485APOS 1 d785952d485apos.htm GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST Goldman Sachs Trust

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 6, 2019

1933 Act Registration No. 033-17619

1940 Act Registration No. 811-05349

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  
   Pre-Effective Amendment No.                   
   Post-Effective Amendment No. 768  

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940  
   Amendment No. 769  
   (Check appropriate box or boxes)  

 

 

GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (312) 655-4400

CAROLINE L. KRAUS, ESQ.

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

STEPHEN H. BIER, ESQ.

Dechert LLP

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practicable after the effective date of the registration statement

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

 

immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

 

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)

 

60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

 

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

 

75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

 

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

Title of Securities Being Registered:

Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class P, Class R and Class R6 Shares of the Goldman Sachs Income Fund.

 

 

 


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus dated September 6, 2019

Subject to Completion

 

Prospectus

 

GOLDMAN SACHS INCOME FUND

 

 

November [    ], 2019

 

 

 

Goldman Sachs Income Fund

 

   

Class A Shares: [        ]

   

Class C Shares: [        ]

   

Institutional Shares: [        ]

   

Investor Shares: [        ]

   

Class R Shares: [        ]

   

Class R6 Shares: [        ]

 

It is our intention that beginning on January 1, 2021, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will not be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. At any time, you may elect to receive reports and certain communications from the Fund electronically by calling the applicable toll-free number below or by contacting your financial intermediary.

You may elect to receive all future shareholder reports in paper free of charge. If you hold shares of the Fund directly with the Fund’s transfer agent, you can inform the transfer agent that you wish to receive paper copies of reports by calling toll-free 800-621-2550 for Institutional and Class R6 shareholders or 800-526-7384 for all other shareholders. If you hold shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary, please contact your financial intermediary to make this election. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all Goldman Sachs Funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary or all Goldman Sachs Funds held with the Fund’s transfer agent if you invest directly with the transfer agent.

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN THE FUND.

 

LOGO


Table of Contents

 

Goldman Sachs Income Fund – Summary        1  
Investment Management Approach        7  
Risks of the Fund        12  
Service Providers        21  
Distributions        24  
Shareholder Guide        25  

How To Buy Shares

     25    

How To Sell Shares

     34    
Taxation        41  
Appendix A
Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques
       43  
Appendix B
Financial Highlights
       62  
Appendix C
Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts
       63  


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Income Fund—Summary

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Income Fund (the “Fund”) seeks a high level of current income, and secondarily, capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. The table does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Institutional Shares of the Fund. You may qualify for sales charge discounts on purchases of Class A Shares if you invest at least $100,000 in Goldman Sachs Funds. More information about these and other discounts is available from your financial professional and in “Shareholder Guide—Common Questions Applicable to the Purchase of Class A Shares” beginning on page [    ] and in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts on page [    ] of the Prospectus and “Other Information Regarding Maximum Sales Charge, Purchases, Redemptions, Exchanges and Dividends” beginning on page B-[    ] of the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

     Class A     Class C     Institutional     Investor     Class R     Class R6  

Shareholder Fees

           
(fees paid directly from your investment)            

Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases (as a percentage of offering price)

    [    ]%       None       None       None       None       None  

Maximum Deferred Sales Charge (Load) (as a percentage of the lower of original purchase price or sale proceeds)1

    None       1.00%       None       None       None       None  
     Class A     Class C     Institutional     Investor     Class R     Class R6  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

           
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)            

Management Fees

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees

    0.25%       0.75%       None       None       0.50%       None  

Other Expenses2

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Service Fees

    Non     0.25     Non     Non     Non     Non

All Other Expenses

    [    ]     [    ]     [    ]     [    ]     [    ]     [    ]

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Expense Limitation

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Expense Limitation

    [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%       [    ]%  

 

1 

A contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) of 1% is imposed on Class C Shares redeemed within 12 months of purchase.

2 

The “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred during the first fiscal year.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class R and/or Class R6 Shares of the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Class A, Class C, Institutional, Investor, Class R and/or Class R6 Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same [(except that the Example incorporates the expense limitation arrangement for only the first year)]. The

 

1


Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Institutional Shares of the Fund. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

      1 Year      3 Years  

Class A Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Class C Shares

     

–  Assuming complete redemption at end of period

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

–  Assuming no redemption

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Institutional Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Investor Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Class R Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  

Class R6 Shares

   $ [    ]      $ [    ]  
     

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in the annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Strategy

The Fund invests in a multi-sector portfolio of U.S. and foreign investment grade and non-investment grade fixed income investments of varying maturities. The Fund’s investment sectors include, but are not limited to: (a) government securities, (b) corporate debt securities, (c) commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities, (d) asset-backed securities (including collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”)) and (e) emerging countries debt denominated in both U.S. dollars and foreign currencies. The Fund may not have exposure to all of these investment sectors, and the Fund’s exposure to any one investment sector may vary over time.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund may invest in U.S. Government securities (such as U.S. Treasury securities or Treasury inflation protected securities), non-U.S. sovereign debt, agency securities, corporate debt securities, agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities (including CLOs), custodial receipts, municipal securities, loan participations and loan assignments and convertible securities. The Fund’s investments in loan participations and loan assignments may include, but are not limited to: (a) senior secured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Senior Loans”), (b) second lien or other subordinated or unsecured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Second Lien Loans”) and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating or variable interest rates. The Fund may invest in fixed income securities of any maturity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”), or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

The Fund may invest up to 35% of its total assets measured at the time of purchase (“Total Assets”) in sovereign and corporate debt securities and other instruments of issuers in emerging market countries (“emerging countries debt”). Such investments may include sovereign debt issued by emerging countries that have sovereign ratings below investment grade or that are unrated. The Fund’s investments may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Total Assets in privately issued corporate debt securities and other obligations issued by private companies, including privately issued credit obligations and related instruments, and up to an additional 10% of its Total Assets in equity investments, including preferred securities and dividend paying common stocks.

The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Fund also intends to invest in other derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate, interest rate or index. The Fund’s investments in derivatives may include, in addition to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, futures contracts (including interest rate futures and treasury and sovereign bond futures), options (including options on futures contracts, swaps, bonds, stocks and indexes), swaps (including credit default, index, basis, total return, volatility, interest rate and currency swaps), and other forward contracts. The Fund may use derivatives instead of buying and selling bonds to manage duration, to gain exposure or to short individual securities or to gain exposure to a credit or asset backed index.

The Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps, options or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Fund will benefit to the extent the asset decreases in value (and will be harmed to the extent the asset

 

2


increases in value) between the time it enters into the futures contract and the agreed date of sale. Alternatively, the Fund may sell an instrument (e.g., a bond, or a futures contract) it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, and then borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. In these transactions, the Fund is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The Fund uses short positions and derivatives for both investment and hedging purposes.

The Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

The Fund’s target average duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to be between 0 and 8 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index.

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Collateralized Loan Obligations Risk.  The Fund may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured investments. A CLO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO’s manager may perform poorly.

CLOs issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Despite the protection from subordinate tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinate tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. The Fund’s investments in CLOs principally consist of senior tranches and, to a lesser extent, mezzanine tranches.

Credit/Default Risk.  An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. Additionally, the credit quality of securities may deteriorate rapidly, which may impair the Fund’s liquidity and cause significant deterioration in net asset value (“NAV”). These risks are more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in non-investment grade fixed income securities.

Derivatives Risk.  The Fund’s use of options, futures, forwards, swaps and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligation. The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from the Investment Adviser’s expectations for non-hedging forward foreign currency transactions may produce significant losses to the Fund.

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations Risk.  For floating and variable rate obligations, there may be a lag between an actual change in the underlying interest rate benchmark and the reset time for an interest payment of such an obligation, which could harm or benefit the Fund, depending on the interest rate environment or other circumstances. In a rising interest rate environment, for example, a floating or variable rate obligation that does not reset immediately would prevent the Fund from taking full advantage of rising interest rates in a timely manner. However, in a declining interest rate environment, the Fund may benefit from a lag due to an obligation’s interest rate payment not being immediately impacted by a decline in interest rates.

 

3


 

Certain floating and variable rate obligations have an interest rate floor feature, which prevents the interest rate payable by the security from dropping below a specified level as compared to a reference interest rate (the “reference rate”), such as LIBOR. Such a floor protects the Fund from losses resulting from a decrease in the reference rate below the specified level. However, if the reference rate is below the floor, there will be a lag between a rise in the reference rate and a rise in the interest rate payable by the obligation, and the Fund may not benefit from increasing interest rates for a significant amount of time.

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) warned that LIBOR may cease to be available or appropriate for use by 2021. The unavailability or replacement of LIBOR may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades. Any pricing adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute reference rate may also adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV.

Foreign and Emerging Countries Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. These risks may be more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers located in emerging countries.

Interest Rate Risk.  When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed income securities or instruments. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments. Fluctuations in interest rates may also affect the yield and liquidity of fixed income securities and instruments held by the Fund.

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk.  The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

Liquidity Risk.  The Fund may make investments that are illiquid or that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Illiquid investments may be more difficult to value. Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests or other reasons. To meet redemption requests, the Fund may be forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions. Liquidity risk may be the result of, among other things, the reduced number and capacity of traditional market participants to make a market in fixed income securities or the lack of an active market. The potential for liquidity risk may be magnified by a rising interest rate environment or other circumstances where investor redemptions from fixed income mutual funds may be higher than normal, potentially causing increased supply in the market due to selling activity. These risks may be more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers located in emerging market countries. Redemptions by large shareholders may have a negative impact on the Fund’s liquidity.

Loan-Related Investments Risk.  In addition to risks generally associated with debt investments (e.g., interest rate risk and default risk), loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments are subject to other risks. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be or become illiquid or less liquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan investments are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and certain loan investments may be or become illiquid or less liquid and more difficult to value, particularly in the event of a downgrade of the loan or the borrower. There is less readily available, reliable information about most loan investments than is the case for many other types of securities. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults. With respect to loan participations, the Fund may not always have direct recourse against a borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and/or interest; may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the borrower; and may be regarded as the creditor of the agent lender (rather than the borrower), subjecting the Fund to the creditworthiness of that lender as well. Investors in loans, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws, although they may be entitled to certain contractual remedies. The market for loan obligations may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because transactions in many loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption

 

4


obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of heightened redemption activity or distressed market conditions, the Fund may seek to obtain expedited trade settlement, which will generally incur additional costs (although expedited trade settlement will not always be available).

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral, but are nevertheless usually rated below investment grade. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid. Generally, loans have the benefit of restrictive covenants that limit the ability of the borrower to further encumber its assets or impose other obligations. To the extent a loan does not have certain covenants (or has less restrictive covenants), an investment in the loan will be particularly sensitive to the risks associated with loan investments.

Management Risk.  A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk.  Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks, including “extension risk” (i.e., in periods of rising interest rates, issuers may pay principal later than expected) and “prepayment risk” (i.e., in periods of declining interest rates, issuers may pay principal more quickly than expected, causing the Fund to reinvest proceeds at lower prevailing interest rates). Mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers are subject to other risks as well, including failures of private insurers to meet their obligations and unexpectedly high rates of default on the mortgages backing the securities. Other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with Mortgage-backed securities, as well as risks associated with the nature and servicing of the assets backing the securities. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

Municipal Securities Risk.  Municipal securities are subject to credit/default risk, interest rate risk and certain additional risks. The Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business, political, environmental or other developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in the bonds of similar projects (such as those relating to education, health care, housing, transportation, and utilities), industrial development bonds, or in particular types of municipal securities (such as general obligation bonds, private activity bonds and moral obligation bonds). While interest earned on municipal securities is generally not subject to federal tax, any interest earned on taxable municipal securities is fully taxable at the federal level and may be subject to tax at the state level.

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk.  The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Fund’s Investment Adviser may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment regarding the direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Investment Adviser seeks to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from that anticipated by the Investment Adviser may produce significant losses to the Fund. Some of these transactions may also be subject to interest rate risk.

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk.  Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific issuer developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less liquidity.

Other Investment Companies Risk.  By investing in other investment companies (including ETFs) indirectly through the Fund, investors will incur a proportionate share of the expenses of the other investment companies held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees) in addition to the fees regularly borne by the Fund. In addition, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such investment companies in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

Short Position Risk.  The Fund may enter into a short position through a futures contract, an option or swap agreement or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. Taking short positions involves leverage of the Fund’s assets and presents various risks. If the value of the underlying instrument or market in which the Fund has taken a short position increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in value from the time that the short position was entered into plus any related interest payments or other fees. Taking short positions involves the risk that losses may be disproportionate, may exceed the amount invested and may be unlimited.

 

5


Sovereign Default Risk.  An issuer of non-U.S. sovereign debt held by the Fund or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest when due. This may result from political or social factors, the general economic environment of a country or levels of foreign debt or foreign currency exchange rates.

U.S. Government Securities Risk.  The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal Home Loan Banks are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Performance

Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers:  Ashish Shah, Managing Director, Co-Chief Investment Officer of Global Fixed Income, has managed the Fund since 2019; and Ron Arons, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since 2019.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The minimum initial investment for Class A and Class C Shares is, generally, $1,000. The minimum initial investment for Institutional Shares is, generally, $1,000,000 for individual or certain institutional investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates. There is no minimum for initial purchases of Investor , Class R and Class R6 Shares, except for certain institutional investors who purchase Class R6 Shares directly with the Fund’s transfer agent for which the minimum initial investment is $5,000,000. Those share classes with a minimum initial investment requirement do not impose it on certain employee benefit plans, and Institutional Shares do not impose it on certain investment advisers investing on behalf of other accounts.

The minimum subsequent investment for Class A and Class C shareholders is $50, except for certain employee benefit plans, for which there is no minimum. There is no minimum subsequent investment for Institutional, Investor , Class R or Class R6 shareholders.

You may purchase and redeem (sell) shares of the Fund on any business day through certain intermediaries that have a relationship with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions (“Intermediaries”).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through an Intermediary, the Fund and/or its related companies may pay the Intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your Intermediary’s website for more information.

 

6


 

 

Investment Management Approach

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES     

The Income Fund seeks a high level of current income, and secondarily, capital appreciation. The Fund’s investment may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ notice.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGY     

Income Fund

The Fund invests in a multi-sector portfolio of U.S. and foreign investment grade and non-investment grade fixed income investments of varying maturities. The Fund’s investment sectors include, but are not limited to: (a) government securities, (b) corporate debt securities, (c) commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities, (d) asset-backed securities (including CLOs) and (e) emerging countries debt denominated in both U.S. dollars and foreign currencies. The Fund may not have exposure to all of these investment sectors, and the Fund’s exposure to any one investment sector may vary over time.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund may invest in U.S. Government securities (such as U.S. Treasury securities or Treasury inflation protected securities), non-U.S. sovereign debt, agency securities, corporate debt securities, agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities (including CLOs), custodial receipts, municipal securities, loan participations and loan assignments and convertible securities. The Fund’s investments in loan participations and loan assignments may include, but are not limited to: (a) Senior Loans, (b) Second Lien Loans and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating or variable interest rates. The Fund may invest in fixed income securities of any maturity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

The Fund may invest up to 35% of its Total Assets in emerging countries debt. Such investments may include sovereign debt issued by emerging countries that have sovereign ratings below investment grade or that are unrated. The Fund’s investments may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Total Assets in privately issued corporate debt securities and other obligations issued by private companies, including privately issued credit obligations and related instruments, and up to an additional 10% of its Total Assets in equity investments, including preferred securities and dividend paying common stocks. Many of the issuers of such obligations will be smaller companies with stock market capitalizations of $1 billion or less at the time of investment and may be rated below investment grade (so-called “high yield” or “junk” bonds) or unrated.

The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Fund also intends to invest in other derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate, interest rate or index. The Fund’s investments in derivatives may include, in addition to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, futures contracts (including interest rate futures and treasury and sovereign bond futures), options (including options on futures contracts, swaps, bonds, stocks and indexes), swaps (including credit default, index, basis, total return, volatility, interest rate and currency swaps), and other forward contracts. The Fund may use derivatives instead of buying and selling bonds to manage duration, to gain exposure or to short individual securities or to gain exposure to a credit or asset backed index.

The Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps, options or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Fund will benefit to the extent the asset decreases in value (and will be harmed to the extent the asset increases in value) between the time it enters into the futures contract and the agreed date of sale. Alternatively, the Fund may sell an instrument (e.g., a bond, or a futures contract) it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, and then borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. In these transactions, the Fund is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The Fund uses short positions and derivatives for both investment and hedging purposes.

The Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs.

 

7


 

The Fund’s target average duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to be between 0 and 8 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index.

The Fund may, from time to time, take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies in attempting to respond to adverse market, political or other conditions. For temporary defensive purposes (and to the extent that it is permitted to invest in the following), the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in U.S. Government Securities, commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“Standard & Poor’s”), P-2 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality), certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, repurchase agreements, non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year, ETFs and other investment companies and cash items. When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Goldman Sachs’ Fixed Income Investing Philosophy:

Global fixed income markets are constantly evolving and are highly diverse—with a large number of countries, currencies, sectors, issuers and securities. We believe that inefficiencies in these complex markets cause bond prices to diverge from their fair value. To capitalize on these inefficiencies and generate consistent risk-adjusted performance, we believe it is critical to:

   

Thoughtfully combine diversified sources of return by employing multiple strategies

   

Take a global perspective to uncover relative value opportunities

   

Consider environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) factors as part of the fundamental credit analysis and portfolio construction process

   

Employ focused specialist teams to identify short-term mispricings and incorporate long-term views

   

Emphasize a risk-aware approach as we view management as both an offensive and defensive tool

   

Build a strong team of skilled investors who excel on behalf of our clients

GSAM Fixed Income implements this overall philosophy through an investment process that seeks to maximize risk-adjusted total returns by using a diverse set of investment strategies and revolves around four key elements:

1.  Developing a long-term risk budget—Lead portfolio managers (the “Portfolio Team”) are responsible for the overall results of the Fund. They set the strategic direction of the Fund by establishing a “risk budget.” The “risk budget” for the Fund is the range the portfolio managers will allow the Fund to deviate from its benchmark with respect to sector allocations, country allocations, securities selection, and, to a lesser extent, duration. Following careful analysis of risk and return objectives, they allocate the overall risk budget to each component strategy to optimize potential return.

2.  Generating investment views and strategies—Our Top-down and Bottom-up Strategy Teams (collectively, “Strategy Teams”) generate investment ideas within their areas of specialization. The Top-down Strategy Teams are responsible for Cross-Sector, Duration, Country, and Currency decisions and are deliberately small to ensure creativity and expedite decision-making and execution. Concurrently, Bottom-up Strategy Teams, comprised of sector specialists, formulate sub-sector allocation and security selection decisions.

3.  Constructing the portfolios—The Portfolio and Strategy Teams construct the Fund’s portfolio through a collaborative process in which the Portfolio Team oversees the overall portfolio while the Strategy Teams actively manage the securities and strategies within their areas of specialization. This process enables the Portfolio Team to build a diversified portfolio consisting of the ideas of the individual Strategy Teams, consistent with the Fund’s overall risk and return objectives.

4.  Dynamic adjustments based on market conditions—As market conditions change, the volatility and attractiveness of sectors and strategies can change as well. To optimize the Fund’s risk/return potential within its long-term risk budget, the Portfolio Team dynamically adjusts the mix of top-down and bottom-up strategies in the Fund’s portfolio. At the same time, the Strategy Teams adjust their strategies and security selections in an effort to optimize performance within their specialty areas.

 

With every fixed income portfolio, the Investment Adviser applies a team approach that emphasizes risk management and capitalizes on Goldman Sachs’ extensive research capabilities.

References in the Prospectus to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only, and unless otherwise noted, are not an indication of how the Fund is managed.

 

8


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

 

  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

Although the Fund’s principal investment strategies are described in the Fund’s Summary—Principal Strategy section of the Prospectus, the following tables identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Numbers in these tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Fund’s annual/semi-annual reports (when available). For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A.

The Fund publishes on its website (http://www.gsamfunds.com) complete portfolio holdings for the Fund as of the end of each fiscal quarter subject to a thirty day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. This information will be available on the website until the date each quarter on which the Fund makes its Form N-PORT filings with the SEC (containing portfolio holdings information). In addition, a description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI.

 

9


 

10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage;
limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
  Not permitted

 

                          
    

Income

Fund

Investment Practices  

Borrowings

  3313

Credit, Currency, Interest Rate, Total Return and Mortgage Swaps and Options on Swaps

 

Cross Hedging of Currencies

 

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

 

Direct Equity Investment

  10

Foreign Currency Transactions (including Forward Contracts)

 

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts

 

Illiquid Investments*

  15

Interest Rate Floors, Caps and Collars

 

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs)**

  10

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

 

Options1

 

Options on Foreign Currencies2

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

 

Short Sales3

 

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

 
 

 

      *

Illiquid investments are any investments that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.

    **

This percentage limitation does not apply to the Fund’s investments in investment companies (including ETFs) where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.

      1

The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on securities and securities indices in which it may invest.

      2

The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on foreign currencies.

      3

The Fund may engage in short selling of physical securities that it does not own and may (i) engage in short sales against the box, and (ii) obtain certain forms of short investment exposure through the use of derivatives.

 

10


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of Net Assets (including borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage;
limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
  Not permitted

 

                          
    

Income

Fund

Investment Securities  

Asset-Backed Securities

 

Bank Obligations

 

Collateralized Loan Obligations

 

Convertible Securities

 

Corporate Debt Obligations and Trust Preferred Securities1

 

Emerging Country Securities

  35

Equity Investments

  10

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations

 

Foreign Government Securities

 

Foreign Securities2

 

Inflation Protected Securities

 

Loan Participations and Loan Assignments

 
Mortgage-Backed Securities  

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans

 

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations

 

Fixed Rate Mortgage Loans

 

Government Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

 

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Rights

  10

Structured Securities (which may include credit linked notes)3

 

Taxable Municipal Securities

 

Tax-Free Municipal Securities

 

Temporary Investments

 

U.S. Government Securities

 

Yield Curve Options and Inverse Floating Rate Securities

 

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bond

 
 

 

  1 

The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Total Assets in privately issued corporate debt securities and other obligations issued by private companies, including privately issued credit obligations and related instruments.

  2 

Includes issuers domiciled in one country and issuing securities denominated in the currency of another.

  3 

Structured securities are not subject to the same minimum credit quality requirement as the Fund’s investments in fixed income securities.

 

11


 

 

Risks of the Fund

 

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. The principal risks of the Fund are discussed in the Summary section of the Prospectus. The following section provides additional information on the risks that apply to the Fund, which may result in a loss of your investment. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

 

  Principal Risk
  Additional Risk

 

      Income
Fund

Call/Prepayment

  

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations

  

Counterparty

  

Credit/Default

  

Derivatives

  

Emerging Countries

  

Extension

  

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations

  

Foreign

  

Geographic

  

Interest Rate

  

Large Shareholder Transactions

  

Leverage

  

Liquidity

  

Loan-Related Investments

  

Management

  

Market

  

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities

  

Municipal Securities

  

NAV

  

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading

  

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

  

Other Investment Companies

  

Sector

  

Short Position

  

Sovereign Default

  

Economic

  

Political

  

Repayment

  

Stock

  

Treasury Inflation Protected Securities

  

U.S. Government Securities

  
  

 

 

Call/Prepayment Risk—An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) earlier than expected. This may happen when there is a decline in interest rates, when credit spreads change, or when an issuer’s credit quality improves. Under these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to recoup all of its initial investment and will also suffer from having to reinvest in lower-yielding securities.

 

12


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk—The Fund may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured investments. A CLO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO’s manager may perform poorly. CLOs may charge management and other administrative fees, which are in addition to those of the Fund.

CLOs issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of risk. If there are defaults or the CLO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those of subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying collateral and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity and mezzanine tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinate tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. The Fund’s investments in CLOs principally consist of senior tranches and, to a lesser extent, mezzanine tranches.

Typically, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CLOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid investments and may have limited independent pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”) for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such CLOs may be characterized by the Fund as liquid investments.

The Fund may also invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which are structured similarly to CLOs, but are backed by pools of assets that are debt securities (rather than being limited only to loans), typically including bonds, other structured finance securities (including other asset-backed securities and other CDOs) and/or synthetic instruments. Like CLOs, the risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type and quality of the collateral securities and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. CDOs collateralized by pools of asset-backed securities carry the same risks as investments in asset-backed securities directly, including losses with respect to the collateral underlying those asset-backed securities. In addition, certain CDOs may not hold their underlying collateral directly, but rather, use derivatives such as swaps to create “synthetic” exposure to the collateral pool. Such CDOs entail the risks associated with derivative instruments.

 

Counterparty Risk—Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with certain OTC transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into certain OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses. However, recent regulatory developments require margin on certain uncleared OTC transactions which may reduce, but not eliminate, this risk.

 

Credit/Default Risk—An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. The credit quality of the Fund’s portfolio securities or instruments may meet the Fund’s credit quality requirements at the time of purchase but then deteriorate thereafter, and such a deterioration can occur rapidly. In certain instances, the downgrading or default of a single holding or guarantor of the Fund’s holding may impair the Fund’s liquidity and have the potential to cause significant deterioration in NAV. These risks are more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in non-investment grade fixed income securities.

 

Derivatives Risk—The Fund’s use of options, futures, forwards, swaps, options on swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its

 

13


 

 

contractual obligations, liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and non-hedging purposes.

The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments, and there is no guarantee that the use of derivatives will achieve their intended result. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuation in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables, the use of derivatives could result in losses, which in some cases may be significant. A lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivatives and the value of the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged could also result in losses. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. For more information about these practices, see Appendix A.

 

 

Emerging Countries Risk—Investments in securities of issuers located in emerging countries are subject to the risks associated with investments in foreign securities. In addition, the securities markets of most emerging countries are less liquid, developed and efficient, are subject to greater price volatility, have smaller market capitalizations, have more or less government regulation and are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements as the securities markets of more developed countries. Further, investments in securities of issuers located in certain emerging countries involve the risk of loss resulting from problems in share registration, settlement or custody and substantial economic, political and social disruptions. These risks are not normally associated with investments in more developed countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Extension Risk—An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) later than expected. This may happen when there is a rise in interest rates. Under these circumstances, the value of the obligation will decrease, and the Fund will also suffer from the inability to reinvest in higher yielding securities.

 

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations Risk—Floating rate and variable rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically, daily, monthly, quarterly, or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. For floating and variable rate obligations, there may be a lag between an actual change in the underlying interest rate benchmark and the reset time for an interest payment of such an obligation, which could harm or benefit the Fund, depending on the interest rate environment or other circumstances. In a rising interest rate environment, for example, a floating or variable rate obligation that does not reset immediately would prevent the Fund from taking full advantage of rising interest rates in a timely manner. However, in a declining interest rate environment, the Fund may benefit from a lag due to an obligation’s interest rate payment not being immediately impacted by a decline in interest rates.

Certain floating and variable rate obligations have an interest rate floor feature, which prevents the interest rate payable by the security from dropping below a specified level as compared to a reference interest rate (the “reference rate”), such as LIBOR. Such a floor protects the Fund from losses resulting from a decrease in the reference rate below the specified level. However, if the reference rate is below the floor, there will be a lag between a rise in the reference rate and a rise in the interest rate payable by the obligation, and the Fund may not benefit from increasing interest rates for a significant amount of time.

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) warned that LIBOR may cease to be available or appropriate for use by 2021. The unavailability or replacement of LIBOR may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades. Any pricing adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute reference rate may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV.

 

Foreign Risk—When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with U.S. issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquidity, developed or efficient trading markets, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, foreign taxes, sanctions, confiscation of assets and property, trade restrictions (including tariffs), expropriation and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. The Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization.

 

14


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

  Geopolitical developments in certain countries in which the Fund may invest have caused, or may in the future cause, significant volatility in financial markets. For example, in June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union following a referendum referred to as “Brexit,” which may result in increased market volatility and cause additional market disruption on a global basis. Although the effects of Brexit are unknown at this time, Brexit may result in fluctuations of exchange rates, increased illiquidity, inflation, and changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain of the Fund’s assets are subject. These and other geopolitical developments could negatively impact the value of the Fund’s investments.

The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Geographic Risk—If the Fund focuses its investments in securities of issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

 

Interest Rate Risk—When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may include inflation protected securities) will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed-income securities or instruments. A wide variety of market factors can cause interest rates to rise, including central bank monetary policy, rising inflation and changes in general economic conditions. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments. Fluctuations in interest rates may also affect the yield and liquidity of fixed income securities and instruments held by the Fund.

 

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk—The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders, such as other funds, institutional investors (including those trading by use of non-discretionary mathematical formulas), financial intermediaries (who may make investment decisions on behalf of underlying clients and/or include the Fund in their investment model), individuals, accounts and Goldman Sachs affiliates, purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

 

Leverage Risk—Leverage creates exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. Borrowings and the use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage, the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. Relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of a leveraged investment. The Fund will identify liquid assets on its books or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to such risk, to the extent required by applicable law. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

 

Liquidity Risk—The Fund may invest to a greater degree in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, the Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price, the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities.

To the extent that the traditional dealer counterparties that engage in fixed income trading do not maintain inventories of bonds (which provide an important indication of their ability to “make markets”) that keep pace with the growth of the bond markets over time, relatively low levels of dealer inventories could lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income markets. Additionally, market participants other than the Fund may attempt to sell fixed income holdings at the same time as the Fund, which could cause downward pricing pressure and contribute to decreased liquidity.

To the extent the Fund holds non-investment grade fixed income securities and/or emerging country issuers may be especially subject to the risk that during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within a particular investment category, may shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.

 

15


 

Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period stated in the Prospectus or without significant dilution to remaining investors’ interests because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. While the Fund reserves the right to meet redemption requests through in-kind distributions, the Fund may instead choose to raise cash to meet redemption requests through sales of portfolio securities or permissible borrowings. If the Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV and dilute remaining investors’ interests.

Certain shareholders, including clients or affiliates of the Investment Adviser and/or other funds managed by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these shareholders of their shares of the Fund may further increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and may impact the Fund’s NAV. These shareholders may include, for example, institutional investors, funds of funds, discretionary advisory clients and other shareholders whose buy-sell decisions are controlled by a single decision-maker.

 

Loan-Related Investments Risk—In addition to risks generally associated with debt investments (e.g., interest rate risk and default risk), loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments are subject to other risks. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be or become illiquid or less liquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan investments are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and certain loan investments may be or become illiquid or less liquid and more difficult to value, particularly in the event of a downgrade of the loan or the borrower. There is less readily available, reliable information about most loan investments than is the case for many other types of securities, and the Investment Adviser relies primarily on its own evaluation of a borrower’s credit quality rather than on any available independent sources. The ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to sell a loan investment may be impaired by the lack of an active trading market for certain loans or adverse market conditions limiting liquidity. Loan obligations are not traded on an exchange, and purchasers and sellers rely on certain market makers, such as the administrative agent for the particular loan obligation, to trade that loan obligation. The market for loan obligations may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because transactions in many loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of heightened redemption activity or distressed market conditions, the Fund may seek to obtain expedited trade settlement, which will generally incur additional costs (although expedited trade settlement will not always be available). The Fund may also hold a larger position in cash and cash items to limit the impact of extended trade settlement periods, which may adversely impact the Fund’s performance. In addition, substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults.

Affiliates of the Investment Adviser may participate in the primary and secondary market for loans. Because of limitations imposed by applicable law, the presence of such affiliates in the loan markets may restrict the Fund’s ability to acquire certain loans, affect the timing of such acquisition, or affect the price at which the loan is acquired.

With respect to loan participations, the Fund may not always have direct recourse against a borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and/or interest; may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the borrower; and may be regarded as the creditor of the agent lender (rather than the borrower), subjecting the Fund to the creditworthiness of that lender as well and the ability of the lender to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. Investors in loans, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws, although they may be entitled to certain contractual remedies.

Senior loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the borrower. Nevertheless, senior loans are usually rated below investment grade. Because second lien loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to senior loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral. Second lien loans generally have greater price volatility than senior loans and may be less liquid. Generally, loans have the benefit of restrictive covenants that limit the ability of the borrower to further encumber its assets or impose other obligations. To the extent a loan does not have certain covenants (or has less restrictive covenants), an investment in the loan will be particularly sensitive to the risks associated with loan investments.

 

16


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

Management Risk—A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results.

 

Market Risk—The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. The Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sectors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such conditions, events and actions may result in greater market risk.

 

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk—Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks. Generally, rising interest rates tend to extend the duration of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. As a result, in a period of rising interest rates, if the Fund holds mortgage-backed securities, it may exhibit additional volatility. This is known as extension risk. In addition, adjustable and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities are subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers may pay off their mortgages sooner than expected. This can reduce the returns of the Fund because the Fund may have to reinvest that money at the lower prevailing interest rates.

The Fund’s investments in other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with mortgage-backed securities, as well as additional risks associated with the nature of the assets and the servicing of those assets. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued by the U.S. Government. (See “U.S. Government Securities Risk”). To the extent that the Fund invests in mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers, the Fund may be subject to additional risks. Timely payment of interest and principal of non-governmental issuers are supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance purchased by the issuer. There can be no assurance that the private insurers can meet their obligations under the policies. An unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may adversely affect the value of a mortgage-backed security and could result in losses to the Fund. The risk of such defaults is generally higher in the case of mortgage pools that include subprime mortgages. Subprime mortgages refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their mortgages.

 

Municipal Securities Risk—Municipal securities are subject to call/prepayment risk, credit/default risk, extension risk, interest rate risk and certain additional risks. The Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business, political, environmental or other developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in the debt securities of similar projects (such as those relating to education, health care, housing, transportation, and utilities), industrial development bonds, or in particular types of municipal securities (such as general obligation bonds, private activity bonds and moral obligation bonds). While interest earned on municipal securities is generally not subject to federal tax, any interest earned on taxable municipal securities is fully taxable at the federal level and may be subject to tax at the state level. Specific risks are associated with different types of municipal securities. With respect to general obligation bonds, the full faith, credit and taxing power of the municipality that issues a general obligation bond secures payment of interest and repayment of principal. Timely payments depend on the issuer’s credit quality, ability to raise tax revenues and ability to maintain an adequate tax base. Certain of the municipalities in which the Fund invests may experience significant financial difficulties, which may lead to bankruptcy or default.

With respect to revenue bonds, payments of interest and principal are made only from the revenues generated by a particular facility, class of facilities or the proceeds of a special tax, or other revenue source, and depends on the money earned by that source. Private activity bonds are issued by municipalities and other public authorities to finance development of industrial facilities for use by a private enterprise. The private enterprise pays the principal and interest on the bond, and the issuer does not pledge its full faith, credit and taxing power for repayment. If the private enterprise defaults on its payments, the Fund may not receive any income or get its money back from the investment. Moral obligation bonds are generally issued by special purpose public authorities of a state or municipality. If the issuer is unable to meet its obligations, repayment of these bonds becomes a moral commitment, but not a legal obligation, of the state or municipality. Municipal notes are shorter term municipal debt obligations. They may provide interim financing in anticipation of, and are secured by, tax collection, bond sales or revenue receipts. If there is a shortfall in the anticipated proceeds, the notes may not be fully repaid and the Fund may lose money. In a municipal lease obligation, the issuer agrees to make payments when due on the lease obligation. The issuer will generally appropriate municipal funds

 

17


for that purpose, but is not obligated to do so. Although the issuer does not pledge its unlimited taxing power for payment of the lease obligation, the lease obligation is secured by the lease property. However, if the issuer does not fulfill its payment obligation it may be difficult to sell the property and the proceeds of a sale may not cover the Fund’s loss.

 

NAV Risk—The net asset value of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.

 

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk—The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Investment Adviser may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment regarding the direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Investment Adviser seeks to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from that anticipated by the Investment Adviser may produce significant losses to the Fund. Some of the transactions may also be subject to interest rate risk.

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk—Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific issuer developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less liquidity.

 

Other Investment Companies Risk—By investing in other investment companies (including ETFs) indirectly through the Fund, investors will incur a proportionate share of the expenses of the other investment companies held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees) in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. In addition, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such investment companies in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

 

Sector Risk—To the extent the Fund focuses its investments in securities of issuers in one or more sectors (such as the financial services or telecommunications sectors), the Fund will be subject, to a greater extent than if its investments were diversified across different sectors, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that sector, such as: adverse economic, business, political, environmental or other developments.

 

Short Position Risk—The Fund may use derivatives, including futures and swaps, to implement short positions, and may engage in short selling. Taking short positions and short selling involve leverage of the Fund’s assets and present various risks. If the value of the instrument or market in which the Fund has taken a short derivative position on increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in value from the time that the short position was entered into plus any premium and interest paid to a third party. Therefore, taking short derivative positions involves the risk that losses may be exaggerated, potentially losing more money than the actual cost of the investment. Also, there is the risk that the third party to the short derivative transaction may fail to honor its contract terms, causing a loss to the Fund.

The Fund may make short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. In such transactions, the Fund sells a security it does not own (i.e., “naked” short) in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the security. Because selling securities that the Fund does not own exposes the Fund to the risks associated with those securities, naked shorts involve speculative exposure risk, and such transactions may increase the costs incurred by the Fund.

In order to sell an instrument short, the Fund must generally first borrow the instrument from a lender, such as a broker or other institution. The Fund may not always be able to borrow the instrument at a particular time or at an acceptable price. Thus, there is risk that the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategy due to the lack of available instruments or for other reasons.

After selling a borrowed instrument, the Fund is then obligated to “cover” the short sale by purchasing and returning the instrument to the lender on a later date. The Fund cannot guarantee that the instrument necessary to cover a short position will be available for purchase at the time the Fund wishes to close a short position or, if available, that the instrument will be available at an acceptable price. If the borrowed instrument has appreciated in value, the Fund will be required to pay more for the replacement instrument than the amount it received for selling the instrument short. Moreover, purchasing an instrument to cover a short position can itself cause the price of the instrument to rise further, thereby exacerbating the loss. Unlike purchasing a security, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price and there is no upside limit on potential gain, the potential loss on a short sale is unlimited because the loss increases as the price of the instrument sold short increases and the price may rise indefinitely. If the price of a borrowed instrument declines before the short position is covered, the Fund may realize a gain. The Fund’s gain on a short sale, before transaction and other costs, is generally limited to the difference between the price at which it sold the borrowed instrument and the price it paid to purchase the instrument to return to the lender.

While the Fund has an open short position, it is subject to the risk that the instrument’s lender will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same instrument from another lender. If this happens, the Fund may be required to buy the

 

18


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

replacement instrument immediately at the instrument’s then current market price or “buy in” by paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the instrument to close out the short position.

Short sales also involve other costs. The Fund must normally repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest that accrues while a loan is outstanding. In addition, to borrow an instrument, the Fund may be required to pay a premium. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales. The amount of any ultimate gain for the Fund resulting from a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any ultimate loss will be increased, by the amount of premiums, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale.

Until the Fund replaces a borrowed instrument, the Fund may be required to maintain short sale proceeds with the lending broker as collateral. Moreover, the Fund will be required to make margin payments to the lender during the term of the borrowing if the value of the security it borrowed (and short sold) increases. Thus, short sales involve credit exposure to the broker that executes the short sales. In the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker with whom the Fund has an open short position, the Fund may be unable to recover, or delayed in recovering, any margin or other collateral held with or for the lending broker. In addition, the Fund is required to identify on its books liquid assets (less any additional collateral held by the broker) to cover short sale obligations, marked-to-market daily. The requirement to identify liquid assets limits the Fund’s leveraging of investments and the related risk of losses from leveraging. However, such identification may also limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

Short Sales of TBA Securities Risk. The Fund intends to make short sales of TBA securities. TBA transactions are forward agreements for the purchase or sale of securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, for a fixed price, with payment and delivery on an agreed upon future settlement date. The specific securities to be delivered are not identified at the trade date. However, delivered securities must meet specified terms, including, for TBA Mortgage-Backed Securities, issuer, rate and mortgage terms. Although most TBA short sale transactions are closed before the Fund would be required to deliver the security, if the Fund does not close the position, the Fund may have to purchase the securities required to be delivered at a higher price than anticipated, causing a loss to the Fund. The Fund may not always be able to purchase the securities required to settle a short at a particular time or at an attractive price.

 

Sovereign Default Risk—The issuer of the non-U.S. sovereign debt held by the Fund or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest when due. This may result from political or social factors, the general economic environment of a country or levels of foreign debt or foreign currency exchange rates.

   

Economic Risk—The risks associated with the general economic environment of a country. These can encompass, among other things, low quality and growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (“GDP”), high inflation or deflation, high government deficits as a percentage of GDP, weak financial sector, overvalued exchange rate, and high current account deficits as a percentage of GDP.

   

Political Risk—The risks associated with the general political and social environment of a country. These factors may include among other things government instability, poor socioeconomic conditions, corruption, lack of law and order, lack of democratic accountability, poor quality of the bureaucracy, internal and external conflict, and religious and ethnic tensions. High political risk can impede the economic welfare of a country.

   

Repayment Risk—A country may be unable to pay its external debt obligations in the immediate future. Repayment risk factors may include but are not limited to high foreign debt as a percentage of GDP, high foreign debt service as a percentage of exports, low foreign exchange reserves as a percentage of short-term debt or exports, and an unsustainable exchange rate structure.

 

Stock Risk—Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future. Stock prices may fluctuate from time to time in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Individual companies may report poor results or be negatively affected by industry and/or economic trends and developments, and the stock prices of such companies may suffer a decline in response.

 

Treasury Inflation Protected Securities Risk—The value of Treasury inflation-protected securities (“TIPS”) generally fluctuates in response to inflationary concerns. As inflationary expectations increase, TIPS will become more attractive, because they protect future interest payments against inflation. Conversely, as inflationary concerns decrease, TIPS will become less attractive and less valuable. However, repayment of the face value upon maturity is guaranteed by the U.S. government, even during periods of deflation that cause the principal value of TIPS to decline. Nevertheless, if the Fund purchases TIPS in the secondary market, where principal values have been adjusted upward due to inflation since issuance, the Fund may experience a loss if there is a subsequent period of deflation. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds TIPS, the Fund may earn less on the security than on a conventional bond. Although TIPS with different maturities may be issued in the future, the U.S. Treasury currently issues TIPS in five-year, ten-year and twenty-year maturities.

 

19


 

 

U.S. Government Securities Risk—The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by those agencies, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been operating under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Administration (“FHFA”) acting as their conservator, since September 2008. The entities are dependent upon the continued support of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and FHFA in order to continue their business operations. These factors, among others, could affect the future status and role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the values of their securities and the securities which they guarantee. Additionally, the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market value of their securities, which may fluctuate.

More information about the Fund’s portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

20


 

 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser     

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM”)

 

200 West Street

 

New York, New York 10282

   
 

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. As of [                ], 2019, GSAM had assets under supervision of approximately $[        ] trillion.

The Investment Adviser provides day-to-day advice regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. The Investment Adviser makes the investment decisions for the Fund and places purchase and sale orders for the Fund’s portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants (“FCM”) or other counterparties, including Goldman Sachs. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for the management of the Fund, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management with respect to certain portfolio securities. The Investment Adviser is responsible for the risk management functions for the Fund. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to the research and certain proprietary technical models developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions), and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among categories of issuers and types of securities.

The Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Fund (to the extent not performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Fund):

   

Supervises all non-advisory operations of the Fund

   

Provides personnel to perform necessary executive, administrative and clerical services to the Fund

   

Arranges for the preparation of all required tax returns, reports to shareholders, prospectuses and statements of additional information and other reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities

   

Maintains the records of the Fund

   

Provides office space and all necessary office equipment and services

An investment in the Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although the Fund attempts to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or its affiliates may invest “seed” capital in the Fund. These investments are generally intended to enable the Fund to commence investment operations and achieve sufficient scale. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may hedge the exposure of the seed capital invested in the Fund by, among other things, taking an offsetting position in the benchmark of the Fund.

 

21


 

  MANAGEMENT FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES     

As compensation for its services and its assumption of certain expenses, the Investment Adviser is entitled to the following fees, computed daily and payable monthly, at the annual rates listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets):

 

                                                                               
Fund:   Contractual
Management Fee
Annual Rate
    Average Daily
Net Assets
 

Income

    [        ]%       First $1 Billion  
    [        ]%       Next $1 Billion  
    [        ]%       Next $3 Billion  
    [        ]%       Next $3 Billion  
      [        ]%       Over $8 Billion  
   

[The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fees, including fees earned as the Investment Adviser to the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests, from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waivers in the future, consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangements in place.]

[The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to [                ]% of average daily net assets for the Fund through at least [November 30], 2020 and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The expense limitations may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.]

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s [annual] report dated [March 31, 2020].

 

  FUND MANAGERS     

Fixed Income Portfolio Management Team

The individuals jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are listed below. The Fund’s portfolio managers’ individual responsibilities may differ and may include, among other things, security selection, asset allocation, risk budgeting and general oversight of the management of the Fund’s portfolios.

 

Name and Title   Fund Responsibility  

Years

Primarily
Responsible

  Five Year Employment History

Ashish Shah,

Managing Director,

Co-Chief Investment Officer,

Global Fixed Income

  Portfolio Manager   Since

2019

  Mr. Shah is Co-Chief Investment Officer of Global Fixed Income, Global Head of Corporate Credit and Head of the Cross-Sector Strategy within Fixed Income. Mr. Shah joined the Investment Adviser in 2018. Mr. Shah was previously at AllianceBernstein from 2010 to 2018, where he was most recently the Head of Fixed Income and Chief Investment Officer of Global Credit.

Ron Arons,

Managing Director

  Portfolio Manager   Since

2019

  Mr. Arons joined the Investment Adviser as a fixed income portfolio manager in 2010.
     

For information about portfolio manager compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and portfolio manager ownership of securities in the Fund, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR AND TRANSFER AGENT     

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, NY 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor (the “Distributor”) of the Fund’s shares. Goldman Sachs, 71 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, also serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) and, as such, performs various shareholder servicing functions.

[For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.03% of average daily net assets with respect to Class R6 Shares, 0.04% of average daily net assets with respect to the Institutional Shares and 0.13% of average daily net assets with respect to the Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shares, as applicable.]

 

22


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates may purchase and hold shares of the Fund. Goldman Sachs and it affiliates reserve the right to redeem at any time some or all of the shares acquired for their own accounts.

 

  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS     

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs will present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund and will, under certain circumstances, limit the Fund’s investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates advise clients in all markets and transactions and purchase, sell, hold and recommend a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for their own accounts or for the accounts of their customers and have other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loans and other markets in which the Fund directly and indirectly invests. Thus, it is expected that the Fund will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates perform or seek to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affiliates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Fund. Although management fees paid by the Fund to the Investment Adviser and certain other fees paid to the Investment Adviser’s affiliates are based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and the Investment Adviser and its affiliates will still receive significant compensation from the Fund even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to those of the Fund and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Fund. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, will likely differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. In addition, the Fund may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or their other clients have an adverse interest. For example, the Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time that Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs-advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs-advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Fund. The Fund’s activities will, under certain circumstances, be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates also provide a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it are expected to create markets or specialize in, have positions in and/or effect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Fund, and will likely also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for one or more of those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates are expected to have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the section entitled “Potential Conflicts of Interest” in the SAI.

The Fund will, from time to time, make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions, in accordance with applicable law.

 

23


 

Distributions

 

The Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains. You may choose to have distributions paid in:

   

Cash

   

Additional shares of the same class of the Fund

   

Shares of the same or an equivalent class of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Special restrictions may apply. See the SAI.

You may indicate your election on your account application. Any changes may be submitted in writing, or via telephone, in some instances, to the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Intermediary) at any time before the record date for a particular dividend or distribution. If you do not indicate any choice, your dividends and distributions will be reinvested automatically in the Fund. If cash distributions are elected with respect to the Fund’s monthly net investment income, then cash distributions must also be elected with respect to the net short-term capital gains component, if any, of the Fund’s annual distributions.

The election to reinvest distributions in additional shares will not affect the tax treatment of such distributions, which will be treated as received by you and then used to purchase the shares.

Distributions from net investment income and distributions from net capital gains, if any, are declared and paid as follows:

 

                                                                                                                                                                       
     Investment
Income Dividends
   Capital Gains
Distributions
Fund    Declared      Paid    Declared and Paid

Income

   Daily      Monthly    Annually
          

In addition to the net investment income dividends normally declared daily and paid monthly, the Fund may also earn additional net investment income throughout the year. Any additional net investment income will be distributed annually as a declared event and paid to shareholders of record for such events. In addition the Fund may occasionally make a distribution at a time when it is not normally made.

From time to time a portion of the Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

When you purchase shares of the Fund, part of the NAV per share may be represented by undistributed income and/or realized gains that have previously been earned by the Fund. Therefore, subsequent distributions on such shares from such income and/or realized gains may be taxable to you even if the NAV of the shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the cost of such shares and the distributions (or portions thereof) represent a return of a portion of the purchase price.

 

24


 

 

Shareholder Guide

 

The following section will provide you with answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding buying and selling the Fund’s shares.

 

  HOW TO BUY SHARES     

Shares Offering

Shares of the Fund are continuously offered through the Distributor. The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase shares and reserve the right to reject any purchase order in whole or in part.

How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?

You may purchase shares of the Fund through certain intermediaries that have a relationship with Goldman Sachs, including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions (“Intermediaries”). Certain Intermediaries have been authorized by Goldman Sachs Trust (the “Trust”) to accept purchase, redemption or exchange orders on behalf of the Fund for their customers (“Authorized Institutions”), and if approved by the Fund, may designate other financial intermediaries to accept such orders. You should contact your Intermediary to learn whether it is authorized to accept orders on behalf of the Fund (i.e., an Authorized Institution). In order to make an initial investment in the Fund you must furnish to your Intermediary the information in the account application.

The decision as to which class to purchase depends on the amount you invest, the intended length of the investment and your personal situation. You should contact your Intermediary to discuss which share class option is right for you.

Note: Intermediaries may receive different compensation for selling different share classes.

To open an account, contact your Intermediary. Customers of an Intermediary will normally give their order instructions to the Intermediary, and the Intermediary will, in turn, place the order with the Transfer Agent. Intermediaries are responsible for transmitting accepted orders and payments to the Transfer Agent within the time period agreed upon by them and will set times by which orders and payments must be received by them from their customers. The Trust, Transfer Agent, Investment Adviser and their affiliates will not be responsible for any loss in connection with orders that are not transmitted to the Transfer Agent by an Intermediary on a timely basis.

The Fund will be deemed to have received an order for purchase, redemption or exchange of Fund shares when the order is accepted in “proper form” by the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, by an Authorized Institution) on a business day, and the order will be priced at the Fund’s current NAV per share (adjusted for any applicable sales charge) next determined after acceptance by the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, by an Authorized Institution). For shareholders that place trades directly with the Fund’s Transfer Agent, proper form generally means that specific trade details and customer identifying information must be received by the Transfer Agent at the time an order is submitted. Intermediaries of the Fund may have different requirements regarding what constitutes proper form for trade instructions. Please contact your Intermediary for more information.

For purchases by check, the Fund will not accept checks drawn on foreign banks, third party checks, temporary checks, cash or cash equivalents; e.g., cashier’s checks, official bank checks, money orders, traveler’s cheques or credit card checks. In limited situations involving the transfer of retirement assets, the Fund may accept cashier’s checks or official bank checks.

Investor and Class R Shares are not sold directly to the public. Instead, Investor and Class R Shares generally are available only to Section 401(k), 403(b), 457, profit sharing, money purchase pension, tax-sheltered annuity, defined benefit pension, non-qualified deferred compensation plans and non-qualified pension plans or other employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) or SIMPLE plans that are sponsored by one or more employers (including governmental or church employers) or employee organizations (“Employee Benefit Plans”). Investor Shares may also be sold to accounts established under a fee-based program that is sponsored and maintained by an Intermediary that has entered into a contractual relationship with Goldman Sachs to offer such shares through such programs (“Eligible Fee-Based Program”). Investor and Class R Shares are not available to traditional and Roth Individual Retirement Accounts (“IRAs”), SEPs and SARSEPs; except that Investor Shares are available to such accounts or plans to the extent they are purchased through an Eligible Fee-Based Program. Employee Benefit Plans and Eligible Fee-Based Programs must purchase Investor or Class R Shares through an Intermediary using a plan level or omnibus account.

 

25


 

Employee Benefit Plans generally may open an account and purchase Investor and/or Class R Shares through Intermediaries, financial planners, Employee Benefit Plan administrators and other financial intermediaries. Investor and/or Class R Shares may not be available through certain Intermediaries.

Class R6 Shares are generally available to the following investors who purchase shares of the Fund through certain Intermediaries that have a contractual relationship with Goldman Sachs, including banks, trust companies, brokers, registered investment advisers and other financial institutions, using a plan level or omnibus account, unless otherwise noted below.

   

Investors who purchase Class R6 Shares through an Eligible Fee-Based Program;

   

Employee Benefit Plans;

   

Registered investment companies or bank collective trusts investing directly with the Transfer Agent;

   

Institutional investors, including companies, foundations, endowments, municipalities, trusts and other entities, investing at least $5,000,000 directly with the Transfer Agent; and

   

Other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers.

Class R6 Shares may not be available through certain Intermediaries. For the purposes of Class R6 Shares eligibility, the term “Intermediary” does not include Goldman Sachs or its affiliates and Class R6 Shares will not be available to clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management, The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A., The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware or The Ayco Company, L.P.

What Is My Minimum Investment In The Fund?

For each of your accounts investing in Class A or Class C Shares, the following investment minimums must be met:

 

                                                                                                                                                           
     Initial   Additional*

Regular Accounts

  $1,000   $50

Employee Benefit Plans

  No Minimum   No Minimum

Uniform Gift/Transfer to Minors Accounts
(UGMA/UTMA)

  $250   $50

Individual Retirement Accounts and Coverdell ESAs

  $250   $50

Automatic Investment Plan Accounts

  $250   $50
   

 

*

No minimum additional investment requirements are imposed with respect to investors trading through Intermediaries who aggregate shares in omnibus or similar accounts (e.g., employee benefit plan accounts, wrap program accounts or traditional brokerage house accounts). A maximum purchase limitation of $1,000,000 in the aggregate normally applies to purchases of Class C Shares across all Goldman Sachs Funds.

For Institutional Shares, the minimum initial investment is $1,000,000 for individual or Institutional Investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, except that no initial minimum will be imposed on (i) Employee Benefit Plans that hold their Institutional Shares through plan-level or omnibus accounts; or (ii) investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees where the investment adviser or its Intermediary purchases Institutional Shares through an omnibus account. For this purpose, “Institutional Investors” shall include “wrap” account sponsors (provided they have an agreement covering the arrangement with the Distributor); corporations; qualified non-profit organizations, charitable trusts, foundations and endowments; any state, county or city, or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof; and banks, trust companies or other depository institutions investing for their own account or on behalf of their clients.

No minimum amount is required for initial purchases in Investor, Class R and Class R6 (except as provided below) Shares or additional investments in Institutional, Service, Investor, Class R or Class R6 Shares.

For Class R6 Shares, the minimum initial investment is $5,000,000 for institutional investors, including companies, foundations, endowments, municipalities, trusts and other entities who purchase Class R6 Shares directly with the Transfer Agent.

The minimum investment requirement for Class A, Class C and Institutional Shares may be waived for: (i) Goldman Sachs, its affiliates (including the Trust) or their respective Trustees, officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), as well as certain individuals related to such investors, including spouses or domestic partners, minor children including those of their domestic partners, other family members residing in the same household, and/or financial dependents, provided that all of the above are designated as such with an Intermediary or the Fund’s Transfer Agent; (ii) advisory clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management and accounts for which The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. acts in a fiduciary capacity (i.e., as agent or trustee); (iii) certain mutual fund “wrap” programs at the discretion of the Trust’s officers; and (iv) other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers. No minimum amount is required for additional investments in such accounts.

 

26


        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

What Should I Know When I Purchase Shares Through An Intermediary?

If shares of the Fund are held in an account maintained and serviced by your Intermediary, all recordkeeping, transaction processing and payments of distributions relating to your account will be performed by your Intermediary, and not by the Fund and its Transfer Agent. Since the Fund will have no record of your transactions, you should contact your Intermediary to purchase, redeem or exchange shares, to make changes in or give instructions concerning your account or to obtain information about your account. The transfer of shares from an account with one Intermediary to an account with another Intermediary involves special procedures and may require you to obtain historical purchase information about the shares in the account from your Intermediary. If your Intermediary’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Intermediary, the Trust reserves the right to redeem your shares. The Trust will not be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption.

Intermediaries that invest in shares on behalf of their customers may charge brokerage commissions or other fees directly to their customer accounts in connection with their investments. You should contact your Intermediary for information regarding such charges as these fees, if any, may affect the return such customers realize with respect to their investments.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments or provide services to Intermediaries to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, except that the Investment Adviser, Distributor and their affiliates do not make such payments on behalf of Class R6 Shares. These payments are made out of the Investment Adviser’s, Distributor’s and/or their affiliates’ own assets, and are not an additional charge to the Fund. The payments are in addition to the distribution and service fees, service fees and shareholder administration fees and sales charges described in the Prospectus. Such payments are intended to compensate Intermediaries for, among other things: marketing shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, which may consist of payments relating to the Fund’s inclusion on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs sponsored by the Intermediaries; access to the Intermediaries’ registered representatives or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; marketing support; the provision of analytical or other data to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to sales of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, including provision of consultative services to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to marketing and/or sale of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. The payments may also, to the extent permitted by applicable regulations, contribute to various non-cash and cash incentive arrangements to promote the sale of shares, as well as sponsor various educational programs, sales contests and/or promotions. The payments by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, which are in addition to the fees paid for these services by the Fund, may also compensate Intermediaries for sub-accounting, sub-transfer agency, administrative and/or shareholder processing services. These additional payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these or similar services. The amount of these additional payments is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through the Intermediaries. In addition, certain Intermediaries may have access to certain services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, including research reports and economic analysis, and portfolio analysis tools. In certain cases, the Intermediaries may not pay for these services. Please refer to the “Payments to Intermediaries” section of the SAI for more information about these payments and services.

The payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates and the services provided by an Intermediary may differ for different Intermediaries. The presence of these payments, receipt of these services and the basis on which an Intermediary compensates its registered representatives or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular Intermediary, registered representative or salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend the Fund based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. You should contact your Intermediary for more information about the payments it receives and any potential conflicts of interest.

You may be required to pay a commission directly to a broker or financial intermediary for effecting transactions in Institutional Shares. In addition to Institutional Shares, the Fund also offers other classes of shares to investors. These other share classes are subject to different fees and expenses (which affect performance) and are entitled to different services than Institutional Shares. Information regarding these other share classes is included in the Prospectus for the applicable share class and may also be obtained from your Intermediary or from Goldman Sachs by calling the number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

What Else Should I Know About Share Purchases?

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Refuse to open an account or require an Intermediary to refuse to open an account if you fail to (i) provide a taxpayer identification number, a Social Security Number or other government-issued identification (e.g., for an individual, a driver’s license or passport); or (ii) certify that such number or other information is correct (if required to do so under applicable law).

 

27


 

   

Reject or restrict any purchase or exchange order by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) for any reason in its discretion. Without limiting the foregoing, the Trust may reject or restrict purchase and exchange orders by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) when a pattern of frequent purchases, sales or exchanges of shares of the Fund is evident, or if purchases, sales or exchanges are, or a subsequent redemption might be, of a size that would disrupt the management of the Fund.

   

Close the Fund to new investors from time to time and reopen the Fund whenever it is deemed appropriate by the Investment Adviser.

   

Provide for, modify or waive the minimum investment requirements.

   

Modify the manner in which shares are offered.

   

Modify the sales charge rate applicable to future purchases of shares.

Shares of the Fund are only registered for sale in the United States and certain of its territories. Generally, shares of the Fund will only be offered or sold to “U.S. persons” and all offerings or other solicitation activities will be conducted within the United States, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities Act.

The Fund may allow you to purchase shares through an Intermediary with securities instead of cash if consistent with the Fund’s investment policies and operations and approved by the Investment Adviser.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders.

Please be advised that abandoned or unclaimed property laws for certain states (to which your account may be subject) require financial organizations to transfer (escheat) unclaimed property (including shares of the Fund) to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in an account for a period of time specified by state law.

Customer Identification Program.  Federal law requires the Fund to obtain, verify and record identifying information for certain investors, which will be reviewed solely for customer identification purposes, which may include the name, residential or business street address, date of birth (for an individual), Social Security Number or taxpayer identification number or other information for each investor who opens an account directly with the Fund. Applications without the required information may not be accepted by the Fund. Throughout the life of your account, the Fund may request updated identifying information in accordance with its Customer Identification Program. After accepting an application, to the extent permitted by applicable law or their Customer Identification Program, the Fund reserves the right to: (i) place limits on transactions in any account until the identity of the investor is verified; (ii) refuse an investment in the Fund; or (iii) involuntarily redeem an investor’s shares and close an account in the event that the Fund is unable to verify an investor’s identity or are unable to obtain all required information. The Fund and its agents will not be responsible for any loss or tax liability in an investor’s account resulting from the investor’s delay in providing all required information or from closing an account and redeeming an investor’s shares pursuant to their Customer Identification Program.

How Are Shares Priced?

The price you pay when you buy shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share (as adjusted for any applicable sales charge) after the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, an Authorized Institution) has received and accepted your order in proper form. The price you receive when you sell shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share (adjusted for any applicable CDSCs) after the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, an Authorized Institution) has received and accepted your order in proper form, with the redemption proceeds reduced by any applicable charges (e.g., CDSCs). Each class generally calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV =   (Value of Assets of the Class)
– (Liabilities of the Class)
  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Class

The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, if the Fund’s fund accounting agent is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Fund’s NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Fund’s investments may be determined in good faith under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. Thus, such pricing may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the value realized on a sale. Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source or a price is unavailable.

 

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        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

Equity securities listed on an exchange are generally valued at the last available sale price on the exchange on which they are principally traded. To the extent the Fund invests in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices will be provided by an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service in accordance with the fair value procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV.

Fixed income securities are generally valued on the basis of prices (including evaluated prices) and quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. Pricing services may use matrix pricing or valuation models, which utilize certain inputs and assumptions, including, but not limited to, yield or price with respect to comparable fixed income securities, to determine current value.

Investments in other open-end registered investment companies (if any), excluding investments in ETFs, are valued based on the NAV of those open-end registered investment companies (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectuses). Investments in ETFs will generally be valued at the last sale price or official closing price on the exchange on which they are principally traded.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading limits or suspensions.

One effect of using an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service and fair valuation may be to reduce stale pricing arbitrage opportunities presented by the pricing of Fund shares. However, it involves the risk that the values used by the Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

Please note the following with respect to the price at which your transactions are processed:

   

NAV per share of each share class is generally calculated by the Fund’s fund accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ market may officially close. This occurs after the determination, if any, of the income to be declared as a dividend. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed, although Fund shares may be priced on such days if the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) recommends that the bond markets remain open for all or part of the day.

   

On any business day when the SIFMA recommends that the bond markets close early, the Fund reserves the right to close at or prior to the SIFMA recommended closing time. If the Fund does so, it will cease granting same business day credit for purchase and redemption orders received after the Fund’s closing time and credit will be given on the next business day.

   

The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

   

The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into the Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange and/or the bond markets is stopped at a time other than their regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange and/or the bond markets do not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open the Fund for purchase, redemption and exchange transactions if the

 

29


Federal Reserve wire payment system is open. To learn whether the Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days the Fund is closed. As a result, if the Fund holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or redeem Fund shares.

The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Fund’s fund accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each share class of the Fund is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, cyber attacks and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counterparties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which the Fund directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be utilized to price the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV.

When Will Shares Be Issued And Dividends Begin To Be Accrued?

Net investment income dividends that are declared daily and paid monthly will begin to be accrued as follows:

   

Shares Purchased by Federal Funds Wire or ACH Transfer:

   

If a purchase order is received in proper form before the Fund closes, shares will generally be issued and dividends will generally begin to accrue on the purchased shares on the later of (i) the business day after payment is received, or (ii) the day that the federal funds wire is received by The Northern Trust Company. Failure to provide payment on settlement date may result in a delay in accrual.

   

If a purchase order is placed through an Intermediary that settles through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (the “NSCC”), the purchase order will begin accruing dividends on the NSCC settlement date.

   

Shares Purchased by Check:

   

If a purchase order is received in proper form before the Fund closes, shares will generally be issued and dividends will generally begin to accrue on the purchased shares no later than two business days after payment is received.

Other dividends or distributions will be distributed annually as a declared event and paid to shareholders of record on the record date for such events.

 

  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS A SHARES     

What Is The Offering Price Of Class A Shares?

The offering price of Class A Shares of the Fund is the next determined NAV per share plus an initial sales charge paid to Goldman Sachs at the time of purchase of shares.  The sales charge varies depending upon the amount you purchase. In some cases, described below, the initial sales charge may be eliminated altogether, and the offering price will be the NAV per share.

The current sales charges and commissions paid to Intermediaries for Class A Shares of the Fund are as follows:

 

Amount of Purchase
(including sales charge, if any)
  Sales Charge as
Percentage of
Offering Price
    Sales Charge
as Percentage
of Net Amount
Invested
    Maximum Dealer
Allowance as
Percentage of
Offering Price
*
 

Less than $100,000

    3.75     3.90     3.25

$100,000 up to (but less than) $250,000

    3.00       3.09       2.50  

$250,000 up to (but less than) $500,000

    2.50       2.56       2.00  

$500,000 up to (but less than) $1 million

    2.00       2.04       1.75  

$1 million or more

    0.00 **      0.00 **      ***  
     

 

    *

Dealer’s allowance may be changed periodically. During special promotions, the entire sales charge may be reallowed to Intermediaries. Intermediaries to whom substantially the entire sales charge is reallowed may be deemed to be “underwriters” under the Securities Act.

  **

No sales charge is payable at the time of purchase of Class A Shares of $1 million or more, but a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed in the event of certain redemptions within 18 months. For more information about Class A Shares’ CDSCs, please see “What Else Do I Need to Know About Class A Shares’ CDSC?” below.

***

The Distributor may pay a one-time commission to Intermediaries who initiate or are responsible for purchases of $1 million or more of shares of the Fund equal to 1.00% of the amount under $3 million, 0.50% of the next $2 million, and 0.25% thereafter. In instances where this one-time commission is not paid to a particular Intermediary (including Goldman Sachs’ Private Wealth Management Unit and Employee Benefit Plans), the CDSC on Class A Shares, generally, will be waived. The Distributor may also pay, with respect to all or a portion of the amount purchased, a commission in accordance with

 

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            SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

  the foregoing schedule to Intermediaries who initiate or are responsible for purchases of $1 million or more by certain “wrap” accounts. Purchases by such accounts will be made at NAV with no initial sales charge, but if shares are redeemed within 18 months, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed upon the account. In addition, Intermediaries will remit to the Distributor such payments received in connection with “wrap” accounts in the event that shares are redeemed within 18 months.

Different Intermediaries may impose different sales charges. These variations are described in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

You should note that the actual sales charge that appears in your mutual fund transaction confirmation may differ slightly from the rate disclosed above in the Prospectus due to rounding calculations.

As indicated in the preceding chart, and as discussed further below and in the section titled “How Can The Sales Charge On Class A Shares Be Reduced?” and in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts, you may, under certain circumstances, be entitled to pay reduced sales charges on your purchases of Class A Shares or have those charges waived entirely. To take advantage of these discounts, your Intermediary must notify the Fund’s Transfer Agent at the time of your purchase order that a discount may apply to your current purchases. You may also be required to provide appropriate documentation to receive these discounts, including:

 

  (i)

Information or records regarding shares of the Fund or other Goldman Sachs Funds held in all accounts (e.g., retirement accounts) of the shareholder at all Intermediaries; or

 

  (ii)

Information or records regarding shares of the Fund or other Goldman Sachs Funds held at any Intermediary by related parties of the shareholder, such as members of the same family or household.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Class A Shares’ CDSC?

Purchases of $1 million or more of Class A Shares will be made at NAV with no initial sales charge. However, if you redeem shares within 18 months after the beginning of the month in which the purchase was made, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed. The CDSC may not be imposed if your Intermediary agrees with the Distributor to return all or an applicable prorated portion of its commission to the Distributor. The CDSC is waived on redemptions in certain circumstances. See “In What Situations May The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares Be Waived Or Reduced?” below and, if you hold shares through an Intermediary, see Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

When Are Class A Shares Not Subject To A Sales Load?

Class A Shares of the Fund may be sold at NAV without payment of any sales charge to the following individuals and entities:

   

Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or their respective officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), any partnership of which Goldman Sachs is a general partner, any Trustee or officer of the Trust and designated family members of any of these individuals;

   

Qualified employee benefit plans of Goldman Sachs;

   

Trustees or directors of investment companies for which Goldman Sachs or an affiliate acts as sponsor;

   

Any employee or registered representative of any Intermediary (or such Intermediaries’ affiliates and subsidiaries) or their respective spouses or domestic partners, children and parents;

   

Banks, trust companies or other types of depository institutions;

   

Any state, county or city, or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof, which is prohibited by applicable investment laws from paying a sales charge or commission in connection with the purchase of shares of the Fund;

   

Employee Benefit Plans, other than Employee Benefit Plans that purchase Class A Shares through brokerage relationships in which sales charges are customarily imposed. Under such circumstances, Plans will be assessed sales charges as described further in “Shareholder Guide—Common Questions Applicable to the Purchase of Class A Shares;”

   

Investors who purchase Class A Shares through an omnibus account sponsored by an Intermediary that has an agreement with the Distributor covering such investors to offer Class A Shares without charging an initial sales charge;

   

Insurance company separate accounts that make the Fund available as underlying investments in certain group annuity contracts;

   

“Wrap” accounts for the benefit of clients of broker-dealers, financial institutions or financial planners, provided they have entered into an agreement with GSAM specifying aggregate minimums and certain operating policies and standards;

   

Investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees;

   

Accounts over which GSAM or its advisory affiliates have investment discretion;

   

Shareholders who roll over distributions from any tax-qualified Employee Benefit Plan or tax-sheltered annuity to an IRA which invests in the Goldman Sachs Funds if the tax-qualified Employee Benefit Plan or tax-sheltered annuity receives

 

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administrative services provided by certain third party administrators that have entered into a special service arrangement with Goldman Sachs relating to such plan or annuity;

   

State sponsored 529 college savings plans;

   

Investors that purchase Class A Shares through the GS Retirement Plan Plus and Goldman Sachs 401(k) Programs; or

   

Former shareholders of certain funds who (i) received shares of a Goldman Sachs Fund in connection with a reorganization of an acquired fund into a Goldman Sachs Fund, (ii) had previously qualified for purchases of Class A Shares of the acquired funds without the imposition of a sales load under the guidelines of the applicable acquired fund family, and (iii) as of August 24, 2012 held their Goldman Sachs Fund shares directly with the Goldman Sachs Funds’ Transfer Agent, as long as they continue to hold the shares directly at the Transfer Agent.

You must certify eligibility for any of the above exemptions on your account application and notify your Intermediary and the Fund if you no longer are eligible for the exemption. You may be eligible for different or additional exemptions based on your Intermediary; see Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

The Fund will grant you an exemption subject to confirmation of your eligibility by your Intermediary. You may be charged a fee by your Intermediary.

How Can The Sales Charge On Class A Shares Be Reduced?

   

Right of Accumulation:  When buying Class A Shares in Goldman Sachs Funds, your current aggregate investment determines the initial sales load you pay. You may qualify for reduced sales charges when the current market value of holdings across Class A and/or Class C Shares, plus new purchases, reaches $100,000 or more. Class A and/or Class C Shares of any of the Goldman Sachs Funds may be combined under the Right of Accumulation. If the Fund’s Transfer Agent is properly notified, the “Amount of Purchase” in the chart in the section “What Is The Offering Price of Class A Shares?” will be deemed to include all Class A and/or Class C Shares of the Goldman Sachs Funds that were held at the time of purchase by any of the following persons: (i) you, your spouse or domestic partner, your parents and your children; and (ii) any trustee, guardian or other fiduciary of a single trust estate or a single fiduciary account. This includes, for example, any Class A and/or Class C Shares held at an Intermediary other than the one handling your current purchase. For purposes of applying the Right of Accumulation, shares of the Fund and any other Goldman Sachs Funds purchased by an existing client of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management or GS Ayco Holding LLC will be combined with Class A and/or Class C Shares and other assets held by all other Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management accounts or accounts of GS Ayco Holding LLC, respectively. In addition, under some circumstances, Class A and/or Class C Shares of the Fund and Class A and/or Class C Shares of any other Goldman Sachs Fund purchased by partners, directors, officers or employees of certain organizations may be combined for the purpose of determining whether a purchase will qualify for the Right of Accumulation and, if qualifying, the applicable sales charge level. To qualify for a reduced sales load, you or your Intermediary must notify the Fund’s Transfer Agent at the time of investment that a quantity discount is applicable. If you do not notify your Intermediary at the time of your current purchase or a future purchase that you qualify for a quantity discount, you may not receive the benefit of a reduced sales charge that might otherwise apply. Use of this option is subject to a check of appropriate records.

In some circumstances, other Class A and/or Class C Shares may be aggregated with your current purchase under the Right of Accumulation as described in the SAI. For purposes of determining the “Amount of Purchase,” all Class A and/or Class C Shares currently held will be valued at their current market value.

 

   

Statement of Intention:  You may obtain a reduced sales charge by means of a written Statement of Intention which expresses your non-binding commitment to invest (not counting reinvestments of dividends and distributions) in the aggregate $100,000 or more within a period of 13 months in Class A Shares of one or more of the Goldman Sachs Funds. Any investments you make during the period will receive the discounted sales load based on the full amount of your investment commitment. Purchases made during the previous 90 days may be included; however, capital appreciation does not apply toward these combined purchases. If the investment commitment of the Statement of Intention is not met prior to the expiration of the 13-month period, the entire amount will be subject to the higher applicable sales charge unless the failure to meet the investment commitment is due to the death of the investor. By selecting the Statement of Intention, you authorize the Transfer Agent to escrow and redeem Class A Shares in your account to pay this additional charge if the Statement of Intention is not met. You must, however, inform the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Intermediary) that the Statement of Intention is in effect each time shares are purchased. Each purchase will be made at the public offering price applicable to a single transaction of the dollar amount specified on the Statement of Intention. The SAI has more information about the Statement of Intention, which you should read carefully.

 

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Different Intermediaries may have different policies regarding Rights of Accumulation and Statements of Intention. These variations are described in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

 

  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS C SHARES     

What Is The Offering Price Of Class C Shares?

You may purchase Class C Shares of the Fund at the next determined NAV without paying an initial sales charge. However, if you redeem Class C Shares within 12 months of purchase, a CDSC of 1.00% will normally be deducted from the redemption proceeds. In connection with purchases by Employee Benefit Plans, where Class C Shares are redeemed within 12 months of purchase, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed upon the plan sponsor or third party administrator. Class C Shares acquired in exchange for shares subject to a CDSC will be subject to the CDSC, if any, of the shares originally held. No CDSC is imposed in connection with an exchange of Class C Shares at the time of such exchange. When Class C Shares are exchanged for Class C Shares of another fund, the period of time that such shares will be subject to a CDSC (if any) will be measured as of the date of the original purchase. With respect to such shares held by Employee Benefit Plans, the CDSC may be imposed on the plan sponsor or third party administrator.

Different Intermediaries may impose different sales charges. These variations are described in Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

Proceeds from the CDSC are payable to the Distributor and may be used in whole or in part to defray the Distributor’s expenses related to providing distribution-related services to the Fund in connection with the sale of Class C Shares, including the payment of compensation to Intermediaries. A commission equal to 1% of the amount invested is normally paid by the Distributor to Intermediaries.

What Should I Know About The Automatic Conversion Of Class C Shares?

Class C Shares of the Fund will automatically convert into Class A Shares (which bear lower distribution and service (12b-1) fees and do not bear additional personal and account maintenance services fees) of the Fund on or about the fifteenth day of the last month of the quarter that is ten years after the purchase date. No sales charges or other charges will apply in connection with any conversion.

If you acquire Class C Shares of the Fund by exchange from Class C Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund, your Class C Shares will convert into Class A Shares of the Fund based on the date of the initial purchase. If you acquire Class C Shares through reinvestment of distributions, your Class C Shares will convert into Class A Shares based on the date of the initial purchase of the shares on which the distribution was paid.

Shareholders will not recognize a gain or loss for federal income tax purposes upon the conversion of Class C Shares for Class A Shares of the Fund. The automatic conversion of Class C Shares to Class A Shares will not apply to shares held through group retirement plan recordkeeping platforms of certain Intermediaries who hold such shares in an omnibus account and do not track participant level share lot aging to facilitate such a conversion.

If you purchased your shares through an Intermediary, it is the responsibility of your Intermediary to work with the Transfer Agent to effect the conversion and to ensure that Class C Shares are automatically converted after the appropriate period of time. In addition, if your shares are no longer subject to a CDSC, you may be able to exchange your Class C Shares for Class A Shares without the payment of a sales charge prior to the automatic conversion subject to the policies and procedures of the Intermediary through whom you have purchased your shares. Please contact your Intermediary with questions regarding your eligibility to exchange Class C Shares for Class A Shares.

 

  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS A AND C SHARES     

What Else Do I Need To Know About The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares?

   

The CDSC is based on the lesser of the NAV of the shares at the time of redemption or the original offering price (which is the original NAV).

   

No CDSC is charged on shares acquired from reinvested dividends or capital gains distributions.

   

No CDSC is charged on the per share appreciation of your account over the initial purchase price.

   

When counting the number of months since a purchase of Class A or Class C Shares was made, all purchases made during a month will be combined and considered to have been made on the first day of that month.

 

33


 

   

To keep your CDSC as low as possible, each time you place a request to sell shares, the Fund will first sell any shares in your account that do not carry a CDSC and then the shares in your account that have been held the longest.

In What Situations May The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares Be Waived Or Reduced?

The CDSC on Class A and Class C Shares that are subject to a CDSC may be waived or reduced if the redemption relates to:

   

Mandatory retirement distributions or loans to participants or beneficiaries from Employee Benefit Plans;

   

Hardship withdrawals by a participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

The separation from service by a participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

Excess contributions distributed from an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

Distributions from a qualified Employee Benefit Plan invested in the Goldman Sachs Funds which are being rolled over to an IRA in the same share class of a Goldman Sachs Fund;

   

The death or disability (as defined in Section 72(m)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”)) of a shareholder, participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

   

Satisfying the minimum distribution requirements of the Code;

   

Establishing “substantially equal periodic payments” as described under Section 72(t)(2) of the Code;

   

Redemption proceeds which are to be reinvested in accounts or non-registered products over which GSAM or its advisory affiliates have investment discretion;

   

A systematic withdrawal plan. The Fund reserves the right to limit such redemptions, on an annual basis, to 12% of the value of your Class C Shares and 10% of the value of your Class A Shares;

   

Redemptions or exchanges of Fund shares held through an Employee Benefit Plan using the Fund as part of a qualified default investment alternative or “QDIA”; or

   

Other redemptions, at the discretion of the Trust’s officers, relating to shares purchased through Employee Benefit Plans.

You may be eligible for different or additional exemptions based on your Intermediary; see Appendix C—Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts.

 

  HOW TO SELL SHARES     

How Can I Sell Shares Of The Fund?

Generally, Shares may be sold (redeemed) only through Intermediaries. Customers of an Intermediary will normally give their redemption instructions to the Intermediary, and the Intermediary will, in turn, place the order with the Transfer Agent. On any business day the Fund is open, the Fund will generally redeem its Shares upon request at their next-determined NAV per share (subject to any applicable CDSC) after the Transfer Agent (or, if applicable, the Authorized Institution) has received and accepted a redemption order in proper form, as described under “How To Buy Shares—How Can I Purchase Shares of The Fund?” above. Redemptions may be requested by electronic trading platform (through your Intermediary), in writing or by telephone (unless the Intermediary opts out of the telephone redemption privilege on the account application). You should contact your Intermediary to discuss redemptions and redemption proceeds. The Fund may transfer redemption proceeds to an account with your Intermediary. In the alternative, your Intermediary may request that redemption proceeds be sent to you by check or wire (if the wire instructions are designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent).

When Do I Need A Medallion Signature Guarantee To Redeem Shares?

Generally, a redemption request must be in writing and signed by an authorized person with a Medallion signature guarantee if:

   

A request is made in writing to redeem Class A, Class C, Investor or Class R Shares in an amount over $50,000 via check;

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to an address that is not your address of record; or

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to a domestic bank account that is not designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent.

A Medallion signature guarantee must be obtained from a bank, brokerage firm or other financial intermediary that is a member of an approved Medallion Guarantee Program or that is otherwise approved by the Trust. A notary public cannot provide a Medallion signature guarantee. The written request may be confirmed by telephone with both the requesting party and the designated Intermediary to verify instructions. Additional documentation may be required.

What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?

The Trust, the Distributor and the Transfer Agent will not be liable for any loss or tax liability you may incur in the event that the Trust accepts unauthorized telephone redemption requests that the Trust reasonably believes to be genuine. The Trust may accept

 

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        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

telephone redemption instructions from any person identifying himself or herself as the owner of an account or the owner’s registered representative where the owner has not declined in writing to use this service. Thus, you risk possible losses if a telephone redemption is not authorized by you.

In an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent redemption and exchange requests by telephone, Goldman Sachs and DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. (“DST”) each employ reasonable procedures specified by the Trust to confirm that such instructions are genuine. The following general policies are currently in effect:

   

Telephone requests are recorded.

   

Proceeds of telephone redemption requests will be sent to your address of record or authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (unless you provide written instructions and a Medallion signature guarantee indicating another address or account).

   

For the 30-day period following a change of address, telephone redemptions will only be filled by a wire transfer to the authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (see immediately preceding bullet point). In order to receive the redemption by check during this time period, the redemption request must be in the form of a written, Medallion signature guaranteed letter.

   

The telephone redemption option does not apply to Shares held in an account maintained and serviced by your Intermediary. If your Shares are held in an account with an Intermediary, you should contact your registered representative of record, who may make telephone redemptions on your behalf.

   

The telephone redemption option may be modified or terminated at any time without prior notice.

   

The Fund may allow redemptions via check up to $50,000 in Class A, Class C, Investor and Class R Shares requested via telephone.

Note: It may be difficult to make telephone redemptions in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

How Are Redemption Proceeds Paid?

By Wire:  You may arrange for your redemption proceeds to be paid as federal funds to an account with your Intermediary or to a domestic bank account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. In addition, redemption proceeds may be transmitted through an electronic trading platform to an account with your Intermediary. The following general policies govern wiring redemption proceeds:

   

Redemption proceeds will normally be paid in federal funds, between one and two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of your Intermediary) following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request. In certain circumstances, however (such as unusual market conditions or in cases of very large redemptions or excessive trading), it may take up to seven days to pay redemption proceeds.

   

Redemption requests may only be postponed or suspended for longer than seven days as permitted under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”) if (i) the New York Stock Exchange is closed for trading or trading is restricted; (ii) an emergency exists which makes the disposal of securities owned by the Fund or the fair determination of the value of the Fund’s net assets not reasonably practicable; or (iii) the SEC, by order or regulation, permits the suspension of the right of redemption.

   

If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or purchased by Automated Clearing House (“ACH”), the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

   

If the Federal Reserve Bank is closed on the day that the redemption proceeds would ordinarily be wired, wiring the redemption proceeds may be delayed until the Federal Reserve Bank reopens.

   

To change the bank wiring instructions designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent, you must send written instructions signed by an authorized person designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if you are requesting a redemption in conjunction with the change.

   

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs assumes any responsibility for the performance of your bank or Intermediary in the transfer process. If a problem with such performance arises, you should deal directly with your bank or Intermediary.

By Check:  You may elect to receive your redemption proceeds by check. Redemption proceeds paid by check will normally be mailed to the address of record within two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of your Intermediary) following receipt of a properly executed redemption request, except in certain circumstances (such as those set forth above with respect to wire transfer redemption requests). If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or ACH, the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

 

35


 

What Else Do I Need To Know About Redemptions?

The following generally applies to redemption requests:

   

Shares of the Fund continue to earn dividends up to, but not including, the date of settlement.

   

Additional documentation may be required when deemed appropriate by the Transfer Agent. A redemption request will not be in proper form until such additional documentation has been received.

   

Intermediaries are responsible for the timely transmittal of redemption requests by their customers to the Transfer Agent. In order to facilitate the timely transmittal of redemption requests, Intermediaries may set times by which they must receive redemption requests. Intermediaries may also require additional documentation from you.

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Redeem your shares in the event your Intermediary’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Intermediary or in the event that the Fund is no longer an option in your Employee Benefit Plan or no longer available through your Eligible Fee-Based Program.

   

Redeem your shares if your account balance is below the required Fund minimum. The Fund will not redeem your shares on this basis if the value of your account falls below the minimum account balance solely as a result of market conditions. The Fund will give you 60 days prior written notice to allow you to purchase sufficient additional shares of the Fund in order to avoid such redemption. Different rules may apply to investors who have established brokerage accounts with Goldman Sachs in accordance with the terms and conditions of their account agreements.

   

Redeem your shares in the case of actual or suspected threatening conduct or actual or suspected fraudulent, suspicious or illegal activity by you or any other individual associated with your account.

   

Subject to applicable law, redeem your shares in other circumstances determined by the Board of Trustees to be in the best interest of the Trust.

   

Pay redemptions by a distribution in-kind of securities (instead of cash). If you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you should expect to incur transaction costs upon the disposition of those securities. In addition, if you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you will be subject to market gains or losses upon the disposition of those securities.

   

Reinvest any amounts (e.g., dividends, distributions or redemption proceeds) which you have elected to receive by check should your check remain uncashed for more than 180 days. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed checks. Your check will be reinvested in your account at the NAV on the day of the reinvestment. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to the risk of loss like any Fund investment. If you elect to receive distributions in cash and a check remains uncashed for more than 180 days, your cash election may be changed automatically to reinvest and your future dividend and capital gains distributions will be reinvested in the Fund at the NAV as of the date of payment of the distribution. This provision may not apply to certain retirement or qualified accounts, accounts with a non-U.S. address or closed accounts. Your participation in a systematic withdrawal program may be terminated if a check remains uncashed.

   

Charge an additional fee in the event a redemption is made via wire transfer.

The Fund typically expects to meet redemption requests by using holdings of cash or cash equivalents and/or proceeds from the sale of portfolio holdings. In addition, under stressed market conditions, as well as for other temporary or emergency purposes, the Fund may distribute redemption proceeds in-kind (instead of cash), access a line of credit or overdraft facility, or borrow through other sources to meet redemption requests.

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from an involuntary redemption.

Can I Reinvest Redemption Proceeds In The Same Or Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may redeem shares of the Fund and reinvest a portion or all of the redemption proceeds in the same share class of another Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV. To be eligible for this privilege, you must have held the shares you want to redeem for at least 30 days and you must reinvest the share proceeds within 90 days after you redeem. You should obtain and read the applicable prospectus before investing in any other Goldman Sachs Fund.

You may reinvest redemption proceeds as follows:

   

If you pay a CDSC upon redemption of Class A or Class C Shares and then reinvest in Class A or Class C Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund as described above, your account will be credited with the amount of the CDSC you paid. The reinvested shares will, however, continue to be subject to a CDSC. The holding period of the shares acquired through reinvestment will include the holding period of the redeemed shares for purposes of computing the CDSC payable upon a subsequent redemption.

 

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        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

   

The reinvestment privilege may be exercised at any time in connection with transactions in which the proceeds are reinvested at NAV in a tax-sheltered Employee Benefit Plan. In other cases, the reinvestment privilege may be exercised once per year upon receipt of a written request.

   

You may be subject to tax as a result of a redemption. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of a redemption and reinvestment.

Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may exchange shares of a Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC, if applicable, at the time of exchange for certain shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Redemption (including by exchange) of certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses may, however, be subject to a redemption fee for shares that are held for either 30 or 60 days or less, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. The exchange privilege may be materially modified or withdrawn at any time upon 60 days written notice. You should contact your Intermediary to arrange for exchanges of shares of the Fund for shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund.

You should keep in mind the following factors when making or considering an exchange:

   

You should obtain and carefully read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund you are acquiring before making an exchange. You should be aware that not all Goldman Sachs Funds may offer all share classes.

   

Currently, the Fund does not impose any charge for exchanges although the Fund may impose a charge in the future.

   

The exchanged shares of the new Goldman Sachs Fund may later be exchanged for shares of the same class of the original Fund held at the next determined NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC (but subject to any applicable redemption fee). However, if additional shares of the new Goldman Sachs Fund were purchased after the initial exchange, and that Fund’s shares do not impose a sales charge or CDSC, then the applicable sales charge or CDSC of the original Fund’s shares will be imposed upon the exchange of those shares.

   

When you exchange shares subject to a CDSC, no CDSC will be charged at that time. However, for purposes of determining the amount of the CDSC applicable to the shares acquired in the exchange, the length of time you have owned the shares will be measured from the date you acquired the original shares subject to a CDSC, and the amount and terms of the CDSC will be those applicable to the original shares acquired and will not be affected by a subsequent exchange.

   

Eligible investors may exchange certain classes of shares for another class of shares of the same Fund. For further information, contact your Intermediary.

   

All exchanges which represent an initial investment in a Goldman Sachs Fund must satisfy the minimum initial investment requirements of that Fund. This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the Trust. Exchanges into a Goldman Sachs Fund need not meet the traditional minimum investment requirements for that Fund if the entire balance of the original Fund account is exchanged.

   

Exchanges are available only in states where exchanges may be legally made.

   

It may be difficult to make telephone exchanges in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

   

Goldman Sachs and DST may use reasonable procedures described above in “How to Sell Shares—What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?” in an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent telephone exchange requests.

   

Normally, a telephone exchange will be made only to an identically registered account.

   

Exchanges into Goldman Sachs Funds or certain share classes of Goldman Sachs Funds that are closed to new investors may be restricted.

   

Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund may be subject to any redemption fee imposed by the other Goldman Sachs Fund.

   

Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund received by the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange will normally begin to accrue dividends on the next business day.

For federal income tax purposes, an exchange from one Goldman Sachs Fund to another is treated as a redemption of the shares surrendered in the exchange, on which you may be subject to tax, followed by a purchase of shares received in the exchange. Exchanges within Employee Benefit Plan accounts will not result in capital gains or loss for federal or state income tax purposes. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of an exchange.

 

  SHAREHOLDER SERVICES     

Can I Arrange To Have Automatic Investments Made On A Regular Basis?

You may be able to make automatic investments in Class A and Class C Shares through your bank via ACH transfer or via bank draft or through your Intermediary each month. The minimum dollar amount for this service is $250 for the initial investment and

 

37


$50 per month for additional investments. Forms for this option are available online at www.gsamfunds.com and from your Intermediary, or you may check the appropriate box on the account application.

Can My Distributions From The Fund Be Invested In Other Goldman Sachs Funds?

You may elect to cross-reinvest distributions paid by a Goldman Sachs Fund in shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

   

Shares will be purchased at NAV.

   

You may elect cross-reinvestment into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

   

You cannot make cross-reinvestments into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

   

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which distributions are invested.

Can I Arrange To Have Automatic Exchanges Made On A Regular Basis?

You may elect to exchange automatically a specified dollar amount of Class A or Class C Shares of the Fund for shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

   

Shares will be purchased at NAV if a sales charge had been imposed on the initial purchase.

   

You may elect to exchange into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

   

Shares subject to a CDSC acquired under this program may be subject to a CDSC at the time of redemption from the Goldman Sachs Fund into which the exchange is made depending upon the date and value of your original purchase.

   

Automatic exchanges are made monthly on the 15th day of each month or the first business day thereafter.

   

Minimum dollar amount: $50 per month.

   

You cannot make automatic exchanges into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

   

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which automatic exchanges are made.

   

An exchange is considered a redemption and a purchase and therefore may be a taxable transaction.

Can I Have Systematic Withdrawals Made On A Regular Basis?

You may redeem from your Class A or Class C Share account systematically via check or ACH transfer or through your Intermediary in any amount of $50 or more.

   

It is normally undesirable to maintain a systematic withdrawal plan at the same time that you are purchasing additional Class A or Class C Shares because of the sales charges that are imposed on certain purchases of Class A Shares and because of the CDSCs that are imposed on certain redemptions of Class A and Class C Shares.

   

Checks are normally mailed within two business days after your selected systematic withdrawal date of either the 15th or 25th of the month. ACH payments may take up to three business days to post to your account after your selected systematic withdrawal date between, and including, the 3rd and 26th of the month.

   

Each systematic withdrawal is a redemption and therefore may be a taxable transaction.

   

The CDSC applicable to Class A or Class C Shares redeemed under the systematic withdrawal plan may be waived. The Fund reserves the right to limit such redemptions, on an annual basis, to 12% each of the value of your Class C Shares and 10% of the value of your Class A Shares.

What Types Of Reports Will I Be Sent Regarding My Investment?

Intermediaries are responsible for providing any communication from the Fund to shareholders, including but not limited to, prospectuses, prospectus supplements, proxy materials and notices regarding the source of dividend payments under Section 19 of the Investment Company Act. They may charge additional fees not described in the Prospectus to their customers for such services.

You will be provided with a printed confirmation of each transaction in your account and a quarterly account statement if you invest in Class A, Class C, Investor or Class R Shares and a monthly account statement if you invest in Institutional, Service or Class R6 Shares. If your account is held through your Intermediary, you will receive this information from your Intermediary.

You will also receive an annual shareholder report containing audited financial statements and a semi-annual shareholder report. If you have consented to the delivery of a single copy of shareholder reports, prospectuses and other information to all shareholders who share the same mailing address with your account, you may revoke your consent at any time by contacting your Intermediary or Goldman Sachs Funds at the appropriate phone number or address found on the back cover of the Prospectus. The Fund will

 

38


        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

begin sending individual copies to you within 30 days after receipt of your revocation. If your account is held through an Intermediary, please contact the Intermediary to revoke your consent.

 

  DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE FEES     

What Are The Different Distribution And/Or Service Fees Paid By The Fund’s Shares?

The Trust has adopted distribution and service plans (each a “Plan”) under which Class A, Class C and Class R Shares bear distribution and/or service fees paid to Goldman Sachs, some of which Goldman Sachs may pay to Intermediaries. Intermediaries seek distribution and/or servicing fee revenues to, among other things, offset the cost of servicing small and medium sized plan investors and providing information about the Fund. If the fees received by Goldman Sachs pursuant to the Plans exceed its expenses, Goldman Sachs may realize a profit from these arrangements. Goldman Sachs generally receives and pays the distribution and service fees on a quarterly basis.

Under the Plans, Goldman Sachs is entitled to a monthly fee from the Fund for distribution services equal, on an annual basis, to 0.25%, 0.75% and 0.50% of the Fund’s average daily net assets attributed to Class A, Class C and Class R Shares, respectively. Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, over time, these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of such charges.

The distribution fees are subject to the requirements of Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act, and may be used (among other things) for:

   

Compensation paid to and expenses incurred by Intermediaries, Goldman Sachs and their respective officers, employees and sales representatives;

   

Commissions paid to Intermediaries;

   

Allocable overhead;

   

Telephone and travel expenses;

   

Interest and other costs associated with the financing of such compensation and expenses;

   

Printing of prospectuses for prospective shareholders;

   

Preparation and distribution of sales literature or advertising of any type; and

   

All other expenses incurred in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class A, Class C and Class R Shares.

In connection with the sale of Class C Shares, Goldman Sachs normally begins paying the 0.75% distribution fee as an ongoing commission to Intermediaries after the shares have been held for one year. Goldman Sachs normally begins accruing the annual 0.25% and 0.50% distribution fees for the Class A and Class R Shares, respectively, as ongoing commissions to Intermediaries immediately. Goldman Sachs generally pays the distribution fee on a quarterly basis.

 

  CLASS C PERSONAL AND ACCOUNT MAINTENANCE SERVICES AND FEES     

Under the Class C Plan, Goldman Sachs is also entitled to receive a separate fee equal on an annual basis to 0.25% of the Fund’s average daily net assets attributed to Class C Shares. This fee is for personal and account maintenance services, and may be used to make payments to Goldman Sachs, Intermediaries and their officers, sales representatives and employees for responding to inquiries of, and furnishing assistance to, shareholders regarding ownership of their shares or their accounts or similar services not otherwise provided on behalf of the Fund. If the fees received by Goldman Sachs pursuant to the Plan exceed its expenses, Goldman Sachs may realize a profit from this arrangement.

In connection with the sale of Class C Shares, Goldman Sachs normally begins paying the 0.25% ongoing service fee to Intermediaries after the shares have been held for one year.

 

  RESTRICTIONS ON EXCESSIVE TRADING PRACTICES     

Policies and Procedures on Excessive Trading Practices.  In accordance with the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees, the Trust discourages frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares and does not permit market timing or other excessive trading practices. Purchases and exchanges should be made with a view to longer-term investment purposes only that are consistent with the investment policies and practices of the Fund. Excessive, short-term (market timing) trading practices may disrupt portfolio management strategies, increase brokerage and administrative costs, harm Fund performance and result in dilution in the value of

 

39


Fund shares held by longer-term shareholders. The Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders. To minimize harm to the Trust and its shareholders (or Goldman Sachs), the Trust (or Goldman Sachs) will exercise this right if, in the Trust’s (or Goldman Sachs’) judgment, an investor has a history of excessive trading or if an investor’s trading, in the judgment of the Trust (or Goldman Sachs), has been or may be disruptive to the Fund. In making this judgment, trades executed in multiple accounts under common ownership or control may be considered together to the extent they can be identified. No waivers of the provisions of the policy established to detect and deter market timing and other excessive trading activity are permitted that would harm the Trust or its shareholders or would subordinate the interests of the Trust or its shareholders to those of Goldman Sachs or any affiliated person or associated person of Goldman Sachs.

To deter excessive shareholder trading, certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses impose a redemption fee on redemptions made within 30 or 60 days of purchase, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. As a further deterrent to excessive trading, many foreign equity securities held by the Goldman Sachs Funds are priced by an independent pricing service using fair valuation. For more information on fair valuation, please see “How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Pursuant to the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Trust, Goldman Sachs has developed criteria that it uses to identify trading activity that may be excessive. Excessive trading activity in the Fund is measured by the number of “round trip” transactions in a shareholder’s account. A “round trip” includes a purchase or exchange into the Fund followed or preceded by a redemption or exchange out of the Fund. If the Fund detects that a shareholder has completed two or more round trip transactions in the Fund within a rolling 90-day period, the Fund may reject or restrict subsequent purchase or exchange orders by that shareholder permanently.

In addition, the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permanently reject or restrict purchase or exchange orders by a shareholder if the Fund detects other trading activity that is deemed to be disruptive to the management of the Fund or otherwise harmful to the Fund. For purposes of these transaction surveillance procedures, the Fund may consider trading activity in multiple accounts under common ownership, control, or influence. A shareholder that has been restricted from participation in the Fund pursuant to this policy will be allowed to apply for re-entry after one year. A shareholder applying for re-entry must provide assurances acceptable to the Fund that the shareholder will not engage in excessive trading activities in the future.

Goldman Sachs may modify its surveillance procedures and criteria from time to time without prior notice regarding the detection of excessive trading or to address specific circumstances. Goldman Sachs will apply the criteria in a manner that, in Goldman Sachs’ judgment, will be uniform.

Fund shares may be held through omnibus arrangements maintained by Intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, investment advisers and insurance companies. In addition, Fund shares may be held in omnibus Employee Benefit Plans, Eligible Fee-Based Programs and other group accounts. Omnibus accounts include multiple investors and such accounts typically provide the Fund with a net purchase or redemption request on any given day where the purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by the investors are netted against one another. The identity of individual investors whose purchase and redemption orders are aggregated are ordinarily not tracked by the Fund on a regular basis. A number of these Intermediaries may not have the capability or may not be willing to apply the Fund’s market timing policies or any applicable redemption fee. While Goldman Sachs may monitor share turnover at the omnibus account level, the Fund’s ability to monitor and detect market timing by shareholders or apply any applicable redemption fee in these omnibus accounts may be limited in certain circumstances, and certain of these Intermediaries may charge the Fund a fee for providing certain shareholder financial information requested as part of the Fund’s surveillance process. The netting effect makes it more difficult to identify, locate and eliminate market timing activities. In addition, those investors who engage in market timing and other excessive trading activities may employ a variety of techniques to avoid detection. There can be no assurance that the Fund and Goldman Sachs will be able to identify all those who trade excessively or employ a market timing strategy, and curtail their trading in every instance. If necessary, the Trust may prohibit additional purchases of Fund shares by an Intermediary or by certain customers of the Intermediary. Intermediaries may also monitor their customers’ trading activities in the Fund. The criteria used by Intermediaries to monitor for excessive trading may differ from the criteria used by the Fund. If an Intermediary fails to cooperate in the implementation or enforcement of the Trust’s excessive trading policies, the Trust may take certain actions including terminating the relationship.

 

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Taxation [To be updated.]

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Fund will be taxed. The tax information below is provided as general information. More tax information is available in the SAI. You should consult your tax adviser about the federal, state, local or foreign tax consequences of your investment in the Fund. Except as otherwise noted, the tax information provided assumes that you are a U.S. citizen or resident.

Unless your investment is through an Employee Benefit Plan or other tax-advantaged account, you should carefully consider the possible tax consequences of Fund distributions and the sale of your Fund shares.

 

  DISTRIBUTIONS     

The Fund contemplates declaring as dividends each year all or substantially all of its taxable income. Distributions you receive from the Fund are generally subject to federal income tax, and may also be subject to state or local taxes. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash. For federal tax purposes, Fund distributions attributable to net investment income and short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income, while any distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares.

Under current provisions of the Code, the maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. The preferential rate described above also applies to certain qualifying dividend income, but Fund distributions will not qualify for that favorable treatment and will also not qualify for the corporate dividends received deduction because the Fund will be earning interest income rather than dividend income.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

The Fund’s transactions in derivatives (such as futures contracts and swaps) will be subject to special tax rules, the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to you. The Fund’s use of derivatives may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gains and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not use derivatives.

Although distributions are generally treated as taxable to you in the year they are paid, distributions declared in October, November or December but paid in January are taxable as if they were paid in December. The character and tax status of all distributions will be available to shareholders after the close of each calendar year.

The Fund may be subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes on income or gain from certain foreign securities. In general, the Fund may deduct these taxes in computing its taxable income.

If you buy shares of the Fund before it makes a distribution, the distribution will be taxable to you even though it may actually be a return of a portion of your investment. This is known as “buying into a dividend.”

 

  SALES AND EXCHANGES     

Your sale of Fund shares is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. For tax purposes, the exchange of your Fund shares for shares of a different Goldman Sachs Fund is the same as a sale. When you sell your shares, you will generally recognize a capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between your adjusted tax basis in the shares and the amount received. Generally, this capital gain or loss will be long-term or short-term depending on whether your holding period for the shares exceeds one year, except that any loss realized on shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain dividends that were received on the shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale, exchange or redemption of shares of the Fund may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shares disposed of are replaced with other shares of the Fund within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date of disposition (such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in shares of the Fund.) If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.

 

41


 

  OTHER INFORMATION     

When you open your account, you should provide your Social Security Number or Tax Identification Number on your account application. By law, the Fund must withhold 24% of your taxable distributions and any redemption proceeds if you do not provide your correct taxpayer identification number, or certify that it is correct, or if the IRS instructs the Fund to do so.

The Fund is required to report to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also, for shares purchased on or after January 1, 2012, their cost basis. Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different methodology. If you would like to use the average cost method of calculation, no action is required. To elect an alternative method, you should contact Goldman Sachs Funds at the address or phone number on the back cover of the Prospectus. If your account is held with an Intermediary, contact your representative with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Fund and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

Non-U.S. investors are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax and may be subject to estate tax with respect to their Fund Shares. Non-U.S. investors generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on certain distributions of interest income and/or short-term capital gains that are designated by the Fund. It is expected that the Fund will generally make designations of short-term gains, to the extent permitted, but the Fund does not intend to make designations of any distributions attributable to interest income. Therefore, all distributions of interest income will be subject to withholding when paid to non-U.S. investors.

The Fund is required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to enable the Fund to determine whether withholding is required.

 

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Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio Risks,

Securities and Techniques

 

  A.    General Portfolio Risks     

The Fund will be subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. These risks include, among others, interest rate risk, credit/default risk and call/extension risk. In general, interest rate risk involves the risk that when interest rates decline, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase (although many mortgage-related securities will have less potential than other debt securities for capital appreciation during periods of declining rates). Conversely, when interest rates increase, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decline. Credit/default risk involves the risk that an issuer or guarantor could default on its obligations, and the Fund will not recover its investment. Call risk and extension risk are normally present in adjustable rate mortgage loans (“ARMs”), mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. For example, homeowners have the option to prepay their mortgages. Therefore, the duration of a security backed by home mortgages can either shorten (call risk) or lengthen (extension risk). In general, if interest rates on new mortgage loans fall sufficiently below the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to decrease. In either case, a change in the prepayment rate can result in losses to investors. The same would be true of asset-backed securities, such as securities backed by car loans.

A rising interest rate environment could cause the value of the Fund’s fixed income securities to decrease, and fixed income markets to experience increased volatility in addition to heightened levels of liquidity risk. Additionally, decreases in the value of fixed income securities could lead to increased shareholder redemptions, which could impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments.

To the extent the Fund invests in pooled investment vehicles (including investment companies and ETFs) and partnerships, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such entities in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

To the extent the Fund’s net assets decrease or increase in the future due to price volatility or share redemption or purchase activity, the Fund’s expense ratio may correspondingly increase or decrease from the expense ratio disclosed in the Prospectus.

The Investment Adviser will not consider the portfolio turnover rate a limiting factor in making investment decisions for the Fund. A high rate of portfolio turnover involves correspondingly greater expenses which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to certain shareholders. The portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of the dollar amount of sales or purchases of portfolio securities by the average monthly value of the Fund’s portfolio securities, excluding securities having a maturity at the date of purchase of one year or less. See “Financial Highlights” in Appendix B for a statement of the Fund’s historical portfolio turnover rates.

The Fund has a target duration range. The Fund’s duration approximates its price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. For example, suppose that interest rates in one day fall by one percent which, in turn, causes yields on every bond in the market to fall by the same amount. In this example, the price of a bond with a duration of three years may be expected to rise approximately three percent and the price of a bond with a five year duration may be expected to rise approximately five percent. The converse is also true. Suppose interest rates in one day rise by one percent which, in turn, causes yields on every bond in the market to rise by the same amount. In this second example, the price of a bond with a duration of three years may be expected to fall approximately three percent and the price of a bond with a five year duration may be expected to fall approximately five percent. The longer the duration of a bond, the more sensitive the bond’s price is to changes in interest rates. In computing portfolio duration, the Fund will estimate the duration of obligations that are subject to prepayment or redemption by the issuer, taking into account the influence of interest rates on prepayments and coupon flows. This method of computing duration is known as “option-adjusted” duration. The Fund will not be limited as to its maximum weighted average portfolio maturity or the maximum stated maturity with respect to individual securities unless otherwise noted. The Investment Adviser may use derivative instruments to manage the duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio. These derivative instruments may include futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swap transactions, as well as other types of derivatives, and can be used to shorten or lengthen the duration of the Fund.

 

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Maturity measures the time until final payment is due; it takes no account of the pattern of a security’s cash flows over time. In calculating maturity, the Fund may determine the maturity of a variable or floating rate obligation according to its interest rate reset date, or the date principal can be recovered on demand, rather than the date of ultimate maturity. Similarly, to the extent that a fixed income obligation has a call, refunding or redemption provision, the date on which the instrument is expected to be called, refunded or redeemed may be considered to be its maturity date. There is no guarantee that the expected call, refund or redemption will occur, and the Fund’s average maturity may lengthen beyond the Investment Adviser’s expectations should the expected call, refund or redemption not occur.

The Fund’s investments in derivative instruments, including financial futures contracts, options and swaps, can be significant. These transactions can result in sizeable realized and unrealized capital gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Fund’s investments in bonds and other securities. Short-term and long-term realized capital gains distributions paid by the Fund are taxable to their shareholders.

Interest rates, fixed income securities prices, the prices of futures and other derivatives, and currency exchange rates can be volatile, and a variance in the degree of volatility or in the direction of the market from the Investment Adviser’s expectations may produce significant losses in the Fund’s investments in derivatives. In addition, a perfect correlation between a derivatives position and a fixed income security position is generally impossible to achieve. As a result, the Investment Adviser’s use of derivatives may not be effective in fulfilling the Investment Adviser’s investment strategies and may contribute to losses that would not have been incurred otherwise.

Financial futures contracts used by the Fund include interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) of a three-month deposit. Further information is included in the Prospectus regarding futures contracts, swaps and other derivative instruments used by the Fund, including information on the risks presented by these instruments and other purposes for which they may be used by the Fund.

As discussed below, the Fund may invest in credit default swaps, which are derivative investments.

The Fund may, from time to time, enter into arrangements with certain brokers or other counterparties that require the segregation of collateral. For operational, cost or other reasons, when setting up arrangements relating to the execution/clearing of trades, the Fund may choose to select a segregation model which may not be the most protective option available in the case of a default by a broker or counterparty.

The following sections provide further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks. Additional information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request. Among other things, the SAI describes certain fundamental investment restrictions that cannot be changed without shareholder approval. You should note, however, that all investment objectives and all investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental are non-fundamental, and may be changed without shareholder approval. If there is a change in the Fund’s investment objective, you should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of your then current financial position and needs.

 

  B.    Other Portfolio Risks     

Credit/Default Risks.  Debt securities purchased by the Fund may include U.S. Government Securities (including zero coupon bonds) and securities issued by foreign governments, domestic and foreign corporations, banks and other issuers. Some of these fixed income securities are described in the next section below. Further information is provided in the SAI.

Debt securities rated BBB– or higher by Standard & Poor’s, or Baa3 or higher by Moody’s or having a comparable credit rating by an NRSRO are considered “investment grade.” Securities rated BBB– or Baa3 are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal.

The Fund may invest in fixed income securities rated BB+ or Ba1 or below (or comparable unrated securities) which are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Junk bonds are considered speculative and may be questionable as to principal and interest payments.

In some cases, junk bonds may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will present greater speculative risks than those associated with investment in investment grade bonds. Also, to the extent that the rating assigned to a security in the Fund’s portfolio is downgraded by a rating organization, the market price and liquidity of such security may be adversely affected.

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

Risks of Derivative Investments.  The Fund may invest in derivative instruments including without limitation, options, futures, options on futures, swaps, interest rate caps, floors and collars, structured securities and forward contracts and other derivatives relating to foreign currency transactions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and nonhedging purposes (that is, to seek to increase total return), although suitable derivative instruments may not always be available to the Investment Adviser for these purposes. Losses from derivative instruments can result from a lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivative instruments and the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged, the potential illiquidity of the markets for derivative instruments, the failure of the counterparty to perform its contractual obligations, or the risks related to leverage factors associated with such transactions. Derivatives are also subject to risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions and the risk of loss by the Fund of margin deposits in the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker or counterparty with whom the Fund has an open derivative position. Losses may also arise if the Fund receives cash collateral under the transactions and some or all of that collateral is invested in the market. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund may be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the counterparty’s cash collateral. If cash collateral is not invested, the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss in the event of the insolvency of its custodian holding such collateral. The use of these management techniques also involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuation in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables. Derivative instruments may be harder to value, subject to greater volatility and more likely subject to changes in tax treatment than other investments. For these reasons, the Investment Adviser’s attempts to hedge portfolio risks through the use of derivative instruments may not be successful, and the Investment Adviser may choose not to hedge portfolio risks. Using derivatives for nonhedging purposes presents greater risk of loss than derivatives used for hedging purposes.

Derivative mortgage-backed securities (such as principal-only (“POs”), interest-only (“IOs”) or inverse floating rate securities) are particularly exposed to call and extension risks. Small changes in mortgage prepayments can significantly impact the cash flow and the market value of these securities. In general, the risk of faster than anticipated prepayments adversely affects IOs, super floaters and premium priced mortgage-backed securities. The risk of slower than anticipated prepayments generally adversely affects POs, floating-rate securities subject to interest rate caps, support tranches and discount priced mortgage-backed securities. In addition, particular derivative securities may be leveraged such that their exposure (i.e., price sensitivity) to interest rate and/or prepayment risk is magnified.

Some floating-rate derivative debt securities can present more complex types of derivative and interest rate risks. For example, range floaters are subject to the risk that the coupon will be reduced below market rates if a designated interest rate floats outside of a specified interest rate band or collar. Dual index or yield curve floaters are subject to lower prices in the event of an unfavorable change in the spread between two designated interest rates.

Risks of Foreign Investments.  The Fund may make foreign investments. Foreign investments involve special risks that are not typically associated with U.S. dollar denominated or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign investments may be affected by changes in currency rates, changes in foreign or U.S. laws or restrictions applicable to such investments and changes in exchange control regulations (e.g., currency blockage). A decline in the exchange rate of the currency (i.e., weakening of the currency against the U.S. dollar) in which a portfolio security is quoted or denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would reduce the value of the portfolio security. In addition, if the currency in which the Fund receives dividends, interest or other payments declines in value against the U.S. dollar before such income is distributed as dividends to shareholders or converted to U.S. dollars, the Fund may have to sell portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to pay such dividends.

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures.

Brokerage commissions, custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. In addition, clearance and settlement procedures may be different in foreign countries and, in certain markets, such procedures have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, thus making it difficult to conduct such transactions.

Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than a U.S. issuer. In addition,

 

45


there is generally less government regulation of foreign markets, companies and securities dealers than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Foreign securities markets may have substantially less volume than U.S. securities markets and securities of many foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Furthermore, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividend or interest payments (or, in some cases, capital gains distributions), limitations on the removal of funds or other assets from such countries, and risks of political or social instability or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect investments in those countries.

Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to social, political or market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Certain foreign investments may become illiquid when, for instance, there are few, if any, interested buyers and sellers or when dealers are unwilling to make a market for certain securities. When the Fund holds illiquid investments, its portfolio may be harder to value, especially in changing markets.

If the Fund focuses its investments in one or a few countries and currencies, the Fund may be subjected to greater risks than if the Fund’s assets were not geographically focused.

Risks of Sovereign Debt.  Investment in sovereign debt obligations by the Fund involves risks not present in debt obligations of corporate issuers. The issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt, and the Fund may have limited recourse to compel payment in the event of a default. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt, and in turn the Fund’s NAV, to a greater extent than the volatility inherent in debt obligations of U.S. issuers.

A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject.

Risks of Emerging Countries.  The Fund may invest in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. The risks of foreign investment are heightened when the issuer is located in an emerging country. Emerging countries are generally located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe, and Central and South America. The Fund’s purchase and sale of portfolio securities in certain emerging countries may be constrained by limitations relating to daily changes in the prices of listed securities, periodic trading or settlement volume and/or limitations on aggregate holdings of foreign investors. Such limitations may be computed based on the aggregate trading volume by or holdings of the Fund, the Investment Adviser, its affiliates and their respective clients and other service providers. The Fund may not be able to sell securities in circumstances where price, trading or settlement volume limitations have been reached.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees which may limit investment in such countries or increase the administrative costs of such investments. For example, certain Asian countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. In addition, certain countries may restrict or prohibit investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed important to national interests. Such restrictions may affect the market price, liquidity and rights of securities that may be purchased by the Fund. The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from certain emerging countries is subject to restrictions such as the need for governmental consents, which may make it difficult for the Fund to invest in such emerging countries. The Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. In situations where a country restricts direct investment in securities (which may occur in certain Asian and other countries), the Fund may invest in such countries through other investment funds in such countries.

Many emerging countries have experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation. Other emerging countries have experienced economic recessions. These circumstances have had a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of those emerging countries. Economies in emerging countries generally are dependent heavily upon commodity prices and international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be affected adversely by the economies of their trading partners, trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.

Many emerging countries are subject to a substantial degree of economic, political and social instability. Governments of some emerging countries are authoritarian in nature or have been installed or removed as a result of military coups, while governments in

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

other emerging countries have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection, among other factors, have also led to social unrest, violence and/or labor unrest in some emerging countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Investing in emerging countries involves greater risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested. As an example, in the past some Eastern European governments have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and many claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that similar expropriations will not occur in other countries.

The Fund’s investment in emerging countries may also be subject to withholding or other taxes, which may be significant and may reduce the return to the Fund from an investment in issuers in such countries.

Settlement procedures in emerging countries are frequently less developed and reliable than those in the United States and may involve the Fund’s delivery of securities before receipt of payment for their sale. In addition, significant delays may occur in certain markets in registering the transfer of securities. Settlement or registration problems may make it more difficult for the Fund to value its portfolio securities and could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, to have a portion of its assets uninvested or to incur losses due to the failure of a counterparty to pay for securities the Fund has delivered or the Fund’s inability to complete its contractual obligations because of theft or other reasons.

The creditworthiness of the local securities firms used by the Fund in emerging countries may not be as sound as the creditworthiness of firms used in more developed countries. As a result, the Fund may be subject to a greater risk of loss if a securities firm defaults in the performance of its responsibilities.

The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain emerging countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in those countries may make the Fund’s investments in such countries less liquid and more volatile than investments in countries with more developed securities markets (such as the United States, Japan and most Western European countries). The Fund’s investments in emerging countries are subject to the risk that the liquidity of a particular investment, or investments generally, in such countries will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political conditions or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and then only at a substantial drop in price. Investments in emerging countries may be more difficult to value precisely because of the characteristics discussed above and lower trading volumes.

The Fund’s use of foreign currency management techniques in emerging countries may be limited. Due to the limited market for these instruments in emerging countries, all or a significant portion of the Fund’s currency exposure in emerging countries may not be covered by those techniques.

The Fund is limited with respect to how much it may invest in emerging countries debt. For purposes of applying the Fund’s respective limitation, “emerging market countries” include but are not limited to those considered to be developing by the World Bank. Generally, the Investment Adviser has broad discretion to identify other countries that it considers to qualify as emerging market countries. Sovereign debt consists of debt securities issued by governments or any of their agencies, political subdivisions or instrumentalities. Sovereign debt may also include nominal and real inflation-linked securities. In determining whether an issuer of corporate debt is in an emerging market country, the Investment Adviser will ordinarily do so by identifying the issuer’s “country of risk.” The issuer’s “country of risk” is determined based on a number of criteria, including its country of domicile, the primary stock exchange on which it trades, the location from which the majority of its revenue comes, and its reporting currency. Although the Investment Adviser will generally rely on an issuer’s “country of risk” as determined by Bloomberg, it is not required to do so, as long as the issuer is otherwise tied economically to an emerging market country. The Investment Adviser may (but is not required to) deem an issuer to be otherwise tied to an emerging market country if it derives at least 50% of its revenues and/or profits from goods produced, sales made or services provided in one or more emerging markets countries, measured at the time of purchase.

Foreign Custody Risk.  The Fund may hold such securities and cash with foreign banks, agents, and securities depositories appointed by the Fund’s custodian (each a “Foreign Custodian”). Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on the Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy. Investments in emerging markets may be subject to even greater custody risks than investments in more developed markets. Custody services in emerging market countries are very often undeveloped and may be considerably less well regulated than in more developed countries, and thus may not afford the same level of investor protection as would apply in developed countries.

 

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Risks of Illiquid Investments.  The Fund may not acquire any “illiquid investment” if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An “illiquid investment” is an investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that the Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.

Investments purchased by the Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid. If one or more investments in the Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed the 15 percent limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the Fund to exceed this limit, the Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force the Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

In cases where no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s portfolio instruments is available, the portfolio instruments will be valued at their fair value according to the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. These cases include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source, or the secondary markets on which an investment has previously been traded are no longer viable, due to its lack of liquidity. For more information on fair valuation, please see “Shareholder Guide—How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Risks of Structured Investment Vehicles.  Structured Investment Vehicles (“SIVs”) are legal entities that are sponsored by banks, broker-dealers or other financial firms specifically created for the purpose of issuing particular securities or instruments. SIVs are often leveraged and securities issued by SIVs may have differing credit preferences. Investments in SIVs present counterparty risks, although they may be subject to a guarantee or other financial support by the sponsoring entity. Investments in SIVs may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than other types of investments.

Temporary Investment Risks.  The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes (and to the extent that it is permitted to invest in the following), invest up to 100% of its total assets in:

   

U.S. Government Securities

   

Commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality)

   

Certificates of deposit

   

Bankers’ acceptances

   

Repurchase agreements

   

Non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year

   

ETFs

   

Other investment companies

   

Cash items

When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Risks of Short Selling.  The Fund may engage in short selling. In these transactions, the Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the security, then must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund, which may result in a loss or gain, respectively. Unlike purchasing a security, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price and there is no upside limit on potential gain, short sales involve no cap on maximum losses, while gains are limited to the price of the security at the time of the short sale.

The Fund may, during the term of any short sale, withdraw the cash proceeds of such short sale and use these cash proceeds to purchase additional securities or for any other Fund purposes. Because cash proceeds are Fund assets which are typically used to satisfy the collateral requirements for the short sale, the reinvestment of these cash proceeds may require the Fund to post as collateral other securities that it owns. If the Fund reinvests the cash proceeds, the Fund might be required to post an amount

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

greater than its net assets (but less than its total assets) as collateral. For these or other reasons, the Fund might be required to liquidate long and short positions at times or in amounts that may be disadvantageous to the Fund.

The Fund may make short sales against the box, in which the Fund enters into a short sale of a security which it owns or has the right to obtain at no additional cost.

The SEC and financial industry regulatory authorities in other countries have imposed temporary prohibitions and restrictions on certain types of short sale transactions. These prohibitions and restrictions, or the imposition of other regulatory requirements on short selling in the future, could inhibit the ability of the Investment Adviser to sell securities short on behalf of the Fund.

 

  C.    Portfolio Securities and Techniques     

This section provides further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks.

The Fund may purchase other types of securities or instruments similar to those described in this section if otherwise consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Further information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request.

[The Investment Adviser is subject to registration and regulation as a “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) with respect to its service as investment adviser to the Fund.]

U.S. Government Securities.  The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. U.S. Government Securities include U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may be supported by (i) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; (ii) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (iii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer; or (iv) only the credit of the issuer. U.S. Government Securities also include Treasury receipts, zero coupon bonds and other stripped U.S. Government Securities where the interest and principal components are traded independently. U.S. Government Securities may also include Treasury inflation-protected securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation.

U.S. Treasury obligations include, among other things, the separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury if such components are traded independently under the Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities program (“STRIPS”).

U.S. Government Securities are deemed to include (i) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, its agencies, authorities or instrumentalities; and (ii) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed. Certain of these participations may be regarded as illiquid.

U.S. Government Securities have historically involved little risk of loss of principal if held to maturity. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will be able or willing to repay the principal or interest when due, or provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises that issue U.S. Government Securities if it is not obligated to do so by law.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates.  The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities, Municipal Securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. If for tax purposes the Fund is not considered to be the owner of the underlying securities held in the custodial or trust account, the Fund may suffer adverse tax consequences. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Mortgage-Backed Securities.  The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent direct or indirect participations in, or are collateralized by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property. Mortgage-backed securities can be backed by either fixed rate mortgage loans or adjustable rate mortgage loans, and may be issued by either a governmental or non-governmental entity. The value of some mortgage-backed securities may be particularly sensitive to changes

 

49


in prevailing interest rates. The value of these securities may also fluctuate in response to the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuers. Early repayment of principal on mortgage- or asset-backed securities may expose the Fund to the risk of earning a lower rate of return upon reinvestment of principal.

The Fund may invest in privately-issued mortgage pass-through securities that represent interests in pools of mortgage loans that are issued by trusts formed by originators of and institutional investors in mortgage loans (or represent interests in custodial arrangements administered by such institutions). These originators and institutions include commercial banks, savings and loans associations, credit unions, savings banks, mortgage bankers, insurance companies, investment banks or special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. The pools underlying privately-issued mortgage pass-through securities consist of mortgage loans secured by mortgages or deeds of trust creating a first lien on commercial, residential, residential multi-family and mixed residential/commercial properties. These mortgage-backed securities typically do not have the same credit standing as U.S. government guaranteed mortgage-backed securities.

Privately-issued mortgage pass-through securities generally offer a higher yield than similar securities issued by a government entity because of the absence of any direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. However, timely payment of interest and principal on mortgage loans in these pools may be supported by various other forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, pool and hazard insurance, subordination and letters of credit. Such insurance and guarantees may be issued by private insurers, banks and mortgage poolers. There is no assurance that private guarantors or insurers, if any, will meet their obligations. Mortgage-backed securities without insurance or guarantees may also be purchased by the Fund if they have the required rating from an NRSRO. Some mortgage-backed securities issued by private organizations may not be readily marketable, may be more difficult to value accurately and may be more volatile than similar securities issued by a government entity.

Mortgage-backed securities may include multiple class securities, including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”) pass-through or participation certificates. A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the Code and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property and other permitted investments. CMOs provide an investor with a specified interest in the cash flow from a pool of underlying mortgages or of other mortgage-backed securities. CMOs are issued in multiple classes each with a specified fixed or floating interest rate and a final scheduled distribution date. In many cases, payments of principal are applied to the CMO classes in the order of their respective stated maturities, so that no principal payments will be made on a CMO class until all other classes having an earlier stated maturity date are paid in full.

Sometimes, however, CMO classes are “parallel pay,” i.e., payments of principal are made to two or more classes concurrently. In some cases, CMOs may have the characteristics of a stripped mortgage-backed security whose price can be highly volatile. CMOs may exhibit more or less price volatility and interest rate risk than other types of mortgage-backed securities, and under certain interest rate and payment scenarios, the Fund may fail to recoup fully its investment in certain of these securities regardless of their credit quality.

To the extent the Fund concentrates its investments in pools of mortgage-backed securities sponsored by the same sponsor or serviced by the same servicer, it may be subject to additional risks. Servicers of mortgage-related pools collect payments on the underlying mortgage assets for pass-through to the pool on a periodic basis. Upon insolvency of the servicer, the pool may be at risk with respect to collections received by the servicer but not yet delivered to the pool.

Mortgaged-backed securities also include stripped mortgage-backed securities (“SMBS”), which are derivative multiple class mortgage-backed securities. SMBS are usually structured with two different classes: one that receives substantially all of the interest payments and the other that receives substantially all of the principal payments from a pool of mortgage loans. The market value of SMBS consisting entirely of principal payments generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on SMBS that receive all or most of the interest from mortgage loans are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other mortgage-backed securities because their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped. Throughout 2008, the market for mortgage-backed securities began experiencing substantially, often dramatically, lower valuations and greatly reduced liquidity. Markets for other asset-backed securities have also been affected. These instruments are increasingly subject to liquidity constraints, price volatility, credit downgrades and unexpected increases in default rates and, therefore, may be more difficult to value and more difficult to dispose of than previously. These events may have an adverse effect on the Fund to the extent they invest in mortgage-backed or other fixed income securities or instruments affected by the volatility in the fixed income markets.

Asset-Backed Securities.  The Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Asset-backed securities are securities whose principal and interest payments are collateralized by pools of assets such as auto loans, credit card receivables, leases, installment contracts

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

and personal property. Asset-backed securities may also include home equity line of credit loans and other second-lien mortgages. Asset-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, the Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. Asset-backed securities present credit risks that are not presented by Mortgage-backed securities. This is because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Some asset-backed securities have only a subordinated claim or security interest in collateral. If the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on the securities. In the event of a default, the Fund may suffer a loss if it cannot sell collateral quickly and receive the amount it is owed. The value of some asset-backed securities may be particularly sensitive to changes in the prevailing interest rates. There is no guarantee that private guarantors or insurers of an asset-backed security, if any, will meet their obligations. Asset-backed securities may also be subject to increased volatility and may become illiquid and more difficult to value even when there is no default or threat of default due to the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuers and market conditions impacting asset-backed securities more generally.

Municipal Securities.  The Fund may invest in securities and instruments issued by state and local government issuers. Municipal Securities in which the Fund may invest consist of bonds, notes, commercial paper and other instruments (including participation interests in such securities) issued by or on behalf of the states, territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their political subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities. Such securities may pay fixed, variable or floating rates of interest.

Municipal Securities include both “general” and “revenue” bonds and may be issued to obtain funds for various purposes. General obligations are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power. Revenue obligations are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities.

Municipal Securities are often issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets and water and sewer works. Other purposes for which Municipal Securities may be issued include refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and obtaining funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities. Municipal Securities in which the Fund may invest include private activity bonds, pre-refunded municipal securities and auction rate securities. Dividends paid by the Fund based on investments in Municipal Securities will be taxable.

The obligations of the issuer to pay the principal of and interest on a Municipal Security are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Act, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest or imposing other constraints upon the enforcement of such obligations. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of the issuer to pay when due the principal of or interest on a Municipal Security may be materially affected.

In addition, Municipal Securities include municipal leases, certificates of participation and “moral obligation” bonds. A municipal lease is an obligation issued by a state or local government to acquire equipment or facilities. Certificates of participation represent interests in municipal leases or other instruments, such as installment purchase agreements. Moral obligation bonds are supported by a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of a state or local government. Municipal leases, certificates of participation and moral obligation bonds frequently involve special risks not normally associated with general obligation or revenue bonds. In particular, these instruments permit governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without meeting constitutional and statutory requirements for the issuance of debt. If, however, the governmental issuer does not periodically appropriate money to enable it to meet its payment obligations under these instruments, it cannot be legally compelled to do so. If a default occurs, it is likely that the Fund would be unable to obtain another acceptable source of payment. Some municipal leases, certificates of participation and moral obligation bonds may be illiquid.

Municipal Securities may also be in the form of a tender option bond, which is a Municipal Security (generally held pursuant to a custodial arrangement) having a relatively long maturity and bearing interest at a fixed rate substantially higher than prevailing short-term, tax-exempt rates. The bond is typically issued with the agreement of a third party, such as a bank, broker-dealer or other financial institution, which grants the security holders the option, at periodic intervals, to tender their securities to the

 

51


institution. After payment of a fee to the financial institution that provides this option, the security holder effectively holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term, tax-exempt rate. An institution may not be obligated to accept tendered bonds in the event of certain defaults or a significant downgrading in the credit rating assigned to the issuer of the bond. The tender option will be taken into account in determining the maturity of the tender option bonds and the Fund’s duration. Certain tender option bonds may be illiquid.

Municipal Securities may be backed by letters of credit or other forms of credit enhancement issued by domestic or foreign banks or by other financial institutions. The deterioration of the credit quality of these banks and financial institutions could, therefore, cause a loss to the Fund that invests in such Municipal Securities. Letters of credit and other obligations of foreign banks and financial institutions may involve risks in addition to those of domestic obligations because of less publicly available financial and other information, less securities regulation, potential imposition of foreign withholding and other taxes, war, expropriation or other adverse governmental actions. Foreign banks and their foreign branches are not regulated by U.S. banking authorities, and are generally not bound by the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards applicable to U.S. banks.

The Fund may invest in Municipal Securities issued by municipalities, including U.S. territories, commonwealths and possessions, that may be, or may become, subject to significant financial difficulties. Factors contributing to such difficulties may include: lower property tax collections as a result of lower home values, lower sales tax revenue as a result of reduced consumer spending, lower income tax revenue as a result of higher unemployment rates, and budgetary constraints of local, state and federal governments upon which issuers of municipal securities may be relying for funding. Such securities may be considered below investment grade or may be subject to future credit downgrades due to concerns over potential default, insolvency or bankruptcy on the part of their issuers or any credit support provider. During the recent economic downturn, several municipalities have, in fact, filed for bankruptcy protection or have indicated that they may seek bankruptcy protection in the future. A credit downgrade or other adverse news about an issuer or any credit support provider could impact the market value and liquidity of the securities and consequently could negatively affect the performance of the Fund that holds such securities.

Brady Bonds and Similar Instruments.  The Fund may invest in debt obligations commonly referred to as “Brady Bonds.” Brady Bonds are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign borrowers for new obligations in connection with debt restructurings under a plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady (the “Brady Plan”).

Brady Bonds involve various risk factors including the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds. There can be no assurance that Brady Bonds in which the Fund may invest will not be subject to restructuring arrangements or to requests for new credit, which may cause the Fund to suffer a loss of interest or principal on its holdings.

In addition, the Fund may invest in other interests issued by entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of instruments issued by emerging country issuers. These types of restructuring involve the deposit with or purchase by an entity of specific instruments and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. Certain issuers of such structured securities may be deemed to be

“investment companies” as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investment in such securities may be limited by certain investment restrictions contained in the Investment Company Act.

Corporate Debt Obligations, Trust Preferred Securities and Convertible Securities.  The Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations, trust preferred securities and convertible securities. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures, commercial paper and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. A trust preferred security is a long dated bond (for example, 30 years) with preferred features. The preferred features are that payment of interest can be deferred for a specified period without initiating a default event. The securities are generally senior in claim to standard preferred stock but junior to other bondholders. The Fund may also invest in other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities.

Convertible securities are preferred stock or debt obligations that are convertible into common stock. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible securities of similar quality. Convertible securities have both equity and fixed income risk characteristics. Like all fixed income securities, the value of convertible securities is susceptible to the risk of market losses attributable to changes in interest rates. Generally, the market value of convertible securities tends to decline as interest rates increase and, conversely, to increase as interest rates decline. However, when the market price of the common stock underlying a convertible security exceeds the conversion price of the convertible security, the convertible security tends to reflect the market price of the underlying common stock. As the market price of the underlying common stock declines, the

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

convertible security, like a fixed income security, tends to trade increasingly on a yield basis, and thus may not decline in price to the same extent as the underlying common stock.

Bank Obligations.  The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulations. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

Foreign Currency Transactions.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with their investment policies, purchase or sell foreign currencies on a cash basis or through forward contracts. A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract.

The Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark. The Fund may also enter into such transactions to seek to increase total return, which presents additional risk.

The Fund may also engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in a currency different from that in which the hedged security is denominated or quoted. The Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments in foreign securities when, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. dollars at a later date (e.g., the Investment Adviser may anticipate the foreign currency to appreciate against the U.S. dollar).

The Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between the Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time, causing, along with other factors, the Fund’s NAV to fluctuate (when the Fund’s NAV fluctuates, the value of your shares may go up or down). Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. The market in such forward foreign currency exchange contracts, currency swaps and other privately negotiated currency instruments offers less protection against defaults by the other party to such instruments than is available for currency instruments traded on an exchange. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Since these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or could force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price.

The Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, the Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post cash collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with certain transactions). Where the Fund’s counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

Collateralized Loan Obligations.  The Fund may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”). A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CLOs may charge management and other administrative fees.

The cashflows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more

 

53


senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class.

The risks of an investment in a CLO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CLO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CLOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid investments. However, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such securities may be classified as liquid investments.

Structured Securities and Inverse Floaters.  The Fund may invest in structured securities. Structured securities are securities whose value is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, securities, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relative change in two or more References. Investments in structured securities may provide exposure to certain securities or markets in situations where regulatory or other restrictions prevent direct investments in such issuers or markets.

The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rates or the value of the security at maturity may be a multiple of changes in the value of the Reference, effectively leveraging the Fund’s investments so that small changes in the value of the reference may result in disproportionate gains or losses to the Fund. Consequently, structured securities may present a greater degree of market risk than many types of securities and may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities. Structured securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer of the structured securities may fail to perform its contractual obligations. Certain issuers of structured products may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investments in structured securities may be subject to the limits applicable to investments in other investment companies.

Structured securities may also include credit linked notes. Credit linked notes are securities with embedded credit default swaps. An investor holding a credit linked note generally receives a fixed or floating coupon and the note’s par value upon maturity, unless the referred credit defaults or declares bankruptcy, in which case the investor receives the amount recovered. In effect, investors holding credit linked notes receive a higher yield in exchange for assuming the risk of a specified credit event.

Structured securities may also include inverse floating rate debt securities (“inverse floaters”). The interest rate on inverse floaters resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher the degree of leverage of an inverse floater, the greater the volatility of its market value.

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations.  The Fund may purchase floating and variable rate obligations. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels. The issuers or financial intermediaries providing demand features may support their ability to purchase the obligations by obtaining credit with liquidity supports. These may include lines of credit, which are conditional commitments to lend, and letters of credit, which will ordinarily be irrevocable both of which may be issued by domestic banks or foreign banks. The Fund may purchase variable or floating rate obligations from the issuers or may purchase certificates of participation, a type of floating or variable rate obligation, which are interests in a pool of debt obligations held by a bank or other financial institutions.

Floating and variable rate obligations may be transferable among financial institutions, but may not have the liquidity of conventional debt securities and are often subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Floating and variable rate obligations are not currently listed on any securities exchange or automatic quotation system. As a result, no active market may exist for some floating and variable rate obligations. To the extent a secondary market exists for other floating and variable rate obligations, such market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. The lack of a highly liquid secondary market for floating and variable rate obligations may have an adverse effect on the value of such obligations and may make it more difficult to value the obligations for purposes of calculating their respective net asset value.

For floating and variable rate obligations, there may be a lag between an actual change in the underlying interest rate benchmark and the reset time for an interest payment of such an obligation, which could harm or benefit the Fund, depending on the interest

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

rate environment or other circumstances. In a rising interest rate environment, for example, a floating or variable rate obligation that does not reset immediately would prevent the Fund from taking full advantage of rising interest rates in a timely manner. However, in a declining interest rate environment, the Fund may benefit from a lag due to an obligation’s interest rate payment not being immediately impacted by a decline in interest rates.

Certain floating and variable rate obligations have an interest rate floor feature, which prevents the interest rate payable by the security from dropping below a specified level as compared to a reference interest rate (the “reference rate”), such as LIBOR. Such a floor protects the Fund from losses resulting from a decrease in the reference rate below the specified level. However, if the reference rate is below the floor, there will be a lag between a rise in the reference rate and a rise in the interest rate payable by the obligation, and the Fund may not benefit from increasing interest rates for a significant amount of time.

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds.  The Fund may invest in zero coupon bonds, deferred interest, pay-in-kind and capital appreciation bonds. These bonds are issued at a discount from their face value because interest payments are typically postponed until maturity. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by the delivery of additional securities. The market prices of these securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest-bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest-bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls.  The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls. A mortgage dollar roll involves the sale by the Fund of securities for delivery in the current month. The Fund simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase substantially similar (same type, coupon and maturity) but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund benefits to the extent of any difference between (a) the price received for the securities sold and (b) the lower forward price for the future purchase and/or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold. Unless the benefits of a mortgage dollar roll exceed the income, capital appreciation and gain or loss due to mortgage prepayments that would have been realized on the securities sold as part of the roll, the use of this technique will diminish the Fund’s performance.

Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls depends upon the Investment Adviser’s ability to predict correctly interest rates and mortgage prepayments. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its prediction, the Fund may experience a loss. The Fund does not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and do not treat them as borrowings.

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.  A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying instrument during the option period. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying instrument during the option period. The Fund may purchase and write (sell) put and call options on any securities in which the Fund may invest or on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may also, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and write (sell) put and call options on foreign currencies.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves special investment risks. Options may be used for either hedging or cross-hedging purposes, or to seek to increase total return (which presents additional risk). The successful use of options depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to anticipate future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in market prices or determination of the correlation between the instruments or indices on which options are written and purchased and the instruments in the Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The use of options can also increase the Fund’s transaction costs. Options written or purchased by the Fund may be traded on either U.S. or foreign exchanges or over-the-counter. Foreign and over-the-counter options will present greater possibility of loss because of their greater illiquidity and credit risks.

Yield Curve Options.  The Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, such options present a risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

 

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Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts.  Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of a specified financial instrument or currency at a future time at a specified price. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. A swap on a futures contract provides an investor with the ability to gain economic exposure to a particular futures market. A futures contract may be based on particular securities, foreign currencies, securities indices and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund may engage in futures transactions on U.S. and foreign exchanges.

The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and sell futures contracts, purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts, and enter into swaps on futures contracts, in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices, or currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts and related options and swaps present the following risks:

   

While the Fund may benefit from the use of futures and options and swaps on futures, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in poorer overall performance than if the Fund had not entered into any futures contracts, options transactions or swaps.

   

Because perfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position that is intended to be protected is impossible to achieve, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss.

   

The loss incurred by the Fund in entering into futures contracts and in writing call options and entering into swaps on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received.

   

Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

   

As a result of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund.

   

Futures contracts and options and swaps on futures may be illiquid, and exchanges may limit fluctuations in futures contract prices during a single day.

   

Foreign exchanges may not provide the same protection as U.S. exchanges.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments.  The Fund may purchase when-issued securities and make contracts to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time. When-issued securities are securities that have been authorized, but not yet issued. When-issued securities are purchased in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price or yield to the Fund at the time of entering into the transaction. A forward commitment involves entering into a contract to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond the customary settlement period.

The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines before the settlement date. Conversely, the sale of securities on a forward commitment basis involves the risk that the value of the securities sold may increase before the settlement date. Although the Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis with the intention of acquiring the securities for its portfolio, the Fund may dispose of when-issued securities or forward commitments prior to settlement if the Investment Adviser deems it appropriate. When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis or entering into a forward commitment, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligations.

Repurchase Agreements.  Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of securities subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligations. The collateral may consist of any type of security in which the Fund is eligible to invest directly. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities may be subject to additional risks.

If the other party or “seller” defaults, the Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund are less than the repurchase price and the Fund’s costs associated with delay and enforcement of the repurchase agreement. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of the seller, the Fund could suffer additional losses if a court determines that the Fund’s interest in the collateral is not enforceable.

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

The Fund, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Borrowings and Reverse Repurchase Agreements.  The Fund can borrow money from banks and other financial institutions, and may enter into reverse repurchase agreements in amounts not exceeding one-third of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed).

Reverse repurchase agreements involve the sale of securities held by the Fund subject to the Fund’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price (including interest). These transactions may be entered into as a temporary measure for emergency purposes or to meet redemption requests. Reverse repurchase agreements may also be entered into when the Investment Adviser expects that the interest income to be earned from the investment of the transaction proceeds will be greater than the related interest expense.

Borrowings and reverse repurchase agreements involve leveraging. If the securities held by the Fund decline in value while these transactions are outstanding, the NAV of the Fund’s outstanding shares will decline in value by proportionately more than the decline in value of the securities. In addition, reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the investment return earned by the Fund (from the investment of the proceeds) will be less than the interest expense of the transaction, that the market value of the securities sold by the Fund will decline below the price the Fund is obligated to pay to repurchase the securities, and that the securities may not be returned to the Fund. The Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in reverse repurchase agreements.

Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars.  The Fund may enter into some or all of the following swap transactions and option agreements, including interest rate swaps, mortgage swaps, credit swaps, currency swaps, total return swaps, options on swaps and interest rate caps, floors and collars. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, such as an exchange of fixed-rate payments for floating rate payments. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages.

Credit swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security or pool of securities. Credit swaps give one party to a transaction (the buyer of the credit swap) the right to dispose of or acquire an asset (or group of assets or exposure to the performance of an index), or the right to receive a payment from the other party, upon the occurrence of specified credit events. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Total return swaps give a party the right to receive the appreciation in the value of a specified security, index or other instrument in return for a fee paid to the counterparty, which will typically be based on an agreed upon interest rate. If the underlying asset in a total return swap declines in value over the term of the swap, the party may also be required to pay the dollar value of that decline to the counterparty. Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.

The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than the Fund incurs in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

The Fund may enter into the transactions described above for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. As an example, when the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (commonly known as buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on

 

57


a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit default swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

When the Fund writes (sells) credit swaps on individual securities or instruments, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps while the positions are open.

The use of interest rate, mortgage, credit, currency and total return and equity swaps, options on swaps, and interest rate caps, floors and collars is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates and currency exchange rates, or in its evaluation of the creditworthiness of swap counterparties and the issuers of the underlying assets, the investment performance of the Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if these investment techniques were not used.

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange trading. Although central clearing and exchange trading are expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing and exchange trading do not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. Depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral, uncleared swap. However, certain applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps which may result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher amounts for uncleared swaps.

Other Investment Companies.  The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Investment Company Act, or exemptive relief thereunder. These statutory limitations include in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds to invest in the ETFs’ shares beyond these statutory limitations, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to a contractual arrangement between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders to invest in unaffiliated ETFs.

The use of ETFs is intended to help the Fund match the total return of the particular market segments or indices represented by those ETFs, although that may not be the result. Most ETFs are passively managed investment companies whose shares are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. In addition, an ETF may fail to accurately track the market segment or index that underlies its investment objective. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. Moreover, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or a discount to their NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of an ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged.

Subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in certain other investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, beyond the statutory limits described above or otherwise. Some of those investment companies may be funds for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator or distributor.

The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by such other investment companies, in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities.  Non-investment grade fixed-income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative. In some cases, these obligations may be

 

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                        APPENDIX A

 

highly speculative and have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing. Non-investment grade fixed income securities are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest obligations. These securities, also referred to as high yield securities, may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific issuer developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less liquidity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are also issued in connection with a corporate reorganization or restructuring or as part of a merger, acquisition, takeover or similar event. They are also issued by less established companies seeking to expand. Such issuers are often highly leveraged and generally less able than more established or less leveraged entities to make scheduled payments of principal and interest in the event of adverse developments or business conditions. Non-investment grade securities are also issued by governmental bodies that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments.

The market value of non-investment grade fixed income securities tends to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than that of higher rated securities which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. As a result, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives may depend to a greater extent on the Investment Adviser’s judgment concerning the creditworthiness of issuers than funds which invest in higher-rated securities. Issuers of non-investment grade fixed income securities may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing and their ability to service debt obligations may be affected more adversely than issuers of higher-rated securities by economic downturns, specific corporate or financial developments or the issuer’s inability to meet specific projected business forecasts. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for such securities.

A holder’s risk of loss from default is significantly greater for non-investment grade fixed income securities than is the case for holders of other debt securities because such non-investment grade securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by the Fund in defaulted securities poses additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by the Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain.

The secondary market for non-investment grade fixed income securities is concentrated in relatively few market makers and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities is not as liquid as, and is more volatile than, the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, market trading volume for high yield fixed income securities is generally lower and the secondary market for such securities could shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse market or economic conditions, independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. The lack of sufficient market liquidity may cause the Fund to incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and then only at a substantial drop in price. These factors may have an adverse effect on the market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular portfolio investments. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of non-investment grade securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality.

Downgraded Securities.  After its purchase, a portfolio security may be assigned a lower rating or cease to be rated, which may affect the market value and liquidity of the security. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Loan-Related Investments.  The Fund may invest in loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments. A loan participation is an interest in a loan to a U.S. or foreign company or other borrower (the “borrower”) which is administered and sold by a financial intermediary. The Fund may only invest in loans to issuers in whose obligations it may otherwise invest. Loan interests may take the form of a direct or co-lending relationship with the borrower, an assignment of an interest in the loan by a co-lender or another participant, or a participation in the seller’s share of the loan. When the Fund acts as co-lender in connection with a loan interest or when it acquires certain interests, the Fund will have direct recourse against the borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and interest. In cases where the Fund lacks direct recourse, it will look to an agent for the lenders (the “agent lender”) to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. In these cases, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation (such as commercial paper) of such borrower.

 

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An assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations of the assigning institution and becomes a lender under the credit agreement with respect to the debt obligation; however, the purchaser’s rights can be more restricted than those of the assigning institution, and, in any event, the Fund may not be able to unilaterally enforce all rights and remedies under the loan and with regard to any associated collateral. A participation typically results in a contractual relationship only with the institution participating out the interest, not with the borrower. In purchasing participations, the Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement against the borrower, and the Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the debt obligation in which it has purchased the participation. As a result, the Fund will be exposed to the credit risk of both the borrower and the institution selling the participation. Investors in loans, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws, although they may be entitled to certain contractual remedies.

The market for loan obligations may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because transactions in many loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of heightened redemption activity or distressed market conditions, the Fund may seek to obtain expedited trade settlement, which will generally incur additional costs (although expedited trade settlement will not always be available).

The market for loan obligations may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because transactions in many loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations.

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a borrower, are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the borrower. The proceeds of Senior Loans primarily are used to finance leveraged buyouts, recapitalizations, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, refinancings and to finance internal growth and for other corporate purposes. Senior Loans typically have a stated term of between five and nine years, and have rates of interest which typically are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually by reference to a base lending rate, plus a premium or credit spread. Longer interest rate reset periods generally increase fluctuations in the Fund’s net asset value as a result of changes in market interest rates. As a result, as short-term interest rates increase, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should increase, and as short-term interest rates decrease, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should decrease. Second Lien Loans have the same characteristics as Senior Loans except that such loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans. Accordingly, the risks associated with Second Lien Loans are higher than the risk of loans with first priority over the collateral. In the event of default on a Second Lien Loan, the first priority lien holder has first claim to the underlying collateral of the loan. It is possible that no collateral value would remain for the second priority lien holder and therefore result in a loss of investment to the Fund. Second Lien Loans typically have adjustable floating rate interest payments. Generally, loans have the benefit of restrictive covenants that limit the ability of the borrower to further encumber its assets or impose other obligations. To the extent a loan does not have certain covenants (or has less restrictive covenants), an investment in the loan will be particularly sensitive to the risks associated with loan investments.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights.  The Fund may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (or “rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default or other non-compliance by the issuer of the preferred stock.

Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant or right. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Equity Investments.  After its purchase, a portfolio investment (such as a convertible debt obligation) may convert to an equity security. Alternatively, the Fund may acquire equity securities in connection with a restructuring or other similar event related to

 

60


                        APPENDIX A

 

one or more of its investments. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the investment (or make additional purchases of that equity investment) if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Asset Segregation.  As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on their books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual “netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where the Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party FCM or other counterparty to off-set the Fund’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign their delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Fund reserves the right to modify their asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the Investment Company Act and SEC or SEC staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only their net obligations under certain instruments, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

 

61


 

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 

Because the Fund has not commenced investment operations as of the date of the Prospectus, financial highlights are not available.

 

62


 

Appendix C

Additional Information About Sales Charge Variations, Waivers and Discounts

 

The availability of certain sales charge variations, waivers and discounts will depend on whether you purchase your shares directly from the Fund or through an Intermediary. Intermediaries may impose different sales charges and have unique policies and procedures regarding the availability of sales charge waivers and/or discounts (including based on account type), which differ from those described in the Prospectus and are disclosed below. All sales charges and sales charge variations, waivers and discounts available to investors, other than those set forth below, are described in the Prospectus. To the extent an Intermediary notifies the Investment Adviser or Distributor of its intention to impose sales charges or have sales charge waivers and/or discounts that differ from those described in the Prospectus, such information provided by that Intermediary will be disclosed in this Appendix.

In all instances, it is your responsibility to notify your Intermediary at the time of purchase of any relationship or other facts qualifying you for sales charge waivers or discounts. Please contact your Intermediary with questions regarding your eligibility for applicable sales charge variations, waivers and discounts or for additional information regarding your Intermediary’s policies for implementing particular sales charge variations, waivers and discounts. For waivers and discounts not available through a particular Intermediary, shareholders will have to purchase shares directly from the Fund or through another Intermediary to receive these waivers or discounts.

In addition to different sales charge variations, waivers and discounts, Intermediaries may have different share class exchange privileges that vary from those described in the Prospectus. You should contact your Intermediary to understand the exchange privileges available to you.

The information provided below for a particular Intermediary is reproduced based on information provided by that Intermediary. An Intermediary’s administration and implementation of its particular policies with respect to any variations, waivers and/or discounts is neither supervised nor verified by the Fund, the Investment Adviser or the Distributor.

 

  MERRILL LYNCH     

Effective April 10, 2017, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Merrill Lynch platform or account will be eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Load Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Merrill Lynch

   

Employer-sponsored retirement, deferred compensation and employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) and trusts used to fund those plans, provided that the shares are not held in a commission-based brokerage account and shares are held for the benefit of the plan

   

Shares purchased by or through a 529 Plan

   

Shares purchased through a Merrill Lynch affiliated investment advisory program or effective May 1, 2019, exchanges of shares purchased through such a Merrill Lynch program due to the holdings moving from such program to a Merrill Lynch brokerage (non-advisory) account

   

Shares purchased by third party investment advisors on behalf of their advisory clients through Merrill Lynch’s platform

   

Shares of funds purchased through the Merrill Edge Self-Directed platform (if applicable)

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment when purchasing shares of the same fund (but not any other fund within the fund family)

   

Shares exchanged from Class C (i.e., level-load) shares of the same fund in the month of or following the 10-year anniversary of the purchase date

   

Employees and registered representatives of Merrill Lynch or its affiliates and their family members

   

Directors or Trustees of the Fund, and employees of the Fund’s investment adviser or any of its affiliates, as described in the prospectus

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (known as Rights of Reinstatement)

 

63


 

CDSC Waivers on Class A and Class C Shares Available at Merrill Lynch

   

Death or disability of the shareholder

   

Shares sold as part of a systematic withdrawal plan as described in the Fund’s prospectus

   

Return of excess contributions from an IRA Account

   

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and retirement accounts due to the shareholder reaching age 70 1/2

   

Shares sold to pay Merrill Lynch fees but only if the transaction is initiated by Merrill Lynch

   

Shares acquired through a right of reinstatement

   

Shares held in retirement brokerage accounts, that are exchanged for a lower cost share class due to transfer to certain fee based accounts or platforms (applicable to A and C shares only)

   

Effective May 1, 2019, Class A Shares sold, where such Class A Shares were received as a result of exchanges of shares purchased through a Merrill Lynch affiliated investment advisory program due to the holdings moving from the program to a Merrill Lynch brokerage (non-advisory) account

Front-End Load Discounts Available at Merrill Lynch: Rights of Accumulation & Letters of Intent

   

Rights of Accumulation (ROA) which entitle shareholders to breakpoint discounts will be automatically calculated based on the aggregated holding of fund family assets held by accounts within the purchaser’s household at Merrill Lynch. Eligible fund family assets not held at Merrill Lynch may be included in the ROA calculation only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets

   

Letters of Intent (LOI) which allow for breakpoint discounts based on anticipated purchases within a fund family, through Merrill Lynch, over a 13-month period of time (if applicable)

 

  AMERIPRISE FINANCIAL     

Effective June 30, 2018, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through an Ameriprise Financial platform or account will be eligible only for the following front-end sales charge waivers and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s Prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Charge Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Ameriprise Financial

   

Employer-sponsored retirement plans (e.g., 401(k) plans, 457 plans, employer-sponsored 403(b) plans, profit sharing and money purchase pension plans and defined benefit plans). For purposes of this provision, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, Simple IRAs or SAR-SEPs.

   

Shares purchased through an Ameriprise Financial investment advisory program (if an Advisory or similar share class for such investment advisory program is not available).

   

Shares purchased by third party investment advisors on behalf of their advisory clients through Ameriprise Financial’s platform (if an Advisory or similar share class for such investment advisory program is not available).

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of capital gains distributions and dividend reinvestment when purchasing shares of the same Fund (but not any other fund within the same fund family).

   

Shares exchanged from Class C shares of the same fund in the month of or following the 10-year anniversary of the purchase date. To the extent that this prospectus elsewhere provides for a waiver with respect to such shares following a shorter holding period, that waiver will apply to exchanges following such shorter period. To the extent that this prospectus elsewhere provides for a waiver with respect to exchanges of Class C shares for load waived shares, that waiver will also apply to such exchanges.

   

Employees and registered representatives of Ameriprise Financial or its affiliates and their immediate family members.

   

Shares purchased by or through qualified accounts (including IRAs, Coverdell Education Savings Accounts, 401(k)s, 403(b) TSCAs subject to ERISA and defined benefit plans) that are held by a covered family member, defined as an Ameriprise financial advisor and/or the advisor’s spouse, advisor’s lineal ascendant (mother, father, grandmother, grandfather, great grandmother, great grandfather), advisor’s lineal descendant (son, step-son, daughter, step-daughter, grandson, granddaughter, great grandson, great granddaughter) or any spouse of a covered family member who is a lineal descendant.

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (i.e., Rights of Reinstatement).

 

64


            APPENDIX C

 

 

  MORGAN STANLEY WEALTH MANAGEMENT     

Effective July 1, 2018, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Morgan Stanley Wealth Management transactional brokerage account will be eligible only for the following front-end sales charge waivers with respect to Class A shares, which may differ from and may be more limited than those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s Prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Charge Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Morgan Stanley Wealth Management

   

Employer-sponsored retirement plans (e.g., 401(k) plans, 457 plans, employer-sponsored 403(b) plans, profit sharing and money purchase pension plans and defined benefit plans). For purposes of this provision, employer-sponsored retirement plans do not include SEP IRAs, Simple IRAs, SAR-SEPs or Keogh plans

   

Morgan Stanley employee and employee-related accounts according to Morgan Stanley’s account linking rules

   

Shares purchased through reinvestment of dividends and capital gains distributions when purchasing shares of the same fund

   

Shares purchased through a Morgan Stanley self-directed brokerage account

   

Class C (i.e., level-load) shares that are no longer subject to a contingent deferred sales charge and are converted to Class A shares of the same fund pursuant to Morgan Stanley Wealth Management’s share class conversion program

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (i) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (ii) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (iii) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales charge.

 

  RAYMOND JAMES & ASSOCIATES, INC., RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC. AND EACH ENTITY’S AFFILIATES (“RAYMOND JAMES”)     

Effective March 1, 2019, shareholders purchasing Fund shares through a Raymond James platform or account, or through an introducing broker-dealer or independent registered investment adviser for which Raymond James provides trade execution, clearance, and/or custody services, will be eligible only for the following load waivers (front-end sales charge waivers and contingent deferred, or back-end, sales charge waivers) and discounts, which may differ from those disclosed elsewhere in this Fund’s Prospectus or SAI.

Front-End Sales Load Waivers on Class A Shares Available at Raymond James

   

Shares purchased in an investment advisory program.

   

Shares purchased within the same fund family through a systematic reinvestment of capital gains and dividend distributions.

   

Employees and registered representatives of Raymond James or its affiliates and their family members as designated by Raymond James.

   

Shares purchased from the proceeds of redemptions within the same fund family, provided (1) the repurchase occurs within 90 days following the redemption, (2) the redemption and purchase occur in the same account, and (3) redeemed shares were subject to a front-end or deferred sales load (known as Rights of Reinstatement).

   

A Shareholder in the Fund’s Class C shares will have their shares converted at net asset value to Class A shares (or the appropriate share class) of the Fund if the shares are no longer subject to a CDSC and the conversion is in line with the policies and procedures of Raymond James.

CDSC Waivers on Class A and Class C Shares Available at Raymond James

   

Death or disability of the shareholder.

   

Shares sold as part of a systematic withdrawal plan as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Return of excess contributions from an IRA Account.

   

Shares sold as part of a required minimum distribution for IRA and retirement accounts due to the shareholder reaching age 70½ as described in the Fund’s Prospectus.

   

Shares sold to pay Raymond James fees but only if the transaction is initiated by Raymond James.

   

Shares acquired through a Right of Reinstatement.

 

65


 

Front-End Load Discounts Available at Raymond James: Breakpoints, Rights of Accumulation, and/or Letter of Intent

   

Breakpoints as described in this Prospectus.

   

Rights of accumulation which entitle shareholders to breakpoint discounts will be automatically calculated based on the aggregated holding of fund family assets held by accounts within the purchaser’s household at Raymond James. Eligible fund family assets not held at Raymond James may be included in the calculation of rights of accumulation only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets.

   

Letters of intent which allow for breakpoint discounts based on anticipated purchases within a fund family, over a 13-month time period. Eligible fund family assets not held at Raymond James may be included in the calculation of letters of intent only if the shareholder notifies his or her financial advisor about such assets.

 

66


 

 

Income Fund Prospectus

 

  FOR MORE INFORMATION     

Annual/Semi-Annual Report

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information

Additional information about the Fund and its policies is also available in the Fund’s SAI. The SAI is incorporated by reference into the Prospectus (i.e., legally considered part of the Prospectus).

The Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and SAI are available free upon request by calling Goldman Sachs at 1-800-526-7384. You can also access and download the annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI at the Fund’s website: http://www.gsamfunds.com/mutualfunds

From time to time, certain announcements and other information regarding the Fund may be found at

http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements-ind for individual investors or http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements for advisers.

To obtain other information and for shareholder inquiries:

 

   Institutional & Class R6    Class A, C, Investor & R

  By telephone:

   1-800-621-2550    1-800-526-7384

  By mail:

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 06050

Chicago, Illinois 60606-6306

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 219711

Kansas City, MO 64121

  On the Internet:

   SEC EDGAR database – http://www.sec.gov

Other information about the Fund is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov. You may obtain copies of this information, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

GSINCFDPRO-19   

The Fund’s investment company registration number is 811-05349.

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

  LOGO


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus dated September 6, 2019

Subject to Completion

 

Prospectus

 

GOLDMAN SACHS INCOME FUND

 

 

November [    ], 2019

 

 

 

Goldman Sachs Income Fund

 

   

Class P Shares: [                ]

 

It is our intention that beginning on January 1, 2021, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will not be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. At any time, you may elect to receive reports and certain communications from the Fund electronically by calling the applicable toll-free number below or by contacting your financial intermediary.

You may elect to receive all future shareholder reports in paper free of charge. If you hold shares of the Fund directly with the Fund’s transfer agent, you can inform the transfer agent that you wish to receive paper copies of reports by calling toll-free 800-621-2550. If you hold shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary, please contact your financial intermediary to make this election. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all Goldman Sachs Funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary or all Goldman Sachs Funds held with the Fund’s transfer agent if you invest directly with the transfer agent.

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN THE FUND.

 

LOGO


Table of Contents

 

Goldman Sachs Income Fund – Summary        1  
Investment Management Approach        7  
Risks of the Fund        12  
Service Providers        21  
Distributions        24  
Shareholder Guide        25  

How To Buy Shares

     25    

How To Sell Shares

     29    
Taxation        35  
Appendix A
Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques
       37  
Appendix B
Financial Highlights
       56  


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Income Fund—Summary

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Income Fund (the “Fund”) seeks a high level of current income, and secondarily, capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

 

     Class P  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)  

Management Fees

    [        ]%  

Other Expenses1

    [        ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [        ]%  

Expense Limitation

    [        ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Expense Limitation

    [        ]%  

 

1 

The “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred during the first fiscal year.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in Class P Shares of the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Class P Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same [except that the Example incorporates the expense limitation arrangement for only the first year]. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

      1 Year      3 Years  

Class P Shares

   $ [        ]      $ [        ]  
     

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in the annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Strategy

The Fund invests in a multi-sector portfolio of U.S. and foreign investment grade and non-investment grade fixed income investments of varying maturities. The Fund’s investment sectors include, but are not limited to: (a) government securities, (b) corporate debt securities, (c) commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities, (d) asset-backed securities (including collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”)) and (e) emerging countries debt denominated in both U.S. dollars and foreign currencies. The Fund may not have exposure to all of these investment sectors, and the Fund’s exposure to any one investment sector may vary over time.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund may invest in U.S. Government securities (such as U.S. Treasury securities or Treasury inflation protected securities), non-U.S. sovereign debt, agency securities, corporate debt securities, agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities (including CLOs), custodial receipts, municipal securities, loan participations and loan assignments and convertible securities. The Fund’s investments in loan participations and loan assignments may include, but are not limited to: (a) senior secured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Senior Loans”), (b) second lien or other subordinated or

 

1


unsecured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt (“Second Lien Loans”) and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating or variable interest rates. The Fund may invest in fixed income securities of any maturity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”), or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

The Fund may invest up to 35% of its total assets measured at the time of purchase (“Total Assets”) in sovereign and corporate debt securities and other instruments of issuers in emerging market countries (“emerging countries debt”). Such investments may include sovereign debt issued by emerging countries that have sovereign ratings below investment grade or that are unrated. The Fund’s investments may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Total Assets privately issued corporate debt securities and other obligations issued by private companies, including as privately issued credit obligations and related instruments, and up to an additional 10% of its Total Assets in equity investments, including preferred securities and dividend paying common stocks.

The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Fund also intends to invest in other derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate, interest rate or index. The Fund’s investments in derivatives may include, in addition to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, futures contracts (including interest rate futures and treasury and sovereign bond futures), options (including options on futures contracts, swaps, bonds, stocks and indexes), swaps (including credit default, index, basis, total return, volatility, interest rate and currency swaps), and other forward contracts. The Fund may use derivatives instead of buying and selling bonds to manage duration, to gain exposure or to short individual securities or to gain exposure to a credit or asset backed index.

The Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps, options or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Fund will benefit to the extent the asset decreases in value (and will be harmed to the extent the asset increases in value) between the time it enters into the futures contract and the agreed date of sale. Alternatively, the Fund may sell an instrument (e.g., a bond, or a futures contract) it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, and then borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. In these transactions, the Fund is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The Fund uses short positions and derivatives for both investment and hedging purposes.

The Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”).

The Fund’s target average duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to be between 0 and 8 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index.

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund.  An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Collateralized Loan Obligations Risk.  The Fund may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured investments. A CLO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO’s manager may perform poorly.

 

2


 

CLOs issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Despite the protection from subordinate tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinate tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. The Fund’s investments in CLOs principally consist of senior tranches and, to a lesser extent, mezzanine tranches.

Credit/Default Risk.  An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. Additionally, the credit quality of securities may deteriorate rapidly, which may impair the Fund’s liquidity and cause significant deterioration in net asset value (“NAV”). These risks are more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in non-investment grade fixed income securities.

Derivatives Risk.  The Fund’s use of options, futures, forwards, swaps and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligation. The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from the Investment Adviser’s expectations for non-hedging forward foreign currency transactions may produce significant losses to the Fund.

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations Risk.  For floating and variable rate obligations, there may be a lag between an actual change in the underlying interest rate benchmark and the reset time for an interest payment of such an obligation, which could harm or benefit the Fund, depending on the interest rate environment or other circumstances. In a rising interest rate environment, for example, a floating or variable rate obligation that does not reset immediately would prevent the Fund from taking full advantage of rising interest rates in a timely manner. However, in a declining interest rate environment, the Fund may benefit from a lag due to an obligation’s interest rate payment not being immediately impacted by a decline in interest rates.

Certain floating and variable rate obligations have an interest rate floor feature, which prevents the interest rate payable by the security from dropping below a specified level as compared to a reference interest rate (the “reference rate”), such as LIBOR. Such a floor protects the Fund from losses resulting from a decrease in the reference rate below the specified level. However, if the reference rate is below the floor, there will be a lag between a rise in the reference rate and a rise in the interest rate payable by the obligation, and the Fund may not benefit from increasing interest rates for a significant amount of time.

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) warned that LIBOR may cease to be available or appropriate for use by 2021. The unavailability or replacement of LIBOR may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades. Any pricing adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute reference rate may also adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV.

Foreign and Emerging Countries Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. These risks may be more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers located in emerging countries.

Interest Rate Risk.  When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed income securities or instruments. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments. Fluctuations in interest rates may also affect the yield and liquidity of fixed income securities and instruments held by the Fund.

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk.  The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

 

3


 

Liquidity Risk.  The Fund may make investments that are illiquid or that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Illiquid investments may be more difficult to value. Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests or other reasons. To meet redemption requests, the Fund may be forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions. Liquidity risk may be the result of, among other things, the reduced number and capacity of traditional market participants to make a market in fixed income securities or the lack of an active market. The potential for liquidity risk may be magnified by a rising interest rate environment or other circumstances where investor redemptions from fixed income mutual funds may be higher than normal, potentially causing increased supply in the market due to selling activity. These risks may be more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers located in emerging market countries. Redemptions by large shareholders may have a negative impact on the Fund’s liquidity.

Loan-Related Investments Risk.  In addition to risks generally associated with debt investments (e.g., interest rate risk and default risk), loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments are subject to other risks. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be or become illiquid or less liquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan investments are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and certain loan investments may be or become illiquid or less liquid and more difficult to value, particularly in the event of a downgrade of the loan or the borrower. There is less readily available, reliable information about most loan investments than is the case for many other types of securities. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults. With respect to loan participations, the Fund may not always have direct recourse against a borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and/or interest; may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the borrower; and may be regarded as the creditor of the agent lender (rather than the borrower), subjecting the Fund to the creditworthiness of that lender as well. Investors in loans, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws, although they may be entitled to certain contractual remedies. The market for loan obligations may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because transactions in many loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of heightened redemption activity or distressed market conditions, the Fund may seek to obtain expedited trade settlement, which will generally incur additional costs (although expedited trade settlement will not always be available).

Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral, but are nevertheless usually rated below investment grade. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid. Generally, loans have the benefit of restrictive covenants that limit the ability of the borrower to further encumber its assets or impose other obligations. To the extent a loan does not have certain covenants (or has less restrictive covenants), an investment in the loan will be particularly sensitive to the risks associated with loan investments.

Management Risk.  A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk.  Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks, including “extension risk” (i.e., in periods of rising interest rates, issuers may pay principal later than expected) and “prepayment risk” (i.e., in periods of declining interest rates, issuers may pay principal more quickly than expected, causing the Fund to reinvest proceeds at lower prevailing interest rates). Mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers are subject to other risks as well, including failures of private insurers to meet their obligations and unexpectedly high rates of default on the mortgages backing the securities. Other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with Mortgage-backed securities, as well as risks associated with the nature and servicing of the assets backing the securities. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

Municipal Securities Risk.  Municipal securities are subject to credit/default risk, interest rate risk and certain additional risks. The Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business, political, environmental or other developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in the bonds of similar projects (such as those relating to education, health care, housing, transportation, and utilities), industrial development bonds, or in particular types of municipal securities (such as general obligation bonds, private activity bonds and moral obligation bonds). While interest earned on municipal securities is generally not subject to federal tax, any interest earned on taxable municipal securities is fully taxable at the federal level and may be subject to tax at the state level.

 

4


Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk.  The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Fund’s Investment Adviser may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment regarding the direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Investment Adviser seeks to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from that anticipated by the Investment Adviser may produce significant losses to the Fund. Some of these transactions may also be subject to interest rate risk.

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk.  Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific issuer developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less liquidity.

Other Investment Companies Risk.  By investing in other investment companies (including ETFs) indirectly through the Fund, investors will incur a proportionate share of the expenses of the other investment companies held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees) in addition to the fees regularly borne by the Fund. In addition, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such investment companies in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

Short Position Risk.  The Fund may enter into a short position through a futures contract, an option or swap agreement or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. Taking short positions involves leverage of the Fund’s assets and presents various risks. If the value of the underlying instrument or market in which the Fund has taken a short position increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in value from the time that the short position was entered into plus any related interest payments or other fees. Taking short positions involves the risk that losses may be disproportionate, may exceed the amount invested and may be unlimited.

Sovereign Default Risk.  An issuer of non-U.S. sovereign debt held by the Fund or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest when due. This may result from political or social factors, the general economic environment of a country or levels of foreign debt or foreign currency exchange rates.

U.S. Government Securities Risk.  The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal Home Loan Banks are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Performance

Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers:  Ashish Shah, Managing Director, Co-Chief Investment Officer of Global Fixed Income, has managed the Fund since 2019; and Ron Arons, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since 2019.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund does not impose minimum purchase requirements for initial or subsequent investments in Class P Shares.

You may purchase and redeem (sell) Class P Shares of the Fund on any business day through the Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management business unit, The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A., The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware, The Ayco Company, L.P. or with certain intermediaries that are authorized to offer Class P Shares.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

 

5


 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through an Intermediary, the Fund and/or its related companies may pay the Intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your Intermediary’s website for more information.

 

6


 

 

Investment Management Approach

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES     

The Income Fund seeks a high level of current income, and secondarily, capital appreciation. The Fund’s investment may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ notice.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGY     

Income Fund

The Fund invests in a multi-sector portfolio of U.S. and foreign investment grade and non-investment grade fixed income investments of varying maturities. The Fund’s investment sectors include, but are not limited to: (a) government securities, (b) corporate debt securities, (c) commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities, (d) asset-backed securities (including CLOs) and (e) emerging countries debt denominated in both U.S. dollars and foreign currencies. The Fund may not have exposure to all of these investment sectors, and the Fund’s exposure to any one investment sector may vary over time.

Under normal circumstances, the Fund may invest in U.S. Government securities (such as U.S. Treasury securities or Treasury inflation protected securities), non-U.S. sovereign debt, agency securities, corporate debt securities, agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities (including CLOs), custodial receipts, municipal securities, loan participations and loan assignments and convertible securities. The Fund’s investments in loan participations and loan assignments may include, but are not limited to: (a) Senior Loans, (b) Second Lien Loans and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating or variable interest rates. The Fund may invest in fixed income securities of any maturity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

The Fund may invest up to 35% of its Total Assets in emerging countries debt. Such investments may include sovereign debt issued by emerging countries that have sovereign ratings below investment grade or that are unrated. The Fund’s investments may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Total Assets in privately issued corporate debt securities and other obligations issued by private companies, including privately issued credit obligations and related instruments, and up to an additional 10% of its Total Assets in equity investments, including preferred securities and dividend paying common stocks. Many of the issuers of such obligations will be smaller companies with stock market capitalizations of $1 billion or less at the time of investment and may be rated below investment grade (so-called “high yield” or “junk” bonds) or unrated.

The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Fund also intends to invest in other derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate, interest rate or index. The Fund’s investments in derivatives may include, in addition to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, futures contracts (including interest rate futures and treasury and sovereign bond futures), options (including options on futures contracts, swaps, bonds, stocks and indexes), swaps (including credit default, index, basis, total return, volatility, interest rate and currency swaps), and other forward contracts. The Fund may use derivatives instead of buying and selling bonds to manage duration, to gain exposure or to short individual securities or to gain exposure to a credit or asset backed index.

The Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps, options or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Fund will benefit to the extent the asset decreases in value (and will be harmed to the extent the asset increases in value) between the time it enters into the futures contract and the agreed date of sale. Alternatively, the Fund may sell an instrument (e.g., a bond, or a futures contract) it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, and then borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. In these transactions, the Fund is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The Fund uses short positions and derivatives for both investment and hedging purposes.

The Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs.

 

7


 

The Fund’s target average duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to be between 0 and 8 years. “Duration” is a measure of a debt security’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security’s market price.

The Fund’s benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index.

The Fund may, from time to time, take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies in attempting to respond to adverse market, political or other conditions. For temporary defensive purposes (and to the extent that it is permitted to invest in the following), the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in U.S. Government Securities, commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“Standard & Poor’s”), P-2 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality), certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, repurchase agreements, non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year, ETFs and other investment companies and cash items. When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Goldman Sachs’ Fixed Income Investing Philosophy:

Global fixed income markets are constantly evolving and are highly diverse—with a large number of countries, currencies, sectors, issuers and securities. We believe that inefficiencies in these complex markets cause bond prices to diverge from their fair value. To capitalize on these inefficiencies and generate consistent risk-adjusted performance, we believe it is critical to:

   

Thoughtfully combine diversified sources of return by employing multiple strategies

   

Take a global perspective to uncover relative value opportunities

   

Consider environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) factors as part of the fundamental credit analysis and portfolio construction process

   

Employ focused specialist teams to identify short-term mispricings and incorporate long-term views

   

Emphasize a risk-aware approach as we view management as both an offensive and defensive tool

   

Build a strong team of skilled investors who excel on behalf of our clients

GSAM Fixed Income implements this overall philosophy through an investment process that seeks to maximize risk-adjusted total returns by using a diverse set of investment strategies and revolves around four key elements:

1.  Developing a long-term risk budget—Lead portfolio managers (the “Portfolio Team”) are responsible for the overall results of the Fund. They set the strategic direction of the Fund by establishing a “risk budget.” The “risk budget” for the Fund is the range the portfolio managers will allow the Fund to deviate from its benchmark with respect to sector allocations, country allocations, securities selection, and, to a lesser extent, duration. Following careful analysis of risk and return objectives, they allocate the overall risk budget to each component strategy to optimize potential return.

2.  Generating investment views and strategies—Our Top-down and Bottom-up Strategy Teams (collectively, “Strategy Teams”) generate investment ideas within their areas of specialization. The Top-down Strategy Teams are responsible for Cross-Sector, Duration, Country, and Currency decisions and are deliberately small to ensure creativity and expedite decision-making and execution. Concurrently, Bottom-up Strategy Teams, comprised of sector specialists, formulate sub-sector allocation and security selection decisions.

3.  Constructing the portfolios—The Portfolio and Strategy Teams construct the Fund’s portfolio through a collaborative process in which the Portfolio Team oversees the overall portfolio while the Strategy Teams actively manage the securities and strategies within their areas of specialization. This process enables the Portfolio Team to build a diversified portfolio consisting of the ideas of the individual Strategy Teams, consistent with the Fund’s overall risk and return objectives.

4.  Dynamic adjustments based on market conditions—As market conditions change, the volatility and attractiveness of sectors and strategies can change as well. To optimize the Fund’s risk/return potential within its long-term risk budget, the Portfolio Team dynamically adjusts the mix of top-down and bottom-up strategies in the Fund’s portfolio. At the same time, the Strategy Teams adjust their strategies and security selections in an effort to optimize performance within their specialty areas.

 

With every fixed income portfolio, the Investment Adviser applies a team approach that emphasizes risk management and capitalizes on Goldman Sachs’ extensive research capabilities.

 

 

8


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

References in the Prospectus to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only, and unless otherwise noted, are not an indication of how the Fund is managed.

 

  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

Although the Fund’s principal investment strategies are described in the Fund’s Summary—Principal Strategy section of the Prospectus, the following tables identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Numbers in these tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Fund’s annual/semi-annual reports (when available). For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A.

The Fund publishes on its website (http://www.gsamfunds.com) complete portfolio holdings for the Fund as of the end of each fiscal quarter subject to a thirty day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. This information will be available on the website until the date each quarter on which the Fund makes its Form N-PORT filings with the SEC (containing portfolio holdings information). In addition, a description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI.

 

9


10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage;
limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
  Not permitted

 

                          
    

Income

Fund

Investment Practices  

Borrowings

  3313

Credit, Currency, Interest Rate, Total Return and Mortgage Swaps and Options on Swaps

 

Cross Hedging of Currencies

 

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

 

Direct Equity Investment

  10

Foreign Currency Transactions (including Forward Contracts)

 

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts

 

Illiquid Investments*

  15

Interest Rate Floors, Caps and Collars

 

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs)**

  10

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

 

Options1

 

Options on Foreign Currencies2

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

 

Short Sales3

 

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

 
 

 

      *

Illiquid investments are any investments that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.

    **

This percentage limitation does not apply to the Fund’s investments in investment companies (including ETFs) where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.

      1

The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on securities and securities indices in which it may invest.

      2

The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on foreign currencies.

      3

The Fund may engage in short selling of physical securities that it does not own and may (i) engage in short sales against the box, and (ii) obtain certain forms of short investment exposure through the use of derivatives.

      4

The Core Fixed Income Fund’s exposure to non-U.S. currencies (unhedged against currency risk) will not exceed 25% of its total assets.

 

10


                        INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of Net Assets (including borrowings for investment purposes) (roman type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage;
limited only by the objectives and strategies of the Fund
  Not permitted

 

                          
    

Income

Fund

Investment Securities  

Asset-Backed Securities

 

Bank Obligations

 

Collateralized Loan Obligations

 

Convertible Securities

 

Corporate Debt Obligations and Trust Preferred Securities1

 

Emerging Country Securities

  35

Equity Investments

  10

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations

 

Foreign Government Securities

 

Foreign Securities2

 

Inflation Protected Securities

 

Loan Participations and Loan Assignments

 
Mortgage-Backed Securities  

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans

 

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations

 

Fixed Rate Mortgage Loans

 

Government Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

 

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Rights

  10

Structured Securities (which may include credit linked notes)3

 

Taxable Municipal Securities

 

Tax-Free Municipal Securities

 

Temporary Investments

 

U.S. Government Securities

 

Yield Curve Options and Inverse Floating Rate Securities

 

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bond

 
 

 

  1 

The Fund may invest up to 10% of its Total Assets in privately issued corporate debt securities and other obligations issued by private companies, including privately issued credit obligations and related instruments.

  2 

Includes issuers domiciled in one country and issuing securities denominated in the currency of another.

  3 

Structured securities are not subject to the same minimum credit quality requirement as the Fund’s investments in fixed income securities.

 

11


 

 

Risks of the Fund

 

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. The principal risks of the Fund are discussed in the Summary section of the Prospectus. The following section provides additional information on the risks that apply to the Fund, which may result in a loss of your investment. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

 

  Principal Risk
  Additional Risk

 

      Income
Fund

Call/Prepayment

  

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations

  

Counterparty

  

Credit/Default

  

Derivatives

  

Emerging Countries

  

Extension

  

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations

  

Foreign

  

Geographic

  

Interest Rate

  

Large Shareholder Transactions

  

Leverage

  

Liquidity

  

Loan-Related Investments

  

Management

  

Market

  

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities

  

Municipal Securities

  

NAV

  

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading

  

+Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

  

Other Investment Companies

  

Sector

  

Short Position

  

Sovereign Default

  

Economic

  

Political

  

Repayment

  

Stock

  

Treasury Inflation Protected Securities

  

U.S. Government Securities

  
  

 

 

Call/Prepayment Risk—An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) earlier than expected. This may happen when there is a decline in interest rates, when credit spreads change, or when an issuer’s credit quality improves. Under these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to recoup all of its initial investment and will also suffer from having to reinvest in lower-yielding securities.

 

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk—The Fund may invest in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured investments. A CLO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is

 

12


                        RISKS OF THE FUND

 

  a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO’s manager may perform poorly. CLOs may charge management and other administrative fees, which are in addition to those of the Fund.

CLOs issue classes or “tranches” that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of risk. If there are defaults or the CLO’s collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those of subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying collateral and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity and mezzanine tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinate tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. The Fund’s investments in CLOs principally consist of senior tranches and, to a lesser extent, mezzanine tranches.

Typically, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CLOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid investments and may have limited independent pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”) for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such CLOs may be characterized by the Fund as liquid investments.

The Fund may also invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which are structured similarly to CLOs, but are backed by pools of assets that are debt securities (rather than being limited only to loans), typically including bonds, other structured finance securities (including other asset-backed securities and other CDOs) and/or synthetic instruments. Like CLOs, the risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type and quality of the collateral securities and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. CDOs collateralized by pools of asset-backed securities carry the same risks as investments in asset-backed securities directly, including losses with respect to the collateral underlying those asset-backed securities. In addition, certain CDOs may not hold their underlying collateral directly, but rather, use derivatives such as swaps to create “synthetic” exposure to the collateral pool. Such CDOs entail the risks associated with derivative instruments.

 

Counterparty Risk—Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with certain OTC transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into certain OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses. However, recent regulatory developments require margin on certain uncleared OTC transactions which may reduce, but not eliminate, this risk.

 

Credit/Default Risk—An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. The credit quality of the Fund’s portfolio securities or instruments may meet the Fund’s credit quality requirements at the time of purchase but then deteriorate thereafter, and such a deterioration can occur rapidly. In certain instances, the downgrading or default of a single holding or guarantor of the Fund’s holding may impair the Fund’s liquidity and have the potential to cause significant deterioration in NAV. These risks are more pronounced in connection with the Fund’s investments in non-investment grade fixed income securities.

 

Derivatives Risk—The Fund’s use of options, futures, forwards, swaps, options on swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations, liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that the Fund will be

 

13


 

 

required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions. Derivatives may be used for both hedging and non-hedging purposes.

The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments, and there is no guarantee that the use of derivatives will achieve their intended result. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuation in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables, the use of derivatives could result in losses, which in some cases may be significant. A lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivatives and the value of the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged could also result in losses. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. For more information about these practices, see Appendix A.

 

 

Emerging Countries Risk—Investments in securities of issuers located in emerging countries are subject to the risks associated with investments in foreign securities. In addition, the securities markets of most emerging countries are less liquid, developed and efficient, are subject to greater price volatility, have smaller market capitalizations, have more or less government regulation and are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements as the securities markets of more developed countries. Further, investments in securities of issuers located in certain emerging countries involve the risk of loss resulting from problems in share registration, settlement or custody and substantial economic, political and social disruptions. These risks are not normally associated with investments in more developed countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Extension Risk—An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) later than expected. This may happen when there is a rise in interest rates. Under these circumstances, the value of the obligation will decrease, and the Fund will also suffer from the inability to reinvest in higher yielding securities.

 

Floating and Variable Rate Obligations Risk—Floating rate and variable rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically, daily, monthly, quarterly, or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. For floating and variable rate obligations, there may be a lag between an actual change in the underlying interest rate benchmark and the reset time for an interest payment of such an obligation, which could harm or benefit the Fund, depending on the interest rate environment or other circumstances. In a rising interest rate environment, for example, a floating or variable rate obligation that does not reset immediately would prevent the Fund from taking full advantage of rising interest rates in a timely manner. However, in a declining interest rate environment, the Fund may benefit from a lag due to an obligation’s interest rate payment not being immediately impacted by a decline in interest rates.

Certain floating and variable rate obligations have an interest rate floor feature, which prevents the interest rate payable by the security from dropping below a specified level as compared to a reference interest rate (the “reference rate”), such as LIBOR. Such a floor protects the Fund from losses resulting from a decrease in the reference rate below the specified level. However, if the reference rate is below the floor, there will be a lag between a rise in the reference rate and a rise in the interest rate payable by the obligation, and the Fund may not benefit from increasing interest rates for a significant amount of time.

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) warned that LIBOR may cease to be available or appropriate for use by 2021. The unavailability or replacement of LIBOR may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades. Any pricing adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute reference rate may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV.

 

Foreign Risk—When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with U.S. issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquidity, developed or efficient trading markets, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, foreign taxes, sanctions, confiscation of assets and property, trade restrictions (including tariffs), expropriation and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. The Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not to invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization.

 

14


                        RISKS OF THE FUND

 

  Geopolitical developments in certain countries in which the Fund may invest have caused, or may in the future cause, significant volatility in financial markets. For example, in June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union following a referendum referred to as “Brexit,” which may result in increased market volatility and cause additional market disruption on a global basis. Although the effects of Brexit are unknown at this time, Brexit may result in fluctuations of exchange rates, increased illiquidity, inflation, and changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain of the Fund’s assets are subject. These and other geopolitical developments could negatively impact the value of the Fund’s investments.

The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Geographic Risk—If the Fund focuses its investments in securities of issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

 

Interest Rate Risk—When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may include inflation protected securities) will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed-income securities or instruments. A wide variety of market factors can cause interest rates to rise, including central bank monetary policy, rising inflation and changes in general economic conditions. The risks associated with changing interest rates may have unpredictable effects on the markets and the Fund’s investments. Fluctuations in interest rates may also affect the yield and liquidity of fixed income securities and instruments held by the Fund.

 

Large Shareholder Transactions Risk—The Fund may experience adverse effects when certain large shareholders, such as other funds, institutional investors (including those trading by use of non-discretionary mathematical formulas), financial intermediaries (who may make investment decisions on behalf of underlying clients and/or include the Fund in their investment model), individuals, accounts and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”) affiliates, purchase or redeem large amounts of shares of the Fund. Such large shareholder redemptions, which may occur rapidly or unexpectedly, may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities at times when it would not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and liquidity. Similarly, large Fund share purchases may adversely affect the Fund’s performance to the extent that the Fund is delayed in investing new cash or otherwise maintains a larger cash position than it ordinarily would. These transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income to shareholders if such sales of investments resulted in gains, and may also increase transaction costs. In addition, a large redemption could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio.

 

Leverage Risk—Leverage creates exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. Borrowings and the use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage, the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. Relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of a leveraged investment. The Fund will identify liquid assets on its books or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to such risk, to the extent required by applicable law. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

 

Liquidity Risk—The Fund may invest to a greater degree in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, the Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price, the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities.

To the extent that the traditional dealer counterparties that engage in fixed income trading do not maintain inventories of bonds (which provide an important indication of their ability to “make markets”) that keep pace with the growth of the bond markets over time, relatively low levels of dealer inventories could lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income

 

15


markets. Additionally, market participants other than the Fund may attempt to sell fixed income holdings at the same time as the Fund, which could cause downward pricing pressure and contribute to decreased liquidity.

To the extent the Fund holds non-investment grade fixed income securities and/or emerging country issuers may be especially subject to the risk that during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within a particular investment category, may shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.

Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period stated in the Prospectus or without significant dilution to remaining investors’ interests because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. While the Fund reserves the right to meet redemption requests through in-kind distributions, the Fund may instead choose to raise cash to meet redemption requests through sales of portfolio securities or permissible borrowings. If the Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV and dilute remaining investors’ interests.

Certain shareholders, including clients or affiliates of the Investment Adviser and/or other funds managed by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these shareholders of their shares of the Fund may further increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and may impact the Fund’s NAV. These shareholders may include, for example, institutional investors, funds of funds, discretionary advisory clients and other shareholders whose buy-sell decisions are controlled by a single decision-maker.

 

Loan-Related Investments Risk—In addition to risks generally associated with debt investments (e.g., interest rate risk and default risk), loan-related investments such as loan participations and assignments are subject to other risks. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be or become illiquid or less liquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan investments are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and certain loan investments may be or become illiquid or less liquid and more difficult to value, particularly in the event of a downgrade of the loan or the borrower. There is less readily available, reliable information about most loan investments than is the case for many other types of securities, and the Investment Adviser relies primarily on its own evaluation of a borrower’s credit quality rather than on any available independent sources. The ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to sell a loan investment may be impaired by the lack of an active trading market for certain loans or adverse market conditions limiting liquidity. Loan obligations are not traded on an exchange, and purchasers and sellers rely on certain market makers, such as the administrative agent for the particular loan obligation, to trade that loan obligation. The market for loan obligations may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Because transactions in many loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations. During periods of heightened redemption activity or distressed market conditions, the Fund may seek to obtain expedited trade settlement, which will generally incur additional costs (although expedited trade settlement will not always be available). The Fund may also hold a larger position in cash and cash items to limit the impact of extended trade settlement periods, which may adversely impact the Fund’s performance. In addition, substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults.

Affiliates of the Investment Adviser may participate in the primary and secondary market for loans. Because of limitations imposed by applicable law, the presence of such affiliates in the loan markets may restrict the Fund’s ability to acquire certain loans, affect the timing of such acquisition, or affect the price at which the loan is acquired.

With respect to loan participations, the Fund may not always have direct recourse against a borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and/or interest; may be subject to greater delays, expenses and risks than if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the borrower; and may be regarded as the creditor of the agent lender (rather than the borrower), subjecting the Fund to the creditworthiness of that lender as well and the ability of the lender to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. Investors in loans, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws, although they may be entitled to certain contractual remedies.

Senior loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the borrower. Nevertheless, senior loans are usually rated below investment grade. Because second lien loans are

 

16


                        RISKS OF THE FUND

 

subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to senior loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral. Second lien loans generally have greater price volatility than senior loans and may be less liquid. Generally, loans have the benefit of restrictive covenants that limit the ability of the borrower to further encumber its assets or impose other obligations. To the extent a loan does not have certain covenants (or has less restrictive covenants), an investment in the loan will be particularly sensitive to the risks associated with loan investments.

 

Management Risk—A strategy used by the Investment Adviser may fail to produce the intended results.

 

Market Risk—The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. The Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sectors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such conditions, events and actions may result in greater market risk.

 

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk—Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks. Generally, rising interest rates tend to extend the duration of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. As a result, in a period of rising interest rates, if the Fund holds mortgage-backed securities, it may exhibit additional volatility. This is known as extension risk. In addition, adjustable and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities are subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers may pay off their mortgages sooner than expected. This can reduce the returns of the Fund because the Fund may have to reinvest that money at the lower prevailing interest rates.

The Fund’s investments in other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with mortgage-backed securities, as well as additional risks associated with the nature of the assets and the servicing of those assets. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued by the U.S. Government. (See “U.S. Government Securities Risk”). To the extent that the Fund invests in mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers, the Fund may be subject to additional risks. Timely payment of interest and principal of non-governmental issuers are supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance purchased by the issuer. There can be no assurance that the private insurers can meet their obligations under the policies. An unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may adversely affect the value of a mortgage-backed security and could result in losses to the Fund. The risk of such defaults is generally higher in the case of mortgage pools that include subprime mortgages. Subprime mortgages refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their mortgages.

 

Municipal Securities Risk—Municipal securities are subject to call/prepayment risk, credit/default risk, extension risk, interest rate risk and certain additional risks. The Fund may be more sensitive to adverse economic, business, political, environmental or other developments if it invests a substantial portion of its assets in the debt securities of similar projects (such as those relating to education, health care, housing, transportation, and utilities), industrial development bonds, or in particular types of municipal securities (such as general obligation bonds, private activity bonds and moral obligation bonds). While interest earned on municipal securities is generally not subject to federal tax, any interest earned on taxable municipal securities is fully taxable at the federal level and may be subject to tax at the state level. Specific risks are associated with different types of municipal securities. With respect to general obligation bonds, the full faith, credit and taxing power of the municipality that issues a general obligation bond secures payment of interest and repayment of principal. Timely payments depend on the issuer’s credit quality, ability to raise tax revenues and ability to maintain an adequate tax base. Certain of the municipalities in which the Fund invests may experience significant financial difficulties, which may lead to bankruptcy or default.

With respect to revenue bonds, payments of interest and principal are made only from the revenues generated by a particular facility, class of facilities or the proceeds of a special tax, or other revenue source, and depends on the money earned by that source. Private activity bonds are issued by municipalities and other public authorities to finance development of industrial

 

17


facilities for use by a private enterprise. The private enterprise pays the principal and interest on the bond, and the issuer does not pledge its full faith, credit and taxing power for repayment. If the private enterprise defaults on its payments, the Fund may not receive any income or get its money back from the investment. Moral obligation bonds are generally issued by special purpose public authorities of a state or municipality. If the issuer is unable to meet its obligations, repayment of these bonds becomes a moral commitment, but not a legal obligation, of the state or municipality. Municipal notes are shorter term municipal debt obligations. They may provide interim financing in anticipation of, and are secured by, tax collection, bond sales or revenue receipts. If there is a shortfall in the anticipated proceeds, the notes may not be fully repaid and the Fund may lose money. In a municipal lease obligation, the issuer agrees to make payments when due on the lease obligation. The issuer will generally appropriate municipal funds for that purpose, but is not obligated to do so. Although the issuer does not pledge its unlimited taxing power for payment of the lease obligation, the lease obligation is secured by the lease property. However, if the issuer does not fulfill its payment obligation it may be difficult to sell the property and the proceeds of a sale may not cover the Fund’s loss.

 

NAV Risk—The net asset value of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.

 

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk—The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Investment Adviser may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment regarding the direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Investment Adviser seeks to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from that anticipated by the Investment Adviser may produce significant losses to the Fund. Some of the transactions may also be subject to interest rate risk.

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk—Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific issuer developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less liquidity.

 

Other Investment Companies Risk—By investing in other investment companies (including ETFs) indirectly through the Fund, investors will incur a proportionate share of the expenses of the other investment companies held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees) in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. In addition, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such investment companies in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

 

Sector Risk—To the extent the Fund focuses its investments in securities of issuers in one or more sectors (such as the financial services or telecommunications sectors), the Fund will be subject, to a greater extent than if its investments were diversified across different sectors, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that sector, such as: adverse economic, business, political, environmental or other developments.

 

Short Position Risk—The Fund may use derivatives, including futures and swaps, to implement short positions, and may engage in short selling. Taking short positions and short selling involve leverage of the Fund’s assets and present various risks. If the value of the instrument or market in which the Fund has taken a short derivative position on increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in value from the time that the short position was entered into plus any premium and interest paid to a third party. Therefore, taking short derivative positions involves the risk that losses may be exaggerated, potentially losing more money than the actual cost of the investment. Also, there is the risk that the third party to the short derivative transaction may fail to honor its contract terms, causing a loss to the Fund.

The Fund may make short sales of any instrument that the Fund may purchase for investment. In such transactions, the Fund sells a security it does not own (i.e., “naked” short) in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the security. Because selling securities that the Fund does not own exposes the Fund to the risks associated with those securities, naked shorts involve speculative exposure risk, and such transactions may increase the costs incurred by the Fund.

In order to sell an instrument short, the Fund must generally first borrow the instrument from a lender, such as a broker or other institution. The Fund may not always be able to borrow the instrument at a particular time or at an acceptable price. Thus, there is risk that the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategy due to the lack of available instruments or for other reasons.

After selling a borrowed instrument, the Fund is then obligated to “cover” the short sale by purchasing and returning the instrument to the lender on a later date. The Fund cannot guarantee that the instrument necessary to cover a short position will be available for purchase at the time the Fund wishes to close a short position or, if available, that the instrument will be available at an acceptable price. If the borrowed instrument has appreciated in value, the Fund will be required to pay more for the replacement instrument than the amount it received for selling the instrument short. Moreover, purchasing an instrument to cover a short position can itself

 

18


                        RISKS OF THE FUND

 

cause the price of the instrument to rise further, thereby exacerbating the loss. Unlike purchasing a security, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price and there is no upside limit on potential gain, the potential loss on a short sale is unlimited because the loss increases as the price of the instrument sold short increases and the price may rise indefinitely. If the price of a borrowed instrument declines before the short position is covered, the Fund may realize a gain. The Fund’s gain on a short sale, before transaction and other costs, is generally limited to the difference between the price at which it sold the borrowed instrument and the price it paid to purchase the instrument to return to the lender.

While the Fund has an open short position, it is subject to the risk that the instrument’s lender will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same instrument from another lender. If this happens, the Fund may be required to buy the replacement instrument immediately at the instrument’s then current market price or “buy in” by paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the instrument to close out the short position.

Short sales also involve other costs. The Fund must normally repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest that accrues while a loan is outstanding. In addition, to borrow an instrument, the Fund may be required to pay a premium. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales. The amount of any ultimate gain for the Fund resulting from a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any ultimate loss will be increased, by the amount of premiums, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale.

Until the Fund replaces a borrowed instrument, the Fund may be required to maintain short sale proceeds with the lending broker as collateral. Moreover, the Fund will be required to make margin payments to the lender during the term of the borrowing if the value of the security it borrowed (and short sold) increases. Thus, short sales involve credit exposure to the broker that executes the short sales. In the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker with whom the Fund has an open short position, the Fund may be unable to recover, or delayed in recovering, any margin or other collateral held with or for the lending broker. In addition, the Fund is required to identify on its books liquid assets (less any additional collateral held by the broker) to cover short sale obligations, marked-to-market daily. The requirement to identify liquid assets limits the Fund’s leveraging of investments and the related risk of losses from leveraging. However, such identification may also limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

[Short Sales of TBA Securities Risk. The Fund intends to make short sales of TBA securities. TBA transactions are forward agreements for the purchase or sale of securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, for a fixed price, with payment and delivery on an agreed upon future settlement date. The specific securities to be delivered are not identified at the trade date. However, delivered securities must meet specified terms, including, for TBA Mortgage-Backed Securities, issuer, rate and mortgage terms. Although most TBA short sale transactions are closed before the Fund would be required to deliver the security, if the Fund does not close the position, the Fund may have to purchase the securities required to be delivered at a higher price than anticipated, causing a loss to the Fund. The Fund may not always be able to purchase the securities required to settle a short at a particular time or at an attractive price.]

 

Sovereign Default Risk—The issuer of the non-U.S. sovereign debt held by the Fund or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest when due. This may result from political or social factors, the general economic environment of a country or levels of foreign debt or foreign currency exchange rates.

   

Economic Risk—The risks associated with the general economic environment of a country. These can encompass, among other things, low quality and growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (“GDP”), high inflation or deflation, high government deficits as a percentage of GDP, weak financial sector, overvalued exchange rate, and high current account deficits as a percentage of GDP.

   

Political Risk—The risks associated with the general political and social environment of a country. These factors may include among other things government instability, poor socioeconomic conditions, corruption, lack of law and order, lack of democratic accountability, poor quality of the bureaucracy, internal and external conflict, and religious and ethnic tensions. High political risk can impede the economic welfare of a country.

   

Repayment Risk—A country may be unable to pay its external debt obligations in the immediate future. Repayment risk factors may include but are not limited to high foreign debt as a percentage of GDP, high foreign debt service as a percentage of exports, low foreign exchange reserves as a percentage of short-term debt or exports, and an unsustainable exchange rate structure.

 

Stock Risk—Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future. Stock prices may fluctuate from time to time in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Individual companies may report poor results or be negatively affected by industry and/or economic trends and developments, and the stock prices of such companies may suffer a decline in response.

 

19


 

 

Treasury Inflation Protected Securities Risk—The value of Treasury inflation-protected securities (“TIPS”) generally fluctuates in response to inflationary concerns. As inflationary expectations increase, TIPS will become more attractive, because they protect future interest payments against inflation. Conversely, as inflationary concerns decrease, TIPS will become less attractive and less valuable. However, repayment of the face value upon maturity is guaranteed by the U.S. government, even during periods of deflation that cause the principal value of TIPS to decline. Nevertheless, if the Fund purchases TIPS in the secondary market, where principal values have been adjusted upward due to inflation since issuance, the Fund may experience a loss if there is a subsequent period of deflation. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds TIPS, the Fund may earn less on the security than on a conventional bond. Although TIPS with different maturities may be issued in the future, the U.S. Treasury currently issues TIPS in five-year, ten-year and twenty-year maturities.

 

U.S. Government Securities Risk—The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by those agencies, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been operating under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Administration (“FHFA”) acting as their conservator, since September 2008. The entities are dependent upon the continued support of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and FHFA in order to continue their business operations. These factors, among others, could affect the future status and role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the values of their securities and the securities which they guarantee. Additionally, the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market value of their securities, which may fluctuate.

More information about the Fund’s portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

20


 

 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM”)

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. As of [                ], 2019, GSAM had assets under supervision of approximately $[        ] trillion.

The Investment Adviser provides day-to-day advice regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. The Investment Adviser makes the investment decisions for the Fund and places purchase and sale orders for the Fund’s portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants (“FCM”) or other counterparties, including Goldman Sachs. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for the management of the Fund, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management with respect to certain portfolio securities. The Investment Adviser is responsible for the risk management functions for the Fund. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to the research and certain proprietary technical models developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions), and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among categories of issuers and types of securities.

The Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Fund (to the extent not performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Fund):

   

Supervises all non-advisory operations of the Fund

   

Provides personnel to perform necessary executive, administrative and clerical services to the Fund

   

Arranges for the preparation of all required tax returns, reports to shareholders, prospectuses and statements of additional information and other reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities

   

Maintains the records of the Fund

   

Provides office space and all necessary office equipment and services

An investment in the Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although the Fund attempts to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or its affiliates may invest “seed” capital in the Fund. These investments are generally intended to enable the Fund to commence investment operations and achieve sufficient scale. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may hedge the exposure of the seed capital invested in the Fund by, among other things, taking an offsetting position in the benchmark of the Fund.

 

21


 

  MANAGEMENT FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES     

As compensation for its services and its assumption of certain expenses, the Investment Adviser is entitled to the following fees, computed daily and payable monthly, at the annual rates listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets):

 

                                                                               
Fund:   Contractual
Management Fee
Annual Rate
    Average Daily
Net Assets
 

Income

    [        ]%       First $1 Billion  
    [        ]%       Next $1 Billion  
    [        ]%       Next $3 Billion  
    [        ]%       Next $3 Billion  
      [        ]%       Over $8 Billion  
   

[The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fees, including fees earned as the Investment Adviser to the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests, from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waivers in the future, consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangements in place.]

[The Investment Adviser agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) to [        ]% of average daily net assets for the Fund through at least [November 30], 2020 and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The expense limitations may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.]

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for the Fund will be available in the Fund’s [annual] report dated [March 30, 2020].

 

  FUND MANAGERS     

Fixed Income Portfolio Management Team

The individuals jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are listed below. The Fund’s portfolio managers’ individual responsibilities may differ and may include, among other things, security selection, asset allocation, risk budgeting and general oversight of the management of the Fund’s portfolios.

 

Name and Title   Fund Responsibility  

Years

Primarily
Responsible

  Five Year Employment History

Ashish Shah

Managing Director,

Co-Chief Investment Officer,

Global Fixed Income

  Portfolio Manager—   Since

2019

  Mr. Shah is Co-Chief Investment Officer of Global Fixed Income, Global Head of Corporate Credit and Head of the Cross-Sector Strategy within Fixed Income. Mr. Shah joined the Investment Adviser in 2018. Mr. Shah was previously at AllianceBernstein from 2010 to 2018, where he was most recently the Head of Fixed Income and Chief Investment Officer of Global Credit.

Ron Arons,

Managing Director

  Portfolio Manager   Since

2019

  Mr. Arons joined the Investment Adviser as a fixed income portfolio manager in 2010.
     

For information about portfolio manager compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and portfolio manager ownership of securities in the Fund, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR AND TRANSFER AGENT     

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, NY 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor (the “Distributor”) of the Fund’s shares. Goldman Sachs, 71 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, also serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) and, as such, performs various shareholder servicing functions.

 

22


                        SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

[For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.03% of average daily net assets with respect to Class P Shares.]

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates may purchase and hold shares of the Fund. Goldman Sachs and it affiliates reserve the right to redeem at any time some or all of the shares acquired for their own accounts.

 

  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS     

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs will present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund and will, under certain circumstances, limit the Fund’s investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates advise clients in all markets and transactions and purchase, sell, hold and recommend a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for their own accounts or for the accounts of their customers and have other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loans and other markets in which the Fund directly and indirectly invests. Thus, it is expected that the Fund will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates perform or seek to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affiliates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Fund. Although management fees paid by the Fund to the Investment Adviser and certain other fees paid to the Investment Adviser’s affiliates are based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and the Investment Adviser and its affiliates will still receive significant compensation from the Fund even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to those of the Fund and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Fund. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, will likely differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. In addition, the Fund may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or their other clients have an adverse interest. For example, the Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time that Goldman Sachs and its affiliates or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs-advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs-advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Fund. The Fund’s activities will, under certain circumstances, be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates also provide a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it are expected to create markets or specialize in, have positions in and/or effect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Fund, and will likely also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for one or more of those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates are expected to have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the section entitled “Potential Conflicts of Interest” in the SAI.

 

The Fund will, from time to time, make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions, in accordance with applicable law.

 

23


 

Distributions

 

The Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains. You may choose to have distributions paid in:

   

Cash

   

Additional shares of the same class of the Fund

   

Shares of the same or an equivalent class of another fund managed by the Investment Adviser and/or certain of its advisory affiliates (each, a “Goldman Sachs Fund”). Special restrictions may apply. See the SAI.

You may indicate your election on your account application. Any changes may be submitted in writing, or via telephone, in some instances, to the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your intermediary) at any time before the record date for a particular dividend or distribution. If you do not indicate any choice, your dividends and distributions will be reinvested automatically in the Fund. If cash distributions are elected with respect to the Fund’s monthly net investment income, then cash distributions must also be elected with respect to the net short-term capital gains component, if any, of the Fund’s annual distributions.

The election to reinvest distributions in additional shares will not affect the tax treatment of such distributions, which will be treated as received by you and then used to purchase the shares.

Distributions from net investment income and distributions from net capital gains, if any, are declared and paid as follows:

 

                                                                                                                                                                       
     Investment
Income Dividends
   Capital Gains
Distributions
Fund    Declared      Paid    Declared and Paid

Income

   Daily      Monthly    Annually
          

In addition to the net investment income dividends normally declared daily and paid monthly, the Fund may also earn additional net investment income throughout the year. Any additional net investment income will be distributed annually as a declared event and paid to shareholders of record for such events. In addition the Fund may occasionally make a distribution at a time when it is not normally made.

From time to time a portion of the Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

When you purchase shares of the Fund, part of the NAV per share may be represented by undistributed income and/or realized gains that have previously been earned by the Fund. Therefore, subsequent distributions on such shares from such income and/or realized gains may be taxable to you even if the NAV of the shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the cost of such shares and the distributions (or portions thereof) represent a return of a portion of the purchase price.

 

24


 

 

Shareholder Guide

 

The following section will provide you with answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding buying and selling the Fund’s shares.

 

Important Notice:

Class P Shares generally are available to the following investors:

   

Clients of the Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management business unit (“GS PWM”) that custody their positions at Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”);

 
   

Clients of The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. or The Goldman Sachs Trust Company of Delaware (collectively, the “Trust Companies”) that custody their positions at Goldman Sachs;

 
   

Clients of The Ayco Company, L.P. (“Ayco”) that either custody their positions at Goldman Sachs or with certain intermediaries that are authorized to offer Class P Shares (“Authorized Institutions”) (such clients of GS PWM, the Trust Companies, and Ayco are collectively referred to herein as “GS Clients”); or

 
   

Other investors at the discretion of Goldman Sachs Trust’s (the “Trust”) officers.

 

You may only purchase Class P Shares in accordance with the eligibility criteria described above. If you are a GS Client and propose to transfer your shares to another institution for any reason, or if you are no longer a GS Client, you may be required to redeem your shares of the Fund, or at the discretion of the Trust’s officers, you may be able hold Class P Shares through another institution, which must be an Authorized Institution and the basis on which you hold such Class P Shares may be limited to hold and redeem only. If available in such circumstances, in the alternative you may be able to choose to exchange your shares of the Fund for a different share class offered by the Fund or another Goldman Sachs Fund, which may be offered in another Prospectus. There is no guarantee that a different share class offered by the Fund will be available to clients of the institution to which you intend to transfer your shares or that an option to exchange will be made available. Moreover, the shares you receive in any exchange are subject to different (and possibly higher) fees and expenses (which affect performance). Information regarding these other share classes may be obtained from the institution to which you intend to transfer your shares or from the Transfer Agent by calling the number on the back cover of the Prospectus.

A redemption is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the potential tax consequences of investing in Class P Shares. None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption or exchange of Class P Shares. For more information about exchanges, please see “How to Sell Shares—Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund.”

 

  HOW TO BUY SHARES     

Shares Offering

Shares of the Fund are continuously offered through Goldman Sachs, acting in its capacity as the Fund’s distributor (the “Distributor”). The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase shares and reserve the right to reject any purchase order in whole or in part.

How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?

If you are a GS Client, you may purchase shares of the Fund through Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, and Authorized Institutions have been authorized by the Trust to accept purchase, redemption or exchange orders on behalf of the Fund for GS Clients. In order to make an initial investment in the Fund you must furnish to Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution the information in the account application.

To open an account, contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, and Authorized Institutions will normally give order instructions on behalf of GS Clients to Goldman Sachs, acting in its capacity as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”). Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution, as applicable, is responsible for transmitting accepted orders and payments to the Transfer Agent within the

 

25


time period agreed upon by them and will set times by which orders and payments must be received by them from GS Clients. The Trust, Transfer Agent, Investment Adviser and their affiliates will not be responsible for any loss in connection with orders that are not transmitted to the Transfer Agent on a timely basis.

The Fund will be deemed to have received an order for purchase, redemption or exchange of Fund shares when the order is accepted in “proper form” by any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, on a business day, and the order will be priced at the Fund’s current NAV per share next determined after acceptance by any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable. Proper form generally means that specific trade details and customer identifying information must be received by the Transfer Agent at the time an order is submitted. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions may have different requirements regarding what constitutes proper form for trade instructions. Please contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution for more information.

What Is My Minimum Investment In The Fund?

No minimum amount is required for initial purchases or additional investments in Class P Shares.

What Should I Know When I Purchase Shares?

All recordkeeping, transaction processing and payments of distributions relating to your account will be performed by Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution, as applicable, and not by the Fund and its Transfer Agent. Since the Fund will have no record of your transactions, you should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution, as applicable, to purchase, redeem or exchange shares, to make changes in or give instructions concerning your account or to obtain information about your account. If you transfer your shares, the Trust reserves the right to redeem your shares. The Trust, the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and an Authorized Institution will not be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption.

Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, and Authorized Institutions that invest in shares on behalf of GS Clients may charge fees directly to the GS Clients’ accounts in connection with their investments. You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution for information regarding such charges, as these fees, if any, may affect the return that GS Clients realize with respect to their investments.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments or provide services to Authorized Institutions to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. These payments are made out of the Investment Adviser’s, Distributor’s and/or their affiliates’ own assets, and are not an additional charge to the Fund. Such payments are intended to compensate Authorized Institutions for, among other things: marketing shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, which may consist of payments relating to the Fund’s inclusion on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs sponsored by Authorized Institutions; access to Authorized Institutions’ registered representatives, advisors or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; marketing support; the provision of analytical or other data to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to sales of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, including provision of consultative services to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to marketing and/or sale of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. The payments may also, to the extent permitted by applicable regulations, contribute to various non-cash and cash incentive arrangements to promote the sale of shares, as well as sponsor various educational programs, sales contests and/or promotions. The payments by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, which are in addition to the fees paid for these services by the Fund, may also compensate Authorized Institutions for subaccounting, sub-transfer agency, administrative and/or shareholder processing services. These additional payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these or similar services. The amount of these additional payments is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through Authorized Institutions. In addition, certain Authorized Institutions may have access to certain services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, including research reports and economic analysis, and portfolio analysis tools. In certain cases, Authorized Institutions may not pay for these services. Please refer to the “Payments to Intermediaries” section of the SAI for more information about these payments and services.

The payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates and the services provided by each of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution may differ. The presence of these payments, receipt of these services and the basis on which Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution compensates its registered representatives, advisors or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular registered representative, advisor or

 

26


                        SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend the Fund based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution for more information about the payments it receives and any potential conflicts of interest.

What Else Should I Know About Share Purchases?

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Require Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution to refuse to open an account if you fail to (i) provide a taxpayer identification number, a Social Security Number or other government-issued identification (e.g., for an individual, a driver’s license or passport) or (ii) certify that such number or other information is correct (if required to do so under applicable law).

   

Reject or restrict any purchase or exchange order by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) for any reason in its discretion. Without limiting the foregoing, the Trust may reject or restrict purchase and exchange orders by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) when a pattern of frequent purchases, sales or exchanges of shares of the Fund is evident, or if purchases, sales or exchanges are, or a subsequent redemption might be, of a size that would disrupt the management of the Fund.

   

Close the Fund to new investors from time to time and reopen the Fund whenever it is deemed appropriate by the Investment Adviser.

   

Provide for, modify or waive the minimum investment requirements.

   

Modify the manner in which shares are offered.

   

Modify the sales charge rate applicable to future purchases of shares.

Shares of the Fund are only registered for sale in the United States and certain of its territories. Generally, shares of the Fund will only be offered or sold to “U.S. persons” and all offerings or other solicitation activities will be conducted within the United States, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”).

The Fund may allow you to purchase shares through Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution with securities instead of cash if consistent with the Fund’s investment policies and operations and approved by the Investment Adviser.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and any Authorized Institution reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies and Ayco will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders.

Please be advised that abandoned or unclaimed property laws for certain states (to which your account may be subject) require financial organizations to transfer (escheat) unclaimed property (including shares of the Fund) to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in an account for a period of time specified by state law.

Customer Identification Program.  Federal law requires the Fund to obtain, verify and record identifying information for certain investors, which will be reviewed solely for customer identification purposes, which may include the name, residential or business street address, date of birth (for an individual), Social Security Number or taxpayer identification number or other information, for each investor who opens an account directly with the Fund. Applications without the required information may not be accepted by the Fund. Throughout the life of your account, the Fund may request updated identifying information in accordance with its Customer Identification Program. After accepting an application, to the extent permitted by applicable law or their Customer Identification Program, the Fund reserves the right to: (i) place limits on transactions in any account until the identity of the investor is verified; (ii) refuse an investment in the Fund; or (iii) involuntarily redeem an investor’s shares and close an account in the event that the Fund is unable to verify an investor’s identity or are unable to obtain all required information. The Fund and its agents will not be responsible for any loss or tax liability in an investor’s account resulting from the investor’s delay in providing all required information or from closing an account and redeeming an investor’s shares pursuant to their Customer Identification Program.

How Are Shares Priced?

The price you pay when you buy shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share after any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, has received and accepted your order in proper form. The price you receive when you sell shares is the Fund’s next-determined NAV per share after any of the Transfer Agent,

 

27


Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, has received and accepted your order in proper form. Each class generally calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV =   (Value of Assets of the Class)
– (Liabilities of the Class)
  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Class

The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, if the Fund’s fund accounting agent is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Fund’s NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Fund’s investments may be determined in good faith under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. Thus, such pricing may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the value realized on a sale. Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source or a price is unavailable.

Equity securities listed on an exchange are generally valued at the last available sale price on the exchange on which they are principally traded. To the extent the Fund invests in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices will be provided by an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service in accordance with the fair value procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV.

Fixed income securities are generally valued on the basis of prices (including evaluated prices) and quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. Pricing services may use matrix pricing or valuation models, which utilize certain inputs and assumptions, including, but not limited to, yield or price with respect to comparable fixed income securities, to determine current value.

Investments in other open-end registered investment companies (if any), excluding investments in ETFs, are valued based on the NAV of those open-end registered investment companies (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectuses). Investments in ETFs will generally be valued at the last sale price or official closing price on the exchange on which they are principally traded.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading limits or suspensions.

One effect of using an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service and fair valuation may be to reduce stale pricing arbitrage opportunities presented by the pricing of Fund shares. However, it involves the risk that the values used by the Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

Please note the following with respect to the price at which your transactions are processed:

   

NAV per share of each share class is generally calculated by the Fund’s fund accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ market may officially close. This occurs after the determination, if any, of the income to be declared as a dividend. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed, although Fund shares may be priced on such days if the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) recommends that the bond markets remain open for all or part of the day.

   

On any business day when the SIFMA recommends that the bond markets close early, the Fund reserves the right to close at or prior to the SIFMA recommended closing time. If the Fund does so, it will cease granting same business day credit for purchase and redemption orders received after the Fund’s closing time and credit will be given on the next business day.

 

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The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

   

The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into the Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange and/or the bond markets is stopped at a time other than their regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange and/or the bond markets do not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open the Fund for purchase, redemption and exchange transactions if the Federal Reserve wire payment system is open. To learn whether the Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days the Fund is closed. As a result, if the Fund holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or redeem Fund shares.

The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Fund’s fund accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each share class of the Fund is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, cyber attacks and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counterparties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of the Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Fund may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which the Fund directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be utilized to price the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV.

When Will Shares Be Issued And Dividends Begin To Be Accrued?

Net investment income dividends that are declared daily and paid monthly will begin to be accrued as follows:

   

Shares Purchased by Federal Funds Wire:

   

If a purchase order is received in proper form before the Fund closes, shares will generally be issued and dividends will generally begin to accrue on the purchased shares on the later of (i) the business day after payment is received, or (ii) the day that the federal funds wire is received by The Northern Trust Company. Failure to provide payment on settlement date may result in a delay in accrual.

   

If a purchase order is placed through an intermediary that settles through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (the “NSCC”), the purchase order will begin accruing dividends on the NSCC settlement date.

   

Shares Purchased by Check:

   

If a purchase order is received in proper form before the Fund closes, shares will generally be issued and dividends will generally begin to accrue on the purchased shares no later than two business days after payment is received.

Other dividends or distributions will be distributed annually as a declared event and paid to shareholders of record on the record date for such events.

 

  HOW TO SELL SHARES     

How Can I Sell Shares Of The Fund?

Generally, shares may be sold (redeemed) only through Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions will normally give redemption instructions on behalf of GS Clients to the Transfer Agent. On any business day the Fund is open, the Fund will generally redeem its shares upon request at their next-determined NAV per share after any of the Transfer Agent, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution, as applicable, has received and accepted a redemption order in proper form, as described under “How To Buy Shares—How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?” above. Redemptions may be requested by electronic trading platform, in writing or by telephone (unless Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or an Authorized Institution opts out of the telephone redemption privilege on the account application). You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your

 

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Authorized Institution, to discuss redemptions and redemption proceeds. The Fund may transfer redemption proceeds to an account with Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution. In the alternative, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution may request that redemption proceeds be sent to you by check or wire (if the wire instructions are designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent).

When Do I Need A Medallion Signature Guarantee To Redeem Shares?

Generally, a redemption request must be in writing and signed by an authorized person with a Medallion signature guarantee if:

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to an address that is not your address of record; or

   

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to a domestic bank account that is not designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent.

A Medallion signature guarantee must be obtained from a bank, brokerage firm or other financial intermediary that is a member of an approved Medallion Guarantee Program or that is otherwise approved by the Trust. A notary public cannot provide a Medallion signature guarantee. The written request may be confirmed by telephone with both the requesting party and the designated Authorized Institution to verify instructions. Additional documentation may be required.

What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?

The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss or tax liability you may incur in the event that the Trust accepts unauthorized telephone redemption requests that the Trust reasonably believes to be genuine. The Trust may accept telephone redemption instructions from any person identifying himself or herself as the owner of an account or the owner’s registered representative where the owner has not declined in writing to use this service. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution may submit redemption requests by telephone on your behalf. Thus, you risk possible losses if a telephone redemption is not authorized by you.

In an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent redemption and exchange requests by telephone, the Transfer Agent and DST Asset Manager Solutions, Inc. (“DST”) each employ reasonable procedures specified by the Trust to confirm that such instructions are genuine. The following general policies are currently in effect:

   

Telephone requests are recorded.

   

Proceeds of telephone redemption requests will be sent to your address of record or authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (unless you provide written instructions and a Medallion signature guarantee indicating another address or account).

   

For the 30-day period following a change of address, telephone redemptions will only be filled by a wire transfer to the authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (see immediately preceding bullet point). In order to receive the redemption by check during this time period, the redemption request must be in the form of a written, Medallion signature guaranteed letter.

   

The telephone redemption option does not apply to shares held in an account maintained and serviced by your Authorized Institution. If your shares are held in an account with an Authorized Institution, you should contact your registered representative of record, who may make telephone redemptions on your behalf.

   

The telephone redemption option may be modified or terminated at any time without prior notice.

Note: It may be difficult to make telephone redemptions in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

How Are Redemption Proceeds Paid?

By Wire:  You may arrange for your redemption proceeds to be paid as federal funds to an account with Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution or to a domestic bank account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. In addition, redemption proceeds may be transmitted through an electronic trading platform to an account with Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution. The following general policies govern wiring redemption proceeds:

   

Redemption proceeds will normally be paid in federal funds, between one and two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or your Authorized Institution) following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request. In certain circumstances, however (such as unusual market conditions or in cases of very large redemptions or excessive trading), it may take up to seven days to pay redemption proceeds.

   

Redemption requests may only be postponed or suspended for longer than seven days as permitted under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”) if (i) the New York Stock Exchange is closed for trading or trading is restricted; (ii) an emergency exists which makes the disposal of securities owned by the Fund or the fair

 

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SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

  determination of the value of the Fund’s net assets not reasonably practicable; or (iii) the SEC, by order or regulation, permits the suspension of the right of redemption.
   

If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check, the Fund will pay you when your check has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

   

If the Federal Reserve Bank is closed on the day that the redemption proceeds would ordinarily be wired, wiring the redemption proceeds may be delayed until the Federal Reserve Bank reopens.

   

To change the bank wiring instructions designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent, you must send written instructions signed by an authorized person designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if you are requesting a redemption in conjunction with the change.

   

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or the Transfer Agent assumes any responsibility for the performance of your bank, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or Authorized Institution in the transfer process. If a problem with such performance arises, you should deal directly with your bank, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco, or Authorized Institution.

By Check:  You may elect to receive your redemption proceeds by check. Redemption proceeds paid by check will normally be mailed to the address of record within two business days (or such other times in accordance with the requirements of your Authorized Institution) following receipt of a properly executed redemption request, except in certain circumstances (such as those set forth above with respect to wire transfer redemption requests). If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check, the Fund will pay you when your check has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Redemptions?

The following generally applies to redemption requests:

   

Shares of the Fund continue to earn dividends up to, but not including, the date of settlement.

   

Additional documentation may be required when deemed appropriate by the Transfer Agent. A redemption request will not be in proper form until such additional documentation has been received.

   

Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions are responsible for the timely transmittal of redemption requests by GS Clients to the Transfer Agent. In order to facilitate the timely transmittal of redemption requests, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco and Authorized Institutions may set times by which they must receive redemption requests. Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or Authorized Institutions may also require additional documentation from you.

   

As disclosed above, if you are a GS Client and propose to transfer your shares to another institution for any reason, you may be required to either redeem your shares of the Fund or if available, you may be able to choose to exchange your shares of the Fund for a different share class offered by the Fund, which may be offered in another Prospectus.

The Trust reserves the right to:

   

Redeem your shares in the event any of Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution is no longer authorized to offer Class P Shares.

   

Redeem your shares in the case of actual or suspected threatening conduct or actual or suspected fraudulent, suspicious or illegal activity by you or any other individual associated with your account.

   

Subject to applicable law, redeem your shares in other circumstances determined by the Board of Trustees to be in the best interest of the Trust.

   

Pay redemptions by a distribution in-kind of securities (instead of cash). If you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you should expect to incur transaction costs upon the disposition of those securities. In addition, if you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you will be subject to market gains or losses upon the disposition of those securities.

   

Reinvest any amounts (e.g., dividends, distributions or redemption proceeds) which you have elected to receive by check should your check remain uncashed for more than 180 days. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed checks. Your check will be reinvested in your account at the NAV on the day of the reinvestment. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to the risk of loss like any Fund investment. If you elect to receive distributions in cash and a check remains uncashed for more than 180 days, your cash election may be changed automatically to reinvest and your future dividend and capital gains distributions will be reinvested in the Fund at the NAV as of the date of payment of the distribution. This provision may not apply to certain retirement or qualified accounts, accounts with a non-U.S. address or closed accounts. Your participation in a systematic withdrawal program may be terminated if a check remains uncashed.

   

Charge an additional fee in the event a redemption is made via wire transfer.

   

Terminate your account if you are no longer a GS Client, or otherwise no longer eligible to invest in Class P Shares of the Fund.

The Fund typically expects to meet redemption requests by using holdings of cash or cash equivalents and/or proceeds from the sale of portfolio holdings. In addition, under stressed market conditions, as well as for other temporary or emergency purposes, the

 

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Fund may distribute redemption proceeds in-kind (instead of cash), access a line of credit or overdraft facility, or borrow through other sources to meet redemption requests.

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or an Authorized Institution will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from an involuntary redemption.

Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may exchange your shares at NAV at the time of exchange for Class P Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Redemption (including by exchange) of certain Goldman Sachs Funds, which may be offered in another prospectus, may, however, be subject to a redemption fee for shares that are held for either 30 or 60 days or less, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. The exchange privilege may be materially modified or withdrawn at any time upon 60 days’ written notice. You should contact Goldman Sachs, the Trust Companies, Ayco or your Authorized Institution to arrange for the exchange of your shares for Class P Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. If you propose to transfer your Class P Shares to another institution for any reason, you may be required to either redeem your shares of the Fund or if available, you may be able to choose to exchange your shares of the Fund for a different share class offered by the Fund or another Goldman Sachs Fund, which may be offered in another Prospectus. For more information, please see “How to Sell Shares—What Else Do I Need to Know About Redemptions?” The shares you receive in any exchange are subject to different (and possibly higher) fees and expenses (which affect performance).