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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
_______________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_______________________________________________________________________________
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the Fiscal
Year Ended December 31, 2017
Commission File Number: 001-31486
_______________________________________________________________________________
WEBSTER FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 _______________________________________________________________________________
 
Delaware
 
06-1187536
 
 
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
 
145 Bank Street, Waterbury, Connecticut 06702
 
 
(Address and zip code of principal executive offices)
 
 
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (203) 578-2202
 
 
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
Depository Shares, each representing 1/1000th interest in a share of 5.25% Series F Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
______________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  ☐  Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).      Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transaction period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2).   ☐ Yes     No
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of Webster Financial Corporation was approximately $4.7 billion, based on the closing sale price of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2017, the last trading day of the registrant's most recently completed second quarter.
The number of shares of common stock, par value $.01 per share, outstanding as of February 16, 2018 was 92,111,033.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Part III: Portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement (the "Proxy Statement") for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 26, 2018.
 



INDEX

 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
Forward-Looking Statements
Key to Acronyms and Terms
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Business
 
 
 
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
 
 
 
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
 
 
Item 2.
Properties
 
 
 
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
 
 
 
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
 
 
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
 
 
 
Item 7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
 
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
 
 
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
 
 
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
 
 
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
 
 
 
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
 
 
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
 
 
 
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
 
 
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
 
 
Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
 
 
 


i



WEBSTER FINANCIAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as "believes," "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "targeted," "continue," "remain," "will," "should," "may," "plans," "estimates," and similar references to future periods; however, such words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.
Examples of forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
projections of revenues, expenses, income or loss, earnings or loss per share, and other financial items;
statements of plans, objectives and expectations of Webster or its management or Board of Directors;
statements of future economic performance; and
statements of assumptions underlying such statements.
Forward-looking statements are based on Webster’s current expectations and assumptions regarding its business, the economy and other future conditions. Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Webster’s actual results may differ materially from those contemplated by the forward-looking statements, which are neither statements of historical fact nor guarantees or assurances of future performance.
Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
local, regional, national and international economic conditions and the impact they may have on us and our customers;
volatility and disruption in national and international financial markets;
government intervention in the U.S. financial system;
changes in the level of non-performing assets and charge-offs;
changes in estimates of future reserve requirements based upon the periodic review thereof under relevant regulatory and accounting requirements;
adverse conditions in the securities markets that lead to impairment in the value of securities in our investment portfolio;
inflation, interest rate, securities market and monetary fluctuations;
the timely development and acceptance of new products and services and perceived overall value of these products and services by customers;
changes in consumer spending, borrowings and savings habits;
technological changes and cyber-security matters;
the ability to increase market share and control expenses;
changes in the competitive environment among banks, financial holding companies and other financial services providers;
the effect of changes in laws and regulations (including laws and regulations concerning taxes, banking, securities, insurance and healthcare) with which we and our subsidiaries must comply, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act), the final rules establishing a new comprehensive capital framework for U.S. banking organizations (Capital Rules), and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (Tax Act);
the effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, as well as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and other accounting standard setters;
the costs and effects of legal and regulatory developments including the resolution of legal proceedings or regulatory or other governmental inquiries and the results of regulatory examinations or reviews; and
our success at assessing and managing the risks involved in the foregoing items.
Any forward-looking statements made by Webster Financial Corporation (the Company) in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speaks only as of the date they are made. Factors or events that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Company to predict all of them. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as may be required by law.

ii



WEBSTER FINANCIAL CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
KEY TO ACRONYMS AND TERMS
Agency CMBS
Agency commercial mortgage-backed securities
Agency CMO
Agency collateralized mortgage obligations
Agency MBS
Agency mortgage-backed securities
ALCO
Asset/Liability Committee
ALLL
Allowance for loan and lease losses
AOCL
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
Basel III
Capital rules under a global regulatory framework developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
BHC Act
Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended
Capital Rules
Final rules establishing a new comprehensive capital framework for U.S. banking organizations
CET1 capital
Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, defined by Basel III capital rules
CFPB
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
CFTC
Commodity Futures Trading Commission
CLO
Collateralized loan obligation securities
CMBS
Non-agency commercial mortgage-backed securities
CRA
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
DIF
Federal Deposit Insurance Fund
Dodd-Frank Act
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
DTA
Deferred tax asset
ERMC
Enterprise Risk Management Committee
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FHLB
Federal Home Loan Bank
FICO
Fair Isaac Corporation
FINRA
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
FRA
Federal Reserve Act
FRB
Federal Reserve Bank
FTP
Funds Transfer Pricing, a matched maturity funding concept
GAAP
U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
Holding Company
Webster Financial Corporation
HSA Bank
A division of Webster Bank, National Association
ISDA
International Swaps Derivative Association
LEP
Loss emergence period
LGD
Loss given default
LIBOR
London Interbank Offered Rate
LPL
LPL Financial Holdings Inc.
NII
Net interest income
OCC
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
OCI/OCL
Other comprehensive income (loss)
OREO
Other real estate owned
OTTI
Other-than-temporary impairment
PD
Probability of default
PPNR
Pre-tax, pre-provision net revenue
QM
Qualified mortgage
SALT
State and local tax
SEC
United States Securities and Exchange Commission
SERP
Supplemental defined benefit retirement plan
SIPC
Securities Investor Protection Corporation
Tax Act
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
TDR
Troubled debt restructuring, defined in ASC 310-40 "Receivables-Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors"
UTB
Unrecognized tax benefit
UTP
Uncertain tax position
VIE
Variable interest entity, defined in ASC 810-10 "Consolidation-Overall"
Webster Bank or the Bank
Webster Bank, National Association, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Webster Financial Corporation
Webster or the Company
Webster Financial Corporation, collectively with its consolidated subsidiaries

iii


Table of Contents

PART 1
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Company Overview
Webster Financial Corporation is a bank holding company and financial holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act, incorporated under the laws of Delaware in 1986, and headquartered in Waterbury, Connecticut. Its principal asset is all of the outstanding capital stock of Webster Bank, National Association (Webster Bank).
At December 31, 2017, Webster had assets of $26.5 billion, net loans and leases of $17.3 billion, deposits of $21.0 billion, and shareholders' equity of $2.7 billion.
At December 31, 2017, Webster had 3,302 full-time equivalent employees. Webster provides its employees with comprehensive benefits, some of which are provided on a contributory basis, including medical and dental plans, a 401(k) savings plan with a company matching contribution, life insurance, and short-term and long-term disability coverage.
Webster Financial Corporation's common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol WBS. Webster's internet address is www.websterbank.com and investor relations internet address is www.wbst.com. Webster makes available free of charge on these websites its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, definitive proxy statements, and amendments, if any, to those documents filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as soon as practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). These documents are also available to the public on the Internet at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. Information on Webster’s website and the investor relations website is not incorporated by reference into this report.
References in this report to Webster, the Company, we, our, or us, mean Webster Financial Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Business Segments
The Company delivers a wide range of banking, investment, and financial services to businesses and individuals through three reportable segments - Commercial Banking, HSA Bank, a division of Webster Bank, National Association (HSA Bank), and Community Banking.
Commercial Banking provides lending, deposit, and treasury and payment solutions with a focus on building relationships with companies that have annual revenues greater than $25 million, primarily within our Northeast footprint. Commercial Banking is comprised of the following:
Middle Market delivers a full array of financial services to a diversified group of companies, leveraging industry specialization and delivering competitive products and services.
Commercial Real Estate provides financing for the acquisition, development, construction, or refinancing of commercial real estate for which the property is the primary security for the loan and income generated from the property is the primary repayment source.
Webster Business Credit Corporation is the asset-based lending subsidiary of Webster Bank and is one of the top 25 asset-based lenders in the U.S. Webster Business Credit Corporation builds relationships with growing middle market companies by financing core working capital and import financing needs primarily with revolving credit facilities with advance rates against accounts receivable and inventory.
Webster Capital Finance is the equipment finance subsidiary of Webster Bank. Webster Capital Finance offers small to mid-ticket financing for critical equipment with specialties in construction, transportation, environmental and manufacturing equipment. Webster Capital Finance lends primarily in the eastern half of the U.S. and in other select markets
Treasury and Payment Solutions delivers a broad range of deposit, lending, treasury, and trade services via a dedicated team of treasury professionals and local commercial bankers. Treasury and Payment Solutions is comprised of Government and Institutional Banking, Cash Management Sales and Product Management to deliver holistic solutions to Webster’s increasingly sophisticated business and institutional clients.
HSA Bank is a leading bank administrator of health savings accounts based on assets under administration. With a focus on health savings accounts, HSA Bank also delivers health reimbursement arrangements, and flexible spending and commuter benefit account administration services to employers and individuals in all 50 states. Health savings accounts are distributed nationwide directly to employers and individual consumers as well as through national and regional insurance carriers, benefit consultants and financial advisors. At December 31, 2017, HSA Bank held almost 2.5 million accounts encompassing more than $6.3 billion in health savings account deposits and linked investments.

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Table of Contents

Community Banking serves consumers and business banking customers primarily throughout southern New England and into Westchester County, NY. Community Banking is comprised of personal and business banking, as well as a distribution network consisting of 167 banking centers, 334 ATMs, a customer care center, and a full range of web and mobile based banking services.
Personal Banking offers consumer deposit and fee-based services, residential mortgages, home equity lines/loans, unsecured consumer loans, and credit card products. In addition, investment and securities-related services, including brokerage and investment advice is offered through a strategic partnership with LPL Financial Holdings Inc. (LPL), a broker dealer registered with the SEC, a registered investment advisor under federal and applicable state laws, a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), and a member of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC). Webster Bank has employees located throughout its banking center network, who, through LPL, are registered representatives.
Business Banking offers credit, deposit, and cash flow management products to businesses and professional service firms with annual revenues of up to $25 million. This group builds broad customer relationships through business bankers and business certified banking center managers, supported by a team of customer care center bankers and industry and product specialists.
Additional information relating to our business segments is included under the caption "Segment Reporting" in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, while financial and other information is included within Note 19: Segment Reporting in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained elsewhere in this report, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Subsidiaries of Webster Financial Corporation
Webster Financial Corporation's direct consolidated subsidiaries include Webster Bank, Webster Wealth Advisors, Inc., and Webster Licensing, LLC. Additionally, Webster Financial Corporation (Holding Company) owns all of the outstanding common stock of Webster Statutory Trust, an unconsolidated financial vehicle that has issued, and may in the future issue, trust preferred securities.
Webster Bank offers its wide range of financial services to individuals, families and businesses. Through its HSA Bank division, Webster Bank offers health savings accounts, health reimbursement accounts, flexible spending accounts, and other financial solutions. Through a strategic partnership with LPL, a broker dealer registered with the SEC, a registered investment advisor under federal and applicable state laws, a member of the FINRA, and a member of the SIPC, Webster Bank offers investment and securities-related services.
Webster Bank's significant direct subsidiaries include; Webster Mortgage Investment Corporation, a passive investment subsidiary whose primary function is to provide servicing on qualified passive investments, such as residential real estate and commercial mortgage real estate loans acquired from Webster Bank; Webster Business Credit Corporation, which offers asset-based lending services; and Webster Capital Finance, Inc., which offers equipment financing for end users of equipment. Webster Bank also has various other subsidiaries that are not significant to the consolidated group.
Competition
Webster is subject to strong competition from banks, thrifts, credit unions, non-bank health savings account trustees, consumer finance companies, investment companies, insurance companies, e-commerce and other internet-based companies. Certain of these competitors are larger financial institutions with substantially greater resources, lending limits, larger branch systems, and a wider array of commercial and consumer banking services than Webster. Competition could intensify in the future as a result of industry consolidation, the increasing availability of products and services from non-bank entities, greater technological developments in the industry, and continued bank regulatory reforms.
Webster faces substantial competition for deposits and loans throughout its market areas. The primary factors in competing for deposits are interest rates, personalized services, the quality and range of financial services, convenience of office locations, automated services, and office hours. Competition for deposits comes from other commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions, mutual funds, and other investment alternatives. The primary factors in competing for consumer and commercial loans are interest rates, loan origination fees, the quality and range of lending services, personalized service and ability to close within customers' desired time frame. Competition for origination of mortgage loans comes primarily from savings institutions, mortgage banking firms, mortgage brokers, other commercial banks, and insurance companies. Other factors which affect competition include the general and local economic conditions, current interest rate levels, and volatility in the mortgage markets.
Supervision and Regulation
Webster and its bank and non-bank subsidiaries are subject to comprehensive regulation under federal and state laws. The regulatory framework applicable to bank holding companies and their subsidiary banks is intended to protect depositors, the Federal Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF), and the U.S. banking system as a whole. This system is not designed to protect equity investors in bank holding companies. Set forth below is a summary of the significant laws and regulations applicable to Webster and its bank and non-bank subsidiaries. The description that follows is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations, and policies that are described. Such statutes, regulations, and policies are subject to ongoing review by Congress and state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies. A change in any of the statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies applicable to Webster and its bank and non-bank subsidiaries could have a material effect on the results of the Company.

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Table of Contents

Webster Financial Corporation is a separate and distinct legal entity from Webster Bank and its other subsidiaries. As a registered bank holding company and a financial holding company it is subject to inspection, examination, and supervision by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and is regulated under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (BHC Act). Webster is under the jurisdiction of the SEC and is subject to the disclosure and other regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as administered by the SEC. Webster is subject to the rules for companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In addition, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) supervises Webster for compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws. Webster also is subject to oversight by state attorneys general for compliance with state consumer protection laws. Webster's non-bank subsidiaries are subject to federal and state laws and regulations, including regulations of the Federal Reserve System.
Webster Bank is organized as a national banking association under the National Bank Act. Webster Bank is subject to the supervision of, and to regular examination by, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) as its primary federal regulator, as well as by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) as its deposit insurer. Webster Bank's deposits are insured by the FDIC up to the applicable deposit insurance limits in accordance with FDIC laws and regulations.
The Dodd-Frank Act significantly changed the financial regulatory regime in the United States. Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, U.S. banks and financial services firms have been subject to enhanced regulation and oversight. Several provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are subject to further rulemaking, guidance, and interpretation by the federal banking agencies. While the current administration and its appointees to the federal banking agencies have expressed interest in reviewing, revising, and perhaps repealing portions of the Dodd-Frank Act and certain of its implementing regulations, it is not clear whether any such legislation or regulatory changes will be enacted or, if enacted, what the effect would be on Webster or Webster Bank.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
Webster Financial Corporation is a bank holding company as defined under the BHC Act. The BHC Act generally limits the business of bank holding companies to banking, managing or controlling banks, and other activities that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. Bank holding companies that have elected to become financial holding companies, such as Webster Financial Corporation, may engage in any activity, or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in any activity that is either (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity (as determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) or (ii) complementary to a financial activity, and that does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system (as solely determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System). Activities that are financial in nature include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting, and making merchant banking investments.
Mergers and Acquisitions
The BHC Act, the Bank Merger Act, and other federal and state statutes regulate the direct and indirect acquisition of depository institutions. The BHC Act requires the prior Federal Reserve System approval for a bank holding company to acquire, directly or indirectly, 5% or more of any class of voting securities of a commercial bank or its parent holding company and for a company, other than a bank holding company, to acquire 25% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank or bank holding company.  Under the Change in Bank Control Act, any person, including a company, may not acquire, directly or indirectly, control of a bank without providing 60 days prior notice and receiving a non-objection from the appropriate federal banking agency. 
Under the Bank Merger Act, the prior approval of the appropriate federal banking agency is required for insured depository institutions to merge or enter into purchase and assumption transactions.  In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger or purchase and assumption transactions, the federal banking agencies will consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position of the combined banks, the applicant's performance record under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA), and the effectiveness of the merging banks in combating money laundering.
Enhanced Prudential Standards
Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act imposes enhanced prudential standards on larger banking organizations. Certain of these standards are applicable to banking organizations over $10 billion, including Webster Financial Corporation and Webster Bank. Additionally, the FDIC, the OCC, and the Federal Reserve System issued separate but similar rules requiring covered banks and bank holding companies with $10 billion to $50 billion in total consolidated assets, which includes Webster Financial Corporation and Webster Bank, to conduct an annual company-run stress test. Annual company-run stress tests are conducted for the Holding Company and Webster Bank, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Webster publicly disclosed its most recent company-run capital stress test results on October 17, 2017.
The Federal Reserve System also issued a rule further implementing the enhanced prudential standards required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Although most of the standards only apply to bank holding companies with more than $50 billion in assets, as directed by the Dodd-Frank Act, the rule contains certain standards that apply to bank holding companies with more than $10 billion in assets, including a requirement to establish a risk committee of the Company's board of directors to manage enterprise-wide risk. Webster meets these requirements.

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Table of Contents

Debit Card Interchange Fees
The Dodd-Frank Act requires that any interchange transaction fee charged for a debit transaction be reasonable and proportional to the cost incurred by the issuer for the transaction, with regulations that establish such fee standards, eliminate exclusivity arrangements between issuers and networks for debit card transactions, and limit restrictions on merchant discounting for use of certain payment forms and minimum or maximum amount thresholds as a condition for acceptance of credit cards. Under the Federal Reserve System's approved final debit card interchange rule pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, an issuer's base fee is capped at 21 cents per transaction and allows for an additional amount equal to 5 basis points of the transaction's value. The Federal Reserve System separately issued a final rule that also allows a fraud-prevention adjustment of 1 cent per transaction conditioned upon an issuer developing, implementing, and updating reasonably designed fraud-prevention policies and procedures.
Identity Theft
The SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) jointly issued final rules and guidelines implementing provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act which require certain regulated entities to establish programs to address risks of identity theft. The rules require financial institutions and creditors to develop and implement a written identity theft prevention program that is designed to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft in connection with certain existing accounts or the opening of new accounts. The rules include guidelines to assist entities in the formulation and maintenance of programs that would satisfy these requirements. In addition, the rules establish special requirements for any credit and debit card issuers that are subject to the jurisdiction of the SEC or the CFTC, to assess the validity of notifications of changes of address under certain circumstances. Webster implemented an ID Theft Prevention Program, approved by its Board of Directors, in compliance with these requirements.
Volcker Rule
Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act, commonly known as the Volcker Rule, restricts the ability of banking entities, such as Webster and Webster Bank, from: (i) engaging in proprietary trading and (ii) investing in or sponsoring certain covered funds, subject to certain limited exceptions. Under the Volcker Rule, the term covered funds is defined as any issuer that would be an investment company under the Investment Company Act but for the exemption in section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of that Act, which includes collateralized loan obligation securities and collateralized debt obligation securities. There are also several exemptions from the definition of covered fund, including, among other things, loan securitizations, joint ventures, certain types of foreign funds, entities issuing asset-backed commercial paper, and registered investment companies. The Federal Reserve approved Webster's illiquid funds extension request, thereby providing Webster with up to five additional years, to July 21, 2022, to bring such holdings into compliance with the Volcker Rule.
Derivatives Regulation
Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act imposes requirements related to over-the-counter derivatives. Key provisions of the Title VII regulation are implemented by the CFTC. Among other things, the CFTC's rules apply to swap dealers, major swap participants and commercial entities that enter into OTC derivatives transactions to hedge or mitigate risk. Under rules and guidance of the CFTC, end users are subject to a wide range of requirements including capital, margining, clearing, documentation, reporting, eligibility and business conduct requirements. The Company complies with all aspects of the Title VII regulation that impact derivative activities, including interest rate risk hedges and its customer loan hedge program.
Dividends
The principal source of the Holding Company's liquidity is dividends from Webster Bank. The prior approval of the OCC is required if the total of all dividends declared by a national bank in a year would exceed the sum of its net income for that year and its undistributed net income for the preceding two years, less any required transfers to surplus. Federal law also prohibits a national bank from paying dividends that would be greater than its undivided profits after deducting statutory bad debt in excess of allowance for loan and lease losses (ALLL). Webster Bank paid the Holding Company $120.0 million in dividends during the year ended December 31, 2017, and $368.8 million of undistributed net income available for the payment of dividends remained at December 31, 2017.
In addition, Webster Financial Corporation and Webster Bank are subject to other regulatory policies and requirements relating to the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain adequate capital above regulatory minimums. The appropriate federal regulatory authority is authorized to determine, under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company or a bank, that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. The appropriate federal banking agency authorities have indicated that paying dividends that deplete a bank's capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings.

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Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve System regulations require depository institutions to maintain cash reserves against their transaction accounts, primarily interest-bearing and regular checking accounts. The required cash reserves can be in the form of vault cash and, if vault cash does not fully satisfy the required cash reserves, in the form of a balance maintained with Federal Reserve Banks. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System generally makes annual adjustments to the tiered cash reserve requirements. The regulations require that Webster maintain cash reserves against aggregate transaction accounts in excess of the exempt amount of $15.5 million at December 31, 2017. Amounts greater than $15.5 million up to and including $115.1 million have a reserve requirement of 3%. Amounts in excess of $115.1 million have a reserve requirement of 10%. Webster Bank is in compliance with these cash reserve requirements.
As a national bank and member of the Federal Reserve System, Webster Bank is required to hold capital stock of the Federal Reserve Bank (FRB) of Boston. The required shares may be adjusted up or down based on changes to Webster Bank's common stock and paid-in surplus. Webster Bank was in compliance with these requirements, with a total investment in FRB of Boston stock of $50.7 million at December 31, 2017. The FRBs pay a semi-annual dividend, to member banks with total assets greater than $10 billion, equal to the lesser of 6% or the high yield of the 10-year Treasury note auctioned at the last auction prior to the dividend payment date. For the semi-annual period ended December 31, 2017, the FRB of Boston declared a cash dividend equal to an annual yield of 2.384%.
Federal Home Loan Bank System
The Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) System provides a central credit facility for member institutions. Webster Bank is a member of the FHLB of Boston. Webster Bank (the Bank) is required to purchase and hold shares of capital stock in the FHLB for both membership and activity-based purposes. The capital stock requirement includes an amount equal to 0.35% of the aggregate principal amount of the Bank's unpaid residential mortgage loans and similar obligations at the beginning of each year, up to a maximum of $25 million, and also an amount based on its FHLB advances, which totaled approximately $1.7 billion at December 31, 2017, that vary from 3.0% to 4.5% depending on the maturities of those advances. The FHLB recently initiated a process, based on current conditions, to redeem the holdings of its member banks in excess of their membership and activity-based requirements. Webster Bank was in compliance with these requirements, with a total investment in FHLB stock of $100.9 million at December 31, 2017. On November 2, 2017, the FHLB paid a quarterly cash dividend equal to an annual yield of 4.33%.
Source of Strength Doctrine
Federal Reserve System policy requires bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. Section 616 of the Dodd-Frank Act codified the requirement that bank holding companies act as a source of financial strength. As a result, Webster Financial Corporation is expected to commit resources to support Webster Bank, including at times when Webster Financial Corporation may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. The U.S. bankruptcy code provides that, in the event of a bank holding company's bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment. In addition, under the National Bank Act, if the capital stock of Webster Bank is impaired by losses, or otherwise, the OCC is authorized to require payment of the deficiency by assessment upon the Holding Company. If the assessment is not paid within three months, the OCC could order a sale of the Webster Bank stock held by Webster Financial Corporation to cover any deficiency.
Capital Adequacy
The capital rules under a global regulatory framework developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BASEL III) adopted by the Federal Reserve System, the OCC, and the FDIC generally implement the capital framework for strengthening international capital standards. The Capital Rules define the components of regulatory capital, as well as address other issues affecting the numerator in banking institutions’ regulatory capital ratios. The Capital Rules also address asset risk weights and other matters affecting the denominator in banking institutions’ regulatory capital ratios.
The Capital Rules: (i) include the capital measure Common Equity Tier 1, defined by Basel III capital rules (CET1 capital) and related regulatory capital ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets; (ii) specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 capital and additional Tier 1 capital instruments meeting certain revised requirements; (iii) mandate that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 capital and not to the other components of capital; and (iv) expand the scope of deductions from and adjustments to capital as compared to existing regulations. Under the Capital Rules, for most banking organizations, including Webster, the most common form of additional Tier 1 capital is non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, and the most common forms of Tier 2 capital are subordinated notes and the qualifying portion of allowance for loan and lease losses, in each case, subject to specific requirements of the Capital Rules.
Pursuant to the Capital Rules, the minimum capital ratios are: (i) CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.5%; (ii) Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.0%; (iii) Total capital (Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0%; and Tier 1 capital to adjusted, as defined, quarterly average consolidated assets (called leverage ratio) of at least 4.0%.

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The Capital Rules also include a capital conservation buffer, composed entirely of CET1 capital, in addition to these minimum risk-weighted asset ratios. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions with a ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity, and other capital instrument repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall. When fully phased-in on January 1, 2019, the capital standards applicable to Webster and Webster Bank will include an additional capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of CET1 capital, effectively resulting in minimum ratios inclusive of the capital conservation buffer of: (i) CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7%; (ii) Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.5%; and (iii) Total capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 10.5%.
The Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1 capital. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing assets, deferred tax assets (DTAs), and significant investments in non-consolidated financial institutions be deducted from CET1 capital to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 capital or all such items, in the aggregate, exceed 15% of CET1 capital.
The Capital Rules also preclude certain hybrid securities, such as trust preferred securities, from inclusion in Tier 1 capital of bank holding companies, subject to phase-out for bank holding companies, such as Webster Financial Corporation, that had $15 billion or more in total consolidated assets as of December 31, 2009. The Company has excluded trust preferred securities from Tier 1 capital since 2016.
Implementation of the deductions and other adjustments to CET1 capital began on January 1, 2015 and was being phased in over a 4-year period. The transition provisions applicable during 2017 under the banking agencies' regulatory capital rules have been extended indefinitely for certain regulatory capital deductions and risk weight requirements. In addition, implementation of the capital conservation buffer began on January 1, 2016 at the 0.625% level and increases by 0.625% on each subsequent January 1, until it reaches 2.5% on January 1, 2019.
The risk-weighting categories are standardized and include a risk-sensitive number of categories, depending on the nature of the assets, generally ranging from 0% for U.S. government and agency securities, to 600% for certain equity exposures, and resulting in higher risk weights for a variety of asset classes. Management believes Webster is in compliance, and will continue to be in compliance, with the targeted capital ratios as such requirements are phased in.
Prompt Corrective Action and Safety and Soundness
Pursuant to Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, federal banking agencies are required to take prompt corrective action should an insured depository institution fail to meet certain capital adequacy standards. At each successive lower capital category, an insured depository institution is subject to more restrictions and prohibitions, including restrictions on growth, restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, restrictions or prohibitions on payment of dividends and restrictions on the acceptance of brokered deposits. Furthermore, if an insured depository institution is classified in one of the under capitalized categories, it is required to submit a capital restoration plan to the appropriate federal banking agency, and the holding company must guarantee the performance of that plan. Based upon its capital levels, a bank that is classified as well capitalized, adequately capitalized, or under capitalized may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice, warrants such treatment.
For purposes of prompt corrective action, to be: (i) well-capitalized, an insured depository institution must have a total risk based capital ratio of at least 10%, a Tier 1 risk based capital ratio of at least 8%, a CET1 risk based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5%; (ii) adequately capitalized, an insured depository institution must have a total risk based capital ratio of at least 8%, a Tier 1 risk based capital ratio of at least 6%, a CET1 risk based capital ratio of at least 4.5%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4%; (iii) under-capitalized, an insured depository institution would have a total risk based capital ratio of less than 8%, a Tier 1 risk based capital ratio of less than 6%, a CET1 risk based capital ratio of less than 4.5%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of less than 4%; (iv) significantly under-capitalized, an insured depository institution would have a total risk based capital ratio of less than 6%, a Tier 1 risk based capital ratio of less than 4%, a CET1 risk based capital ratio of less than 3%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of less than 3%; (v) critically under-capitalized, an insured depository institution would have a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is less than or equal to 2%.
Bank holding companies and insured depository institutions may also be subject to potential enforcement actions of varying levels of severity by the federal banking agencies for unsafe or unsound practices in conducting their business, or for violation of any law, rule, regulation, condition imposed in writing by the agency or term of a written agreement with the agency. In more serious cases, enforcement actions may include the issuance of directives to increase capital; the issuance of formal and informal agreements; the imposition of civil monetary penalties; the issuance of a cease and desist order that can be judicially enforced; the issuance of removal and prohibition orders against officers, directors, and other institution affiliated parties; the termination of the insured depository institution’s deposit insurance; the appointment of a conservator or receiver for the insured depository institution; and the enforcement of such actions through injunctions or restraining orders based upon a judicial determination that the FDIC, as receiver, would be harmed if such equitable relief was not granted.

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Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders
Under federal law, transactions between insured depository institutions and their affiliates are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act (FRA) and implementing Regulation W. In a bank holding company context, at a minimum, the parent holding company of a bank, and any companies which are controlled by such parent holding company, are affiliates of the bank. Generally, sections 23A and 23B of the FRA are intended to protect insured depository institutions from losses arising from transactions with non-insured affiliates by limiting the extent to which a bank or its subsidiaries may engage in covered transactions with any one affiliate and with all affiliates of the bank in the aggregate, and requiring that such transactions be on terms consistent with safe and sound banking practices.
Further, Section 22(h) of the FRA and its implementing Regulation O restricts loans to directors, executive officers, and principal stockholders or insiders. Under Section 22(h), loans to insiders and their related interests may not exceed, together with all other outstanding loans to such persons and affiliated entities, the institution's total capital and surplus. Loans to insiders above specified amounts must receive the prior approval of the board of directors. Further, under Section 22(h) of the FRA, loans to directors, executive officers, and principal stockholders must be made on terms substantially the same as offered in comparable transactions to other persons, except that such insiders may receive preferential loans made under a benefit or compensation program that is widely available to the bank's employees and does not give preference to the insider over the employees. Section 22(g) of the FRA places additional limitations on loans to executive officers.
Consumer Protection and Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Supervision
The Dodd-Frank Act centralized responsibility for consumer financial protection by creating the CFPB, an independent agency charged with responsibility for implementing, enforcing, and examining compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws. The Company is subject to a number of federal and state laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Procedures Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Practices Act, various state law counterparts, and the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, which is part of the Dodd-Frank Act. The Dodd-Frank Act does not prevent states from adopting stricter consumer protection standards. State regulation of financial products and potential enforcement actions could also adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition or operations.
The ability-to-repay provision of the Truth in Lending Act requires creditors to make reasonable, good faith determinations that borrowers are able to repay their mortgages before extending the credit based on a number of factors and consideration of financial information about the borrower from reasonably reliable third-party documents. Under the Dodd-Frank Act and the qualified mortgage provisions of the Truth in Lending Act, commonly known as the qualified mortgage (QM) Rule, loans meeting the definition of qualified mortgage are entitled to a presumption that the lender satisfied the ability-to-repay requirements. The presumption is a conclusive presumption/safe harbor for prime loans meeting QM requirements and a refutable presumption for higher-priced/subprime loans meeting QM requirements. The QM definition incorporates the statutory requirements, such as not allowing negative amortization or terms longer than 30 years. The QM Rule also adds an explicit maximum 43% debt-to-income ratio for borrowers if the loan is to meet the QM definition, though some mortgages that meet GSE, FHA, and VA underwriting guidelines may, for a period not to exceed seven years, meet the QM definition without being subject to the 43% debt-to-income limits. The CFPB is expected to continue to issue and amend rules implementing the consumer financial protection laws, which may impact Webster Bank's operations.
Financial Privacy and Data Security
Webster is subject to federal laws, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and certain state laws containing consumer privacy protection provisions. These provisions limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic information about consumers to affiliated and non-affiliated third parties and limit the reuse of certain consumer information received from non-affiliated financial institutions. These provisions require notice of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain nonpublic personal information to affiliates or non-affiliated third parties by means of opt-out or opt-in authorizations.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requires that financial institutions implement comprehensive written information security programs that include administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to protect consumer information. Federal banking agencies have also adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and programs to protect such information.  Further, pursuant to interpretive guidance issued under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and certain state laws, financial institutions are required to notify customers of security breaches that result in unauthorized access to their non-public personal information.

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Depositor Preference
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act provides that, in the event of the liquidation or other resolution of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including the parent bank holding company, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.
Federal Deposit Insurance
The FDIC uses a risk-based assessment system that imposes insurance premiums based upon a risk matrix that takes into account a bank's capital level and supervisory rating. The risk matrix utilizes different risk categories distinguished by capital levels. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act, the base for insurance assessments is now consolidated average assets less average tangible equity. Assessment rates are calculated using formulas that take into account the risk of the institution being assessed. FDIC deposit insurance expense includes deposit insurance assessments and Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO) assessments related to outstanding FICO bonds.
The FDIC’s deposit insurance limit is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. Substantially all of the deposits of Webster Bank are insured up to applicable limits by the DIF of the FDIC and are subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF.
The Dodd-Frank Act requires that the FDIC raise the minimum reserve ratio of the DIF from 1.15% to 1.35%, and that the FDIC offset the effect of this increase on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion. In March 2016, the FDIC issued a final rule affecting insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of more than $10 billion, such as Webster Bank. The final rule imposes a surcharge of 4.5 cents per $100 of the institution’s assessment base on deposit insurance assessment rates paid by these larger institutions. If the reserve ratio does not reach 1.35% by December 31, 2018, through implementation of the surcharge, the FDIC will impose an additional, one-time shortfall assessment on insured depository institutions with more than $10 billion in assets on March 31, 2019, to be paid by June 30, 2019. The FDIC also has authority to further increase deposit insurance assessments.
Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the FDIC may terminate deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC. Webster's management is not aware of any practice, condition, or violation that might lead to the termination of its deposit insurance.
Incentive Compensation
The Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, including Webster and Webster Bank, with at least $1 billion in total consolidated assets that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. The federal banking agencies and the SEC most recently proposed such regulations in 2016, but the regulations have not yet been finalized. If the regulations are adopted in the form initially proposed, they will restrict the manner in which executive compensation is structured.
The Dodd-Frank Act also requires publicly traded companies to give stockholders a non-binding vote on executive compensation at their first annual meeting taking place six months after the date of enactment and at least every three years thereafter and on so-called "golden parachute" payments in connection with approvals of mergers and acquisitions. At Webster's 2011 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, its shareholders voted on a non-binding, advisory basis to hold a non-binding, advisory vote on the compensation of named executive officers of Webster annually. As a result of the vote, the Board of Directors determined to hold the vote annually.
Community Reinvestment Act and Fair Lending Laws
Webster Bank has a responsibility under the CRA, as implemented by OCC regulations to help meet the credit needs of its communities, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution's discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community. The OCC examines Webster Bank's record of compliance with the CRA. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act prohibit discrimination in lending practices on the basis of characteristics specified in those statutes. Webster Bank's failure to comply with the provisions of the CRA could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on its activities and the activities of Webster Financial Corporation. Webster Bank's failure to comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act could result in enforcement actions against it by the OCC, as well as other federal regulatory agencies, including the CFPB and the Department of Justice. Webster Bank's latest OCC CRA rating was Satisfactory.

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USA PATRIOT Act
Under Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act, all financial institutions are required to take certain measures to identify their customers, prevent money laundering, monitor customer transactions, and report suspicious activity to U.S. law enforcement agencies. Financial institutions also are required to respond to requests for information from federal banking agencies and law enforcement agencies. Information sharing among financial institutions for the above purposes is encouraged by an exemption granted to complying financial institutions from the privacy provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and other privacy laws. Financial institutions that hold correspondent accounts for foreign banks or provide private banking services to foreign individuals are required to take measures to avoid dealing with certain foreign individuals or entities, including foreign banks with profiles that raise money laundering concerns, and are prohibited from dealing with foreign "shell banks" and persons from jurisdictions of particular concern. The primary federal banking agencies and the Secretary of the Treasury have adopted regulations to implement several of these provisions. All financial institutions also are required to establish internal anti-money laundering programs. The effectiveness of a financial institution in combating money laundering activities is a factor to be considered in any application submitted by the financial institution under the Bank Merger Act. Webster has in place a Bank Secrecy Act and USA PATRIOT Act compliance program and engages in very few transactions of any kind with foreign financial institutions or foreign persons.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The United States government has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals, and others. These are typically known as the "OFAC" rules based on their administration by the U.S. Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control. The Office of Foreign Assets Control-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on U.S. persons engaging in financial transactions relating to making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off, or transferred in any manner without a license from the Office of Foreign Assets Control. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
Future Legislative Initiatives
Federal and state legislatures may introduce legislation that will impact the financial services industry. In addition, federal banking agencies may introduce regulatory initiatives that are likely to impact the financial services industry, generally. Such initiatives may include proposals to expand or contract the powers of bank holding companies and/or depository institutions or proposals to substantially change the financial institution regulatory system. Such legislation could change banking statutes and the operating environment of the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities, or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions. The Company cannot predict whether any such legislation will be enacted, and, if enacted, the effect that it or any implementing regulations would have on the financial condition or results of operations of the Company. A change in statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies applicable to Webster or any of its subsidiaries could have a material effect on the business of the Company.
Risk Management Framework
Webster takes a comprehensive approach to risk management with a defined enterprise risk management framework which provides a structured approach for identifying, assessing and managing risks across the Company in a coordinated manner, including strategic, reputational, credit, market, liquidity, capital, and operational and compliance risks as discussed in detail in the sections below.
The enterprise risk management framework enables the aggregation of risk across the enterprise and ensures the Company has the tools, programs and processes in place to support informed decision making, anticipate risks before they materialize and maintain Webster's risk profile consistent with its risk strategy and appetite.
The enterprise risk management framework includes an articulated risk appetite statement approved annually by the Board of Directors. The risk appetite statement is supported by board and business level scorecards with defined risk tolerance limits to ensure that Webster maintains an acceptable risk profile by providing a common framework and a comparable set of measures to indicate the level of risk that the Company is willing to accept. The risk appetite is refreshed annually in conjunction with the strategic plan to align risk appetite with Webster's strategy and financial plan.

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Webster promotes proactive risk management by all Webster employees and clear ownership and accountability across three lines of defense to enable an effective and credible challenge in line with Webster's strong risk culture. Employees in each line of business serve as the first line of defense and have responsibility for identifying, managing and owning the risks in their businesses. Risk and enterprise support functions, for example third party risk management and legal departments, serve as the second line of defense and are responsible for providing guidance, oversight and challenge to the first line of defense. Internal Audit and Credit Risk Review, both of which are independent of management, serve as the third line of defense and ensure, through review and testing, that appropriate risk management controls, processes and systems are in place and functioning effectively.
The Risk Committee of the Board of Directors, comprised of independent directors, oversees all of Webster's risk-related matters and provides input and guidance to the Board of Directors and the executive team, as appropriate. Webster's Enterprise Risk Management Committee, which reports directly to the Risk Committee of the Board of Directors, is chaired by the Chief Risk Officer and is comprised of Webster's executive management and senior risk officers.
The Chief Risk Officer is responsible for establishing and maintaining Webster's enterprise risk management framework and overseeing credit risk, operational and compliance risk, Bank Secrecy Act compliance and loan workout/recovery programs. The Corporate Treasurer, who reports to the Chief Financial Officer, is responsible for overseeing market, liquidity, and capital risk management activities.
Credit Risk
Webster manages and controls credit risk in its loan and investment portfolios through established underwriting practices, adherence to standards, and utilization of various portfolio and transaction monitoring tools and processes. Credit policies and underwriting guidelines provide limits on exposure and establish various other standards as deemed necessary and prudent. Additional approval requirements and reporting are implemented to ensure proper risk identification, decision rationale, risk ratings, and disclosure of policy exceptions.
Credit risk management policies and transaction approvals are managed under the supervision of the Chief Credit Officer who reports to the Chief Risk Officer. The Chief Credit Officer and team of credit executives are independent of the loan production and treasury areas. The credit risk function oversees the underwriting, approval and portfolio management process, establishes and ensures adherence to credit policies, and manages the collections and problem asset resolution activities.
As part of credit risk management governance, Webster established a Credit Risk Management Committee that meets regularly to review key credit risk topics, issues, and policies. The Credit Risk Management Committee reviews Webster's credit risk scorecard, which covers key risk indicators and limits established as part of the Company's risk appetite framework. The Credit Risk Management Committee is chaired by the Chief Credit Officer and includes senior managers responsible for lending as well as senior managers from the credit risk management function. Important findings regarding credit quality and trends within the loan and investment portfolios are regularly reported by the Chief Credit Officer to the Enterprise Risk Management Committee (ERMC) and Risk Committee of the Board of Directors.
In addition to the credit risk management team, there is an independent Credit Risk Review function that assesses risk ratings and credit underwriting process for all areas of the organization that incur credit risk. The head of Credit Risk Review reports directly to the Risk Committee of the Board of Directors and administratively to the Chief Risk Officer. Credit Risk Review findings are reported to the Credit Risk Management Committee, ERMC and Risk Committee of the Board of Directors. Corrective measures are monitored and tested to ensure risk issues are mitigated or resolved.
Operational and Compliance Risks
Operational risk represents the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events, such as fraud, cyber-attacks, or natural disasters. The Operational Risk function is responsible for establishing processes and tools to identify, manage, and aggregate operational risk across the organization; providing guidance and advice on operational risk matters; and educating the organization on operational risks. Compliance risk represents the risk of non-adherence to applicable laws and regulations, including fines penalties and reputation damage. Specific programs and functions have been implemented to manage the risks associated with legal and regulatory requirements, suppliers and other third-parties, information security, business disruption, fraud, analytical and forecasting models, and new products and services.
Webster's Operational Risk Management Committee, which consists of senior risk officers and senior managers responsible for operational and compliance risk management across the Company, periodically reviews the aforementioned programs, as well as key operational risk trends, issues, and mitigation activities. The Director of Operating Risk Management chairs the Operational Risk Management Committee and is responsible for overseeing the development and implementation of Webster's operational risk management framework.

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Market Risk
Market risk refers to the risk of loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and other relevant market rates and prices, such as equity prices. The risk of loss is assessed from the perspective of adverse changes in fair values, cash flows, and future earnings. Due to the nature of its operations, Webster is primarily exposed to interest rate risk. Webster's interest rate sensitivity is monitored on an ongoing basis by its Asset/Liability Committee (ALCO). The primary goal of ALCO is to manage interest rate risk to maximize earnings and net economic value in changing interest rate and business environments, subject to Board approved risk limits. ALCO is chaired by Webster's Corporate Treasurer and members include the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Risk Officer. ALCO activities and findings are regularly reported to the ERMC and Risk Committee of the Board of Directors.
Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk refers to the ability to meet a demand for funds by converting assets into cash or cash equivalents and by increasing liabilities at an acceptable cost. Liquidity management for Webster Bank involves maintaining the ability to meet day-to-day and longer-term cash flow requirements of customers, whether they are depositors wishing to withdraw funds or borrowers requiring funds to meet their credit needs. Sources of funds include deposits, borrowings, or sales of assets such as unencumbered investment securities.
The Holding Company requires funds for dividends to shareholders, payment of debt obligations, repurchase of shares, potential acquisitions, and for general corporate purposes. Its sources of funds include dividends from Webster Bank, income from investment securities, the issuance of equity, and debt in the capital markets.
Both the Holding Company and Webster Bank maintain a level of liquidity necessary to achieve their business objectives under both normal and stressed conditions. Liquidity risk is monitored and managed by ALCO and reviewed regularly with the ERMC and Risk Committee of the Board of Directors.
Capital Risk
Webster aims to maintain adequate capital in both normal and stressed environments to support its business objectives and risk appetite. ALCO monitors regulatory and tangible capital levels according to regulatory requirements and management operating ranges and recommends capital conservation, generation, and/or deployment strategies. ALCO also has responsibility for the annual capital plan, capital ratio range setting, contingency planning and stress testing, which are all reviewed and approved by the ERMC and Risk Committee of the Board of Directors, at least annually.
Internal Audit
Internal Audit provides an independent, objective assurance and advisory services by testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal controls throughout Webster. This evaluation function brings a systematic and disciplined approach to enhancing the effectiveness of Webster's governance, risk management, and internal control processes.
Results of Internal Audit reviews are reported to management and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. Corrective measures are monitored to ensure risk issues are mitigated or resolved. The General Auditor reports functionally to the Audit Committee and administratively to the Chief Executive Officer. The appointment or replacement of the General Auditor is overseen by the Audit Committee.
Additional information on risks and uncertainties and additional factors that could affect the Company's results of operations can be found in Item 1A and elsewhere within this Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, and in other reports Webster Financial Corporation files with the SEC.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves risks, some of which are inherent in the financial services industry and others of which are more specific to our business. The discussion below addresses the material risks and uncertainties, of which we are currently aware, that could affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this report. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer.
Risks Relating to the Economy, Financial Markets, and Interest Rates.
Difficult conditions in the economy and the financial markets may have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial performance is highly dependent upon the business environment in the markets where we operate and in the United States as a whole. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, decreases in business activity, weakening of investor or business confidence, limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital, increases in inflation, changes in interest rates, changes in tax laws, high unemployment, natural disasters or a combination of these or other factors.
In particular, we may face the following risks in connection with developments in the current economic and market environment:
consumer and business confidence levels may decline and lead to less credit usage and increases in delinquencies and default rates;
our ability to assess the creditworthiness of our customers may be impaired if the models and approaches we use to select, manage, and underwrite our customers become less predictive of future behaviors;
customer desire to do business with us may decline, whether as a result of a decreased demand for loans or other financial products and services or decreased deposits or other investments in accounts with us;
competition in our industry could intensify as a result of the increasing consolidation of financial services companies; and
the effects of recent and proposed changes in laws such as the Tax Act.
The business environment in the U.S. has experienced volatility in recent years and may continue to do so for the foreseeable future. There can be no assurance that economic conditions will not worsen.  Difficult economic conditions could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in local economic conditions could adversely affect our business.
A significant percentage of our loans are secured by real estate, primarily across the Northeast. Our success depends in part upon economic conditions in Southern New England and our other geographic markets. Adverse changes in such local markets could reduce our growth in loans and deposits, impair our ability to collect our loans, increase problem loans and charges-offs, and otherwise negatively affect our performance and financial condition.
The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services companies, or the financial services industry generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated if the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may not pay dividends if we are not able to receive dividends from our subsidiary, Webster Bank.
We are a separate and distinct legal entity from our banking and non-banking subsidiaries and depend on the payment of cash dividends from Webster Bank and our existing liquid assets as the principal sources of funds for paying cash dividends on our common stock. Unless we receive dividends from Webster Bank or choose to use our liquid assets, we may not be able to pay dividends. Webster Bank’s ability to pay dividends is subject to its ability to earn net income and to meet certain regulatory requirements. See the sub-section captioned "Dividends" in Item 1 of this report for a discussion of regulatory and other restrictions on dividend declarations.

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Changes in interest rates and spreads could have an impact on earnings and results of operations which could have a negative impact on the value of our stock.
Our consolidated earnings and financial condition are dependent to a large degree upon net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned from loans and investments and interest paid on deposits and borrowings. The narrowing of interest rate spreads could adversely affect our earnings and financial condition. We cannot predict with certainty or control changes in interest rates. Regional and local economic conditions and the policies of regulatory authorities, including monetary policies of the FRB, affect interest income and interest expense. While we have ongoing policies and procedures designed to manage the risks associated with changes in market interest rates, changes in interest rates still may have an adverse effect on our profitability. For example, high interest rates could affect the amount of loans that we can originate because higher rates could cause customers to apply for fewer mortgages, or cause depositors to shift funds from accounts that have a comparatively lower cost to accounts with a higher cost, or experience customer attrition due to competitor pricing. If the cost of interest-bearing deposits increases at a rate greater than the yields on interest-earning assets increase, net interest income will be negatively affected. Changes in the asset and liability mix may also affect net interest income. Similarly, lower interest rates cause higher yielding assets to prepay and floating or adjustable rate assets to reset to lower rates. If we were not able to reduce our funding costs sufficiently, due to either competitive factors or the maturity schedule of existing liabilities, then our net interest margin would decline.
Our stock price can be volatile.
Stock price volatility may negatively impact the price at which our common stock may be sold, and may also negatively impact the timing of any sale. Our stock price can fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors including, among other things:
actual or anticipated variations in operating results;
changes in recommendations by securities analysts;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
news reports relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services and healthcare industries;
new technology used, or services offered, by competitors;
perceptions in the marketplace regarding us and/or our competitors;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors;
failure to integrate acquisitions or realize anticipated benefits from acquisitions;
additional investments from third parties;
issuance of additional shares of stock;
changes in government regulations or actions by government regulators; and
geo-political conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts.
General market fluctuations, industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions, interest rate changes, credit loss trends or currency fluctuations, could also cause our stock price to decrease regardless of our operating results.
Regulatory, Compliance, Environmental and Legal Risks
We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision, which may interfere with our ability to conduct our business and may negatively impact our financial results.
We, primarily through Webster Bank and certain non-bank subsidiaries, are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision. Banking regulations are intended to protect depositors’ funds, the DIF and the safety and soundness of the banking system as a whole, not shareholders. These regulations affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject us to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products we may offer, and/or limit what we may charge for certain banking services, among other things. Additionally, recent changes to the legal and regulatory framework governing our operation, including the continued implementation of Dodd-Frank Act have and will continue to affect the lending, investment, trading and operating activities of financial institutions and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act imposed additional regulatory obligations and increased scrutiny from federal banking agencies. In general, federal banking agencies have increased their focus on risk management and compliance with consumer financial protection obligations, and we expect this focus to continue. Additional compliance requirements are likely and can be costly to implement. Compliance personnel and resources may increase our costs of operations and adversely impact our earnings.
Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur. See the section captioned "Supervision and Regulation" in Item 1 of this report for further information.

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We are subject to financial and reputational risks from potential liability arising from lawsuits.
The nature of our business ordinarily results in a certain amount of claims and legal action. Whether claims and related legal actions are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to us they may result in significant financial liability and/or adversely affect our market perception, the products and services we offer, as well as impact customer demand for those products and services. We assess our liabilities and contingencies in connection with outstanding legal proceedings as well as certain threatened claims utilizing the latest and most reliable information. For matters where a loss is not probable or the amount of the loss cannot be estimated, no accrual is established. For matters where it is probable we will incur a loss and the amount can be reasonably estimated, we establish an accrual for the loss. Once established, the accrual is adjusted periodically to reflect any relevant developments. The actual cost of any outstanding legal proceedings or threatened claims, however, may turn out to be substantially higher than the amount accrued. These costs may adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.
We are exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which we obtain title.
A large portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate. In the course of our business, we may foreclose and take title to real estate and could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a government entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation and remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. These costs and claims could adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.
Proposed health care reforms could adversely affect our HSA Bank division and our revenues, financial position and our results of operations.
The enactment of health care reforms affecting health savings accounts at the federal or state level may affect our HSA Bank division, which is a bank custodian of health savings accounts.  We cannot predict if any such reforms will ultimately become law, or, if enacted, what their terms or the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws will be. Any health care reforms enacted may be phased in over a number of years but, if enacted, could, with respect to the operations of HSA Bank, reduce our revenues, increase our costs, and require us to revise the ways in which we conduct business or put us at risk for loss of business. In addition, our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected by such changes.
Changes in the federal, state or local tax laws may negatively impact our financial performance. 
We are subject to changes in tax law that could increase our effective tax rates. The Tax Act, the full impact of which is subject to further evaluation and analysis, is likely to have both positive and negative effects on our financial performance. For example, the new legislation reduced the federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% beginning in 2018, which will have a favorable impact on our earnings and capital generation abilities. However, the new legislation also enacted limitations on certain deductions, such as FDIC deposit insurance premiums, which will partially offset the anticipated increase in net earnings from the lower tax rate. In addition, changes in interpretations, guidance or regulations that may be promulgated, or actions that we may take as a result of the Tax Act could negatively impact our business. Similarly, our customers are likely to experience varying effects from both the individual and business tax provisions of the Tax Act and such effects, whether positive or negative, may have a corresponding impact on our financial performance and the economy as a whole.
Risks Relating to the Competitive Environment in Which We Operate
We operate in a highly competitive industry and market area. If we fail to compete effectively, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
We face substantial competition in all areas of our operations from a variety of different competitors, many of which are larger and may have more financial resources than we do. Such competitors primarily include national, regional, and community banks within the various markets in which we operate. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including, without limitation, savings and loans, credit unions, non-bank health savings account trustees, finance companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, factoring companies and other financial intermediaries. Some of the financial services organizations with which the Company competes are not subject to the same degree of regulation as is imposed on bank holding companies and federally insured depository institutions, which may give them certain advantages over the Company in accessing funding and in providing various services. The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. Technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks. Additionally, due to their size, many competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, may offer a broader range of products and services than we do, as well as better pricing for those products and services.

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Our ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including, among other things:
the ability to develop, maintain and build upon long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets;
the ability to expand market position;
the scope, relevance and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands;
the rate at which we introduce new products and services relative to our competitors;
customer satisfaction with our level of service; and
industry and general economic trends.
Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The loss of key partnerships could adversely affect our HSA Bank division.
Our HSA Bank division relies on partnerships with various health insurance carriers to maximize our distribution model. These health plan partners, who provide high deductible health plan options, are a significant source of new and existing HSA account holders. If these health plan partners choose to align with our competitors, our results of operations, business and prospects could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to attract and retain skilled people.
Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for the best people in most activities in which we engage can be intense and we may not be able to hire people or to retain them. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel could have a material adverse impact on the business because we would lose their skills, knowledge of the market, years of industry experience and may have difficulty promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.
Risks Relating to Risk Management
We continually encounter technological change. The failure to understand and adapt to these changes could negatively impact our business.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology can increase efficiency and enable financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. However, some new technologies needed to compete effectively result in incremental operating costs and capital investments. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in operations. Many of our competitors, because of their larger size and available capital, have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers within the same time frame as our large competitors. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.
New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risks. A failure to successfully manage these risks may have a material adverse effect on our business.
From time to time, we may implement new lines of business, offer new products and services within existing lines of business or shift our asset mix. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services and/or shifting asset mix, we may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove attainable. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
A failure or breach of our systems, or those of our third party vendors and other service providers, including as a result of cyber attacks, could disrupt our businesses, result in the misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.
As a large financial institution, we depend on our ability to process, record, and monitor a large number of customer transactions, and customer, public and regulatory expectations regarding operational and information security have increased over time. Accordingly, our operational systems and infrastructure must continue to be safeguarded and monitored for potential failures, disruptions and breakdowns. Our business, financial, accounting, data processing systems or other operating systems and facilities may stop operating properly or become disabled as a result of a number of factors that may be wholly or partially beyond our control. For example, there could be sudden increases in customer transaction volume; electrical or telecommunications outages;

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natural disasters; pandemics; events arising from political or social matters, including terrorist acts; and cyber attacks. Although we have business continuity plans and believe we have robust information security procedures and controls in place, disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our businesses and customers, or cyber attacks or security breaches of the networks, systems or devices on which customers’ personal information is stored and that our customers use to access our products and services could result in customer attrition, regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs, which could have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Third parties with whom we do business or that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing houses, financial intermediaries or vendors that provide services or security solutions for our operations, could also be sources of operational and information security risk to us, including from breakdowns or failures of their own systems, capacity constraints and cyber attacks.
Although to date we have not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer such losses in the future. Our risk and exposure to these matters remains heightened and as a result the continued development and enhancement of our controls, processes and practices designed to protect and facilitate the recovery of our systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a high priority for us. As an additional layer of protection, we have purchased network and privacy liability risk insurance coverage which includes digital asset loss, business interruption loss, network security liability, privacy liability, network extortion and data breach coverage. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
Disruptions in services provided by third-party vendors that we rely on may result in a material adverse effect on our business.
We rely on third-party vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain day-to-day operations. For example, we are dependent on our vendor-provided core banking processing systems to process a large number of increasingly complex transactions. Accordingly, we are exposed to the risk that these vendors might not perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements or service level agreements because of changes in the vendor’s organizational structure, financial condition, support for existing products, services and technology strategic focus or for any other reason. Such failure to perform could be disruptive to our operations, which could have a materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. While we require third-party outsourced service providers to have business continuity and disaster recovery plans that are aligned with our overall recovery plans, we cannot be assured that such plans will operate successfully or in a timely manner so as to prevent any such material adverse impact.
Our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented, which may result in a material adverse effect on our business.
Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures, failure to implement any necessary improvement of our controls and procedures, or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We face risks in connection with completed or potential acquisitions.
From time to time we may evaluate expansion through the acquisition of banks or branches, or other financial businesses or assets. Acquiring other banks, businesses, or branches involves various risks commonly associated with acquisitions, including, among other things:
The possible loss of key employees and customers of the target;
Potential disruption of the target business;
Potential changes in banking or tax laws or regulations that may affect the target business;
Potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of the target; and
Potential difficulties in integrating the target business into our own.
Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values, and therefore, some dilution of the Company’s tangible book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future transaction. Furthermore, failure to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, and/or other projected benefits from an acquisition could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business may be adversely affected by fraud.
As a financial institution, we are inherently exposed to operational risk in the form of theft and other fraudulent activity by employees, customers, and other third parties targeting the Company or the Company’s customers or data. Such activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Although we devote substantial resources to maintaining effective policies and internal controls to identify and prevent such incidents, given the increasing sophistication of possible perpetrators, we may experience financial losses or reputational harm as a result of fraud.

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Risks Relating to Accounting Estimates
Our allowance for loan and lease losses may be insufficient.
Our business is subject to periodic fluctuations based on national and local economic conditions. These fluctuations are not predictable, cannot be controlled and may have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition. For example, declines in housing activity including declines in building permits, housing starts and home prices, may make it more difficult for our borrowers to sell their homes or refinance their debt. Sales may also slow, which could strain the resources of real estate developers and builders. We may suffer higher loan and lease losses as a result of these factors and the resulting impact on our borrowers. Recent economic uncertainty continues to affect employment levels and impact the ability of our borrowers to service their debt. Bank regulatory agencies also periodically review our allowance for loan and lease losses and may require an increase in the provision for loan and lease losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan and lease losses, we may need, depending on an analysis of the adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease losses, additional provisions to increase the allowance for loan losses. Any increases in the allowance for loan and lease losses will result in a decrease in net income and, possibly, capital, and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
If our goodwill were determined to be impaired it could have a negative impact on our profitability.
Applicable accounting standards require that the purchase method of accounting be used for all business combinations. Under purchase accounting, if the purchase price of an acquired company exceeds the fair value of the acquired company’s net assets, the excess is carried on the balance sheet as goodwill, by the acquirer. A significant decline in our expected future cash flows, a continuing period of market disruption, market capitalization to book value deterioration, or slower growth rates may require us to record charges in the future related to the impairment of our goodwill. If we were to conclude that a future write-down is necessary, we would record the appropriate charge, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
If all or a significant portion of the unrealized losses in our portfolio of investment securities were determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired, we would recognize a material charge to our earnings and our capital ratios would be adversely impacted.
When the fair value of a security declines, management must assess whether that decline is other-than-temporary. When management reviews whether a decline in fair value is other-than-temporary, it considers numerous factors, many of which involve significant judgment. No assurance can be provided that the amount of the unrealized losses will not increase.
To the extent that any portion of the unrealized losses in our investment securities portfolio is determined to be other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI), we will recognize a charge to our earnings in the quarter during which such determination is made and our capital ratios will be adversely impacted. If any such charge is deemed significant, a rating agency might downgrade our credit rating or put us on a credit watch. A downgrade or a significant reduction in our capital ratios might adversely impact our ability to access the capital markets or might increase our cost of capital. Even if we do not determine that the unrealized losses associated with the investment portfolio require an impairment charge, increases in such unrealized losses adversely impact the tangible common equity ratio, which may adversely impact credit rating agency and investor sentiment. Any such negative perception also may adversely impact our ability to access the capital markets or might increase our cost of capital.
We may not be able to fully realize the balance of our net DTA including net operating loss carryforwards.
The value of our DTA is partially reduced by valuation allowance. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more-likely-than-not that some portion of our DTA will not be realized. We regularly assess available positive and negative evidence to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that our net DTA will not be realized. Realization of a DTA requires us to apply significant judgment and is inherently speculative because it requires estimates that cannot be made with certainty. If we were to conclude that a significant portion of our remaining DTA is not more-likely-than-not to be realized, the required valuation allowance could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and regulatory capital ratios.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The Company maintains its headquarters in Waterbury, Connecticut. This owned facility houses the Company's executive and primary administrative functions, as well as the principal banking headquarters of Webster Bank. The Company considers its properties suitable and adequate for present needs.
In addition to the property noted above, the Company's segments maintain the following leased or owned offices. Lease expiration dates vary, up to 70 years, with renewal options for 1 to 25 years. For additional information regarding leases and rental payments see Note 20: Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained elsewhere in this report.
Commercial Banking
The Commercial Banking segment maintains offices across a footprint that primarily ranges from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. Significant properties are located in: Hartford, New Haven, Stamford, and Waterbury, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts; New York City and White Plains, New York; Conshohocken, Pennsylvania; and Providence, Rhode Island.
The Commercial Banking segment also includes: Webster Capital Finance with headquarters in Kensington, Connecticut; Webster Business Credit Corporation with headquarters in New York, New York and offices in Atlanta, Georgia, Baltimore, Maryland, Boston, Massachusetts, Chicago, Illinois, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, and New Milford, Connecticut; and Private Banking with headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut and offices in Hartford, New Haven, Waterbury, Greenwich, and Wilton, Connecticut, Boston, Massachusetts, White Plains, New York, and Providence, Rhode Island.
HSA Bank
The HSA Bank segment is headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin with an office in Sheboygan, Wisconsin.
Community Banking
The Community Banking segment maintains the following banking centers:
Location
Leased
Owned
Total
Connecticut
73

42

115

Massachusetts
24

11

35

Rhode Island
7

3

10

New York
7


7

Total banking centers
111

56

167

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, Webster Financial Corporation or its subsidiaries are subject to certain legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business. Management presently believes that the ultimate outcome of these proceedings, individually and in the aggregate, will not be material to Webster or its consolidated financial position. Webster establishes an accrual for specific legal matters when it determines that the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome is probable and the loss is reasonably estimable. Legal proceedings are subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable rulings could occur that could cause Webster to adjust its litigation accrual or could have, individually or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, or operating results.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Webster Financial Corporation's common shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol WBS.
The following table sets forth the high and low intra-day sales prices per share of Webster Financial Corporation's common stock and the cash dividends declared per share:
 
2017
 
2016
 
High
Low
Cash Dividends Declared
 
High
Low
Cash Dividends Declared
Fourth quarter
$
59.25

$
51.68

$
0.26

 
$
55.80

$
36.96

$
0.25

Third quarter
55.04

44.04

0.26

 
38.97

31.45

0.25

Second quarter
54.96

46.85

0.26

 
39.61

31.29

0.25

First quarter
57.50

47.59

0.25

 
37.18

30.09

0.23

On January 30, 2018, Webster Financial Corporation’s Board of Directors declared a quarterly dividend of $0.26 per share.
On February 16, 2018, there were 5,693 shareholders of record as determined by Broadridge, the Company’s transfer agent.
Restrictions on Dividends
Holders of Webster Financial Corporation's common stock are entitled to receive such dividends as the Board of Directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Webster Financial Corporation, as a bank holding company, is dependent on dividend payments from Webster Bank for its legally available funds. The Bank paid the Holding Company $120 million in dividends during the year ended December 31, 2017.
The Bank’s ability to make dividend payments to the Holding Company is subject to certain regulatory and other requirements. Under OCC regulations, subject to the Bank meeting applicable regulatory capital requirements before and after payment of dividends, the Bank may declare a dividend, without prior regulatory approval, limited to net income for the current year to date as of the declaration date, plus undistributed net income from the preceding two years. At December 31, 2017, Webster Bank was in compliance with all applicable minimum capital requirements, and there was $368.8 million of undistributed net income available for the payment of dividends by the Bank to the Holding Company.
Under the regulations, the OCC may grant specific approval permitting divergence from the requirements and also has the discretion to prohibit any otherwise permitted capital distribution on general safety and soundness grounds. In addition, the payment of dividends is subject to certain other restrictions, none of which is expected to limit any dividend policy that the Board of Directors may in the future decide to adopt.
If the capital of Webster is diminished by losses, or otherwise, to an amount less than the aggregate amount of the capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets, no dividends may be paid out of net profits until such deficiency has been repaired. See the "Supervision and Regulation" section in Item 1 contained elsewhere in this report for additional information on dividends.
Webster Financial Corporation has 6,000,000 outstanding Depository Shares, each representing 1/1000th interest in a share of 5.25% Series F Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, with a liquidation preference of $25,000 per share, or $25 per depository share. The Series F Preferred Stock is redeemable at Webster Financial Corporation's option, in whole or in part, on December 15, 2022, or any dividend payment date thereafter, or in whole but not in part, upon a "regulatory capital treatment event" as defined in the Prospectus Supplement. The terms of the Series F Preferred Stock prohibit the Holding Company from declaring or paying any cash dividends on its common stock, unless the Holding Company has declared and paid full dividends on the Series F Preferred Stock for the most recently completed dividend period.
Exchanges of Registered Securities
Registered securities are exchanged as part of employee and director stock compensation plans.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
No unregistered securities were sold by Webster Financial Corporation during the year ended December 31, 2017.

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Table of Contents

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information with respect to any purchase of equity securities for Webster Financial Corporation's common stock made by or on behalf of Webster or any "affiliated purchaser," as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, during the three months ended December 31, 2017:
Period
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
(1)
Average Price
Paid Per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Maximum
Dollar Amount Available for Repurchase
Under the Plans or Programs 
(1)
 
Total
Number of
Warrants
Purchased
(2)
Average Price
Paid Per Warrant
October 1-31, 2017
42,832

$
54.21


$
103,903,923

 

$

November 1-30, 2017
1,138

52.72


103,903,923

 


December 1-31, 2017
305

57.69


103,903,923

 


Total
44,275

54.20


103,903,923

 


(1)
On October 24, 2017, the Company announced that its Board of Directors had approved a common stock repurchase program which authorizes management to repurchase, in open market or privately negotiated transactions, subject to market conditions and other factors, up to a maximum of $100 million of common stock. This approval is in addition to the $3.9 million remaining authorization on a similar common stock repurchase program announced on December 6, 2012. Both programs will remain in effect until fully utilized or until modified, superseded, or terminated.
All 44,275 shares purchased during the three months ended December 31, 2017 were acquired outside of the repurchase program related to stock compensation plan activity, at market prices.
(2)
On June 3, 2011, the Company announced that, with approval from its Board of Directors, it had repurchased a significant number of the warrants issued as part of Webster's participation in the U.S. Treasury's Capital Purchase Program in a public auction conducted on behalf of the U.S. Treasury. The Board approved plan provides for additional repurchases from time-to-time, as permitted by securities laws and other legal requirements. There remain 8,752 outstanding warrants to purchase a share (1:1) of the Company's common stock, which carry an exercise price of $18.28 per share and expire on November 21, 2018.

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Table of Contents

Performance Graph
The performance graph compares Webster Financial Corporation’s cumulative shareholder return on its common stock over the last five fiscal years to the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index ("S&P 500 Index") and the Keefe, Bruyette & Woods Regional Banking Index ("KRX Index").
Cumulative shareholder return is measured by dividing total dividends (assuming dividend reinvestment) for the measurement period plus share price change for a period by the share price at the beginning of the measurement period. The cumulative shareholder return over a five-year period assumes a simultaneous initial investment of $100, on December 31, 2012, in Webster Financial Corporation common stock and in each of the indices above.

chart-32c541576033d13f7ec.jpg
  
Period Ending December 31,
 
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Webster Financial Corporation
$
100

$
155

$
166

$
194

$
292

$
308

S&P 500 Index
$
100

$
132

$
150

$
153

$
171

$
208

KRX Index
$
100

$
147

$
150

$
159

$
222

$
226


21


Table of Contents

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The required information is set forth below, in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, under the section captioned "Results of Operations," which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes thereto of Webster Financial Corporation contained elsewhere in this report.
Critical Accounting Policies and Accounting Estimates
The Company's significant accounting policies, as described in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, are fundamental to understanding its results of operations and financial condition. As disclosed in Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires management to make judgments and accounting estimates that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes thereto. While the Company bases estimates on historical experience, current information and other factors deemed to be relevant, actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Accounting estimates are necessary in the application of certain accounting policies and procedures and can be susceptible to significant change. Critical accounting policies are defined as those that are most important to the portrayal of the Company's financial condition and results of operation, and that require management to make the most difficult, subjective, and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and which could potentially result in materially different amounts using different assumptions or under different conditions. Critical accounting policies identified by management, which are discussed with the appropriate committees of the Board of Directors, are summarized below.
The Company has identified four such policies, which govern:
allowance for loan and lease losses;
fair value measurements for valuation of investments;
evaluation for impairment of goodwill; and
assessing the realizability of DTAs and the measurement of uncertain tax position (UTP)s.
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
The allowance for loan and lease losses is a reserve established through a provision for loan and lease losses charged to expense, which represents management’s best estimation of probable losses that are inherent within the Company’s portfolio of loans and leases as of the balance sheet date. For a description of our related accounting policies, see Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained elsewhere in this report.
Changes in the allowance for loan and lease losses and, therefore, in the related provision for loan and lease losses can materially affect net income. The level of the allowance for loan and lease losses reflects management’s judgment based on continuing evaluation of specific credit risks, loss experience, current portfolio quality, present economic, political, and regulatory conditions and inherent risks not captured in quantitative modeling and methodologies, as well as trends therein. The allowance balance may be allocated for specific portfolio segments; however, the entire allowance balance is available to absorb credit losses inherent in the total loan and lease portfolio. While management utilizes its best judgment and information available, the ultimate adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease losses is dependent upon a variety of factors beyond the Company’s control, including performance of the Company’s loan portfolio, the economy, interest rate sensitivity, and other external factors.
Composition of the allowance for loan and lease losses, including valuation methodology, is more fully illustrated in Note 4: Loans and Leases in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, see section captioned "Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses Methodology," contained elsewhere in this report.

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Table of Contents

Fair Value Measurements for Valuation of Investments
The Company records certain assets and liabilities at fair value in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes thereto. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, as defined by applicable accounting guidance.
To increase consistency and comparability in fair value measures, management adheres to the three-level hierarchy established to prioritize the inputs used in valuation techniques, which consists of: (i) unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date; (ii) significant inputs other than quoted prices that are directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability; and (iii) inputs that are not observable, rather are reliant upon pricing models and techniques that require significant management judgment or estimation. Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value are categorized, in accordance with guidance, either on a recurring or nonrecurring basis into the above three levels. At the end of each quarter, management assesses the valuation hierarchy for each asset or liability and, as a result, assets or liabilities may be transferred between hierarchy levels due to changes in availability of observable market inputs used to measure fair value at that measurement date.
When observable market prices are not available, fair value is estimated using modeling techniques such as discounted cash flow analysis. These modeling techniques utilize assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about the risk inherent in a particular valuation technique, the effect of a restriction on the sale or use of an asset, and the risk of nonperformance. Depending on the nature of the asset or liability, the Company uses various valuation techniques and assumptions when estimating the instrument’s fair value. In addition, changes in legislation or regulatory environment could further impact these assumptions.
Available-for-sale securities classified as level 2 in the hierarchy consists of Agency collateralized mortgage obligations (Agency CMO), Agency mortgage-backed securities (Agency MBS), Agency commercial mortgage-backed securities (Agency CMBS), Non-agency commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS), CLO, corporate debt, and single issuer-trust preferred, as quoted market prices are not available for these asset classes. Management employs an independent pricing service that utilizes matrix pricing to calculate fair value. This fair value measurement considers observable data such as dealer quotes, dealer price indications, market spreads, credit information, and the respective terms and conditions for debt instruments. Procedures are in place to monitor assumptions and establish processes to challenge valuations received from pricing services that appear unusual or unexpected.
Composition of investment securities, the related impairment analysis, and fair value methodology and amounts, are more fully illustrated in Note 3: Investment Securities and Note 16: Fair Value Measurements in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Evaluation for Impairment of Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess purchase price of a business acquired over the fair value, at acquisition, of the identifiable net assets acquired and is assigned to specific reporting units. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment, at least annually, in accordance with ASC Topic 350, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other." Quarterly, an assessment of potential triggering events is performed and should events or circumstances be present that, more likely than not, would reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value, the Company would then evaluate: periods of market disruption; market capitalization to book value erosion; financial services industry-wide factors; geo-economic factors; and internally developed forecasts to determine if its recorded goodwill may be impaired. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment by performing a two-step quantitative test. The quantitative analysis utilizes both the discounted cash flow methodology and a comparable company methodology on an equally weighted basis. Discounted cash flow estimates, which include significant management assumptions relating to asset and revenue growth rates, net interest and operating margins, capital requirements, weighted-average cost of capital, and future economic and market conditions, are used to determine fair value under the two-step quantitative test. A comparable company methodology is based on a comparison of financial and operating statistics of publicly traded companies to each of the reporting units, and the appropriate multiples, such as equity value-to-tangible book value, core deposit premium multiples and/or price-to-earnings per share multiples, are applied to arrive at indications of value for each reporting unit.
Under Step 1, the fair value of a reporting unit is compared to its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is not considered impaired, and it is not necessary to continue to Step 2 of the impairment process. Otherwise, Step 2 is performed where the implied fair value of goodwill is compared to the carrying value of goodwill in the reporting unit. If a reporting unit's carrying value of goodwill exceeds fair value, an impairment is recognized and this difference is charged to non-interest expense.
Webster performed its annual impairment test under Step 1 as of its elected measurement date of November 30. The valuation of goodwill involves estimates which require significant management judgment. The Company utilizes a combined, equally weighted, income approach based on discounted cash flows and comparable company market approach to arrive at an indicated fair value range for the reporting unit.

23


Table of Contents

The income approach involves several management estimates, including developing a discounted cash flow valuation model which utilizes variables such as asset and revenue growth rates, expense trends, capital requirements, discount rates, and terminal values. Based upon an evaluation of key data and market factors, management selects the specific variables to be incorporated into the valuation model. Projected future cash flows are discounted using estimated rates based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model, which considers the risk-free interest rate, market risk premium, beta, and unsystematic risk and size premium adjustments specific to the reporting unit. In the income approach the discount rate used for Consumer Deposits, Business Banking and HSA Bank was 7.6%, 9.8%, and 9.6%, respectively. The long-term growth rate used in determining the terminal value of the reporting unit's cash flows was estimated at 4.0% and is based on management's assessment of the minimum expected growth rate of each reporting unit as well as broader economic and regulatory considerations.
The comparable company market approach includes small to mid-sized banks primarily based in the Northeast with significant geographic or product line overlap to Webster and its reporting units to determine a fair value of each reporting unit.
At November 30, 2017, Webster calculated the following multiples for the selected comparable companies, as appropriate for each reporting unit: core deposit premium, equity value-to-tangible book value and price-to-earnings per share. In determining the appropriate multiples to be applied for each reporting unit, the financial and operating statistics of the reporting units were compared to the comparable companies. Certain financial statistics were compared in identifying the reporting unit’s most appropriate comparable companies whose multiples were used as the basis for the selected multiple range. For price-to-earnings per share, 2017 to 2019 net income compound annual growth rate and 2019 net income margins were used, while the return on tangible book value and return on assets were used for equity value-to-tangible book value multiples. For core deposit premium multiples, each of those four financial statistics were used. Additionally, a control premium was applied as the comparable company multiples are on a minority basis.
The indicated values derived from the discounted cash flows and the market comparable company methodologies were equally weighted to derive the fair value of each reporting unit. This fair value was then compared against the carrying value of each reporting unit to determine if a Step 2 test is required. In estimating the carrying value of each reporting unit, Webster uses a methodology that is based upon Basel III asset risk weightings and fully allocates book capital to all assets and liabilities of each reporting unit. Capital is allocated to assets based on risk weightings and to funding liabilities based on an assessment of operational risk, collateral needs and residual leverage capital as appropriate.
There was no impairment indicated as a result of the Step 1 test performed as of November 30, 2017. The fair value of the Consumer Deposits, Business Banking, and HSA Bank reporting units where goodwill resides exceeded carrying value by 1.6x, 1.7x, and 10.3x, respectively. The Consumer Deposits, Business Banking and HSA Bank reporting units had $377.6 million, $139.0 million, and $21.8 million of goodwill at December 31, 2017, respectively.
Assessing the Realizability of Deferred Tax Assets and the Measurement of Uncertain Tax Positions
In accordance with ASC Topic 740, "Income Taxes," certain aspects of accounting for income taxes require significant management judgment, including assessing the realizability of DTAs and the measurement of UTPs. Such judgments are subjective and involve estimates and assumptions about matters that are inherently uncertain. Should actual factors and conditions differ materially from those used by management, the actual realization of DTAs and resolution of UTPs could differ materially from the amounts recorded in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes thereto.
DTAs generally represent items for which a benefit has been recognized for financial accounting purposes that cannot be realized for tax purposes until a future period. The realization of DTAs depends upon future sources of taxable income . Valuation allowances are established for those DTAs determined not likely to be realized based on management's judgment. Income taxes are more fully described in Note 8: Income Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained elsewhere in this report.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Updates
Refer to Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained elsewhere in this report for a summary of recently issued ASUs and their expected impact on the Company's financial statements.

24


Table of Contents

Results of Operations
Selected financial data is presented in the following table:
 
At or for the years ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
BALANCE SHEETS
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
26,487,645

$
26,072,529

$
24,641,118

$
22,497,175

$
20,843,577

Loans and leases, net
17,323,864

16,832,268

15,496,745

13,740,761

12,547,203

Investment securities
7,125,429

7,151,749

6,907,683

6,666,828

6,465,652

Deposits
20,993,729

19,303,857

17,952,778

15,651,605

14,854,420

Borrowings
2,546,141

4,017,948

4,040,799

4,335,193

3,612,416

Series A preferred stock



28,939

28,939

Series E preferred stock

122,710

122,710

122,710

122,710

Series F preferred stock
145,056





Total shareholders' equity
2,701,958

2,527,012

2,413,960

2,322,815

2,209,348

STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
$
913,605

$
821,913

$
760,040

$
718,941

$
687,640

Interest expense
117,318

103,400

95,415

90,500

90,912

Net interest income
796,287

718,513

664,625

628,441

596,728

Provision for loan and lease losses
40,900

56,350

49,300

37,250

33,500

Non-interest income (less securities and one-time gain amounts)
259,604

256,882

237,278

197,754

197,615

Gain on sale of investment securities, net

414

609

5,499

712

Impairment loss on securities recognized in earnings
(126
)
(149
)
(110
)
(1,145
)
(7,277
)
One-time gain on redemption of an asset

7,331




Non-interest expense
661,075

623,191

555,341

501,600

497,709

Income before income tax expense
353,790

303,450

297,761

291,699

256,569

Income tax expense
98,351

96,323

93,032

91,973

77,113

Net income
$
255,439

$
207,127

$
204,729

$
199,726

$
179,456

Earnings applicable to common shareholders
$
246,831

$
198,423

$
195,361

$
188,496

$
168,036

Per Share Data
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per common share
$
2.68

$
2.17

$
2.15

$
2.10

$
1.90

Diluted earnings per common share
2.67

2.16

2.13

2.08

1.86

Dividends and dividend equivalents declared per common share
1.03

0.98

0.89

0.75

0.55

Dividends declared per Series A preferred stock share


21.25

85.00

85.00

Dividends declared per Series E preferred stock share
1,600.00

1,600.00

1,600.00

1,600.00

1,648.89

Book value per common share
27.76

26.17

24.99

23.99

22.77

Tangible book value per common share (non-GAAP)
21.59

19.94

18.69

18.10

16.85

Key Performance Ratios
 
 
 
 
 
Tangible common equity ratio (non-GAAP)
7.67
%
7.19
%
7.12
%
7.46
%
7.50
%
Return on average assets
0.97

0.82

0.87

0.93

0.89

Return on average common shareholders’ equity
9.92

8.44

8.70

8.85

8.44

Return on average tangible common shareholders' equity (non-GAAP)
13.00

11.36

11.96

11.90

11.77

Net interest margin
3.30

3.12

3.08

3.21

3.26

Efficiency ratio (non-GAAP)
60.33

62.01

59.93

59.18

60.32

Asset Quality Ratios
 
 
 
 
 
Non-performing loans and leases as a percentage of loans and leases
0.72
%
0.79
%
0.89
%
0.93
%
1.28
%
Non-performing assets as a percentage of loans and leases plus OREO
0.76

0.81

0.92

0.98

1.34

Non-performing assets as a percentage of total assets
0.50

0.53

0.59

0.61

0.82

ALLL as a percentage of non-performing loans and leases
158.00

144.98

125.05

122.62

94.10

ALLL as a percentage of loans and leases
1.14

1.14

1.12

1.15

1.20

Net charge-offs as a percentage of average loans and leases
0.20

0.23

0.23

0.23

0.47

Ratio of ALLL to net charge-offs
5.68 x
5.25 x
5.21 x
5.21 x
2.63 x

25


Table of Contents

The non-GAAP financial measures identified in the preceding table provides investors with information useful in understanding the Company's financial performance, performance trends and financial position. These measures are used by management for internal planning and forecasting purposes, as well as by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties to compare peer company operating performance. Management believes that the presentation, together with the accompanying reconciliations provides a complete understanding of the factors and trends affecting the Company's business and allows investors to view its performance in a similar manner. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered a substitute for GAAP basis measures and results. Because non-GAAP financial measures are not standardized, it may not be possible to compare these measures with other companies that present measures having the same or similar names.
The following tables reconcile non-GAAP financial measures with financial measures defined by GAAP: