss of principal if held to maturity. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will be able or willing to repay the principal or interest when due, or provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises that issue U.S. Government Securities if it is not obligated to do so by law.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates.  The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. If for tax purposes the Fund is not considered to be the owner of the underlying securities held in the custodial or trust account, the Fund may suffer adverse tax consequences. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Borrowings.  The Fund can borrow money from banks and other financial institutions in amounts not exceeding one-third of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), for temporary or emergency purposes.

Downgraded Securities.  After its purchase, a portfolio security may be assigned a lower rating or cease to be rated, which may affect the market value and liquidity of the security. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Asset Segregation.  As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual “netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where the Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party FCM or other counterparty to off-set the Fund’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the Investment Company Act and SEC or SEC staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

 

48


 

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 

Because the Fund had not commenced investment operations as of the end of the Fund’s fiscal year, financial highlights are not available.

 

49


 

Appendix C

Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts

 

The availability of certain sales charge variations, waivers and discounts will depend on whether you purchase your shares directly from the Fund or through an Intermediary. Intermediaries may impose different sales charges and have unique policies and procedures regarding the availability of sales charge waivers and/or discounts (including based on account type), which differ from those described in the Prospectus and are disclosed below. All sales charges and sales charge variations, waivers and discounts available to investors, other than those set forth below, are described in the Prospectus. To the extent an Intermediary notifies the Investment Adviser or Distributor of its intention to impose sales charges or have sales charge waivers and/or discounts that differ from those described in the Prospectus, such information provided by that Intermediary will be disclosed in this Appendix.

In all instances, it is your responsibility to notify your Intermediary at the time of purchase of any relationship or other facts qualifying you for sales charge waivers or discounts. Please contact your Intermediary with questions regarding your eligibility for applicable sales charge variations, waivers and discounts or for additional information regarding your Intermediary’s policies for implementing particular sales charge variations, waivers and discounts. For waivers and discounts not available through a particular Intermediary, shareholders will have to purchase shares directly from the Fund or through another Intermediary to receive these waivers or discounts.

In addition to different sales charge variations, waivers and discounts, Intermediaries may have different share class exchange privileges that vary from those described in the Prospectus. You should contact your Intermediary to understand the exchange privileges available to you.

The information provided below for a particular Intermediary is reproduced based on information provided by that Intermediary. An Intermediary’s administration and implementation of its particular policies with respect to any variations, waivers and/or discounts is neither supervised nor verified by the Fund, the Investment Adviser or the Distributor.

 

  MERRILL LYNCH     

Shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Merrill Lynch platform or account are eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Load Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Merrill Lynch

   

Employer-sponsored retirement, deferred compensation and employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) and trusts used to fund those plans, provided that the shares are not held in a commission-based brokerage account and shares are held for the benefit of the plan

   

Shares purchased by a 529 Plan (does not include 529 Plan units or 529-specific share classes or equivalents)

   

Shares purchased through a Merrill Lynch affiliated investment advisory program

   

Shares exchanged due to the holdings moving from a Merrill Lynch affiliated investment advisory program to a Merrill Lynch brokerage (non-advisory) account pursuant to Merrill Lynch’s policies relating to sales load discounts

   

Shares purchased by third party investment advisors on behalf of their advisory clients through Merrill Lynch’s platform

   

Shares of funds purchased through the Merrill Edge Self-Directed platform (if applicable)

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment when purchasing shares of the same fund (but not any other fund within the fund family)

   

Shares exchanged from Class C (i.e., level-load) shares of the same fund pursuant to Merrill Lynch’s policies relating to sales load discounts and waivers

   

Employees and registered representatives of Merrill Lynch or its affiliates and their family members

   

Directors or Trustees of the Fund, and employees of the Fund’s investment adviser or any of its affiliates, as described in the prospectus

   

Eligible shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (known as Rights of Reinstatement). Automated transactions (i.e. systematic purchases and withdrawals) and purchases made after shares are automatically sold to pay Merrill Lynch’s account maintenance fees are not eligible for reinstatement

 

50


CDSC Waivers on Class A and Class C Shares Available at Merrill Lynch

   

Death or disability of the shareholder

   

Shares sold as part of a systematic withdrawal plan as described in the Fund’s prospectus

   

Return of excess contributions from an IRA Account

   

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and retirement accounts pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code

   

Shares sold to pay Merrill Lynch fees but only if the transaction is initiated by Merrill Lynch

   

Shares acquired through a right of reinstatement

   

Shares held in retirement brokerage accounts, that are exchanged for a lower cost share class due to transfer to certain fee based accounts or platforms (applicable to A and C shares only)

Front-End Load Discounts Available at Merrill Lynch: Rights of Accumulation & Letters of Intent

   

Breakpoints as described in this prospectus

   

Rights of Accumulation (ROA) which entitle shareholders to breakpoint discounts as described in the Fund’s prospectus will be automatically calculated based on the aggregated holding of fund family assets held by accounts (including 529 program holdings, where applicable) within the purchaser’s household at Merrill Lynch. Eligible fund family assets not held at Merrill Lynch may be included in the ROA calculation only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets

   

Letters of Intent (LOI) which allow for breakpoint discounts based on anticipated purchases within a fund family, through Merrill Lynch, over a 13-month period of time (if applicable)

 

  AMERIPRISE FINANCIAL     

Effective June 30, 2018, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through an Ameriprise Financial platform or account will be eligible only for the following front-end sales charge waivers and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Charge Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Ameriprise Financial

   

Employer-sponsored retirement plans (e.g., 401(k) plans, 457 plans, employer-sponsored 403(b) plans, profit sharing and money purchase pension plans and defined benefit plans). For purposes of this provision, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, Simple IRAs or SAR-SEPs.

   

Shares purchased through an Ameriprise Financial investment advisory program (if an Advisory or similar share class for such investment advisory program is not available).

   

Shares purchased by third party investment advisors on behalf of their advisory clients through Ameriprise Financial’s platform (if an Advisory or similar share class for such investment advisory program is not available).

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment when purchasing shares of the same Fund (but not any other fund within the same fund family).

   

Shares exchanged from Class C shares of the same fund in the month of or following the 10-year anniversary of the purchase date. To the extent that this prospectus elsewhere provides for a waiver with respect to such shares following a shorter holding period, that waiver will apply to exchanges following such shorter period. To the extent that this prospectus elsewhere provides for a waiver with respect to exchanges of Class C shares for load waived shares, that waiver will also apply to such exchanges.

   

Employees and registered representatives of Ameriprise Financial or its affiliates and their immediate family members.

   

Shares purchased by or through qualified accounts (including IRAs, Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, 401(k)s, 403(b) TSCAs subject to ERISA and defined benefit plans) that are held by a covered family member, defined as an Ameriprise financial advisor and/or the advisor’s spouse, advisor’s lineal ascendant (mother, father, grandmother, grandfather, great grandmother, great grandfather), advisor’s lineal descendant (son, step-son, daughter, step-daughter, grandson, granddaughter, great grandson, great granddaughter) or any spouse of a covered family member who is a lineal descendant.

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (i.e., Rights of Reinstatement).

 

  MORGAN STANLEY WEALTH MANAGEMENT     

Effective July 1, 2018, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Morgan Stanley Wealth Management transactional brokerage account will be eligible only for the following front-end sales charge waivers with respect to Class A shares, which may differ from and may be more limited than those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s Prospectus or SAI.

 

51


APPENDIX C

 

Front-End Sales Charge Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Morgan Stanley Wealth Management

   

Employer-sponsored retirement plans (e.g., 401(k) plans, 457 plans, employer-sponsored 403(b) plans, profit sharing and money purchase pension plans and defined benefit plans). For purposes of this provision, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, Simple IRAs, SAR-SEPs or Keogh plans

   

Morgan Stanley employee and employee-related accounts according to Morgan Stanley’s account linking rules

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends and capital gains distributions when purchasing shares of the same fund

   

Shares purchased through a Morgan Stanley self-directed brokerage account

   

Class C (i.e., level-load) shares that are no longer subject to a contingent deferred sales charge and are converted to Class A shares of the same fund pursuant to Morgan Stanley Wealth Management’s share class conversion program

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (i) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (ii) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (iii) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales charge.

 

  RAYMOND JAMES & ASSOCIATES, INC., RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC. AND EACH ENTITY’S AFFILIATES (“RAYMOND JAMES”)     

Effective March 1, 2019, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Raymond James platform or account, or through an introducing broker-dealer or independent registered investment adviser for which Raymond James provides trade execution, clearance, and/or custody services, will be eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s Prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Load Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Raymond James

   

Shares purchased in an investment advisory program.

   

Shares purchased within the same fund family through a systematic reinvestment of capital gains and dividend distributions.

   

Employees and registered representatives of Raymond James or its affiliates and their family members as designated by Raymond James.

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (known as Rights of Reinstatement).

   

A Shareholder in the Fund’s Class C shares will have their shares converted at net asset value to Class A shares (or the appropriate share class) of the Fund if the shares are no longer subject to a CDSC and the conversion is in line with the policies and procedures of Raymond James.

CDSC Waivers on Class A and Class C Shares Available at Raymond James

   

Death or disability of the shareholder.

   

Shares sold as part of a systematic withdrawal plan as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Return of excess contributions from an IRA Account.

   

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and retirement accounts due to the shareholder reaching the qualified age based on applicable IRS regulations as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Shares sold to pay Raymond James fees but only if the transaction is initiated by Raymond James.

   

Shares acquired through a Right of Reinstatement.

Front-End Load Discounts Available at Raymond James: Breakpoints, Rights of Accumulation, and/or Letters of Intent

   

Breakpoints as described in this Prospectus.

   

Rights of accumulation which entitle shareholders to breakpoint discounts will be automatically calculated based on the aggregated holding of fund family assets held by accounts within the purchaser’s household at Raymond James. Eligible fund family assets not held at Raymond James may be included in the calculation of rights of accumulation only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets.

   

Letters of intent which allow for breakpoint discounts based on anticipated purchases within a fund family, over a 13-month time period. Eligible fund family assets not held at Raymond James may be included in the calculation of letters of intent only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets.

 

52


  JANNEY MONTGOMERY SCOTT LLC     

Effective May 1, 2020, if you purchase Fund shares through a Janney Montgomery Scott LLC (“Janney”) brokerage account, you will be eligible for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”), or back-end sales charge, waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in the Fund’s Prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Charge* Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Janney

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment when purchasing shares of the same fund (but not any other fund within the fund family).

   

Shares purchased by employees and registered representatives of Janney or its affiliates and their family members as designated by Janney.

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within ninety (90) days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (i.e., right of reinstatement).

   

Employer-sponsored retirement plans (e.g., 401(k) plans, 457 plans, employer-sponsored 403(b) plans, profit sharing and money purchase pension plans and defined benefit plans). For purposes of this provision, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, Simple IRAs, SAR-SEPs or Keogh plans.

   

Shares acquired through a right of reinstatement.

   

Class C Shares that are no longer subject to a contingent deferred sales charge and are converted to Class A Shares of the same fund pursuant to Janney’s policies and procedures.

CDSC Waivers on Class A and C Shares Available at Janney

   

Shares sold upon the death or disability of the shareholder.

   

Shares sold as part of a systematic withdrawal plan as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Shares purchased in connection with a return of excess contributions from an IRA account.

   

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and other retirement accounts due to the shareholder reaching age 70½ as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Shares sold to pay Janney fees but only if the transaction is initiated by Janney.

   

Shares acquired through a right of reinstatement.

   

Shares exchanged into the same share class of a different fund.

Front-End Sales Charge* Discounts Available at Janney: Breakpoints, Rights of Accumulation, and/or Letters of Intent

   

Breakpoints as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Rights of accumulation (“ROA”), which entitle shareholders to breakpoint discounts, will be automatically calculated based on the aggregated holding of fund family assets held by accounts within the purchaser’s household at Janney. Eligible fund family assets not held at Janney may be included in the ROA calculation only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets.

   

Letters of intent which allow for breakpoint discounts based on anticipated purchases within a fund family, over a 13-month time period. Eligible fund family assets not held at Janney may be included in the calculation of letters of intent only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets.

 

  *

Also referred to as an “initial sales charge.”

 

  Edward D. Jones & Co.     

Sales Waivers and Reductions in Sales Charges

Effective on or after May 1, 2020, clients of Edward Jones (also referred to as “shareholders”) purchasing fund shares on the Edward Jones commission and fee-based platforms are eligible only for the following sales charge discounts (also referred to as “breakpoints”) and waivers, which can differ from breakpoints and waivers described elsewhere in the mutual fund prospectus or SAI or through another broker-dealer. In all instances, it is the shareholder’s responsibility to inform Edward Jones at the time of purchase of any relationship, holdings of Goldman Sachs Funds or other facts qualifying the purchaser for breakpoints or waivers. Edward Jones can ask for documentation of such circumstance.

 

53


APPENDIX C

 

Breakpoints

Rights of Accumulation (ROA)

   

The applicable sales charge on a purchase of Class A Shares is determined by taking into account all share classes (except any money market funds and retirement plan share classes) of Goldman Sachs Funds held by the shareholder or in an account grouped by Edward Jones with other accounts for the purpose of providing certain pricing considerations (“pricing groups”). This includes all share classes held on the Edward Jones platform and/or held on another platform. The inclusion of eligible fund family assets in the rights of accumulation calculation is dependent on the shareholder notifying his or her financial advisor of such assets at the time of calculation.

   

ROA is determined by calculating the higher of cost or market value (current shares x NAV).

Letter of Intent (LOI)

   

Through a LOI, shareholders can receive the sales charge and breakpoint discounts for purchases shareholders intend to make over a 13-month period from the date Edward Jones receives the LOI. The LOI is determined by calculating the higher of cost or market value of qualifying holdings at LOI initiation in combination with the value that the shareholder intends to buy over a 13-month period to calculate the front-end sales charge and any breakpoint discounts. Each purchase the shareholder makes during that 13-month period will receive the sales charge and breakpoint discount that applies to the total amount. The inclusion of eligible fund family assets in the LOI calculation is dependent on the shareholder notifying his or her financial advisor of such assets at the time of calculation. Purchases made before the LOI is received by Edward Jones are not covered under the LOI and will not reduce the sales charge previously paid. Sales charges will be adjusted if LOI is not met.

Sales Charge Waivers

Sales charges are waived for the following shareholders and in the following situations:

   

Associates of Edward Jones and its affiliates and their family members who are in the same pricing group (as determined by Edward Jones under its policies and procedures) as the associate. This waiver will continue for the remainder of the associate’s life if the associate retires from Edward Jones in good-standing.

   

Shares purchased in an Edward Jones fee-based program.

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment.

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redeemed shares of the same fund family so long as the following conditions are met: 1) the proceeds are from the sale of shares within 60 days of the purchase, and 2) the sale and purchase are made in the same share class and the same account or the purchase is made in an individual retirement account with proceeds from liquidations in a non-retirement account.

   

Shares exchanged into Class A Shares from another share class so long as the exchange is into the same fund and was initiated at the discretion of Edward Jones. Edward Jones is responsible for any remaining CDSC due to the fund company, if applicable. Any future purchases are subject to the applicable sales charge as disclosed in the prospectus.

   

Exchanges from Class C Shares to Class A Shares of the same fund, generally, in the 84th month following the anniversary of the purchase date or earlier at the discretion of Edward Jones.

Contingent Deferred Sales Charge (CDSC) Waivers

If the shareholder purchases shares that are subject to a CDSC and those shares are redeemed before the CDSC is expired, the shareholder is responsible to pay the CDSC except in the following conditions:

   

The death or disability of the shareholder

   

Systematic withdrawals with up to 10% per year of the account value

   

Return of excess contributions from an Individual Retirement Account (IRA)

   

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and retirement accounts if the redemption is taken in or after the year the shareholder reaches qualified age based on applicable IRS regulations

   

Shares sold to pay Edward Jones fees or costs in such cases where the transaction is initiated by Edward Jones

   

Shares exchanged in an Edward Jones fee-based program

   

Shares acquired through NAV reinstatement

Other Important Information related to Edward Jones

Minimum Purchase Amounts

   

$250 initial purchase minimum

   

$50 subsequent purchase minimum

 

54


Minimum Balances

   

Edward Jones has the right to redeem at its discretion fund holdings with a balance of $250 or less. The following are examples of accounts that are not included in this policy:

   

A fee-based account held on an Edward Jones platform

   

A 529 account held on an Edward Jones platform

   

An account with an active systematic investment plan or letter of intent (LOI)

Changing Share Classes

   

At any time it deems necessary, Edward Jones has the authority to change a share class to Class A shares of the same fund at NAV.

 

55


 

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund

Prospectus

 

  FOR MORE INFORMATION     

Annual/Semi-Annual Report

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information

Additional information about the Fund and its policies is also available in the Fund’s SAI. The SAI is incorporated by reference into the Prospectus (i.e., is legally considered part of the Prospectus).

The Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI are available free upon request by calling Goldman Sachs at 1-800-526-7384. You can also access and download the annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI at the Fund’s website: www.gsamfunds.com/mutualfunds.

From time to time, certain announcements and other information regarding the Fund may be found at http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements-ind for individual investors or http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements for advisers.

To obtain other information and for shareholder inquiries:

 

   Institutional & Class R6    Class A, C, Investor & R

  By telephone:

   1-800-621-2550    1-800-526-7384

  By mail:

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 06050

Chicago, IL 60606

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 219711

Kansas City, MO 64121

  On the Internet:

   SEC EDGAR database – http://www.sec.gov

Other information about the Fund is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov. You may obtain copies of this information, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

DEFEQTYPRO   

The Fund investment company registration number is 811-05349.

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

  LOGO


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus dated April 20 , 2020

Subject to Completion

 

Prospectus

 

GOLDMAN SACHS DEFENSIVE EQUITY FUND

 

 

[                ], 2020

 

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund

 

   

Class P Shares: [        ]

 

It is our intention that beginning on January 1, 2021, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will not be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. At any time, you may elect to receive reports and certain communications from the Fund electronically by calling the applicable toll-free number below or by contacting your financial intermediary.

You may elect to receive all future shareholder reports in paper free of charge. If you hold shares of the Fund directly with the Fund’s transfer agent, you can inform the transfer agent that you wish to receive paper copies of reports by calling toll-free 800-621-2550 for Institutional and Class R6 shareholders or 800-526-7384 for all other shareholders. If you hold shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary, please contact your financial intermediary to make this election. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all Goldman Sachs Funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary or all Goldman Sachs Funds held with the Fund’s transfer agent if you invest directly with the transfer agent.

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN THE FUND.

 

LOGO


Table of Contents

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund – Summary        1  
Investment Management Approach        5  
Risks of the Fund        9  
Service Providers        14  
Distributions        17  
Shareholder Guide        18  

How To Buy Shares

     18    

How To Sell Shares

     22    
Taxation        27  
Appendix A
Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques
       29  
Appendix B
Financial Highlights
       42  

 


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund—Summary

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund (the “Fund”) seeks long-term growth of capital with lower volatility than equity markets.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

 

     Class P         

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of your investment)    

Management Fees

    [    ]%    

Other Expenses1

    [    ]%          

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [    ]%    

Expense Limitation2

    ([    ])%          

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Expense Limitation

    [    ]%          

 

1 

The “Other Expenses” for Class P Shares have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred during the first fiscal year.

2 

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to [         ]% of the Fund’s average daily net assets through at least [                 ], and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

This Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in Class P Shares of the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Class P Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same (except that the Example incorporates the expense limitation arrangement for only the first year). Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

      1 Year      3 Years  

Class P Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  
     

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in the annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Strategy

The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) (“Net Assets”) in a diversified portfolio of equity investments. The Fund will typically invest in equity investments of U.S. issuers with public stock market capitalizations within the range of the market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index at the time of investment and other instruments with similar economic exposures as such issuers. The Fund will also employ an options-based overlay strategy (as described below) whereby the Fund simultaneously purchases near-the-money put options while selling (writing) out-of-the-money call and put options on the S&P 500® Index or other national or regional stock market indices (or exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that seek to track such indices). The Fund seeks to maintain risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the S&P 500® Index, while seeking to provide lower volatility and enhanced downside protection with the options-based overlay strategy.

The Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments. The Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of

 

1


the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Investment Adviser’s proprietary research.

The Fund constructs the options-based overlay by buying put options on the S&P 500® Index at a higher strike price and writing (or selling) put options on the same index at a relatively lower strike price, resulting in what is known as a put option spread, while simultaneously selling S&P 500® Index call options. The put option spread is designed to provide the Fund with downside protection, but may allow for some participation in equity drawdowns that exceed a simple long put position.

As the seller of call and put options, the Fund will receive cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the call option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. If the purchaser exercises the put option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the exercise price of the option and the price of the index. The premium, the exercise price and the market price of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of call and put options.

During periods in which the U.S. equity markets are falling, a diversified portfolio of equity investments, with an options-based overlay strategy designed to seek to provide downside protection, may outperform the same portfolio without such an options overlay strategy. However, in strong rising markets, a portfolio with an options-based overlay strategy could significantly underperform the same portfolio without these options.

In addition to the use of the options-based overlay strategy described above, the Fund may use futures contracts, primarily futures on indexes, options on futures, and total return swaps to more effectively gain targeted equity exposure, to equitize cash and to hedge the Fund’s portfolio if it is unable to purchase or write the necessary options for its overlay strategy. Derivative positions may be listed or over-the-counter (“OTC”) and may or may not be centrally cleared. The Fund’s investments in derivatives instruments are counted towards the Fund’s 80% investment policy to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the investments included in the policy.

The Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents (including money market funds) and U.S. Treasury Securities.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the S&P 500® Index.

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing. The Fund’s principal risks are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure.

Counterparty Risk.  Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearinghouse, might not be available in connection with over-the-counter (“OTC”) transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into uncleared OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses.

Derivatives Risk.  The Fund’s use of options, futures, swaps, and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligation. The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments.

Investment Style Risk.  Different investment styles (e.g., “growth,” “value” or “quantitative”) tend to shift in and out of favor depending upon market and economic conditions and investor sentiment. The Fund employs a “quantitative” style, and may outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment styles.

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk.  The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

Leverage Risk.  Borrowing and the use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet asset segregation requirements when it

 

2


may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

Management Risk.  A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results. The Investment Adviser attempts to execute a complex strategy for the Fund using proprietary quantitative models. Investments selected using these models may perform differently than expected as a result of the factors used in the models, the weight placed on each factor, changes from the factors’ historical trends, and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (including, for example, data problems and/or software issues). There is no guarantee that the Investment Adviser’s use of these quantitative models will result in effective investment decisions for the Fund. Additionally, commonality of holdings across quantitative money managers may amplify losses.

Market Risk.  The market value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets. Events such as war, acts of terrorism, social unrest, natural disasters, the spread of infectious illness or other public health threats could also significantly impact the Fund and its investments.

Options Risk.  Writing (selling) call options limits the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of stocks in exchange for up-front cash (the premium) at the time of selling the call options. Writing (selling) put options may obligate the Fund to buy a stock at a price that exceeds its market value. In addition, the Fund risks losing all or part of the cash (the premium) paid for purchasing put options. The Fund’s options-based overlay strategy may not fully protect it against market declines because the Fund will continue to bear the risk of a decline in the value of its portfolio securities. Furthermore, unusual market conditions or the lack of a ready market for any particular option at a particular time may reduce the effectiveness of the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Swaps Risk.  In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on the “notional amount” of predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. Swaps can involve greater risks than direct investment in securities, because swaps may be leveraged and subject to counterparty risk (e.g., the risk of a counterparty’s defaulting on the obligation or bankruptcy), credit risk and pricing risk (i.e., swaps may be difficult to value). Swaps may also be considered illiquid. It may not be possible for the Fund to liquidate a swap position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

U.S. Government Securities Risk.  The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by those agencies, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including any legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Performance

Because the Fund had not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at https://www.gsam.com/content/dam/gsam/pdfs/us/en/fund-resources/monthly-highlights/retail-fund-facts.pdf?sa=n&rd=n or by calling the phone number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers:  Federico Gilly, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since 2020, and Matthew Schwab, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since 2020.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund does not impose minimum purchase requirements for initial or subsequent investments in Class P Shares.

You may purchase and redeem (sell) Class P Shares of the Fund on any business day through the Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management business unit, The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A., The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware, The Ayco Company, L.P. or with certain intermediaries that are authorized to offer Class P Shares.

 

3


Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through an intermediary that is authorized to offer Class P Shares, the Fund and/or its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your intermediary’s website for more information.

 

4


 

 

Investment Management Approach

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE     

The Fund seeks long-term growth of capital with lower volatility than equity markets. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ notice.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES     

The Fund seeks to maintain risk, style, and capitalization characteristics similar to the S&P 500® Index, while seeking to provide lower volatility and enhanced downside protection with an options-based overlay strategy (as described below). The Fund uses a variety of quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, when selecting investments.

Equity Investments

The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments. The Fund’s investments in derivatives instruments are counted towards the Fund’s 80% investment policy to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the investments included in the policy. The Fund will typically invest in U.S. issuers with public stock market capitalizations within the range of the market capitalization of the S&P 500® Index at the time of investment and other instruments with similar economic exposures as such issuers. Shareholders will be provided with sixty days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the SEC before any change in the Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its Net Assets in the particular type of investment suggested by its name.

The Fund’s primary benchmark index is the S&P 500® Index. The S&P 500® Index is the Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Price Index of 500 stocks, an unmanaged index of common stock prices.

Options-Based Overlay Strategy

The Fund will employ an options-based overlay strategy whereby the Fund simultaneously purchases near-the-money put options while selling (writing) out-of-the-money call and put options on the S&P 500® Index or other national or regional stock market indices (or ETFs that seek to track such indices).

Other

The Fund may use futures contracts, primarily futures on indexes, options on futures, and total return swaps to more effectively gain targeted equity exposure, to equitize cash and to hedge the Fund’s portfolio if it is unable to purchase or write the necessary options for its overlay strategy. Derivative positions may be listed or over-the-counter (“OTC”) and may or may not be centrally cleared. The Fund’s investments in derivatives instruments are counted towards the Fund’s 80% investment policy to the extent they have economic characteristics similar to the investments included in the policy.

The Fund’s investments in fixed income securities are limited to cash equivalents (including money market funds) and U.S. Treasury Securities.

I.  Stock Selection and Portfolio Construction

The Fund seeks to maintain an equity portfolio that will produce a gross return similar to that of the S&P 500® Index. In addition, the Fund will also employ an options-based overlay strategy. Because of the impact of the options-based overlay strategy, the returns of the Fund are not expected to closely track the S&P 500® Index, even if the returns of the portfolio securities held by the Fund resemble the returns of the S&P 500® Index. In addition, the returns of the Fund may trail the returns of the S&P 500® Index for short or extended periods of time.

II.  Options-Based Overlay Strategy

The Fund constructs the options-based overlay by buying put options on the S&P 500® Index at a higher strike price and writing (or selling) put options on the same index at a relatively lower strike price, resulting in what is known as a put option spread, while simultaneously selling S&P 500® Index call options. The put option spread is designed to provide the Fund with downside protection, but may allow for some participation in equity drawdowns that exceed a simple long put position. Although the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy is designed to provide the Fund with downside protection, the overlay strategy limits some upside potential. The volatility of the Fund’s portfolio is also expected to be reduced by the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy.

 

5


                        INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

As the seller of call and put options, the Fund will receive cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. If the purchaser does not exercise the options, the Fund retains the premium and makes no payments to the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the call option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. If the purchaser exercises the put option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the exercise price of the option and the price of the index. The premium, the exercise price and the market price of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of call and put options. The Fund can also repurchase the options prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund.

During periods in which the U.S. equity markets are generally unchanged or falling, a diversified portfolio of equity investments, with an options-based overlay strategy designed to seek to provide downside protection, may outperform the same portfolio without such an options overlay strategy. However, in strong rising markets, a portfolio with an options-based overlay strategy could significantly underperform the same portfolio without these options.

Options writing, however, entails certain risks. For more information, see “Risks of the Fund” and “Appendix A—Other Portfolio Risks—Risks of Writing Index Call Options.”

III.  GSAM’s Quantitative Investment Approach

The Investment Adviser will use proprietary quantitative techniques, in combination with a qualitative overlay, in constructing the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy. As a result of the qualitative overlay, the Fund’s investments may not correspond to those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models. The Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser’s proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser for a number of reasons including, but not limited to, corporate actions (e.g., reorganizations, mergers and buyouts), industry events and/or trading liquidity. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Investment Adviser’s proprietary research.

References in the Prospectus to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only, and unless otherwise noted are not an indication of how the Fund is managed.

 

  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

Although the Fund’s principal investment strategies are described in the Fund’s Summary—Principal Strategy section of the Prospectus, the following tables identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Numbers in these tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Fund’s annual/semi-annual reports. For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A.

The Fund intends to publish on its website (http://www.gsamfunds.com) complete portfolio holdings for the Fund as of the end of each fiscal quarter subject to a 60 calendar-day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. The Fund may, however, at its discretion, publish its holdings earlier than 60 calendar days, if deemed necessary by the Fund. In addition, the Fund currently intends to publish on its website quarter-end top ten holdings subject to a fifteen calendar day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. In addition, a description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI.

 

6


10   Percent of total assets (including securities lending collateral) (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage; limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund

 

                          
    

Defensive

Equity

Fund

Investment Practices  

Borrowings

  3313

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

 

Equity Swaps

 

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts

 

Illiquid Investments*

  15

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs)1

  10

Options on Securities and Securities Indices

 

Options on Futures2

 

Preferred Stock

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

Securities Lending

  3313

Unseasoned Companies

 

Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

 

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

 
 

 

*

Illiquid investments are any investments that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.

1 

This percentage limitation does not apply to the Fund’s investments in investment companies (including ETFs) where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.

2 

The Fund may sell call and put options and purchase call and put options on securities and other instruments in which the Fund may invest or any index consisting of securities or other instruments in which it may invest.

 

7


                                                 INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (including borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage; limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
  Not permitted

 

                          
    

Defensive

Equity

Fund

Investment Securities  

American Depositary Receipts

 

Bank Obligations4

  20

Convertible Securities

 

Corporate Debt Obligations and Trust Preferred Securities4

  20

Equity Investments

  80+

Fixed Income Securities4

  20

Foreign Securities

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)

 

Structured Securities4,5

 

Temporary Investments

 

U.S. Government Securities4

 
 

 

4 

Limited by the amount the Fund invests in fixed income securities and limited to cash equivalents only.

5 

Structured securities are not subject to the same minimum credit quality requirements as the Fund’s investments in fixed income securities.

 

8


 

Risks of the Fund

 

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. The principal risks of the Fund are discussed in the summary section of the Prospectus. The following section provides additional information on the risks that apply to the Fund, which may result in a loss of your investment. The risks applicable to the Fund are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

 

 
  Principal risk
  Additional risk
 

 

                                                   
     Defensive
Equity
Fund

Counterparty

 

Credit/Default

 

Derivatives

 

Foreign

 

Investment Style

 

Large Shareholder Transactions

 

Leverage

 

Liquidity

 

Management

 

Market

 

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap

 

NAV

 

Options

 

Regulatory (Volcker Rule)

 

REIT

 

Stock

 

Swaps

 

U.S. Government Securities

 
 

 

 

Counterparty Risk—Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with certain OTC transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into certain OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses. However, recent regulatory developments require margin on certain uncleared OTC transactions which may reduce, but not eliminate, this risk. Because the Fund may trade with counterparties, prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser.

 

Credit/Default Risk— An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. The credit quality of the Fund’s portfolio securities or instruments may meet the Fund’s credit quality requirements at the time of purchase but then deteriorate thereafter, and such a deterioration can occur rapidly. In certain instances, the downgrading or default of a single holding or guarantor of the Fund’s holding may impair the Fund’s liquidity and have the potential to cause significant deterioration in net asset value (“NAV”). These risks are more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in non-investment grade fixed income securities.

 

Derivatives Risk—The Fund’s use of options, futures, swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations, liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and non-hedging purposes.

The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments, and there is no guarantee that the use of derivatives will achieve

 

9


                        RISKS OF THE FUND

 

their intended result. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuation in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables, the use of derivatives could result in losses, which in some cases may be significant. A lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivatives and the value of the Fund assets (if any) being hedged could also result in losses. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class. Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may in-crease the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. For more information about these practices, see Appendix A.

 

Foreign Risk—When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with U.S. issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquid, developed or efficient trading markets, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, foreign taxes, confiscation of assets and property, trade restrictions (including tariffs), expropriation and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. The Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization. The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Investment Style Risk—Different investment styles (e.g., “growth,” “value,” or “quantitative”) tend to shift in and out of favor depending upon market and economic conditions as well as investor sentiment. The Fund may outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment styles.

 

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk—The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders, such as other funds, institutional investors (including those trading by use of non-discretionary mathematical formulas), financial intermediaries (who may make investment decisions on behalf of underlying clients and/or include the Fund in their investment model), individuals, accounts and Goldman Sachs affiliates, purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable in-come to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

 

Leverage Risk—Leverage creates exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. Borrowing and the use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. Relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of a leveraged investment. The Fund will identify liquid assets on its books or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to such risk, to the extent required by applicable law. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet asset segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

 

Liquidity Risk—The Fund may invest to a greater degree in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, the Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price, the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities.

To the extent that the traditional dealer counterparties that engage in fixed income trading do not maintain inventories of bonds (which provide an important indication of their ability to “make markets”) that keep pace with the growth of the bond markets over time, relatively low levels of dealer inventories could lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income

 

10


markets. Additionally, market participants other than the Fund may attempt to sell fixed income holdings at the same time as the Fund, which could cause downward pricing pressure and contribute to decreased liquidity.

Funds that invest in small- and mid- capitalization stocks, REITs and/or emerging country issuers may be especially subject to the risk that during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within particular investment categories, may shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.

Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period or without significant dilution to remaining investors’ interests because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. While the Fund reserves the right to meet redemption requests through in-kind distributions, the Fund may instead choose to raise cash to meet redemption requests through sales of portfolio securities or permissible borrowings. If the Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV and dilute remaining investors’ interests. Redemptions by large shareholders may have a negative impact on the Fund’s liquidity.

Certain shareholders, including clients or affiliates of the Investment Adviser and/or other funds managed by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these shareholders of their shares of the Fund may further increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and may impact the Fund’s NAV. These shareholders may include, for example, institutional investors, funds of funds, discretionary advisory clients and other shareholders whose buy-sell decisions are controlled by a single decision-maker.

 

Management Risk—A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results. The Investment Adviser attempts to execute a complex strategy for the Fund using proprietary quantitative models. Investments selected using these models may perform differently than expected as a result of the factors used in the models, the weight placed on each factor, changes from the factors’ historical trends, the speed that market conditions change and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (including, for example, data problems and/or software issues). The use of proprietary quantitative models could be adversely impacted by unforeseeable software or hardware malfunction and other technological failures, power loss, software bugs, malicious code such as “worms,” viruses or system crashes or various other events or circumstances within or beyond the control of the Investment Adviser. Certain of these events or circumstances may be difficult to detect.

Models that have been formulated on the basis of past market data may not be predictive of future price movements. Models may not be reliable if unusual or disruptive events cause market movements, the nature or size of which are inconsistent with the historical performance of individual markets and their relationship to one another or to other macroeconomic events. Models also rely heavily on data that may be licensed from a variety of sources, and the functionality of the models depends, in part, on the accuracy of voluminous data inputs. There is no guarantee that the Investment Adviser’s use of these quantitative models will result in effective investment decisions for the Fund. Additionally, commonality of holdings across quantitative money managers may amplify losses.

 

Market Risk—The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. The Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sec-tors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, local, regional and global events such as war, acts of terrorism, social unrest, natural disasters, the spread of infectious illness or other public health threats could also adversely impact issuers, markets and economies, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. The Fund could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such political or economic conditions or events. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such conditions, events and actions may result in greater market risk.

 

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk—The securities of mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies, involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price. Both mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies often have narrower markets and more limited managerial and financial resources than larger, more established companies. As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of the Fund’s portfolio. Generally, the smaller the company size, the greater these risks become.

 

NAV Risk—The net asset value of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.

 

Options Risk—Writing (selling) call and put options limits the opportunity to profit from an increase (in the case of call options) or decrease (in the case of put options) in the market value of stocks in exchange for up-front cash at the time of selling the call and put

 

11


                        RISKS OF THE FUND

 

  options. When the Fund writes (sell) S&P 500® Index, (or other index call options), it receives cash but limits its opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the applicable index beyond the exercise price (plus the premium received) of the option. In a rising market, the Fund could significantly underperform the market. Although the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy is designed to protect the Fund against declines in the value of the market, it will only protect against declines to the extent of the difference between the strike prices of the put option purchased and the put option sold. Accordingly, you could lose money by investing in the Fund notwithstanding the options-based overlay strategy. Cash received from premiums will enhance return in declining markets, but the Fund will continue to bear the risk of a decline in the value of the securities held in its portfolio. The benefit from writing a call option is limited to the amount of premium received. Furthermore, unusual market conditions or the lack of a ready market for any particular option at a particular time may reduce the effectiveness of the Fund’s options-based overlay strategy.
 

Regulatory Risk (Volcker Rule)—Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the rules issued thereunder (also known as the “Volcker Rule”) prohibit banking entities, such as The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (“Goldman”) and its affiliates, including the Investment Adviser, from engaging in certain trading activities involving their own capital (also known as “proprietary trading”). These prohibitions may include certain restrictions on the extent to which Goldman and/or its affiliates may own shares of the Fund. If Goldman or its affiliates own 25% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund longer than three years from the Fund’s launch date, the Fund may be subject to these proprietary trading restrictions, which include restrictions on the ability to purchase and sell securities on a short term basis. As of the date of the Prospectus, Goldman and/or its affiliates own more than 25% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. Reducing the seed capital in the Fund to address these trading restrictions may prevent the Fund from pursuing its investment objective, may restrict the Fund’s activities and may prevent the Fund from retaining enough capital to engage in certain investment strategies, which could have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. In addition, if Goldman or its affiliates reduce their interest in the Fund, the Fund may be subject to transaction costs, losses and adverse tax consequences and may be forced to liquidate prematurely, among other things.

 

REIT Risk—Risks associated with investments such as REITs in the real estate industry include, among others: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; possible lack of availability of mortgage financing, variations in rental income, neighborhood values or the appeal of property to tenants; interest rates; overbuilding; extended vacancies of properties; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; and changes in zoning laws. Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. REITs whose underlying properties are concentrated in a particular industry or geographic region are also subject to risks affecting such industries and regions. The securities of REITs involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements because of interest rate changes, economic conditions and other factors. REITs may also fail to qualify for tax free pass-through of income or may fail to maintain their exemptions from investment company registration. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price.

 

Stock Risk—Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future. Stock prices may fluctuate from time to time in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Individual companies may report poor results or be negatively affected by industry and/or economic trends and developments, and the stock prices of such

 

Swaps Risk—The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The Fund’s transactions in swaps may be significant. These transactions can result in sizeable realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Fund’s direct investments in securities and short sales.

 

 

U.S. Government Securities Risk—The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issues by those agencies instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including any legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been operating under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Administration (“FHFA”) acting as their conservator, since September 2008. The entities are dependent upon the continued support of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and FHFA in order to continue their business operations. These factors, among others, could affect the future status and role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the value of their securities and the securities which they guarantee. Additionally, the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market values of their securities, which may fluctuate.

 

 

12


Transactions in swaps can involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in securities directly since, in addition to general market risks, swaps may be leveraged and subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also

may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if the Fund invests in cleared swaps, which are transacted through a FCM and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty. Because uncleared, bilateral swap agreements are two-party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and valued subjectively. Swaps may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

More information about the Fund’s portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

13


 

 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser   Fund

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM”)

 

Defensive Equity Fund

200 West Street

 

New York, NY 10282

   
 

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. As of December 31, 2019, GSAM, including its investment advisory affiliates, had assets under supervision of approximately $1.69 trillion.

The Investment Adviser provides day-to-day advice regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. The Investment Adviser makes the investment decisions for the Fund and places purchase and sale orders for the Fund’s portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants or other counterparties, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for the management of the Fund, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management with respect to certain portfolio securities. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to the research and certain proprietary technical models developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions), and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among categories of issuers and types of securities.

The Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Fund (to the extent not performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Fund):

   

Supervises all non-advisory operations of the Fund

   

Provides personnel to perform necessary executive, administrative and clerical services to the Fund

   

Arranges for the preparation of all required tax returns, reports to shareholders, prospectuses and statements of additional information and other reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities

   

Maintains the records of the Fund

   

Provides office space and all necessary office equipment and services

An investment in the Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. Although the Fund attempts to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or its affiliates may invest “seed” capital in the Fund. These investments are generally intended to enable the Fund to commence investment operations and achieve sufficient scale. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may hedge the exposure of the seed capital invested in the Fund by, among other things, taking an offsetting position in the benchmark of the Fund.

 

14


                        SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

  MANAGEMENT FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES     

As compensation for its services and its assumption of certain expenses, the Investment Adviser is entitled to the following fees, computed daily and payable monthly, at the annual rates listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets):

 

                                                                               
Fund  

Contractual

Management Fee

Annual Rate

 

Average Daily

Net Assets

Defensive Equity Fund

  [    ]   First $1 Billion
  [    ]   Next $1 Billion
  [    ]   Next $3 Billion
  [    ]   Next $3 Billion
    [    ]   Over $8 Billion
   

The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fees, including fees earned as the Investment Adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests, from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waivers in the future consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangements that may be in place.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s semi-annual report dated [                ].

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses,” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to [        ] of average daily net assets for the Fund, through at least [                ], and prior to such date the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The expense limitation may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.

 

  FUND MANAGERS     

Quantitative Investment Strategies (“QIS”) Team

The individuals primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are listed below. The Fund’s portfolio managers’ individual responsibilities may include, among other things, security selection, asset allocation, risk budgeting and general oversight of the management of the Fund’s portfolio.

 

Name and Title   Fund Responsibility   Years
Primarily
Responsible
  Five Year Employment History

Federico Gilly

Managing Director

  Portfolio Manager— Defensive Equity Fund   Since

2020

  Mr. Gilly is co-head of research, portfolio management and portfolio construction for the Alternative Investment Strategies team within GSAM’s Quantitative Investment Strategies platform. He joined Goldman Sachs in 2000.

Matthew Schwab

Managing Director

 

Portfolio Manager—

Defensive Equity Fund

  Since

2020

  Mr. Schwab is co-head of research, portfolio management and portfolio construction for the Alternative Investment Strategies team within GSAM’s Quantitative Investment Strategies platform. He joined Goldman Sachs in 2007.
     

For information about the portfolio managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities in the Fund, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR AND TRANSFER AGENT     

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, NY 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor (the “Distributor”) of the Fund’s shares. Goldman Sachs, 71 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, also serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) and, as such, performs various shareholder servicing functions.

[For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.03% of average daily net assets with respect to Class P Shares.]

 

15


From time to time, Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates may purchase and hold shares of the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates reserve the right to redeem at any time some or all of the shares acquired for their own accounts.

 

  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER
ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS
    

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs will present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund and will, under certain circumstances, limit the Fund’s investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates advise clients in all markets and transactions and purchase, sell, hold and recommend a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for their own accounts or for the accounts of their customers and have other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loans and other markets in which the Fund directly and indirectly invests. Thus, it is expected that the Fund will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates perform or seek to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affiliates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Fund. Although management fees paid by the Fund to the Investment Adviser and certain other fees paid to the Investment Adviser’s affiliates are based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and the Investment Adviser and its affiliates will still receive significant compensation from the Fund even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to that of the Fund and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Fund. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, will likely differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. In addition, the Fund may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or their other clients have an adverse interest. For example, the Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time that Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs-advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs-advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Fund. The Fund’s activities will, under certain circumstances, be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates also provide a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it are expected to create markets or specialize in, have positions in and/or effect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Fund, and will likely also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for one or more of those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates are expected to have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the section entitled “Potential Conflicts of Interest” in the SAI.

Under a securities lending program approved by the Fund’s Board of Trustees, the Fund has retained an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to serve as a securities lending agent for the Fund to the extent that the Fund engages in the securities lending program. For these services, the lending agent would receive a fee from the Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of the cash received as collateral for loaned securities. The Board of Trustees periodically reviews reports on portfolio securities loan transactions for which the affiliated lending agent has acted as lending agent. In addition, the Fund will, from time to time, make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions, in accordance with applicable law.

 

16


 

 

Distributions

 

The Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains. You may choose to have distributions paid in:

   

Cash

   

Additional shares of the same class of the Fund

   

Shares of the same or an equivalent class of another fund managed by the Investment Adviser and/or certain of its advisory affiliates (each, a “Goldman Sachs Fund”). Special restrictions may apply. See the SAI.

You may indicate your election on your account application. Any changes may be submitted in writing or via telephone, in some instances, to the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Intermediary) at any time before the record date for a particular distribution. If you do not indicate any choice, your distributions will be reinvested automatically in the Fund. Distributions from net investment income for the Fund, if any, are normally declared and paid quarterly and distributions from net capital gains, if any, are normally declared and paid annually for the Fund. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a distribution at a time when it is not normally made. If cash distributions are elected with respect to the Fund’s annual distributions from net investment income, then cash distributions must also be elected with respect to the net short-term capital gains component, if any, of the Fund’s distributions.

The election to reinvest distributions in additional shares will not affect the tax treatment of such distributions, which will be treated as received by you and then used to purchase the shares.

From time to time a portion of the Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

When you purchase shares of the Fund, part of the NAV per share may be represented by undistributed income and/or realized gains that have previously been earned by the Fund. Therefore, subsequent distributions on such shares from such income and/or realized gains may be taxable to you even if the NAV of the shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the cost of such shares and the distributions (or portions thereof) represent a return of a portion of the purchase price.

 

17


 

Shareholder Guide

 

The following section will provide you with answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding buying and selling the Fund’s shares.

 

Important Notice:

Class P Shares generally are available to the following investors:

   

Clients of the Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management business unit (“GS PWM”) that custody their positions at Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”);

   

Clients of The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. or The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware (collectively, the “Trust Companies”) that custody their positions at Goldman Sachs;

   

Clients of The Ayco Company, L.P. (“Ayco”) that either custody their positions at Goldman Sachs or with certain intermediaries that are authorized to offer Class P Shares (“Authorized Institutions”) (such clients of GS PWM, the Trust Companies, and Ayco are collectively referred to herein as “GS Clients”); or

   

Other investors at the discretion of Goldman Sachs Trust’s (the “Trust”) officers.

You may only purchase Class P Shares in accordance with the eligibility criteria described above. If you are a GS Client and propose to transfer your shares to another institution for any reason, or if you are no longer a GS Client, you may be required to redeem your shares of the Fund, or at the discretion of the Trust’s officers, you may be able hold Class P Shares through another institution, which must be an Authorized Institution and the basis on which you hold such Class P Shares may be limited to hold and redeem only. If available in such circumstances, in the alternative you may be able to choose to exchange your shares of the Fund for a different share class offered by the Fund or another Goldman Sachs Fund, which may be offered in another Prospectus. There is no guarantee that a different share class offered by the Fund will be available to clients of the institution to which you intend to transfer your shares or that an option to exchange will be made available. Moreover, the shares you receive in any exchange are subject to different (and possibly higher) fees and expenses (which affect performance). Information regarding these other share classes may be obtained from the institution to which you intend to transfer your shares or from the Transfer Agent by calling the number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

A redemption is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the potential tax consequences of investing in Class P Shares. None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption or exchange of Class P Shares. For more information about exchanges, please see “How to Sell Shares—Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund.”

 

  HOW TO BUY SHARES     

 

Shares Offering

Shares of the Fund are continuously offered through the Distributor. The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase shares and reserve the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?

If you are a GS Client, you may purchase shares of the Fund through Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, and Authorized Institutions have been authorized by the Trust to accept purchase, redemption or exchange orders on behalf of the Fund for GS Clients. In order to make an initial investment in the Fund you must furnish to Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution the information in the account application.

To open an account, contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, and Authorized Institutions will normally give order instructions on behalf of GS Clients to the Transfer Agent. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution, as applicable, is responsible for transmitting accepted orders and payments to the Transfer Agent within the time period agreed upon by them and will set times by which orders and

 

18


                        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

payments must be received by them from GS Clients. The Trust, Transfer Agent, Investment Adviser and their affiliates will not be responsible for any loss in connection with orders that are not transmitted to the Transfer Agent on a timely basis.

The Fund will be deemed to have received an order for purchase, redemption or exchange of Fund shares when the order is accepted in “proper form” by any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, on a business day, and the order will be priced at the Fund’s current NAV per share next determined after acceptance by any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable. Proper form generally means that specific trade details and customer identifying information must be received by the Transfer Agent at the time an order is submitted. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions may have different requirements regarding what constitutes proper form for trade instructions. Please contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution for more information.

What Is My Minimum Investment In The Fund?

No minimum amount is required for initial purchases or additional investments in Class P Shares.

What Should I Know When I Purchase Shares?

All recordkeeping, transaction processing and payments of distributions relating to your account will be performed by Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution, as applicable, and not by the Fund and its Transfer Agent. Since the Fund will have no record of your transactions, you should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution, as applicable, to purchase, redeem or exchange shares, to make changes in or give instructions concerning your account or to obtain information about your account. If you transfer your shares, the Trust reserves the right to redeem your shares. The Trust, the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and an Authorized Institution will not be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption.

Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, and Authorized Institutions that invest in shares on behalf of GS Clients may charge fees directly to the GS Clients’ accounts in connection with their investments. You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution for information regarding such charges, as these fees, if any, may affect the return that GS Clients realize with respect to their investments.

The services provided by each of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution may differ. Receipt of these services and the basis on which Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution compensates its registered representatives, advisors or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular registered representative, advisor or salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend the Fund based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution for more information about any potential conflicts of interest.

What Else Should I Know About Share Purchases?

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Require Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution to refuse to open an account if you fail to (i) provide a taxpayer identification number, a Social Security Number or other government-issued identification (e.g., for an individual, a driver’s license or passport) or (ii) certify that such number or other information is correct (if required to do so under applicable law).

   

Reject or restrict any purchase or exchange order by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) for any reason in its discretion. Without limiting the foregoing, the Trust may reject or restrict purchase and exchange orders by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) when a pattern of frequent purchases, sales or exchanges of shares of the Fund is evident, or if purchases, sales or exchanges are, or a subsequent redemption might be, of a size that would disrupt the management of the Fund.

   

Close the Fund to new investors from time to time and reopen any the Fund whenever it is deemed appropriate by the Investment Adviser.

   

Provide for, modify or waive the minimum investment requirements.

   

Modify the manner in which shares are offered.

   

Modify the sales charge rate applicable to future purchases of shares.

Shares of the Fund are only registered for sale in the United States and certain of its territories. Generally, shares of the Fund will only be offered or sold to “U.S. persons” and all offerings or other solicitation activities will be conducted within the United States, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”).

 

19


The Fund may allow you to purchase shares through Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution with securities instead of cash if consistent with the Fund’s investment policies and operations and approved by the Investment Adviser.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and any Authorized Institution reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies and Ayco will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders.

Please be advised that abandoned or unclaimed property laws for certain states (to which your account may be subject) require financial organizations to transfer (escheat) unclaimed property (including shares of the Fund) to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in an account for a period of time specified by state law. For IRA accounts escheated to a state under these abandoned property laws, the escheatment will generally be treated as a taxable distribution to you; federal and any applicable state income tax will be withheld. This may apply to your Roth IRA as well.

Customer Identification Program.  Federal law requires the Fund to obtain, verify and record identifying information for certain investors, which will be reviewed solely for customer identification purposes, which may include the name, residential or business street address, date of birth (for an individual), Social Security Number or taxpayer identification number or other information, for each investor who opens an account directly with the Fund. Applications without the required information may not be accepted by the Fund. Throughout the life of your account, the Fund may request updated identifying information in accordance with its Customer Identification Program. After accepting an application, to the extent permitted by applicable law or its Customer Identification Program, the Fund reserves the right to: (i) place limits on transactions in any account until the identity of the investor is verified; (ii) refuse an investment in the Fund; or (iii) involuntarily redeem an investor’s shares and close an account in the event that the Fund is unable to verify an investor’s identity or are unable to obtain all required information. The Fund and its agents will not be responsible for any loss or tax liability in an investor’s account resulting from the investor’s delay in providing all required information or from closing an account and redeeming an investor’s shares pursuant to its Customer Identification Program.

How Are Shares Priced?

The price you pay when you buy shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share after any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, has received and accepted your order in proper form. The price you receive when you sell shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share after any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, has received and accepted your order in proper form. Each class generally calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV  =  

(Value of Assets of the Class)

–  (Liabilities of the Class)

  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Class

 

The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, if the Fund’s fund accounting agent is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Fund’s NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Fund’s investments may be determined in good faith under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. Thus, such pricing may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the value realized on a sale. Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source or a price is unavailable.

Equity securities listed on an exchange are generally valued at the last available sale price on the exchange on which they are principally traded. To the extent an underlying fund invests in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices will be provided by an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service in accordance with the fair value procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV.

Fixed income securities are generally valued on the basis of prices (including evaluated prices) and quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. Pricing services may use matrix pricing or valuation models, which utilize certain inputs and assumptions, including, but not limited to, yield or price with respect to comparable fixed income securities, to determine current value. Pricing services generally value fixed income securities assuming orderly transactions of an institutional round lot size, but the Fund may hold or transact in such securities in smaller odd lot sizes. Odd lots may trade at lower prices than institutional round lots.

 

20


                        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

Investments in other open-end registered investment companies, such as the underlying funds, excluding investments in ETFs (if any), are valued based on the NAV of those open-end registered investment companies (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectuses). Investments in ETFs will generally be valued at the last sale price or official closing price on the exchange on which they are principally traded.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading limits or suspensions.

One effect of using an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service and fair valuation may be to reduce stale pricing arbitrage opportunities presented by the pricing of Fund shares. However, it involves the risk that the values used by the Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

Please note the following with respect to the price at which your transactions are processed:

   

NAV per share of each share class is generally calculated by the Fund’s fund accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ market may officially close. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed.

   

The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

   

The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into the Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange is stopped at a time other than its regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange does not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open the Fund for purchase, redemption and exchange transactions if the Federal Reserve wire payment system is open. To learn whether the Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days the Fund is closed. As a result, if the Fund holds an underlying fund that holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or redeem Fund shares.

The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Fund’s fund accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each share class of the Fund is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, cyber attacks and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counter-parties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which the Fund directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be utilized to price the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV.

 

21


 

HOW TO SELL SHARES

    

 

How Can I Sell Shares Of The Fund?

Generally, shares may be sold (redeemed) only through Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions will normally give redemption instructions on behalf of GS Clients to the Transfer Agent. On any business day the Fund is open, the Fund will generally redeem its shares upon request at their next-determined NAV per share after any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, has received and accepted a redemption order in proper form, as described under “How To Buy Shares—How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?” above. Redemptions may be requested by electronic trading platform, in writing or by telephone (unless Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution opts out of the telephone redemption privilege on the account application). You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution, to discuss redemptions and redemption proceeds. The Fund may transfer redemption proceeds to an account with Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution. In the alternative, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution may request that redemption proceeds be sent to you by check or wire (if the wire instructions are designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent).

When Do I Need A Medallion Signature Guarantee To Redeem Shares?

Generally, a redemption request must be in writing and signed by an authorized person with a Medallion signature guarantee if:

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to an address that is not your address of record; or

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to a domestic bank account that is not designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent.

A Medallion signature guarantee must be obtained from a bank, brokerage firm or other financial intermediary that is a member of an approved Medallion Guarantee Program or that is otherwise approved by the Trust. A notary public cannot provide a Medallion signature guarantee. The written request may be confirmed by telephone with both the requesting party and the designated Authorized Institution to verify instructions. Additional documentation may be required.

What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?

The Trust, the Distributor and the Transfer Agent will not be liable for any loss or tax liability you may incur in the event that the Trust accepts unauthorized telephone redemption requests that the Trust reasonably believes to be genuine. The Trust may accept telephone redemption instructions from any person identifying himself or herself as the owner of an account or the owner’s registered representative where the owner has not declined in writing to use this service. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution may submit redemption requests by telephone on your behalf. Thus, you risk possible losses if a telephone redemption is not authorized by you.

In an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent redemption and exchange requests by telephone, the Transfer Agent and DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. (“DST”) each employ reasonable procedures specified by the Trust to confirm that such instructions are genuine. The following general policies are currently in effect:

   

Telephone requests are recorded.

   

Proceeds of telephone redemption requests will be sent to your address of record or authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (unless you provide written instructions and a Medallion signature guarantee indicating another address or account).

   

For the 30-day period following a change of address, telephone redemptions will only be filled by a wire transfer to the authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (see immediately preceding bullet point). In order to receive the redemption by check during this time period, the redemption request must be in the form of a written, Medallion signature guaranteed letter.

   

The telephone redemption option does not apply to shares held in an account maintained and serviced by your Authorized Institution. If your shares are held in an account with an Authorized Institution, you should contact your registered representative of record, who may make telephone redemptions on your behalf.

   

The telephone redemption option may be modified or terminated at any time without prior notice.

Note: It may be difficult to make telephone redemptions in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

How Are Redemption Proceeds Paid?

By Wire:  You may arrange for your redemption proceeds to be paid as federal funds to an account with Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution or to a domestic bank account designated in the current records of the Transfer

 

22


                        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

Agent. In addition, redemption proceeds may be transmitted through an electronic trading platform to an account with Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution. The following general policies govern wiring redemption proceeds:

   

Redemption proceeds will normally be paid in federal funds, between one and two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution) following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request. In certain circumstances, however (such as unusual market conditions or in cases of very large redemptions or excessive trading), it may take up to seven days to pay redemption proceeds.

   

Redemption requests may only be postponed or suspended for longer than seven days as permitted under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”) if (i) the New York Stock Exchange is closed for trading or trading is restricted; (ii) an emergency exists which makes the disposal of securities owned by the Fund or the fair determination of the value of the Fund’s net assets not reasonably practicable; or (iii) the SEC, by order or regulation, permits the suspension of the right of redemption.

   

If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or purchased by Automated Clearing House (“ACH”), the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

   

If the Federal Reserve Bank is closed on the day that the redemption proceeds would ordinarily be wired, wiring the redemption proceeds may be delayed until the Federal Reserve Bank reopens.

   

To change the bank wiring instructions designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent, you must send written instructions signed by an authorized person designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if you are requesting a redemption in conjunction with the change.

   

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or the Transfer Agent assumes any responsibility for the performance of your bank, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or Authorized Institution in the transfer process. If a problem with such performance arises, you should deal directly with your bank, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or Authorized Institution.

By Check:  You may elect to receive your redemption proceeds by check. Redemption proceeds paid by check will normally be mailed to the address of record within two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of your Authorized Institution) following receipt of a properly executed redemption request, except in certain circumstances (such as those set forth above with respect to wire transfer redemption requests). If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or ACH, the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Redemptions?

The following generally applies to redemption requests:

   

Additional documentation may be required when deemed appropriate by the Transfer Agent. A redemption request will not be in proper form until such additional documentation has been received.

   

Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions are responsible for the timely transmittal of redemption requests by GS Clients to the Transfer Agent. In order to facilitate the timely transmittal of redemption requests, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions may set times by which they must receive redemption requests. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or Authorized Institutions may also require additional documentation from you.

   

As disclosed above, if you are a GS Client and propose to transfer your shares to another institution for any reason, you may be required to either redeem your shares of the Fund or if available, you may be able to choose to exchange your shares of the Fund for a different share class offered by the Fund, which may be offered in another Prospectus.

 

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Redeem your shares in the event any of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution is no longer authorized to offer Class P Shares.

   

Redeem your shares in the case of actual or suspected threatening conduct or actual or suspected fraudulent, suspicious or illegal activity by you or any other individual associated with your account.

   

Subject to applicable law, redeem your shares in other circumstances determined by the Board of Trustees to be in the best interest of the Trust.

   

Pay redemptions by a distribution in-kind of securities (instead of cash). If you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you should expect to incur transaction costs upon the disposition of those securities. In addition, if you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you will be subject to market gains or losses upon the disposition of those securities.

   

Reinvest any amounts (e.g., dividends, distributions or redemption proceeds) which you have elected to receive by check should your check remain uncashed for more than 180 days. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed

 

23


 

checks. Your check will be reinvested in your account at the NAV on the day of the reinvestment. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to the risk of loss like any Fund investment. If you elect to receive distributions in cash and a check remains uncashed for more than 180 days, your cash election may be changed automatically to reinvest and your future dividend and capital gains distributions will be reinvested in the Fund at the NAV as of the date of payment of the distribution. This provision may not apply to certain retirement or qualified accounts, accounts with a non-U.S. address or closed accounts. Your participation in a systematic withdrawal program may be terminated if a check remains uncashed.

   

Charge an additional fee in the event a redemption is made via wire transfer.

   

Terminate your account if you are no longer a GS Client, or otherwise no longer eligible to invest in Class P Shares of the Fund.

The Fund typically expects to meet redemption requests by using holdings of cash or cash equivalents and/or proceeds from the sale of portfolio holdings. In addition, under stressed market conditions, as well as for other temporary or emergency purposes, the Fund may distribute redemption proceeds in-kind (instead of cash), access a line of credit or overdraft facility, or borrow through other sources to meet redemption requests.

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from an involuntary redemption.

Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may exchange your shares at NAV at the time of exchange for Class P Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Redemption (including by exchange) of certain Goldman Sachs Funds, which may be offered in another prospectus, may, however, be subject to a redemption fee for shares that are held for either 30 or 60 days or less, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. The exchange privilege may be materially modified or withdrawn at any time upon 60 days’ written notice. You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution to arrange for the exchange of your shares for Class P Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. If you propose to transfer your Class P Shares to another institution for any reason, you may be required to either redeem your shares of the Fund or if available, you may be able to choose to exchange your shares of the Fund for a different share class offered by the Fund or another Goldman Sachs Fund, which may be offered in another Prospectus. For more information, please see “How to Sell Shares—What Else Do I Need to Know About Redemptions?” The shares you receive in any exchange are subject to different (and possibly higher) fees and expenses (which affect performance).

You should keep in mind the following factors when making or considering an exchange:

   

You should obtain and carefully read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund you are acquiring before making an exchange. You should be aware that not all Goldman Sachs Funds may offer all share classes.

   

Currently, the Fund does not impose any charge for exchanges, although the Fund may impose a charge in the future.

   

All exchanges which represent an initial investment in a Goldman Sachs Fund must satisfy the minimum initial investment requirement of that Fund. This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the Trust. Exchanges into a Goldman Sachs Fund need not meet the traditional minimum investment requirement for that Fund if the entire balance of the original Fund account is exchanged.

   

Exchanges are available only in states where exchanges may be legally made.

   

It may be difficult to make telephone exchanges in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

   

The Transfer Agent and DST may use reasonable procedures described above in “How To Sell Shares—What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?” in an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent telephone exchange requests.

   

Normally, a telephone exchange will be made only to an identically registered account.

   

Exchanges into Goldman Sachs Funds or certain share classes of Goldman Sachs Funds that are closed to new investors may be restricted.

   

Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund may be subject to any redemption fee imposed by the other Goldman Sachs Fund.

For federal income tax purposes, an exchange from one Goldman Sachs Fund to another is treated as a redemption of the shares surrendered in the exchange, on which you may be subject to tax, followed by a purchase of shares received in the exchange. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of an exchange.

 

24


                        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

 

SHAREHOLDER SERVICES

    

 

Can My Distributions From The Fund Be Invested In Other Goldman Sachs Funds?

You may elect to cross-reinvest distributions paid by a Goldman Sachs Fund in shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

   

Shares will be purchased at NAV.

   

You may elect cross-reinvestment into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

   

You cannot make cross-reinvestments into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

   

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which distributions are invested.

What Types Of Reports Will I Be Sent Regarding My Investment?

Each of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution is responsible for providing any communication from the Fund to shareholders, including but not limited to, prospectuses, prospectus supplements, proxy materials and notices regarding the source of dividend payments under Section 19 of the Investment Company Act. They may charge additional fees not described in the Prospectus to GS Clients for such services.

Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution will provide you with a printed confirmation of each transaction in your account and a monthly account statement.

You will also receive an annual shareholder report containing audited financial statements and a semi-annual shareholder report. If you have consented to the delivery of a single copy of shareholder reports, prospectuses and other information to all shareholders who share the same mailing address with your account, you may revoke your consent at any time by contacting Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution. The Fund will begin sending individual copies to you within 30 days after receipt of your revocation.

 

 

RESTRICTIONS ON EXCESSIVE TRADING PRACTICES

    

 

Policies and Procedures on Excessive Trading Practices.  In accordance with the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees, the Trust discourages frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares and does not permit market timing or other excessive trading practices. Purchases and exchanges should be made with a view to longer-term investment purposes only that are consistent with the investment policies and practices of the Fund. Excessive, short-term (market timing) trading practices may disrupt portfolio management strategies, increase brokerage and administrative costs, harm Fund performance and result in dilution in the value of Fund shares held by longer-term shareholders. The Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders. To minimize harm to the Trust and its shareholders (or Goldman Sachs), the Trust (or Goldman Sachs) will exercise this right if, in the Trust’s (or Goldman Sachs’) judgment, an investor has a history of excessive trading or if an investor’s trading, in the judgment of the Trust (or Goldman Sachs), has been or may be disruptive to the Fund. In making this judgment, trades executed in multiple accounts under common ownership or control may be considered together to the extent they can be identified. No waivers of the provisions of the policy established to detect and deter market timing and other excessive trading activity are permitted that would harm the Trust or its shareholders or would subordinate the interests of the Trust or its shareholders to those of Goldman Sachs or any affiliated person or associated person of Goldman Sachs.

To deter excessive shareholder trading, certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses impose a redemption fee on redemptions made within 30 or 60 days of purchase subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. As a further deterrent to excessive trading, many foreign equity securities held by the underlying funds are priced by an independent pricing service using fair valuation. For more information on fair valuation, please see “How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Pursuant to the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Trust, Goldman Sachs has developed criteria that it uses to identify trading activity that may be excessive. Excessive trading activity in the Fund is measured by the number of “round trip” transactions in a shareholder’s account. A “round trip” includes a purchase or exchange into the Fund followed or preceded by a redemption or exchange out of the Fund. If the Fund detects that a shareholder has completed two or more round trip transactions in the Fund within a rolling 90-day period, the Fund may reject or restrict subsequent purchase or exchange orders by that shareholder permanently. In addition, the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permanently reject or restrict purchase or exchange orders by

 

25


a shareholder if the Fund detects other trading activity that is deemed to be disruptive to the management of the Fund or otherwise harmful to the Fund. For purposes of these transaction surveillance procedures, the Fund may consider trading activity in multiple accounts under common ownership, control, or influence. A shareholder that has been restricted from participation in the Fund pursuant to this policy will be allowed to apply for re-entry after one year. A shareholder applying for re-entry must provide assurances acceptable to the Fund that the shareholder will not engage in excessive trading activities in the future.

Goldman Sachs may modify its surveillance procedures and criteria from time to time without prior notice regarding the detection of excessive trading or to address specific circumstances. Goldman Sachs will apply the criteria in a manner that, in Goldman Sachs’ judgment, will be uniform.

Fund shares may be held through omnibus arrangements maintained by Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or Authorized Institutions. Omnibus accounts include multiple investors and such accounts typically provide the Fund with a net purchase or redemption request on any given day where the purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by the investors are netted against one another. The identity of individual investors whose purchase and redemption orders are aggregated are ordinarily not tracked by the Fund on a regular basis. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution may not have the capability or may not be willing to apply the Fund’s market timing policies or any applicable redemption fee. While Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies and Ayco may monitor share turnover at the omnibus account level, the Fund’s ability to monitor and detect market timing by shareholders or apply any applicable redemption fee in these omnibus accounts may be limited in certain circumstances, and certain Authorized Institutions may charge the Fund a fee for providing certain shareholder financial information requested as part of the Fund’s surveillance process. The netting effect makes it more difficult to identify, locate and eliminate market timing activities. In addition, those investors who engage in market timing and other excessive trading activities may employ a variety of techniques to avoid detection. There can be no assurance that the Fund, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies and Ayco will be able to identify all those who trade excessively or employ a market timing strategy, and curtail their trading in every instance. If necessary, the Trust may prohibit additional purchases of Fund shares by an Authorized Institution or by certain clients of the Authorized Institution. Authorized Institutions may also monitor trading activities by their clients in the Fund. The criteria used by Authorized Institutions to monitor for excessive trading may differ from the criteria used by the Fund. If an Authorized Institution fails to cooperate in the implementation or enforcement of the Trust’s excessive trading policies, the Trust may take certain actions including terminating the relationship.

 

26


 

 

Taxation

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Fund will be taxed. The tax information below is provided as general information. More tax information is available in the SAI. You should consult your tax adviser about the federal, state, local or foreign tax consequences of your investment in the Fund. Except as otherwise noted, the tax information provided assumes that you are a U.S. citizen or resident.

Unless your investment is through an Employee Benefit Plan or other tax-advantaged account, you should carefully consider the possible tax consequences of Fund distributions and the sale of your Fund shares.

 

  DISTRIBUTIONS     

The Fund contemplates declaring as dividends each year all or substantially all of its taxable income. Distributions you receive from the Fund are generally subject to federal income tax, and may also be subject to state or local taxes. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash. For federal tax purposes, the Fund’s distributions attributable to net investment income and short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income, while any distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares.

Under current provisions of the Code, the maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. Also, Fund distributions to noncorporate shareholders attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. and certain qualified foreign corporations will generally be taxed at the long-term capital gain rate, as long as certain other requirements are met. For these lower rates to apply, the non-corporate shareholder must own the relevant Fund shares for at least 61 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the Fund’s ex-dividend date. The amount of the Fund’s distributions that would otherwise qualify for this favorable tax treatment will be reduced as a result of the Fund’s securities lending activities or high portfolio turnover rate.

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of your investment to the extent of your basis in the shares, and generally as capital gain thereafter. A return of capital, which for tax purposes is treated as a return of your investment, reduces your basis in shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition of shares. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per share and may be taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gain even though, from an economic standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

The Fund’s transactions in derivatives (such as futures contracts and swaps) will be subject to special tax rules, the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to you. The Fund’s use of derivatives may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gains and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not use derivatives.

Although distributions are generally treated as taxable to you in the year they are paid, distributions declared in October, November or December but paid in January are taxable as if they were paid in December. A percentage of the Fund’s dividends paid to corporate shareholders may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction. This percentage may, however, be reduced as a result of the Fund’s securities lending activities or by a high portfolio turnover rate. Character and tax status of all distributions will be available to shareholders after the close of each calendar year.

The Fund may be subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes on income or gain from certain foreign securities. In general, the Fund may deduct these taxes in computing their taxable income.

If you buy shares of the Fund before it makes a distribution, the distribution will be taxable to you even though it may actually be a return of a portion of your investment. This is known as “buying into a dividend.”

 

27


  SALES AND EXCHANGES     

Your sale of Fund shares is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. For tax purposes, the exchange of your Fund shares for shares of a different Goldman Sachs Fund is the same as a sale. When you sell your shares, you will generally recognize a capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between your adjusted tax basis in the shares and the amount received. Generally, this capital gain or loss is long-term or short-term depending on whether your holding period exceeds one year, except that any loss realized on shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain dividends that were received on the shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale, exchange or redemption of shares of the Fund may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shares disposed of are replaced with other shares of the Fund within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the shares are disposed of, such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in shares of the Fund. If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.

 

  OTHER INFORMATION     

When you open your account, you should provide your Social Security Number or tax identification number on your account application. By law, the Fund must withhold 24% of your taxable distributions and any redemption proceeds if you do not provide your correct taxpayer identification number, or certify that it is correct, or if the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) instructs the Fund to do so.

The Fund is required to report to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also, for shares purchased on or after January 1, 2012, their cost basis. Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different methodology. If you would like to use the average cost method of calculation, no action is required. To elect an alternative method, you should contact Goldman Sachs Funds at the address or phone number on the back cover of the Prospectus. If your account is held with an Intermediary, contact your representative with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Fund and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

Non-U.S. investors are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax and may be subject to estate tax with respect to their Fund Shares. However, withholding is generally not required on properly designated distributions to non-U.S. investors of long-term capital gains. Non-U.S. investors generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on certain distributions of interest income and/or short-term capital gains that are designated by the Fund. It is expected that the Fund will generally make designations of short-term gains, to the extent permitted, but the Fund does not intend to make designations of any distributions attributable to interest income. Therefore, all distributions of interest income will be subject to withholding when paid to non-U.S. investors.

The Fund is required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to enable the Fund to determine whether withholding is required.

 

28


 

Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio

Risks, Securities and Techniques

 

  A.    General Portfolio Risks     

The Fund will be subject to the risks associated with equity investments. “Equity investments” may include common stocks, preferred stocks, interests in REITs, convertible debt obligations, convertible preferred stocks, equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures, limited liability companies and similar enterprises, MLPs, other investment companies (including ETFs), warrants, stock purchase rights and synthetic and derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) that have economic characteristics similar to equity securities. In general, the values of equity investments fluctuate in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Accordingly, the values of the equity investments that the Fund holds may decline over short or extended periods. The stock markets tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when prices generally decline. This volatility means that the value of your investment in the Fund may increase or decrease. In recent years, certain stock markets have experienced substantial price volatility. To the extent the Fund’s net assets decrease or increase in the future due to price volatility or share redemption or purchase activity, the Fund’s expense ratio may correspondingly increase or decrease from the expense ratio disclosed in the Prospectus.

To the extent the Fund invests in pooled investment vehicles (including investment companies and ETFs), partnerships and REITs, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such entities in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

To the extent that the Fund invests in fixed income securities, the Fund will also be subject to the risks associated with its fixed income securities. These risks include interest rate risk, credit/default risk and call/extension risk. In general, interest rate risk involves the risk that when interest rates decline, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase (although many mortgage-related securities will have less potential than other debt securities for capital appreciation during periods of declining rates). Conversely, when interest rates increase, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decline. Credit/default risk involves the risk that an issuer or guarantor could default on its obligations, and the Fund will not recover its investment. Call risk and extension risk are normally present in mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. For example, homeowners have the option to prepay their mortgages. Therefore, the duration of a security backed by home mortgages can either shorten (call risk) or lengthen (extension risk). In general, if interest rates on new mortgage loans fall sufficiently below the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to decrease. In either case, a change in the prepayment rate can result in losses to investors. The same would be true of asset-backed securities such as securities backed by car loans.

A rising interest rate environment could cause the value of the Fund’s fixed income securities to decrease, and fixed income markets to experience increased volatility in addition to heightened levels of liquidity risk. Additionally, decreases in the value of fixed income securities could lead to increased shareholder redemptions, which could impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments.

The Fund may invest in non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), which are rated below investment grade (or determined to be of comparable credit quality, if not rated) at the time of purchase and are therefore considered speculative. Because non-investment grade fixed income securities are issued by issuers with low credit ratings, they pose a greater risk of default than investment grade securities.

The Investment Adviser will not consider the portfolio turnover rate a limiting factor in making investment decisions for the Fund. A high rate of portfolio turnover (100% or more) involves correspondingly greater expenses which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to certain shareholders. The portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of the dollar amount of sales or purchases of portfolio securities by the average monthly value of the Fund’s portfolio securities, excluding securities having a maturity at the date of purchase of one year or less.

The Fund may, from time to time, enter into arrangements with certain brokers or other counterparties that require the segregation of collateral. For operational, cost or other reasons, when setting up arrangements relating to the execution/clearing of trades, the

 

29


Fund may choose to select a segregation model which may not be the most protective option available in the case of a default by a broker or counterparty.

The following sections provide further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks. Additional information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request. Among other things, the SAI describes certain fundamental investment restrictions that cannot be changed without shareholder approval. You should note, however, that all investment objectives and all investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental are non-fundamental, and may be changed without shareholder approval. If there is a change in the Fund’s investment objective, you should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of your then current financial position and needs.

 

  B.    Other Portfolio Risks     

Risks of Writing Index Call Options.  When the Fund writes (sell) S&P 500® Index (or other index or related ETF) call options, it foregoes the opportunity to benefit from an increase in the value of the relevant index above the exercise price (plus the premium received) of the option, but the Fund continues to bear the risk of a decline in the value of the relevant index. As the seller of the index call options, the Fund receives cash (the “premium”) from the purchaser. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of an index call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the index over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the index over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser does not exercise the option, the Fund retains the premium and makes no payments to the purchaser. If the purchaser exercises the option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the index and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the index determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of the index call option. The Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund.

There is no assurance that a liquid market will be available at all times for the Fund to write call options or to enter into closing purchase transactions. In addition, the premiums the Fund receives for writing call options may decrease as a result of a number of factors, including a reduction in interest rates generally, a decline in stock market volumes or a decrease in the price volatility of the underlying securities. For more information see “Portfolio Securities and Techniques—Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.”

Risks of Investing in Mid-Capitalization and Small-Capitalization Companies.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in mid- and small-capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies involve greater risk and portfolio price volatility than investments in larger capitalization stocks. Among the reasons for the greater price volatility of these investments are the less certain growth prospects of smaller firms and the lower degree of liquidity in the markets for such securities. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded and may have to be sold at a discount from current market prices or in small lots over an extended period of time. In addition, these securities are subject to the risk that during certain periods the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities in particular investment categories, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Mid- and small-capitalization companies include “unseasoned” issuers that do not have an established financial history; often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources; may depend on or use a few key personnel for management; and may be susceptible to losses and risks of bankruptcy. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be operating at a loss or have significant variations in operating results; may be engaged in a rapidly changing business with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence; may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition. In addition, these companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities, and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies may be more difficult to price precisely than other types of securities because of their characteristics and lower trading volumes.

Risks of Foreign Investments.  The Fund may make foreign investments. Foreign investments involve special risks that are not typically associated with U.S. dollar denominated or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign investments may be affected by changes in currency rates, changes in foreign or U.S. laws or restrictions applicable to such investments and changes in exchange

 

30


APPENDIX A

 

control regulations (e.g., currency blockage). A decline in the exchange rate of the currency (i.e., weakening of the currency against the U.S. dollar) in which a portfolio security is quoted or denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would reduce the value of the portfolio security. In addition, if the currency in which the Fund receives dividends, interest or other payments declines in value against the U.S. dollar before such income is distributed as dividends to shareholders or converted to U.S. dollars, the Fund may have to sell portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to pay such dividends.

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures.

Brokerage commissions, custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. In addition, clearance and settlement procedures may be different in foreign countries and, in certain markets, such procedures have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, thus making it difficult to conduct such transactions.

Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than about a U.S. issuer. In addition, there is generally less government regulation of foreign markets, companies and securities dealers than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Foreign securities markets may have substantially less volume than U.S. securities markets and securities of many foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Furthermore, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividend or interest payments (or, in some cases, capital gains distributions), limitations on the removal of funds or other assets from such countries, and risks of political or social instability or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect investments in those countries.

Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to social, political or market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Certain foreign investments may become illiquid when, for instance, there are few, if any, interested buyers and sellers or when dealers are unwilling to make a market for certain securities. When the Fund holds illiquid investments, its portfolio may be harder to value, especially in changing markets.

If the Fund focuses its investments in one or a few countries and currencies, the Fund may be subjected to greater risks than if the Fund’s assets were not geographically focused.

Investments in foreign securities may take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund may also invest in European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers. ADRs, GDRs and EDRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or other depository. ADRs and certain GDRs are traded in the United States. GDRs may be traded in either the United States or in foreign markets. EDRs are traded primarily outside the United States. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U.S. dollars. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

Risks of Sovereign Debt.  Investment in sovereign debt obligations by the Fund involves risks not present in debt obligations of corporate issuers. The issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt, and the Fund may have limited recourse to compel payment in the event of a default. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt, and in turn the Fund’s NAV, to a greater extent than the volatility inherent in debt obligations of U.S. issuers.

A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject.

Risks of Emerging Countries.  The Fund may invest in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. The risks of foreign investment are heightened when the issuer is located in an emerging country. Emerging countries are generally located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe, and Central and South America. The Fund’s purchase and sale of portfolio

 

31


securities in certain emerging countries may be constrained by limitations relating to daily changes in the prices of listed securities, periodic trading or settlement volume and/or limitations on aggregate holdings of foreign investors. Such limitations may be computed based on the aggregate trading volume by or holdings of the Fund, the Investment Adviser, its affiliates and their respective clients and other service providers. The Fund may not be able to sell securities in circumstances where price, trading or settlement volume limitations have been reached.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees which may limit investment in such countries or increase the administrative costs of such investments. For example, certain Asian countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. In addition, certain countries may restrict or prohibit investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed important to national interests. Such restrictions may affect the market price, liquidity and rights of securities that may be purchased by the Fund. The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from certain emerging countries is subject to restrictions such as the need for governmental consents, which may make it difficult for the Fund to invest in such emerging countries. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. In situations where a country restricts direct investment in securities (which may occur in certain Asian and other countries), the Fund may invest in such countries through other investment funds in such countries.

Many emerging countries have experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation. Other emerging countries have experienced economic recessions. These circumstances have had a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of such emerging countries. Economies in emerging countries generally are dependent heavily upon commodity prices and international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be affected adversely by the economies of their trading partners, trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.

Many emerging countries are subject to a substantial degree of economic, political and social instability. Governments of some emerging countries are authoritarian in nature or have been installed or removed as a result of military coups, while governments in other emerging countries have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection, among other factors, have also led to social unrest, violence and/or labor unrest in some emerging countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Investing in emerging countries involves greater risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested. As an example, in the past, some Eastern European governments have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and many claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that similar expropriations will not occur in other countries.

The Fund’s investment in emerging countries may also be subject to withholding or other taxes, which may be significant and may reduce the return to the Fund from an investment in issuers in such countries.

Settlement procedures in emerging countries are frequently less developed and reliable than those in the United States and may involve the Fund’s delivery of securities before receipt of payment for their sale. In addition, significant delays may occur in certain markets in registering the transfer of securities. Settlement or registration problems may make it more difficult for the Fund to value its portfolio securities and could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, to have a portion of its assets uninvested or to incur losses due to the failure of a counterparty to pay for securities the Fund has delivered or the Fund’s inability to complete its contractual obligations because of theft or other reasons.

The creditworthiness of the local securities firms used by the Fund in emerging countries may not be as sound as the creditworthiness of firms used in more developed countries. As a result, the Fund may be subject to a greater risk of loss if a securities firm defaults in the performance of its responsibilities.

The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain emerging countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in those countries may make the Fund’s investments in such countries less liquid and more volatile than investments in countries with more developed securities markets (such as the United States, Japan and most Western European countries). The Fund’s investments in emerging countries are subject to the risk that the liquidity of a particular investment, or investments generally, in such countries will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political conditions or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the

 

32


APPENDIX A

 

Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Investments in emerging countries may be more difficult to value precisely because of the characteristics discussed above and lower trading volumes.

The Fund’s use of foreign currency management techniques in emerging countries may be limited. The Investment Adviser anticipates that a significant portion of the Fund’s currency exposure in emerging countries may not be covered by those techniques.

Foreign Custody Risk.  Because the Fund may invest in foreign securities, the Fund may hold such securities and cash with foreign banks, agents and securities depositories appointed by the Fund’s custodian (each a “Foreign Custodian”). Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy. Investments in emerging markets may be subject to even greater custody risks than investments in more developed markets. Custody services in emerging market countries are very often undeveloped and may be considerably less well regulated than in more developed countries, and thus may not afford the same level of investor protection as would apply in developed countries.

Risks of Derivative Investments.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in derivative instruments including without limitation, options, futures, options on futures, swaps, structured securities and forward contracts and other derivatives relating to foreign currency transactions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and non-hedging purposes (that is, to seek to increase total return), although suitable derivative instruments may not always be available to the Investment Adviser for these purposes. Losses from derivative instruments can result from a lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivative instruments and the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged, the potential illiquidity of the markets for derivative instruments, the failure of the counterparty to perform its contractual obligations, or the risks related to leverage factors associated with such transactions. Derivatives are also subject to risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions and the risk of loss by the Fund of margin deposits in the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker or counterparty with whom the Fund has an open derivative position. Losses may also arise if the Fund receives cash collateral under the transactions and some or all of that collateral is invested in the market. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation and the Fund may be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the counterparty’s cash collateral. If cash collateral is not invested, the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss in the event of the insolvency of its custodian holding such collateral. The use of these management techniques also involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables. Derivative instruments may be harder to value, subject to greater volatility and more likely subject to changes in tax treatment than other investments. For these reasons, the Investment Adviser’s attempts to hedge portfolio risks through the use of derivative instruments may not be successful, and the Investment Adviser may choose not to hedge portfolio risks. Using derivatives for non-hedging purposes is considered a speculative practice and presents greater risk of loss than derivatives used for hedging purposes.

Risks of Illiquid Investments.  The Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is an investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that the Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.

Investments purchased by the Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid. If one or more investments in the Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed the 15% limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the Fund to exceed this limit, the Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force the Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

In cases where no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s portfolio instruments is available, the portfolio instruments will be valued at their fair value according to the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. These cases include, among

 

33


others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source, or the secondary markets on which an investment has previously been traded are no longer viable, due to its lack of liquidity. For more information on fair valuation, please see “Shareholder Guide—How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Credit/Default Risks.  Debt securities purchased by the Fund may include U.S. Government Securities (including zero coupon bonds) and securities issued by foreign governments, domestic and foreign corporations, banks and other issuers. Some of these fixed income securities are described in the next section below. Further information is provided in the SAI.

Debt securities rated BBB- or higher by Standard & Poor’s, or Baa3 or higher by Moody’s or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO are considered “investment grade.” Securities rated BBB- or Baa3 are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. For the purpose of determining compliance with any credit rating requirement, the Fund assigns a security, at the time of purchase, the highest rating by an NRSRO if the security is rated by more than one NRSRO. Therefore, a security will be deemed to have met a rating requirement if it receives the minimum required rating from at least one such rating organization even though it has been rated below the minimum rating by one or more other rating organizations, or if unrated by such rating organizations, the security is determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

A security satisfies the Fund’s minimum rating requirement regardless of its relative ranking (for example, plus or minus) within a designated major rating category (for example, BBB or Baa). If a security satisfies the Fund’s minimum rating requirement at the time of purchase and is subsequently downgraded below that rating, the Fund will not be required to dispose of the security. If a downgrade occurs, the Investment Adviser will consider which action, including the sale of the security, is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

The Fund may invest in fixed income securities rated BB+ or Ba1 or below (or comparable unrated securities) which are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Junk bonds are considered speculative and may be questionable as to principal and interest payments.

In some cases, junk bonds may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will present greater speculative risks than those associated with investment in investment grade bonds. Also, to the extent that the rating assigned to a security in the Fund’s portfolio is downgraded by a rating organization, the market price and liquidity of such security may be adversely affected.

Risks of Investing in Mid-Capitalization and Small-Capitalization Companies.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in mid- and small-capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies involve greater risk and portfolio price volatility than investments in larger capitalization stocks. Among the reasons for the greater price volatility of these investments are the less certain growth prospects of smaller firms and the lower degree of liquidity in the markets for such securities. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded and may have to be sold at a discount from current market prices or in small lots over an extended period of time. In addition, these securities are subject to the risk that during certain periods the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities in particular investment categories, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Mid- and small-capitalization companies include “unseasoned” issuers that do not have an established financial history; often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources; may depend on or use a few key personnel for management; and may be susceptible to losses and risks of bankruptcy. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be operating at a loss or have significant variations in operating results; may be engaged in a rapidly changing business with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence; may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition. In addition, these companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities, and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies may be more difficult to price precisely than other types of securities because of their characteristics and lower trading volumes.

Risks of Large Shareholder Redemptions.  Certain funds, accounts, individuals or Goldman Sachs affiliates may from time to time own (beneficially or of record) or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these funds, accounts or individuals of their holdings in the Fund may impact the Fund’s liquidity and NAV. These redemptions may also force the Fund to sell securities, which may negatively impact the Fund’s brokerage and tax costs.

 

34


APPENDIX A

 

Temporary Investment Risks.  The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest a certain percentage of its total assets in:

   

U.S. Government Securities

   

Commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s; P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality)

   

Certificates of deposit

   

Bankers’ acceptances

   

Repurchase agreements

   

Non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year

   

ETFs

   

Other investment companies

   

Cash items

When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

 

  C.    Portfolio Securities and Techniques     

This section provides further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks.

The Fund may purchase other types of securities or instruments similar to those described in this section if otherwise consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Further information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request.

Convertible Securities.  The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are preferred stock or debt obligations that are convertible into common stock. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than nonconvertible securities of similar quality. Convertible securities have both equity and fixed income risk characteristics. Like all fixed income securities, the value of convertible securities is susceptible to the risk of market losses attributable to changes in interest rates. Generally, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. However, when the market price of the common stock underlying a convertible security exceeds the conversion price of the convertible security, the convertible security tends to reflect the market price of the underlying common stock. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the convertible security, like a fixed income security, tends to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and thus may not decline in price to the same extent as the underlying common stock.

Foreign Currency Transactions.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase or sell foreign currencies on a cash basis or through forward contracts. A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract. The Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark.

The Fund may also engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in a currency different from that in which the hedged security is denominated or quoted. The Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments in foreign securities when, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. dollars at a later date (e.g., the Investment Adviser may anticipate the foreign currency to appreciate against the U.S. dollar).

The Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between the Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time, causing, along with other factors, the Fund’s NAV to fluctuate (when the Fund’s NAV fluctuates, the value of your shares may go up or down). Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

 

35


Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. The market in such forward foreign currency exchange contracts, currency swaps and other privately negotiated currency instruments offers less protection against defaults by the other party to such instruments than is available for currency instruments traded on an exchange. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or could force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price.

The Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, the Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with certain transactions). Where the Fund’s counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

Structured Securities.  The Fund may invest in structured securities. Structured securities are securities whose value is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, securities, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relative change in two or more References. Investments in structured securities may provide exposure to certain securities or markets in situations where regulatory or other restrictions prevent direct investments in such issuers or markets.

The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rates or the value of the security at maturity may be a multiple of changes in the value of the Reference, effectively leveraging the Fund’s investments so that small changes in the value of the Reference may result in disproportionate gains or losses to the Fund. Consequently, structured securities may present a greater degree of market risk than many types of securities and may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities. Structured securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer of the structured securities may fail to perform its contractual obligations. Certain issuers of structured products may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investments in structured securities may be subject to the limits applicable to investments in other investment companies.

Structured securities are considered hybrid instruments because they are derivative instruments the value of which depends on, or is derived from or linked to, the value of an underlying asset, interest rate index or commodity. Commodity-linked notes are hybrid instruments because the principal and/or interest payments on those notes is linked to the value of the individual commodities, futures contracts or the performance of one or more commodity indices.

Structured securities include, but are not limited to, equity linked notes. An equity linked note is a note whose performance is tied to a single stock, a stock index or a basket of stocks. Equity linked notes combine the principal protection normally associated with fixed income investments with the potential for capital appreciation normally associated with equity investments. Upon the maturity of the note, the holder generally receives a return of principal based on the capital appreciation of the linked securities. Depending on the terms of the note, equity linked notes may also have a “cap” or “floor” on the maximum principal amount to be repaid to holders, irrespective of the performance of the underlying linked securities. For example, a note may guarantee the repayment of the original principal amount invested (even if the underlying linked securities have negative performance during the note’s term), but may cap the maximum payment at maturity at a certain percentage of the issuance price or the return of the underlying linked securities. Alternatively, the note may not guarantee a full return on the original principal, but may offer a greater participation in any capital appreciation of the underlying linked securities. The terms of an equity linked note may also provide for periodic interest payments to holders at either a fixed or floating rate. The secondary market for equity linked notes may be limited, and the lack of liquidity in the secondary market may make these securities difficult to dispose of and to value. Equity linked notes will be considered equity securities for purposes of the Fund’s investment objective and policies.

REITs.  The Fund may invest in REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles that invest primarily in either real estate or real estate related loans. The value of a REIT is affected by changes in the value of the properties owned by the REIT or securing mortgage loans held by the REIT. REITs are dependent upon the ability of the REITs’ managers, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers and the qualification of the REITs under applicable regulatory requirements for favorable income tax treatment. REITs are also subject to risks generally associated with investments in real estate including possible declines in the value of real estate, general and local economic conditions, environmental problems and changes in interest rates. To the extent that assets underlying a REIT are concentrated geographically, by property type or in certain other respects, these

 

36


APPENDIX A

 

risks may be heightened. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses, including management fees, paid by a REIT in which it invests.

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.  A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying instrument during the option period. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying instrument during the option period. The Fund may write (sell) call and put options and purchase call and put options, on any securities and other instruments in which it may invest or any index consisting of securities or other instruments in which it may invest. The Fund may also, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and write (sell) put and call options on foreign currencies.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves special investment risks. Options may be used for either hedging or cross-hedging purposes, or to seek to increase total return (which presents additional risk). The successful use of options depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to anticipate future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in market prices or determination of the correlation between the instruments or indices on which options are written and purchased and the instruments in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The use of options can also increase the Fund’s transaction costs. Options written or purchased by the Fund may be traded on either U.S. or foreign exchanges or over the counter. Foreign and over-the-counter options will present greater possibility of loss because of their greater illiquidity and credit risks.

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts.  Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of a specified financial instrument or currency at a future time at a specified price. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. A swap on a futures contract provides an investor with the ability to gain economic exposure to a particular futures market. A futures contract may be based on particular securities, foreign currencies, securities indices and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund may engage in futures transactions on both U.S. and foreign exchanges.

The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and sell futures contracts, and purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts and enter into swaps on futures contracts, in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selections and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts and related options and swaps present the following risks:

   

While the Fund may benefit from the use of futures and options and swaps on futures, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in poorer overall performance than if the Fund had not entered into any futures contracts, options transactions or swaps.

   

Because perfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position that is intended to be protected is impossible to achieve, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss.

   

The loss incurred by the Fund in entering into futures contracts and in writing call options and entering into swaps on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received.

   

Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

   

As a result of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund.

   

Futures contracts and options and swaps on futures may be illiquid, and exchanges may limit fluctuations in futures contract prices during a single day.

   

Foreign exchanges may not provide the same protection as U.S. exchanges.

Equity Swaps.  The Fund may invest in equity swaps. Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.

The value of swaps can be very volatile. To the extent that the Investment Adviser does not accurately analyze and predict the potential relative fluctuation of the components swapped with another party, or the creditworthiness of the counterparty, the Fund

 

37


may suffer a loss, which may be substantial. The value of some components of a swap (such as the dividends on a common stock) may also be sensitive to changes in interest rates. Furthermore, swaps may be illiquid, and the Fund may be unable to terminate its obligations when desired.

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing. Although central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely.

Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Index Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars.  The Fund may enter into swap transactions and option agreements, including interest rate caps, floors and collars. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, such as an exchange of fixed-rate payments for floating rate payments. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Credit swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security or pool of securities. Credit swaps give one party to a transaction (the buyer of the credit swap) the right to dispose of or acquire an asset (or group of assets or exposure to the performance of an index), or the right to receive a payment from the other party, upon the occurrence of specified credit events. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Total return swaps give a party the right to receive the appreciation in the value of a specified security, index or other instrument in return for a fee paid to the counterparty, which will typically be based on an agreed upon interest rate. If the underlying asset in a total return swap declines in value over the term of the swap, the party may also be required to pay the dollar value of that decline to the counterparty. Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.

The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than the Fund incurs in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

The Fund may enter into the transactions described above for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. As an example, when the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (commonly known as buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit default swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

When the Fund writes (sells) credit swaps on individual securities or instruments, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps while the positions are open.

The use of interest rate, mortgage, credit, currency, index, total return and equity swaps, options on swaps, and interest rate caps, floors and collars is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates and currency exchange rates, or in its evaluation of the creditworthiness of swap counterparties and the issuers of the underlying assets, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used.

 

38


APPENDIX A

 

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange trading. Although central clearing and exchange trading is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing and exchange trading does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. Depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral, uncleared swap. However, certain applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps which may result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher amounts for uncleared swaps.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments.  The Fund may purchase when-issued securities and make contracts to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time. When-issued securities are securities that have been authorized, but not yet issued. When-issued securities are purchased in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price and yield to the Fund at the time of entering into the transaction. A forward commitment involves the entering into a contract to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond the customary settlement period.

The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines before the settlement date. Conversely, the sale of securities on a forward commitment basis involves the risk that the value of the securities sold may increase before the settlement date. Although the Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis with the intention of acquiring the securities for its portfolio, the Fund may dispose of when-issued securities or forward commitments prior to settlement if the Investment Adviser deems it appropriate. When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis or entering into a forward commitment, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligations.

Repurchase Agreements.  Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of securities subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligation. The collateral may consist of any type of security (government or corporate) of any or no credit rating. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities may be subject to additional risks.

If the other party or “seller” defaults, the Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund are less than the repurchase price and the Fund’s costs associated with delay and enforcement of the repurchase agreement. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of the seller, the Fund could suffer additional losses if a court determines that the Fund’s interest in the collateral is not enforceable.

Lending of Portfolio Securities.  The Fund may engage in securities lending. Securities lending involves the lending of securities owned by the Fund to financial institutions such as certain broker-dealers including, as permitted by the SEC, Goldman Sachs. The borrowers are required to secure their loans continuously with cash, cash equivalents, U.S. Government Securities or letters of credit in an amount at least equal to the market value of the securities loaned. Cash collateral may be invested by the Fund in short-term investments, including registered and unregistered investment pools managed by the Investment Adviser, its affiliates or the Fund’s custodian and from which the Investment Adviser or its affiliates may receive fees. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund will be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the borrowers’ collateral. If the Investment Adviser determines to make securities loans, the value of the securities loaned may not exceed 3313% of the value of the total assets of the Fund (including the loan collateral). Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations described elsewhere in the Prospectus regarding investments in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

The Fund may lend its securities to increase its income. The Fund may, however, experience delay in the recovery of its securities or incur a loss if the institution with which it has engaged in a portfolio loan transaction breaches its agreement with the Fund or its agent, or becomes insolvent.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights.  The Fund may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (or “rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default or other non-compliance by the issuer of the preferred stock.

 

39


Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant or right. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Other Investment Companies.  The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Investment Company Act, or exemptive relief thereunder. These statutory limitations include in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds to invest in the ETFs’ shares beyond these statutory limitations, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to a contractual arrangement between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders to invest in unaffiliated ETFs.

The use of ETFs is intended to help the Fund match the total return of the particular market segments or indices represented by those ETFs, although that may not be the result. Most ETFs are passively-managed investment companies whose shares are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. In addition, an ETF may fail to accurately track the market segment or index that underlies its investment objective. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. Moreover, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or a discount to their NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of an ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged.

Subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in certain other investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, beyond the statutory limits described above or otherwise. Some of those investment companies may be funds for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator or distributor.

The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by such other investment companies, in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

Unseasoned Companies.  The Fund may invest in companies which (together with their predecessors) have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Corporate Debt Obligations.  Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures, commercial paper and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. The Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations issued by U.S. and certain non-U.S. issuers which issue securities denominated in the U.S. dollar (including Yankee and Euro obligations). In addition to obligations of corporations, corporate debt obligations include securities issued by banks and other financial institutions and supranational entities (i.e., the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, etc.).

Bank Obligations.  The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulations. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

U.S. Government Securities.  The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. U.S. Government Securities include U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may be supported by (i) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; (ii) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (iii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the

 

40


APPENDIX A

 

issuer; or (iv) only the credit of the issuer. U.S. Government Securities also include Treasury receipts, zero coupon bonds and other stripped U.S. Government Securities, where the interest and principal components are traded independently. U.S. Government Securities may also include Treasury inflation-protected securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation.

U.S. Government Securities are deemed to include (i) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, its agencies, authorities or instrumentalities; and (ii) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed. Certain of these participations may be regarded as illiquid.

U.S. Treasury Securities, which are securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury where the payment of principal and interest is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, have historically involved little risk of loss of principal if held to maturity. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will be able or willing to repay the principal or interest when due, or provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises that issue U.S. Government Securities if it is not obligated to do so by law.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates.  The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. If for tax purposes the Fund is not considered to be the owner of the underlying securities held in the custodial or trust account, the Fund may suffer adverse tax consequences. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Borrowings.  The Fund can borrow money from banks and other financial institutions in amounts not exceeding one-third of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), for temporary or emergency purposes.

Downgraded Securities.  After its purchase, a portfolio security may be assigned a lower rating or cease to be rated, which may affect the market value and liquidity of the security. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Asset Segregation.  As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual “netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where the Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party FCM or other counterparty to off-set the Fund’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the Investment Company Act and SEC or SEC staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

 

41


 

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 

Because the Fund had not commenced investment operations as of the end of the Fund’s fiscal year, financial highlights are not available.

 

42


 

 

Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund Prospectus (Class P Shares)

 

  FOR MORE INFORMATION     

Annual/Semi-Annual Report

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information

Additional information about the Fund and its policies is also available in the Fund’s SAI. The SAI is incorporated by reference into the Prospectus (i.e., is legally considered part of the Prospectus).

The Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI are available free upon request by calling Goldman Sachs at 1-800-526-7384. You can also access and download the annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI at the Fund’s website: https://www.gsam.com/content/gsam/us/en/individual/literature-and-forms/literature.html.

From time to time, certain announcements and other information regarding the Fund may be found at http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements-ind for individual investors or http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements for advisers.

To obtain other information and for shareholder inquiries:

 

  By telephone:

   1-800-621-2550

  By mail:

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 06050

Chicago, IL 60606

  On the Internet:

   SEC EDGAR database – http://www.sec.gov

Other information about the Fund is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov. You may obtain copies of this information, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

DEFEQTYPROP   

The Fund investment company registration number is 811-05349.

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

  LOGO


The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED APRIL 20, 2020

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

PART B

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED [ ], 2020

 

FUND

   Class A
Shares
  Class C
Shares
  Institutional
Shares
  Investor
Shares
  Class R
Shares
  Class R6
Shares
  Class P
Shares

GOLDMAN SACHS DEFENSIVE EQUITY FUND

   [    ]   [    ]   [    ]   [    ]   [    ]   [    ]   [    ]

(A series of Goldman Sachs Trust)

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectuses for the Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund (the “Fund”), each dated [ ], 2020, as they may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectuses”). The Prospectuses may be obtained without charge from Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC by calling the applicable telephone number or writing to one of the addresses listed below, or from institutions (“Intermediaries”) acting on behalf of their customers.

The Fund’s Annual Report (when available) may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC toll free at 1-800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Investor, and Class R Shareholders) or 1-800-621-2550 (for Institutional, Class R6 and Class P Shareholders).

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

     B-3  

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES

     B-3  

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

     B-4  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     B-25  

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     B-26  

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

     B-36  

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     B-41  

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     B-54  

NET ASSET VALUE

     B-56  

SHARES OF THE TRUST

     B-58  

TAXATION

     B-61  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     B-66  

PROXY VOTING

     B-66  

PAYMENTS TO OTHERS (INCLUDING INTERMEDIARIES)

     B-68  

OTHER INFORMATION

     B-70  

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLANS

     B-72  

OTHER INFORMATION REGARDING MAXIMUM SALES CHARGE, PURCHASES, REDEMPTIONS, EXCHANGES AND DIVIDENDS

     B-73  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     B-75  

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

     1-A  

APPENDIX B GSAM PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES SUMMARY

     1-B  

APPENDIX C STATEMENT OF INTENTION

     1-C  

The date of this SAI is [    ], 2020.

 

B-1


GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.

Investment Adviser

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Distributor

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Transfer Agent

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

Toll free (in U.S.) 800-621-2550 (for Institutional, Class R6 and Class P Shareholders) or 800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shareholders).

 

B-2


INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end, management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by a Declaration of Trust dated January 28, 1997. The Trust is a successor to a Massachusetts business trust that was combined with the Trust on April 30, 1997. The following series of the Trust is described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs Defensive Equity Fund (the “Fund”).

The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Fund and other series. Additional series and classes may be added in the future from time to time. The Fund currently offers seven classes of shares: Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class R, Class R6 and Class P Shares. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.”

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the investment adviser to the Fund. In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”) and transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”). The Fund’s custodian is [ ] (“[ ]”).

The following information relates to and supplements the description of the Fund’s investment objective and policies contained in the Prospectuses. See the Prospectuses for a more complete description of the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Investing in the Fund entails certain risks, and there is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectuses.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES

The Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s objective will be achiev